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Sample records for 30-km zony chaes

  1. Development of the Chae Optimal Supervision Environment Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Ki Byung

    2013-01-01

    The review of current supervision models and instruments revealed a crucial need for a valid, reliable instrument that assesses the quality of the supervision environment as a venue for promoting counselor development. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was the construction and initial validation of the Chae Optimal Supervision…

  2. Risks from radionuclide migration to groundwater in the Chernobyl 30-km zone.

    PubMed

    Bugai, D A; Waters, R D; Dzhepo, S P; Skal'skij, A S

    1996-07-01

    Remediation of contaminated groundwater in the Chernobyl 30-km evacuation zone is frequently identified as a priority by technical experts and Chernobyl site officials in Ukraine. In order to evaluate the health risk basis for this groundwater remediation, we have estimated both on-site and off-site health risks caused by radionuclide migration to the groundwater and compared these risks with those from exposure to radioactive contamination on the ground surface. A simple and conservative analytical model was developed to assess radionuclide transport to the groundwater from the soil surface contaminated by radioactive fallout. 90Sr, the primary radioactive contaminant of concern for the groundwater-migration exposure pathway, was evaluated in the analysis. The estimated health risk to hypothetical, self-sufficient residents in the 30-km zone is dominated by external and internal irradiation (due primarily to ingestion of agricultural products) from 137Cs, which is present in soils of the 30-km zone in roughly equal proportion with 90Sr. The estimated risk from contaminated groundwater is approximately an order of magnitude lower. Analysis of 90Sr migration via groundwater to surface water and down-river population centers shows that, despite generally unfavorable environmental conditions in the 30-km exclusion zone, radionuclide transport via the groundwater pathway has potential to contribute only marginally to the off-site radiological risk, which is governed by wash-out of radionuclides from the contaminated river flood plain and catchment areas by surface water during spring snowmelt and rains. Health risks due to off-site radionuclide migration via groundwater are below the level requiring application of counter-measures. This analysis implies that, relative to other exposure pathways, there is little current or future health risk basis for the proposed complex and costly groundwater remediation measures in the 30-km zone. Therefore, these activities should

  3. Dosimetry of secondary cosmic radiation up to an altitude of 30 km.

    PubMed

    Wissmann, F; Burda, O; Khurana, S; Klages, T; Langner, F

    2014-10-01

    Dosimetric measurements in the field of secondary cosmic radiation were extensively made during the last years. Since the majority of these measurements were performed on-board passenger aircraft at altitudes between 10 and 12 km, measurements at higher altitudes are desirable for the verification of the legal dose assessment procedures for aircrew. A simple solution is to use a high-altitude balloon that reaches altitudes as high as 30 km. In this work, it is shown that the dose rate profile up to 30 km can be measured with acceptable uncertainties using a Si-detector. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Development and Standardization of Extended ChaeLee Korean Facial Expressions of Emotions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Uk; Kim, Jieun; Yeon, Bora; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2013-06-01

    In recent years there has been an enormous increase of neuroscience research using the facial expressions of emotion. This has led to a need for ethnically specific facial expressions data, due to differences of facial emotion processing among different ethnicities. FIFTY PROFESSIONAL ACTORS WERE ASKED TO POSE WITH EACH OF THE FOLLOWING FACIAL EXPRESSIONS IN TURN: happiness, sadness, fear, anger, disgust, surprise, and neutral. A total of 283 facial pictures of 40 actors were selected to be included in the validation study. Facial expression emotion identification was performed in a validation study by 104 healthy raters who provided emotion labeling, valence ratings, and arousal ratings. A total of 259 images of 37 actors were selected for inclusion in the Extended ChaeLee Korean Facial Expressions of Emotions tool, based on the analysis of results. In these images, the actors' mean age was 38±11.1 years (range 26-60 years), with 16 (43.2%) males and 21 (56.8%) females. The consistency varied by emotion type, showing the highest for happiness (95.5%) and the lowest for fear (49.0%). The mean scores for the valence ratings ranged from 4.0 (happiness) to 1.9 (sadness, anger, and disgust). The mean scores for the arousal ratings ranged from 3.7 (anger and fear) to 2.5 (neutral). We obtained facial expressions from individuals of Korean ethnicity and performed a study to validate them. Our results provide a tool for the affective neurosciences which could be used for the investigation of mechanisms of emotion processing in healthy individuals as well as in patients with various psychiatric disorders.

  5. Reconstruction of the inhalation dose in the 30-km zone after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Mück, Konrad; Pröhl, Gerhard; Likhtarev, Ilya; Kovgan, Lina; Golikov, Vladislav; Zeger, Johann

    2002-02-01

    Due to lack of measurements of activity concentrations in air, the assessment of the inhalation dose of the population evacuated from the 30-km zone after the Chernobyl accident is not possible from continuous filter measurements. Since the evaluation of the inhalation dose in each settlement of the zone is of great interest for epidemiological purposes, an approach was chosen that utilizes the available data on ground deposition of 137Cs, a recently performed best estimate of the radionuclide vector and its spatial distribution as well as the radionuclide dependent deposition velocity. The derived inhalation dose values in the 30-km zone range between 3 mSv to 150 mSv effective dose for adults depending on the distance to the reactor site and the day of evacuation. For 1-y-old infants the values range between 10 to 700 mSv. In Chernobyl town, an effective inhalation dose of 25 mSv until evacuation day was assessed. Thyroid doses due to inhalation ranged from 0.02 to 1 Sv for adults, for 1-y-old infants from 0.02 to 6 Sv. The inhalation dose in each settlement of the 30-km zone is approximately 8-13 times higher than the external exposure in each settlement if evacuation of the settlement occurred at an early stage. For settlements with evacuation at a later stage (day 10 or later) the inhalation dose was about 50-70% higher than the external dose. The dominant contribution to the effective inhalation dose comes from 131I (about 40%) and tellurium and rubidium isotopes (about 20-30%). Despite high zirconium and cerium ground depositions, zirconium and cerium isotopes contribute rather little to the inhalation dose which is mainly due to the great particle sizes to which they are attached. The relative contribution of short-lived radionuclides is, despite higher activities than at greater distances, less than 5%.

  6. Marine oil dietary supplementation reduces delayed onset muscle soreness after a 30 km run

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Klaus; Telford, Richard D; Cunningham, Ross B

    2013-01-01

    Objective Runners are prone to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) during long distance training. This especially holds for unaccustomed training volumes at moderate to high intensities. We investigated the effects of a marine oil complex, PCSO-524®, derived from the New Zealand green-lipped mussel (formulated as Lyprinol® and Omega XL®) on DOMS after a 30 km training run. Methods Initially, peak oxygen uptake of 32 distance runners (4 female, 28 male; median age 45 years, range 28–53) was measured on a treadmill with a 1.5 km hour−1 increase every 4 minutes starting from 8.5 km hour−1. At least 1-week after this initial test, they participated in a 30 km road run at a speed corresponding to about 70% of their individual peak oxygen uptake on a flat terrain. Before and after (0, 24, and 48 hours) the run, blood concentration of creatine kinase (CK) were measured and pain sensation was determined (pain scale from 0 = no pain to 10 = extremely painful). Runners were then matched in pairs based on maximal CK and peak oxygen uptake, and allocated randomly into two different groups. One group was supplemented with 400 mg per day of PCSO-524® for 11 weeks, the other group with an olive oil placebo. After that period, CK and pain sensations were remeasured following a second 30 km run at the same speed and on the same terrain. Results The general pattern of soreness in the PCSO-524® supplemented group was reduced by 1.1 units (standard error 0.41) compared to the placebo (P < 0.05), the effects being greater in lesser trained runners (P < 0.05). CK levels were positively associated with pain sensation (P < 0.05), but trends toward lower CK in the PCSO-524® group, which were also more pronounced in the lesser trained runners, were not statistically significant. Conclusion Pain sensations experienced by distance runners following a 30 km run were reduced by supplementation with the marine oil complex PCSO-524®, an effect which was greater in lesser trained

  7. GPS-aided gravimetry at 30 km altitude from a balloon-borne platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazarewicz, Andrew R.; Evans, Alan G.

    1989-01-01

    A balloon-borne experiment, flown at 30 km altitude over New Mexico, was used to test dynamic differential Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking in support of gravimetry at high-altitudes. The experiment package contained a gravimeter (Vibrating String Accelerometer), a full complement of inertial instruments, a TI-4100 GPS receiver and a radar transponder. The flight was supported by two GPS receivers on the ground near the flight path. From the 8 hour flight, about a forty minute period was selected for analysis. Differential GPS phase measurements were used to estimate changes in position over the sample time interval, or average velocity. In addition to average velocity, differential positions and numerical averages of acceleration were obtained in three components. Gravitational acceleration was estimated by correcting for accelerations due to translational motion, ignoring all rotational effects.

  8. Kinetics of fuel particle weathering and 90Sr mobility in the Chernobyl 30-km exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Kashparov, V A; Oughton, D H; Zvarich, S I; Protsak, V P; Levchuk, S E

    1999-03-01

    Weathering of fuel particles and the subsequent leaching of radionuclides causes 90Sr mobility in Chernobyl soils to increase with time after deposition. Studies of 90Sr speciation in soils collected in 1995 and 1996 from the Chernobyl 30-km exclusion zone have been used to calculate rates of fuel particles dissolution under natural environmental conditions. Results show that the velocity of fuel particle dissolution is primarily dependent on the physico-chemical characteristics of the particles and partially dependent on soil acidity. Compared to other areas, the fuel particle dissolution rate is significantly lower in the contaminated areas to the west of the Chernobyl reactor where deposited particles were presumably not oxidized prior to release. The data have been used to derive mathematical models that describe the rate of radionuclide leaching from fuel particles in the exclusion zone and changes in soil-to-plant transfer as a function of particle type and soil pH.

  9. Application of the 30km FIM-iHYCOM Coupled Model to Subseasonal Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, S.

    2015-12-01

    The North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) project organized by NOAA/CPC is aimed at improving S2S forecast skill by employing a multi-model ensemble strategy. ESRL has committed to participating in the S2S NMME with its coupled global atmospheric/ocean model consisting of the Flow-following Icosahedral Model (FIM) and the icosahedral Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (i-HYCOM). FIM-iHYCOM hindcast runs are now in progress at 30km resolution, highest resolution for the 16-year subseasonal NMME, and provides another tool in which phenomena predictability and process sensitivity studies can be performed. Initial results from FIM-iHYCOM show different but comparable overall skill with CFSv2, suggesting that ensemble diversity and skill can be improved with its addition. Additional hindcast results including MJO and sudden stratospheric warming verifictions will be presented.

  10. Reassessing Transuranic Element Contamination Within the 30 km Exclusion Zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tryshyn, V.; Gaidar, O.; Ageyev, V.; Sazheniuk, A.

    2011-12-01

    Following the Chernobyl catastrophe in 1986, large amounts of radionuclides were dispersed into the environment and spread across a large territory. An evacuated 30 km exclusion zone was established around the site to limit access to the most heavily contaminated areas. The highest concentrations of radionuclide deposition, particularly for the transuranic elements such as americium, plutonium and the minor actinides, are located on the territories adjacent to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Assessing the distribution and movement of radionuclides in these areas remains a high priority, but many previous studies were carried out without appropriately accounting for specific characteristics of Chernobyl fallout, namely, the significant role of hot particles (fuel particles). Evaluation of the distribution and impact of Chernobyl contamination often relied on piecing together data on different radionuclides provided by different organizations. The compositional and spatial heterogeneity of Chernobyl fallout make it difficult to evaluate the accuracy of such disparate data sets. The Institute of Nuclear Research, Kiev (INR) has been involved in the tracking and study of contamination in areas impacted by the Chernobyl accident since the first days of the catastrophe. INR has developed comprehensive evaluation methods to support detailed assessment of the distribution and levels of contamination for transuranic elements across the 30 km exclusion zone. This approach to carrying out investigations ensures collection of representative data at all stages. Assessments now include a transuranic focus, taking into account over 3500 variables, and incorporating specific features of the Chernobyl fallout and geography. The basic principles developed for data collection include several modifications: Evaluation of existing survey data (such as airborne gamma surveys) and the spatial heterogeneity to target selection of sampling locations; Measurements of the concentrations

  11. Clouds in ECMWF's 30 KM Resolution Global Atmospheric Forecast Model (TL639)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, R. F.; Morcrette, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    Global models of the general circulation of the atmosphere resolve a wide range of length scales, and in particular cloud structures extend from planetary scales to the smallest scales resolvable, now down to 30 km in state-of-the-art models. Even the highest resolution models do not resolve small-scale cloud phenomena seen, for example, in Landsat and other high-resolution satellite images of clouds. Unresolved small-scale disturbances often grow into larger ones through non-linear processes that transfer energy upscale. Understanding upscale cascades is of crucial importance in predicting current weather, and in parameterizing cloud-radiative processes that control long term climate. Several movie animations provide examples of the temporal and spatial variation of cloud fields produced in 4-day runs of the forecast model at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) in Reading, England, at particular times and locations of simultaneous measurement field campaigns. model resolution is approximately 30 km horizontally (triangular truncation TL639) with 31 vertical levels from surface to stratosphere. Timestep of the model is about 10 minutes, but animation frames are 3 hours apart, at timesteps when the radiation is computed. The animations were prepared from an archive of several 4-day runs at the highest available model resolution, and archived at ECMWF. Cloud, wind and temperature fields in an approximately 1000 km X 1000 km box were retrieved from the archive, then approximately 60 Mb Vis5d files were prepared with the help of Graeme Kelly of ECMWF, and were compressed into MPEG files each less than 3 Mb. We discuss the interaction of clouds and radiation in the model, and compare the variability of cloud liquid as a function of scale to that seen in cloud observations made in intensive field campaigns. Comparison of high-resolution global runs to cloud-resolving models, and to lower resolution climate models is leading to better

  12. Clouds in ECMWF's 30 KM Resolution Global Atmospheric Forecast Model (TL639)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, R. F.; Morcrette, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    Global models of the general circulation of the atmosphere resolve a wide range of length scales, and in particular cloud structures extend from planetary scales to the smallest scales resolvable, now down to 30 km in state-of-the-art models. Even the highest resolution models do not resolve small-scale cloud phenomena seen, for example, in Landsat and other high-resolution satellite images of clouds. Unresolved small-scale disturbances often grow into larger ones through non-linear processes that transfer energy upscale. Understanding upscale cascades is of crucial importance in predicting current weather, and in parameterizing cloud-radiative processes that control long term climate. Several movie animations provide examples of the temporal and spatial variation of cloud fields produced in 4-day runs of the forecast model at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) in Reading, England, at particular times and locations of simultaneous measurement field campaigns. model resolution is approximately 30 km horizontally (triangular truncation TL639) with 31 vertical levels from surface to stratosphere. Timestep of the model is about 10 minutes, but animation frames are 3 hours apart, at timesteps when the radiation is computed. The animations were prepared from an archive of several 4-day runs at the highest available model resolution, and archived at ECMWF. Cloud, wind and temperature fields in an approximately 1000 km X 1000 km box were retrieved from the archive, then approximately 60 Mb Vis5d files were prepared with the help of Graeme Kelly of ECMWF, and were compressed into MPEG files each less than 3 Mb. We discuss the interaction of clouds and radiation in the model, and compare the variability of cloud liquid as a function of scale to that seen in cloud observations made in intensive field campaigns. Comparison of high-resolution global runs to cloud-resolving models, and to lower resolution climate models is leading to better

  13. Kinetics of fuel particle weathering and {sup 90}Sr mobility in the Chernobyl 30-km exclusion zone

    SciTech Connect

    Kashparov, V.A.; Zvarich, S.I.; Protsak, V.P.; Levchuk, S.E.; Oughton, D.H.

    1999-03-01

    Weathering of fuel particles and the subsequent leaching of radionuclides causes {sup 90}Sr mobility in Chernobyl soils to increase with time after disposition. Studies of {sup 90}Sr speciation in soils collected in 1995 and 1996 from the Chernobyl 30-km exclusion zone have been used to calculate rates of fuel particles dissolution under natural environmental conditions. Results show that the velocity of fuel particle dissolution is primarily dependent on the physico-chemical characteristics of the particles and partially dependent on soil acidity. Compared to other areas, the fuel particle dissolution rate is significantly lower in the contaminated areas to the west of the Chernobyl reactor where deposited particles were presumably not oxidized prior to release. The data have been used to derive mathematical models that describe the rate of radionuclide leaching from fuel particles in the exclusion zone and changes in soil-to-plant transfer as a function of particle type and soil pH.

  14. Nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide content of whole-air samples obtained at altitudes from 12 to 30 km

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, C.C.; Forsberg, C.A.; Pieri, R.V.; Faucher, G.A.; Calo, J.M.

    1985-08-20

    Whole air samples were obtained in the stratosphere using a liquid helium-cooled cryosampler mounted on a balloon platform. Approximately 1 g mol of sample was obtained at each of three altitudes per balloon flight and was maintained at 4 K until desorption just prior to analysis. Samples were obtained at six altitudes ranging from 12 to 30 km and at five latitudes from 9 to 64/sup 0/. Nitric oxide and the sum of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide content of the samples were determined using two chemiluminescence analyzers. Results from flights conducted between 1977 and 1981 are correlated with atmospheric motions and other significant variables and evaluated in terms of both one- and two-dimensional models of the stratosphere.

  15. Mulching as a countermeasure for crop contamination within the 30 km zone of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Yera, T.S.; Vallejo, R.; Tent, J.; Rauret, G.; Omelyanenko, N.; Ivanov, Y.

    1999-03-15

    The effect of mulch soil cover on crop contamination by {sup 137}Cs was studied within the 30 km zone of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Experiments were performed with oats (Avena sativa) over a three year period. In 1992 soil surface was covered by a plastic net. In 1993 two straw mulch treatments were applied at a dose rate of 200 g m{sup {minus}2} using {sup 137}Cs contaminated and clean straw, respectively. A similar mulch treatment was applied in 1994, and two mulch doses of clean straw were tested. Protection of the soil with a plastic net significantly increased crop yield and reduced crop contamination. When clean straw was used as a mulch layer, a significant decrease of about 30--40% in {sup 137}Cs activity concentration was observed. Mulching with {sup 137}Cs contaminated straw did not reduce crop contamination, probably due to an increase in soil available {sup 137}Cs released from the contaminated mulch. Mulching has been shown to be an effective treatment both for reducing {sup 137}Cs plant contamination and improving crop yield. Therefore, it can be considered as a potential countermeasure in a post-accident situation.

  16. [Long-term follow-up cytogenetic survey and biological dosimetry in persons evacuated from 30-km Chernobyl NPP zone].

    PubMed

    Maznik, N A

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the follow-up cytogenetic survey and biological dosimetry carried out in inhabitants of Pripiat' town and nearby villages, who were departured from the Chernobyl NPP 30-km exclusive zone during first days after the Chernobyl catastrophe. The unstable chromosome aberration level in inhabitants were significantly increased above control in terms up to 1 year after evacuation and declined gardually during next 14 years. In early period the cytogenetic damage frequency in evacuees showed no dependence on gender. The chromosome type aberration level appeared to be lower in young persons comparing with adults. The dicentrics plus centric rings yield had a positive correlation with duration of staying at Chernobyl zone. The average doses of protracted exposure were calculated from the dicentrics and centric rings yields; the dose estimations appeared to be 1.4 times higher in persons evacuated 3-11 days after the accident than that of in persons with shorter departure time. Uing the Bayesian analysis the probabilistic distribution of biological doses was constructed for the studied evacuees group. This distribution was characterized by a mean dose of 360 mGy, the modal doses of 200-450 mGy and 80% of probability density within the dose range 0-1000 mGy, that seems to be sufficient for considering the increased risk of late somatic radiation effects for this cohort.

  17. Expedition to the 30-km Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and the Utilization of its Experience in Education and Communication

    SciTech Connect

    Aszodi, Attila; Yamaji, Bogdan; Silye, Judit; Pazmandi, Tamas

    2006-07-01

    Between May 28 - June 4, 2005, under the organization of the Hungarian Nuclear Society (HNS) and the Hungarian Young Generation Network (HYGN) - which operates within the framework of the HNS - a scientific expedition visited the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and the surrounding exclusion zone. The participants were young Hungarian nuclear professionals supervised by more experienced experts. The main scientific goals of the expedition were the followings: Get personal experiences in a direct way about the current status of the Chernobyl Power Plant and its surroundings, the contamination of the environment and about the doses. Gather information about the state of the shut down power plant and the shelter built above the damaged 4. unit. Training of young nuclear experts by performing on site measurements. The Hungarian expedition successfully achieved its objectives by performing wide-range of environmental and dosimetric measurements and collecting numerous biological and soil samples. Within the 30-km exclusion zone the influence of the accident occurred 20 years ago still could be measured clearly; however the level of the radioactivity is manageable in most places. The dosimetric measurements showed that no considerable exposure occurred among the members of the expedition. The analysis of samples has been started at the International Chernobyl Center in Slavutich. During the expedition not only environmental sampling and in-situ measurements were carried out but it was also well documented with photos and video recordings for educational, training and PR purposes. A documentary TV film was recorded during the expedition. The first-hand knowledge acquired during the expedition helps the authentic communication of the accident and its present-day consequences, which is especially important in 2006, 20 years after the Chernobyl accident. Since Ukraine and Hungary are neighbor countries the media constantly discuss the accident, the consequences and the risks of

  18. Can Pacing Be Regulated by Post-Activation Potentiation? Insights from a Self-Paced 30 km Trial in Half-Marathon Runners

    PubMed Central

    Del Rosso, Sebastián; Barros, Edilberto; Tonello, Laís; Oliveira-Silva, Iransé; Behm, David G.; Foster, Carl; Boullosa, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Given the co-existence of post-activation potentiation (PAP) and fatigue within muscle, it is not known whether PAP could influence performance and pacing during distance running by moderating fatigue. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of PAP on pacing, jumping and other physiological measures during a self-paced 30 km trial. Methods Eleven male endurance-trained runners (half-marathon runners) volunteered to participate in this study. Runners participated in a multi-stage 30 km trial. Before the trial started, determination of baseline blood lactate (bLa) and countermovement jump (CMJ) height was performed. The self-paced 30 km trial consisted of 6 × 5 km splits. At the end of each 5 km split (60 s break), data on time to complete the split, CMJ height, Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) and blood lactate were collected while heart rate was continuously monitored. Results There was a significant decrease in speed (e.g. positive pacing strategy after the 4th split, p<0.05) with a progressive increase in RPE throughout the trial. Compared with baseline, CMJ height was significantly (p<0.05) greater than baseline and was maintained until the end of the trial with an increase after the 5th split, concomitant with a significant reduction in speed and an increase in RPE. Significant correlations were found between ΔCMJ and ΔSPEED (r = 0.77 to 0.87, p<0.05) at different time points as well as between RPE and speed (r = -0.61 to -0.82, p<0.05). Conclusion Our results indicates that fatigue and potentiation co-exist during long lasting endurance events, and that the observed increase in jump performance towards the end of the trial could be reflecting a greater potentiation potentially perhaps counteracting the effects of fatigue and preventing further reductions in speed. PMID:26934357

  19. Can Pacing Be Regulated by Post-Activation Potentiation? Insights from a Self-Paced 30 km Trial in Half-Marathon Runners.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, Sebastián; Barros, Edilberto; Tonello, Laís; Oliveira-Silva, Iransé; Behm, David G; Foster, Carl; Boullosa, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    Given the co-existence of post-activation potentiation (PAP) and fatigue within muscle, it is not known whether PAP could influence performance and pacing during distance running by moderating fatigue. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of PAP on pacing, jumping and other physiological measures during a self-paced 30 km trial. Eleven male endurance-trained runners (half-marathon runners) volunteered to participate in this study. Runners participated in a multi-stage 30 km trial. Before the trial started, determination of baseline blood lactate (bLa) and countermovement jump (CMJ) height was performed. The self-paced 30 km trial consisted of 6 × 5 km splits. At the end of each 5 km split (60 s break), data on time to complete the split, CMJ height, Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) and blood lactate were collected while heart rate was continuously monitored. There was a significant decrease in speed (e.g. positive pacing strategy after the 4th split, p<0.05) with a progressive increase in RPE throughout the trial. Compared with baseline, CMJ height was significantly (p<0.05) greater than baseline and was maintained until the end of the trial with an increase after the 5th split, concomitant with a significant reduction in speed and an increase in RPE. Significant correlations were found between ΔCMJ and ΔSPEED (r = 0.77 to 0.87, p<0.05) at different time points as well as between RPE and speed (r = -0.61 to -0.82, p<0.05). Our results indicates that fatigue and potentiation co-exist during long lasting endurance events, and that the observed increase in jump performance towards the end of the trial could be reflecting a greater potentiation potentially perhaps counteracting the effects of fatigue and preventing further reductions in speed.

  20. Critical Evaluation of 0-30 km Profile Information in Ground-Based Zenith-Sky and Satellite-Measured Backscattered UV Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Deluishi, John; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We now have several decades of experience in deriving vertical ozone profiles from the measurements of diffuse ultraviolet radiation by both ground and satellite-based instruments using Umkehr and BUV techniques. Continuing technological advances are pushing the state-of-the-art of these measurements to high spectral resolution and broader wavelength coverage. These modern instruments include the ground-based Brewer and satellite-based Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instruments, as well as advanced instruments being developed by ESA(SCIAMACHY), Netherlands(OMI) and Japan(ODUS). However, one of the issues that remains unresolved is the 0-30 km ozone profile information retrievable from these measurements. Though it is commonly believed that both the Umkehr and the satellite-based BUV techniques have very limited profile information below 30 km, there are those who argue that the data from these instruments should continue to be reported in this altitude range for they compare well with ozonesondes and hence there is useful scientific information. Others claim that the limitations of the Umkehr and BUV techniques are largely due to their low spectral resolution, and that the profile information below 30 km can be greatly improved by going to high spectral resolution instruments, such as Brewer and GOME. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical evaluation of the 0-30 km ozone profile information in the various UV remote sensing techniques. We use a database of individual ozone profiles created using ozonesondes and SAGE and 4D ozone fields generated by data assimilation techniques to simulate radiances measured by the various techniques. We then apply a common inversion approach to all the methods to systematically examine how much profile information is available simply from the knowledge of total ozone, how much additional profile information is added by the traditional Dobson Umkehr and satellite buv techniques, and how much better one can do

  1. Penetration Experiments with 6061-T6511 Aluminum Targets and Spherical-Nose Steel Projectiles at Striking Velocities Between 0.5 and 3.0 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Forrestal, M.J.; Piekutowski, A.J.

    1999-02-04

    We conducted depth of penetration experiments with 7.11-mm-diameter, 74.7-mm-long, spherical-nose, 4340 steel projectiles launched into 250-mm-diameter, 6061-T6511 aluminum targets. To show the effect of projectile strength, we used projectiles that had average Rockwell harnesses of R{sub c} = 36.6, 39.5, and 46.2. A powder gun and two-stage, light-gas guns launched the 0.023 kg projectiles at striking velocities between 0.5 and 3.0 km/s. Post-test radiographs of the targets showed three response regions as striking velocities increased: (1) the projectiles remained visibly undeformed, (2) the projectiles permanently deformed without erosion, and (3) the projectiles eroded and lost mass. To show the effect of projectile strength, we compared depth-of-penetration data as a function of striking velocity for spherical-nose rods with three Rockwell harnesses at striking velocities ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 km/s. To show the effect of nose shape, we compared penetration data for the spherical-nose projectiles with previously published data for ogive-nose projectiles.

  2. Reconstruction of the ingestion doses received by the population evacuated from the settlements in the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl reactor.

    PubMed

    Pröhl, Gerhard; Mück, Konrad; Likhtarev, Ilya; Kovgan, Lina; Golikov, Vladislav

    2002-02-01

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, about 50,000 people were evacuated from the settlements in the 30-km zone around the reactor in the period 3-11 d after the accident. As no countermeasures were implemented in the early phase, people continued to consume milk and some leafy vegetables. In this paper, average effective ingestion doses are modeled for evacuees. Input data for the assessment are the 137Cs activity per unit area, the ratios of the radionuclides relative to 137Cs, the mean day of evacuation, and intake rates for milk and green vegetables. The transfer of radionuclides from deposition to humans is estimated by modeling radionuclide interception by vegetation, weathering, and the time-dependent transfer of radionuclides to milk taking into account site-specific agricultural practices. Depending on the evacuation day and site, the estimated ingestion doses for the settlements are in the range of 20 to 1,300 mSv and 3 to 180 mSv for infants and adults, respectively. 131I is by far the most important isotope, the ingestion dose due to 133I is more than one order of magnitude lower. The most exposed organ is the thyroid, inducing more than 80% and 50% of the ingestion dose for infants and adults. The ingestion doses are compared to the doses due to inhalation and external exposure. The internal dose exceeds the external by a factor of about 2-10 for adults and 2-40 for 1-y-old infants depending on site and evacuation day. The thyroid doses assessed for the evacuees are consistent with results achieved in studies performed in areas outside the 30-km zone.

  3. Determination of (129)I and (127)I concentration in soil samples from the Chernobyl 30-km zone by AMS and ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Rühm, Werner

    2009-07-01

    A large amount of radioiodine isotopes (mainly (131)I, t(1/2) = 8 days) was released from the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) in April-May 1986. An increase in childhood-thyroid cancer in the contaminated areas in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine was demonstrated to be caused by radioiodine released at the time of the accident. However, there is a lack of quantitative data on the (131)I levels in the local environment (e.g. air, plant, soil). At this point, a long-lived iodine isotope, (129)I (t(1/2) = 15.7 million years), also released with a certain ratio to (131)I from CNPP, could be used for estimating the (131)I levels in the environment. In this paper we present analytical results of the (129)I concentrations and (129)I/(127)I atom ratios in soil samples collected from the CNPP exclusion zone (30-km zone), with the aim of assessing current contamination levels and distribution patterns. For the analysis of the iodine fraction in the investigated soil samples, the pyrohydrolysis method was utilized for separation of (127)I and (129)I nuclides, and subsequently their concentration was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), respectively. The concentration of (129)I and the (129)I/(127)I atom ratio in the surface soil samples in the 30 km-zone of CNPP ranged from 4.6 to 170 mBq/kg, and from 1.4 x 10(-6) to 13 x 10(-6), respectively. These values are significantly higher than those from global (129)I fallout, indicating that most of the measured (129)I was due to the deposition of the accident. Stable iodine concentrations in this area were found to be very low (below 1 ppm) for most of the samples, suggesting the environmental iodine levels in this area to be potentially low. The (129)I/(137)Cs activity ratio in surface and sub-surface soils was not so constant, i.e., in the range (7.3-20.2) x 10(-7). This might be due to the different behavior of deposition and/or migration

  4. [Role of non-radiation factors in forming cytogenetic effects in evacuees from a 30-km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant].

    PubMed

    Maznik, N A

    2004-01-01

    The time-effect relationship for chromatid type aberrations, chromosome type fragments, hyperploidy and polyploidy levels in peripheral blood lymphocytes were investigated in inhabitants of t. Pripiat' and nearby villages, who were departured from the Chernobyl NPP 30-km exclusive zone during first days after the Chernobyl catastrophe. The time-course changes of the mentioned cytogenetic indices in evacuees were displayed as a gradual decline of chromosomal rearrangements and genome abnormality frequencies from the statistically elevated level in the first 1-2 years after the accident to the subcontrol meanings at the end of the 14-years observation period. In early terms after exposure the frequency of chromatid exchanges in adult men and the polyploidy level in women aged 23-35 years were sufficiently increased comparing with other evacuee subgroups. Some peculiarities of the fragment aberration frequency dynamics were shown for persons with different terms of the departure from the Chernobyl zone. The role of the combination of mutagenic factors acted in the accidental situation at Chernobyl for inducing the elevated level of cytogenetic damage in evacuees is discussed.

  5. An evaluation of 30-km cycling time trial (TT30) pacing strategy through time-to-exhaustion at average TT30 pace.

    PubMed

    Ham, Daniel J; Knez, Wade L

    2009-05-01

    A paucity of research is available on the optimal pacing strategy for cycling events longer than 4 km. Anecdotal evidence suggests that an even pacing strategy is most suitable; however, controlled studies have only determined that a slow start is more suitable than a fast start pacing strategy. Currently, it is unclear which strategy is more effective for endurance cycling time trials. This study sought to identify differences in 30-km cycling time trial (TT30) performance related to pacing strategies by comparing individually chosen pacing strategy with time-to-exhaustion (TE) at the average power output achieved during TT30. Eight moderately trained male cyclists (Vo2max = 50.9 +/- 5.2 mlxkgxmin) performed 2 TT30 tests and 2 TE tests at the average power output of TT30 on a Velotron cycle ergometer at the same time of day, separated by at least 48 hours. During TT30, participants generally chose to use a 'fast start' pacing strategy, cycling at a speed relative to the TT average (TTAvg) of 103.1 +/- 2.2% during the first 5 km. There was no significant difference in performance time between the TE test and TT30. Starting pace (TT0-5) was significantly correlated with finishing pace (TT25-30) (r = -0.91; p < 0.01) and TE (r = 0.85; p < 0.01). Subjects cycling at a relative starting speed (RS0-5) >105% had a significantly longer TE than subjects cycling at <105%, whereas TT30 performance time was not different between the two groups. The present investigation provided indirect evidence that a fast start pacing strategy decreases finishing speed and overall performance in TT30, and increased TT performance can be achieved by selecting a starting pace no more than 5% above TTAvg.

  6. Formation of continental crust in a temporally linked arc magma system from 5 to 30 km depth: ~ 90 Ma plutonism in the Cascades Crystalline Core composite arc section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratschbacher, B. C.; Miller, J. S.; Kent, A. J.; Miller, R. B.; Anderson, J. L.; Paterson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Continental crust has an andesitic bulk composition with a mafic lower crust and a granodioritic upper crust. The formation of stratified continental crust in general and the vertical extent of processes active in arc crustal columns leading to the differentiation of primitive, mantle-derived melts entering the lower crust are highly debated. To investigate where in the crustal column magma mixing, fractionation, assimilation and crystal growth occur and to what extent, we study the ~ 90 Ma magmatic flare-up event of the Cascades arc, a magma plumbing system from ~ 5 to 30 km depth. We focus on three intrusive complexes, emplaced at different depths during major regional shortening in an exceptionally thick crust (≥ 55 km1) but which are temporally related: the upper crustal Black Peak intrusion (1-3 kbar at 3.7 to 11 km; ~ 86.8 to 91.7 Ma2), the mid-crustal Mt. Stuart intrusion (3.5-4.0 kbar at 13 to 15 km; 90.8 and 96.3 Ma3) and the deep crustal Tenpeak intrusion (7 to 10 kbar at 25 to 37 km; 89.7 to 92.3 Ma4). These intrusive complexes are well characterized by geochronology showing that they have been constructed incrementally by multiple magma batches over their lifespans and thus allow the monitoring and comparison of geochemical parameters over time at different depths. We use a combination of whole rock major and trace element data and isotopes combined with detailed investigation of amphibole, which has been recognized to be important in the generation of calc-alkaline rocks in arcs to test the following hypotheses: (a) compositional bimodality is produced in the lower crust, whereas upper crustal levels are dominated by mixing to form intermediate compositions, or (b) differentiation occurs throughout the crustal column with different crystallizing phases and their compositions controlling the bulk chemistry. 1. Miller et al. 2009: GSA Special Paper 456, p. 125-149 2. Shea 2014: PhD thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 3. Anderson et al. 2012

  7. Range Reference Atmosphere 0-30 km Altitude, Eglin AFB, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    the entire area under the bivariate normal density function [equation (9)] is unity, upon integration for a given prob- ability ellipse, that given...ellipse contains p-percent of the total area . In the wind statistics, p-percent of the wind vectors fall within the speci- fied probability ellipse... distribucion of each of the six thermodynamic RRA param- * eters is described by its mean value, its standard deviation, and its skewness. Several of these

  8. Taquac, Guam Island. Range Reference Atmosphere 0-30 Km Altitude

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    Computation of Statistical Parameters ...... ..... ................ 8 C. Statistical Wind Models ................. 10 D. Statistical Parameters With...32 C. Computation of Statistical Parameters for Tables 1I and III ..................... 36 D. Derived Monthly Mean and Annual...statistical modeling techniques have been made because of the general availability of high-speed electronic computers . These have led to the adoption of

  9. Improved Subseasonal Prediction with Advanced Coupled Models including the 30km FIM-HYCOM Coupled Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Stan; Sun, Shan; Grell, Georg; Green, Benjamin; Bleck, Rainer; Li, Haiqin

    2017-04-01

    Extreme events for subseasonal duration have been linked to multi-week processes related to onset, duration, and cessation of blocking events or, more generally, quasi-stationary waves. Results will be shown from different sets of 32-day prediction experiments (3200 runs each) over a 16-year period for earth system processes key for subseasonal prediction for different resolution, numerics, and physics using the FIM-HYCOM coupled model. The coupled atmosphere (FIM) and ocean (HYCOM) modeling system is a relatively new coupled atmosphere-ocean model developed for subseasonal to seasonal prediction (Green et al. 2017 Mon.Wea.Rev. accepted, Bleck et al 2015 Mon. Wea. Rev.). Both component models operate on a common icosahedral horizontal grid and use an adaptive hybrid vertical coordinate (sigma-isentropic in FIM and sigma-isopycnic in HYCOM). FIM-HYCOM has been used to conduct 16 years of subseasonal retrospective forecasts following the NOAA Subseasonal (SubX) NMME protocol (32-day forward integrations), run with 4 ensemble members per week. Results from this multi-year FIM-HYCOM hindcast include successful forecasts out to 14-20 days for stratospheric warming events (from archived 10 hPa fields), improved MJO predictability (Green et al. 2017) using the Grell-Freitas (2014, ACP) scale-aware cumulus scheme instead of the Simplified Arakawa-Schubert scheme, and little sensitivity to resolution for blocking frequency. Forecast skill of metrics from FIM-HYCOM including 500 hPa heights and MJO index is at least comparable to that of the operational Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) used by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. Subseasonal skill is improved with a limited multi-model (FIM-HYCOM and CFSv2), consistent with previous seasonal multi-model ensemble results. Ongoing work will also be reported on for adding inline aerosol/chemistry treatment to the coupled FIM-HYCOM model and for advanced approaches to subgrid-scale clouds to address regional biases important for seasonal and medium-range weather prediction scales.

  10. The Case for a Hubble Constant of 30 km s-1 Mpc-1.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, J G; Blanchard, A; Silk, J; Turner, M S

    1995-02-17

    Although recent determinations of the distance to the Virgo cluster based on Cepheid variable stars represent an important step in pinning down the Hubble constant, after 65 years a definitive determination of the Hubble constant still eludes cosmologists. At present, most of the observational determinations place the Hubble constant between 40 and 90 kilometers per second per megaparsec (km s(-1) Mpc(-1)). The case is made here for a Hubble constant that is even smaller than the lower bound of the accepted range on the basis of the great advantages, all theoretical in nature, of a Hubble constant of around 30 kilometers per second per megaparsec. Such a value for the Hubble cures all of the ills of the current theoretical orthodoxy, that is, a spatially flat universe composed predominantly of cold dark matter.

  11. An innovative rotational Raman lidar to measure the temperature profile from the surface to 30 km altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauchecorne, Alain; Keckhut, Philippe; Mariscal, Jean-François; d'Almeida, Eric; Dahoo, Pierre-Richard; Porteneuve, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    A concept of innovative rotational Raman lidar with daylight measurement capability is proposed to measure the vertical profile of temperature from the ground to the middle stratosphere. The optical filtering is made using a Fabry-Pérot Interferometer with line spacing equal to the line spacing of the Raman spectrum. The detection is made using a linear PMT array operated in photon counting mode. We plan to build a prototype and to test it at the Haute-Provence Observatory lidar facility. to achieve a time resolution permitting the observation of small-scale atmospheric processes playing a role in the troposphere-stratosphere interaction as gravity waves. If successful, this project will open the possibility to consider a Raman space lidar for the global observation of atmospheric temperature profiles.

  12. In situ stratospheric measurements of HNO3 and HCl near 30 km using the balloon-borne laser in situ sensor tunable diode laser spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, R. D.; Webster, C. R.

    1989-01-01

    In situ stratospheric measurements of the concentrations of the reservoir species HNO3 and HCl made during two flights of the high-resolution (0.0005/cm) balloon-borne laser in situ sensor instrument from Palestine, Texas, are reported. A measured HNO3 volume mixing ratio of 4.3 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at 31 km altitude is about 1 ppbv larger than previously reported measurements at 32 deg N. An HCl mixing ratio of 1.6 ppbv at 29 km is in agreement with values obtained from earlier remote sensing techniques within the experimental uncertainties. Upper limits at 31 km of 0.4 ppbv for H2O2 and 0.2 ppbv for HOCl are also derived from analyses of spectra recorded near 1252/cm.

  13. Conception of Gas and Aerosol Pollution Monitoring of the Earth's Atmosphere (for Altitudes more than 30 km) on Board the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozhenko, O. V.; Shavrina, A. V.; Veles', O. A.

    Approximate model calculations support the idea, according to which the main role in the weakening of the ozone layer power is played by the aerosol pollution of the upper layers in the Earth's atmosphere and freons play a secondary role. For the tasks of exact modelling of the processes which create and destroy ozone and for monitoring of greenhouse gases and ecology of the atmosphere, a conception of experiments on board the Ukrainian module of the International Space Station was proposed. They will provide the possibility to receive information about global changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere, spectral values of complex refractive index and sizes of the stratospheric aerosol, as well as about the vertical structure of gas and aerosol components of the atmosphere and the vertical temperature profile. Two device complexes are proposed to be mounted, one of them (two Fourier spectrometers for the spectral range 1.5-11μm and a spectropolarimeter for 200-400nm) will be targeted to nadir, and the second (two Fourier spectrometers for the spectral range 1.5-11μm) will observe the spectrum of solar radiation weakened by the Earth's atmosphere at various (with a step of 1-2km) over the Earth's surface.

  14. Effects of Energy Per-Unit Length on the Structure and Hardness of the Metal in the Weld-Affected Zone in Welding Alpha-Ti Alloy (Vliyaniye Pogonnoy Energii na Strukturu i Tverdost’ Metalla Okoloshovnoy Zony pri Sbarke Alpha-Splava Titana),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-10

    we 3 .. 1 230 16 22 800 • 4 ~~Bom~pauoebdt CliCk- 1 230 17 22 850oa, npnca.aka 81-1 5 ~ To we 1 310 18 22 1200 6 BoIb~ pauoe~~ ~~~~~~~~~ 1 450 34 22...Vickers hardness results are given below. MaplcHpoBxa o6pa~~a 1 2 3 4 5 6 - 7 8 10 11 12 • I COOTIeTCTBiui C ,aój, . 1• 0 T.ep~ocm no Buic- 284 286 280 262...SM. Metallurg i cal Problems of Welding Titanium . In Sbornik “Titan I yego splavy” AN SSSR, Moscow, 1960, pp. 124—134. 4 . Shorshorov, K.Kh. and

  15. Association of Academic Physiatrists

    MedlinePlus

    ... notactive'); autoPlay();}); }); Your Academic Home for Physiatry The Association of Academic Physiatrists (AAP) is a community of ... Chae, MD, has been named President of the Association of Academic Physiatrists. He is chair of MetroHealth's ...

  16. Cistanches Herba aqueous extract affecting serum BGP and TRAP and bone marrow Smad1 mRNA, Smad5 mRNA, TGF-β1 mRNA and TIEG1 mRNA expression levels in osteoporosis disease.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hai-Dong; Yu, Fang; Tong, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Hong-Quan; Liang, Wu

    2013-02-01

    We studied molecular mechanism of Cistanches Herba aqueous extract (CHAE) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, as an experimental model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Female rats were either sham-operated or bilaterally OVX; and at 60 days postoperatively. The OVX group (n = 8) received an ovariectomy and treatment with normal saline for 90 days commencing from 20th post ovariectomy day. The ovariectomized +CHAE (OVX + CHAE) group (n = 8) received an ovariectomy and were treated with Cistanches Herba aqueous extract of 100 mg/kg body weight daily for 90 days commencing from 22nd post ovariectomy day. The ovariectomy +CHAE (OVX + CHAE) group (n = 8) received an ovariectomy, and were treated with the of 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 90 days commencing from 20th post ovariectomy day. Serum BGP and TRAP, E2, FSH and LH level, bone marrow Smad1, Smad5, TGF-β1 and TIEG1 mRNA expression levels were examined. Results showed that serum BGP and TRAP, FSH and LH levels were significantly increased, whereas E2, Smad1, Smad5, TGF-β1 and TIEG1 mRNA and proteins expression levels were significantly decreased in OVX rats compared to sham rats. 90 days of CHAE treatment could significantly decrease serum BGP and TRAP, FSH and LH levels, and increase E2, Smad1, Smad5, TGF-β1 and TIEG1 mRNA and proteins expression levels in OVX rats. It can be concluded that CHAE play its protective effect against OVX-induced bone degeneration partly by regulating some bone metabolism related genes, e.g. Smad1, Smad5, TGF-β1 and TIEG1.

  17. Installation Restoration Program Records Search for MacDill Air Force Base, Florida.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    RATING FACTOR (0") s4LaD cow Population Within 1.000 Feet 1f IaM £ 4 1𔃼. Distance to Nerest Distance to Reservation L Usei’Zoni~nq 2 30 Critical. mnv...the Records Search phase of its Istallation Restoration Program (IRP). The. first site rating model was developed in June 1981 at a meeting with

  18. Investigation of Brittle Fractures in Graphite-Epoxy Composites Subjected to Impact

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-01

    Steel Impacto ; 121 CL• BIDIRECTION1AL PRD 49-EPOXYONIAGE ZONIE BIDIRECTIONAL THORNEL 300-EPOXY 0.10•,, A/0’.• 05 t=0.125 IN. 0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20...1973. 38. Olster, E. F., and Woodbury, H. A., EVALUATION OF BALLIS- TIC DAMAGE RESISTANCE AND FAILURE MECHANISMS OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS, AVCO Corp

  19. Genome Sequence of Bacteriophage GG32, Which Can Infect both Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Chae, Su-Jin; Kwon, Taesoo; Lee, Sunjin; Kang, Yeon Ho; Chung, Gyung Tae; Kim, Dae-Won; Lee, Deog-Yong

    2016-12-08

    We report here a new virulent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S Typhimurium) bacteriophage, GG32, which was isolated from the Guem River in the Republic of Korea. The strain can infect both S Typhimurium and Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 and may be a good candidate for a bio-control agent. Copyright © 2016 Chae et al.

  20. Remarks on the repulsive Wigner-Poisson system

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Myeongju; Ha, Seung-Yeal; Huh, Hyungjin

    2005-11-01

    We present an estimate for the space-time integral of classical solutions to the repulsive Wigner-Poisson system. We use Markowich's formalism between Wigner-Possion and Schroedinger-Poisson systems. Through this formalism and Morawetz interaction potentials, we derive the same a priori estimate given by Chae and Ha for the repulsive Vlasov-Poisson system.

  1. Vascular administration of adenoviral vector soaked in absorbable gelatin sponge particles (GSP) prolongs the transgene expression in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Byeong-Ho; Lee, Jin-Hwa; Jeong, Jin-Sook; Rha, Seo-Hee; Kim, Seung-Eun; Kim, Jae-Seok; Kim, Jeong-Man; Hwang, Tae-Ho

    2005-02-01

    Transcatheter hepatic arterial chemoembolization using emulsions composed of anticancer agents and gelatin sponges (GS) has been an efficient and safe palliative treatment for inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We employed catheter-mediated left hepatic arterial embolization (CHAE) to increase transduction efficiency of adenoviral vector in canine hepatocytes. The emulsion was prepared by mixing pieces of GSP and adenoviral vectors expressing recombinant beta-galactosidase (Ad.LacZ) or human hepatocyte growth factor (Ad.hHGF). After the left hepatic artery was catheterized under angiography, CHAE with Ad.LacZ or Ad.hHGF was performed. Livers were removed and stained for LacZ activity on day 7. The expression pattern of LacZ staining was either scarce or patchy around the central hilum of the hepatic artery, or was homogeneously distributed in whole lobes, depending on whether large or small pieces of GSP were used. Hematological and serum biochemical changes during CHAE exhibited only a few effects. The chronological measurement of serum HGF concentration showed that the duration of transgene expression was greater after CHAE with Ad.hHGF. A similar pattern of transgene expression was observed in a rat model after hepatic arterial embolization with differential doses of Ad.hHGF soaked in GSP. These results suggest that hepatic arterial embolization by transcatheter mediated infusion with a mixture of adenovirus-GSP could be used for human HCC.

  2. [A comparative investigation of adaptation to oxidative stress factors a strain of mycelial fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus from Chernobyl Atomic Energy Station and strains of the same species from territories with basic level of radioactive pollution].

    PubMed

    Aslanidi, K B; Ivanova, A E; Gessler, N N; Egorova, A S; Belozerskaia, T A

    2009-01-01

    An oxidative stress resistance in Paecilomyces lilacinus strain from Chernobyl Atomic Energy Station (ChAES) as well as in P. lilacinus strains from zones with control level of radioactive pollution has been studied. It was shown that radial growth rate of the colony of the ChAES strain in a range of glucose concentrations 0.002%; 0.2%; 0.5%; 1.0% showed maximum on the medium with 0.2% glucose. It was 1.5 times higher than growth rate of the control strains. Adaptation slowdown reaction has been found as a result of the first 10-30 min H2O2 treatment most profound in the ChAES (No 1941) strain. Under 10(-3) mol/l H2O2 growth of No 1941 resumed with 20% loss in growth rate. Cessation of growth of the control strain (No 10) was observed under these conditions. It has been shown that in the strain from ChAES zone adaptation to low glucose content in the medium (0.2%) was coupled with an increased resistance to oxidative stress.

  3. Growth of Ce+3 Doped Oxides by the Traveling Solvent Zone Technique.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    AD-A130 566 GROWTH OF CE-3 DOPED OXIDES BY THE TRAVELINO SOLVENT Il ZONE TECHNIQUE(U) EIC CORP NEWTON MASS R D RAUHI ET AL. JUN 83 C-718F NODS 4-82-C...NATIONAL BUREAU OF SIANDARID 1%, A I Report N00014i-82-C-0629 I GROWTH OF Ce + 3 DOPED OXIDES BY THE TRAVELING SOLVENT ZONE TECHNIQUEI, I I " R. David...TLEa (dad INBIitA) S YEO EOT&PRO OEE FINAL REPORT GRa*iI op Ce+3 DOPED OXIDES By THE 2 Aug 82-1 Apr 83 TRAVELING SOLVENT ZONIE TECHNIQUE T. PERFORMING

  4. Endotracheal Tube Cuff Management at Altitude

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-05

    Thomas C. Blakeman, RRT2; Dario Rodriquez Jr., RRT1; Capt Heather Ortiz, RN , FNP-C3; Maj John Eggert, RN1 1U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace...Middle East and is credited with improvements in outcomes (Ingalls N, Zonies D, Bailey JA, et al. A decade of care in the air: review of the first 10... quality , and postsleep performance. Aviat Space Environ Med 2009; 80(8):691-7. 7. Ruth MJ. Pressure changes in tracheal tube cuffs at altitude

  5. The Iranian Military Under the Islamic Republic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    political elites see Zonis, 1971, pp. 199-298. Also Bateson , 1979, 1977, pp. 257-274. 49 disagreements have not succeeded in dividing the Iranian officer...York, 1984. Bakhtiyar, Shapour, Si-o haft rouz pas az si-o haft sal [Thirty-Seven Days After Thirty-Seven Years], Fifth Edition, 1984. Bateson , C. M...34This Figure of Tinsel: A Study of Themes of Hypoc- risy and Pessimism in the Iranian Culture," Daedelus, Summer 1979, pp. 125-133. 157 158 Bateson , C

  6. Shackleton Crater Illumination

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Simulated illumination conditions near the lunar South Pole. The 30km x 30km region highlights the Shackleton crater. The movie runs for 28 days, centered on the LCROSS impact date on October 9th, ...

  7. Finding Effective Responses Against Cyber Attacks for Divided Nations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    against South Korean government sites from 2008 to 2012 (Chae, 2013). Among these, significant attacks such as a malware infection on government...symptoms in domestic cyberspace and malware interdiction. For cyber security in the public sector, each central agency operates segmental security...out the detection of malware , implementing responses against DDoS attacks by establishing cyber shelters and zombie PC treatment systems, and

  8. RELEVANCE OF RELIGIOUS LEADER ENGAGEMENT FOR THE AIR FORCE CHAPLAIN CORPS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    the property of the United States government. AU/ACSC/Chae, C/AY16 iii Abstract The relationship between religion and the Air Force...the issues of religion and religious expression within the Air Force. Back in August 2005, the Air Force published the Interim Guidelines...Concerning Free Exercise of Religion in the Air Force to address concerns raised at the Air Force Academy regarding unwelcomed proselytization. And, as

  9. Stored Light in an Optical Fiber via Stimulated Brillouin Scattering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-14

    storage and retrieval efficiency can be obtained in our approach when various conditions are satisfied. In analogy to work with driven two- state ...the available pulse power. Also, the readout efficiency decreases rapidly when the storage time exceeds the acoustic lifetime tB, which places a bound ...1149066 Mott Transition in VO2 Revealed by Infrared Spectroscopy and Nano-Imaging M. M. Qazilbash,1* M. Brehm,2 Byung-Gyu Chae,3 P.-C. Ho,1 G. O. Andreev ,1

  10. Impaired Perception of Emotional Expression in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seong Il; Oh, Ki Wook; Kim, Hee Jin; Park, Jin Seok; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2016-07-01

    The increasing recognition that deficits in social emotions occur in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is helping to explain the spectrum of neuropsychological dysfunctions, thus supporting the view of ALS as a multisystem disorder involving neuropsychological deficits as well as motor deficits. The aim of this study was to characterize the emotion perception abilities of Korean patients with ALS based on the recognition of facial expressions. Twenty-four patients with ALS and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy controls completed neuropsychological tests and facial emotion recognition tasks [ChaeLee Korean Facial Expressions of Emotions (ChaeLee-E)]. The ChaeLee-E test includes facial expressions for seven emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, fear, surprise, and neutral. The ability to perceive facial emotions was significantly worse among ALS patients performed than among healthy controls [65.2±18.0% vs. 77.1±6.6% (mean±SD), p=0.009]. Eight of the 24 patients (33%) scored below the 5th percentile score of controls for recognizing facial emotions. Emotion perception deficits occur in Korean ALS patients, particularly regarding facial expressions of emotion. These findings expand the spectrum of cognitive and behavioral dysfunction associated with ALS into emotion processing dysfunction.

  11. The morphological changes of mucous membrane of stomach and duodenum of contractor organization personnel, which works in radiation hazard conditions at the object Shelter of Chornobyl NPP.

    PubMed

    Sushko, V O; Nezgovorova, G A; Degtjarova, L V; Kolosynska, O O; Gromadska, V M

    2015-12-01

    Meta doslidzhennia: vyznachennia morfologichnykh osoblyvostei urazhen' slyzovoi obolonky (SO) shlunka ta dvanadtsiatypaloi kyshky (DPK) u personalu, iakyi pratsiuie v radiatsiino nebezpechnykh umovakh na ob’iekti «Ukryttia» Chornobyl's'koi AES (OU) shliakhom endoskopichnogo monitoryngu iz vziattiam biopsiinogo materialu z gastroduodenal'noi zony na etapakh pervynnogo (vkhidnogo) VkhK ta spetsial'nogo medychnogo kontroliu (SpK).Materialy ta metody: provedeno kompleksne klinichne-endoskopichne ta morfologichnogo doslidzhennia z biopsiieiu SO shlunka ta DPK u 126 robitnykiv OU.Rezul'taty: U personalu pidriadnykh pidpryiemstv OU vstanovleni riznoskerovani patomorfologichni zmin SO pry VkhK ta zbil'shennia chastoty ikh vyiavlennia pry obstezhenni pid chas SpK, shcho zagalom vidpovidaly khronichnomu H.pylori-asotsiiovanogo pangastrytu z porushenniam mikrotsyrkuliatsii i trofiky, dysregeneratsiinymy zminamy epitelial'noi vystilky.Vysnovky: dlia personalu pidriadnykh organizatsii, iakyi pryimaie uchast' v radiatsiino-nebezpechnykh robotakh na OU ie kharakternym naiavnist' khronichnogo H.pylori-asotsiiovanogo pangastrytu z zrostanniam chastoty atrofichnykh zmin SO (nemetaplastychnogo chy metaplastychnogo typu) ta rozvytkom erozyvno-vyrazkovykh urazhen' gastroduodenal'noi zony.V robitnykiv, iaki maly poperednii vplyv ionizuiuchogo oprominennia vstanovleno bil'shu chastotu dysregeneratsiinykh (giperplazii / kyshkovoi metaplazii) zmin epiteliiu, shcho vidpovidno pidvyshchuie ryzyk neoplastychnykh transformatsii.Provedennia EGDFS (za neobkhidnosti z biopsiieiu SO) pry VkhK ta nastupnykh etapakh medychnogo kontroliu u personalu, iakyi vykonuie radiatsiino-nebezpechni roboty na OU ie vysokoinformatyvnym dokazovym i neobkhidnym metodom doslidzhennia dlia vyznachennia formy ta stupeniu patologichnykh zmin verkhnikh viddiliv shlunkovo-kyshkovogo traktu dlia poperedzhennia progresuvannia zakhvoriuvannia ta rozvytku uskladnen', zberezhennia zdorov’ia i pratsezdatnosti robitnykiv.

  12. Vestibular and acustic dysfunctions in clean up workers of Chornobyl accident (30 years of follow up).

    PubMed

    Zabolotnyi, D I; Mishchanchuk, N S

    2016-12-01

    Meta – vyvchyty kliniko elektrofiziologichni porushennia pry vestybuliarniy̆ ta akustychniy̆ dysfunktsiiakh v uchas nykiv likvidatsïï naslidkiv avariï na Chornobyl's'kiy̆ atomniy̆ elektrostantsiï v zalezhnosti vid dozy ta tryvalosti diï ionizuiuchoï radiatsiï, osoblyvosti determinovanykh efektiv vprodovzh 30 rokiv pislia avariï.Material ta metody. U 7812 uchasnykiv likvidatsiï naslidkiv avariï na ChAES (ULNA na ChAES) cholovichoï stati, u to mu chysli u 325 osib, vidibranykh dlia prolongovanykh doslidzhen', u 1986 2015 rr. provedeni standartni kliniko elektrofiziologichni obstezhennia funktsiy̆ vestybuliarnogo ta akustychnogo analizatoriv. Vykonani matematychni metody analizu iz zastosuvanniam programnykh paketiv SYSTAT, EPICURE ta EGRET.Rezul'taty. Vstanovleni vestybuliarna ta akustychna dysfunktsiï za tsentral'nym typom z progresuiuchym rozvyt kom gal'mivnykh protsesiv u stovburomozkovykh, pidkorkovo korkovykh strukturakh vestybuliarnogo ta akustychnogo analizatoriv. Vyznachena zalezhnist' zmin u tsykh strukturakh vid velychyny dozy ta tryvalosti diï ionizuiuchoï radiatsiï. Vstanovleni zakonomirnosti determinovanykh radiatsiy̆nykh efektiv u vzaiemozv'iazku z formuvanniam or ganichnoï tserebrovaskuliarnoï patologiï v ULNA na ChAES u viddaleni pisliaavariy̆ni roky, iaki uzgodzhuiut'sia z ney̆ rofiziologichnymy, MRT ta inshymy obstezhenniamy, shcho pidtverdzheno pry koreliatsiy̆nomu analizi.Vysnovky. Vidznacheno, shcho vestybuliarna ta akustychna dysfunktsiï v ULNA na ChAES proiavliaiut'sia kliniko elekt rofiziologichnymy zminamy na rivni tsentral'nykh struktur doslidzhuvanykh analizatoriv, iaki vkazuiut' na para lelizm spil'nogo mekhanizmu determinovanykh radiatsiy̆nykh efektiv pry dozi 0,20 Gr,a takozh ïkh dozozalezhnist' u dy namitsi 30 pisliaavariy̆nykh rokiv. Vstanovleno, shcho vestybuliarna dysfunktsiia v ULNA na ChAES proiavliaiet'sia klinichno ranishe, a elektroakustychni ta elektrofiziologichni zminy pry

  13. Nanotailored Carbon Fibers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-07

    Chae, Han Gi, Ph.D. Nano Engineered Materials Corporation 2349 Lake Forest Trail Lawrenceville, GA 30043 Air Force Office of Scientific...0065, AF08‐T028  Nanotailored Carbon Fibers  Nano  Engineered Materials Corp    Nanotailored Carbon Fibers (STTR Phase I final technical report...14   FA9550‐08‐C‐0065, AF08‐T028  Nanotailored Carbon Fibers  Nano

  14. BARC: A Novel Apoptosis Regulator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    NUMBER Can Jin, Ph.D., John C. Reed, Hong Zhang, Han Jun Chae 5e. TASK NUMBER E -Mail: jreed@burnham.org 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Ke, N., Reed, J., and Peter, M. E . Inactivation of caspase-8 on mitochondria of Bcl-xL expressing MCF7-Fas cells. J Biol Chem, 277: 4351-4360, 2002...Banares, S., Cui, J., Digicaylioglu, M., Ke, N., Kidata, S., Monosov, E ., Thomas, M., Kress, C. L., Babencure, J., Tsien, R. Y., Lipton, S. A., and Reed

  15. Active region helicity evolution and related coronal mass ejection activity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, L.; Mandrini, C.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Demoulin, P.

    The computation of magnetic helicity has become increasingly important in the studies of solar activity. Observations of helical structures in the solar atmosphere, and their subsequent ejection into the interplanetary medium, have resulted in considerable interest to find the link between the amount of helicity in the coronal magnetic field and the origin of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). This is reinforced by theory which shows magnetic helicity to be a well preserved quantity (Berger, 1984), and so with a continued injection into the corona an endless accumulation will occur. CMEs therefore provide a natural method to remove helicity from the corona. Recent works (DeVore, 2000, Chae, 2001, Chae et al., 2001, Demoulin et al., 2002, Green et al., 2002) have endeavoured to find the source of helicity in the corona to explain the observed CME activity in specific cases. The main candidates being differential rotation, shear motions or a transfer of helicity from below the photosphere into the corona. In order to establish a confident relation between CMEs and helicity, these works needs to be expanded to include CME source regions with different characteristics. A study of a very different active region will be presented and the relationship between helicity content and CME activity will be discussed in the framework of the previous studies.

  16. Space Radar Image of Saline Valley, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This is a three-dimensional perspective view of Saline Valley, about 30 km 19 miles east of the town of Independence, California created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry.

  17. Small Craters Engulfed by Smooth Plains

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-08-05

    This double ring basin top center of image was photographed during NASA Mariner 10 second encounter and shows two craters about 30 km in diameter which have been engulfed by smooth plains on the floor of the inner ring.

  18. The Influence of Obstacles on Anti-Armor Weapon System Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-09

    between completion of c-.a task and the start of another. The confined battle are. gaued can easily be ttaveled from one extreme to another in about thirty...support and service support. Il- FRONTAGES OFFENSE DEFENSE Main Attack Supporting Attack Mtz rifle uiv (s1RD) 10-16 Km 20-30 Km 20-30 Km Ntz re±e regt...M) 5-8 Km 10-16 Km 10-15 Km Ks rifle bn (MRB) 1000-1500 m 1700-2300 m 5-7.5 Km Tank div 12-15 Km 25-30 Km 20-30 Km Tank regt 6-7.5 Km 12.5-15 Km 10-15

  19. Ocean Thermal Analysis and Related Naval Operational Considerations in the Ionian Sea - June 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    core eddy which was comparable in size (ca. 30 km) and location with one found in MILOC-68. Spatial correlation functions of tempera- ture were...warm core eddy which was comparable in size (ca. 30 km) and location with one found in MILOC-68. Spatial correlation functions of temperature were...varides, et en particulier, un tourbillon chaud comparable en taille et position A celui trouv6 aui cours de MILOC-68. Les fonctions de corr~1ation

  20. Expression of Cyclin d1 protein and CCND1 та PNKP genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in clean up worker of Chornobyl accident with different state of immune system.

    PubMed

    Bazyka, D A; Kubashko, A V; Ilyenko, I M; Belyaev, O A; Pleskach, O J

    2015-12-01

    Meta. Doslidyty zminy rivniv Cyclin D1+ klityn ta asotsiyovanykh geniv CCND1 ta PNKP u mononuklearakh peryfe rychnoI krovi v uchasnykiv likvidatsiI naslidkiv avariI (ULNA) na ChAES z riznym imunnym statusom v zalezhnosti vid dozy oprominennia.Materialy i metody. Proanalizovano vidnosnyy riven' Cyclin D1+ klityn u mononuklearakh peryferychnoI krovi 39 ULNA na ChAES, cholovikiv, oprominenykh u dozi u diapazoni (0,01–2,00) Gr. Imunologichnyy status obstezhenykh vyz nachavsia za rivnem CD3/19, CD4/8, CD3/HLA DR, SD3/16/56 metodom protochnoI tsytofluorymetriI ta za vmistom Ig klasiv A,M,G metodom imunofermentnogo analizu u krovi. Ekspresiia geniv CCND1 ta PNKP, iaki pov’iazani z Syclin D1, provodylos' za metodom polimeraznoI lantsiugovoI reaktsiI u real'nomu chasi. Porivniannia rezul'tativ zdiysniuva los' iz vidpovidnymy danymy, otrymanymy vid 18 zdorovykh cholovikiv, iaki ne maly kontaktu z ionizuiuchym vyp rominiuvanniam vyshche pryrodn'ogo fonu.Rezul'taty. Pokazano, shcho vidsotok Suclin D1+ klityn zbil'shuiet'sia za normu v osib, oprominenykh u dozi > 0,1 Gr, ta koreliuie z dozoiu oprominennia (rs = 0,417, p = 0,048). Vidkhylennia rivnia Cyclin D1+ klityn za mezhi kontrol'nykh zna chen' pov’iazuiet'sia zi zminamy v klitynniy ta gumoral'niy lankakh imunitetu. Zmenshennia vidsotku Cyclin D1+ klityn za mezhi kontrol'nykh znachen' v ULNA na ChAES iz dozoiu < 0,35 Gr suprovodzhuiet'sia znyzhenniam rivniv CD3+ ta pidvy shchenniam CD3 16+56+ limfotsytiv; u osib, oprominenykh u dozi > 0,35 Gr, zbil'shennia vidsotku Cyclin D1+ klityn asotsiiuiet'sia zi znyzhenniam CD3+ ta tendentsiieiu shchodo znyzhennia CD3+16+56+ limfotsytiv u poiednanni zi zbil'shen niam rivnia IgG. Zbil'shennia rivniv CD4+, CD19+, Ireg. ta IgG suprovodzhuiet'sia poiavoiu koreliatsiynykh zv’iazkiv mizh Cyclin D1+ ta CD3 16+56+ klitynamy (rs = 0,872, p = 0,049), Cyclin D1+ ta CD8+ i IgG (rs = 0,683, p = 0,042; rs = 0,809, p = 0,014), Cyclin D1+ ta CD4+ (rs = 0,602, p = 0,029), Cyclin D1+ ta CD19+ i

  1. L 1 and BV-type stability of the inelastic Boltzmann equation near vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhigang

    2010-03-01

    The L 1 and BV-type stability to mild solutions of the inelastic Boltzmann equation is given in this paper. The result is an extension of the stability of the classical solution of the elastic Boltzmann equation proved in Ha (Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 173:25-42, 2004 [16]). The observation relies on the energy loss of the inelastic Boltzmann equation. This is a continuity work of Alonso (Indiana Univ. Math. J. [1]), where the author obtained the global existence of a mild solution for the inelastic Boltzmann equation. The proof is based on the mollification method and constructing some functionals as the one in Chae and Ha (Contin. Mech. Thermodyn. 17(7):511-524, 2006 [9]).

  2. Extension criterion via partial components of vorticity on strong solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations in higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurumi, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-01

    We consider the extension criterion of strong solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations in RN. It is proved that among N (N - 1) / 2 components of the vorticity, [ N / 2 ] components are negligible for the criterion whether the time local solutions can be extended beyond the critical time. Our result may be regarded as generalization to the higher dimensional case of Chae-Choe [4] in the 3D case which showed that only two components in Lq, 3 / 2 < q < ∞, of the vorticity contribute to such an extension criterion. Furthermore, the critical case q = ∞ originally treated by Kato-Ponce [8] in RN is also generalized in such a way that [ N / 2 ] components of vortex matrix are redundant for the extension criterion.

  3. Further Remarks on the Luo-Hou's Ansatz for a Self-similar Solution to the 3D Euler Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperone, Gianmarco

    2017-01-01

    It is shown that the self-similar ansatz proposed by T. Hou and G. Luo to describe a singular solution of the 3D axisymmetric Euler equations leads, without assuming any asymptotic condition on the self-similar profiles, to an overdetermined system of partial differential equations that produces two families of solutions: a class of trivial solutions in which the vorticity field is identically zero, and a family of solutions that blow-up immediately, where the vorticity field is governed by a stationary regime. In any case, the analytical properties of these solutions are not consistent with the numerical observations reported by T. Hou and G. Luo. Therefore, this result is a refinement of the previous work published by D. Chae and T.-P. Tsai on this matter, where the authors found the trivial class of solutions under a certain decay condition of the blow-up profiles.

  4. A rare case of concurrent signet-ring carcinoma of breast and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia†

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Kelly; Bae, Esther; Park, Hanna; Hussain, Farabi

    2016-01-01

    Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) can be an uncommon presentation of an underlying malignancy, most often due to signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC). Additionally, pure SRCC in a breast primary-tumor comprises <2% of all breast cancers (Shin SY, Park H, Chae SW, Woo HY. Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia as the first manifestation of metastatic signet-ring cell carcinoma of unknown origin: a case report and review of literature. Kor J Lab Med 2011;31:157–61). To the best of our knowledge, the combination of these two entities, pure breast primary SRCC along with MAHA, has not been reported. Here, we present such a rare case. We also evaluate the current literature regarding this and similar disease processes, of which evidence is scarce and further research is needed. PMID:27587305

  5. Evolution of a filament due to magnetic-field variations in a complex active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigor'Ev, V. M.; Ermakova, L. V.; Khlystova, A. I.

    2006-05-01

    The complex active region NOAA 9672 is studied when it was near the central meridian, from October 21 26, 2001. At that time, there was an emergence of new magnetic flux, with the ongoing formation of a filament. The dynamics of the magnetic field are studied in order to search for their possible manifestations in the filament structure, using SOHO MDI magnetograms, SOHO EIT and TRACE filtergrams in the 171 Å line, and Hα filtergrams available via the Internet. Our earlier conclusion that filaments form at the boundaries of supergranules near polarity-inversion lines is confirmed. The conclusion of Chae that sinistral filaments have positive magnetic helicity is also confirmed. New information about magnetic-field decay processes is obtained. The direction of motion of the magnetic poles and their relative positions suggest that the axial field of a filament forms as a result of either reconnection of cancelling magnetic poles, or emergence of horizontal magnetic-flux tubes.

  6. Analysis of some risk factors for myocardial infarction in a cohort of the Chornobyl clean-up workers (according to the data of Clinical and Epidemiological Registry).

    PubMed

    Chumak, A A; Pleskach, G V

    2013-01-01

    Meta roboty. Analiz chastoty okremyh faktoriv ryzyku rozvytku ishemichnoi' hvoroby sercja v grupi uchasnykiv likvidacii' naslidkiv Chornobyl's'koi' avarii' (LNA), jaki perenesly infarkt miokarda (IM) v pisljaavarijnomu periodi. Metody. Proanalizovani dani 525 uchasnykiv LNA z IM, jaki vyjavleni v kliniko-epidemiologichnomu rejestri NNCRM sered vsih zarejestrovanyh uchasnykiv LNA. Porivnjannja provodyly z kontrol'noju grupoju 110 meshkanciv m. Kyjeva, jaki perenesly IM u 2004–2009 rr. Rezul'taty. Vstanovleno, shho sered uchasnykiv LNA, jaki perenesly IM v pershi 10 rokiv pislja avarii' na ChAES, zbil'shena chastka osib u vici do 45 rokiv, shho nasampered zumovleno vikovoju strukturoju uchasnykiv LNA v cilomu. V podal'shomu rozpodil pacijentiv za vikom nablyzhavsja do inshyh kogort hvoryh z perenesenym IM, predstavlenym u literaturi. Doza zovnishn'ogo oprominennja, jaku otrymaly choloviky z IM, shho rozvynuvsja v pershi 5 rokiv pislja avarii', bula vyshhoju (39,58±6,72 sZv, mediana 25 sZv), nizh u cholovikiv, v jakyh IM rozvynuvsja piznishe (23,78±2,43 sZv, mediana 12 sZv, r=0,009). Vysnovky. Zi zbil'shennjam terminu, shho mynuv pislja avarii' na ChAES, sered cholovikiv z IM postupovo zmenshuvalas' kil'kist' osib z minimal'noju kil'kistju faktoriv ryzyku i, vidpovidno, zrostala kil'kist' osib, jaki maly shhonajmenshe 3 faktory ryzyku, r=0,001. Porivnjano z kontrol'noju grupoju, v grupi cholovikiv z IM chastishe vyjavleno ozhyrinnja ta giperholesterolemija sered cholovikiv.

  7. Magnetic helicity injection in NOAA 11261 associated with flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haiqing; Zhang, Hongqi; Su, Jiangtao; Ruan, Guiping; liu, Jihong

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic helicity was found important in understanding solar activities such as flares and coronal mass ejections (CME). Berger and field (1984) derived an expression for helicity flux dHm/dt, that can be applied to an individual solar active region (AR) occupying an area S of the photosphere, (1) \\begin{linenomath}dHm/dt=-2\\ints[(\\mathbf{Ap}\\cdot \\mathbf{V})\\mathbf{B}-(\\mathbf{Ap} \\cdot \\mathbf{B})\\mathbf{V}] dS, \\eqno{(1)}\\end{linenomath} where Ap is the vector potential of potential field, and V is the plasma velocity at the surface S. The first term describes the effect of magnetic footpoint motions on the surface S. The second term describes the flux of helicity advected through the surface when already twisted and/or writhed flux ropes emerge. Chae (2001) proposed a method of self-consistently determining magnetic helicity injection rate, dH/dt, using a time series of longitudinal magnetograms only: (2) \\begin{linenomath}dH/dt=-\\int2(\\textbf{A}p\\cdot \\textbf{V}LCT)BndS, \\eqno{(2)}\\end{linenomath} where n is the normal component of magnetic field. Ap is the vector potential computed from Bn by Fourier transform method. V LCT is the horizontal component of velocity determined by the technique of local correlation tracking (LCT). This technique was applied by some scientists (e.g., Chae et al., 2001; Nindos and Zhang, 2002; Romano et al., 2003). Magnetic helicity injection was found to be strongly correlated with the occurrence of major flares (Moon et al. 2002a, 2002b; Park et al., 2008; Labonte et al., 2007; Maeshiro et al., 2009).

  8. High Resolution Regional Climate Modeling of the Irrigation Cooling Effect in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, M. A.; Kueppers, L. M.; O'Brien, T.; Sloan, L. C.

    2007-12-01

    Recent research on the impact of irrigation on climate using regional climate models (RCMs) has revealed the presence of an irrigation cooling effect (ICE). By introducing large amounts of water to the land surface via irrigation there is a substantial decrease in daytime surface air temperatures during the dry season in California. Previous studies of the ICE in California utilized RCMs with horizontal resolution 30 km x 30 km. We have completed new experiments at 10 km x 10 km resolution for an 11-year time period from January 1 1979 to January 1 1990. The higher resolution allows for an improved representation of topography, which plays an important role in influencing the regional and local climate of California. An initial comparison of the 30 km and 10 km experiments reveals interesting similarities and differences in surface air temperature, humidity, and the surface energy budget. We also examined the changes in the winds due to irrigation between the 30 km and 10 km experiments. The cooling induced by irrigation leads to an increase in surface air pressure over the irrigated areas in California's Central Valley, which leads to a decrease in near surface onshore flow during the dry season. This onshore flow plays an important role for many crops, particularly wine grapes. By comparing the 30 km and 10 km experiments we are able to better quantify the uncertainty of the magnitude of changes in onshore flow.

  9. Equivalent strike-slip earthquake cycles in half-space and lithosphere-asthenosphere earth models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    By virtue of the images used in the dislocation solution, the deformation at the free surface produced throughout the earthquake cycle by slippage on a long strike-slip fault in an Earth model consisting of an elastic plate (lithosphere) overlying a viscoelastic half-space (asthenosphere) can be duplicated by prescribed slip on a vertical fault embedded in an elastic half-space. Inversion of 1973-1988 geodetic measurements of deformation across the segment of the San Andreas fault in the Transverse Ranges north of Los Angeles for the half-space equivalent slip distribution suggests no significant slip on the fault above 30 km and a uniform slip rate of 36 mm/yr below 30 km. One equivalent lithosphere-asthenosphere model would have a 30-km thick lithosphere and an asthenosphere relaxation time greater than 33 years, but other models are possible. -from Author

  10. VENUS Ranging Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    the two dimensional PECan modelling presented in the next section. The seamount at 30 km range from RC to CN has a significant effect on propagation...Gabriola Island there is an apparent ‘ seamount ’ in the bathymetry profiles of CN and EN at a range of 30 km from RC, see Figure 3. The sediment in the...region of the ‘ seamount ’ corresponds to the rock, gravel, and gravel and rock shown in Figure 5 intersecting each track off Gabriola Island. The

  11. A regression technique for determining temperature profiles in the upper stratosphere from satellite-measured radiances.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelman, M. E.; Miller, A. J.; Woolf, H. M.

    1972-01-01

    A technique is described whose application makes it possible to almost double the altitude range over which useful temperature profiles may be obtained. For a wide range of atmospheric temperature profiles, the temperature structure between 30 and 55 km may be derived with an expected error of less than 3 C at 30 km to less than 10 C at 55 km, given the temperature structure in the lower 30 km of the profile, and given a consistent and accurate set of radiance observations. For strongly anomalous conditions in the stratosphere, the accuracy of retrievals at tropospheric levels may also be substantially improved.

  12. Soil organic components distribution in a podzol and the possible relations with the biological soil activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Romero, Marta; Papa, Stefania; Verstraeten, Arne; Curcio, Elena; Cools, Nathalie; Lozano-Garcia, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Coppola, Elio

    2016-04-01

    This research reports the preliminary results of a study based on the SOC (Soil Organic Carbon) fractionation in a pine forest soil (Pinus nigra). Hyperskeletic Albic Podzol soil (P113005, World Reference Base, 2014), described by the following sequence O-Ah-E-Bh-Bs-Cg, was investigated at Zoniën, Belgium. Total (TOC) and extractable (TEC) soil contents were determined by Italian official method of soil analysis. Different soil C fractions were also determined: Humic Acid Carbon (HAC) and Fulvic Acid Carbon (FAC). Not Humic Carbon (NHC) and Humin Carbon (Huc) fractions were obtained by difference. Along the mineral soil profile, therefore, were also tested some enzymatic activities, such as cellulase, xylanase, laccase and peroxidase, involved in the degradation of the main organic substance components, and dehydrogenase activity, like soil microbial biomass index. The results shows a differential TEC fractions distribution in the soil profile along three fronts of progress: (i) An E leaching horizon of TEC; Bh horizon (humic) of humic acids preferential accumulation, morphologically and analytically recognizable, in which humic are more insoluble that fulvic acids, and predominate over the latter; (ii) horizon Bs (spodic) in which fulvic acids are more soluble that humic acid, and predominate in their turn. All enzyme activities appear to be highest in the most superficial part of the mineral profile and decrease towards the deeper layers with different patterns. It is known that the enzymes production in a soil profile reflects the organic substrates availability, which in turn influences the density and the composition of the microbial population. The deeper soil horizons contain microbial communities adapted and specialized to their environment and, therefore, different from those present on the surface The results suggest that the fractionation technique of TEC is appropriate to interpret the podsolisation phenomenon that is the preferential distribution of

  13. Multiferroic vortices: arrested Kosterlitz-Thouless order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Sang-Wook

    2012-02-01

    -organization, condensation, and annihilation of topological vortices and antivortices in a multiferroic, S. C. Chae, - - - S.-W. Cheong, PNAS 107, 21366 (2010). [0pt] [3] Direct observation of the proliferation of ferroelectric dislocation loops and vortex-antivortex pairs, S. C. Chae, - - -, S.-W. Cheong, Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted.

  14. Jet-Cooled Chlorofluorobenzyl Radicals: Spectroscopy and Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Young; Lee, Sang

    2016-06-01

    Whereas the benzyl radical, a prototypic aromatic free radical, has been the subject of numerous spectroscopic studies, halo-substituted benzyl radicals have received less attention, due to the difficulties associated with production of radicals from precursors. In particular, chloro-substituted benzyl radicals have been much less studied because of the weak visible emission intensity and weak C-Cl bond dissociation energy. The jet-cooled chlorofluorobenzyl radicals were generated in a technique of corona excited supersonic jet expansion using a pinhole-type glass nozzle for the vibronic assignments and measurements of electronic energies of the D_1 → D_0 transition. The 2,4-,2.5-, and 2.6- chlorofluorobenzyl radicals were generated by corona discharge of corresponding precursors, chlorofluorotoluenes seeded in a large amount of helium carrier gas. The vibronic emission spectra were recorded with a long-path monochromator in the visible region. The emission spectra show the vibronic bands originating from two types of benzyl-type radicals, chlorofluorobenzyl and fluorobenzyl benzyl radicals, in which fluorobenzyl radicals were obtained by displacement of Cl by H produced by dissociation of methyl C-H bond. From the analysis of the spectra observed, we could determine the electronic energies in D_1 → D_0 transition and vibrational mode frequencies at the D_0 state of chlorofluorobenzyl radicals, which show the origin band of the electronic transition to be shifted to red region, comparing with the parental benzyl radical. From the quantitative analysis of the red-shift, it has been found that the additivity rule can be applied to dihalo-substituted benzyl radicals. In this presentation, the dissociation process of precursors in corona discharge is discussed in terms of bond dissociation energy as well as the spectroscopic analysis of the radicals. C. S. Huh, Y. W. Yoon, and S. K. Lee, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 174306 (2012). Y. W. Huh, S. Y. Chae, and S. K. Lee, Chem

  15. Active Learning in the Atmospheric Science Classroom and beyond through High-Altitude Ballooning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Jill S. M.; Mitchell, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of high-altitude balloon (HAB) research into a variety of undergraduate atmospheric science classes as a means of increasing active student engagement in real-world, problem-solving events. Because high-altitude balloons are capable of reaching heights of 80,000-100,000 ft (24-30 km), they provide a…

  16. Tropical Cyclogenesis Initiated by Lee Vortices and Mesoscale Convective Complexes in East Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-30

    will cover the width of the African continent, using a grid resolution of 30 km. Several sensitivity tests will be performed to help find the necessary...based on a statistical study of upper air observations from Khartoum, Sudan, Burpee (1972) argued that the African easterly waves do not develop

  17. The stratospheric aerosol content above Spitsbergen during winter 1991/92

    SciTech Connect

    Beyerle, G.; Neuber, R. )

    1994-06-22

    This paper summarizes the lidar measurements made at Spitsbergen (79[degrees]N) during the period of EASOE. The lidar can see backscatter and depolarization effects from the tropopause to 30 km. No aerosols were detected above 20 km until the breakup of the polar vortex. Stratospheric loading from the Pinatubo eruption were clearly visible at lower altitudes.

  18. Aviation weather service requirements, 1980 - 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieurance, N. A.

    1977-01-01

    Future aviation weather needs are discussed. Priority weather requirements and deficiencies existing for weather observations and forecast services in terminal areas are presented. Needs in en route operations up to 30 km are addressed with emphasis on turbulence, presence of suspended ice and water particles, SST to supersonic speeds, solar radiation, ozone, and sonic booms. Some conclusions are drawn and recommendations are presented.

  19. Vic Goes to Near Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merhar, Vida Kariž; Capuder, Rok; Maroševic, Timotej; Artac, Sonja; Mozer, Alenka; Štekovic, Maja

    2016-01-01

    In the school year 2012-2013 about 50 students (Fig. 1), managed by mentors (teachers from the middle school Gimnazija Vic in Ljubljana, Slovenia) created an atmospheric probe and launched it into an altitude of more than 30 km above Earth's surface. The aim of this "space expedition" was to take pictures of Earth and to measure how air…

  20. Sagebrush wildfire effects on surface soil nutrient availability: A temporal and spatial study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wildfires occurring in Artemisia (sagebrush) ecosystems can temporarily increase soil nutrient availability in surface soil. Less is known, however, on how soil nutrient availability changes over time and microsite location post-wildfire. In Oct., 2013 a wildfire approximately 30 km north of Reno, N...

  1. PATHOGENIC PHYTOPHTHORA SPECIES IN SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY IRRIGATION WATER SOURCES

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Surface sources of irrigation water including the Kings River and three canals were assayed for Phytophthora spp. at six locations in the San Joaquin Valley within 30 km of Hanford, CA. Four nylon-mesh bags, each containing three firm, green pear fruits (separated by Styrofoam blocks) as bait for Ph...

  2. Vic Goes to Near Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merhar, Vida Kariž; Capuder, Rok; Maroševic, Timotej; Artac, Sonja; Mozer, Alenka; Štekovic, Maja

    2016-01-01

    In the school year 2012-2013 about 50 students (Fig. 1), managed by mentors (teachers from the middle school Gimnazija Vic in Ljubljana, Slovenia) created an atmospheric probe and launched it into an altitude of more than 30 km above Earth's surface. The aim of this "space expedition" was to take pictures of Earth and to measure how air…

  3. The laser radar above 30 kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemesha, B. R.

    1969-01-01

    A short "state of the art' report on laser radar observations of the atmosphere at heights greater than 30 km is presented. Graphs of recent measurements of the Rayleigh backscattering function between 30 and 70 and above 50 kilometers are included.

  4. Effects of Automobile Commute Characteristics on Affect and Job Candidate Evaluations: A Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The current study assesses the effects of the commuting environment on affective states and hiring decisions. A total of 136 undergraduate females were randomly assigned to one of four conditions based on the length (10 km vs. 30 km) and level of congestion (low vs. high) during a commute. Multivariate analyses of variance indicate that affective…

  5. 47 CFR 90.242 - Travelers' information stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... antenna shall not exceed 3.0 km (1.9 miles). (ii) Transmitter RF output power shall not exceed 50 watts... point on the cable. For a conventional radiating antenna, the estimated field strength contour at 1.5 km...) For each transmitter site, the transmitter's output power, the type of antenna utilized, its...

  6. 47 CFR 90.242 - Travelers' information stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... antenna shall not exceed 3.0 km (1.9 miles). (ii) Transmitter RF output power shall not exceed 50 watts... point on the cable. For a conventional radiating antenna, the estimated field strength contour at 1.5 km...) For each transmitter site, the transmitter's output power, the type of antenna utilized, its...

  7. 47 CFR 90.242 - Travelers' information stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... antenna shall not exceed 3.0 km (1.9 miles). (ii) Transmitter RF output power shall not exceed 50 watts... point on the cable. For a conventional radiating antenna, the estimated field strength contour at 1.5 km...) For each transmitter site, the transmitter's output power, the type of antenna utilized, its...

  8. 47 CFR 90.242 - Travelers' information stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... length of the cable antenna shall not exceed 3.0 km (1.9 miles). (ii) Transmitter RF output power shall... point on the cable. For a conventional radiating antenna, the estimated field strength contour at 1.5 km...) For each transmitter site, the transmitter's output power, the type of antenna utilized, its...

  9. Systems for dead-reckoning navigation and for simulation of instrumental error - Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, W. L.

    1971-01-01

    Navigational system for manned lunar vehicles is intended for travel totaling 30 km within 5 km of home base, total distance traveled must be indicated with 2 percent accuracy. Hardware includes two two-degrees-of-freedom gyroscopes, odometers, tachometers, and signal processing equipment.

  10. Ozone monitoring in the Krakow Province, southern Poland

    Treesearch

    Barbara Godzik

    1998-01-01

    From June to mid-October in 1995, the concentration of tropospheric ozone in 18 localities in the Krakow Province of southern Poland was measured by using ultraviolet monitors and Ogawa passive samplers. At three active monitoring stations, tropospheric ozone was recorded in the downtown and western part of Krakow and in Szarow, 30 km to the east. The passive method...

  11. Sagebrush wildfire effects on soil chemistry: A temporal and spatial study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In sagebrush ecosystems, surface soil nutrient availability, particularly of N, often increases immediately following wildfire. However, little is known on how soil N availability and other nutrients, change over time post-wildfire. In October 2013, a wildfire approximately 30 km north of Reno, NV o...

  12. High-latitude stratospheric winds near summer solstice - The diurnal and semidiurnal solar tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubert, T.; Iversen, I. B.; Madsen, M. M.; Dangelo, N.

    1983-01-01

    A technique for studying winds and tides at altitudes of approximately 30 km is the continuous and precise tracking of zero-pressure, stratospheric balloons. The CONSOL navigation system allows tracking of a balloon over the North Atlantic for two days or longer. Tidal wind data from 14 balloon trajectories (approximately 670 balloon hours) are presented and compared with theoretical predictions.

  13. Non-Linear Material Three Degree of Freedom Analysis of Submarine Drydock Blocking System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    Hill, California which Is about 45 miles south of Mare Island Naval Shipyard. It was the consequence of a sudden rupture along a 30 km segment of the...Mexico". National Geograp -hc, Vol. 169, No. 5, May 1986, pp. 655-675. 11. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, "Strong Motion

  14. Stratospheric plume dispersion: Measurements from STS and Titan solid rocket motor exhaust. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Beiting, E.J.

    1999-04-20

    Plume expansion was measured from nine Space Shuttle and Titan IV vehicles at altitudes of 18, 24, and 30 km in the stratosphere. The plume diameters were inferred from electronic images of polarized, near-infrared solar radiation scattered from the exhaust particles, and these diameters were found to increase linearly with time. The expansion rate was measured for as long as 50 min after the vehicle reached altitude. Measurements made simultaneously at multiple altitudes showed that the expansion rate increased with increasing altitude for six measurements made at Cape Canaveral but decreased between 24 and 30 km for the one measurement made at Vandenberg AFB. The average expansion rates for all measurements are 4.3 {+-} 1.0 m/s at 18 km, 6.8 {+-} 1.9 m/s at 24 km, and 8.7 {+-} 2.5 m/s at 30 km. Expansion rates varied from launch to launch by as much as a factor of 1.6 at 18 km, 2.2 at 24 km, and 2.7 at 30 km. No correlation between the expansion rate and wind speed or shear was evident. These data are compared to several models for diffusivity and are used to update a comprehensive particle model of solid rocket motor exhaust in the stratosphere. The expansion rates are required by models to calculate the spatial extent and temporal persistence of the local stratospheric ozone depletion cause by solid rocket exhaust.

  15. A paradigm shift for white pine blister rust: Non-Ribes alternate hosts for Cronartium ribicola in North America

    Treesearch

    Paul J. Zambino; Bryce A. Richardson; Geral I. McDonald; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook. Kim

    2007-01-01

    Naturally occurring Cronartium ribicola infections were discovered in August and September, 2004 on Pedicularis racemosa and Castilleja miniata in a mixed stand of white pine blister rust-infected whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) and western white pine (P. monticola) in northern Idaho, at Roman Nose Lakes, ca 30 km west of Bonners Ferry. Infections were confirmed by...

  16. Hydrologic effects of size and location of harvesting on a large drained pine forest on organic soils

    Treesearch

    Devendra M. Amatya; Kim Hyunwoo; George M. Chescheir; R. Wayne Nettles Skaggs

    2008-01-01

    A calibrated DRAINWAT model was used to evaluate long -term hydrologic effects of conversion to agriculture of a 30 km2 pine forest on mostly organic soils in North Carolina, USA. Fifty years of weather data were used for determining baseline outflows. Simulation revealed that increased mean annual outflow was significant only for a 75% conversion at both upstream and...

  17. Monitoring speed before and during a speed publicity campaign.

    PubMed

    van Schagen, Ingrid; Commandeur, Jacques J F; Goldenbeld, Charles; Stipdonk, Henk

    2016-12-01

    Driving speeds were monitored during a period of 16 weeks encompassing different stages of an anti-speeding campaign in the Netherlands. This campaign targeted speed limit violations in built-up areas. The observation periods differed in terms of intensity and media used for the campaign. Small road-side radars, mounted in light poles, were used and registered the speeds on 20 locations in built-up areas. Speeds of over 10 million vehicles were measured. Ten locations had a posted speed limit of 50km/h; the other ten had a posted speed limit of 30km/h. Posters were placed at half of each group of locations to remind drivers of the speed limit. The average speed on the 50km/h roads was 46.2km/h, and 36.1km/h on the 30km/h roads. The average proportions of vehicles exceeding the speed limit were 33.3% and 70.1% respectively. For the 30km/h roads, the data shows differences in speed and speeding behaviour between the six distinguished observation periods, but overall these differences cannot be logically linked to the contents of the phases and, hence, cannot be explained as an effect of the campaign. The only exception was an effect of local speed limit reminders on the 30km/h roads. This effect, however, was temporary and had disappeared within a week.

  18. Draft genome sequence of Bacillus isronensis strain B3W22, isolated from the upper atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Shivaji, S; Ara, Sreenivas; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Bandi, Sunil; Singh, Aditya; Pinnaka, Anil Kumar

    2012-12-01

    We report the 4.0-Mb genome sequence of Bacillus isronensis strain B3W22 isolated from air collected at an altitude ranging from 27 to 30 km above the city of Hyderabad, in India. This genome sequence will contribute to the objective of determining the microbial diversity of the upper atmosphere.

  19. Effects of Automobile Commute Characteristics on Affect and Job Candidate Evaluations: A Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The current study assesses the effects of the commuting environment on affective states and hiring decisions. A total of 136 undergraduate females were randomly assigned to one of four conditions based on the length (10 km vs. 30 km) and level of congestion (low vs. high) during a commute. Multivariate analyses of variance indicate that affective…

  20. Active Learning in the Atmospheric Science Classroom and beyond through High-Altitude Ballooning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Jill S. M.; Mitchell, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of high-altitude balloon (HAB) research into a variety of undergraduate atmospheric science classes as a means of increasing active student engagement in real-world, problem-solving events. Because high-altitude balloons are capable of reaching heights of 80,000-100,000 ft (24-30 km), they provide a…

  1. High-latitude stratospheric winds near summer solstice - The diurnal and semidiurnal solar tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubert, T.; Iversen, I. B.; Madsen, M. M.; Dangelo, N.

    1983-01-01

    A technique for studying winds and tides at altitudes of approximately 30 km is the continuous and precise tracking of zero-pressure, stratospheric balloons. The CONSOL navigation system allows tracking of a balloon over the North Atlantic for two days or longer. Tidal wind data from 14 balloon trajectories (approximately 670 balloon hours) are presented and compared with theoretical predictions.

  2. Population response of the northern red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rutilus) to differentially cut white spruce forest.

    Treesearch

    Stephen D. West; R. Glenn Ford; John C. Zasada

    1980-01-01

    The population response of the northern red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rutilus) to a differentially cut white spruce (Picea glauca) forest 30 km southwest of Fairbanks, Alaska, was monitored by simultaneous livetrapping in a clearcut, in a partially cut or shelterwood area, and in an area of uncut forest. During the first...

  3. Can Dopplergrams be corrected for straylight?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, P. F.

    2000-10-01

    Straylight effects in solar intensity images have been framed in a well-established mathematical formulation (Chae et al., 1998a, b). Many procedures can be applied to recover the point spread function (PSF) and correct the atmospheric and instrumental distortions. Concerning velocity data, some procedures to make corrections for straylight have been addressed. Many experiments infer the velocity as the mean displacement of a spectral line and build a Dopplergram as a nonlinear combination of the intensity images sampled at different wavelengths. Unfortunately, often only the final products are available and it is not possible to apply an appropriate correction to the individual intensity images. A standard procedure to correct for the straylight has been applied to a time-series of velocity data and the results have been controlled in the single Dopplergram (that seems to be good) and in a power spectrum at the atmospheric frequencies (where any correction should reduce the power). These frequencies are characteristic of the observing site and typically in the range of the g modes: this means that no long run from a network would decrease their contribution to the noise. The results show that the correction procedures, based on the intensity and velocity gradients, are not reliable if controlled in the power spectrum. This conclusion has led to a change of the acquisition procedure at the Kanzelhöhe Solar Observatory, where now the individual intensity images that build the Dopplergram are stored.

  4. [Usage of marginal organs for liver transplantation: a way around the critical organ shortage?].

    PubMed

    Pratschke, S; Loehe, F; Graeb, C; Jauch, K W; Angele, M K

    2009-04-01

    The transplantation of marginal organs or those meeting the so-called extended donor criteria (EDC) is today a significant option to alleviate the low availability or organs and to increase the number of transplantation which in turn is -accompanied by a lower mortality among wait-ing-list patients. However such an extension of the spender pool carries the risks of an increased incidence of organ dysfuntions and a higher recipient mortality. This situation presents an ethical problem when marginal organs are accepted for transplantation because the anticipated mortality for the individual recipient cannot be determined. The transplantation of marginal organs from -donors with a high MELD score seems to be linked to a higher mortality. In particular, the combina-tions of high donor age and long ischaemic time or advanced donor age and hepatitis C infection in the recipient are definitively associated with a significantly poorer organ survival rate. In view of the serious lack of organs, efforts should be made, for example, by shortening of the is-chae-mic time and the development of therapeutic strategies, to improve the function and increase the number of usable marginal organs and thus to increase pool of donor organs. The refusal of marginal organs on the basis of individual EDC without consideration of the status of recipient does not seem to be adequate.

  5. Inferring plasma flow velocities from photospheric vector magnetic field observations for the investigation of flare onsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. C.; Büchner, J.; Zhang, H.

    2008-09-01

    The amount of emergence and submergence of magnetized plasma and the horizontal motion of the footpoints of flux tubes might be crucial for the dynamics of the solar atmosphere. Although the rate of flux emergence and submergence can be observationally determined near the polarity inversion line (Chae et al., 2004), the same is not true for regions away from the PIL. Also, the horizontal motions cannot be directly measured in the solar photosphere. In this sense, the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field provides valuable information which can be used to estimate photospheric plasma flows since magnetic field and plasma are closely associated (frozen-in-condition). We used three methods to estimate the photospheric plasma motion from magnetic field observations. The methods were applied to photospheric vector magnetic field data of active region NOAA 9077, observed by the Huairou Solar Observing Station (HSOS) of the National Astronomical Observatories of China before and after the ‘Bastille Day’ flare on July 13th and 14th, 2000.

  6. Robust hermetic packaging techniques for MEMS integrated microsystems.

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Junseok; Stark, Brian H.; Kuo, Andrew; Oliver, Andrew David; Najafi, Khalil

    2005-03-01

    This work is the result of a Sandia National Laboratories LDRD funded fellowship at the University of Michigan. Although, guidance and suggestions were offered by Sandia, the work contained here is primarily the work of Brian H. Stark, and his advisor, Professor Khalil Najafi. Junseok Chae, Andrew Kuo, and their coworkers at the University of Michigan helped to record some of the data. The following is an abstract of their work. We have developed a vacuum packaging technology using a thick nickel film to seal MEMS structures at the wafer level. The package is fabricated in a three-mask process by electroplating a 40 micro-meter thick nickel film over an 8 micro-meter sacrificial photoresist that is removed prior to package sealing. Implementation of electrical feedthroughs in this process requires no planarization. The large release channel enables an 800x800 micro-meter package to be released in less than three hours. Several mechanisms, based upon localized melting and lead/tin solder bumping, for sealing the release channel have been investigated. We have also developed Pirani gauges, integrated with this package, which can be used to establish the hermeticity of the different sealing technologies. They have measured a sealing pressure of approximately 1.5 Torr. Our work differs from previous Pirani gauges in that we utilize a novel doubly anchored structure that stiffens the structural membrane while not substantially degrading performance in order to measure fine leak rates.

  7. Ethics in Prion Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bechtel, Kendra; Geschwind, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is intended to discuss some of the scientific and ethical issues that are created by increased research efforts towards earlier diagnosis, as well as to treatment of, human prion diseases (and related dementias), including the resulting consequences for individuals, their families, and society. Most patients with prion disease currently are diagnosed when they are about 2/3 of the way through their disease course (Geschwind, Kuo et al. 2010; Paterson, Torres-Chae et al. 2012), when the disease has progressed so far that even treatments that stop the disease process would probably have little benefit. Although there are currently no treatments available for prion diseases, we and others have realized that we must diagnose patients earlier and with greater accuracy so that future treatments have hope of success. As approximately 15% of prion diseases have a autosomal dominant genetic etiology, this further adds to the complexity of ethical issues, particularly regarding when to conduct genetic testing, release of genetic results, and when or if to implement experimental therapies. Human prion diseases are both infectious and transmissible; great care is required to balance the needs of the family and individual with both public health needs and strained hospital budgets. It is essential to proactively examine and address the ethical issues involved, as well as to define and in turn provide best standards of care. PMID:23906487

  8. Oscillatory Response of the Solar Chromosphere to a Strong Downflow Event above a Sunspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Hannah; Chae, Jongchul; Song, Donguk; Kim, Yeon-Han; Lim, Eun-Kyung; Madjarska, Maria S.

    2016-04-01

    We report three-minute oscillations in the solar chromosphere driven by a strong downflow event in a sunspot. We used the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph of the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). The strong downflow event is identified in the chromospheric and transition region lines above the sunspot umbra. After the event, oscillations occur at the same region. The amplitude of the Doppler velocity oscillations is 2 km s-1 and gradually decreases with time. In addition, the period of the oscillations gradually increases from 2.7 to 3.3 minutes. In the IRIS 1330 Å slit-jaw images, we identify a transient brightening near the footpoint of the downflow detected in the Hα+0.5 Å image. The characteristics of the downflowing material are consistent with those of sunspot plumes. Based on our findings, we suggest that the gravitationally stratified atmosphere came to oscillate with a three-minute period in response to the impulsive downflow event as was theoretically investigated by Chae & Goode.

  9. Extracellular export of sphingosine kinase-1a contributes to the vascular S1P gradient

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Krishnan; Thangada, Shobha; Michaud, Jason; Oo, Myat Lin; Ai, Youxi; Lee, Yong-Moon; Wu, Mingtao; Parikh, Nehal S.; Khan, Faraz; Proia, Richard L.; Hla, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), produced by Sphks (sphingosine kinases), is a multifunctional lipid mediator that regulates immune cell trafficking and vascular development. Mammals maintain a large concentration gradient of S1P between vascular and extravascular compartments. Mechanisms by which S1P is released from cells and concentrated in the plasma are poorly understood. We recently demonstrated [Ancellin, Colmont, Su, Li, Mittereder, Chae, Stefansson, Liau and Hla (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 6667–6675] that Sphk1 activity is constitutively secreted by vascular endothelial cells. In the present study, we show that among the five Sphk isoforms expressed in endothelial cells, the Sphk-1a isoform is selectively secreted in HEK-293 cells (human embryonic kidney cells) and human umbilical-vein endothelial cells. In sharp contrast, Sphk2 is not secreted. The exported Sphk-1a isoform is enzymatically active and produced sufficient S1P to induce S1P receptor internalization. Wild-type mouse plasma contains significant Sphk activity (179 pmol·min−1·g−1). In contrast, Sphk1−/− mouse plasma has undetectable Sphk activity and approx. 65% reduction in S1P levels. Moreover, human plasma contains enzymatically active Sphk1 (46 pmol·min−1·g−1). These results suggest that export of Sphk-1a occurs under physiological conditions and may contribute to the establishment of the vascular S1P gradient. PMID:16623665

  10. Distribution of Prx-linked hydroperoxide reductase activity among microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kouji; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka; Yoda, Koji; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Nimura-Matsune, Kaori; Mura, Kiyoshi; Tokue, Chiyoko; Katoh, Tetzuya; Kawasaki, Shinji; Niimura, Youichi

    2004-01-01

    Peroxiredoxin (Prx) constitutes a large family of enzymes found in microorganisms, animals, and plants, but the detection of the activities of Prx-linked hydroperoxide reductases (peroxiredoxin reductases) in cell extracts, and the purification based on peroxide reductase activity, have only been done in bacteria and Trypanosomatidae. A peroxiredoxin reductase (NADH oxidase) from a bacterium, Amphibacillus, displayed only poor activities in the presence of purified Prx from Saccharomyces or Synechocystis, while it is highly active in the presence of bacterial Prx. These results suggested that an enzyme system different from that in bacteria might exist for the reduction of Prx in yeast and cyanobacteria. Prx-linked hydroperoxide reductase activities were detected in cell extracts of Saccharomyces, Synechocystis, and Chlorella, and the enzyme activities of Saccharomyces and Chlorella were induced under vigorously aerated culture conditions and intensive light exposure conditions, respectively. Partial purification of Prx-linked peroxidase from the induced yeast cells indicated that the Prx-linked peroxidase system consists of two protein components, namely, thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase. This finding is consistent with the previous report on its purification based on its protein protection activity against oxidation [Chae et al., J. Biol. Chem., 269, 27670-27678 (1994)]. In this study we have confirmed that Prx-linked peroxidase activity are widely distributed, not only in bacteria species and Trypanosomatidae, but also in yeast and photosynthetic microorganisms, and showed reconstitution of the activity from partially purified interspecies components.

  11. Method for rapid detection and identification of chaetomium and evaluation of resistance to peracetic acid.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Motokazu; Hosoya, Kouichi; Tomiyama, Daisuke; Tsugukuni, Takashi; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Imanishi, Yumi; Yaguchi, Takashi

    2013-06-01

    In the beverage industry, peracetic acid has been increasingly used as a disinfectant for the filling machinery and environment due to merits of leaving no residue, it is safe for humans, and its antiseptic effect against fungi and endospores of bacteria. Recently, Chaetomium globosum and Chaetomium funicola were reported resistant to peracetic acid; however, little is known concerning the detail of peracetic acid resistance. Therefore, we assessed the peracetic acid resistance of the species of Chaetomium and related genera under identical conditions and made a thorough observation of the microstructure of their ascospores by transmission electron microscopy. The results of analyses revealed that C. globosum and C. funicola showed the high resistance to peracetic acid (a 1-D antiseptic effect after 900 s and 3-D antiseptic effect after 900 s) and had thick cell walls of ascospores that can impede the action mechanism of peracetic acid. We also developed specific primers to detect the C. globosum clade and identify C. funicola by using PCR to amplify the β-tubulin gene. PCR with the primer sets designed for C. globosum (Chae 4F/4R) and C. funicola (Cfu 2F/2R) amplified PCR products specific for the C. globosum clade and C. funicola, respectively. PCR with these two primer sets did not detect other fungi involved in food spoilage and environmental contamination. This detection and identification method is rapid and simple, with extremely high specificity.

  12. CP2 binding to the promoter is essential for the enhanced transcription of globin genes in erythroid cells.

    PubMed

    Chae, Ji Hyung; Kim, Chul Geun

    2003-02-28

    We have previously reported that the reduced level of CP2 suppresses the mouse alpha- and beta-globin gene expression and hemoglobin synthesis during terminal differentiation of mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cells in vitro [Chae et al. (1999)]. As an extension of this study, we demonstrated that human alpha-, epsilon-, and gamma- globin genes were also suppressed by the reduced expression of CP2 in K562 cells. To address how much CP2 contributes in the regulation of globin gene expression, we measured transcriptional activities of the wild type alpha-globin promoter and its various factor-binding sites mutants in erythroid and nonerythroid cells. Interestingly, CP2 site dependent transcriptional activation occurred in an erythroid-cell specific manner, even though CP2 is ubiquitously expressed. In addition, CP2 site mutation within the alpha-promoter severely suppressed promoter activity in differentiated, but not in undifferentiated MEL cells, suggesting that the CP2 binding site is needed for the enhanced transcription of globin genes during erythroid differentiation. When the human beta-globin locus control region was linked to the alpha-promoter, suppression was more severe in the CP2 site mutant in differentiated MEL cells. Overall data indicate that CP2 is a major factor in the regulation of globin expression in human and mouse erythroid cells, and CP2 binding to the globin gene promoter is essential for the enhanced transcription of globin genes in erythroid differentiation.

  13. Dust Influences in the Eastern Mediterranean: Multi-scale Assimilation of MODIS AOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabatas, B.; Unal, A.; Pierce, R. B.; Rogal, M.; Schaack, T.; Lenzen, A.

    2016-12-01

    Air pollution is one of the major environmental problems in the Mediterranean basin since the limit values of the pollutants are often exceeded. Considering its location, Turkey is downwind of Europe and on the crossroad of long-range dust transport and local emissions, meaning high amount of population living in Turkey (Population of Turkey is 75 million) are exposed to high particulate matter (PM) concentration. This study aims to quantify Saharan dust contribution to high PM concentration over Eastern Mediterranean, especially in Turkey via ground observations, atmospheric modeling and aerosol data assimilation. An online Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is configured with 0.1°×0.1° spatial resolution HTAP emission inventory to cover Europe in the west, Caspian Sea in the east, Scandinavia in the north and Sahara in the south with 30km horizontal resolution. NOAA Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data analysis system is used to assimilate Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectoradiometer (MODIS (collection 6)) aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals over the region for April 2008. Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) 2°×2° global analyses is used to provide the lateral boundary conditions (LBC) for 30km run (30km_Assim). The 30km run is then used to provide LBC for a second higher resolution (10km horizontal resolution covering Anatolian Peninsula) nested run to avoid the errors caused by the complex topography. 10km run is utilized with and without data assimilation (10km_Assim and 10km_NoAssim, respectively). This is the first WRF-Chem data assimilation study investigating natural dust influences on air quality in Anatolian peninsula. WRF-Chem prediction is consistent with the ground observations as the model captures the increasing and decreasing pattern. Daily comparisons of the WRF-Chem 30km_Assim, 10km_Assim and 10km_NoAssim runs to ground observations show that the 10km_Assim (-11 μg/m3) run has an overall

  14. Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) distribution in two differents soil types (Podzol and Andosol) under natural forest cover.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Romero, Marta; Papa, Stefania; Verstraeten, Arne; Cools, Nathalie; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Coppola, Elio

    2017-04-01

    Andosols are young soils that shall know a successive evolution towards pedological types where the dominant pedogenetic processes are more evident. Vegetation and climate influence Andosols evolution to other order of soils. In cold and wet climates or on acid vulcanite under heavy leaching young Andosols could change into Podzols (Van Breemn and Buurman, 1998). Were investigated a Podzol soil (World References Base, 2014) at Zoniën (Belgium), were and an Andosol soil (World References Base, 2014) at Lago Laceno (Avellino, Italy). This study shows the data on the SOC (Soil Organic Carbon) fractionation in two profiles from two natural pine forest soils. Together with the conventional activities of sampling and analysis of soil profile were examined surveys meant to fractionation and characterization of SOC, in particular: Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Total Extractable Carbon (TEC) soil contents were determined by Italian official method of soil analysis (Mi.P.A.F. (2000)). Different soil C fractions were also determined: Humic Acid Carbon (HAC), Fulvic Acid Carbon (FAC), Not Humic Carbon (NHC) and Humin Carbon (Huc) fractions were obtained by difference. In the whole profile, therefore, were also assayed cellulose and lignin contents. The aim of this work was to compare the distribution of different soil organic components in a podzol and a soil with andic properties. The data show great similarity, among the selected profiles, in the organic components distribution estudied. References: - Mi.P.A.F. - Ministero per le Politiche Agricole e Forestali - Osservatorio Nazionale Pedologico e per la Qualità del Suolo (2000): Metodi Ufficiali di Analisi Chimica del Suolo. In: Franco Angeli (Editor), Collana di metodi analitici per l'agricoltura diretta da Paolo Sequi, n. 1124.2, Milano, Italy. - Van Breemn N. and Buurman P. (1998) Chapter 12 Formation of Andisols. In: Soil formation. Kluwer Ed., Wageningen, The Netherlands, 271-289. -Ussiri D.A.N., Johnson C

  15. Lightning Charge Transport During a Thunderstorm Near Langmuir Laboratory on 18 August 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, B. C.; Hager, W. W.; Sonnenfeld, R. G.; Lu, G.; Winn, W. P.

    2007-12-01

    On 18 August 2004, 19:46 UT, a balloon was launched from Langmuir Laboratory, New Mexico, and was carried about 30 km southeast by the wind, traveling at an altitude that varied between 2500 m up to 4300 m above sea level. An electric field sonde or Esonde measured the electric field during the flight, while simultaneously, New Mexico Tech's Lightning Mapping Array recorded the location of VHF pulses generated during lightning. During the 40 minute balloon flight, 182 flashes occurred within 15 km of the balloon; 41 of these flashes were cloud-to-ground flashes. Using the Esonde data and the LMA data, along with recently developed analysis techniques, we estimate the charge transport associated with the lightning occurring near the balloon. This analysis leads to a picture for how charge flows in the 30 km region observed by the balloon-borne E-field change instrument.

  16. Velocity dispersions of knots in the Cygnus Loop and IC 443

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, P., Jr.; Dufour, R. J.; Parker, R. A. R.; Gull, T. R.

    1982-01-01

    Very high resolution spectroscopy of optical emission lines indicates that the velocity dispersions of knots in Cygnus Loop and IC 443 filaments result primarily from turbulence within the emitting regions. Line-of-sight velocity dispersions (half-widths at half-maximum) for the observed knots are on the order of 10-30 km/s, including associated thermal velocity dispersions of roughly 15 km/s for hydrogen, 6 km/s for oxygen, and 4 km/s for nitrogen. The knots themselves move randomly relative to each other with speeds of 10-30 km/s. Occasionally, diffuse components of the filaments are observed. These diffuse components have velocity dispersions between 60 and 85 km/s, but the relative contributions of turbulent and thermal motion to the dispersions are unkown.

  17. [LIFE QUALITY OF CHILDREN WITH SMALL ANOMALIES OF HEART DEVELOPMENT, BORN TO PARENTS IRRADIATED IN CHILDHOOD IN THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT].

    PubMed

    Kondrashova, V G; Dombrovskaya, N S

    2015-01-01

    The study involved 162 children with small anomalies of heart development (SAHD) in core group (children born to parents evacuated from the 30-km zone in childhood) and 39 children in the control group. Quality of life of adolescents was assessed by questionnaire MOS-SF-36 in the Russified version (changed by International reseach centre of life quality, Russia, St. Petersburg, 1998). In children of main group with SAHD, was established systemic pathological process involving not only the cardiovascular system, but also an autonomic nervous systems, hemostasis, upper gastro-intestinal tract, hepatobiliary, urinary system, musculoskeletal system and others, which causes polymorphic clinical picture. Quality of life in children with SAHD, born from parents evacuated from the 30-km Chernobyl zone in childhood was reduced in comparison with practically healthy children. The quality life reduction relate, primarily, physical functioning. Clinical polymorphism and reduced quality of life require the development of approaches to improve diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of these patients.

  18. Research study on neutral thermodynamic atmospheric model. [for space shuttle mission and abort trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargraves, W. R.; Delulio, E. B.; Justus, C. G.

    1977-01-01

    The Global Reference Atmospheric Model is used along with the revised perturbation statistics to evaluate and computer graph various atmospheric statistics along a space shuttle reference mission and abort trajectory. The trajectory plots are height vs. ground range, with height from ground level to 155 km and ground range along the reentry trajectory. Cross sectional plots, height vs. latitude or longitude, are also generated for 80 deg longitude, with heights from 30 km to 90 km and latitude from -90 deg to +90 deg, and for 45 deg latitude, with heights from 30 km to 90 km and longitudes from 180 deg E to 180 deg W. The variables plotted are monthly average pressure, density, temperature, wind components, and wind speed and standard deviations and 99th inter-percentile range for each of these variables.

  19. Pure Rotational Raman Lidar for Temperature Measurements from 5-40 Km Over Wuhan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yajuan; Song, Shalei; Yang, Yong; Li, Faquan; Cheng, Xuewu; Chen, Zhenwei; Liu, Linmei; McCormick, M. Patrick; Gong, Shunsheng

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a pure rotational Raman lidar (PRR) was established for the atmospheric temperature measurements from 5 km to 40 km over Wuhan, China (30.5°N, 114.5°E). To extract the expected PRR signals and simultaneously suppress the elastically backscattered light, a high-spectral resolution polychromator for light splitting and filtering was designed. Observational results revealed that the temperature difference measured by PRR lidar and the local radiosonde below 30 km was less than 3.0 K. The good agreement validated the reliability of the PRR lidar. With the 1-h integration and 150-m spatial resolution, the statistical temperature error for PRR lidar increases from 0.4 K at 10 km up to 4 K at altitudes of about 30 km. In addition, the whole night temperature profiles were obtained for study of the long-term observation of atmospheric fluctuations.

  20. Anchorage, AK

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-07-26

    Anchorage, Alaska and Cook Inlet are seen in this 30 by 30 km (19 by 19 miles) sub-image, acquired May 12, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). Orbiting at an altitude of 705 km (430 miles) on board NASA's Terra satellite, ASTER provides data at a resolution of 15 m (47 feet) and allows creation of this simulated natural color image. At the center of the image is the Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport; in the upper right corner is Elmendorf Air Force Base. Dark green coniferous forests are seen in the northwest part of the image. A golf course, with its lush green fairways, is just south of the Air Force Base. The image covers an area of 30 by 30 km, was acquired May 12, 2000, and is located at 61.2 degrees north latitude and 149.9 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02675

  1. Low-emissivity impact craters on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitz, C. M.; Elachi, C.; Moore, H. J.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Ivanov, B. A.; Schaber, G. G.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of 144 impact craters on Venus has shown that 11 of these have floors with average emissivities lower than 0.8. The remaining craters have emissivities between 0.8 and 0.9, independent of the specific backscatter cross section of the crater floors. These 144 impact craters were chosen from a possible 164 craters with diameters greater than 30 km as identified by researchers for 89 percent of the surface of Venus. We have only looked at craters below 6053.5 km altitude because a mineralogical change causes high reflectivity/low emissivity above the altitude. We have also excluded all craters with diameters smaller than 30 km because the emissivity footprint at periapsis is 16 x 24 km and becomes larger at the poles.

  2. [Network system for alpine ambulance using long distance wireless LAN and CATV LAN].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masayuki; Yang, Yuying; Kubota, Shoshin; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Miura, Yutaka; Wasaki, Katsumi; Shidama, Yasunari; Takizawa, Masaomi

    2003-01-01

    A network of the emergency telemedicine for mountain climbers in Japan Alps area has been developed. The network consists of 2.4GHz wireless LAN with over 30 km distance to be connected the Cable TV LAN. We confirmed that this network is able to transfer the high quality video and audio signal suitable for the telemedicine between the mountain huts and hospitals. In this paper, we pointed out the shortcomings of wireless LAN system and cable TV network system in use for the telemedicine, and wireless LAN module covered more than 30km and an extension system of upstream frequency bandwidth for Cable TV network. Experiments suggested that a low cost and long distance wireless LAN is useful for mountain climber's emergency telemedicine.

  3. The uncertainty in ozone calculations by a stratospheric photochemistry model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    At present, there is an apparent conflict between one-dimensional stratospheric photochemistry models used in predicting ozone depletion and average data for stratospheric ozone. This conflict is in three particulars - column density of O3 and ozone density in the regions around 30 km and 50 km altitude. A study of the sensitivity of one such model to the values of reaction rates, boundary conditions, solar intensities, photolysis cross sections, and O(1D) yield parameters reveals that even at the 2-sigma uncertainty limit due to these input parameters, the model does not overlap the data for O3 density at 30 km and 50 km. The data is outside the 1-sigma model uncertainty limit for O3 column density. The study also shows the relative contribution of the various parameters studied to the imprecision in these model results.

  4. Bioindication of the anthropogenic effects on micropopulations of Pinus sylvestris, L. in the vicinity of a plant for the storage and processing of radioactive waste and in the Chernobyl NPP zone.

    PubMed

    Geraskin, S A; Zimina, L M; Dikarev, V G; Dikareva, N S; Zimin, V L; Vasiliyev, D V; Oudalova, A A; Blinova, L D; Alexakhin, R M

    2003-01-01

    Results of a comparative analysis of the frequency and spectrum of cytogenetic anomalies are presented for reproductive (seeds) and vegetative (needles) samples taken from Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris, L.) micropopulations growing at sites with differing levels of radioactive contamination in the Chernobyl NPP 30 km zone, and at the location of a facility for the processing and storage of radioactive wastes (the 'Radon' LWPE, near the town of Sosnovy Bor in the Leningrad Region). The data obtained indicate the presence of genotoxic contaminants in the environment of the tree micropopulations. Chemical toxins make the main contribution to the environmental contamination in the Sosnovy Bor area as compared with the influence of ionising radiation in the Chernobyl 30 km zone. The higher radioresistance of seeds of Scotch pine growing on the area of the 'Radon' LWPE and in the centre of Sosnovy Bor town was revealed with acute gamma-radiation.

  5. Testing the Effects of Increased Horizontal Resolution in a Regional Climate Model for a Climatically Vulnerable Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, M. A.; Sloan, L. C.; Bell, J. L.

    2002-12-01

    The need for high-resolution simulations of modern and future climates has driven the use of regional climate models in recent years. Regional climate models use a much higher horizontal resolution than global climate models, allowing more detailed investigations of climate at scales of importance to a wider range of parties. Here we explore the effects of increased horizontal resolution on the simulation of climate over the Western U. S. We performed three experiments of modern day climate, using the same boundary conditions, at three different horizontal resolutions, 20 km, 30 km, and 40 km. We compared the experiments with observations of climate and with each other in order to evaluate any improvement or lack of improvement in using the higher resolution. Initial comparisons suggest that a 20 km resolution produces more accurate snow and precipitation results, with temperature results being more similar and accurate between the 20 and 30 km cases.

  6. Ballistic Acceleration By Superheated Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogart, S. L.; Powell, J. R.; Seed, T. J.; Weggel, C. F.; Dalessandro, J. A.; Schuster, J.; Sedehi, S. F.

    1988-04-01

    A new concept for accelerating projectiles to ultra high velocities is described. The concept, termed BASH, rapidly (milliseconds) heats a hydrogen U235 mix-ture in a pulsed nuclear reactor. The hot high pressure propellant, which has a sound speed of .'20 km/sec, then accelerates a 2 kilogram projectile in a conventional gas-gun type barrel to a very high velocity, 30 km/sec or more. The BASH gun can fire at a rate of several Hertz, if desired. Features of the BASH gun are described, along with trade studies of performance and a 30 km/sec baseline design. Technical issues are discussed, including protection against high convective and radiative heat transfer rates.

  7. Cape Canaveral, Florida range reference atmosphere 0-70 km altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tingle, A. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    The RRA contains tabulations for monthly and annual means, standard deviations, skewness coefficients for wind speed, pressure temperature, density, water vapor pressure, virtual temperature, dew-point temperature, and the means and standard deviations for the zonal and meridional wind components and the linear (product moment) correlation coefficient between the wind components. These statistical parameters are tabulated at the station elevation and at 1 km intervals from sea level to 30 km and at 2 km intervals from 30 to 90 km altitude. The wind statistics are given at approximately 10 m above the station elevations and at altitudes with respect to mean sea level thereafter. For those range sites without rocketsonde measurements, the RRAs terminate at 30 km altitude or they are extended, if required, when rocketsonde data from a nearby launch site are available. There are four sets of tables for each of the 12 monthly reference periods and the annual reference period.

  8. The Accidental Tide Gauge: A GPS Reflection Case Study from Kachemak Bay, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Kristine M.; Ray, Richard D.; Nievinski, Felipe G..; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    For the last decade, it has been known that reflected GPS signals observed with specialized instruments could be used to measure sea level. In this letter, data from an existing geodeticquality GPS site near Kachemak Bay, Alaska, are analyzed for a one-year time period. Daily sea-level variations are more than 7 m. Tidal coefficients have been estimated and compared with coefficients estimated from records from a traditional tide gauge at Seldovia Harbor, approximately 30 km away. The GPS and Seldovia estimates of M(sub 2) and S(sub 2) coefficients agree to better than 2%; much of this residual can be attributed to true differences in the tide over 30 km as it propagates up Kachemak Bay. For daily mean sea levels the agreement is 2.3 cm. Because a standard geodetic GPS receiver/antenna is used, this GPS instrument can measure long-term sea-level changes in a stable terrestrial reference frame.

  9. El Chichon and 'mystery cloud' aerosols between 30 and 55 km Global observations from the SME visible spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    Visible limb radiances measured by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) are used to obtain volume scattering ratios for aerosol loading in the 30-55 km altitude range of the stratosphere. Global maps of these ratios are presented for the period January 1982 to August 1984. Significant aerosol scattering from the 'mystery cloud' and El Chichon aerosol layers are found above 30 km. A timescale of approximately 2 months between the appearance of the aerosol at 30.5 km and at 37.5 km is consistent with vertical transport of aerosol or vapor by eddy diffusion above 30 km. An anticorrelation exists between aerosol scattering and stratospheric temperatures. Periods of lower stratospheric temperatures may account for the formation of aerosol between 40 and 55 km altitude.

  10. Atmospheric temperature sounding with the Fourier spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, V. V.; Timofeyev, Yu. M.; Polyakov, A. V.; Uspensky, A. B.; Golovin, Yu. M.; Zavelevich, F. S.; Kozlov, D. A.; Rublev, A. N.; Kukharsky, A. V.; Pyatkin, V. P.; Rusin, E. V.

    2017-07-01

    Preliminary results of a space experiment using the IKFS-2 infrared sounder (Meteor-M2 satellite) showed high-quality of measurements of spectra of the outgoing thermal radiation of the atmosphere-surface system and the adequacy of developed IR radiation atmospheric models in the 15-μm carbon gas absorption band used to recover the vertical profiles of the atmospheric temperature. Outgoing radiation spectra measured by IKFS-2 instruments make it possible to restore vertical temperature profiles with errors close to 1K in most of the 0-30 km high-altitude region, except for the lower troposphere and altitudes above 30 km, where these errors are close to 2-3K.

  11. Travel-Time Sensitivity Kernels in Long-Range Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    wave-theoretic TSKs and Fresnel volumes associated with particular eigenrays , seeking connections between the ray-theoretic and wave- theoretic...sensitivity areas about the eigenrays (marked by the dashed lines). For the range of 30 km the banana-doughnut stereotype is reproduced with the...kernel concentrated about the corresponding eigenray with zero sensitivity on the eigenray , negative sensitivity at a distance and positive sensitivity

  12. Estimation of stratospheric-mesospheric density fields from satellite radiance data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiroz, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    Description of a method for deriving horizontal density fields at altitudes above 30 km directly from satellite radiation measurements. The method is applicable to radiation measurements from any instrument with suitable transmittance weighting functions. Data such as those acquired by the Satellite Infrared Spectrometers on satellites Nimbus 3 and 4 are employed for demonstrating the use of the method for estimating stratospheric-mesospheric density fields.

  13. Iridium{reg_sign} worldwide personal communication system

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, J.

    1997-01-01

    The IRIDIUM system is a personal worldwide communication system designed to support portable, low power subscriber units through the use of a constellation of satellites in low earth polar orbit. The satellites are networked together to form a system which provides continuous line-of-sight communications between the IRIDIUM system and any point within 30 km of the earth{close_quote}s surface. The system architecture and operation are described. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Spectral analysis of the multiple-altitude anomalous geomagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkov, Yu. P.; Ivanov, V. V.; Petrov, V. G.; Filippov, S. V.; Brekhov, O. M.

    2016-11-01

    The spectra of the anomalous geomagnetic field measured at ground and balloon (30 km) altitudes were analyzed. The ground-based data were adapted from a map of the anomalous magnetic field of the Earth. A balloon surveys was carried out by the authors. It has been shown that the ground and balloon spectra of the anomalous magnetic field of the Earth substantially differ. Suppositions explaining the differences in the obtained spectra have been suggested.

  15. Quality indicators for trace gas concentrations determined from earthlimb emission spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uplinger, W. G.; Kumer, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    Different techniques which can be used to indicate the quality of the mixing ratios retrieved from spectral radiance measurements made by the CLAES instrument for 11 different atmospheric gases are discussed. A key to retrieval from noisy data is the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), which is described. The use of the SVD with simulated data and radiance measurements from a balloon floating at 30 km is discussed.

  16. Chemical composition of the small mammal reproductive system as an indicator of enterprise technogenic impact on the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranovskaya, N.; Belyanovskaya, A.; Bezel, V.; Mukhacheva, S.; Anufrieva, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we consider the indicative role of chemical composition of the small mammal (specifically, the bank vole, or Myodes glareolus) reproductive system with the purpose of studying the impact of a large-scale nonferrous metal-processing enterprise on living organisms through the expample of Middle Ural copper-smelting plant OJSC. We have analysed the chemical composition of the placenta-embryo system in the areas which are 2 km and 30 km away from the plant.

  17. Field testing of commercially manufactured capture collars on white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Chapman, R.C.; Kreeger, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    We conducted 31 tests of commercially manufactured capture collars on female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota, under temperatures from -37C to 22C. Deer were recaptured in 28 of the 31 tests; in the 3 failures, we remotely released the collars from the deer. Communication with the collars was achieved from up to 3.0 km on the ground and 26.5 km from the air.

  18. A fully automated digitally controlled 30-inch telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colgate, S. A.; Moore, E. P.; Carlson, R.

    1975-01-01

    A fully automated 30-inch (75-cm) telescope has been successfully designed and constructed from a military surplus Nike-Ajax radar mount. Novel features include: closed-loop operation between mountain telescope and campus computer 30 km apart via microwave link, a TV-type sensor which is photon shot-noise limited, a special lightweight primary mirror, and a stepping motor drive capable of slewing and settling one degree in one second or a radian in fifteen seconds.

  19. Appendix A: Fuelwood availability for a ten megawatt power plant in Tupper Lake, New York, based on remotely sensed and other data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Forested land potentially available for fuelwood harvest within 30 km of Tupper Lake, N.Y. was delineated and classified as to forest using NASA aerial photography and LANDSAT imagery. Published inventory and growth data were used to estimate woody material on the available land. The information submitted to the Energy Office indicates that there is sufficient woody material to supply a 10 MW plant.

  20. Strong refraction near the Venus surface - Effects observed by descent probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, T. A.

    1982-01-01

    The telemetry signals from Pioneer Venus probes indicated the strong downward refraction of radio waves. As the probes descended, the strength of the direct signal decreased because of absorption and refractive defocusing. During the last 30 km of descent there was a second measured component in addition to the direct signal. Strong atmospheric reaction is important in strengthening echoes that are scattered toward the earth. Such surface-reflected signals are good indicators of horizontal winds.

  1. Accessibility to surgical robot technology and prostate-cancer patient behavior for prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Toru; Yasunaga, Hideo; Matsui, Hiroki; Nagao, Go; Ishikawa, Akira; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Ohori, Makoto; Homma, Yukio

    2017-07-01

    To examine how surgical robot emergence affects prostate-cancer patient behavior in seeking radical prostatectomy focusing on geographical accessibility. In Japan, robotic surgery was approved in April 2012. Based on data in the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database between April 2012 and March 2014, distance to nearest surgical robot and interval days to radical prostatectomy (divided by mean interval in 2011: % interval days to radical prostatectomy) were calculated for individual radical prostatectomy cases at non-robotic hospitals. Caseload changes regarding distance to nearest surgical robot and robot introduction were investigated. Change in % interval days to radical prostatectomy was evaluated by multivariate analysis including distance to nearest surgical robot, age, comorbidity, hospital volume, operation type, hospital academic status, bed volume and temporal progress. % Interval days to radical prostatectomy became wider for distance to nearest surgical robot <30 km. When a surgical robot emerged within 30 and 10 km, the prostatectomy caseload in non-robot hospitals reduced by 13 and 18% within 6 months, respectively, while the robot hospitals gained +101% caseload (P < 0.01 for all) Multivariate analyses including 9759 open and 5052 non-robotic minimally invasive radical prostatectomies in 483 non-robot hospitals revealed a significant inverse association between distance to nearest surgical robot and % interval days to radical prostatectomy (B = -17.3% for distance to nearest surgical robot ≥30 km and -11.7% for 10-30 km versus distance to nearest surgical robot <10 km), while younger age, high-volume hospital, open-prostatectomy provider and temporal progress were other significant factors related to % interval days to radical prostatectomy widening (P < 0.05 for all). Robotic surgery accessibility within 30 km would make patients less likely select conventional surgery. The nearer a robot was, the faster the caseload reduction was.

  2. Intercomparison between ozone profiles measured above Spitsbergen by lidar and sonde techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabian, Rolf; Vondergathen, Peter; Ehlers, J.; Krueger, Bernd C.; Neuber, Roland; Beyerle, Georg

    1994-01-01

    This paper compares coincident ozone profile measurements by electrochemical sondes and lidar performed at Ny-Alesund/Spitsbergen. A detailed height dependent statistical analysis of the differences between these complementary methods was performed for the overlapping altitude region (13-35 km). The data set comprises ozone profile measurements conducted between Jan. 1989 and Jan. 1991. Differences of up to 25 percent were found above 30 km altitude.

  3. Rapid decline of the volcanically threatened Montserrat oriole.

    Treesearch

    Geoff M. Hilton; Phil W. Atkinson; Gerard A.L. Gray; Wayne J. Arendt; David W. Gibbons

    2003-01-01

    Prior to 1995, the Montserrat oriole (Icterus oberi) was confined to ca. 30 km2 of hill forest on the Lesser Antillean island of Montserrat, but was not listed as globally threatened. Since then, the eruption of the Soufriere Hills volcano has destroyed more than half of the species’ range. Recent intensive monitoring has indicated that the species has also declined...

  4. Preliminary Analysis of AVIRIS Data for Tectonostratigraphic Assessment of Northern Guerrero

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Harold R.; Cabral-Cano, Enrique

    1996-01-01

    The tectonostratigraphic evolution of the southern margin of North American Plate in Mexico is still in debate. Recent explanations assert Laramide age (Campanian-Eocene) accretion of far-traveled oceanic terranes (Campa and Coney, 1983; Sedlock et al. 1993). In 1989, we began an effort to bring new data to this debate through field mapping, incorporating Lansat Thematic Mapper and digital elevation data, along a 30km by 250km, east-west geologic transect on northern Guerrero State.

  5. The Origin and Characteristics of the Algerian Current

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-15

    originates in the Almeria -Oran Front and remains withir 30 km of the Algerian coast for over 300 km, between Oran and Algiers. The differences between...Stennis Space Center, Mississippi Satellite and ship data collected between May I-and 22, 1986, show that the Algerian Current originates in the Almeria ...resulting patterns to be used as tracers of the circulation. During this field period, the Algerian Current begins as an extension of the Almeria -Oran Front

  6. The discrepancy between stratospheric ozone profiles from balloon soundings and from other techniques: A possible explanation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuer, Dirk; Debacker, Hugo

    1994-01-01

    Regular balloon ozone soundings with electrochemical sondes have been performed at Uccle since 1969. More than 450 ozone soundings between 1985 and 1989 were used to calculate the altitudes Zs from the VIZ radiosonde data and the altitudes Zr deduced from the tracking of the balloon train with a primary wind-finding radar. The values of Zs at fixed times appeared to be systematically too low as compared to Zr. The differences Zr-Zs increase with altitude; at 30 km the annual mean values of Zr-Zs (plus or minus standard deviation) vary between 590 plus or minus 910 m and 1410 plus or minus 1160 m, according to the pressure calibration of different manufacturing series of radiosondes. From these results it is found that around the 30 km level the ozone concentrations calculated from soundings with VIZ sondes are too low by 7.5 to 14 percent, depending upon the manufacturing series of radiosondes. At least part of the discrepancy which has often been found between ozone profiles from balloon soundings and from other techniques such as rocket observations or Umkehr measurements may be explained by this effect. An altitude correction would have important consequences as to the climatology of ozone in the middle stratosphere as adopted at the moment. About half of the day-to-day variability of ozone observed from soundings with VIZ radiosondes above the 30 km level, is induced by the variability of Zr-Zs. The agreement between altitudes calculated from radar data and Vaisala radiosondes is much better; from 34 comparative soundings a mean difference (plus or minus standard deviation) of about -300 plus/minus 180 m was found at 30 km.

  7. SAM II aerosol profile measurements, Poker Flat, Alaska; July 16-19, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Grams, G. W.; Herman, B. M.; Pepin, T. J.; Russell, P. B.; Swissler, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    SAM II satellite measurements during the July 1979 Poker Flat mission, yielded an aerosol extinction coefficient of 0.0004/km at 1.0 micron wavelength, in the region of the stratospheric aerosol mixing ratio peak (12-16 km). The stratospheric aerosol optical depth for these data, calculated from the tropopause through 30 km, is approximately 0.001. These results are consistent with the average 1979 summertime values found throughout the Arctic.

  8. Finescale Water-Mass Variability from ARGO Profiling Floats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    characterize lateral stirring on O(100 km) lengthscales. This variability represents the low-wavenumber source for the submesoscale being studied under...produce a spectrum for water-mass variability on isopycnals over horizontal wavelengths of 0.03-30 km (Kunze et al. 2014). The submesoscale band...other. 4 REFERENCES D’Asaro, E.A., 1988: Geneation of submesoscale vortices – A new mechanism. J. Geophys. Res., 93, 6685-6693. Ferrari, R

  9. [The genetic sequelae for plant populations of radioactive environmental pollution in connection with the Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, V A; Abramov, V I; Kal'chenko, V A; Fedotov, I S; Rubanovich, A V

    1996-01-01

    Populations of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., and Pinus sylvestris L., growing within 30 km of Chernobyl and Bryansk region have been analyzed for the frequency of embryonic lethal mutations on Arabidopsis and frequency of chlorophyll mutations and chromosome aberrations by pine. On pine also have been analyzed rate of mutations at enzyme loci in endosperms of seeds. Dose dependence of the value genetic damage on level of radioactive pollution was observed.

  10. Some results of gradient electromagnetic sounding in Doldrums Mid-Atlantic Ridge fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shneyer, V. S.; Trofimov, I. L.; Abramov, Yu. M.; Zhdanov, M. S.; Machinin, V. A.; Shabelyansky, S. V.

    1991-04-01

    The geoelectrical cross-section of the Doldrums Mid-Atlantic Ridge fracture has been investigated by means of the gradient electromagnetic sounding method. The method of experiment at sea, observation techniques, principles of processing and interpretation of the observed data are described. As a result, the first model of the deep geoelectrical structure of the ridge zone, with a high conducting layer at a depth of 30 km, has been constructed.

  11. Preliminary Analysis of AVIRIS Data for Tectonostratigraphic Assessment of Northern Guerrero

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Harold R.; Cabral-Cano, Enrique

    1996-01-01

    The tectonostratigraphic evolution of the southern margin of North American Plate in Mexico is still in debate. Recent explanations assert Laramide age (Campanian-Eocene) accretion of far-traveled oceanic terranes (Campa and Coney, 1983; Sedlock et al. 1993). In 1989, we began an effort to bring new data to this debate through field mapping, incorporating Lansat Thematic Mapper and digital elevation data, along a 30km by 250km, east-west geologic transect on northern Guerrero State.

  12. Estimation of stratospheric-mesospheric density fields from satellite radiance data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiroz, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    Description of a method for deriving horizontal density fields at altitudes above 30 km directly from satellite radiation measurements. The method is applicable to radiation measurements from any instrument with suitable transmittance weighting functions. Data such as those acquired by the Satellite Infrared Spectrometers on satellites Nimbus 3 and 4 are employed for demonstrating the use of the method for estimating stratospheric-mesospheric density fields.

  13. Improved Characterization of Far-Regional and Near-Teleseismic Phases Observed in Central Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-02

    earthquakes map a 700-km long zone that is 30 km wide, which potentially represents thin subducted continental crust. It has been hypothesized that the...northward dipping seismic zone occurs on Indian lithosphere subducting beneath the Hindu Kush, and the southward dipping seismicity occurs on Asian...determine wavefield templates). 15. SUBJECT TERMS Seismic triplications, Mantle transition zone , Phase identification 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  14. COmmunications and Networking with QUantum Operationally-Secure Technology for Maritime Deployment (CONQUEST)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-06

    Section G. CONQUEST Budget Questions Regarding “Quantum Key Distribution: Atmospheric Profiles of Extinction and Turbulence” Jeffrey H. Shapiro...Office of Naval Research) has asked his Maritime QKD teams to employ the SPAWAR-provided atmospheric extinction and turbulence data from [1] to assess...prepared a compilation of atmospheric extinction and turbulence data for a 30-km-long maritime path [1]. In particular, they have used atmospheric

  15. Evaluation of Environmental Contamination and Estimated Radiation Doses for the Return to Residents’ Homes in Kawauchi Village, Fukushima Prefecture

    PubMed Central

    Taira, Yasuyuki; Hayashida, Naomi; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Endo, Yuukou; Takamura, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the environmental contamination and radiation exposure dose rates due to artificial radionuclides in Kawauchi Village, Fukushima Prefecture, the restricted area within a 30-km radius from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), the concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples, tree needles, and mushrooms were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. Nine months have passed since samples were collected on December 19 and 20, 2011, 9 months after the FNPP accident, and the prevalent dose-forming artificial radionuclides from all samples were 134Cs and 137Cs. The estimated external effective doses from soil samples were 0.42–7.2 µSv/h (3.7–63.0 mSv/y) within the 20-km radius from FNPP and 0.0011–0.38 µSv/h (0.010–3.3 mSv/y) within the 20–30 km radius from FNPP. The present study revealed that current levels are sufficiently decreasing in Kawauchi Village, especially in areas within the 20- to 30-km radius from FNPP. Thus, residents may return their homes with long-term follow-up of the environmental monitoring and countermeasures such as decontamination and restrictions of the intake of foods for reducing unnecessary exposure. The case of Kawauchi Village will be the first model for the return to residents’ homes after the FNPP accident. PMID:23049869

  16. Effects of caffeine chewing gum on race performance and physiology in male and female cyclists.

    PubMed

    Paton, Carl; Costa, Vitor; Guglielmo, Luiz

    2015-01-01

    This investigation reports the effects of chewing caffeinated gum on race performance with trained cyclists. Twenty competitive cyclists completed two 30-km time trials that included a maximal effort 0.2-km sprint each 10-km. Caffeine (~3-4 mg · kg(-1)) or placebo was administered double-blind via chewing gum at the 10-km point following completion of the first sprint. Measures of power output, oxygen uptake, heart rate, lactate and perceived exertion were taken at set intervals during the time trial. Results indicated no substantial differences in any measured variables between caffeine and placebo conditions during the first 20-km of the time trial. Caffeine gum did however lead to substantial enhancements (mean ± 90% confidence limits (CLs)) in mean power during the final 10-km (3.8% ± 2.3%), and sprint power at 30-km (4.0% ± 3.6%). The increases in performance over the final 10-km were associated with small increases in heart rate and blood lactate (effect size of 0.24 and 0.28, respectively). There were large inter-individual variations in the response to caffeine, and apparent gender related differences in sprint performance. Chewing caffeine gum improves mean and sprint performance power in the final 10-km of a 30-km time trial in male and female cyclists most likely through an increase in nervous system activation.

  17. 'Downward control' of the mean meridional circulation and temperature distribution of the polar winter stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Rolando R.; Boville, Byron A.

    1994-01-01

    According to the 'downward control' principle, the extratropical mean vertical velocity on a given pressure level is approximately proportional to the meridional gradient of the vertically integrated zonal force per unit mass exerted by waves above that level. In this paper, a simple numerical model that includes parameterizations of both planetary and gravity wave breaking is used to explore the influence of gravity wave breaking in the mesosphere on the mean meridional circulation and temperature distribution at lower levels in the polar winter stratosphere. The results of these calculations suggest that gravity wave drag in the mesosphere can affect the state of the polar winter stratosphere down to altitudes below 30 km. The effect is most important when planetary wave driving is relatively weak: that is, during southern winter and in early northern winter. In southern winter, downwelling weakens by a factor of 2 near the stratospause and by 20% at 30 km when gravity wave drag is not included in the calculations. As a consequence, temperatures decrease considerably throughout the polar winter stratosphere (over 20 K above 40 km and as much as 8 K at 30 km, where the effect is enhanced by the long radiative relaxation timescale). The polar winter states obtained when gravity wave drag is omitted in this simple model resemble the results of simulations with some general circulation models and suggest that some of the shortcomings of the latter may be due to a deficit in mesospheric momentum deposition by small-scale gravity waves.

  18. Near-field strain observations of the October 2013 Ruisui, Taiwan, earthquake: source parameters and limits of very short-term strain detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canitano, Alexandre; Hsu, Ya-Ju; Lee, Hsin-Ming; Linde, Alan T.; Sacks, Selwyn

    2015-08-01

    Volumetric strain changes associated with the October 2013 M w 6.2 Ruisui earthquake were recorded by a network made up with four borehole Sacks-Evertson dilatometers in eastern Taiwan. These instruments are located within 25-30 km of the seismic source providing also high-resolution near-field observations. Co-seismic offsets larger than a few 102 n ɛ were seen by most of the sensors. We relocated the 30 km × 30 km fault plane through a grid-search approach. The inferred fault parameters (217°, 48°, 49°) are in reasonable agreement with those resulting from the inversions of long-period seismic waves (209°, 59°, 50°) as well as from GPS data inversion (200°, 45°, 42°). Moreover, analysis of the 100-Hz sampling data 10 s before seismic radiations indicate no pre-seismic strain change emergent from the instrumental noise level (from 10 -2 to 10 -1 n ɛ). Such an observation sets limits on any precursory change in a nucleation area, taken to have dimensions of about 250-300 m, seconds before the mainshock. Thus, the upper limit of any pre-seismic moment is about 10 -5 % of the total seismic moment of the Ruisui earthquake.

  19. SYNTHESIZED SPECTRA OF OPTICALLY THIN EMISSION LINES PRODUCED BY THE BIFROST STELLAR ATMOSPHERE CODE, INCLUDING NONEQUILIBRIUM IONIZATION EFFECTS: A STUDY OF THE INTENSITY, NONTHERMAL LINE WIDTHS, AND DOPPLER SHIFTS

    SciTech Connect

    Olluri, K.; Gudiksen, B. V.; Hansteen, V. H.; Pontieu, B. De

    2015-03-20

    In recent years realistic 3D numerical models of the solar atmosphere have become available. The models attempt to recreate the solar atmosphere and mimic observations in the best way, in order to make it possible to couple complicated observations with physical properties such as the temperatures, densities, velocities, and magnetic fields. We here present a study of synthetic spectra created using the Bifrost code in order to assess how well they fit with previously taken solar data. A study of the synthetic intensity, nonthermal line widths, Doppler shifts, and correlations between any two of these three components of the spectra first assuming statistical equilibrium is made, followed by a report on some of the effects nonequilibrium ionization will have on the synthesized spectra. We find that the synthetic intensities compare well with the observations. The synthetic observations depend on the assumed resolution and point-spread function (PSF) of the instrument, and we find a large effect on the results, especially for intensity and nonthermal line width. The Doppler shifts produce the reported persistent redshifts for the transition region (TR) lines and blueshifts for the upper TR and corona lines. The nonthermal line widths reproduce the well-known turnoff point around (2–3) × 10{sup 5} K, but with much lower values than those observed. The nonthermal line widths tend to increase with decreasing assumed instrumental resolution, also when nonequilibrium ionization is included. Correlations between the nonthermal line width of any two TR line studies as reported by Chae et al. are reproduced, while the correlations of intensity to line width are reproduced only after applying a PSF to the data. Doppler shift correlations reported by Doschek for the TR lines and correlations of Doppler shift to nonthermal line width of the Fe xii{sub 19.5} line reported by Doschek et al. are reproduced.

  20. Light emitting transistors: A new route for display pixels (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namdas, Ebinazar B.

    2015-10-01

    Organic light emitting transistors (LEFETs) are an emerging class of light emitting devices that have been successfully demonstrated in single-layer [1] and mutli-layer device structures [2]. LEFETs can simultaneously execute light-emission and standard logic functions (ON/OFF) of a transistor in a single device architecture [1]. This dual functionality of LEFETs has a potential to offer a new route to simplify fabrication of display pixels. However, the key problem of existing LEFETs thus far has been their low external quantum efficiency (EQE) at high brightness, poor ON/OFF ratio, and mobility. More recently, hybrid light emitting transistors [3-4], consisting of solution processed n-type metal oxide (inorganic) as the charge transport layer and light emitting conjugated polymer (organic), have been used to achieve higher mobility, ON/OFF ratio and brightness. In this talk, I will discuss the various factors that currently influence device performance in LEFETs, and will provide insights into our recent progress in developing high-performance hybrid LEFETs. References: (1). E. B. Namdas, J. S. Swensen, P. Ledochowitsch, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, Adv. Mater.,20, 1321 (2008). (2). M. Ullah, K. Tandy, S. D. Yambem, M. Aljada, P. L. Burn, P. Meredith, E. B. Namdas. Adv. Mater. 25, 6213-6218 (2013). (3). B. Walker, M. Ullah, G. J. Chae, P. L Burn, S. Cho, J. Y. Kim, E. B. Namdas, J. H. Seo. Appl Phys Lett, 105, 183302 (2014). (4). K. Muhieddine, M. Ullah, B. N. Pal, P. Burn, E. B. Namdas, Adv. Mater. 26, 6410 (2014).

  1. Structural domain walls in polar hexagonal manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Yu

    2014-03-01

    The domain structure in the multiferroic hexagonal manganites is currently intensely investigated, motivated by the observation of intriguing sixfold topological defects at their meeting points [Choi, T. et al,. Nature Mater. 9, 253 (2010).] and nanoscale electrical conductivity at the domain walls [Wu, W. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 077203 (2012).; Meier, D. et al., Nature Mater. 11, 284 (2012).], as well as reports of coupling between ferroelectricity, magnetism and structural antiphase domains [Geng, Y. et al., Nano Lett. 12, 6055 (2012).]. The detailed structure of the domain walls, as well as the origin of such couplings, however, was previously not fully understood. In the present study, we have used first-principles density functional theory to calculate the structure and properties of the low-energy structural domain walls in the hexagonal manganites [Kumagai, Y. and Spaldin, N. A., Nature Commun. 4, 1540 (2013).]. We find that the lowest energy domain walls are atomically sharp, with {210}orientation, explaining the orientation of recently observed stripe domains and suggesting their topological protection [Chae, S. C. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 167603 (2012).]. We also explain why ferroelectric domain walls are always simultaneously antiphase walls, propose a mechanism for ferroelectric switching through domain-wall motion, and suggest an atomistic structure for the cores of the sixfold topological defects. This work was supported by ETH Zurich, the European Research Council FP7 Advanced Grants program me (grant number 291151), the JSPS Postdoctoral Fellowships for Research Abroad, and the MEXT Elements Strategy Initiative to Form Core Research Center TIES.

  2. Purification and characterization of a second type thioredoxin peroxidase (type II TPx) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Jeong, J S; Kwon, S J; Kang, S W; Rhee, S G; Kim, K

    1999-01-12

    A yeast peroxidase that reduces H2O2 and alkyl hydroperoxides with the use of reducing equivalents provided by thioredoxin was identified previously and named thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx) [Chae, H. Z., Chung, S. J., and Rhee, S. G. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 27670-27678]. A second type thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase, named type II TPx, has now been purified from yeast, and several peptide sequences have been obtained. Using those sequences, the corresponding cDNA has been identified from the GenBank database. Comparison of the predicted sequence of 176 amino acids of type II TPx with that of the 195 residues of TPx, now renamed type I TPx, revealed no substantial homology except for a short segment preceding Cys62 of type II TPx. Kinetic characterization of the reactions catalyzed by type I and II TPxs revealed that type I preferentially reduces H2O2 rather than alkyl hydroperoxides, whereas type II shows the reverse specificity. Type II TPx contains three cysteine residues at positions 31, 62, and 120. Experiments with mutant proteins in which these three cysteine residues were replaced individually with serine suggest that Cys62-SH constitutes the site of oxidation by peroxides and that the oxidized Cys62 reacts with the Cys120-SH group of another type II TPx molecule to form an intermolecular disulfide linkage. The formed disulfide can then be reduced by thioredoxin, but not by glutathione. Thus, type II TPx mutants lacking Cys62 or Cys120 showed no detectable TPx activity, whereas mutation of Cys31 had no effect on TPx activity. An antioxidant function of type II TPx in intact cells was demonstrated by the observation that Escherichia coli cells overexpressing wild-type protein were less sensitive to inhibition of growth by alkyl hydroperoxides than were control cells or cells overexpressing the mutant protein lacking Cys62.

  3. Peculiarities of internal radiation doses due to ¹³⁷Cs and ⁹⁰Sr intake in population from Zhytomyr oblast in a late period after the Chornobyl NPP accident.

    PubMed

    Vasylenko, V V; Tsigankov, M Y; Nechaev, S Y; Pikta, V O; Zadorozhna, G M; Bilonyk, A B

    2013-01-01

    Meta doslidzhennja – vyznachennja osoblyvostej formuvannja doz vnutrishn'ogo oprominennja meshkanciv Zhytomyrs'koi' oblasti ta naukove obgruntuvannja zahodiv shhodo zmenshennja doz vnutrishn'ogo oprominennja naselennja radioaktyvno zabrudnenyh terytorij u viddalenyj period avarii' na ChAES. Materialy i metody. Bulo provedeno kompleksnyj radiacijnyj monitoryng u 4 naselenyh punktah Narodyc'kogo rajonu Zhytomyrs'koi' oblasti. Dlja doslidzhen' buly zastosovani metody – dozymetrychni (instrumental'ni ta rozrahunkovi), radiohimichni. Rezul'taty i vysnovky. Provedenyj LVL-monitoryng u 2012 roci u Narodyc'komu rajoni Zhytomyrs'koi' oblasti zarejestruvav znachne u 2–3,5 raza sezonne pidvyshhennja rivniv inkorporacii' 137Cs v organizmi meshkanciv obstezhenyh naselenyh punktiv, jak u doroslyh, tak i u ditej. Majzhe u 5 % osib z chysla obstezhenyh vstanovleno perevyshhennja dozovogo rivnja 1,0 mZv x rik-1. Maksymal'ne znachennja vmistu inkorporovanogo 137Cs, zarejestrovane u cyh naselenyh punktah, stanovyt' 350 kBk, shho formuje richnu dozu vnutrishn'ogo oprominennja 10 mZv x rik-1. Vmist 137Cs u probah moloka v obstezhenyh gospodarstvah vprodovzh roku malo zminyvsja – u 30–50 % prob moloka u smt Narodychi ta s. Selec' zarejestrovano perevyshhennja dopustymogo rivnja vmistu 137Cs – 100 Bk x l-1, u selah Motijky ta Hrystynivka vmist 137Cs u probah moloka ne perevyshhuje dopustymyh rivniv. Vmist 90Sr jak u moloci, tak i v kartopli, znachno nyzhchyj dopustymogo rivnja – 20 Bk x l-1. Vmist 137Cs u kartopli ne perevyshhuje dopustymi rivni. Vstanovleno, shho osnovna chastka dozy vnutrishn'ogo oprominennja meshkanciv obstezhenyh naselenyh punktiv Zhytomyrs'koi' oblasti formujet'sja za rahunok spozhyvannja miscevyh produktiv domashn'ogo gospodarstva - moloka, ta produktiv pryrodnogo, lisovogo pohodzhennja – jagid i grybiv.

  4. Synthesized Spectra of Optically Thin Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olluri, K.; Gudiksen, B. V.; Hansteen, V. H.; De Pontieu, B.

    2015-03-01

    In recent years realistic 3D numerical models of the solar atmosphere have become available. The models attempt to recreate the solar atmosphere and mimic observations in the best way, in order to make it possible to couple complicated observations with physical properties such as the temperatures, densities, velocities, and magnetic fields. We here present a study of synthetic spectra created using the Bifrost code in order to assess how well they fit with previously taken solar data. A study of the synthetic intensity, nonthermal line widths, Doppler shifts, and correlations between any two of these three components of the spectra first assuming statistical equilibrium is made, followed by a report on some of the effects nonequilibrium ionization will have on the synthesized spectra. We find that the synthetic intensities compare well with the observations. The synthetic observations depend on the assumed resolution and point-spread function (PSF) of the instrument, and we find a large effect on the results, especially for intensity and nonthermal line width. The Doppler shifts produce the reported persistent redshifts for the transition region (TR) lines and blueshifts for the upper TR and corona lines. The nonthermal line widths reproduce the well-known turnoff point around (2-3) × 105 K, but with much lower values than those observed. The nonthermal line widths tend to increase with decreasing assumed instrumental resolution, also when nonequilibrium ionization is included. Correlations between the nonthermal line width of any two TR line studies as reported by Chae et al. are reproduced, while the correlations of intensity to line width are reproduced only after applying a PSF to the data. Doppler shift correlations reported by Doschek for the TR lines and correlations of Doppler shift to nonthermal line width of the Fe xii 19.5 line reported by Doschek et al. are reproduced.

  5. Estimation of Errors in the Transverse Velocity Vectors Determined from HINODE/SOT Magnetograms Using the NAVE Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Jongchul; Moon, Yong-Jae

    2009-06-01

    Transverse velocity vectors can be determined from a pair of images successively taken with a time interval using an optical flow technique. We have tested the performance of the new technique called NAVE (non-linear affine velocity estimator) recently implemented by Chae & Sakurai using real image data taken by the Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) of the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) aboard the Hinode satellite. We have developed two methods of estimating the errors in the determination of velocity vectors, one resulting from the non-linear fitting σ_v and the other ɛ_u resulting from the statistics of the determined velocity vectors. The real error is expected to be somewhere between σ_v and ɛ_u. We have investigated the dependence of the determined velocity vectors and their errors on the different parameters such as the critical speed for the subsonic filtering, the width of the localizing window, the time interval between two successive images, and the signal-to-noise ratio of the feature. With the choice of v_{crit}=2 pixel/step for the subsonic filtering, and the window FWHM of 16 pixels, and the time interval of one step (2 minutes), we find that the errors of velocity vectors determined using the NAVE range from around 0.04 pixel/step in high signal-to-noise ratio features (S/N ˜ 10), to 0.1 pixel/step in low signa-to-noise ratio features (S/N ˜ 3) with the mean of about 0.06 pixel/step where 1 pixel/step corresponds roughly to 1 km/s in our case.

  6. Proximal tibia volumetric bone mineral density is correlated to the magnitude of local acceleration in male long-distance runners

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Bijan; Ballabeni, Pierluigi; Crettenand, Antoinette; Gobelet, Charles; Aminian, Kamiar; Rizzoli, René; Gremion, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The beneficial effect of physical exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) is at least partly explained by the forces exerted directly on the bones. Male runners present generally higher BMD than sedentary individuals. We postulated that the proximal tibia BMD is related to the running distance, as well as to the magnitude of the shocks (while running) in male runners. A prospective study (three yearly measurements) included 81 healthy male subjects: 16 sedentary lean subjects, and 3 groups of runners (5–30 km/wk, n = 19; 30–50 km/wk, n = 29; 50–100 km/wk, n = 17). Several measurements were performed at the proximal tibia level: volumetric BMD (vBMD) and cortical index (CI), i.e., an index of cortical bone thickness and peak accelerations (an index of shocks during heel strike) while running (measured by a three-dimensional accelerometer). A general linear model assessed the prediction of vBMD or CI by 1) simple effects (running distance, peak accelerations, time); and 2) interactions (for instance, if vBMD prediction by peak acceleration depends on running distance). CI and vBMD 1) increase with running distance to reach a plateau over 30 km/wk; and 2) are positively associated with peak accelerations over 30 km/wk. Running may be associated with high peak accelerations to have beneficial effects on BMD. More important strains are needed to be associated with the same increase in BMD during running sessions of short duration than those of long duration. CI and vBMD are associated with the magnitude of the shocks during heel strike in runners. PMID:20133440

  7. First Rosetta Radio Science Bistatic Radar Observations of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andert, Thomas P.; Remus, Stefan; Simpson, Richard A.; Pätzold, Martin; Asmar, Sami W.; Kahan, Daniel S.; Bird, Mike K.; Häusler, Bernd; Tellmann, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    The Rosetta spacecraft was successfully inserted on 6th August 2014 into orbit around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. In September Rosetta was placed into bound orbits with an initial distance of 30 km and a decreasing distance until the end October. After lander delivery, bound orbits were maintained again at 20 km and 30 km. One of the objectives of the Rosetta Radio Science Investigations (RSI) is to address the dielectric properties, small-scale roughness, and rotational state of the nucleus of the comet, which can be determined by means of a surface scattering experiment, also known as Bistatic Radar. The radio subsystem transmitter located on board the Rosetta spacecraft beams right circularly polarized radio signals at two wavelengths -3.6 cm (X-Band) and 13 cm (S-Band) - toward the nucleus surface. Part of the impinging radiation is then scattered toward a receiver at a ground station on Earth and recorded. On September 29th, 2014 the first Bistatic Radar experiment ever at a comet was successfully conducted. The distance between 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and Rosetta was 20 km and both right circularly polarized (RCP) and left circularly polarized (LCP) reflected signals from the comet's surface in X-Band were detected during the experiment at the Goldstone complex of the NASA Deep Space Network. The ultra-stable oscillator (USO) on board Rosetta served during the experiment as a very stable reference frequency source. The direct and reflected signal were separated during the experiment by only a fraction of 1 Hz. The extreme stability of the USO allowed a detection and separation of the weak signals even on the required long integration times. Five additional Bistatic Radar experiments were conducted successfully between mid-October and mid-December 2014 with the 70-m DSN ground stations in Goldstone and Canberra at different distances to the comet (10 km, 20 km and 30 km) and reflected signals were observed in each case.

  8. Atmospheric versus lithogenic contribution to the composition of first- and second-order stream waters in Seoul and its vicinity.

    PubMed

    Chae, Gi-Tak; Yun, Seong-Taek; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Choi, Byoung-Young

    2004-03-01

    The spatial variations in the chemistry of first- and second-order stream waters (N = 65) were investigated in the easterly bound of Seoul in order to assess the effects of urban air pollution on surface water chemistry. The sulfate (SO4(2-)) was high (range 3.9-17.8 mg l(-1), mean 11.8 mg l(-1)) within 30 km away from the center of Seoul, compared to the levels (range 1.1-7.7 mg l(-1), mean 4.3 mg l(-1)) observed in remote areas (30-70 km away). Both graphical examination and statistical evaluation (variogram) of sulfate concentration data consistently showed the decrease of sulfate concentration with increasing distance. The results of mass balance modeling also indicate that the concentrations of SO4(2-), Cl- and Na+ may be affected mainly by dry/wet deposition. However, the spatial variations of major cations such as Ca2+ and Na+ are well explained by the reaction of rainwater with diverse rocks in the watercourse. The water type was found to change from Ca(-Na)-SO4) type to Ca(-a)-HCO3 type with the increasing distance. It is thus inferred that the pollutants like SO2 emitted from strong man-made source areas of Seoul are transported to the considerable distance (at least 30 km away) by westerlies and that such mechanism may lead to the changes of the anion composition in surface water. In the remote area (> 30 km away from Seoul), the stream water chemistry appears to be influenced more effectively by the weathering of rock-forming minerals.

  9. WEEKLY RUNNING VOLUME AND RISK OF RUNNING‐RELATED INJURIES AMONG MARATHON RUNNERS

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Juul, Martin Serup; Rasmussen, Sten

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race. Methods: The study was a retrospective cohort study on marathon finishers. Following a marathon, participants completed a web‐based questionnaire. The outcome of interest was a self‐reported running‐related injury. The injury had to be severe enough to cause a reduction in distance, speed, duration or frequency of running for at least 14 days. Primary exposure was self‐reported average weekly volume of running before the marathon categorized into below 30 km/week, 30 to 60 km/week, and above 60 km/week. Results: A total of 68 of the 662 respondents sustained an injury. When adjusting for previous injury and previous marathons, the relative risk (RR) of suffering an injury rose by 2.02 [95% CI: 1.26; 3.24], p < 0.01, among runners with an average weekly training volume below 30 km/week compared with runners with an average weekly training volume of 30‐60 km/week. No significant differences were found between runners exceeding 60 km/week and runners running 30‐60 km/week (RR=1.13 [0.5;2.8], p=0.80). Conclusions: Runners may be advised to run a minimum of 30 km/week before a marathon to reduce their risk of running‐related injury. Level of Evidence: 2b PMID:23593549

  10. Production altitude and time delays of the terrestrial gamma flashes: Revisiting the Burst and Transient Source Experiment spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Østgaard, N.; Gjesteland, T.; Stadsnes, J.; Connell, P. H.; Carlson, B.

    2008-02-01

    On the basis of the RHESSI results it has been suggested that terrestrial gamma flashes (TGFs) are produced at very low altitudes. On the other hand some of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) spectra show unabsorbed fluxes of X rays in the 25-50 keV energy range, indicating a higher production altitude. To investigate this, we have developed a Monte Carlo code for X-ray propagation through the atmosphere. The most important features seen in the modeled spectra are (1) a low-energy cutoff which moves to lower energies as TGFs are produced at higher altitudes, (2) a high-energy cutoff which moves to lower energies as TGFs are observed at larger zenith angles, and (3) time delays are observed for TGFs produced at <=20 km (and some at 30 km) altitude when observed at larger zenith angle than the half-angle defining the initial isotropic X-ray beam. This is a pure Compton effect. The model results and an optimization procedure are used to estimate production altitudes of the BATSE TGFs. The main findings are (1) half or more of the BATSE TGFs are produced at low altitudes, <=20 km, (2) a significant portion of the BATSE TGFs are produced at higher altitudes, 30 km to 40 km, (3) for the TGFs produced at <=20 km (and some at 30 km) altitudes the dispersion signatures can be explained as a pure Compton effect, and (4) the softening of the BATSE spectra for increasing zenith angles and the time dispersions both indicate that the initial TGF distribution is beamed.

  11. Validation of the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment: stratospheric temperature and aerosol measurements.

    PubMed

    Gu, Y Y; Gardner, C S; Castleberg, P A; Papen, G C; Kelley, M C

    1997-07-20

    The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) was flown on STS-64 in September 1994. The LITE employed a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064, 532, and 355 nm to study the Earth's lower atmosphere. In this paper we investigate the nighttime stratospheric aerosol and temperature measurements derived from the 532- and 355-nm channels. The observations are compared with lidar observations obtained at Arecibo Observatory, Puerto Rico, and Starfire Optical Range, New Mexico, and with balloonsondes launched from the San Juan and Albuquerque airports. The backscatter ratios derived from the LITE and Arecibo data between 15 and 30 km differ by less than 5%. The Angstrom coefficients of the stratospheric aerosols derived from the 532- and 355-nm LITE channels exhibited only slight variation in altitude. The mean value between 15 and 30 km derived from three different orbital segments at approximately 20 degrees N and 35 degrees N was 1.7. The mean standard deviation was approximately 0.3. Temperature profiles were derived from the LITE data by correcting the 355-nm channel for aerosol scattering with the 532-nm signal and an assumed Angstrom coefficient. The rms differences between the corrected profiles and the balloonsonde data were as low as 2 K in the 15-30-km height range. The results were not particularly sensitive to the choice of the Angstrom coefficient and suggest that accurate temperature profiles can be derived from the LITE data in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere provided that the aerosol loading is light.

  12. Crustal structure along the geosciences transect from Altay to Altun Tagh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.-X.; Han, G.-H.; Jiang, M.; Yuan, X.-C.; Mooney, W.D.; Coleman, R.G.

    2004-01-01

    Based upon the P- and S-wave data acquired along the geoscience transect from Altay to Altun Tagh in Northwest China, the crustal structures of velocities and Poisson's ratio are determined. The crustal velocity structure features an obvious three-layer structure with velocities of 6. 0 ??? 6. 3km/s, 6. 3 ??? 6. 6km/s and 6.9 ??? 7. Okm/s from surface to depth, respectively. The crustal thickness along the. entire profile is mostly 50km with the thickest crust (56km) beneath the Altay and the thinnest (46km) beneath the Junggar basin. The velocities underlying Moho are 7.7 to 7.8km/s between the Tianshan and the Junggar basin, and 7.9 to 8.0km/s below the Altay Mountains and eastern margin of the Tarim basin. The southern half of the profile, including the eastern Tianshan Mountains and eastern margin of the Tarim basin, shows low P-wave velocities and ?? = 0. 25 to a depth, of 30km, which suggests a quartz-rich, granitic upper crustal composition. The northern half of the profile below the Altay Mountains and Junggar Accretional Belt has a higher Poisson's ratio of ?? = 0.26 ??? 0.27 to a depth of 30km, indicative of an intermediate crustal composition, The entire profile is underlain by a 15 to 30km thick high-velocity (6.9 ??? 7.0km/s; ?? = 0. 26 - 0.28) lower crustal layer that we interpret to have a bulk composition of mafic granulite. At the southern end of the profile a 5km-thick midcrustal low-velocity layer ( Vp, = 5.9km/s, ?? = 0.25) underlies the Tianshan and the region to the south, and may be indicative of granitic intrusive in Late Paleozoic.

  13. Melting and differentiation in Venus with a cold start: A mechanism of the thin crust formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomatov, Viatcheslav S.; Stevenson, David J.

    1992-01-01

    Recent works argue that the venusian crust is thin: less than 10-30 km. However, any convective model of Venus unavoidably predicts melting and a fast growth of the basaltic crust, up to its maximum thickness of about 70 km limited, by the gabbro-eclogite phase transition. The crust is highly buoyant due to both its composition and temperature and it is problematic to find a mechanism providing its effective recycling and thinning in the absence of plate tectonics. There are different ways to solve this contradiction. This study suggests that a thin crust can be produced during the entire evolution of Venus if Venus avoided giant impacts.

  14. Martian Valentine's Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    14 February 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a heart-shaped hill surrounded by cracked terrain within a depression in far northwestern Arabia Terra, near the Cydonia region of Mars. Happy St. Valentine's Day from the MGS MOC team!

    Location near: 39.1oN, 358.1oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  15. 40 CFR 86.528-78 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Shift Speed 1st to 2d gear 19 km/h (11.8 mi/h). 2d to 3d gear 33 km/h (20.5 mi/h). 3d to 4th gear 44 km... to 2d gear 30 km/h (18.6 mi/h). 2d to 3d gear 45 km/h (28.0 mi/h). 3d to 4th gear 60 km/h (37.3...

  16. 40 CFR 86.528-78 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Shift Speed 1st to 2d gear 19 km/h (11.8 mi/h). 2d to 3d gear 33 km/h (20.5 mi/h). 3d to 4th gear 44 km... to 2d gear 30 km/h (18.6 mi/h). 2d to 3d gear 45 km/h (28.0 mi/h). 3d to 4th gear 60 km/h (37.3...

  17. A New View on Interstellar Dust - High Fidelity Studies of Interstellar Dust Analogue Tracks in Stardust Flight Spare Aerogel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Postberg F.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Bechtel, H. A.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Bugiel, S.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; Butterworth, A. L.; Cloetens, P.; Davis, A. M.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G. J.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.

    2011-01-01

    In 2000 and 2002 the Stardust Mission exposed aerogel collector panels for a total of about 200 days to the stream of interstellar grains sweeping through the solar system. The material was brought back to Earth in 2006. The goal of this work is the laboratory calibration of the collection process by shooting high speed [5 - 30km/s] interstellar dust (ISD) analogues onto Stardust aerogel flight spares. This enables an investigation into both the morphology of impact tracks as well as any structural and chemical modification of projectile and collector material. First results indicate a different ISD flux than previously assumed for the Stardust collection period.

  18. High Spectral Resolution Lidar Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Eloranta, Ed

    2004-12-01

    The HSRL provided calibrated vertical profiles of optical depth, backscatter cross section and depoloarization at a wavelength of 532 nm. Profiles were acquired at 2.5 second intervals with 7.5 meter resolution. Profiles extended from an altitude of 100 m to 30 km in clear air. The lidar penetrated to a maximum optical depth of ~ 4 under cloudy conditions. Our data contributed directly to the aims of the M-PACE experiment, providing calibrated optical depth and optical backscatter measurements which were not available from any other instrument.

  19. Present concept on current water protection and remediation activities for the areas contaminated by the 1986 Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Voitsekhovitch, O.; Prister, B.; Nasvit, O.; Los, I.; Berkovski, V.

    1996-07-01

    The results of radiation monitoring data and migration pathway analysis of water bodies within areas affected by the 1986 Chernobyl accident provide a unique opportunity for decision-makers working in other extensively contaminated regions to optimize their approaches to surface and groundwater protection. Most engineering measures within the Chernobyl 30-km exclusion zone were focused on preventing secondary contamination of surface and groundwater from entering the Pripyat River and the Kiev Reservoir. However, implementation of these measures required huge financial and human resources. Therefore, lessons about post-accidental water protection activities can be learned form the Chernobyl example. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Diurnal variation of stratospheric chlorine monoxide - A critical test of chlorine chemistry in the ozone layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, P. M.; De Zafra, R.; Parrish, A.; Barrett, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Ground-based observations of a mm-wave spectral line at 278 GHz have yielded stratospheric chlorine monoxide column density diurnal variation records which indicate that the mixing ratio and column density of this compound above 30 km are about 20 percent lower than model predictions based on 2.1 parts/billion of total stratospheric chlorine. The observed day-to-night variation is, however, in good agreement with recent model predictions, both confirming the existence of a nighttime reservoir for chlorine and verifying the predicted general rate of its storage and retrieval.

  1. Uppermantle anisotropy and the oceanic lithosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Regan, J.

    1983-01-01

    Published Rayleigh and Love wave phase and group velocity data have been inverted taking into account sphericity, anelastic dispersion, and transverse isotropy. For a PREM-type modular parameterization, the thickness of the high velocity mantle seismic lithosphere (LID) varies in thickness from about 30 km for young ocean to about 50 km for old ocean, much less than previous estimates based on isotropic inversion of similar data. This LID thickness is comparable to the elastic or flexural thickness found from studies of seamount loading and flexure at trenches, suggesting that the thickness of the lithosphere may be controlled by mineralogy, composition, or crystal orientation rather than by temperature alone.

  2. Active nitrogen partitioning and the nighttime formation of N sub 2 O sub 5 in the stratosphere: Simultaneous in situ measurements of NO, NO sub 2 , HNO sub 3 , O sub 3 , and N sub 2 O using the BLISS diode laser spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, C.R.; May, R.D. ); Toumi, R.; Pyle, J.A. )

    1990-08-20

    Simultaneous in situ measurements of NO, NO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3}, O{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, pressure, and temperature at 30 km have been made from Palestine. Texas (32{degree}N) on September 13, 1988, using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Balloon-Borne Laser In-Situ Sensor (BLISS) instrument, with the NOAA dual-channel balloon UV ozone spectrometer on the same gondola. Using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy over a long path length, measurements were made during a 24-hour flight of the daytime concentrations of NO, NO{sub 2}, and O{sub 3} and of the diurnal variation in the concentration of NO{sub 2}. Postsunset measurements of NO{sub 2}, made every half minutes throughout much of the night, show the NO{sub 2} mixing ratio falling from a sunset value of 10.5 ppbv to 5.2 ppbv at nights end. From the sunset/sunrise difference din the volume mixing ratio of NO{sub 2} is derived a value of 2.7 {plus minus} 0.4 ppbv for the sunrise N{sub 2}O{sub 5} mixing ratio, in excellent agreement with the model predictions of 2.9 ppbv at this latitude. The measured daytime NO{sub 2}/NO ratio was found to be in good agreement with model predictions at 30 km. The measured presunset sum NO + NO{sub 2} of 10.1 {plus minus} 0.8 ppbv agreed well with the measured postsunset NO{sub 2} amount of 10.5 {plus minus} 0.8 ppbv. Simultaneous measurements of the mixing ratios of HNO{sub 3} and postsunset NO{sub 2} allow an estimate of total reactive nitrogen, approximated at this time by NO{sub 2} + HNO{sub 3} + 2(N{sub 2}O{sub 5}) + ClONO{sub 2}, of 16.4 {plus minus} 1.2 ppbv at 30 km, and (from an earlier flight) of 13.7 {plus minus} 1.7 ppbv at 37 km. Using model predictions incorporating corrections for non-steady state and for diurnal chemistry, an OH mixing ratio of 8 {plus minus} 4 pptv is derived from the measured HNO{sub 3}/NO{sub 2} ratio of 0.72 {plus minus} 0.17 at 30 km.

  3. SeaQuaKE: Sea-Optimized Quantum Key Exchange

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    framework will be developed to guide optimization of the system operating wavelength in order to maximize throughput and/or transmission distance over...simulations were performed over a 1-10 µm wavelength range (with 0.1, 1, 5, 15 cm-1 resolution) assuming a 30 km free-space link distance at an altitude of...broken down into several sub-systems including the pulsed optical pump, the time-bin interferometer , and the χ(3) containing fiber loop which generates

  4. Multiwavelength lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols above Spitsbergen during winter 1992/93

    SciTech Connect

    Beyerle, G.; Neuber, R.; Schrems, O. ); Wittrock, F. ); Knudsen, B. )

    1994-01-01

    Using a multiwavelength lidar the authors measured aerosols from the tropopause to altitudes of 30 km in the period December 1992 to March 1993. They analyzed backscatter and depolarization measurements to infer information on aerosol size and phase. During most of this period they saw evidence of a liquid drop aerosol layer in the lower stratosphere which was of a volcanic origin. In January they observed polar stratospheric clouds on numerous occasions, and particle size was found to depend strongly on the cooling rate.

  5. Moderate resolution thermal mapping of Mars - The channel terrain around the Chryse basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, P. R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    1979-01-01

    Moderate resolution (about 30 km) thermal inertia estimates have been made for several regions in the northern hemisphere of Mars. Examples of these maps are presented for the region 0-45 deg N, 0-90 deg W. In the region adjoining the Chryse basin there are two major channels, Kasei Vallis and Ares Vallis, whose floor materials have higher thermal inertia than the surrounding upland regions. Moreover, there are numerous craters in the region which have high inertia-low albedo features on the crater floor.

  6. Infrared and radar signatures of lunar craters - Implications about crater evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.; Shorthill, R. W.; Zisk, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    Geological models accounting for the strongly crater size-dependent IR and radar signatures of lunar crater floors are examined. The simplest model involves the formation and subsequent 'gardening' of an impact melt layer on the crater floor, but while adequate in accounting for the gradual fading of IR temperatures and echo strengths in craters larger than 30 km in diameter, it is inadequate for smaller ones. It is concluded that quantitative models of the evolution of rock populations in regoliths and of the interaction of microwaves with regoliths are needed in order to understand crater evolutionary processes.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: RV and vsini of southern stars (de Medeiros+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Medeiros, J. R.; Alves, S.; Udry, S.; Andersen, J.; Nordstrom, B.; Mayor, M.

    2013-11-01

    Rotational and radial velocities have been measured for 1589 evolved stars of spectral types F, G, and K and luminosity classes IV, III, II, and Ib, based on observations carried out with the CORAVEL spectrometers. The precision in radial velocity is better than 0.30km/s per observation, whereas rotational velocity uncertainties are typically 1.0km/s for subgiants and giants and 2.0km/s for class II giants and Ib supergiants. (1 data file).

  8. Range-wide patterns of greater sage-grouse persistence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldridge, C.L.; Nielsen, S.E.; Beyer, H.L.; Boyce, M.S.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a shrub-steppe obligate species of western North America, currently occupies only half its historical range. Here we examine how broad-scale, long-term trends in landscape condition have affected range contraction. Location: Sagebrush biome of the western USA. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess persistence and extirpation of greater sage-grouse range based on landscape conditions measured by human population (density and population change), vegetation (percentage of sagebrush habitat), roads (density of and distance to roads), agriculture (cropland, farmland and cattle density), climate (number of severe and extreme droughts) and range periphery. Model predictions were used to identify areas where future extirpations can be expected, while also explaining possible causes of past extirpations. Results: Greater sage-grouse persistence and extirpation were significantly related to sagebrush habitat, cultivated cropland, human population density in 1950, prevalence of severe droughts and historical range periphery. Extirpation of sage-grouse was most likely in areas having at least four persons per square kilometre in 1950, 25% cultivated cropland in 2002 or the presence of three or more severe droughts per decade. In contrast, persistence of sage-grouse was expected when at least 30 km from historical range edge and in habitats containing at least 25% sagebrush cover within 30 km. Extirpation was most often explained (35%) by the combined effects of peripherality (within 30 km of range edge) and lack of sagebrush cover (less than 25% within 30 km). Based on patterns of prior extirpation and model predictions, we predict that 29% of remaining range may be at risk. Main Conclusions: Spatial patterns in greater sage-grouse range contraction can be explained by widely available landscape variables that describe patterns of remaining sagebrush habitat and loss due to cultivation, climatic trends, human

  9. Electrodynamic response of the middle atmosphere to auroral pulsations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, R. A.; Croskey, C. L.; Hale, L. C.; Mitchell, J. D.; Barcus, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The MAC/EPSILON observational campaign encompassed the use of two Nike Orion rocket payloads which studied the effects of auroral energetics on the middle atmosphere. While one payload was launched during the recovery phase of a moderate magnetic substorm, during fairly stable auroral conditions, the other was launched during highly active postbreakup conditions during which Pc5 pulsations were in progress. The energetic radiation of the first event was composed almost entirely of relativistic electrons below 200 keV, while that of the second was dominated by much softer electrons whose high X-ray fluxes exceeded the cosmic ray background as an ionizing source down to below 30 km.

  10. Lunar crater depths from orbiter IV long-focus photographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arthur, D.W.G.

    1974-01-01

    The paper presents method and results for the determination of the depths of more than 1900 small lunar craters from measures of shadows on the long-focus pictures obtained by Lunar Orbiter IV. The method for converting the measured shadow length into the true length in nature of the shadow hypotenuse is new and is applicable to other planetary bodies provided comparable spacecraft ephemerides are available. The measures were made with a simple surveyor's plotting scale on the standard Orbiter IV photographic enlargements. The results indicate that the smaller lunar (D < 30 km) craters are appreciably deeper than is indicated by earlier work using imagery obtained at terrestrial observatories. ?? 1974.

  11. Observations of the stratospheric conductivity and its variation at three latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, G. J.; Benbrook, J. R.; Bering, E. A.; Oro, D.; Seubert, C. O.

    1988-04-01

    Measurements from nine high-altitude balloon flights at altitudes ranging from 10 to 30 km have been obtained in order to study atmospheric conductivity variations on local and global scales. The conductivity profiles are not correlated with solar or cosmic ray activity, but they exhibit variations which appear to be dominated by local effects. Evidence is provided of stratospheric aerosol layers with number densities of the order of 1000/cu cm. It is suggested that global conductivity models employing latitudinal variations based on cosmic ray ionization alone may be improved by including the effects of latitudinal variations of temperature and aerosols.

  12. INITIAL PLANETESIMAL SIZES AND THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SMALL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlichting, Hilke E.; Fuentes, Cesar I.; Trilling, David E.

    2013-08-01

    The Kuiper Belt is a remnant from the early solar system and its size distribution contains many important constraints that can be used to test models of planet formation and collisional evolution. We show, by comparing observations with theoretical models, that the observed Kuiper Belt size distribution is well matched by coagulation models, which start with an initial planetesimal population with radii of about 1 km, and subsequent collisional evolution. We find that the observed size distribution above R {approx} 30 km is primordial, i.e., it has not been modified by collisional evolution over the age of the solar system, and that the size distribution below R {approx} 30 km has been modified by collisions and that its slope is well matched by collisional evolution models that use published strength laws. We investigate in detail the resulting size distribution of bodies ranging from 0.01 km to 30 km and find that its slope changes several times as a function of radius before approaching the expected value for an equilibrium collisional cascade of material strength dominated bodies for R {approx}< 0.1 km. Compared to a single power-law size distribution that would span the whole range from 0.01 km to 30 km, we find in general a strong deficit of bodies around R {approx} 10 km and a strong excess of bodies around 2 km in radius. This deficit and excess of bodies are caused by the planetesimal size distribution left over from the runaway growth phase, which left most of the initial mass in small planetesimals while only a small fraction of the total mass is converted into large protoplanets. This excess mass in small planetesimals leaves a permanent signature in the size distribution of small bodies that is not erased after 4.5 Gyr of collisional evolution. Observations of the small Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) size distribution can therefore test if large KBOs grew as a result of runaway growth and constrained the initial planetesimal sizes. We find that results from

  13. Simulation of the transport of halogen species from the equatorial and mid-latitude stratosphere to the polar stratosphere in a two-dimensional model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yung, Yuk L.; Shia, R. L.; Allen, M.; Zurek, R. W.; Crisp, D.; Wen, J. S.

    1988-01-01

    The bulk of O sub 3 destruction in the Antarctic stratosphere takes place in the lower stratosphere between 15 and 25 km. Both O sub 3 and the halogen reservoir species have their origins in the higher altitude region (20 to 30 km) in the equatorial and mid-latitude stratosphere. Using the Caltech-JPL two-dimensional residual circulation model, researchers investigate the growth of stratospheric halogen due to the increase of CFCl sub 3 and CF sub 2 Cl sub 2.

  14. Simulation of CO2 release at 800 km altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setayesh, A.

    1993-08-01

    The SOCRATES contamination-interaction code has been used to simulate the reactions of 0 + CO2 yields CO2(v) + O, O + CO2 - CO(v) + O2, and CO2 + H - CO + OH(v) at an altitude of 800 km in both ram and wake directions of the spacecraft. These simulations show that the radiation from these reactions can be measurable for the parameters which have been used in these calculations. The investigation carries out the simulations as much as 30 km from the spacecraft. The radiative intensity of CO(v) and OH(v) show the highest and lowest, respectively.

  15. Forecasting the Ocean’s Optical Environment: Development of the BioCast System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    relationships between the linear correlation coefficient (radial axis) and the Standard Deviation Ratio ( SDR = σF /σR). BioCast pattern mea- sures...r = 0 .2 5 r = 0. 95 r = 0. 75 r = 0 .5 SDR (A) Target Diagram: [Beam-c (531 nm)] Persistence BioCast u* (B) Taylor Diagram: [Beam-c (531 nm...Persistence BioCast SDR SD R SD R Range from Shoreline: 10 km, 30 km, 60 km, 109 km, 209 km, 249 km RMS*=1 RMS

  16. Lunar Crustal History Recorded in Lunar Anorthosites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, D.; Park, J.; Bogard. D.; Garrison, D.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anorthosites occur ubiquitously within the lunar crust at depths of 3-30 km in apparent confirmation of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) hypothesis. We have dated lunar anorthosite 67075, a Feldspathic Fragmental Breccia (FFB) collected near the rim of North Ray Crater by the Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr techniques. We also have dated an anorthositic white clast (WC) in lunar meteorite Dhofar 908 by the Ar-39-Ar-40 technique and measured whole rock (WR) Sm-Nd data for a companion sample. We discuss the significance of the ages determined for these and other anorthosites for the early magmatic and bombardment history of the moon.

  17. Cave Buttes Dam Master Plan, Phoenix, Arizona and Vicinity (Including New River).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Cave Buttes Dam is on Cave Creek, 0.7 mile (1.1 kin ) south (downstream) of the existing Cave Creek Dam and about 18 miles (30 km) north of the...important tributaries. Cave Creek flows in a general southwesterly direction from its headwaters -to the dam, a distance of about 25 mi (410 kin ). D...History of the United States, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1970). An evaluation of the geologic and seismic conditions within a 150-mi (2410 kin

  18. The Application of Finite Elements and Space-Angle Synthesis to the Anisotropic Steady State Boltzmann (Transport) Equation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    FLUX -TOTAL FLUX 0.0 0-1 0-20-0-05 RADIUS (KtI) Figure 12 128 PARTICLE( NEUTRON ) FLUENCESO N BURST HI- 0.12KM. 8 LTITUDE- 0.30KM. cDEGREE(LMAX)- MESH...SIZE IS I I____ .SCATTERED FLUX - TOTAL FLUX BR0.0 0.- .2 0.3- RADIUS (KM) Figure 13 129 DEGREELMAX)! PARTICLE ( NEUTRON ) FLUENOES. M :) SALTITUDE...0.40KM. CD DEGREE (LMAX) -0 MESH SIZE IS lxl__ _ ___ _ _ SCATTERED FLUX -TOTAL FLUX 1020.3 0.4 0.5 RAOIUS(KM) Figure 14 130 PARTICLE ( NEUTRON )7

  19. An energy-efficient and elastic optical multiple access system based on coherent interleaved frequency division multiple access.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuki; Maruta, Akihiro; Ishii, Kenji; Akiyama, Yuji; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Naoki; Koguchi, Kazuumi; Nakagawa, Junichi; Mizuochi, Takashi; Kitayama, Ken-ichi

    2013-05-20

    This paper proposes a novel bandwidth-elastic and energy-efficient passive optical network (PON) based on the coherent interleaved frequency division multiple access (IFDMA) scheme. We experimentally demonstrate the coherent IFDMA-PON uplink transmission up-to 30 Gbps over a 30 km standard single-mode fiber with 2 × optical network units (ONUs). A low-complexity digital carrier synchronization technique enables multiple access of the ONUs on the basis of 78.1 MHz narrow band orthogonal subcarriers without any guard-bands.

  20. Balloonborne lidar payloads for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, O.; Aurilio, G.; Hurd, A. G.; Rappaport, S. A.; Reidy, W. P.; Rieder, R. J.; Bedo, D. E.; Swirbalus, R. A.

    1994-02-01

    A series of lidar experiments has been conducted using the Atmospheric Balloonborne Lidar Experiment payload (ABLE). These experiments included the measurement of atmospheric Rayleigh and Mie backscatter from near space (approximately 30 km) and Raman backscatter measurements of atmospheric constituents as a function of altitude. The ABLE payload consisted of a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser transmitter, a 50 cm receiver telescope, and filtered photodetectors in various focal plane configurations. The payload for lidar pointing, thermal control, data handling, and remote control of the lidar system. Comparison of ABLE performance with that of a space lidar shows significant performance advantages and cost effectiveness for balloonborne lidar systems.

  1. Evolution of Icelandic Central Volcanoes: Evidence from the Austurhorn Plutonic and Vestmannaeyjar Volcanic Complexes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    of partial melt at depths of 8-10 km beneath the mature Reykjanes Ridge and up to 20-30 km beneath the immature EVZ (Beblo & Bjornsson, 1978, 1980...from the Reykjanes Ridge and Peninsula but within the range of samples from 44 C.) -g -c c - - loz4. E. AM0 45) r4) K) 0 - u I 4.) 0 rd 5 C4~ > 00 00 r...because of their more highly silica-undersaturated nature. Reykjanes Ridge basalts form the 10 million year old oceanic crust through which

  2. Geothermal Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-15

    intervals of 30 km. Reykjanes , Krysuvik, and Hengill . > have base temperatures of 280.220 and 260^ respectively. Hengill, the largest, has an area of 70...and 32 MW of electric power is planned. Reykjanes has had seven holes drilled to a maximum depth of 1,750 m. These wells vield brine with...0.001-0. 01 < 4 Cu 0. 00 0.001-0. 01 Zn 0. 00 0.005 Pb 0. 00 0.004 Fig. 28, The composition of the geothermal brine at Reykjanes compared with

  3. Cloud-to-ground lightning in a tornadic storm on 8 May 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macgorman, Donald R.; Nielsen, Kurt E.

    1991-01-01

    The National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) gathered Doppler radar and lightning ground strike data on a supercell storm that produced three tornadoes, including an F3 tornado in Edmond, Oklahoma, approximately 40 km north of NSSL. The Edmond storm formed 30 km ahead of a storm complex and developed its first and most damaging tornado just as the storm complex started to overtake it from the west. Lightning strike locations tended to concentrate just north of the mesocyclone, close to and inside a 50 dBZ reflectivity core. Positive ground flashes began just prior to the storm becoming tornadic, and positive flash rates peaked during the tornadic stage of the storm.

  4. Trans World Tidal Gravity Profile.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    nex ~~~. Calculat ions of the loadirn” ef f ec ts for all the sta t ion Dr hIenderschott very kindly sent us on a magnetic tar e a digi — tized...PROFILE MALAYSIA STATION KUALA LUMPUR 11 SIAT ION 2550 KUALA LUMPUR VERTICAL COMPONENT SELANGOR— MALAY SIA 3 07 N 101 39E H 32 M D 30KM UNIVERS ITI MALAYA...WORLD PROFILE MALAYSIA STATION PENANG SIA 1IOM 2551 PENANG VERTICAL COMPONENT MALAYSIA 5 21 N 100 18 E H 12 M P 10 M D 1.2 KM UN IVER SI TI SAINS

  5. Performance characteristics of quasi-steady MPD discharges. [spacecraft plasma propulsion thrust efficiency and specific impulse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, L. K.; Jahn, R. G.; Clark, K. E.; Von Jaskowsky, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    The onset of voltage fluctuations in a multi-megawatt quasi-steady MPD accelerator, indicative of increased cathode ablation and a consequent degradation of performance, is found to be a function of cathode size. With longer cathodes, this onset shifts to substantially higher powers per unit mass flow and the plasma exhaust velocity can be increased to values previously thought inaccessible to accelerators of this class. Centerline velocities up to 30 km/sec have been measured in argon, which for the observed exhaust profiles translate into specific impulses up to 2400 sec and corresponding thrust efficiencies above 30%.

  6. Retrieval of HCl and HNO3 Profiles from Ground-Based FTIR Data Using SFIT2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connor, Brian; Wood, Stephen W.; Keys, J. Gordon; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Murcray, Frank J.

    1998-01-01

    A recently developed algorithm, SFIT2, is used to assess profile information available in ground-based FTIR measurements of HCl and HNO3 and to analyze spectra recorded at Lauder, New Zealand, and Arrival Heights, Antarctica. It is shown that the altitude range of HCI retrievals may be extended by using multiple spectral lines. A preliminary analysis of a five year record of HNO3 at Lauder shows that the Pinatubo aerosol caused a large increase of HNO3 in a layer at about 20-30 km while having little effect at lower altitude.

  7. Vertical distribution of CH4 and N2O over the tropical site Hyderabad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, Shyam; Subbaraya, B. H.; Fabian, Peter; Borchers, R.

    1994-01-01

    Vertical distribution profiles of N2O and CH4 have been measured from Hyderabad, India using a balloon-borne cryogenic air sampler. The samples have been analyzed using gas chromatographic techniques. Results for two balloon flights made in 1987 and 1990 show effects of tropical characteristics like higher tropopause and upwelling motion due to Hadley circulation. These profiles also exhibit perturbations around 25 km height, which are likely to be due to dynamical effects. A comparison with the SAMS data show that the SAMS values for both these gases are higher by a factor of about 1.5 to 2 around 30 km height.

  8. Vič Goes to Near Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merhar, Vida Kariž; Capuder, Rok; Maroševič, Timotej; Artač, Sonja; Mozer, Alenka; Štekovič, Maja

    2016-11-01

    In the school year 2012-2013 about 50 students (Fig. 1), managed by mentors (teachers from the middle school Gimnazija Vič in Ljubljana, Slovenia) created an atmospheric probe and launched it into an altitude of more than 30 km above Earth's surface. The aim of this "space expedition" was to take pictures of Earth and to measure how air pressure, the temperature, CO2 and O2 concentrations, the level of UVA and UVB radiation, and the amount of light change with altitude. There was also a yeast sample placed inside and outside of the probe. Here we report on some of the successes and failures of this endeavor.

  9. Effects of Small Asperities on Migration of Slow-Earthquakes Along Trench Direction of Subduction Plate Boundary: Investigation Through a 3d Numerical Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyoshi, Keisuke; Hori, Takane; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Matsuzawa, Toru; Hino, Ryota; Hasegawa, Akira

    2011-07-01

    In many subduction zones in the world, low-frequency tremors and earthquakes have been recognized at a depth of about 30 km. They occur independently or migrate along the trench direction of the plate interface. We investigate behaviors of their patterns through numerical simulation, by varying frictional properties of the plate interface. Our simulation results indicate that a chain reaction of small asperities can reproduce the migration process in terms of the migration speed and the slip velocity, under the condition that characteristic slip distance is larger than 0.4 mm.

  10. SESAME seeks cash to open its doors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2008-12-01

    Researchers from the Middle East met in Jordan last month to celebrate progress towards the region's first synchrotron-radiation source, which is due to be ready for users by 2011. Known as SESAME, the facility is being built near the Al-Baqa' Applied University in Allan, about 30 km from the Jordanian capital Amman, and is designed to promote peaceful scientific co-operation between nations in the troubled region. However, the project still has to find 15m - a fifth of the total costs - in order to finish construction or SESAME risks being delayed beyond 2011.

  11. WDM/TDM PON experiments using the AWG free spectral range periodicity to transmit unicast and multicast data.

    PubMed

    Bock, Carlos; Prat, Josep

    2005-04-18

    A hybrid WDM/TDM PON architecture implemented by means of two cascaded Arrayed Waveguide Gratings (AWG) is presented. Using the Free Spectral Range (FSR) periodicity of AWGs we transmit unicast and multicast traffic on different wavelengths to each Optical Network Unit (ONU). The OLT is equipped with two laser stacks, a tunable one for unicast transmission and a fixed one for multicast transmission. We propose the ONU to be reflective in order to avoid any light source at the Costumer Premises Equipment (CPE). Optical transmission tests demonstrate correct transmission at 2.5 Gbps up to 30 km.

  12. Sulfur Dioxide Plume During the Continuing Eruption of Mt. Etna, Italy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-03

    The current eruption of Mt. Etna started on July 17, and has continued to the present. This ASTER image was acquired on Sunday, July 29 and shows the sulfur dioxide plume (in purple) originating form the summit, drifting over the city of Catania, and continuing over the Ionian Sea. ASTER's unique combination of multiple thermal infrared channels and high spatial resolution allows the determination of the thickness and position of the SO2 plume. The image covers an area of 24 x 30 km. The image is centered at 37.7 degrees north latitude, 15 degrees east longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02678

  13. Titan's Elusive Lakes? Properties and Context of Dark Spots in Cassini TA Radar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenz, R. D.; Elachi, C.; Stiles, B.; West, R.; Janssen, M.; Lopes, R.; Stofan, E.; Paganelli, F.; Wood, C.; Kirk, R.

    2005-01-01

    Titan's atmospheric methane abundance suggests the likelihood of a surface reservoir of methane and a surface sink for its photochemical products, which might also be predominantly liquid. Although large expanses of obvious hydrocarbon seas have not been unambiguously observed, a number of rather radar-dark spots up to approximately 30 km across are observed in the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data acquired during the Cassini TA encounter on October 26th 2004. Here we review the properties and setting of these dark spots to explore whether these may be hydrocarbon lakes.

  14. Gamma ray flashes add to mystery of upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmospheric electricity research has come a long way since Benjamin Franklin's kite-flying days. But what researchers have been learning lately about above-thunderstorm electricity has wrought a whole new era of mysteries.For a start, last summer a Colorado meteorologist sparked interest in a terrestrial phenomenon that the community first observed more than 100 years ago: optical flashes that occur above thunderstorms—at least 30 km above Earth. Walter Lyons with the Ft. Collins-based Mission Research Corporation, demonstrated that such flashes are not anomalies, as conventional scientific wisdom had held. He filmed hundreds of flashes during a 2-week period.

  15. The photochemistry of methane in the atmosphere of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.; Summers, Michael E.; Herbert, Floyd; Sandel, Bill R.

    1990-01-01

    The model of Summers and Strobel (1989) for photochemical reactions in the Uranus atmosphere was modified and used for quantitative calculations of methane in the atmosphere of Triton. The principal adjustable parameters in the new model are the surface CH4 concentrations and the vigor of vertical mixing in Triton's lower atmosphere. It is shown the rate of methane photolysis that was calculated is sufficient to generate a smog of condensed C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, and C4H2 particles in the lowest 30 km of Triton's atmosphere, with an optical depth consistent with the Voyager imaging results.

  16. The medical effects of postulated accidental release of radioactive material from Heysham Nuclear Power Station.

    PubMed

    Oliver, D W

    1991-01-01

    The effects of a postulated reactor accident at one of the four AGRs at Heysham, NW England, have been studied, assuming a 10% release of the radioactive core. Methods used are a computer program TIRION, analysis of the radiation doses from the Chernobyl release of 1986 and the Windscale fire of 1957. Fatal cases predicted are 200 on-site, 3000 within 30 km and 250,000 in the cloud paths over Northern England. The results would suggest the incidence of fatal cancer would increase from roughly 20% to 27% in the postulated exposed population of 3.6 million.

  17. ASSESSING THE MERCURY HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS: ISSUES IN ATMOSPHERIC PROCESSES.

    SciTech Connect

    LIPFERT, F.; SULLIVAN, T.; RENNINGER, S.

    2004-03-28

    The rationale for regulating air emissions of mercury from U.S. coal-fired power plants largely depends on mathematical dispersion modeling, including the atmospheric chemistry processes that affect the partitioning of Hg emissions into elemental (Hg{sub 0}) and the reactive (RGM) forms that may deposit more rapidly near sources. This paper considers and evaluates the empirical support for this paradigm. We consider the extant experimental data at three spatial scales: local (< 30 km), regional (< {approx}300 km), and national (multi-state data). An additional issue involves the finding of excess Hg levels in urban areas.

  18. Data Summary for 1989 CERC Field Research Facility. Volume 1. Main Text and Appendixes A and B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    statistics (LC) Oceanographic research stations-- North Carolina --Duck (LC) Water waves--statistics (LC) PREFACE This report is the eleventh in a series of...FACILITY NORTH CAROLINA A L8MSOUN -0 C, 71- QA 0 10 20 30 KM SOUND CAPE HA TTERAS Figure 1. FRF location map Organization of Report 5. This report is...with a 0.3-m-diam Secchi disk , and similar to water temperature, variation was related to onshore and offshore winds. Onshore winds moved warm clear

  19. A comparison of observed lee-waves on earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickersgill, A. O.; Hunt, G. E.

    1982-04-01

    Recent television pictures obtained from the Viking mission portraying lee-wave clouds are discussed, and a comparison is made with terrestrial cases of isolated topography. It is noted that the advent of satellite meteorology in the terrestrial atmosphere has enabled a comparison to be drawn easily between the atmospheres of earth and Mars. Once formed, wave trains on both planets persist for a few hours. It is thought that wavelengths of around 30 km appear on both planets. Much shorter distances between wave crests, however, may be produced in the terrestrial atmosphere, whereas wavelengths excited by large Martian craters may reach 60 km.

  20. Moderate resolution thermal mapping of Mars - The channel terrain around the Chryse basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, P. R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    1979-01-01

    Moderate resolution (about 30 km) thermal inertia estimates have been made for several regions in the northern hemisphere of Mars. Examples of these maps are presented for the region 0-45 deg N, 0-90 deg W. In the region adjoining the Chryse basin there are two major channels, Kasei Vallis and Ares Vallis, whose floor materials have higher thermal inertia than the surrounding upland regions. Moreover, there are numerous craters in the region which have high inertia-low albedo features on the crater floor.

  1. Multi-hop Whistler-Mode ELF/VLF Signals and Triggered Emissions Excited by the HAARP HF Heater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-28

    Multi-hop whistler-mode ELF/VLF signals and triggered emissions excited by the HAARP HF heater U. S. Inan,1 M. Gol-kowski,1 D. L. Carpenter,1 N...accepted 24 November 2004; published 28 December 2004. [1] Modulated heating of the lower ionosphere with the HAARP HF heater is used to excite 1–2 kHz...are believed to be amplified, and are accompanied by triggered emissions. Simultaneous observations near (30 km) HAARP show 2-hop signals which travel

  2. The 1980 stratospheric-tropospheric exchange experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margozzi, A. P. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from the Stratospheric-Tropospheric Water Vapor Exchange Experiment. Measurements were made during 11 flights of the NASA U-2 aircraft which provided data from horizontal traverser and samplings in and about the tops of extensive cirrus-anvil clouds produced by overshooting cumulus turrets. Aircraft measurements were made of water vapor, ozone, ambient and cloud top temperature, fluorocarbons, nitrous oxide, nitric acid, aerosols, and ice crystal populations. Balloonsondes were flown about twice daily providing data on ozone, wind fields, pressure and temperature to altitudes near 30 km. Satellite photography provided detailed cloud and cloud top temperature information. Descriptions of individual experiments and detailed compilations of all results are provided.

  3. Sedimentary Rocks in Melas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a butte and several other landforms eroded into light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock in southern Melas Chasma. Melas is part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system.

    Location near: 11.8oS, 74.6oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

  4. Sedimentary Rock in Candor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    11 February 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dozens of light- and a few dark-toned sedimentary rock layers exposed by faulting and erosion in western Candor Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system.

    Location near: 6.5oS, 77.0oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  5. [The immunocorrection with Aerosil-350 of the natural resistance of mice found under conditions of an elevated radiation background].

    PubMed

    Ganova, L A; Spivak, N Ia; Semernikov, V A

    1997-01-01

    Experiments on the CBA mice that had been within 30 km of the Chernobyl NPP accident for 3 months revealed a decrease in the phagocytic and bactericidal properties of peritoneal macrophages accompanied with a disturbance in the production of interleukin-1 and a tumor necrosis factor responsible for the cell immunity. A single administration of a silicon-containing enterosorbent Aerosil-350 expedient to remove radionuclides and ensure the organism detoxication made it possible to correct and restore the affected cell and organism immunity for 7 days.

  6. Marine Electromagnetic Imaging of the Catalina Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheelock, B.; Key, K.; Myer, D.; Constable, S.

    2007-12-01

    In May 2006, we conducted a combined magnetotelluric (MT) and controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) survey of the Catalina Crater, located in the Inner Continental Borderland off the coast of southern California. The Catalina crater is visible in seafloor bathymetry as a circular feature 30 km in diameter, with a morphology similar to a large crater, including a raised outer rim, ring moat and a central peak. Seismic, gravity and magnetic data show similarities to known impact craters, yet enough ambiguity exists that an alternative volcanic origin cannot be ruled out. Our marine electromagnetic survey was designed to map electrical conductivity from the seafloor to 30 km depth in order to provide further constraints on the origin of the crater. We deployed a 38-kilometer line of 12 seafloor MT/CSEM receivers, extending over the eastern three quarters of the crater and out over the trough directly to the east. CSEM transmissions were performed by deep-towing the Scripps Undersea EM Source Instrument (SUESI) along a 30 km tow line over the receivers. SUESI transmitted with a 95.2 kAm source dipole moment and used a complex binary waveform consisting of fundamental frequencies of 0.1, 1, and 10~Hz. The MT data provide constraints on conductivity variations to 30 km depth and are augmented with CSEM data for imaging conductivity from the seabed to a few kilometers depth. Good quality MT responses were obtained in the period band of 5-5000 seconds and show large conductivity variations across the survey line. As a first cut interpretation of the CSEM data, we derived apparent resistivities from changes in amplitude of the recorded signal with range, and mapped the apparent resistivities into a resistivity pseudosection for each frequency. The pseudosections slice through the eastern half of the crater and the adjacent trough, providing a first-order glimpse of the lateral variations of conductivity. Our electromagnetic study of the crater will provide new insights

  7. The creation of ozone holes as a consequence of meteoroids falls into the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumov, B. A.

    2001-01-01

    The falling of a large celestial body into the ocean causes a large number of compounds (like, HCl, Cl, Br, Na, H 2O, OH, and NO) that destroy ozone molecules directly or indirectly to be ejected to stratospheric altitudes. The bleaching of the atmosphere in the UV range as a result of such ozone destruction creates negative feedback that restores the ozone. The characteristic time for such restoration in the stratosphere decreases sharply with altitude, ranging from several months at 30 km to several days at 20 km.

  8. Native gold and companion minerals in the Cenozoic sediments of the Ural Foredeep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovsky, D. V.; Silaev, V. I.; Zharkov, V. A.; Petrovsky, V. A.

    2012-11-01

    Clastic gold in the Cenozoic sediments of the Ural Foredeep is referred to the apron and aureole dynamic types of alluvial placers, which are formed at a distance of 10-30 km from their sources. The gold grains vary appreciably in size and chemical composition of individuals and are characterized by good round-ness and high degree of alluvial refining. It is suggested that endogenic gold occurrences in mountainous regions of the Polar and Subpolar Urals were the main sources of clastic gold grains.

  9. Discovery of intense gamma-ray flashes of atmospheric origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.; Bhat, P. N.; Mallozzi, R.; Horack, J. M.; Koshut, T.; Kouveliotou, C.; Pendleton, G. N.; Meegan, C. A.; Wilson, R. B.; Paciesas, W. S.

    1994-01-01

    Observations have been made of a new terrestrial phenomenon: brief (approx. millisecond), intense flashes of gamma rays, observed with space-borne detectors. These flashes must originate at altitudes in the atmosphere above at least 30 km in order to be observable by orbiting detectors aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO). At least a dozen events have been detected over the past 2 years. The photon spectra from the events are very hard and are consistent with bremsstrahlung emission from energetic (MeV) electrons. The most likely origin of these high energy electrons, while speculative at this time, is a rare type of high altitude electrical discharge above thunderstorm regions.

  10. New evidence for magmatic intrusion beneath the Rio Grande rift, New Mexico.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Towle, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the geomagnetic variation field across the Rio Grande rift has identified two concentrations of telluric current flow beneath the rift caused by channeling of telluric currents in electrically conductive structures in the crust and upper mantle. A shallow conductor nearly coincides with a very strong reflection in a high-resoltuion seismic-reflection profile across the central Rio Grande graben which has been attributed to a lens at mid-crustal depth. The deep (more than 30 km) conductor is 200 km wide and may indicate anomalously high temperatures and, by inference, a thinning of the lithosphere beneath the rift.-Authors

  11. Eddy Generation at a Convex Corner by a Coastal Current in a Rotating System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    cold Atlantic ( Ambar , Howe and Abdullah, 1976; Ambar and Howe, 1979a,b; Grundlingh, 1981; Howe, 1982; Madelain, 1970; Thorpe, 1976; Zenk, 1970, 1975, 3...shore profile of Mediterranean Outflow along line extending south from about 30 km south of Cape Saint Vincent ( Ambar and Howe, 1979a, Figure 5). (a...friction and rotation are included. 1I I 3 I I I I 3 189 I I ! References I Ambar , I., Howe, M. R., Abdullah, M. I. (1976). A physical and chemical

  12. Design of a three-dimensional site scale model for the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wittwer, C.S.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Chornack, M.P.; Flint, A.L.; Lewis, B.D.; Spengler, R.W.; Flint, L.E.; Rautman, C.A.

    1992-10-01

    This paper discusses a three-dimensional model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain which is being developed. The site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major faults to the east and west. A detailed numerical grid has been developed based on locations of boreholes, different infiltration zones, hydrogeological units and their outcrops, major faults, and water level data. Different maps, such as contour maps and isopachs maps, are presented for the different infiltration zones, and for the base of the Tiva Canyon, the Paintbrush, and the Topopah Spring hydrogeological units.

  13. Design of a three-dimensional site-scale model for the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wittwer, C.S.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Chornack, M.P.; Flint, A.L.; Lewis, B.D.; Spengler, R.W.; Flint, L.E.; Rautman, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of moisture flow within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being developed. This site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major faults to the east and west. A detailed numerical grid has been developed based on location of boreholes, different infiltration zones, hydrogeological units and their outcrops, major faults, and water level data. Different maps, such as contour maps and isopachs maps, are presented for the different infiltration zones, and for the base of the Tiva Canyon, the Paintbrush, and the Topopah Spring hydrogeological units.

  14. Impact of an asteroid or comet in the ocean and extinction of terrestrial life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Okeefe, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    Finite difference calculations describing the impact mechanics associated with a 10 to 30 km diameter silicate or water object impacting a 5 km deep ocean overlying a silicate solid planet demonstrate that from 12 to 15% of the bolide energy resides in the water. It is speculated that minimal global tsunami run-up heights on the continents would be 300-400 meters, and that such waves would inundate all low altitude continental areas, and strip and silt-over virtually all vegetation. As a result the terrestrial animal food chain would be seriously perturbed. This could in turn cause extinction of large terrestrial animals.

  15. [Biochemical changes in the brain of the root vole (Microtus oeconomus) from a 30-kilometer zone around the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station].

    PubMed

    Kudiasheva, A G; Zagorskaia, N G; Shevchenko, O G

    1996-01-01

    Deviations in lipid peroxidation parameters and in activity of dehydration enzymes in the brain of the tundra voles inhabiting areas with higher level of technogenic contamination (the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP and the Republic of Komi) have been analyzed. During the first years after the disaster a decrease in the lipid antioxidative status of the brain and dehydrogenase activity, changes in the lipid composition of voles trapped in the disaster zone in comparison with control ones were more significant. Relative stabilization of the phospholipid composition with low antioxidizing activity of lipids and slight activity of succinate and piruvate dehydrogenases has been observed in a distant period of analysis.

  16. The Brownell and Ness County (1894) L6 chondrites - Further sorting-out of Ness County meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, A. E.; Read, W. F.

    1984-01-01

    Brownell is a new moderately shocked L6 chondrite from Ness County, KS, that is petrologically distinct from the other L6 chondrites from Ness County. These latter meteorites, Wellmanville, Franklinville, and Ness County (1894), are very similar in their olivine and low-Ca pyroxene compositional distributions, kamacite Co contents, modal abundances of metallic Fe, Ni, and presence of martensitic metallic Fe, Ni (about 14 wt pct Ni). However, their silicates indicate that they have been shocked to different extents. It is suggested that all three probably represent a single heterogeneously-shocked L6 fragmental breccia that fell over a large area over 30 km in length.

  17. Geodetic Slip Solution for the Mw=7.4 Champerico (Guatemala) Earthquake of 07 November 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, A. P.; DeMets, C.; Briole, P.; Molina, E.; Flores, O.; Rivera, J.; Lasserre, C.; Lyon-Caen, H.; Lord, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    As the first large subduction thrust earthquake off the coast of western Guatemala in the past several decades, the 07 November 2012 Mw=7.4 earthquake offers the first opportunity for a geodetic study of coseismic and postseismic behavior for a segment of the Middle America trench where frictional coupling makes a transition from weak coupling off the coast of El Salvador to strong coupling in southern Mexico. We use measurements at 19 continuous GPS sites in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Mexico to estimate the coseismic slip and post-seismic deformation of the November 2012 Champerico (Guatemala) earthquake. Coseismic offsets range from ~47 mm near the epicenter to <1 mm at far-field sites in El Salvador. An inversion of the geodetic data indicate that that up to ~2 m of coseismic slip occurred on a ~30 km by 30 km rupture area between ~10 and 30 km depth, encouragingly close to the global CMT epicenter. The geodetic moment of 13 x 1019 N·m and corresponding magnitude of 7.4 both agree well with independent seismological estimates. An inversion for the postseismic fault afterslip shows that the transient postseismic motions recorded at 11 GPS sites are well fit with a logarithmically decaying function. More than 70 per cent of the postseismic slip occurred at the same depth or directly downdip from the main shock epicenter. At the upper limit, afterslip that occurred within 6 months of the earthquake released energy equivalent to only ~20 per cent of the coseismic moment. The seismologically derived slip solution from Ye et al. (2012), which features more highly concentrated slip than our own, fits our GPS offsets reasonably well provided that we translate their slip centroid ~51 km to the west to a position close to our own slip centroid. The geodetic and seismologic slip solutions thus suggest bounds of 2-5 m for the peak slip along a region of the interface no larger than 30 x 30 km and possibly much smaller.

  18. Ground Combat in the JICM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    command has a cross bar at the rear. 28- Units Move Within Mobile Commands According to Their Mission rsv -fwd-dist 10kms rsv -bck-dist 30 km* E3...skor] 1-CORPS/28-IDR[skor] KID 125- UNIT->pos_alloc Description: This option allows the user to precisely control the allocation of an in...distance, the reserve force will begin to move back. Default: 10 Example(s): Command Keyword Distance set landwar KN-7 rsv fwd dist

  19. Ganges Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a high resolution view of portions of the lobes of several landslide deposits in Ganges Chasma. Dark material near the bottom (south) end of the image is windblown sand.

    Location near: 8.2oS, 44.3oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  20. A linear accelerator for simulated micrometeors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slattery, J. C.; Becker, D. G.; Hamermesh, B.; Roy, N. L.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the theory, design parameters, and construction details of a linear accelerator designed to impart meteoric velocities to charged microparticles in the 1- to 10-micron diameter range. The described linac is of the Sloan Lawrence type and, in a significant departure from conventional accelerator practice, is adapted to single particle operation by employing a square wave driving voltage with the frequency automatically adjusted from 12.5 to 125 kHz according to the variable velocity of each injected particle. Any output velocity up to about 30 km/sec can easily be selected, with a repetition rate of approximately two particles per minute.

  1. In-Flight Performance of the TES Loop Heat Pipe Rejection System: Seven Years in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Jose I.; Na-Nakornpanom, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is an infrared, high spectral resolution Fourier transform spectrometer with a 3.3 to 15.4 micron wavelength coverage. TES is a scanning instrument intended for determining the chemical state of the Earth's lower atmosphere (troposphere) from the surface to 30+ km. TES produces vertical profiles of important pollutant and greenhouse gases such as carbon monoxide, ozone, methane, and water vapor on a global scale every other day. TES was launched into orbit onboard NASA's earth Observing System Aura spacecraft on July 15, 2004 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California.

  2. Radiation effect of the Chelyabinsk bolide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losseva, T. V.; Golub', A. P.; Lyakhov, A. N.; Kosarev, I. B.

    2016-06-01

    A physical model of the action of radiation from a bolide on Earth's lower ionosphere has been presented. The calculations within this model applied to the Chelyabinsk bolide on February 15, 2013, have reproduced the luminosity curves in the visible and infrared ranges in agreement with ground and satellite observations. The calculated disturbances of the lower ionosphere induced by the radiation of the bolide at the stage of the flight from an altitude of 60 to 30 km are in quantitative agreement with the results of processing of radar and satellite (GPS) observations in the Ural region.

  3. First record of a Greater Shearwater (Puffinus gravis) in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, John M.

    2002-01-01

    The Greater Shearwater (Puffinus gravis) breeds in the southern Atlantic Ocean and disperses after breeding to the North Atlantic. On 3 August 2001, I observed and photographed an unidentified shearwater (Figure 1) in the Gulf of Alaska, about 30 km off the southern coast of Montague Island (59°50' N, 148°00' W). The bird was subsequently identified as a Greater Shearwater. This observation and photographic documentation provides the first Alaska state record (D. Gibson in litt.) and one of very few records for the North Pacific (see Table 1). This is the 464th bird species to be recorded in the state of Alaska.

  4. The combination of satellite and topographic/isostatic potential models for mean anomaly determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Richard H.; Pavlis, Nikolaos

    A method is presented for the estimation of a global gravity anomaly field using the combination of satellite-derived potential coefficient models and the coefficients implied by the Airy-Heiskanen topographic/isostatic potential (Rummel et al., 1988) from topographic models with a 30-km depth of compensation. Gravity anomalies calculated with this method are compared with a terrestrial 1 x 1 degree anomaly file where the anomaly standard deviations were less than 10 mgals. Using the GEM T1 model (Marsh et al., 1988) to degree 36, the rms anomaly discrepency was + or - 19 mgals, while the rms values for the terrestrial anomalies was + or - 28 mgals.

  5. The combination of satellite and topographic/isostatic potential models for mean anomaly determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Richard H.; Pavlis, Nikolaos

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for the estimation of a global gravity anomaly field using the combination of satellite-derived potential coefficient models and the coefficients implied by the Airy-Heiskanen topographic/isostatic potential (Rummel et al., 1988) from topographic models with a 30-km depth of compensation. Gravity anomalies calculated with this method are compared with a terrestrial 1 x 1 degree anomaly file where the anomaly standard deviations were less than 10 mgals. Using the GEM T1 model (Marsh et al., 1988) to degree 36, the rms anomaly discrepency was + or - 19 mgals, while the rms values for the terrestrial anomalies was + or - 28 mgals.

  6. Reef geology and biology of Navassa Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Margaret W.; Halley, Robert B.; Gleason, Arthur C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Navassa is a small oceanic island (5.2km2 in size) located ~30km west of the southwest tip of Haiti, 160km south of the US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and in the heart of the Windward Passage. Navassa was claimed in 1856 by the United States. Navassa has also been claimed by Haiti since its independence in 1825 and, prior to that, was considered part of colonial Haitian territory. The current Haitian constitution (1987) claims Navassa by name as Haitian territory (Wiener 2005). This disputed sovereignty is a basis of much resource management challenge.

  7. Demographic, agricultural products, and food consumption data for a collective farm in Oranoe District, Ivankov District, Kiev Region, Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabov, I N; Davidenko, G M; Templeton, W L; ,

    1992-07-01

    This report provides some demographic, agricultural and food consumption data for the collective farms ( Kybisheva,'' composed of three villages) in the Oranoe Department, District of Ivankov, Kiev Region. This area is situated approximately 15 km south of the Chernobyl 30-km Exclusion Zone. The levels of {sup 137}Cs are approximately 5--10 curies/km{sup 2}. This data was collected by the Integrated Radioecological Expedition to Chernobyl of the Russian Academy of Sciences as part of the co-operative studies on environmental radiation dose assessment conducted under the US/USSR Joint Co-operative Committee on Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety (JCCCNRS) established in 1989.

  8. Ganges Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a high resolution view of portions of the lobes of several landslide deposits in Ganges Chasma. Dark material near the bottom (south) end of the image is windblown sand.

    Location near: 8.2oS, 44.3oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  9. Mass motions in impulsive flarelike brightenings as observed by OSO 8. [mechanism response for solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Lites, B. W.

    1979-01-01

    C IV 1548-A line profiles obtained with the University of Colorado spectrometer aboard OSO 8 reveal transient, redshifted brightenings in the chromosphere-corona transition region above active regions and sunspots. In these events the intensity rises by factors of up to 5 in less than the profile sampling interval of 27 sec. These events indicate that the emitting material is moving downward at velocities of up to 30 km/sec. The increase in line intensity and the amount of motion are consistent with the interpretation of these events as pressure waves propagating down magnetic flux loops.

  10. Hydrogen-Helium shock Radiation tests for Saturn Entry Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruden, Brett A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the measurement of shock layer radiation in Hydrogen/Helium mixtures representative of that encountered by probes entering the Saturn atmosphere. Normal shock waves are measured in Hydrogen-Helium mixtures (89:11% by volume) at freestream pressures between 13-66 Pa (0.1-0.5 Torr) and velocities from 20-30 km/s. Radiance is quantified from the Vacuum Ultraviolet through Near Infrared. An induction time of several centimeters is observed where electron density and radiance remain well below equilibrium. Radiance is observed in front of the shock layer, the characteristics of which match the expected diffusion length of Hydrogen.

  11. Air pressure measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, H. N.

    1978-01-01

    The pressure measurement was made by a Model 830J Rosemont sensor which utilized the principle of a changing pressure to change correspondingly the capacitance of the pressure sensitive element. The sensor's range was stated to be from zero to 100 Torr (14 km); however, the sensor was not activated until an altitude of 20 km (41 Torr) was reached during the balloon ascent. The resolution of the sensor was specified by the manufacturer as infinitesimal; however, associated electronic and pressure readout systems limit the resolution to .044 Torr. Thus in the vicinity of an altitude of 30 km the pressure resolution corresponded to an altitude resolution of approximately 33 meters.

  12. [Kim Pil Soon, a great doctor].

    PubMed

    Park, H W

    1998-01-01

    Kim Pil Soon was born at Sorae Village of Hwang Hye Province, the birth place of the Protestantism in Korea. He was brought up under the strong influence of Christianity and received modern education at Pae Chae School according to the recommendation of Rev. Underwood. In 1899, Kim Pil Soon, who had been working at Je Joon Won as an assistant and interpreter of Dr. Sharrocks, was employed by Dr. Avison to help prepare medical textbooks and was asked to participate in the medical education. He acquired medical knowledge through his work of translating various medical texts, which enabled him to teach other medical students. He participated in the administration of the Hospital, taking charge of the provision of meals for in-patients as well as directing the construction of Severance Hospital buildings. His experience of treating soldiers wounded during the turmoil of the forced dismission of the Korean Army by the Japanese led him to reflect seriously on Korea's fate in peril. In addition, he became a member of Sinmin Society, a secret political association, to engage in the independence movement. In 1908, Kim Pil Soon graduated from Severance Hospital Medical School as one of the first seven graduates. On graduation, he was appointed as a professor and took the charge of school affairs in 1910. At first, he worked as an assistant physician of ward and surgery, then he took the responsibility of the outpatient clinic in 1911. But suddenly, in December 1911, he exiled to China to escape from the Japanese police who was in pursuit of him on account of his involvement in the so-called 105-Person Affair, a fabricated affair served as a pretext for the persecution of the independence movement. He continued the independence movement in the form of an ideal village movement and in the training of the Independence Army. In 1919, however, he was poisoned to death in a mysterious way. Kim Pil Soon dedicated himself to the independence movement that demanded personal sacrifice

  13. Vibronic Spectroscopy of Hetero Dihalo-Benzyl Radicals Generated by Corona Discharge : Jet-Cooled Chlorofluorobenzyl Radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Young; Lee, Sang

    2015-06-01

    .~Phys. 136, 174306 (2012). S.~Y.~Chae, Y.~W.~Yoon, and S.~K.~Lee, Chem.~Phys.~Lett. 612, 134 (2014).

  14. Alloplastic adjuncts in breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Cabalag, Miguel S.; Rostek, Marie; Miller, George S.; Chae, Michael P.; Quinn, Tam; Rozen, Warren M.

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been an increasing role of acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) and synthetic meshes in both single- and two-stage implant/expander breast reconstruction. Numerous alloplastic adjuncts exist, and these vary in material type, processing, storage, surgical preparation, level of sterility, available sizes and cost. However, there is little published data on most, posing a significant challenge to the reconstructive surgeon trying to compare and select the most suitable product. The aims of this systematic review were to identify, summarize and evaluate the outcomes of studies describing the use of alloplastic adjuncts for post-mastectomy breast reconstruction. The secondary aims were to determine their cost-effectiveness and analyze outcomes in patients who also underwent radiotherapy. Methods Using the PRSIMA 2009 statement, a systematic review was conducted to find articles reporting on the outcomes on the use of alloplastic adjuncts in post-mastectomy breast reconstruction. Multiple databases were searched independently by three authors (Cabalag MS, Miller GS and Chae MP), including: Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to present), Embase (1980 to 2015), PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Results Current published literature on available alloplastic adjuncts are predominantly centered on ADMs, both allogeneic and xenogeneic, with few outcome studies available for synthetic meshes. Outcomes on the 89 articles, which met the inclusion criteria, were summarized and analyzed. The reported outcomes on alloplastic adjunct-assisted breast reconstruction were varied, with most data available on the use of ADMs, particularly AlloDerm® (LifeCell, Branchburg, New Jersey, USA). The use of ADMs in single-stage direct-to-implant breast reconstruction resulted in lower complication rates (infection, seroma, implant loss and late revision), and was more cost effective when compared to non-ADM, two-stage reconstruction. The majority of studies demonstrated

  15. Predictive value of laboratory hematological parameters for thromboses development in patients with spontaneous and radiation associated Ph negative myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Mishcheniuk, O Yu; Klymenko, S V

    2015-12-01

    Meta. Vstanovyty, iaki z gematologichnykh pokaznykiv maiut' dyskryminatsiynu zdatnist' dlia prognozuvannia rozvyt ku tromboziv pry spontannykh ta radiatsiyno asotsiyovanykh Rh negatyvnykh miieloproliferatyvnykh novoutvoren niakh (MPN).Materialy i metody doslidzhennia. Proanalizovano gematologichni pokaznyky 85 khvorykh na spravzhniu politsy temiiu (SP), 43 – esentsial'nu trombotsytemiiu (ET) ta 40 – pervynnyy miielofibroz (PMF). Osnovnu grupu sklaly patsiienty (SP = 18, ET = 6, PMF = 18), iaki zaznaly diI ionizuiuchoI radiatsiI vnaslidok avariI na ChAES, a kontrol'nu – khvori (SP = 67, ET = 37, PMF = 22) bez vplyvu avariynogo radiatsiynogo oprominennia v anamnezi.Rezul'taty. Predyktyvne shchodo rozvytku tromboziv pry spontanniy SP znachennia gematokrytu ta leykotsytiv sta novyt' > 55 % ta > 13,2 · 109/l vidpovidno, a zagal'nogo kholesterynu – > 5,7 mmol'/l. Efektyvnist' dlia progno zuvannia tromboziv faktora „gematokryt > 55 % (ploshcha pid kryvoiu – PPK = 0,67; r = 0,023) ta „leykotsyty > 13,2 · 109/l ” (PPK = 0,66; r = 0,011) ie seredn'oiu, a „zagal'nyy kholesteryn > 5,7 mmol'/l ” (PPK = 0,92; r < 0,0001) – vidminnoiu. Prognostychnoiu shchodo vynyknennia tromboziv pry radiatsiyno asotsiyovaniy SP ta spontanniy ET vyia vylas' kil'kist' trombotsytiv < 440,0 · 109/l ta leykotsytiv > 10,0 · 109/l vidpovidno, iaka kharakteryzuiet'sia duzhe dobroiu (PPK = 0,84; r = 0,0002 ta PPK = 0,72; r = 0,019 vidpovidno) predyktyvnoiu potuzhnistiu. V osnovniy ta kontrol'niy grupi khvorykh na SP vyznacheno odnakovi PPK zastosuvannia dlia prognozuvannia tromboziv pokaznyka „gematokryt > 55 % ” (r = 0,800) ta „leykotsyty > 13,2 · 109/l ” (r = 0,831), prote rizni PPK rozrakhovano dlia mar kera „trombotsyty < 440,0 · 109/l ” (r = 0,0004). Tomu pokaznyk „trombotsyty < 440,0·109/l ” dorechno vrakhovuvaty pry otsintsi ymovirnosti trombozu za radiatsiyno asotsiyovanoI SP, a „gematokryt > 55% ” ta „leykotsyty > 13,2 · 109/l ”

  16. The Optical Spectrum of SrOH Re-Visited Zeeman Effect, High-Resolution Spectroscopy and Franck-Condon Factors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Trung; Kokkin, Damian L.; Steimle, Timothy; Kozyryev, Ivan; Doyle, John M.

    2015-06-01

    Motivated by a diverse range of applications in physics and chemistry, currently there is great interest in the cooling of molecules to very low temperatures (≤1 mK). Direct laser cooling has been previously demonstrated for the diatomic radicals SrF, YO, and CaF, and most recently a three-dimensional magneto-optical trap (MOT) of SrF molecules was achieved. To determine the possibility of laser cooling for polyatomic molecules containing three or more atoms, detailed information is required about their Franck-Condon factors (FCFs) for emission from the excited states of interest. Here we report on the high-resolution laser excitation spectra, recorded field-free and in the presence of a static magnetic field, and on the dispersed fluorescence (DF) spectra for the A^2Π1/2 ← X^2σ^+ and B^2σ^+ ← X ^2σ^+ electronic transitions of SrOH. The DF spectra were analyzed to precisely determine FCFs and compared with values predicted using a normal coordinate GF matrix approach. The recorded Zeeman spectra were analyzed to determine the magnetic moments. Implication for proposed laser cooling and trapping experiments for SrOH will be presented. E.S. Shuman, J.F. Barry and D. DeMille, Nature 467, 820 (2010) J.F. Barry, E.S. Shuman, E.B. Norrgard and D. DeMille, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 103002 (2012) M.T. Hummon, M. Yeo, B.K. Stuhl, A.L. Collopy, Y. Xia, and J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 143001 (2013) M. Yeo, M.T. Hummon, A.L. Collopy, B. Yan, B. Hemmerling, E. Chae, J.M. Doyle, and J. Ye, arXiv:1501.04683 (2015) V. Zhelyazkova, A. Cournol, T.E. Wall, A. Matsushima, J.J. Hudson, E.A. Hinds, M.R. Tarbutt, and B.E. Sauer, Phys. Rev. A 89, 053416 (2014) J.F. Barry, D.J. McCarron, E.B. Norrgard, M.H. Steinecker and D. DeMille, Nature 512, 286 (2014) D.J. McCarron, E.B. Norrgard, M.H. Steinecker and D. DeMille, arXiv:1412.8220 (2014)

  17. Tiny Ultraviolet Polarimeter for Earth Stratosphere from Space Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevodovskyi, P. V.; Morozhenko, O. V.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Ivakhiv, O.; Geraimchuk, M.; Zbrutskyi, O.

    2015-09-01

    One of the reasons for climate change (i.e., stratospheric ozone concentrations) is connected with the variations in optical thickness of aerosols in the upper sphere of the atmosphere (at altitudes over 30 km). Therefore, aerosol and gas components of the atmosphere are crucial in the study of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation passing upon the Earth. Moreover, a scrupulous study of aerosol components of the Earth atmosphere at an altitude of 30 km (i.e., stratospheric aerosol), such as the size of particles, the real part of refractive index, optical thickness and its horizontal structure, concentration of ozone or the upper border of the stratospheric ozone layer is an important task in the research of the Earth climate change. At present, the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) of Ukraine, the National Technical University of Ukraine "KPI"and the Lviv Polytechnic National University are engaged in the development of methodologies for the study of stratospheric aerosol by means of ultraviolet polarimeter using a microsatellite. So fare, there has been created a sample of a tiny ultraviolet polarimeter (UVP) which is considered to be a basic model for carrying out space experiments regarding the impact of the changes in stratospheric aerosols on both global and local climate.

  18. Infrared measurements of atmospheric CH3CN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinbohl, Armin; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Bhaswar, Sen; Blavier, Jean--Francois; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Wennberg, Paul O.

    2005-01-01

    For the first time CH3CN has been measured in the Earth's atmosphere by means of infrared remote sensing. Vertical profiles of volume mixing ratio were retrieved from 12 solar occultation measurements by the balloon-borne JPL MkIV interferometer between 1993 and 2004. Profile retrieval is possible in an altitude range between 12 and 30 km with a precision of _20 ppt in the Arctic and _30 ppt at mid-latitudes. The retrieved CH3CN profiles show mixing ratios of 100-150 ppt a few kilometers above the tropopause that decrease to values below 40 ppt at altitudes between 22 and 30 km. The CH3CN mixing ratios show a reasonably compact correlation with the stratospheric tracers CH3Cl and CH4. The CH3CN altitude profiles and tracer correlations are well reproduced by a 2-dimensional model, suggesting that CH3CN is long-lived in the lower stratosphere and that previously-proposed ion-molecule reactions do not play a major role as loss processes of CH3CN.

  19. Shock Radiation Tests for Saturn and Uranus Entry Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruden, Brett A.; Bogdanoff, David W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a test series in the Electric Arc Shock Tube at NASA Ames Research Center with the objective of quantifying shock-layer radiative heating magnitudes for future probe entries into Saturn and Uranus atmospheres. Normal shock waves are measured in Hydrogen/Helium mixtures (89:11 by mole) at freestream pressures between 13-66 Pa (0.1-0.5 Torr) and velocities from 20-30 km/s. No shock layer radiation is detected below 25 km/s, a finding consistent with predictions for Uranus entries. Between 25-30 km/s, radiance is quantified from the Vacuum Ultraviolet through Near Infrared, with focus on the Lyman-alpha and Balmer series lines of Hydrogen. Shock profiles are analyzed for electron number density and electronic state distribution. The shocks do not equilibrate over several cm, and distributions are demonstrated to be non-Boltzmann. Radiation data are compared to simulations of Decadal survey entries for Saturn and shown to be significantly lower than predicted with the Boltzmann radiation model.

  20. Model testing using Chernobyl data: III. Atmospheric resuspension of radionuclides in Ukrainian regions impacted by Chernobyl fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Garger, E.K.; Hoffman, F.O.; Miller, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    The {open_quotes}Resuspension{close_quotes} scenario is designed to test models for atmospheric resuspension of radionuclides from contaminated soils. Resuspension can be a secondary source of contamination after a release has stopped, as well as a source of contamination for people and areas not exposed to the original release. The test scenario describes three exposure situations: (1) locations within the highly contaminated 30-km zone at Chernobyl, where exposures to resuspended material are probably dominated by local processes; (2) an urban area (Kiev) outside the 30-km zone, where local processes include extensive vehicular traffic; and (3) a location 40 to 60 km west of the Chernobyl reactor, where upwind sources of contamination are important. Input data include characteristics of the {sup 137}Cs ground contamination around specific sites, climatological data for the sites, characteristics of the terrain and topography, and locations of the sampling sites. Predictions are requested for average air concentrations of {sup 137}Cs at specified locations due to resuspension of Chernobyl fallout and for specified resuspension factors and rates. Test data (field measurements) are available for all endpoints. 9 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Active thrusting and folding along the northern Tien Shan and Late Cenozoic rotation of the Tarim relative to Dzungaria and Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Tapponnier, P.; Bai, M.; You, H.; Wang, G.

    1993-04-01

    Geometries and rates of Late Cenozoic thrust faulting and folding along the northern piedmont of the Tien Shan mountain belt, which was the location of the 1906 Manas earthquake, are studied. A flexural foredeep of the Dzungarian basement, filled with up to 11,000 m of sediment, is overthrusted by the 5,000 m northern range of the Tien Shan. The active thrust is found to reach the surface 30 km north of the front range, within a 200-km-long zone of Neogene-Quaternary anticlines. Cenozoic shortening of the folded Dzungarian sediments is estimated to be on the order of 30 km, and the Cenozoic shortening rate is found to have been 3.0 +/- 1.5 mm/yr. Reactivation of the Tien Shan by the collision of India and Asia is determined to have taken place in the early to middle Miocene. This is consistent with the existence of thick late Neogene and Quaternary deposits. Reactivation of the Tien Shan roughly coincides with the great mid-Miocene changes in tectonic regimes, denudation, and sedimentation rates seen in southeast Asia.

  2. Evidence for Moho-lower crustal transition depth diking and rifting of the Sierra Nevada microplate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kenneth D.; Kent, Graham M.; Seggern, David P.; Driscoll, Neal W.; Eisses, Amy

    2016-10-01

    Lithospheric rifting most often initiates in continental extensional settings where "breaking of a plate" may or may not progress to sea floor spreading. Generally, the strength of the lithosphere is greater than the tectonic forces required for rupture (i.e., the "tectonic force paradox"), and it has been proposed that rifting requires basaltic magmatism (e.g., dike emplacement) to reduce the strength and cause failure, except for the case of a thin lithosphere (<30 km thick). Here we isolate two very similar and unprecedented observations of Moho-lower crustal transition dike or fluid injection earthquake swarms under southern Sierra Valley (SV: 2011-2012) and North Lake Tahoe (LT: 2003-2004), California. These planar distributions of seismicity can be interpreted to define the end points, and cover 25% of the length, of an implied 56 km long structure, each striking N45°W and dipping 50°NE. A single event at 30 km depth that locates on the implied dipping feature between the two swarms is further evidence for a single Moho-transition depth structure. We propose that basaltic or fluid emplacement at or near Moho depths weakens the upper mantle lid, facilitating lithospheric rupture of the Sierra Microplate. Similar to the LT sequence, the SV event is also associated with increased upper crustal seismicity. An 27 October 2011, Mw 4.7 earthquake occurred directly above the deep SV sequence at the base of the upper crustal seismogenic zone ( 15 km depth).

  3. Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km) we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas.

  4. Technical evaluation of proposed Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, R.; Glukhov, A.; Markowski, F.

    1996-06-01

    This technical report is a comprehensive evaluation of the proposal by the Ukrainian State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization to create a central facility for radioactive waste (not spent fuel) processing. The central facility is intended to process liquid and solid radioactive wastes generated from all of the Ukrainian nuclear power plants and the waste generated as a result of Chernobyl 1, 2 and 3 decommissioning efforts. In addition, this report provides general information on the quantity and total activity of radioactive waste in the 30-km Zone and the Sarcophagus from the Chernobyl accident. Processing options are described that may ultimately be used in the long-term disposal of selected 30-km Zone and Sarcophagus wastes. A detailed report on the issues concerning the construction of a Ukrainian Central Radioactive Waste Processing Facility (CRWPF) from the Ukrainian Scientific Research and Design institute for Industrial Technology was obtained and incorporated into this report. This report outlines various processing options, their associated costs and construction schedules, which can be applied to solving the operating and decommissioning radioactive waste management problems in Ukraine. The costs and schedules are best estimates based upon the most current US industry practice and vendor information. This report focuses primarily on the handling and processing of what is defined in the US as low-level radioactive wastes.

  5. Velocity dispersions of knots in Vela X and Puppis A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, P., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Very high resolution spectroscopy of optical emission lines indicates that the velocity dispersions of knots in Vela X and Puppis A result primarily from turbulence within the emitting regions. Line-of-sight velocity dispersions (half-widths at half-maximum) for the observed knots in both remnants are about 20-30 km/s. In Vela X, these include thermal velocity dispersions of roughly 16 km/s for hydrogen and 4 km/s for nitrogen. The knots themselves move randomly relative to each other, with speeds up to 30 km/s in Vela X and between 30-80 km/s in Puppis A. Occasionally, diffuse components of the filaments are observed in Puppis A. These diffuse components have velocity dispersions between 55 and 80 km/s, but the relative contributions of turbulent and thermal motions to the dispersions are unknown. The results are compared with theory and previous observations. Direct photographs may be able to show if the forbidden O III knots are less spatially dispersed than the forbidden N II, forbidden S II, forbidden O II, and H I knots.

  6. A three-dimensional dynamical-chemical model of atmospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, D.; Alyea, F.; Phillips, N.; Prinn, R.

    1975-01-01

    A three-year integration of a global three-dimensional model including dynamics and simple photochemistry is used to predict ozone. Good agreement with observation is obtained for stratospheric motion patterns, meridional circulations, ozone density as a function of height and latitude, eddy transports of ozone, surface destruction of ozone, and correlations of ozone with other variables. The annual cycle of columnar ozone in high latitudes is present, but at a smaller amplitude than observed. Vertical transport of ozone downward from the main generation level at 30 km is accomplished primarily by small-scale eddy diffusion between 20 and 30 km and again near the ground; large-scale vertical transport dominates in between. The model predicts a secondary maximum in ozone mixing ratio at 45 km somewhat equatorward of the winter polar-night zone. This feature, recently observed from satellite measurements, is thought to be caused by the temperature dependence of reaction rates in the Chapman scheme. The principal deficiency of the model is an underprediction of the spring ozone concentration in high latitudes in the lower stratosphere.

  7. Heat flow and thermal processes in the Jornada delMuerto, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiter, M.

    1985-01-01

    Most heat flow data in rifts are uncertain largely because of hydrologic disturbances in regions of extensive fracturing. Estimates of heat flow in deep petroleum tests within a large basin of the Rio Grande rift, which has suffered little syn-rift fracturing, may begin to provide clearer insight into the relationships between high heat flow and crustal thinning processes. The Jornada del Muerto is a large basin located in the Rio Grande rift of south central New Mexico. The region of interest within the Jornada del Muerto is centered about 30 km east of the town of Truth or Consequences, and is approximately 60 km north-south by 30 km east-west. High heat flows are estimated for the region. Values increase from about 90 mWm(-2) in the northern part of the study area to about 125 mWm(-2) in the southern part. These high heat flows are rather enigmatic because in the immediate vicinities of the sites there is little evidence of Cenozoic volcanism or syn-rift extensional tectonics. It is suggested that the geothermal anomaly in the southern Jornada del Muerto (approx. 125 to approx. 95 mWm(-2) results from some type of mass movement-heat transfer mechanism operating in the crust just below the elastic layer. This conclusion is consistent with the geologic and geophysical data which describe a thin crust, apparently devoid of features indicative of extensional-tectonics in the upper part of the lastic crust.

  8. Delayed production of sulfuric acid condensation nuclei in the polar stratosphere from El Chichon volcanic vapors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, D. J.; Rosen, J. M.; Gringel, W.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that measurements of the vertical profiles of atmospheric condensation nuclei (CN) have been conducted since 1973. Studies with a new instrument revealed that the CN concentration undergoes a remarkable annual variation in the 30-km region characterized by a large increase in the late winter/early spring period with a subsequent decay during the remainder of the year. The event particles are observed to be volatile at 150 C, suggesting a sulfuric acid-water composition similar to that found in the normal 20 km aerosol layer. The development of about 10 to the 7th metric tons of sulfuric acid aerosol following the injection of sulfurous gases by El Chichon in April 1982, prompted Hofmann and Rosen (1983) to predict a very large CN event for 1983. The present investigation is concerned with the actual observation of the predicted event. Attention is given to the observation of a very large increase of what appear to be small sulfuric acid droplets at 30-km altitude in January 1983 over Laramie, WY, in January 1983.

  9. Analysis of geophysical well logs obtained in the State 2-14 borehole, Salton Sea geothermal area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    A complete suite of conventional geophysical well logs was obtained in the upper part of a 3220-m-deep borehole drilled into geothermally altered alluvial sediments on the southeastern edge of the Salton Sea. Geophysical logs obtained in the State 2-14 borehole indicate that neutron porosity, gamma-gamma, and deep-induction logs provide useful information on lithologic trends with depth. The natural gamma log contains almost continuous, high-frequency fluctuations that obscure lithologic trends and that may be related to recent radioisotope redistribution and departure from radiometric equilibrium. Acoustic transit time logs give unrealistically low in situ compressional velocities ranging from 1.8 to 3.0 km/s, whereas acoustic waveform logs indicate that sediment compressional velocities range from less than 3.0 km/s shallower than 1000 m in depth to almost 5.0 km/s at depths greater than 2000 m. Analyses indicate that most log values lie between two lithologic end points: an electrically conductive claystone with moderate neutron porosity, but no effective porosity, and an electrically nonconductive, fully cemented siltstone that has small but finite porosity. -from Authors

  10. [The effect of environmental factors on the concentration of tumor markers in the blood serum and on the indices characterizing thyroid function].

    PubMed

    Shishkina, V V; Chebotareva, E D; Zamiatin, S S; Siniuta, B F; Nikolenko, L N; Vlasenko, O O; Iugrinova, L G

    1994-01-01

    Combined versus separate exposure of male organism to cesium-137 and chemical agents results in a more pronounced hyperferritinemia in the former case. In female chemists the ferritin level is dependent to a considerable extent on the menstrual cycle showing a tendency for the iron-containing protein level to decrease because of the action of a number of chemical agents. The rise of the level of cancer embryonic antigen is more readily seen in persons with high levels of cesium-137. Concentrations of carbohydrate antigen (CA-125) and mucin-like antigen are appreciably higher in female chemists incorporating cesium-137, and in those within the 30-km radius of the ChNPP. The level of thyroglobulin was raised in the chemists having a background incorporation of cesium, the liquidators of the aftermaths, and particularly in those happened to be in the 30-km zone. Each of the unfavourable factors taken separately (chemical agent or cesium-137) had lesser effect on the degree of elevation of TG content and hormone-forming function of the thyroid gland. An additional information has been obtained concerning the risk groups, which, however, serves as an indirect measure of carcinogenic effect various environmental factors exert on the organism.

  11. High-velocity stars from decay of small stellar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiseleva, L. G.; Colin, J.; Dauphole, B.; Eggleton, P.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper we present numerical results on the decay of small stellar systems under different initial conditions (multiplicity 3<=N<=10, and various mass spectra, initial velocities and initial configurations). The numerical treatment uses the CHAIN1 code (Mikkola & Aarseth). Particular attention is paid to the distribution of high-velocity escapers: we define these as stars with velocity above 30 km s^-1. These numerical experiments confirm that small N-body systems are dynamically unstable and produce cascades of escapers in the process of their decay. It is shown that the fraction of stars that escape from small dense stellar systems with an escape velocity greater than 30 km s^-1 is ~1 per cent for all systems treated here. This relatively small fraction must be considered in relation to the rate of star formation in the Galaxy in small groups: this could explain some moderately high-velocity stars observed in the Galactic disc and possibly some young stars with relatively high metallicity in the thick disc.

  12. Method to transmit analog information by using a long distance photonic link with distributed feedback lasers biased in the low laser threshold current region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Juárez, Alejandro; Zaldívar-Huerta, Ignacio E.; Rodríguez-Asomoza, Jorge; del Rocío Gómez-Colín, María

    2012-06-01

    We describe an analog microwave photonic link system, which is used to transmit in a multiplexed way a TV signal over 30 km of standard optical fiber. The experimental setup is composed mainly by two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes emitting at 1500 nm. When these DFB lasers are operated in the low laser threshold current region, relaxation oscillation frequencies are obtained. Relaxation oscillations in the laser intensity can be seen as sidebands on both sides of the main laser line. The optical emissions generated in each laser are combined and amplified by using an erbium-doped fiber amplifier. Next, the amplified optical signal is detected by a fast photo-detector using direct detection method, and as result of this photo-detection, microwave signals are generated. Since microwave signals obtained by using this technique are tuned continuously; we can use them as electrical carriers to transmit simultaneously a TV signal at 4 and 5 GHz and over 30 km of standard optical fiber by using a Mach-Zehnder modulator. At the end of the optical link the modulated light is photo-detected in order to recover efficiently and successfully the analog TV signal.

  13. Development of a mobile Doppler lidar system for wind and temperature measurements at 30-70 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhaoai; Hu, Xiong; Guo, Wenjie; Guo, Shangyong; Cheng, Yongqiang; Gong, Jiancun; Yue, Jia

    2017-02-01

    A mobile Doppler lidar system has been developed to simultaneously measure zonal and meridional winds and temperature from 30 to 70 km. Each of the two zonal and meridional wind subsystems employs a 15 W power, 532 nm laser and a 1 m diameter telescope. Iodine vapor filters are used to stabilize laser frequency and to detect the Doppler shift of backscattered signal. The integration method is used for temperature measurement. Experiments were carried out using the mobile Doppler lidar in August 2014 at Qinghai, China (91°E, 38°N). The zonal wind was measured from 20 to 70 km at a 3 km spatial resolution and 2 h temporal resolution. The measurement error is about 0.5 m/s at 30 km, and 10 m/s at 70 km. In addition, the temperature was measured from 30 to 70 km at 1 km spatial resolution and 1 h temporal resolution. The temperature measurement error is about 0.4 K at 30 km, and 8.0 K at 70 km. Comparison of the lidar results with the temperature of the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER), the zonal wind of the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Re-search and Applications (MERRA), and radiosonde zonal wind shows good agreement, indicating that the Doppler lidar results are reliable.

  14. Contribution of internal variability to SST trends and the impact of increased resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exarchou, Eleftheria; Guemas, Virginie

    2017-04-01

    The causes of the recent reduction in the global warming rate of the early 2000s can be related to external processes of the climate system, such as volcanic eruptions and aerosol emissions, or to internal processes, related to a rearrangement of the heat storage inside the system. Here, we explore the processes that control the internal variability and the impact of increased model resolution on the mechanisms involved. We use 100-year long HadGEM3-GC2 simulations with constant present day forcing and with high resolution ocean ( 30km), coupled with (i) low ( 120km) (ii) medium ( 60km) and (iii) high ( 30km) resolution atmosphere. We investigate the relationship between globally averaged SST trends and ocean heat uptake, ocean heat content changes at different depths, the top-of-the-atmosphere fluxes, as well as the different components of the surface heat fluxes. We explore the spatial patterns associated with positive and negative SST trends, the changes in ocean heat transports at different ocean depths, and the relative roles of each ocean basin in storing or removing heat. We finally identify and discuss the impact of increased model resolution on internal climate variability and the SST trends.

  15. Models of lithosphere and asthenosphere anisotropic structure of the Yellowstone hot spot from shear wave splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, Gregory P.; Schutt, Derek L.; Smith, Robert B.

    2005-11-01

    Teleseismic shear wave splitting measured at 56 continuous and temporary seismographs deployed in a 500 km by 600 km area around the Yellowstone hot spot indicates that fast anisotropy in the mantle is parallel to the direction of plate motion under most of the array. The average split time from all stations of 0.9 s is typical of continental stations. There is little evidence for plume-induced radial strain, suggesting that any contribution of gravitationally spreading plume material is undetectably small with respect to the plate motion velocity. Two stations within Yellowstone have splitting measurements indicating the apparent fast anisotropy direction (ϕ) is nearly perpendicular to plate motion. These stations are ˜30 km from stations with ϕ parallel to plate motion. The 70° rotation over 30 km suggests a shallow source of anisotropy; however, split times for these stations are more than 2 s. We suggest melt-filled, stress-oriented cracks in the lithosphere are responsible for the anomalous ϕ orientations within Yellowstone. Stations southeast of Yellowstone have measurements of ϕ oriented NNW to WNW at high angles to the plate motion direction. The Archean lithosphere beneath these stations may have significant anisotropy capable of producing the observed splitting.

  16. Sedimentation model of gravel-dominated alluvial piedmont fan, Ganga Plain, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, U. K.

    2009-03-01

    The Piedmont Zone of the Indo-Gangetic Plain contains numerous, laterally coalescing small alluvial fans. The Latest Pleistocene-Holocene 30 km long Gaula Fan can be divided into gravelly proximal fan (0-14 km down-stream), gravel-sand rich mid fan (14-22 km) and sand-mud dominated distal fan (22-30 km). The fan succession is composed of two fan expansion cycles A and B. Separated by an undulatory erosional contact of regional extent, cycle A is characterized by river borne clast-supported gravelly deposits, and the overlying fan expansion cycle B by matrix-supported gravely debris flows. The main process behind fan development has been lateral migration of channels over the fan surface probably due to rapid sedimentation caused by increased sediment supply, and the fluctuating water budget in response to changing climate. The water laid expansion cycle A represents a humid phase. The debris flow deposits of expansion cycle B suggest a dry phase. Approximately between 8 and 3 Ka, cycle B also indicates a phase of tectonic instability in the Siwalik Hills forming the mountain front. The tectonic activity caused incision of rivers into the fan surface, and in turn resulted in reduced fan-building activity. At present the fan surface is accreting by sheet flow processes.

  17. Ozone Climatological Profiles for Version 8 TOMS and SBUV Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, R. D.; Logan, J. A.; Labow, G. J.

    2003-01-01

    A new altitude dependent ozone climatology has been produced for use with the latest Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) retrieval algorithms. The climatology consists of monthly average profiles for ten degree latitude zones covering from 0 to 60 km. The climatology was formed by combining data from SAGE II (1988 to 2000) and MLS (1991-1999) with data from balloon sondes (1988-2002). Ozone below about 20 km is based on balloons sondes, while ozone above 30 km is based on satellite measurements. The profiles join smoothly between 20 and 30 km. The ozone climatology in the southern hemisphere and tropics has been greatly enhanced in recent years by the addition of balloon sonde stations under the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) program. A major source of error in the TOMS and SBUV retrieval of total column ozone comes from their reduced sensitivity to ozone in the lower troposphere. An accurate climatology for the retrieval a priori is important for reducing this error on the average. The new climatology follows the seasonal behavior of tropospheric ozone and reflects its hemispheric asymmetry. Comparisons of TOMS version 8 ozone with ground stations show an improvement due in part to the new climatology.

  18. [The irradiation levels of the participants in the cleanup of the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident in 1986-1987 and the verification of the dosimetric data].

    PubMed

    Il'in, L A; Kriuchkov, V P; Osanov, D P; Pavlov, D A

    1995-01-01

    It is considered the organization of individual dosimetric monitoring (IDM) within 30-km zone around Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP) in 1986 for different contingents of recovery workers: the CNPP personnel, Management for Construction 605 (MC-605), military recovery workers, persons assigned to 30-km zone. It is concluded that the quality of IDM had decreased in the following series: the MC-605 personnel, the CNPP personnel, the assigned persons, and military units. The method of dosimetric data verification for recovery workers in 1986 is presented which is based on the analyses of the dependency H(delta)/In delta from delta, where delta is a step of the histogram of distribution, and H(delta) is delta-entropy of distribution. The results obtained by this method correspond to the results of the experts' estimation. It was shown that 60% of registered individual doses for the whole contingent of the recovery workers differ from the real exposure doses. Using the theory of hybrid lognormal distribution it was obtained, in our opinion, real external dose distribution for all the recovery workers. It was estimated that 7% of recovery workers received doses more than 0.25 Gy. Also, the data on values of mean and collective doses for different contingents, as well as for all persons involved in recovery operations is presented.

  19. Using Predictions Based on Geostatistics to Monitor Trends in Aspergillus flavus Strain Composition.

    PubMed

    Orum, T V; Bigelow, D M; Cotty, P J; Nelson, M R

    1999-09-01

    ABSTRACT Aspergillus flavus is a soil-inhabiting fungus that frequently produces aflatoxins, potent carcinogens, in cottonseed and other seed crops. A. flavus S strain isolates, characterized on the basis of sclerotial morphology, are highly toxigenic. Spatial and temporal characteristics of the percentage of the A. flavus isolates that are S strain (S strain incidence) were used to predict patterns across areas of more than 30 km(2). Spatial autocorrelation in S strain incidence in Yuma County, AZ, was shown to extend beyond field boundaries to adjacent fields. Variograms revealed both short-range (2 to 6 km) and long-range (20 to 30 km) spatial structure in S strain incidence. S strain incidence at 36 locations sampled in July 1997 was predicted with a high correlation between expected and observed values (R = 0.85, P = 0.0001) by kriging data from July 1995 and July 1996. S strain incidence at locations sampled in October 1997 and March 1998 was markedly less than predicted by kriging data from the same months in prior years. Temporal analysis of four locations repeatedly sampled from April 1995 through July 1998 also indicated a major reduction in S strain incidence in the Texas Hill area after July 1997. Surface maps generated by kriging point data indicated a similarity in the spatial pattern of S strain incidence among all sampling dates despite temporal changes in the overall S strain incidence. Geostatistics provided useful descriptions of variability in S strain incidence over space and time.

  20. Is EMG of the lower leg dependent on weekly running mileage?

    PubMed

    Baur, H; Hirschmüller, A; Müller, S; Cassel, M; Mayer, F

    2012-01-01

    Neuromuscular activity of the lower leg is dependent on the task performed, speed of movement and gender. Whether training volume influences neuromuscular activity is not known. The EMG of physically active persons differing in running mileage was analysed to investigate this. 55 volunteers were allocated to a low (LM: < 30 km), intermediate (IM: > 30 km & < 45 km) or high mileage (HM: > 45 km) group according to their weekly running volume. Neuromuscular activity of the lower leg was measured during running (3.33 m·s - 1). Mean amplitude values for preactivation, weight acceptance and push-off were calculated and normalised to the mean activity of the entire gait cycle.Higher activity in the gastrocnemius group was observed in weight acceptance in LM compared to IM (+30%) and HM (+25%) but lower activity was present in the push-off for LM compared to IM and HM. For the peroneal muscle, differences were present in the push-off where HM showed increased activity compared to IM (+24%) and LM (+60%). The tibial muscle revealed slightly lower activity during preactivation for the high mileage runners. Neuromuscular activity differs during stance between the high and intermediate group compared to low mileage runners. Slight adaptations in neuromuscular activation indicate a more target-oriented activation strategy possibly due to repetitive training in runners with higher weekly mileage. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Development of a traffic noise prediction model for an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Asheesh; Bodhe, G L; Schimak, G

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a traffic noise model under diverse traffic conditions in metropolitan cities. The model has been developed to calculate equivalent traffic noise based on four input variables i.e. equivalent traffic flow (Q e ), equivalent vehicle speed (S e ) and distance (d) and honking (h). The traffic data is collected and statistically analyzed in three different cases for 15-min during morning and evening rush hours. Case I represents congested traffic where equivalent vehicle speed is <30 km/h while case II represents free-flowing traffic where equivalent vehicle speed is >30 km/h and case III represents calm traffic where no honking is recorded. The noise model showed better results than earlier developed noise model for Indian traffic conditions. A comparative assessment between present and earlier developed noise model has also been presented in the study. The model is validated with measured noise levels and the correlation coefficients between measured and predicted noise levels were found to be 0.75, 0.83 and 0.86 for case I, II and III respectively. The noise model performs reasonably well under different traffic conditions and could be implemented for traffic noise prediction at other region as well.

  2. Atmosphere sounding by GPS radio occultation: First results from TanDEM-X and comparison with TerraSAR-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zus, Florian; Grunwaldt, Ludwig; Heise, Stefan; Michalak, Grzegorz; Schmidt, Torsten; Wickert, Jens

    2014-01-01

    On 21 June 2010 the TerraSAR-X satellite was joined by the TanDEM-X satellite. A Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) experiment using the twin satellites has been carried out to estimate the precision of GPS atmospheric soundings. For the Day Of Year (DOY) 330-336, 2011, we analyze phase and amplitude data recorded by GPS receivers separated by a few hundred meters in a low earth orbit and derive collocated atmospheric refractivity profiles. In the altitude range 10-20 km the standard deviation between TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X refractivity does not exceed 0.15%. The standard deviation is rapidly increasing for lower and higher altitudes; close to the surface and at an altitude of 30 km the standard deviation reaches 0.8% and 0.5%, respectively. Systematic deviations between TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X refractivity in the considered altitude range (0-30 km) are negligible. The results confirm the anticipated high precision of the GPS RO technique. However, the difference in the retrieved refractivity in the lower troposphere for different Open Loop (OL) signal tracking parameters, altered onboard TanDEM-X for DOY 49-55, 2012, calls for an in depth analysis. At the moment we can not exclude that a potential bias in the OL Doppler model introduces a bias in our retrieved refractivity at altitudes <8 km.

  3. Infrared measurements of atmospheric CH3CN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinbohl, Armin; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Bhaswar, Sen; Blavier, Jean--Francois; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Wennberg, Paul O.

    2005-01-01

    For the first time CH3CN has been measured in the Earth's atmosphere by means of infrared remote sensing. Vertical profiles of volume mixing ratio were retrieved from 12 solar occultation measurements by the balloon-borne JPL MkIV interferometer between 1993 and 2004. Profile retrieval is possible in an altitude range between 12 and 30 km with a precision of _20 ppt in the Arctic and _30 ppt at mid-latitudes. The retrieved CH3CN profiles show mixing ratios of 100-150 ppt a few kilometers above the tropopause that decrease to values below 40 ppt at altitudes between 22 and 30 km. The CH3CN mixing ratios show a reasonably compact correlation with the stratospheric tracers CH3Cl and CH4. The CH3CN altitude profiles and tracer correlations are well reproduced by a 2-dimensional model, suggesting that CH3CN is long-lived in the lower stratosphere and that previously-proposed ion-molecule reactions do not play a major role as loss processes of CH3CN.

  4. Vertical profiles of dust and ozone in the Martian atmosphere deduced from solar occultation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blamont, J. E.; Chassefiere, E.; Goutail, J. P.; Mege, B.; Nunes-Pinharanda, M.; Souchon, G.; Krasnopolsky, V. A.; Krysko, A. A.; Moroz, V. I.

    1991-02-01

    The vertical distribution of the ozone content and of the aerosols in the Martian atmosphere at the equinox and near the equator was studied with the aid of a biaxial pointing device, a microprocessor-controlled flat mirror of elliptical shape. An upper limit of 5 x 10 to the 7th mol/cu cm for ozone was obtained above an altitude of 30 km. For the aerosols, a semiquantitative distribution has been obtained between 10 and 50 km of altitude. The scale height is nearly equal to the atmospheric scale height in the 10-20 km region where mixing seems to predominate, and falls rapidly to a thickness of about 2 km at 30 km. In 10 percent of the occultations, a stratified haze has been detected between 40 and 50 km. The particle radius of cloud constituents is estimated and optical thickness per kilometer of these hazes at peak extinction are approximated. An eddy diffusion coefficient and a mixing ratio are estimated for clouds assumed to be at equilibrium.

  5. Focal depths and mechanisms of earthquakes in the Himalayan-Tibetan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ling

    2015-04-01

    Due to the collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates, the lithosphere of the Tibetan plateau has experienced strong deformation. The widespread of earthquakes with different focal depths and mechanisms reveal the complexity of the current deformation pattern. Here, we determine the focal depths and mechanisms of shallow earthquakes in the Himalayan-Tibetan region by modeling the waveforms of teleseismic P and its trailing near-surface reflections pP and sP. We found that earthquakes with different tectonic backgrounds exhibit different features. The focal depths of all events we studied range between 4-49 km. Most earthquakes in the Tibet are shallower than 30 km, in agreement with the presence of the lower crustal flow observed in this region. Several events around the Himalay are deeper than 30 km, which are constrained to be within the low crust of subducting Indian plate. Thrust faulting earthquakes occurred primarily in northern Tibet and Himalaya, whereas strike-slip and normal faulting earthquakes were dominant in central and southern Tibet, respectively. These mechanisms are consistent with the predominantly NNW-SSE compression in the direction of current Himalayan-Tibetan continental collision.

  6. Preliminary validation of refractivity from a new radio occultation sounder GNOS/FY-3C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, M.; Zhang, P.; Yang, G. L.; Bi, Y. M.; Liu, Y.; Bai, W. H.; Meng, X. G.; Du, Q. F.; Sun, Y. Q.

    2015-09-01

    As a new member of space-based radio occultation sounder, the GNOS (Global Navigation Satellite System Occultation Sounder) mounted on FY-3C has been carrying out the atmospheric sounding since 23 September 2013. GNOS takes a daily measurement up to 800 times with GPS (Global Position System) and Chinese BDS (BeiDou navigation satellite) signals. The refractivity profiles from GNOS are compared with the co-located ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) analyses in this paper. Bias and standard deviation have being calculated as the function of altitude. The mean bias is about 0.2 % from the near surface to 35 km. The average standard deviation is within 2 % while it is down to about 1 % in the range 5-30 km where best soundings are usually made. To evaluate the performance of GNOS, COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate) and GRAS/METOP-A (GNSS Receiver for Atmospheric Sounding) data are also compared to ECMWF analyses as the reference. The results show that GNOS/FY-3C meets the requirements of the design well. It possesses a sounding capability similar to COSMIC and GRAS in the vertical range of 0-30 km, though it needs improvement in higher altitude. Generally, it provides a new data source for global NWP (numerical weather prediction) community.

  7. Models of lithosphere and asthenosphere anisotropic structure of the Yellowstone hot spot from shear wave splitting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, Gregory P.; Schutt, D.L.; Smith, Robert B.

    2005-01-01

    Teleseismic shear wave splitting measured at 56 continuous and temporary seismographs deployed in a 500 km by 600 km area around the Yellowstone hot spot indicates that fast anisotropy in the mantle is parallel to the direction of plate motion under most of the array. The average split time from all stations of 0.9 s is typical of continental stations. There is little evidence for plume-induced radial strain, suggesting that any contribution of gravitationally spreading plume material is undetectably small with respect to the plate motion velocity. Two stations within Yellowstone have splitting measurements indicating the apparent fast anisotropy direction (ϕ) is nearly perpendicular to plate motion. These stations are ∼30 km from stations with ϕ parallel to plate motion. The 70° rotation over 30 km suggests a shallow source of anisotropy; however, split times for these stations are more than 2 s. We suggest melt-filled, stress-oriented cracks in the lithosphere are responsible for the anomalous ϕ orientations within Yellowstone. Stations southeast of Yellowstone have measurements of ϕ oriented NNW to WNW at high angles to the plate motion direction. The Archean lithosphere beneath these stations may have significant anisotropy capable of producing the observed splitting.

  8. The Sumatra great earthquake sequence of 11 April 2012: Evidence of rupture onto multiple subfaults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duputel, Z.; Kanamori, H.; Tsai, V. C.; Rivera, L. A.; Meng, L.; Ampuero, J. P.; Stock, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Great strike-slip earthquakes are very uncommon and it is known that many of them involve remarkable rupture complexity. On 11 April 2012, the equatorial Indian Ocean was hit by a Mw=8.6 earthquake, followed two hours later by another Mw=8.2 event. These two earthquakes are the largest strike-slip events ever observed and also among the largest intraplate earthquakes instrumentally recorded. Our analysis for the Mw=8.6 mainshock reveals a remarkable rupture complexity and indicates a large centroid depth (~30km). To further resolve the rupture process, we developed a method to invert very long period seismic data for multiple-point-source parameters. The current optimum source model at long period consists of two point sources separated by about 209 km with magnitudes Mw=8.5 and Mw=8.3. To analyze the Mw=8.2 aftershock, we removed the perturbation due to large surface-wave arrivals of the Mw=8.6 mainshock by subtracting the corresponding synthetics. Our results suggests that the Mw=8.2 aftershock had a large centroid depth between 30 km and 40 km. This major earthquake sequence brings a new perspective to the seismotectonics of the equatorial Indian Ocean and reveals active deep lithospheric deformations.

  9. Increase in plasma calprotectin during long-distance running.

    PubMed

    Fagerhol, M K; Nielsen, H G; Vetlesen, A; Sandvik, K; Lyberg, T

    2005-01-01

    Running leads to biochemical and hematological changes consistent with an inflammatory reaction to tissue injury. We report changes in the plasma concentration of the leukocyte-derived protein calprotectin after long-distance running. Blood samples were collected from runners before and after a marathon, half-marathon, a 30-km cross-country run, a military ranger-training course and short-term maximal physical exercise until exhaustion, VO2max. Leukocyte counts, plasma calprotectin concentration and calprotectin per neutrophilic granulocyte were assayed using a new method. During the marathon, half-marathon, the 30-km run, the ranger-training course and the VO2max exercise, calprotectin levels increased 96.3-fold, 13.3-fold, 20.1-fold, 7.5-fold and 3.4-fold, respectively. These changes may reflect damage to the tissues or vascular endothelium, causing microthrombi with subsequent activation of neutrophils. These cells are known to phagocytose platelets in microthrombi and may contribute to the prevention of clinical thrombosis. The half-life of calprotectin in plasma was about 5 h. The content of calprotectin per neutrophil remained unchanged during exercise at a level similar to that in healthy blood donors: mean: 25 pg/cell, range 18.8-33.6. A reference interval (mean +/- 2 SD) of 18.6-31.4 pg/cell is suggested.

  10. Shear wave velocity structure of the lower crust in southern Africa: Evidence for compositional heterogeneity within Archaean and Proterozoic terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kgaswane, Eldridge M.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Juliã, Jordi; Dirks, Paul H. G. M.; Durrheim, Raymond J.; Pasyanos, Michael E.

    2009-12-01

    The nature of the lower crust across the southern African shield has been investigated by jointly inverting receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities for 89 broadband seismic stations located in Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe. For large parts of both Archaean and Proterozoic terrains, the velocity models obtained from the inversions show shear wave velocities ≥4.0 km/s below ˜20-30 km depth, indicating a predominantly mafic lower crust. However, for much of the Kimberley terrain and adjacent parts of the Kheis Province and Witwatersrand terrain in South Africa, as well as for the western part of the Tokwe terrain in Zimbabwe, shear wave velocities of ≤3.9 km/s are found below ˜20-30 km depth, indicating an intermediate-to-felsic lower crust. The areas of intermediate-to-felsic lower crust in South Africa coincide with regions where Ventersdorp rocks have been preserved, suggesting that the more evolved composition of the lower crust may have resulted from crustal reworking and extension during the Ventersdorp tectonomagmatic event at c. 2.7 Ga.

  11. Cancer risk in adult residents near nuclear power plants in Korea - a cohort study of 1992-2010.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Li, Zhong Min

    2012-09-01

    This study evaluated cancer risk for adult residents near Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) in Korea through a valid prospective cohort study during 1992-2010. The study cohort was composed of 11,367 adults living within a five km radius from the NPPs for the exposed and 24,809 adults for the non-exposed or reference cohort set at two different levels of proximity; 5-30 km radius and more than 30 km radius away from NPPs. In 303,542.5 person-years of follow-up, a total of 2,298 cancer cases of all sites, or 1,377 radio-inducible cancers diagnosed during 1992-2008 were ascertained. Multiple adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. There were no epidemiological evidence for increased risk of cancer due to radiation from NPPs. Radiological study results or surveillance data of radiation doses around NPPs could be well documented for risk estimation of radio-inducible cancers, instead of epidemiological study results of the long-time required. Continuous surveillance of quantitative measures of dose levels around NPPs and radiation exposures to the residents is warranted.

  12. Regional Characterization of Tokyo Metropolitan area using a highly-dense seismic network (MeSO-net)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Naoshi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Panayotopoulos, Yannis; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Ishibe, Takeo; Kimura, Hisanori; Honda, Ryou

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a dense seismic network, MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network), which consists of about 300 seismic stations, since 2007 in the greater Tokyo urban region(Hirata et al., 2009). Using MeSO-net data, we obtain P- and S- wave velocity tomograms (Nakagawa et al., 2010) and Qp, Qs tomograms (Panayotopoulos et al., 2014) which show a clear image of Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) and PAcific Plate (PAP). A depth to the top of PSP, 20 to 30 km beneath northern part of Tokyo bay, is about 10 km shallower than previous estimates based on the hypocenter distribution (Ishida, 1992). Based on elastic wave velocities of rocks and minerals, we constructed a petrologic model. The Vp steps in subducting Izu forearc crust occurs at a depth of 30km (blueschist or greenschist to garnet amphibolite transformation) and a depth of 50km (garnet amphibolite to eclogite transformation). Both temperatures are estimated to be 500 and 600 degree C, respectively. The high Vp/Vs anomaly (>1.9) implies large amounts of fluid H2O released by garnet amphibolite to eclogite dehydration reactions. This study is supported by MEXT Japan under the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters.

  13. Development and validation of satellite based estimates of surface visibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, J.; Pierce, R. B.; Lenzen, A.

    2015-10-01

    A satellite based surface visibility retrieval has been developed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements as a proxy for Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) data from the next generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-R). The retrieval uses a multiple linear regression approach to relate satellite aerosol optical depth, fog/low cloud probability and thickness retrievals, and meteorological variables from numerical weather prediction forecasts to National Weather Service Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) surface visibility measurements. Validation using independent ASOS measurements shows that the GOES-R ABI surface visibility retrieval (V) has an overall success rate of 64.5% for classifying Clear (V ≥ 30 km), Moderate (10 km ≤ V < 30 km), Low (2 km ≤ V < 10 km) and Poor (V < 2 km) visibilities and shows the most skill during June through September, when Heidke skill scores are between 0.2 and 0.4. We demonstrate that the aerosol (clear sky) component of the GOES-R ABI visibility retrieval can be used to augment measurements from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Park Service (NPS) Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network, and provide useful information to the regional planning offices responsible for developing mitigation strategies required under the EPA's Regional Haze Rule, particularly during regional haze events associated with smoke from wildfires.

  14. Development and validation of satellite-based estimates of surface visibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, J.; Pierce, R. B.; Lenzen, A.

    2016-02-01

    A satellite-based surface visibility retrieval has been developed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements as a proxy for Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) data from the next generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-R). The retrieval uses a multiple linear regression approach to relate satellite aerosol optical depth, fog/low cloud probability and thickness retrievals, and meteorological variables from numerical weather prediction forecasts to National Weather Service Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) surface visibility measurements. Validation using independent ASOS measurements shows that the GOES-R ABI surface visibility retrieval (V) has an overall success rate of 64.5 % for classifying clear (V ≥ 30 km), moderate (10 km ≤ V < 30 km), low (2 km ≤ V < 10 km), and poor (V < 2 km) visibilities and shows the most skill during June through September, when Heidke skill scores are between 0.2 and 0.4. We demonstrate that the aerosol (clear-sky) component of the GOES-R ABI visibility retrieval can be used to augment measurements from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Park Service (NPS) Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network and provide useful information to the regional planning offices responsible for developing mitigation strategies required under the EPA's Regional Haze Rule, particularly during regional haze events associated with smoke from wildfires.

  15. Residency and movement patterns of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus relative to major estuaries.

    PubMed

    Spares, A D; Stokesbury, M J W; Dadswell, M J; O'Dor, R K; Dick, T A

    2015-06-01

    Estuarine residency and marine movements of 43 anadromous Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (mean ± s.d. fork length = 523 ± 97 mm) were examined using acoustic tracking in inner Frobisher Bay (IFB; 63° N; 68° W), Canada, from July to September 2008 and 2009. A mean ± s.d. migration duration of 63 ± 7 days occurred from late June to early September. Detected S. alpinus were either continuously (maximum 34 days) or intermittently present in estuarine zones, on average residing approximately one third of time tracked and returning once every 9 days. Significantly higher estuarine residency during the final 15 migration days suggested that a transition phase may occur prior to freshwater re-entry. Low travel rates during flood tide suggested individuals staged before accessing intertidal and estuarine zones. Although the two main estuaries were c. 22 km apart, 19% of tagged individuals used both. Individuals remained relatively close to freshwater overwintering systems, although late-migration inter-estuarine movements may have indicated natal homing. Approximately half of the individuals exhibited extra-estuarine travel, mostly during mid-migration, but remained within 3 km of shore ranging < 30 km straight line distance (SLD) of either estuary. It was concluded that IFB S. alpinus (1) spent a significant portion of their migration within or adjacent to the estuaries and (2) had a restricted marine distribution within 30 km SLD of the river mouths. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. The lithosphere in the central-eastern Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagnile, G.; D'Ingeo, F.; Farrugia, P.; Panza, G. F.

    1982-03-01

    The lithosphere beneath the central-eastern Mediterranean area has been investigated by the inversion of the regional dispersion relations derived from analysis of surface waves. It is possible to distinguish several types of crust with average S-wave velocities in the range 3.0 3.8 km/sec, and thicknesses varying from a minimum of about 30 km, which corresponds to the Apennines, Crete and Otranto Channel regions, to a maximum of about 51 km beneath the Ionian Sea, which can be considered as a submerged continent. Associated with these crustal features, large lateral variations have been detected in the lithosphere thickness, which varies from a minimum of about 30 km corresponding to the Tyrrhenian Sea and south of Crete to a maximum of about 130 km corresponding to south-eastern Alps and north-central Greece, while the sub-Moho S-wave velocity varies in the range 4.2 4.8 km/sec. The constraint furnished by our results to the geological-tectonic setting of the investigated area, characterized by the continent continent collision between Africa and Europe, is pointed out.

  17. Estimating dispersed and point source emissions of methane in East Anglia: results and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Neil; Connors, Sarah; Hancock, Ben; Jones, Pip; Murphy, Jonathan; Riddick, Stuart; Robinson, Andrew; Skelton, Robert; Manning, Alistair; Forster, Grant; Oram, David; O'Doherty, Simon; Young, Dickon; Stavert, Ann; Fisher, Rebecca; Lowry, David; Nisbet, Euan; Zazzeri, Guilia; Allen, Grant; Pitt, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    We have been investigating ways to estimate dispersed and point source emissions of methane. To do so we have used continuous measurements from a small network of instruments at 4 sites across East Anglia since 2012. These long-term series have been supplemented by measurements taken in focussed studies at landfills, which are important point sources of methane, and by measurements of the 13C:12C ratio in methane to provide additional information about its sources. These measurements have been analysed using the NAME InTEM inversion model to provide county-level emissions (~30 km x ~30 km) in East Anglia. A case study near a landfill just north of Cambridge was also analysed using a Gaussian plume model and the Windtrax dispersion model. The resulting emission estimates from the three techniques are consistent within the uncertainties, despite the different spatial scales being considered. A seasonal cycle in emissions from the landfill (identified by the isotopic measurements) is observed with higher emissions in winter than summer. This would be expected from consideration of the likely activity of methanogenic bacteria in the landfill, but is not currently represented in emission inventories such as the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory. The possibility of assessing North Sea gas field emissions using ground-based measurements will also be discussed.

  18. Information theory lateral density distribution for Earth inferred from global gravity field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Information Theory Inference, better known as the Maximum Entropy Method, was used to infer the lateral density distribution inside the Earth. The approach assumed that the Earth consists of indistinguishable Maxwell-Boltzmann particles populating infinitesimal volume elements, and followed the standard methods of statistical mechanics (maximizing the entropy function). The GEM 10B spherical harmonic gravity field coefficients, complete to degree and order 36, were used as constraints on the lateral density distribution. The spherically symmetric part of the density distribution was assumed to be known. The lateral density variation was assumed to be small compared to the spherically symmetric part. The resulting information theory density distribution for the cases of no crust removed, 30 km of compensated crust removed, and 30 km of uncompensated crust removed all gave broad density anomalies extending deep into the mantle, but with the density contrasts being the greatest towards the surface (typically + or 0.004 g cm 3 in the first two cases and + or - 0.04 g cm 3 in the third). None of the density distributions resemble classical organized convection cells. The information theory approach may have use in choosing Standard Earth Models, but, the inclusion of seismic data into the approach appears difficult.

  19. Along-strike supply of volcanic rifted margins: Implications for plume-influenced rifting and sudden along-strike transitions between volcanic and non-volcanic rifted margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranero, C. R.; Phipps Morgan, J.

    2006-12-01

    The existence of sudden along-strike transitions between volcanic and non-volcanic rifted margins is an important constraint for conceptual models of rifting and continental breakup. We think there is a promising indirect approach to infer the maximum width of the region of upwelling that exists beneath a rifted margin during the transition from rifting to seafloor-spreading. We infer this width of ~30km from the minimum length of the ridge-offsets that mark the limits of the `region of influence' of on-ridge plumes on the axial relief, axial morphology, and crustal thickness along the ridge and at the terminations of fossil volcanic rifted margins. We adopt Vogt's [1972] hypothesis for along-ridge asthenospheric flow in a narrow vertical slot beneath the axis of plume-influenced `macro-segments' and volcanic rifted margins. We find that: (1) There is a threshold distance to the lateral offsets that bound plume-influenced macrosegments; all such `barrier offsets' are greater than ~30km, while smaller offsets do not appear to be a barrier to along-axis flow. This pattern is seen in the often abrupt transitions between volcanic and non-volcanic rifted margins; these transitions coincide with >30km ridge offsets that mark the boundary between the smooth seafloor morphology and thick crust of a plume- influenced volcanic margin and a neighboring non-volcanic margin, as recorded in 180Ma rifting of the early N. Atlantic, the 42Ma rifting of the Kerguelen-Broken Ridge, and the 66Ma Seychelles-Indian rifting in the Indian Ocean. (2) A similar pattern is seen in the often abrupt transitions between `normal' and plume-influenced mid- ocean ridge segments, which is discussed in a companion presentation by Phipps Morgan and Ranero (this meeting). (3) The coexistance of adjacent volcanic and non-volcanic rifted margin segments is readily explained in this conceptual framework. If the volcanic margin macrosegment is plume-fed by hot asthenosphere along an axial ridge slot

  20. Perceived environmental and health risks of nuclear energy in Taiwan after Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jung-Chun; Lee, Chiao-Tzu Patricia; Kao, Shu-Fen; Chen, Ruey-Yu; Ieong, Marco C F; Chang, Hung-Lun; Hsieh, Wan-Hua; Tzeng, Chun-Chiao; Lu, Cheng-Fung; Lin, Suei-Loong; Chang, Peter Wushou

    2014-12-01

    After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima in Japan in 2011, a nation-wide survey using a standardized self-administered questionnaire was conducted in Taiwan, with a sample size of 2,742 individuals including the residents who live within and beyond 30 km from a nuclear power plant (NPP), to evaluate the participants' perceived nuclear risk in comparison with their perceived risks from selected environmental hazards and human behaviors. The three leading concerns of nuclear energy were "nuclear accidents (82.2%)," "radioactive nuclear waste disposal (76.9%)" and "potential health effects (73.3%)." Respondents (77.6%) perceived a higher relative risk of cancer incidence for those who live within 30 km from an NPP than those who live outside 30 km from an NPP. All the participants had a higher risk perception of death related to "nuclear power operation and nuclear waste" than cigarette smoking, motorcycling, food poisoning, plasticizer poisoning and traveling by air. Moreover, the residents in Gongliao where the planned fourth NPP is located had a significantly higher perceived risk ratio (PRR) of cancer incidence (adjusted odd ratio (aOR)=1.84, p value=0.017) and perceived risk of death (aOR=4.03, p value<0.001) related to nuclear energy. The other factors such as female gender (aOR/p value, 1.25/0.026 and 1.34/0.001 respectively), lower education levels (aOR/p value: 1.31/0.032; 2.03/<0.001) and the participants' concerns about nuclear accidents (aOR/p value: 1.33/0.022; 1.51/<0.001) and potential health effects (aOR/ p value: 2.95/ <0.001; 2.56/<0.001) were found to be commonly associated with the PRRs of "cancer incidence" and "perceived risk of death" related to nuclear energy, respectively. In addition, the respondents' concerns about nuclear waste disposal and possible eco-environmental damage made significant contributions (aOR/ p value: 1.39/ 0.001; 1.40/<0.001) to predict their perceived risk of death related to nuclear power. These factors are considered as

  1. The crustal structure from the Altai Mountains to the Altyn Tagh fault, northwest China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.; Mooney, W.D.; Yuan, X.; Coleman, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    We present a new crustal section across northwest China based on a seismic refraction profile and geologic mapping. The 1100-km-long section crosses the southern margin of the Chinese Altai Mountains, Junggar Accretional Belt and eastern Junggar basin, easternmost Tianshan Mountains, and easternmost Tarim basin. The crustal velocity structure and Poisson's ratio (??), which provide a constraint on crustal composition, were determined from P and S wave data. Despite the complex geology, the crustal thickness along the entire profile is nearly uniform at 50 km. The thickest crust (56 km) occurs at the northern end of the profile beneath the Altai Mountains and the thinnest (46 km) crust is beneath the Junggar basin. Beneath surficial sediments, the crust is found to have three layers with P wave velocities (Vp) of 6.0-6.3, 6.3-6.6, and 6.9-7.0 km/s, respectively. The southern half of the profile, including the eastern Tianshan Mountains and eastern margin of the Tarim basin, shows low P wave velocities and ?? = 0.25 to a depth of 30 km, which suggests a quartz-rich, granitic upper crustal composition. The northern half of the profile below the Altai Mountains and Junggar Accretional Belt has a higher Poisson's ratio of ?? = 0.26-0.27 to a depth of 30 km, indicative of an intermediate crustal composition. The entire 1100-km-long profile is underlain by a 15-30 km thick high velocity (6.9-7.0 km/s; ?? = 0.26-0.28) lower-crustal layer that we interpret to have a bulk composition of mafic granulite. At the southern end of the profile, a 5-km-thick midcrustal low-velocity layer (Vp = 5.9 km/s, ?? = 0.25) underlies the Tianshan and the region to the south, and may be indicative of a near-horizontal detachment interface. Pn velocities are ???7.7-7.8 km/s between the Tianshan and the Junggar basin, and ???7.9-8.0 km/s below the Altai Mountains and eastern margin of the Tarim basin. We interpret the consistent three-layer stratification of the crust to indicate that the crust

  2. Updated Long Term Fault Slip Rates and Seismic Hazard in the Central Alborz, Iran: New Constraints From InSAR and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, J. M.; Shirzaei, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Alborz mountain range, located south of the Caspian Sea, accommodates 30% of the 25 mm/yr convergence between Arabia and Eurasia. The resulting shortening and left lateral motion is distributed over several active fault zones within the Central Alborz. Despite earlier efforts using only GPS data, little is known about the long term rate of vertical deformation and aseismic slip. Several historical earthquakes have affected this region, some of the largest of these events occurred on the Mosha fault which is close to the capital city, Tehran, which has a population of over eight million. Thus, constraining the interseismic slip rates in this region is particularly important. In this study we complement existing horizontal velocities from a regional GPS network, with line of sight velocities from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), to provide additional constraints on the vertical deformation and enhance the spatial coverage. Assuming a seismogenic depth of 30 km, based on microseismicity data, we solve for the geometry and long term slip rates on four major fault strands in this region. We obtain a long term slip rate of ~ 3 mm/yr for the Mosha and North Alborz faults, and ~ 10 mm/yr for the Khazar fault and Parchin faults. These rates and fault geometries are in agreement with earlier works, and fit the GPS data well. However, close to the fault traces there are large residuals in the InSAR data, suggesting that there is shallow creep (< 30 km). Therefore, we carry out a subsequent inversion using only the residual InSAR displacements to solve for the distribution of creep within the seismogenic zones on these faults. We find that the Mosha and North Alborz faults remain locked between 0 - 30 km depth, whilst the Parchin and Khazar faults are creeping. This new observation of fault creep has direct implications for the seismic hazard in the region. On the Mosha fault we estimate a slip deficit equivalent to a Mw 7.0 event. The combination of In

  3. Evaluation of tropical channel refinement using MPAS-A aquaplanet simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Martini, Matus N.; Gustafson, Jr., William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; ...

    2015-09-13

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scales–Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configurationmore » using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20°S–20°N) and one with a wide (30°S–30°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. Furthermore, the relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in

  4. First 3D measurements of temperature fluctuations induced by gravity wave with the infrared limb imager GLORIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisch, Isabell; Preusse, Peter; Ungermann, Jörn; Friedl-Vallon, Felix; Riese, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Gravity waves (GWs) are one of the most important coupling mechanisms in the atmosphere. They couple different compartments of the atmosphere. The GW-LCYCLE (Gravity Wave Life Cycle) project aims on studying the excitation, propagation, and dissipation of gravity waves. An aircraft campaign has been performed in winter 2015/2016, during which the first 3D tomographic measurements of GWs were performed with the infrared limb imager GLORIA (Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere). GLORIA combines a classical Fourier Transform Spectrometer with a 2D detector array. The capability to image the atmosphere and thereby take several thousand spectra simultaneously improves the spatial sampling compared to conventional limb sounders by an order of magnitude. Furthermore GLORIA is able to pan the horizontal viewing direction and therefore measure the same volume of air under different angles. Due to these properties tomographic methods can be used to derive 3D temperature and tracer fields with spatial resolutions of better than 30km x 30km x 250m from measurements taken during circular flight patterns. Temperature distributions measured during a strong GW event on the 25.01.2016 during the GW-LCycle campaign over Iceland will be presented and analyzed for gravity waves. The three dimensional nature of the GLORIA measurements allows for the determination of the gravity wave momentum flux, including its horizontal direction. The calculated momentum fluxes rank this event under one of the strongest 1% observed in that latitude range in January 2016. The three dimensional wave vectors determined from the GLORIA measurements can be used for a ray tracing study with the Gravity wave Regional Or Global RAy Tracer (GROGRAT). Here 1D ray tracing, meaning solely vertical column propagation, as used by standard parameterizations in numerical weather prediction and climate models is compared to 4D ray tracing (spatially three dimensional with time varying

  5. Horizontal and vertical structure of reactive bromine events probed by bromine monoxide MAX-DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, William R.; Peterson, Peter K.; Frieß, Udo; Sihler, Holger; Lampel, Johannes; Platt, Ulrich; Moore, Chris; Pratt, Kerri; Shepson, Paul; Halfacre, John; Nghiem, Son V.

    2017-08-01

    Heterogeneous photochemistry converts bromide (Br-) to reactive bromine species (Br atoms and bromine monoxide, BrO) that dominate Arctic springtime chemistry. This phenomenon has many impacts such as boundary-layer ozone depletion, mercury oxidation and deposition, and modification of the fate of hydrocarbon species. To study environmental controls on reactive bromine events, the BRomine, Ozone, and Mercury EXperiment (BROMEX) was carried out from early March to mid-April 2012 near Barrow (Utqiaġvik), Alaska. We measured horizontal and vertical gradients in BrO with multiple-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instrumentation at three sites, two mobile and one fixed. During the campaign, a large crack in the sea ice (an open lead) formed pushing one instrument package ˜ 250 km downwind from Barrow (Utqiaġvik). Convection associated with the open lead converted the BrO vertical structure from a surface-based event to a lofted event downwind of the lead influence. The column abundance of BrO downwind of the re-freezing lead was comparable to upwind amounts, indicating direct reactions on frost flowers or open seawater was not a major reactive bromine source. When these three sites were separated by ˜ 30 km length scales of unbroken sea ice, the BrO amount and vertical distributions were highly correlated for most of the time, indicating the horizontal length scales of BrO events were typically larger than ˜ 30 km in the absence of sea ice features. Although BrO amount and vertical distribution were similar between sites most of the time, rapid changes in BrO with edges significantly smaller than this ˜ 30 km length scale episodically transported between the sites, indicating BrO events were large but with sharp edge contrasts. BrO was often found in shallow layers that recycled reactive bromine via heterogeneous reactions on snowpack. Episodically, these surface-based events propagated aloft when aerosol extinction was higher (> 0.1 km

  6. Sensitivity of the GCM driven summer monsoon simulations to cumulus parameterization schemes in nested RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, P.; Mohanty, U. C.; Kar, S. C.; Dash, S. K.; Kumari, S.

    2013-04-01

    The regional climate model (RegCM3) from the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics has been used to simulate the Indian summer monsoon for three different monsoon seasons such as deficit (1987), excess (1988) and normal (1989). Sensitivity to various cumulus parameterization and closure schemes of RegCM3 driven by the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting global spectral model products has been tested. The model integration of the nested RegCM3 is conducted using 90 and 30-km horizontal resolutions for outer and inner domains, respectively. The India Meteorological Department gridded rainfall (1° × 1°) and National Centre for Environment Prediction (NCEP)-Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis-2 of 2.5° × 2.5° horizontal resolution data has been used for verification. The RegCM3 forced by NCEP-DOE reanalysis-2 data simulates monsoon seasons of 1987 and 1988 reasonably well, but the monsoon season of 1989 is not represented well in the model simulations. The RegCM3 runs driven by the global model are able to bring out seasonal mean rainfall and circulations well with the use of the Grell and Anthes-Kuo cumulus scheme at 90-km resolution. While the rainfall intensity and distribution is brought out well with the Anthes-Kuo scheme, upper air circulation features are brought out better by the Grell scheme. The simulated rainfall distribution is better with RegCM3 using the MIT-Emanuel cumulus scheme for 30-km resolution. Several statistical analyses, such as correlation coefficient, root mean square error, equitable threat score, confirm that the performance of MIT-Emanuel scheme at 30-km resolution is better in simulating all-India summer monsoon rainfall. The RegCM3 simulated rainfall amount is more and closer to observations than that from the global model. The RegCM3 has corrected its driven GCM in terms of rainfall distribution and magnitude over some parts of India during extreme years. This study brings out several

  7. Medical relief activities, medical resourcing, and inpatient evacuation conducted by Nippon Medical School due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake 2011.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Atsushi; Fuse, Akira; Hagiwara, Jun; Matsumoto, Gaku; Shiraishi, Shinichiro; Masuno, Tomohiko; Miyauchi, Masato; Kawai, Makoto; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, after the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami, the government declared a nuclear emergency following damage to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A second hydrogen explosion occurred on March 14 at the plant's No. 3 reactor and injured 11 people. At that time the prime minister urged people living 20 to 30 km from the Daiichi plant to stay indoors. Under these circumstances, many residents of Iwaki City, which was largely outside the 30-km zone, left the city, making it difficult to get supplies to the remaining residents. The only transportation route open for supplies and medical resources was roads, and many drivers feared the rumor that the city was contaminated by radioactive materials and, so, refused to go there. Nippon Medical School (NMS) heard that medical resources were running short at Iwaki Kyoritsu Hospital, which requested water, medications, food, fuel (gasoline), medical support, and the evacuation of 300 inpatients. As a first step, NMS decided to evaluate the situation at the hospital and, on March 16, the director of the NMS Advanced Emergency Center visited the hospital and helped provide triage for about 200 patients. Critically ill patients receiving ventilatory support were given priority for evacuation because they would be most at risk of not being able to evacuate should the Japanese government order an immediate evacuation of the city. We tried to evacuate the inpatients via an official framework, such as the Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT), but DMAT could not support this mission because this hospital was not within the 30-km evacuation zone. Moreover, the Iwaki City government could not support the evacuation efforts because they were fearful of the rumor that Iwaki was contaminated by radioactive material. Ultimately, we realized that we had to conduct the mission ourselves and, so, contacted our colleagues in the Tokyo metropolitan area to prepare enough hospital beds. We evacuated 15 patients

  8. A fault slip model of the 2016 Meinong, Taiwan, earthquake from near-source strong motion and high-rate GPS waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Ruey-Juin; Wen, Yi-Ying; Tseng, Po-Ching; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Cheu, Chi-Yu; Hsieh, Min-Che; Ching, Kuo-En

    2017-04-01

    The 6 February 2016 MW 6.5 Meinong earthquake (03:57:26.1 local time) occurred at about 30 km ESE of the Tainan city with a focal depth of 14.6 km. It is a mid-crust moderate-sized event, however, produced widespread strong shaking in the 30-km-away Tainan city and caused about 10 buildings collapsed and 117 death. Furthermore, the earthquake created a 20 x 10 km2 dome-shaped structure with a maximum uplift of 13 cm in between the epicenter and the Tainan city. We collected 81 50-Hz GPS and 130 strong motion data recorded within 60 km epicentral distances. High-rate GPS data are processed with GIPSY 6.4 and the calculated GPS displacement wavefield record section shows 40-60 cm Peak Ground Displacement (PGD) concentrated at 25-30 km WNW of the epicenter. The large PGDs correspond to 65-85 cm/sec PGV, which are significantly larger than the near-fault ground motion collected from moderate-sized earthquakes occurred worldwide. To investigate the source properties of the causative fault, considering the azimuthal coverage and data quality, we selected waveform data from 10 50-Hz GPS stations and 10 free-field 200-Hz strong motion stations to invert for the finite source parameters using the non-negative least squares approach. A bandpass filter of 0.05-0.5 Hz is applied to both high-rate GPS data and strong motion data, with sampling rate of 0.1 sec. The fault plane parameters (strike 281 degrees, dip 24 degrees) derived from Global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) are used in the finite fault inversion. The results of our joint GPS and strong motion data inversion indicates two major slip patches. The first large-slip patch occurred just below the hypocenter propagating westward at a 15-25 km depth range. The second high-slip patch appeared at 5-10 km depth slipping westward under the western side of the erected structure shown by InSAR image. These two large-slip patches appeared to devoid of aftershock seismicity, which concentrated mainly at the low-slip zones.

  9. Geodetic slip solutions for the Mw = 7.4 Champerico (Guatemala) earthquake of 2012 November 7 and its postseismic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Andria P.; DeMets, Charles; Briole, Pierre; Molina, Enrique; Flores, Omar; Rivera, Jeffrey; Lasserre, Cécile; Lyon-Caen, Hélène; Lord, Neal

    2015-05-01

    As the first large subduction thrust earthquake off the coast of western Guatemala in the past several decades, the 2012 November 7 Mw = 7.4 earthquake offers the first opportunity to study coseismic and postseismic behaviour along a segment of the Middle America trench where frictional coupling makes a transition from weak coupling off the coast of El Salvador to strong coupling in southern Mexico. We use measurements at 19 continuous GPS sites in Guatemala, El Salvador and Mexico to estimate the coseismic slip and postseismic deformation of the November 2012 Champerico (Guatemala) earthquake. An inversion of the coseismic offsets, which range up to ˜47 mm at the surface near the epicentre, indicates that up to ˜2 m of coseismic slip occurred on a ˜30 × 30 km rupture area between ˜10 and 30 km depth, which is near the global CMT centroid. The geodetic moment of 13 × 1019 N m and corresponding magnitude of 7.4 both agree well with independent seismological estimates. Transient postseismic deformation that was recorded at 11 GPS sites is attributable to a combination of fault afterslip and viscoelastic flow in the lower crust and/or mantle. Modelling of the viscoelastic deformation suggests that it constituted no more than ˜30 per cent of the short-term postseismic deformation. GPS observations that extend six months after the earthquake are well fit by a model in which most afterslip occurred at the same depth or directly downdip from the rupture zone and released energy equivalent to no more than ˜20 per cent of the coseismic moment. An independent seismological slip solution that features more highly concentrated coseismic slip than our own fits the GPS offsets well if its slip centroid is translated ˜50 km to the west to a position close to our slip centroid. The geodetic and seismologic slip solutions thus suggest bounds of 2-7 m for the peak slip along a region of the interface no larger than 30 × 30 km.

  10. An example of triggered earthquakes in western Turkey: 2000-2015 Afyon-Akşehir Graben earthquake sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalafat, Doğan; Görgün, Ethem

    2017-09-01

    We investigate significant earthquake sequences in the observation period between 2000 and 2015 along the Afyon-Akşehir Graben system in western Anatolia. These sequences include a series of strong events with moment magnitudes (Mw) larger than 5.5, e.g. Eber (Mw 5.8), Sultandağı (Mw 6.5) and Çay (Mw 5.8) earthquakes. The mainshocks are shallow focus normal events at depths of 8-15 km. Focal depths of aftershocks range from 2 to 30 km. The focal mechanisms of the aftershocks are mainly normal faulting with variable strike-slip components. The geometry of focal mechanisms reveals a normal faulting regime with NNE-SSW trending direction of T-axis in the entire activated region. A stress tensor inversion of focal mechanism data is performed to acquire a more accurate picture of the Afyon-Akşehir Graben stress field. The stress tensor inversion results display a predominant normal stress regime with a NW-SE oriented maximum horizontal compressive stress (SH). According to high-resolution hypocenter relocations of the Afyon-Akşehir Graben seismic sequences, six clusters are revealed. The aftershock activities in the observation period between 17 January 2000 and 26 October 2015 extend from east to west direction. Seismic cross-sections show that a complex pattern of the hypocenter distribution with the activation of Sultandağı Fault segments. The western clusters are associated with a fault plane trending mainly E-W and dipping towards SE, while the eastern clusters are related to a fault plane trending NW-SE and dipping towards vertical. The best constrained focal depths are mainly confined in the crust (depth < 30 km) and run in the approximate depth range from 2 to 30 km. Moreover, Coulomb stress analysis is also performed to estimate the stress loading for the activated region. We obtain more than 3 bars for positive lobes. This result defines that the values are large enough to increase the Coulomb stress failure towards NE-SW direction.

  11. Coordinated observations of sprites and in-cloud lightning flash structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Gaopeng; Cummer, Steven A.; Li, Jingbo; Zigoneanu, Lucian; Lyons, Walter A.; Stanley, Mark A.; Rison, William; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Edens, Harald E.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Beasley, William H.; Weiss, Stephanie A.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bruning, Eric C.; Macgorman, Donald R.; Meyer, Tiffany C.; Palivec, Kevin; Ashcraft, Thomas; Samaras, Tim

    2013-06-01

    The temporal and spatial development of sprite-producing lightning flashes is examined with coordinated observations over an asymmetric mesoscale convective system (MCS) on 29 June 2011 near the Oklahoma Lightning Mapping Array (LMA). Sprites produced by a total of 26 lightning flashes were observed simultaneously on video from Bennett, Colorado and Hawley, Texas, enabling a triangulation of sprites in comparison with temporal development of parent lightning (in particular, negatively charged stepped leaders) in three-dimensional space. In general, prompt sprites produced within 20 ms after the causative stroke are less horizontally displaced (typically <30 km) from the ground stroke than delayed sprites, which usually occur over 40 ms after the stroke with significant lateral offsets (>30 km). However, both prompt and delayed sprites are usually centered within 30 km of the geometric center of relevant LMA sources (with affinity to negative stepped leaders) during the prior 100 ms interval. Multiple sprites appearing as dancing/jumping events associated with a single lightning flash could be produced either by distinct strokes of the flash, by a single stroke through a series of current surges superposed on an intense continuing current, or by both. Our observations imply that sprites elongated in one direction are sometimes linked to in-cloud leader structure with the same elongation, and sprites that were more symmetric were produced above the progression of multiple negative leaders. This suggests that the large-scale structure of sprites could be affected by the in-cloud geometry of positive charge removal. Based on an expanded dataset of 39 sprite-parent flashes by including more sprites recorded by one single camera over the same MCS, the altitude (above mean sea level, MSL) of positively charged cloud region tapped by sprite-producing strokes declined gradually from ~10 km MSL (-35°C) to around 6 km MSL (-10°C) as the MCS evolved through the mature stage

  12. Determination of depths to centroids of three-dimensional sources of potential-field anomalies with examples from environmental and geologic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravat, D.; Taylor, Patrick T.

    1998-09-01

    A method is developed for determining the depth to the centroid (the geometric center) of `semi-compact' sources. The method, called the anomaly attenuation rate (AAR) method, involves computing radial averages of AARs with increasing distances from a range of assumed source centers. For well-isolated magnetic anomalies from `semi-compact' sources, the theoretical AARs range from ˜2 (close to the sources) to ˜3 (in the far-field region); the corresponding theoretical range of AARs for gravity anomalies is ˜1 to ˜2. When the estimated source centroid is incorrect, the AARs either exceed or fall short of the theoretical values. The levelling-off of the far-field AARs near their theoretical maximum values indicates the upper (deeper) bound of the centroid location. Similarly, near-field AARs lower than the theoretical minimum indicate the lower (shallower) bound of the centroid location. It is not always possible to determine usable upper and lower bounds of the centroids because the method depends on characteristics of sources/anomalies and the noise level of the data. For the environmental magnetic examples considered in this study, the determined deeper bounds were within 4% of the true centroid-to-observation distance. For the case of the gravity anomaly from the Bloomfield Pluton, Missouri, USA, determination of only the shallower bound of the centroid location (˜7 km) was possible. This estimate agrees closely with the centroid of a previously determined three-dimensional model of the Bloomfield Pluton. For satellite magnetic anomalies, the method is appropriate only for high-amplitude, near-circular anomalies due to the inherent low signal-to-noise ratio of satellite magnetic anomalies. Model studies indicate that the AAR method is able to place depths within ±20-30 km of actual center locations from a 400-km observation altitude. Thus, the method may be able to discriminate between upper crustal, lower crustal, and mantle magnetic sources. The results

  13. Integrating Social Determinants of Health With Treatment and Prevention: A New Tool to Assess Local Area Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Thao M.; Arno, Peter S.; Hubel, Megan; Yi, Shirley; Viola, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the appropriate geographic scale to apply an area deprivation index (ADI), which reflects a geographic area’s level of socioeconomic deprivation and is associated with health outcomes, to identify and screen patients for social determinants of health. We estimated the relative strength of the association between the ADI at various geographic levels and a range of hospitalization rates by using age-adjusted odds ratios in an 8-county region of New York State. The 10-km local ADI estimates had the strongest associations with all hospitalization rates (higher odds ratios) followed by estimates at 20 km, 30 km, and the regional scale. A locally sensitive ADI is an ideal measure to identify and screen for the health care and social services needs and to advance the integration of social determinants of health with clinical treatment and disease prevention. PMID:27634778

  14. A summary of niobium and rare earth localities from Ha'il and other areas in western Saudi Arabia: a preliminary study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, John J.; Naqvi, Mohammed Ibne

    1978-01-01

    Investigations in 1965 located veins containing radioactive material in the Halaban Group on the east side of a granite pluton at Jabal Aja near Ha'il. Later study extended the known area of radioactivity to a total length of about 30 km. Mineralogic studies indicated that the samples were low in uranium and that the radioactivity was due principally to thorium in niobium-bearing minerals. Two samples were reexamined to identify the sources of radioactivity, but X-ray and alpha plate studies did not reveal the radioactive minerals, even though uranium mineralization was indicated by the alpha plates. Further sampling is suggested to isolate the sources of radioactivity. This study indicates that niobium occurrences are related to alkaline intrusives in many areas of western Saudi Arabia. These areas should be investigated for their possible niobium and rare earth contents; their uranium content is apparently too low to be of economic interest.

  15. Database for the Geologic Map of Newberry Volcano, Deschutes, Klamath, and Lake Counties, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bard, Joseph A.; Ramsey, David W.; MacLeod, Norman S.; Sherrod, David R.; Chitwood, Lawrence A.; Jensen, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Newberry Volcano, one of the largest Quaternary volcanoes in the conterminous United States, is a broad shield-shaped volcano measuring 60 km north-south by 30 km east-west with a maximum elevation of more than 2 km. Newberry Volcano is the product of deposits from thousands of eruptions, including at least 25 in the past approximately 12,000 years (Holocene Epoch). Newberry Volcano has erupted as recently as 1,300 years ago, but isotopic ages indicate that the volcano began its growth as early as 0.6 million years ago. Such a long eruptive history and recent activity suggest that Newberry Volcano is likely to erupt in the future. This geologic map database of Newberry Volcano distinguishes rocks and deposits based on their composition, age, and lithology.

  16. The South Pole Imaging Fabry Perot Interferometer (SPIFI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, G. J.; Bradford, C. M.; Swain, M. R.; Jackson, J. M.; Bolato, A. D.; Davidson, J. A.; Savage, M.

    1996-01-01

    The design and construction of the South Pole imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer (SPIFI) is reported. The SPIFI is a direct detection imaging spectrometer for use in the far infrared and submillimeter bands accessible to the 1.7 m telescope at the South Pole, and in the submillimeter bands accessible to the 15 m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), HI. It employs a 5 x 5 silicon bolometer array and three cryogenic Fabry Perot interferometers in series in order to achieve velocity resolutions of between 300 km/s and 30 km/s over the entire field of view with a resolution of up to 1 km/s at the center pixel. The scientific justification for the instrument is discussed, considering the spectral lines available to SPIFI. The optical path, the cryogenic Fabry-Perot, the adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator and the detector array are described. The instrument's sensitivity is presented and compared with coherent systems.

  17. The Evolution of the Stratopause During the 2006 Major Warming: Satellite Data and Assimilated Meteorological Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, Gloria L.; Krueger, Kirstin; Pawson, Steven; Schwartz, Michael J.; Daffer, William H.; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Remsberg, Ellis E.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M., III; Waters, Joe W.

    2007-01-01

    Microwave Limb Sounder and Sounding of the Atmosphere with Broadband Emission Radiometry data show the polar stratopause, usually higher than and separated from that at midlatitudes, dropping from <55-60 to near 30 km, and cooling dramatically in January 2006 during a major stratospheric sudden warming (SSW). After a nearly isothermal period, a cool stratopause reforms near 75 km in early February, then drops to <55 km and warms. The stratopause is separated in longitude as well as latitude, with lowest temperatures in the transition regions between higher and lower stratopauses. Operational assimilated meteorological analyses, which are not constrained by data at stratopause altitude, do not capture a secondary temperature maximum that overlies the stratopause or the very high stratopause that reforms after the SSW; they underestimate the stratopause altitude variation during the SSW. High-quality daily satellite temperature measurements are invaluable in improving our understanding of stratopause evolution and its representation in models and assimilation systems.

  18. Rapid and widespread dispersal of flood sediment on the northern California margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheatcroft, R.A.; Sommerfield, C.K.; Drake, D.E.; Borgeld, J.C.; Nittrouer, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    The dispersal of flood sediment from small river systems is a poorly studied, yet potentially important aspect of active continental-margin sedimentation. In January 1995, during a flood with a 30 yr return period, the Eel River (northern California) delivered an estimated 25 ?? 3 ?? 106 t (metric tons) of tine-grained (<62 ??m) sediment to the ocean. The flood formed a distinct layer on the sea bed that was centered on the 70 m isobath, extended for 30 km along shelf and 8 km across shelf, and was as thick as 8.5 cm, but contained only 6 ?? 106 t of sediment. Thus, 75% of the flood-derived sediment did not form a recount/able deposit, but was instead rapidly and widely dispersed over the continental margin. Stratigraphic models of, and compilations of sediment flux to, active continental margins need to take the dispersive nature of small river systems into account.

  19. Characterization of acidic precipitation in the Adirondack region

    SciTech Connect

    Johannes, A.H.; Altwicker, E.R.; Clesceri, N.L.

    1981-05-01

    Atmospheric inputs into three lake watersheds within a 30 km radius of each other in the Adirondack Park region of New York State were quantified for the period May 1978-August 1979. This was accomplished with a wet/dry precipitation network which collected samples on an event basis. Rain and snow amounts were measured and samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity, SO/sub 4/, NO/sub 3/, Cl, NH/sub 4/, Ca, Mg, K, and Na. Precipitation quantity and quality for the three watersheds was found to be similar, on a monthly or yearly basis, but individual events would occasionally show wide fluctuation in both manners across the network. Dry deposition made significant contributions (10 to 30%) to the total atmospheric loading to these basins.

  20. Fiskenaesset Anorthosite Complex: Stable isotope evidence for shallow emplacement into Archean ocean crust

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, W.H.; Valley, J.W.

    1996-06-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios indicate that unusual rocks at the upper contact of the Archean Fiskenaesset Anorthosite Complex at Fiskenaesset Harbor (southwest Greenland) are the products of hydrothermal alteration by seawater at the time of anorthosite intrusion. Subsequent granulite-facies metamorphism of these Ca-poor and Al- and Mg-rich rocks produced sapphirine- and kornerupine-bearing assemblages. Because large amounts of surface waters cannot penetrate to depths of 30 km during granulite-facies metamorphism, the isotopic signature of the contact rocks must have been obtained prior to regional metamorphism. The stable isotope and geochemical characteristics of the contact rocks support a model of shallow emplacement into Archean ocean crust for the Fiskenaesset Anorthosite Complex. 45 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Influence of Idealized Heterogeneity on Wet and Dry Planetary Boundary Layers Coupled to the Land Surface. 1; Instantaneous Fields and Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houser, Paul (Technical Monitor); Patton, Edward G.; Sullivan, Peter P.; Moeng, Chin-Hoh

    2003-01-01

    This is the first in a two-part series of manuscripts describing numerical experiments on the influence of 2-30 km striplike heterogeneity on wet and dry boundary layers coupled to the land surface. The strip-like heterogeneity is shown to dramatically alter the structure of the free-convective boundary layer by inducing significant organized circulations that modify turbulent statistics. The coupling with the land-surface modifies the circulations compared to previous studies using fixed surface forcing. Total boundary layer turbulence kinetic energy increases significantly for surface heterogeneity at scales between Lambda/z(sub i) = 4 and 9, however entrainment rates for all cases are largely unaffected by the strip-like heterogeneity.

  2. High resolution imaging of the Venus night side using a Rockwell 128x128 HgCdTe array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodapp, K.-W.; Sinton, W.; Ragent, B.; Allen, D.

    1989-01-01

    The University of Hawaii operates an infrared camera with a 128x128 HgCdTe detector array on loan from JPL's High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS) project. The characteristics of this camera system are discussed. The infrared camera was used to obtain images of the night side of Venus prior to and after inferior conjunction in 1988. The images confirm Allen and Crawford's (1984) discovery of bright features on the dark hemisphere of Venus visible in the H and K bands. Our images of these features are the best obtained to date. Researchers derive a pseudo rotation period of 6.5 days for these features and 1.74 microns brightness temperatures between 425 K and 480 K. The features are produced by nonuniform absorption in the middle cloud layer (47 to 57 Km altitude) of thermal radiation from the lower Venus atmosphere (20 to 30 Km altitude). A more detailed analysis of the data is in progress.

  3. Interpreting the Mg IIh andk Line Profiles of Mira Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, B. E.; Karovska, M.

    2000-11-01

    We use radiative transfer calculations to reproduce the basic appearance of Mg II lines observed from Mira variables. These lines have centroids that are blueshifted by at least 30 km s-1 from the stellar rest frame. It is unlikely that flow velocities in the stellar atmospheres are this fast, so radiative transfer effects must be responsible for this behavior. Published hydrodynamic models predict the existence of cool, downflowing material above the shocked material responsible for the Mg II emission, and we demonstrate that scattering in this layer can result in Mg II profiles as highly blueshifted as those that are observed. However, our models also show that scattering within the shock plays an equally strong role in shaping the Mg II profiles, and our calculations illustrate the importance of partial redistribution and the effects of being out of ionization equilibrium.

  4. On the relative need for satellite remote soundings and rocket soundings of the upper atmosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiroz, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    A review of engineering and research data requirements for altitudes 30-100 km is made, indicating a variety of concrete data applications above 30 km (10 mb). The required data have in large measure been provided from meteorological rocket soundings, of which 18,000 have been taken, at considerable cost, since 1959. Remote vertical soundings based on satellite infrared radiation measurements have been obtained since 1969 with considerable success to an altitude of 25 km (30 mb). From developmental work in progress, it is expected that reliable temperature soundings may be obtained to 40-45 km. A discussion of the overall reliability and utility of the satellite data leads to several conclusions regarding the continuing need for rocket soundings.

  5. Measurements of solar transition zone velocities and line broadening using the ultraviolet spectrometer and polarimeter on the Solar Maximum Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, G.; Mein, P.; Vial, J. C.; Shine, R. A.; Woodgate, B. E.

    1982-01-01

    The UVSP instrument on SMM is able to observe solar regions at two wavelengths in the same line with a band-pass of 0.3 A. Intensity and Doppler velocity maps are derived. It is shown that the numerical values are sensitive to the adopted Doppler width and the range of velocities is limited to within 30 km/sec. A method called Double Dopplergram Determination (DDD) is described for deriving both the Doppler width and the velocity (up to 80 km/sec), and the main sources of uncertainties are discussed. To illustrate the method, a set of C IV 1548 A observations is analyzed according to this procedure. The mean C IV Doppler width measured (0.15 A) is comparable to previous determinations. A relation is found between bright regions and down-flows. Large Doppler widths correspond to strong velocity gradients.

  6. Detection of the CO (J = 7 = 6) rotational transition at lambda = 0. 37 millimeters toward Orion

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, G.V.; Durwen, E.J.; Roeser, H.P.; Wattenbach, R.; Sherwood, W.A.

    1985-04-01

    The J = 7 = 6 rotational transition of carbon monoxide has been detected toward the Kleinmann-Low nebula. The peak antenna temperature is 110 + or - 35 K centered at V(LSR) = + 5 km/s; the FWHM line width is 35 + or - 5 km/s, and its optical depth is not greater than 0.3. The integrated intensity of the line between - 20 and + 30 km/s leads to a total flux density of (2.5 + or - 0.5) x 10 to the -14th W/sq m in a beam of 35 + or - 5 arsec. No spike feature is seen at + 9 km/s. 22 references.

  7. Cambrian nepheline syenite complex at Jabal Sawda, Midyan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liddicoat, W.K.; Ramsay, C.R.; Hedge, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    The only nepheline syenite complex presently known in the Arabian Shield is at Jabal Sawda, about 30 km S of Haql in the extreme NW of Saudi Arabia. It is a post-tectonic, composite intrusion with a crudely concentric structure. A core of leuco-nepheline syenite, a partial ring of mela-nepheline syenite, and an almost complete outer ring of alkali-feldspar syenite are the main rock units. Several mega-inclusions of porphyritic nepheline syenite, nepheline monzosyenite, malignite and ijolite are present in the leuco-nepheline syenite. The chemical composition is notable for very high values of Al2O3, Na2O, Ba, La, Nb, Sr and Zr. U{single bond}Pb isotope dating indicates an emplacement age of 553 ?? 4 Ma, one of an increasing number of reliable Cambrian isotope dates in the northern Red Sea region. ?? 1986.

  8. The analysis of temporal variations in regional models of the Sargasso Sea from GEOS-3 altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, R. S.; Coleman, R.; Hirsch, B.

    1978-01-01

    The dense coverage of short pulse mode GEOS-3 altimeter data in the western North Atlantic provides a basis for studying time variations in the sea surface heights in the Sargasso Sea. Two techniques are utilized: the method of regional models, and the analysis of overlapping passes. An 88 percent correlation is obtained between the location of cyclonic eddies obtained from infrared imagery and sea surface height minima in the altimeter models. This figure drops to 59 percent in the case of correlations with maxima and minima of surface temperature fields. The analysis of overlapping passes provides a better picture of instantaneous sea state through wavelengths greater than 30 km. The variability of the Sargasso Sea through wavelengths between 150 km and 5000 km is estimated at + or - 28 cm. This value is in reasonable agreement with oceanographic estimates and is compatible with the eddy kinetic energy of a wind driven circulation.

  9. The resolution dependency of atmospheric blocking in the aqua-planet experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, T.

    2015-12-01

    Quasi-stationary planetary waves forced by topography or other zonally asymmetric features are usually suggested to be essential for blocking formation; however, we found the 2-D feature of blocking could also occur frequently without these precondition. In a set of aqua-planet simulations with setting of perpetual spring, the blocking feature is identified through a combination of meridional height gradient and 2-D height anomaly. The general distribution resembles the Pacific blocking, but more equatorward. The resolution sensitivity experiment suggests that, associated with the poleward shift of the subtropical jet stream, the blocking activity also moves northward with higher resolution, and converges between 60km and 30km. The blocking with finer resolution also shows a more realistic characteristic timesale. By utilizing the wave activity budget analysis, it is found that, in the decay stage, the effective diffusivity would be much larger, thus the blocking waves are absorbed more efficiently by the mean flow.

  10. Giotto-IMS observations of ion flow velocities and temperatures outside the contact surface of Comet Halley. [Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, B. E.; Neugebauer, M.; Balsiger, H.; Drake, J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Goldstein, R.; Ip, WING-H.; Rettenmund, U.; Rosenbauer, H.; Schwenn, R.

    1986-01-01

    Fluid parameters for He(++) ions obtained from the Giotto ion mass spectrometer are presented. Proton densities and velocities and thermal speeds of protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions in the hour before closest approach are discussed. A region of enhanced He(++) ion densities, and velocity, and decreased temperature is observed from 20:26 to 21:45. Sharp decreases in the proton density are observed at 23:30 and at 23:41. There is a relative flow velocity between alpha particles and oxygen ions of 30 km/sec during a period from 22:55 to 23:30; the difference in flow velocity is less than the experimental uncertainities. The flow properties of protons observed during this period are also discussed.

  11. TOWARD A NEW GEOMETRIC DISTANCE TO THE ACTIVE GALAXY NGC 4258. III. FINAL RESULTS AND THE HUBBLE CONSTANT

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, E. M. L.; Reid, M. J.; Moran, J. M.; Greenhill, L. J.; Argon, A. L.

    2013-09-20

    We report a new geometric maser distance estimate to the active galaxy NGC 4258. The data for the new model are maser line-of-sight (LOS) velocities and sky positions from 18 epochs of very long baseline interferometry observations, and LOS accelerations measured from a 10 yr monitoring program of the 22 GHz maser emission of NGC 4258. The new model includes both disk warping and confocal elliptical maser orbits with differential precession. The distance to NGC 4258 is 7.60 {+-} 0.17 {+-} 0.15 Mpc, a 3% uncertainty including formal fitting and systematic terms. The resulting Hubble constant, based on the use of the Cepheid variables in NGC 4258 to recalibrate the Cepheid distance scale, is H{sub 0} = 72.0 {+-} 3.0 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1}.

  12. Survival of the impactor during hypervelocity collisions - II. An analogue for high-porosity targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdellidou, C.; Price, M. C.; Delbo, M.; Cole, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated how a target's porosity affects the outcome of a collision, with respect to the impactor's fate. Laboratory impact experiments using peridot projectiles were performed at a speed range between 0.3 and 3.0 km s-1, on to high-porosity water-ice (40 per cent) and fine-grained calcium carbonate (70 per cent) targets. We report that the amount of implanted material in the target body increases with increasing target's porosity, while the size frequency distribution of the projectile's ejecta fragments becomes steeper. A supplementary Raman study showed no sign of change of the Raman spectra of the recovered olivine projectile fragments indicate minimal physical change.

  13. Climate change and atmospheric chemistry: how will the stratospheric ozone layer develop?

    PubMed

    Dameris, Martin

    2010-10-25

    The discovery of the ozone hole over Antarctica in 1985 was a surprise for science. For a few years the reasons of the ozone hole was speculated about. Soon it was obvious that predominant meteorological conditions led to a specific situation developing in this part of the atmosphere: Very low temperatures initiate chemical processes that at the end cause extreme ozone depletion at altitudes of between about 15 and 30 km. So-called polar stratospheric clouds play a key role. Such clouds develop at temperatures below about 195 K. Heterogeneous chemical reactions on cloud particles initiate the destruction of ozone molecules. The future evolution of the ozone layer will not only depend on the further development of concentrations of ozone-depleting substances, but also significantly on climate change.

  14. Two-dimensional model studies of the effect of supersonic aircraft operations on the stratospheric ozone content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, R. C.; Borucki, W. J.; Poppoff, I. G.; Latt, L.; Widhopf, G. F.; Capone, L. A.; Reigel, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    For a fleet of 250 aircraft, the change in the ozone column is predicted to be very close to zero; in fact, the ozone overburden may actually increase as a result of show that above 25 to 30 km the ozone abundance decreases via catalytic destruction, but at lower heights it increases, mainly as a result of coupling with odd hydrogen species. Water vapor released in the engine exhaust is predicted to cause ozone decreases; for the hypothetical engines used in the study, the total column ozone changes due to water vapor emission largely offset the predicted ozone increases due to NOx emission. The actual effect of water vapor may be less than calculated because present models do not include thermal feedback. Feedback refers to the cooling effect of additional water vapor that would tend to slow the NOx reactions which destroy ozone.

  15. L-Band Radiometer Experiment in the SMOS Test Site Upper Danube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlenz, Florian; Gebhardt, Timo; Loew, Alexander; Marzahn, Philip; Mauser, Wolfram

    2010-12-01

    In the frame of calibration and validation activities for ESA's soil moisture and ocean salinity mission, SMOS, the University of Munich operates a ground based L-band radiometer (ELBARA II) at 1.4 GHz to test and validate the radiative transfer model L-MEB also used in the SMOS Level 2 processor. The radiometer is situated on a test site near Puch, about 30 km west of Munich in the Upper Danube watershed in southern Germany in a temperate agricultural area. It is mounted on a scaffolding that allows to rotate the antenna which enables it to look at 2 different fields with grass and winter rape as land use respectively. In addition to the radiometer, a variety of complementary sensors are installed measuring all important meteorological and hydrological parameters. First datasets of the radiometer experiment are presented.

  16. An empirical model for estimating the atmospheric transmittance of upward infrared radiation at different altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Qiumin; Fang, Xiande; Zhao, Yingjie; Xing, Daoming

    2016-12-01

    The upward infrared (IR) radiation is one of the most important factors that affect the thermal characteristics of light-than-air (LTA) vehicles. Therefore, it is necessary to propose an accurate model to evaluate the upward atmospheric transmittance. The upward IR atmospheric transmittances of 6 different atmospheric models at the altitude from sea level to 30 km are obtained from the MODTRAN atmospheric radiative transfer code. Based on the data, a new upward IR atmospheric transmittance correlation related to pressure and vertical water column is proposed by regression analysis. It has excellent prediction accuracy with the coefficient of determination of 0.928, the root mean square error of 0.028, and the mean absolute percentage error of 2.68% for the database. Based on the new correlation, the thermal characteristics of a stratospheric airship located in tropics in midsummer are numerical studied and discussed.

  17. Geomorphic characteristics for Amazonian dike swarms emplaced in Utopia basin, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, G. B. M.; Head, J.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract Hundreds of narrow, linear ridge segments are found in the transition zone between Elysium Rise and Utopia basin. Five multiple ridge systems are identified having lengths ranging from 15-45km and being between 1-7 km wide, while the length of single ridges approximately are 30km and vary between 100-400m wide. The linear ridges are interpreted to be dikes and the multiple ridge systems are interpreted to be dike swarms. The finding of yardangs and different stages of inverted craters indicate that erosion of units has taken place in the area making it feasible that normal dikes have been exposed. However, evidence for möberg ridges has been reported within the area making subglacial intrusions plausible, too. The dikes are both modifying and constraining Early Amazonian flows suggesting intense dike emplacement in the transition zone between Utopia Basin and Elysium Rise in the Early Amazonian.

  18. Ozone isotope measurements in the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauersberger, K.

    1987-01-01

    Mass spectrometer measurements of ozone made during two balloon flights included its heavy isotopes at mass 49 and 50. Both flights were flown during the day and during summer from Palestine, TX. At float altitudes above 42 km the enrichments in heavy ozone were 41 percent and 23 percent, respectively. The enrichment appears to be mass independent since, at high altitudes, both 49 and 50 show the same enhancement. During the descent the enrichment in heavy ozone decreased, faster during the first flight than during the second, reaching values between 15 and 20 percent above 30 km. Near and below this altitude another increase is observed. During a night flight, previously reported, an enhancement in heavy ozone of over 40 percent at 32 km was found, decreasing both toward higher and lower altitudes.

  19. Large transverse momenta in nuclear interaction at E{sub 0} > 10{sup 16} eV detected in stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Managadze, A. K. Osedlo, V. I.; Roganova, T. M.; Sveshnikova, L. G.; Galkin, V. I.; Rakobolskaya, I. V.; Goncharova, L. A.; Kotelnikov, K. A.; Polukhina, N. G.

    2007-01-15

    A gamma-hadron superfamily of cosmic-rays created by a primary cosmic-ray particle with energy above 10{sup 16} eV was detected at an altitude of 30 km by a stratospheric balloon-borne emulsion chamber. Being of superhigh energy, this event is the unique example in the world statistics of practically pure nuclear interactions in the energy range unattainable for modern accelerators. The present analysis allowed one to estimate the interaction height above the chamber and transverse momenta of the secondaries produced in the interaction. The mean value of transverse momenta appears to be very large ( > 2.5 GeV/c)

  20. Peculiar high energy cosmic ray stratospheric event reveals a heavy primary origin particle above the knee region of the cosmic ray spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Kopenkin, V.; Fujimoto, Y.

    2005-01-15

    We wish to put forward an explanation for a peculiar cosmic ray event with energy {sigma}E{sub {gamma}}{>=}2x10{sup 15} eV detected in 1975 by the balloon borne emulsion chamber experiment performed in the stratosphere, at the altitude {>=}30 km above sea level. For almost 30 years the event has been described as unusual, invoking new exotic mechanisms or models. In our opinion there is no need for an extraordinary explanation. Contrary to the widespread belief, the event gives us an example of 'unrecognized standard physics'. At the same time this event revealed a variety of features which are of considerable interest for cosmic rays, nuclear physics, and astrophysics. Here we show that the observed family is most likely to be a result of a heavy nucleus interaction with an air nucleus. In this case a primary particle would originally have been in the energy region above 'the knee' of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  1. Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulations of Equatorial Spread F: Results and Observations in the Pacific Sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aveiro, H. C.; Hysell, D. L.; Caton, R. G.; Groves, K. M.; Klenzing, J.; Pfaff, R. F.; Stoneback, R.; Heelis, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical simulation of plasma density irregularities in the postsunset equatorial F region ionosphere leading to equatorial spread F (ESF) is described. The simulation evolves under realistic background conditions including bottomside plasma shear flow and vertical current. It also incorporates C/NOFS satellite data which partially specify the forcing. A combination of generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability (GRT) and collisional shear instability (CSI) produces growing waveforms with key features that agree with C/NOFS satellite and ALTAIR radar observations in the Pacific sector, including features such as gross morphology and rates of development. The transient response of CSI is consistent with the observation of bottomside waves with wavelengths close to 30 km, whereas the steady state behavior of the combined instability can account for the 100+ km wavelength waves that predominate in the F region.

  2. The Haida Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Richard E.; Emery, William J.

    1986-01-01

    We present evidence for a narrow, poleward flowing surface current over the continental slope of northwestern British Columbia and southwestern Alaska. Named for a prominent native Indian tribe of the region, the Haida Current occurs predominantly between October and April. Maximal flow takes place in midwinter from November through February. Characteristic features of the current include a minimal extent of 200-300 km, a width of 20-30 km, a depth scale of 500 m, and near-surface temperature signatures of up to +1°C within the core of the current, as well as large-amplitude O(10 km) mesoscale waves and eddies along its flank. The wind stress and alongshore sea surface slope are shown to be the primary driving mechanisms for the current.

  3. Comparison of Temperature and Ozone Measured by the AROTEL Instrument on DC8 Overflights of Ny Aalesund during the SOLVE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoegy, Walter R.; McGee, Thomas J.; Burris, John F.; Heaps, William; Silbert, Donald; Sumnicht, Grant; Twigg, Laurence; Neuber, Roland

    2000-01-01

    The AROTEL instrument, deployed on the NASA DC-8 at Kiruna, Sweden for the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE), flew over the NDSC station operated by the Alfred Wegner Institute at Ny Aalesund, Spitsbergen. AROTEL ozone and temperature measurements made during near overflights of Ny Aalesund are compared with sonde ozone and temperature, and lidar ozone measurements from the NDSC station. Nine of the seventeen science flights during the December through March measurement period overflew near Ny Aalesund. Agreement of AROTEL with the ground-based temperature and ozone values at altitudes from just above the aircraft to about 30 km gives strong confidence in using AROTEL temperature and ozone mixing ratio to study the mechanisms of ozone loss in the winter arctic polar region.

  4. Variation in the stratospheric aerosol associated with the North Cyclonic Polar Vortex as measured by the SAM II satellite sensor. [Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kent, G. S.; Farrukh, U. O.; Trepte, C. R.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    Optical depth data gathered by the stratospheric aerosol measurement (SAM II) satellite during the 1979-80 winter season are analyzed to study mean atmospheric motions. The spacecraft photometer yielded extinction rates over the Northern Hemisphere in the 8-30 km altitude interval. Filtering was performed to remove the effects of high clouds and polar stratospheric clouds. Free horizontal mixing was prevalent below 14 km, as was a systematic difference across the polar jet stream above that altitude. The aerosol declined in altitude as the winter progressed. The polar vortex is concluded to have a base at the 14 km altitude and an outer boundary which coincides with the jet stream axis. The model accords with atmospheric tracer measurements made during the open-air nuclear testing programs in the 1950s.

  5. Path-averaged rainfall estimation using microwave links: Uncertainty due to spatial rainfall variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berne, A.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2007-04-01

    Microwave links can be used to estimate the path-averaged rain rate along the link when precipitation occurs. They take advantage of the near proportionality between the specific attenuation affecting the link signal and the rain rate. This paper deals with the influence of the spatial variability of rainfall along the link on the accuracy of the rainfall estimates. We focus on single-polarization single-frequency links operating at frequencies ranging from 5 to 50 GHz and with path lengths ranging from 500 m to 30 km. A stochastic simulation framework is used to investigate the frequency at which the linearity occurs (found to be about 30 GHz) for intense Mediterranean precipitation. In addition, the error associated with path-averaged rain rate estimates is being quantified. For instance, the bias is found to be in the order of -15% with an uncertainty of about 10% for microwave links described in the recent literature.

  6. Genetic consequences of radioactive contamination for populations of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Abramov, V I; Fedorenko, O M; Shevchenko, V A

    1992-02-01

    Populations of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. growing within a 30 km radius of Chernobyl and characterized by radioactive contamination levels ranging from 0.02 to 240 mR h-1 were analyzed for the frequency of embryonic lethal mutations in 1987 and 1988. Plots that retained high levels of radioactive contamination long after the initial exposure were characterized by a high frequency of mutant plants. Plots with low levels of radioactive contamination, which were significantly reduced soon after exposure, were characterized by a decrease in the initially high proportion of mutant plants. Populations of Arabidopsis exposed to insignificant radioactive contamination showed no increase in the frequency of mutant plants; mutation levels were comparable to those found in control plants.

  7. A study of regional waveform calibration in the eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Luccio, F.; Pino, N. A.; Thio, H. K.

    2003-06-01

    We modeled P nl phases from several moderate magnitude earthquakes in the eastern Mediterranean to test methods and develop path calibrations for determining source parameters. The study region, which extends from the eastern part of the Hellenic arc to the eastern Anatolian fault, is dominated by moderate earthquakes that can produce significant damage. Our results are useful for analyzing regional seismicity as well as seismic hazard, because very few broadband seismic stations are available in the selected area. For the whole region we have obtained a single velocity model characterized by a 30 km thick crust, low upper mantle velocities and a very thin lid overlaying a distinct low velocity layer. Our preferred model proved quite reliable for determining focal mechanism and seismic moment across the entire range of selected paths. The source depth is also well constrained, especially for moderate earthquakes.

  8. A catalog of rotational and radial velocities for evolved stars. V. Southern stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Medeiros, J. R.; Alves, S.; Udry, S.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Mayor, M.

    2014-01-01

    Rotational and radial velocities have been measured for 1589 evolved stars of spectral types F, G, and K and luminosity classes IV, III, II, and Ib, based on observations carried out with the CORAVEL spectrometers. The precision in radial velocity is better than 0.30 km s-1 per observation, whereas rotational velocity uncertainties are typically 1.0 km s-1 for subgiants and giants and 2.0 km s-1 for class II giants and Ib supergiants. Based on observations collected at the Haute-Provence Observatory, Saint-Michel, France, and at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/561/A126

  9. Goddard high-resolution spectrograph observations of narrow discrete stellar wind absorption features in the ultraviolet spectrum of the O7.5 III star Xi Persei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, Steven N.; Altner, Bruce; Bolton, C. T.; Cardelli, Jason A.; Ebbets, Dennis C.

    1993-01-01

    We report the observation of transient narrow absorption components (NACs) in the stellar wind of the O giant Xi Per. Two sets of GHRS observations of the Si IV ultraviolet resonance doublet have been obtained. These features are extremely weak, with column densities of approximately 10 exp 12/sq cm and optical depths of order 0.1. The features are narrow, less than 30 km/s, and seem to occur in groups. If the NACs are due to the 1393 A component, they represent previously undetected low-velocity discrete absorption components at V(rad) below -600 km/s. If they are high-velocity features on the 1402 A doublet component, they may represent the decay phase of the discrete absorption components at the terminal velocity. In either case, they are a new aspect of the NAC phenomenon that could not have been detected with previous ultraviolet spectrographs.

  10. The planetary waves dynamics and interannual course of meteorological parameters of the high latitude stratosphere and mesosphere of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres during the 20th and 21st solar cycles and different phases of QBO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidiyarova, V. G.; Fomina, N. N.

    1989-01-01

    The part of energy of the planetary waves which enters the stratosphere depends on conditions of planetary wave generation and propagation through the tropopause, and the part of planetary wave energy which enters the mesosphere depends on conditions of planetary wave propagation through the stratopause. An attempt is made to estimate connections between extratropical middle atmosphere temperature long term variations and portions of energy of planetary waves which enter the mesosphere and stratosphere during winter seasons in Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Interannual variations of temperatures at the 30 km and 70 km levels are investigated for the central winter months of the period 1970 to 1986. This period includes the descending branch of the 20th solar cycle and the whole 21st cycle. Calculations are made on the basis of measurements at Heiss Island and Molodezhnaya.

  11. Comparison of Observed Temperature and Wind in Mountainous and Coastal Regions in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y. S.

    2015-12-01

    For more than one year, temperature and wind are observed at several levels in three different environments in Korea. First site is located in a ski jump stadium in a mountain area and observations are performed at 5 heights. Second site is located in an agricultural land 1.4km inland from the seaside and the observing tower is 300m tall. Third site is located in the middle of sea 30km away from the seaside and the tower is 100m tall. The vertical gradients of air temperature are compared on the daily and seasonal bases. Not only the strengths of atmospheric stability are analyzed but also the times when the turnover of the signs of vertical gradients of temperature are occurred. The comparison is also applied to vertical gradients of wind speed and turning of wind direction due to surface slope and sea/land breeze. This study may suggest characteristics of local climate over different environments quantitatively.

  12. The Liege-balloon program. [balloon-borne instruments for high-spectral resolution observations of the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zander, R.

    1974-01-01

    The Liege-balloon program is intended to make high-spectral resolution observations of the sun in the near- and intermediate infrared regions not accessible from the ground. A description of the equipment, followed by a summary of the data obtained till now is presented. Except for ozone whose maximum of concentration lies near 25 Km altitude, the residual mass distribution of the other mentioned molecules decreases with altitude. This is a self-explanatory argument for carrying out spectroscopic observations from platforms transcending the densest layers of the earth's atmosphere. The Liege balloon equipment is primarily intended for very high-resolution solar observations from about 27-30 Km altitude, in all spectral regions between 1.5 and 15.0 microns, not accessible from the ground.

  13. Plasmadynamic hypervelocity dust injector for the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ticoş, Cǎtǎlin M.; Wang, Zhehui; Dorf, Leonid A.; Wurden, Glen A.

    2006-10-01

    The design and construction of a plasmadynamic device to accelerate dust to hypervelocities is presented. High speed dust will be used to measure magnetic field lines in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. The plasma gun produces a high density (ne≈1018cm-3) and low temperature (a few eV) deuterium plasma, ejected by J ×B forces which provide drag on the dust particles in its path. The dust will be entrained by the plasma to velocities of 1-30km/s, depending on the dust mass. Carbon dust particles will be used, with diameters from 1to50μm. The key components of the plasmadynamic accelerator are a coaxial plasma gun operated at 10kV (with an estimated discharge current of 200kA), a dust dispenser activated by a piezoelectric transducer, and power and remote-control systems.

  14. The vulnerability of the Strait of Georgia (Canada) to future hypoxia and ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ianson, Debby; Allen, Susan; Moore-Maley, Ben; Haigh, Rowan; Johannessen, Sophia; Macdonald, Robie; Krogh, Jeremy; Simpson, Eleanor; Kohfeld, Karen; Hamme, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    The Canadian Pacific coast is filled with fjords and islands. Circulation in the region is dynamic, so that large changes in acidity (pH) and oxygen may occur both in space and time. The Strait of Georgia (Canada) is a large (200 X 30 km) semi-enclosed basin, that has relatively low pH with respect to the adjacent outer coast and yet hosts a lucrative aquaculture industry. On the other hand this region is relatively well oxygenated due to gas exchange in the turbulent (tidal) flow in the narrow Straits with sills connecting it with the outer coast. We investigate the role that this intense gas exchange plays in protecting the Strait of Georgia from future hypoxia and ocean acidification. Finally, we contrast surface water properties (including dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity) measured on large ships with those measured nearshore and at shore-based aquaculture sites within the Strait.

  15. ACE infrared spectral atlases of the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Ryan; Bernath, Peter; Boone, Chris

    2014-11-01

    Five infrared atmospheric atlases are presented using solar occultation spectra from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) in low earth orbit. The spectral atlases were created for Arctic summer, Arctic winter, mid-latitude summer, mid-latitude winter and the tropics. Each covers the spectral range from 700 to 4400 cm-1 and consists of 31 spectra that span an altitude range of 6-126 km in 4-km altitude intervals. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio, each spectrum in the atlas is an average of at least several hundred individual ACE-FTS limb transmission spectra. Representative plots in pdf format at 10 km (troposphere), 30 km (stratosphere), 70 km (mesosphere), and 110 km (lower thermosphere) are also available.

  16. Engineering trade studies for a quantum key distribution system over a 30  km free-space maritime channel.

    PubMed

    Gariano, John; Neifeld, Mark; Djordjevic, Ivan

    2017-01-20

    Here, we present the engineering trade studies of a free-space optical communication system operating over a 30 km maritime channel for the months of January and July. The system under study follows the BB84 protocol with the following assumptions: a weak coherent source is used, Eve is performing the intercept resend attack and photon number splitting attack, prior knowledge of Eve's location is known, and Eve is allowed to know a small percentage of the final key. In this system, we examine the effect of changing several parameters in the following areas: the implementation of the BB84 protocol over the public channel, the technology in the receiver, and our assumptions about Eve. For each parameter, we examine how different values impact the secure key rate for a constant brightness. Additionally, we will optimize the brightness of the source for each parameter to study the improvement in the secure key rate.

  17. Structural Data for the Columbus Salt Marsh Geothermal Area - GIS Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2011-12-31

    Shapefiles and spreadsheets of structural data, including attitudes of faults and strata and slip orientations of faults. - Detailed geologic mapping of ~30 km2 was completed in the vicinity of the Columbus Marsh geothermal field to obtain critical structural data that would elucidate the structural controls of this field. - Documenting E‐ to ENE‐striking left lateral faults and N‐ to NNE‐striking normal faults. - Some faults cut Quaternary basalts. - This field appears to occupy a displacement transfer zone near the eastern end of a system of left‐lateral faults. ENE‐striking sinistral faults diffuse into a system of N‐ to NNE‐striking normal faults within the displacement transfer zone. - Columbus Marsh therefore corresponds to an area of enhanced extension and contains a nexus of fault intersections, both conducive for geothermal activity.

  18. Patagonia Glacier, Chile

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-07-21

    This ASTER image was acquired on May 2, 2000 over the North Patagonia Ice Sheet, Chile near latitude 47 degrees south, longitude 73 degrees west. The image covers 36 x 30 km. The false color composite displays vegetation in red. The image dramatically shows a single large glacier, covered with crevasses. A semi-circular terminal moraine indicates that the glacier was once more extensive than at present. ASTER data are being acquired over hundreds of glaciers worldwide to measure their changes over time. Since glaciers are sensitive indicators of warming or cooling, this program can provide global data set critical to understand climate change. This image is located at 46.5 degrees south latitude and 73.9 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02670

  19. High resolution Halpha spectroscopy and R-band photometry of Swift J1357.2-0933

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casares, Jorge; Torres, Manuel A. P.; Negueruela, Ignacio; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Carlos; Corral-Santana, Jesus M.; Zurita, Cristina; Llano, Sergio Rodriguez

    2011-03-01

    We report on high resolution Halpha spectroscopy and time-resolved photometry of the optical counterpart to the X-ray transient Swift J1357.2-0933 in outburst (Krimm et al. ATEL #3138). SPECTROSCOPY: Six 30-33 min spectra were obtained on the nights of 2011 Feb 25-27 using the IDS Spectrograph on the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) at the Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos. The observations were performed with the H1800V grating and a slit width 1.6 arcsec to yield a spectral coverage of 6270-7000 Angs with a 30 km/s FWHM spectral resolution at Halpha..

  20. Retrieval Of Stratospheric Aerosol Properties From Sciamachy Limb Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorner, Steffen; Pukite, Janis; Kuhl, Sven; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Wagner, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    In this study we present a new technique to retrieve aerosol extinction profiles from SCIAMACHY measurements in limb geometry using the Monte Carlo Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Inversion Model (McArtim). Our retrieval algorithm follows the Onion-Peeling approach: Starting at a reference tan- gent height the aerosol extinction is varied for each subsequent tangent height until the simulated intensity profile is in agreement with the measurement. In self validation studies the retrieval algorithm performed well showing errors below 5 % for an altitude range of 13 to 30 km. In addition we investigated the effect of gradients in aerosol extinction along the line of sight. Using the standard homogeneous approach for aerosol plumes can lead to strong underestimations in extinction and plume altitude.

  1. Radar scattering properties of pancakelike domes on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, P. G.; Pettengill, G. H.

    1992-01-01

    Magellan radar images have disclosed the presence of a large number of almost perfectly circular domes, presumably of volcanic origin, in many regions of Venus several with diameters of 30 km or more. Their high degree of symmetry has permitted measurements of their shape, as determined by the Magellan altimeter to be compared with models of dome production from the eruption of high-viscosity magmas. In this work, we examine in detail the radar images of domes in Rusalka Planitia (2.8 deg S, 150.9 deg E) and Tinatin Planitia (12.2 deg N, 7.5 deg E), selected for their circular symmetry and apparent absence of modification due to large-scale slumping or tectonic rifting.

  2. Comparison of marine boundary layer cloud properties from CERES-MODIS Edition 4 and DOE ARM AMF measurements at the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Baike; Dong, Xiquan; Minnis, Patrick; Sun-Mack, Sunny

    2014-08-01

    Marine boundary layer (MBL) cloud properties derived from the NASA Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project using Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data are compared with observations taken at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility at the Azores (AMF-Azores) site from June 2009 through December 2010. Cloud properties derived from ARM ground-based observations were averaged over a 1 h interval centered at the satellite overpass time, while the CERES-MODIS (CM) results were averaged within a 30 km × 30 km grid box centered over the Azores site. A total of 63 daytime and 92 nighttime single-layered overcast MBL cloud cases were selected from 19 months of ARM radar-lidar and satellite observations. The CM cloud top/base heights (Htop/Hbase) were determined from cloud top/base temperatures (Ttop/Tbase) using a regional boundary layer lapse rate method. For daytime comparisons, the CM-derived Htop (Hbase), on average, is 0.063 km (0.068 km) higher (lower) than its ARM radar-lidar-observed counterpart, and the CM-derived Ttop and Tbase are 0.9 K less and 2.5 K greater than the surface values with high correlations (R2 = 0.82 and 0.84, respectively). In general, the cloud top comparisons agree better than the cloud base comparisons, because the CM cloud base temperatures and heights are secondary products determined from cloud top temperatures and heights. No significant day-night difference was found in the analyses. The comparisons of MBL cloud microphysical properties reveal that when averaged over a 30 km × 30 km area, the CM-retrieved cloud droplet effective radius (re) at 3.7 µm is 1.3 µm larger than that from the ARM retrievals (12.8 µm), while the CM-retrieved cloud liquid water path (LWP) is 13.5 gm-2 less than its ARM counterpart (114.2 gm-2) due to its small optical depth (9.6 versus 13.7). The differences are reduced by 50% when the CM averages are computed

  3. An analysis of the Venera 8 measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ainsworth, J. E.; Herman, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of the Venera 8 measurements yielded equatorial morning terminator horizontal and vertical winds which are similar to the winds obtained from the Venera 7 measurements. The lower boundary of the horizontal retrograde 4-day wind is defined by a 50-60% decrease in wind speed in the vicinity of 44 km and there exists a retrograde wind plateau of 15 to 40 m/s winds extending from 40 km down to the vicinity of 18 km where the winds decrease rapidly to the order of 0.1 m/s near the surface. Up drafts of 2 to 5 m/s exist in the vicinity of 20 to 30 km and are apparently associated with a slightly super adiabatic lapse rate. The temperature lapse-rate, surface radius, surface topography, and atmospheric structure are discussed.

  4. The use of TOUGH2 for the LBL/USGS 3-dimensional site-scale model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.; Chen, G.; Haukwa, C.

    1995-03-01

    The three-dimensional site-scale numerical model of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is under continuous development and calibration through a collaborative effort between Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major fault zones to the west (Solitario Canyon Fault), east (Bow Ridge Fault) and perhaps to the north by an unconfirmed fault (Yucca Wash Fault). The model consists of about 5,000 grid blocks (elements) with nearly 20,000 connections between them the grid was designed to represent the most prevalent geological and hydro-geological features of the site including major faults, and layering and bedding of the hydro-geological units. Further information about the three-dimensional site-scale model is given by Wittwer et al. and Bodvarsson et al.

  5. Steady state risetimes of shock waves in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raspet, Richard; Bass, Henry; Yao, Lixin; Wu, Wenliang

    1992-01-01

    A square wave shape is used in the Pestorius algorithm to calculate the risetime of a step shock in the atmosphere. These results agree closely with steady shock calculations. The healing distance of perturbed shocks due to finite wave effects is then investigated for quasi-steady shocks. Perturbed 100 Pa shocks require on the order of 1.0 km travel distance to return to within 10 percent of their steady shock risetime. For 30 Pa shocks, the minimum recovery distance increases to 3.0 km. It is unlikely that finite wave effects can remove the longer risetimes and irregular features introduced into the sonic boom by turbulent scattering in the planetary boundary layer.

  6. Archaeological Evidence for a Former Bay at Seaside, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Thomas J.

    1995-05-01

    Cultural shell middens, a common feature of coastal landscapes, preserve a record of past human use of coastal resources and often provide important paleoenvironmental information. Molluscan remains from two shell midden sites, located 0.7 km from the modern Pacific coast at Seaside, Oregon, suggest the former presence of a small sheltered bay at this locality. The modern sand beaches in the Seaside area, stretching for 30 km southward from the mouth of the Columbia River, are exposed to high-energy surf where razor clams ( Siliqua patula) are today the only common bivalve. By contrast, over 90% of molluscan remains (by weight) recovered from the archaeological sites represent species that favor sheltered water. Geologic studies in the Seaside area have shown that the beach prograded some 2 km over the last 4 millennia. The midden evidence suggests that the progradation was accompanied by the infilling of a former bay.

  7. Burials from Wadi Mudayfa'at and Wadi Abu Khasharif, Southern Jordan - Results of a Survey and Salvage Excavations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameen, Zeyad al; Falahat, Hani

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a survey and excavation conducted in 2006 on small cemeteries at Wadi Mudayfa'at and Wadi Abu Khasharif, which are located c. 30 km southeast of the village of al-Hussayniah on the Desert Highway in southern Jordan. In total five graves were excavated. Preservation was excellent including human and other organic materials (hair, leather, textiles). Preliminary scientific dating points to the period between the second and fourth centuries AD. The research questions discussed are: - the date, the relationship between the cemeteries and surrounding sites, the significance of this area, the identity of the groups buried, the burial techniques and practices adopted and what influenced them and the funerary gifts included with the dead.

  8. Evidence of atmospheric gravity wave perturbations of the Brunt-Vaisala frequency in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, R. E.; Beland, R. W.; Brown, J. H.; Dewan, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    A series of high altitude, medium resolution, measurements of temperature, pressure and turbulence have been performed by the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory. These measurements were conducted using the VIZ Manufacturing Co. microsondes with attached micro-thermal probes measuring the temperature structure coefficient. A typical atmospheric temperature measurement is given. Several small temperature inversions are evident in the troposphere. The stratosphere is marked with numerous fluctuations in the temperature profile. Microsondes provide temperature and pressure measurements every 4 seconds up to a maximum altitude of 30 km (MSL). Since the average ascent rate is 5 m/s, the altitude interval between the measurement reports is 20 m. The potential temperature is calculated from the temperature and pressure. Spectral analysis of atmospheric Brunt-Vaisala frequencies reveal spectra similiar to the velocity spectra of Dewan et al. (1984), Daniels (1982), and Endlich and Singleton (1969). The Brunt-Vaisala spectra indicate the existence of separate, distinguishable wave modes.

  9. Simulation of CO2 release at 800 km altitude. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Setayesh, A.

    1993-08-31

    The SOCRATES contamination-interaction code has been used to simulate the reactions of O + CO2 --> CO2(v) + O, O + CO2 - CO(v) + O2, and CO2 + H - CO + OH(v) at an altitude of 800 km in both ram and wake directions of the spacecraft. These simulations show that the radiation from these reactions can be measurable for the parameters which have been used in these calculations. The investigation carries out the simulations as much as 30 km from the spacecraft. The radiative intensity of CO(v) and OH(v) show the highest and lowest, respectively. Gas plume, CO2, CO, and OH Emissions, Monte Carlo method, Rarefied flows.

  10. Tsunami simulation method initiated from waveforms observed by ocean bottom pressure sensors for real-time tsunami forecast; Applied for 2011 Tohoku Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanioka, Yuichiro

    2017-04-01

    After tsunami disaster due to the 2011 Tohoku-oki great earthquake, improvement of the tsunami forecast has been an urgent issue in Japan. National Institute of Disaster Prevention is installing a cable network system of earthquake and tsunami observation (S-NET) at the ocean bottom along the Japan and Kurile trench. This cable system includes 125 pressure sensors (tsunami meters) which are separated by 30 km. Along the Nankai trough, JAMSTEC already installed and operated the cable network system of seismometers and pressure sensors (DONET and DONET2). Those systems are the most dense observation network systems on top of source areas of great underthrust earthquakes in the world. Real-time tsunami forecast has depended on estimation of earthquake parameters, such as epicenter, depth, and magnitude of earthquakes. Recently, tsunami forecast method has been developed using the estimation of tsunami source from tsunami waveforms observed at the ocean bottom pressure sensors. However, when we have many pressure sensors separated by 30km on top of the source area, we do not need to estimate the tsunami source or earthquake source to compute tsunami. Instead, we can initiate a tsunami simulation from those dense tsunami observed data. Observed tsunami height differences with a time interval at the ocean bottom pressure sensors separated by 30 km were used to estimate tsunami height distribution at a particular time. In our new method, tsunami numerical simulation was initiated from those estimated tsunami height distribution. In this paper, the above method is improved and applied for the tsunami generated by the 2011 Tohoku-oki great earthquake. Tsunami source model of the 2011 Tohoku-oki great earthquake estimated using observed tsunami waveforms, coseimic deformation observed by GPS and ocean bottom sensors by Gusman et al. (2012) is used in this study. The ocean surface deformation is computed from the source model and used as an initial condition of tsunami

  11. Structure in the upper lunar crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, N.; Trice, R.

    1977-01-01

    Warren and Trice (1975) have shown that bulk elastic properties of lunar samples can be systematically correlated with petrographic classification and descriptions of lithification and disaggregation. The present paper reviews the underlying systematics and uses them to estimate the average degree of lithification and structure densities compatible with the observed seismic profiles in the top 30 km of the moon. The estimates are discussed in terms of some of their implications for the thermal gradient and for annealing and fracture histories. The published lunar seismic profiles are consistent with a sharp gradient in structure density at a depth of about 1 km, from highly fractured lithic units above 1 km to only moderately fractured competent rock below.

  12. The mechanics of large meteoroid impacts in the earth's oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melosh, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    The sequence of events subsequent to the impact of a large meteoroid in an ocean differs in several respects from an impact on land. Even if the meteoroid is large enough to produce a crater on the sea floor (that is, larger than a few km in diameter), the presence of water affects the character of the early-time events. The principal difference between land and oceanic impacts is the expansion of shock-vaporized water following an oceanic impact. A steam explosion follows the meteoroid's deposition of energy in the target. Shocked water expands from an initial pressure of 3 to 6 Mbar for 20-30 km/second impacts, ejecting water vapor and dust from the vaporized meteoroid several hundred km into the atmosphere. The violent vapor plume thus formed may explain how dust with a dominantly meteoritic composition can be dispersed to form a world-wide dust layer, as required by the Alvarez hypothesis.

  13. Wave Coupling in the Earth's Atmosphere: TIME-GCM Simulations of Variable Tidal Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, Maura; Maute, Astrid; Zhang, Xiaoli; Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Roble, Raymond; Oberheide, Jens

    We report on the tidal characteristics and their impact on the Earth's atmosphere as determined from a series of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model (TIME-GCM) simulations. We assess the TIME-GCM performance by comparing the model results with extant observational tidal diagnostics. We also investigate the sensitivity of TIME-GCM performance to variable tro-pospheric forcing schemes with particular attention to their impact on upper atmospheric tidal signatures. Toward this end, we introduce tidal perturbations associated with Interna-tional Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data, as well as tidal components inferred from Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite observations, at the model lower boundary (ca. 30 km). Finally, we investigate the role of mean winds and wave-wave interactions on the tidal components that propagate into the upper atmosphere by contrasting them with linear tidal model results.

  14. Interpolated Sounding and Gridded Sounding Value-Added Products

    SciTech Connect

    M. P. Jensen; Toto, T.

    2016-03-01

    Standard Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility sounding files provide atmospheric state data in one dimension of increasing time and height per sonde launch. Many applications require a quick estimate of the atmospheric state at higher time resolution. The INTERPOLATEDSONDE (i.e., Interpolated Sounding) Value-Added Product (VAP) transforms sounding data into continuous daily files on a fixed time-height grid, at 1-minute time resolution, on 332 levels, from the surface up to a limit of approximately 40 km. The grid extends that high so the full height of soundings can be captured; however, most soundings terminate at an altitude between 25 and 30 km, above which no data is provided. Between soundings, the VAP linearly interpolates atmospheric state variables in time for each height level. In addition, INTERPOLATEDSONDE provides relative humidity scaled to microwave radiometer (MWR) observations.

  15. Air quality over the Alberta oil sands: Satellite observations of NO2 and SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLinden, C. A.; Fioletov, V.

    2011-12-01

    A vast reserve of bitumen - oil mixed with sand, clay, and water generally referred to as oil sands - resides in northern Alberta, Canada. Extraction of bitumen and its upgrade to liquid fuel is very energy intensive and generates significant emissions, including nitrogen and sulphur oxides. Satellite observations of NO2 and SO2 vertical column densities have been used to assess the magnitude and distribution of these pollutants throughout the oil sands. Preliminary results indicate a statistically significant enhancement in both species over an area (~30 x 30 km2) of intensive surface mining. Quantifying the burden of these enhancements and their recent changes over such a small area, comparable to the resolution of the best air quality satellite instruments, represents a significant challenge. The methodology used to meet this challenge will be presented, as will initial results including trends over the past decade, comparisons with other large industrial operations, and an assessment of consistency with emission inventories.

  16. Solar wind interaction with small bodies. 1: Whistler wing signatures near to Gaspra and Ida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Z.; Kivelson, M. G.; Joy, S.; Khurana, K. K.; Polanskey, C.; Southwood, D. J.; Walker, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    Data from Galileo's two asteroid flybys reveal magnetic fluctuations that we interpret as perturbations of the solar wind magnetic field caused by an interaction with the nearby asteroid. The scale sizes of the bodies (approximately 14 km for Gaspra and approximately 30 km for Ida) are intermediate between the ion and electron gyroradii, which implies that the asteroid-imposed perturbations propagate in the whistler mode. Special properties of the whistler mode include phase phase velocities that can exceed the solar wind speed and confinement of the disturbance to directions nearly aligned with the magnetic field. These features of the interaction impose a structure on the solar wind disturbance that differs greatly from the forms familiar for either magnetized or unmagnetized bodies of magnetohydrodynamic spatial scales. We examine both data and computer simulations of the interaction with special attention to what can be inferred about the interaction itself from analysis of the data.

  17. Slip history of the 2003 San Simeon earthquake constrained by combining 1-Hz GPS, strong motion, and teleseismic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, C.; Larson, K.M.; Tan, Y.; Hudnut, K.W.; Choi, K.

    2004-01-01

    The slip history of the 2003 San Simeon earthquake is constrained by combining strong motion and teleseismic data, along with GPS static offsets and 1-Hz GPS observations. Comparisons of a 1-Hz GPS time series and a co-located strong motion data are in very good agreement, demonstrating a new application of GPS. The inversion results for this event indicate that the rupture initiated at a depth of 8.5 km and propagated southeastwards with a speed ???3.0 km/sec, with rake vectors forming a fan structure around the hypocenter. We obtained a peak slip of 2.8 m and total seismic moment of 6.2 ?? 1018 Nm. We interpret the slip distribution as indicating that the hanging wall rotates relative to the footwall around the hypocenter, in a sense that appears consistent with the shape of the mapped fault trace. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Science requirements and feasibility/design studies of a very-high-altitude aircraft for atmospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Lux, David P.; Reed, R. Dale; Loewenstein, Max; Wegener, Steven

    1991-01-01

    The advantages and shortcomings of currently available aircraft for use in very high altitude missions to study such problems as polar ozone or stratosphere-troposphere exchange pose the question of whether to develop advanced aircraft for atmospheric research. To answer this question, NASA conducted a workshop to determine science needs and feasibility/design studies to assess whether and how those needs could be met. It was determined that there was a need for an aircraft that could cruise at an altitude of 30 km with a range of 6,000 miles with vertical profiling down to 10 km and back at remote points and carry a payload of 3,000 lbs.

  19. A Three-Dimensional Look at the High Galactic Latitude Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGehee, Peregrine M.

    2015-01-01

    The structure of and relationship between ISM structures seen at high Galactic latitude is explored with the aid of distances determined from optical reddening profiles obtained from analysis of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR9 photometric catalog. This three-dimensional map contains high latitude molecular clouds, dust associated with intermediate velocity (-100 km/s < vlsr < -30 km/s) HI gas, and the ubiquitous Galactic cirrus. The distances and errors in the distances for the extinction layers due to the presence of interstellar dust are computed via a Monte Carlo algorithm. The reliability of the distance determination method is characterized as a function of the far-IR based extinction values predicted by Schlegel, Finkbeiner, and Davis (1998). The limiting performance of this technique is found in the results for the "blank field" regions defined by A_r < 0.05, whose reddening profiles are dominated by measurement noise and astrophysical scatter.

  20. Determination of cloud effective particle size from the multiple-scattering effect on lidar integration-method temperature measurements.

    PubMed

    Reichardt, Jens; Reichardt, Susanne

    2006-04-20

    A method is presented that permits the determination of the cloud effective particle size from Raman- or Rayleigh-integration temperature measurements that exploits the dependence of the multiple-scattering contributions to the lidar signals from heights above the cloud on the particle size of the cloud. Independent temperature information is needed for the determination of size. By use of Raman-integration temperatures, the technique is applied to cirrus measurements. The magnitude of the multiple-scattering effect and the above-cloud lidar signal strength limit the method's range of applicability to cirrus optical depths from 0.1 to 0.5. Our work implies that records of stratosphere temperature obtained with lidar may be affected by multiple scattering in clouds up to heights of 30 km and beyond.

  1. Intercomparison of remote measurements of stratospheric NO and NO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roscoe, H. K.; Kerridge, B. J.; Pollitt, S.; Louisnard, N.; Flaud, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    During the 1982 and 1983 Balloon Intercomparison Campaigns, the vertical profile of stratospheric NO2 was measured remotely by nine instruments and that of NO by two. Total overhead columns were measured by two more instruments. Between 30 and 35 km, where measurements overlapped, agreement between NO profiles was within + or - 30 percent, which is better than the accuracies claimed by the experimenters. Between 35 and 40 km, there was similarly good agreement between NO2 profiles, but below 30 km, differences of greater than a factor of 3 were found. In the second campaign, NO2 values from most instruments agreed within their quoted errors, except that the Oxford radiometer gave much lower values; the first campaign and the column measurements show a more uniform spread of results.

  2. Simulation of the atmospheric thermal circulation of a martian volcano using a mesoscale numerical model.

    PubMed

    Rafkin, Scot C R; Sta Maria, Magdalena R V; Michaels, Timothy I

    2002-10-17

    Mesoscale (<100 km) atmospheric phenomena are ubiquitous on Mars, as revealed by Mars Orbiter Camera images. Numerical models provide an important means of investigating martian atmospheric dynamics, for which data availability is limited. But the resolution of general circulation models, which are traditionally used for such research, is not sufficient to resolve mesoscale phenomena. To provide better understanding of these relatively small-scale phenomena, mesoscale models have recently been introduced. Here we simulate the mesoscale spiral dust cloud observed over the caldera of the volcano Arsia Mons by using the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modelling System. Our simulation uses a hierarchy of nested models with grid sizes ranging from 240 km to 3 km, and reveals that the dust cloud is an indicator of a greater but optically thin thermal circulation that reaches heights of up to 30 km, and transports dust horizontally over thousands of kilometres.

  3. Goddard high-resolution spectrograph observations of narrow discrete stellar wind absorption features in the ultraviolet spectrum of the O7.5 III star Xi Persei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, Steven N.; Altner, Bruce; Bolton, C. T.; Cardelli, Jason A.; Ebbets, Dennis C.

    1993-01-01

    We report the observation of transient narrow absorption components (NACs) in the stellar wind of the O giant Xi Per. Two sets of GHRS observations of the Si IV ultraviolet resonance doublet have been obtained. These features are extremely weak, with column densities of approximately 10 exp 12/sq cm and optical depths of order 0.1. The features are narrow, less than 30 km/s, and seem to occur in groups. If the NACs are due to the 1393 A component, they represent previously undetected low-velocity discrete absorption components at V(rad) below -600 km/s. If they are high-velocity features on the 1402 A doublet component, they may represent the decay phase of the discrete absorption components at the terminal velocity. In either case, they are a new aspect of the NAC phenomenon that could not have been detected with previous ultraviolet spectrographs.

  4. Preliminary Analysis of AVIRIS Data for Tectonostratigraphic Assessment of Northern Guerrero State, Southern Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Harold R.; Cabral-Cano, Enrique

    1996-01-01

    The tectonostratigraphic evolution of the southern margin of the North America Plate in Mexico is still in debate. Recent explanations assert Laramide age (Campanian-Eocene) accretion of far-travelled oceanic terranes. In 1989, we began an effort to bring new data to this debate through field mapping, incorporating Landsat Thematic Mapper and digital elevation data, along a 30 km by 250 km, east-west geologic transect of northern Guerrero State. Covering the region from Huetamo, Michoacan, to Papalutla, Guerrero (between latitude 18-19 deg N and longitude 101-99 deg W), our mapping results show that no stratigraphic incompatibilities suggesting terrane accretion exist in the region. In November 1994, AVIRIS data were acquired along the geologic transect in order to refine our stratigraphic assessment. One objective of this hyperspectral survey was to improve mapping of limestone, dolostone and gypsum-bearing facies of the Morelos Formation which record rudist carbonate platform environments during mid-Cretaceous time.

  5. NASA/GEWEX shortwave surface radiation budget: Integrated data product with reprocessed radiance, cloud, and meteorology inputs, and new surface albedo treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Stephen J.; Stackhouse, Paul W.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Mikovitz, J. Colleen; Zhang, Taiping

    2017-02-01

    The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project produces shortwave and longwave surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes for the 1983-near present time period. Spatial resolution is 1 degree. The current Release 3.0 (available at gewex-srb.larc.nasa.gov) uses the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) DX product for pixel level radiance and cloud information. This product is subsampled to 30 km. ISCCP is currently recalibrating and recomputing their entire data series, to be released as the H product, at 10km resolution. The ninefold increase in pixel number will allow SRB a higher resolution gridded product (e.g. 0.5 degree), as well as the production of pixel-level fluxes. Other key input improvements include a detailed aerosol history using the Max Planck Institute Aerosol Climatology (MAC), and temperature and moisture profiles from nnHIRS.

  6. Lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols over Menlo Park, California, October 1972 - March 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Viezee, W.; Hake, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    During an 18-month period, 30 nighttime observations of stratospheric aerosols were made using a ground based ruby lidar located near the Pacific coast of central California (37.5 deg. N, 122.2 deg. W). Vertical profiles of the lidar scattering ratio and the particulate backscattering coefficient were obtained by reference to a layer of assumed negligible particulate content. An aerosol layer centered near 21 km was clearly evident in all observations, but its magnitude and vertical distribution varied considerably throughout the observation period. A reduction of particulate backscattering in the 23- to 30-km layer during late January 1973 appears to have been associated with the sudden stratospheric warming which occurred at that time.

  7. Study of the technique of stellar occultation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, P. B.; Graves, M. E.; Roble, R. G.; Shah, A. N.

    1973-01-01

    The results are reported of a study of the stellar occultation technique for measuring the composition of the atmosphere. The intensity of starlight was monitored during the occultation using the Wisconsin stellar ultraviolet photometers aboard the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO-A2). A schematic diagram of an occultation is shown where the change in intensity at a given wavelength is illustrated. The vertical projection of the attenuation region is typically 60 km deep for molecular oxygen and 30 km deep for ozone. Intensity profiles obtained during various occultations were analyzed by first determining the tangential columm density of the absorbing gases, and then Abel inverting the column densities to obtain the number density profile. Errors are associated with each step in the inversion scheme and have been considered as an integral part of this study.

  8. Deceleration of the solar wind in the Earth foreshock region: ISEE 2 and IMP 8 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonifazi, C.; Moreno, G.; Lazarus, A. J.; Sullivan, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    The deceleration of the solar wind in the region of the interplanetary space filled by ions backstreaming from the Earth bow shock was studied using a two spacecraft technique. This deceleration, which is correlated with the "diffuse" but not with the "reflected" ion population, depends on the solar wind bulk velocity: at low velocities (below 300 km/sec) the velocity decrease is about 5 km/sec, while at higher velocities (above 400 km/sec) the decrease may be as large as 30 km/sec. Along with this deceleration, the solar wind undergoes a deflection of about 1 deg away from the direction of the Earth bow shock. The energy balance shows that the kinetic energy loss far exceeds the thermal energy which is possibly gained by the solar wind, therefore, at least part of this energy must go into waves and/or into the backstreaming ions.

  9. New paleoseismological data from the Gran Sasso d'Italia area (central Apennines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, P.; Galadini, F.; Moro, M.; Giraudi, C.

    2002-04-01

    Paleoseismological analyses along the Campo Imperatore normal fault (CIF) in the Gran Sasso massif, which is an area characterized by the absence of significant historical earthquakes, highlight the occurrence of surface faulting after the 5th-3rd cent. BC and around the 6th-5th millenium BC. These ages agree with those reported by Giraudi and Frezzotti [1995] on the western tip of the CIF, thus suggesting the possible entire rupture of the 30-km-long CIF during M~7 events. These data contribute to the re-evaluation of the seismic hazard of a large surrounding area, including the city of L'Aquila (~100.000 inhabitants), which is located 20 km from the CIF, in the hangingwall side.

  10. Observations of ELF propagation at high latitudes during the sporadic-e conditions of November 1986. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Katan, J.R.; Saleem, D.J.

    1994-08-11

    Researchers in extremely low frequency (ELF) radio propagation have speculated on the effects of disturbed ionospheric conditions. Over the years, it has been observed that, although the propagation of ELF signals is remarkable for its relative stability, these signals are nevertheless influenced by many of the same types of disturbances that afflict higher frequency bands. Some of the early measurements revealed not only ELF's stable, predictive features (e.g., the smooth transitions through daytime and nighttime periods), but also its unexplainable, sudden decreases in nighttime signal strength. One of the most dramatic natural events for the radio propagationist to study is the solar proton event (SPE). During polar-cap absorption (PCA) events, an earthly response to an SPE, energetic protons from the sun penetrate the polar ionosphere. In the process, interactions with a variety of atmospheric constituents result in an increase in the ionization density to altitudes of 30 km or less.

  11. Comparison of SAGE 2 ozone measurements and ozone soundings at Uccle (Belgium) during the period February 1985 to January 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debacker, Hugo; Demuer, Dirk; Veiga, R. E.; Zawodny, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The ozone profiles obtained from 24 balloon soundings, at 50 deg 48 min N, 4 deg 21 min E, carried out with the electro-chemical ozonesondes are discussed. The data were used as correlative data to the ozone profiles acquired by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE 2). Good agreement was obtained between the two data sets. The difference of percentage between the ozone column density of the mean balloon and SAGE profile is 4.4% in the altitude region between 10 to 26 km. From the statistical analysis it seems that there is a difference between the mean profiles at the level of the ozone maximum and around the 30 km level. Similar results are obtained with an error analysis of both data. The differences between the mean profiles in the lower stratosphere are probably real, and are due to the presence of ozone.

  12. The Importance of Lake Overflow Floods for Early Martian Landscape Evolution: Insights From Licus Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goudge, T. A.; Fassett, C. I.

    2017-01-01

    Open-basin lake outlet valleys are incised when water breaches the basin-confining topography and overflows. Outlet valleys record this flooding event and provide insight into how the lake and surrounding terrain evolved over time. Here we present a study of the paleolake outlet Licus Vallis, a >350 km long, >2 km wide, >100 m deep valley that heads at the outlet breach of an approx.30 km diameter impact crater. Multiple geomorphic features of this valley system suggest it records a more complex evolution than formation from a single lake overflow flood. This provides unique insight into the paleohydrology of lakes on early Mars, as we can make inferences beyond the most recent phase of activity..

  13. Crustal structure and deformation across a mature slab tear zone: the case of southern Tyrrhenian subduction (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Irene; Lucente, Francesco Pio; Di Bona, Massimo; Govoni, Aladino; Piana Agostinetti, Nicola

    2016-12-01

    We compute S velocity profiles of the crust across the Messina Strait (Italy), the tear zone at the southern end of the Ionian subduction zone. Separating Sicily from Calabria, the Messina Strait hosted some of the strongest earthquakes to ever occur in Italy. Here the motion of the Ionian slab with respect to Sicily creates a complex tectonic setting characterized by lithospheric tearing. We show velocity models of the crust, computed from teleseismic receiver function inversion, outlining the differences between Sicily and Calabria. Strong deformation across the Messina Strait between 10-15 and 30 km depth is expressed by strong anisotropy (up to 10%), developed in a ductile shear zone of the crust. The top of these ductile weaker layers could limit the depth extent of future ruptures.

  14. Fukushima Daiichi Accident and Its Radiological Impact on the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevelacqua, J. J.

    2012-09-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident is a topic of current media and public interest. It provides a means to motivate students to understand the fission process and the barriers that have been designed to prevent the release of fission products to the environment following a major nuclear power reactor accident. The Fukushima Daiichi accident further encourages a discussion of the effect of fission products upon the environment, including the resulting contamination of air, water, soil, animals, fish, milk, and crops. Accident-generated radiation levels that caused the evacuation of people 20-30 km from the facility further serve to foster student interest and desire to understand the science associated with the Fukushima Daiichi accident.

  15. Reinterpretation of the stratigraphy and structure of the Rancho Las Norias area, central Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, W.R.; Harris, A.G.; Poole, F.G.; Repetski, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    New geologic mapping and fossil data in the vicinity of Rancho Las Norias, 30 km east of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, show that rocks previously mapped as Precambrian instead are Paleozoic. Previous geologic maps of the Rancho Las Norias area show northeast-directed, southwest-dipping reverse or thrust faults deforming both Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks. The revised stratigraphy requires reinterpretation of some of these faults as high-angle normal or oblique-slip faults and the elimination of other faults. We agree with earlier geologic map interpretations that compressional structures have affected the Paleozoic rocks in the area, but our mapping suggests that the direction of compression is from southeast to northwest. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Tsunami waves extensively resurfaced the shorelines of a receding, early Martian ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairen, A.; Palmero Rodriguez, A.; Linares, R.; Zarroca, M.; Platz, T.; Komatsu, G.; Kargel, J. S.; Gulick, V. C.; Yan, J.; Higuchi, K.; Baker, V. R.; Glines, N. H.

    2015-12-01

    It has been proposed that ~3.5 billion years ago an enormous ocean fed by catastrophic groundwater discharges covered most of the Martian northern plains. However, a persistent problem with this hypothesis is the lack of definitive paleoshoreline features. Here, based on geomorphic and thermal surface character mapping and numerical analysis in the circum-Chryse region of the northern plains, we show evidence for two enormous tsunami events possibly triggered by bolide impacts resulting in craters ~30 km in diameter and occurring perhaps a few million years apart. The tsunami events produced widespread, extant littoral landforms, including run-up sedimentary lobes hundreds of kilometers long across gently sloping plains and backwash channels where wave retreat occurred on highland boundary surfaces. Variations among the features associated with each tsunami event suggest that the ocean was relatively more frozen during the second event.

  17. Global disturbances of the ionosphere caused by the electric field from the high-altitude nuclear explosion 'Starfish' on July 9, 1962. I, II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsedilina, E. E.; Shashun'kina, V. M.

    1990-10-01

    The theory of the formation of an artifical radiation belt of high-energy electrons in the magnetosphere is used to examine possible ionospheric effects from the electric field generated by the Starfish nuclear test explosion over Johnston Island on July 9, 1962. A region in the Northern Hemisphere is identified where the explosion led to a drop in electron density in the F-region maximum by about 20 percent and a lowering of the layer by 20-30 km in the course of one hour after the explosion. The F-layer gradually came back to normal in the following hour. It is suggested that, in the initial period after the explosion, this effect was associated with the western electric field, which caused the lowering of the F-layer, as well as with changes in the recombination-diffusion balance in this layer.

  18. Estimation of slip distribution using an inverse method based on spectral decomposition of Green's function utilizing Global Positioning System (GPS) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Honglin; Kato, Teruyuki; Hori, Muneo

    2007-07-01

    An inverse method based on the spectral decomposition of the Green's function was employed for estimating a slip distribution. We conducted numerical simulations along the Philippine Sea plate (PH) boundary in southwest Japan using this method to examine how to determine the essential parameters which are the number of deformation function modes and their coefficients. Japanese GPS Earth Observation Network (GEONET) Global Positioning System (GPS) data were used for three years covering 1997-1999 to estimate interseismic back slip distribution in this region. The estimated maximum back slip rate is about 7 cm/yr, which is consistent with the Philippine Sea plate convergence rate. Areas of strong coupling are confined between depths of 10 and 30 km and three areas of strong coupling were delineated. These results are consistent with other studies that have estimated locations of coupling distribution.

  19. A New Wideband, Fully Steerable, Decametric Array at Clark Lake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. C.; Fisher, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A fully steerable, decametric array for radio astronomy is under construction at the Clark Lake Radio Observatory near Borrego Springs, California. This array will be a T of 720 conical spiral antennas (teepee-shaped antennas, hence the array is called the TPT), 3.0 km by 1.8 km capable of operating between 15 and 125 MHz. Both its operating frequency and beam position will be adjustable in less than one millisecond, and the TPT will provide a 49-element picture around the central beam position for extended source observations. Considerable experience was gained in the operation of completed portions of the array, and successful operation of the final array is assured. The results are described of the tests which were conducted with the conical spirals, and the planned electronics and data processing systems are described.

  20. The Tunguska event - No cometary signature in evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1983-01-01

    It is suggested that existing data on the 1908 Tunguska fall precludes an interpretation of the object as an either active or extinct comet fragment. Because a fireball of the Tunguska mass is not efficiently decelerated by the earth's atmosphere, it would at an entry velocity of about 30 km/sec have had to resist aerodynamic pressures greater than one billon dyn/sq cm before disintegrating. The inherently extremely fragile cometary material could not have survived a load of this magnitude. The data on Type II fireballs with prominent terminal flares are extrapolated, to estimate Tunguska's critical dynamic pressure at the same time of explosion as being of the order of 200 million dyn/sq cm, and its preexplosion velocity as about 10 km/sec, thereby ruling out a comet-like orbit. The Tunguska object is most consistently described as a small Apollo-type asteroid, 90-190 m across.

  1. The Constantine (Algeria) seismic sequence of 27 October 1985: a new rupture model from aftershock relocation, focal mechanisms, and stress tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ousadou, F.; Dorbath, L.; Dorbath, C.; Bounif, M. A.; Benhallou, H.

    2013-04-01

    The October 27, 1985 Constantine earthquake of magnitude MS 5.9 (NEIC) although moderate is the strongest earthquake recorded in the eastern Tellian Atlas (northeast Algeria) since the beginning of instrumental seismology. The main shock locations given by different institutions are scattered and up to 10 km away northwest from the NE-SW 30 km long elongated aftershocks cloud localized by a dedicated temporary portable network. The focal mechanism indicates left-lateral strike-slip on an almost vertical fault with a small reverse component on the northwest dipping plane. This paper presents relocations of the main shock and aftershocks using TomoDD. One hundred thirty-eight individual focal mechanisms have been built allowing the determination of the stress tensor at different scales. A rupture model has been suggested, which explains the different observations of aftershock distribution and stress tensor rotation.

  2. The analysis of GEOS-3 altimeter data in the Tasman and Coral seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    A technique was developed for preprocessing GEOS-3 altimetry data to establish a model of the regional sea surface. The algorithms developed models for a 35,000,000 sq km area with an internal precision of + or - 1 m. There were discrepancies between the sea surface model so obtained and GEM6 based geoid profiles with wavelengths of approximately 2500 km and amplitudes of up to 5 m in this region. The amplitudes were smaller when compared with GEM10-based geoid determinations. However, the comparison of 14 pairs of overlapping passes in the region indicated altimeter resolution of the + or - 25 cm level if the wavelength corresponding to the Nyquist frequency were 30 km. The spectral analysis of such comparisons indicated the existence of significant signal strength in the discrepancies after least squares fitting, with wavelengths in excess of 200 km.

  3. A confirmation of the 13-day binary period in SS 433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedogni, R.; Braccesi, A.; Marano, B.; Messina, A.; Crampton, D. C.

    Spectroscopic observations made in the same period at different longitudes are reported which have confirmed the 13-day period in the stationary lines of the moving-emission-line object SS 433. The radial velocities were derived from spectra obtained in August 1980 in the range 5400-6900 A at the Loiane 152-cm telescope at Bologna, and compared with velocities obtained at the same time with the 1.8-m telescope in Victoria, nine hours away in longitude. The data clearly show a 13-day periodicity with amplitude 75 km/sec which is in substantial phase agreement at the two stations, thus ruling out the possibility of a 1-day periodicity. The data also indicate a peculiar velocity of about + 30 km/sec for the system.

  4. Infrared observations of circumstellar ammonia in OH/IR supergiants

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, R.A.; Betz, A.L.

    1980-09-15

    Ammonia has been detected in the circumstellar envelopes of VY Canis Majoris, VX Sagittarii, and IRC+10420 by means of several absorption lines in the ..nu../sub 2/ vibration-rotation band near 950 cm/sup -1/. The line profiles are well resolved (0.2 km s/sup -1/ resolution) and show the gas being accelerated to terminal expansion velocities near 30 km s/sup -1/. The observations reveal a method for determining the position of the central star on VLBI maps of OH maser emission to an accuracy of approx.0''.2. A firm lower limit of 2 x 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/ is obtained for the NH/sub 3/ column density in VY Canis Majoris.

  5. Io: Generation of Silicate Magma by Shear Melting at the Base of a Basaltic Lithosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    Tidal theory and observational evidence indicates that about 1 w/sq. m. of energy is released at the surface of Io. In order to place limits on how much tidal energy can be dissipated within a rigid lithosphere, depth-temperature profiles were calculated for different lithosphere thickness assuming that the tidal energy was dissipated uniformly throughout the lithosphere. Thus a thick lithosphere implies that a significant fraction of the tidal energy is dissipated below the depth where solidus temperatures are reached. One possibility is that Io has a crust consisting of a low melting temperature fraction such as basalt, overlying a mantle of a high melting temperature fraction such as peridotite. Thus, if the lithosphere of Io is thicker than 30 km, as appears probable, then high rates of silicate volcanism are implied and a significant fraction of the tidal energy must be dissipated by viscous deformation rather than rigid flexure.

  6. Wind and tidal forcing of a buoyant plume, Mobile Bay, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumpf, R.P.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Pennock, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    AVHRR satellite imagery and in situ observations were combined to study the motion of a buoyant plume at the mouth of Mobile Bay, Alabama. The plume extended up to 30 km from shore, with a thickness of about 1 m. The inner plume, which was 3-8 m thick, moved between the Bay and inner shelf in response to tidal forcing. The tidal prism could be identified through the movement of plume waters between satellite images. The plume responded rapidly to alongshore wind, with sections of the plume moving at speeds of more than 70 cm s-1, about 11% of the wind speed. The plume moved predominantly in the direction of the wind with a weak Ekman drift. The enhanced speed of the plume relative to normal surface drift is probably due to the strong stratification in the plume, which limits the transfer of momentum into the underlying ambient waters. ?? 1993.

  7. Heat flow in eastern Egypt - The thermal signature of a continental breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Boulos, F. K.; Hennin, S. F.; El-Sherif, A. A.; El-Sayed, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    It is noted that the Red Sea is a modern example of continental fragmentation and incipient ocean formation. A consistent pattern of high heat flow in the Red Sea margins and coastal zone, including Precambrian terrane up to at least 30 km from the Red Sea, has emerged from the existing data. It is noted that this pattern has important implications for the mode and mechanism of Red Sea opening. High heat flow in the Red Sea shelf requires either a high extension of the crust in this zone (probably with major basic magmatic activity) or young oceanic crust beneath this zone. High heat flow in the coastal thermal anomaly zone may be caused by lateral conduction from the offshore lithosphere and/or from high mantle heat flow. It is suggested that new oceanic crust and highly extended continental crust would be essentially indistinguishable with the available data in the Red Sea margins, and are for many purposes essentially identical.

  8. Aseismic crustal movement in southern Ryukyu Trench, southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Mamoru

    2009-10-01

    Anomalous crustal deformation following the Mw = 7.1, March 31, 2002, Hualien earthquake was observed over 5 years using the global positioning system (GPS) network in the south Ryukyu Islands. The analysis showed an afterslip event at a depth of 30 km on the subducting Philippine Sea plate. The magnitude of the cumulative moment reached 7.4. The released moment of the afterslip exceeded the mainshock itself. The afterslip promoted Coulomb failure stress on the fault of the repeating slow slip events (SSEs) in the vicinity of the afterslip. The increase in the slip rate of the SSEs predicted through the change in the Coulomb failure stress is 13%. This is close to the observed increase in slip rate (19%) after the earthquake. This suggests that the afterslip had accelerated the slip rate of the SSEs after the earthquake.

  9. Aftershocks of the December 7, 2012 intraplate doublet near the Japan Trench axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obana, Koichiro; Kodaira, Shuichi; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Sato, Takeshi; Fujie, Gou; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Yojiro

    2014-12-01

    On December 7, 2012, a pair of large Mw 7.2 intraplate earthquakes occurred near the Japan Trench axis off Miyagi, northeast Japan. This doublet consisted of a deep reverse-faulting event followed by a shallow normal-faulting event. Aftershock observations using conventional and newly developed ultra-deep ocean bottom seismographs in the trench axis area showed that the shallow normal-faulting event occurred in the subducting Pacific plate just landward of the trench axis. The shallow normal-faulting aftershock activity indicated that in-plate tension in the incoming/subducting Pacific plate extends to a depth of at least 30 km, which is deeper than before the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, whereas in-plate compression occurs at depths of more than 50 km. Hence, we concluded that the neutral plane of the in-plate stress is located between depths of 30 and 50 km near the trench axis.

  10. Plasmadynamic hypervelocity dust injector for the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ticos, Catalin M.; Wang Zhehui; Dorf, Leonid A.; Wurden, Glen A.

    2006-10-15

    The design and construction of a plasmadynamic device to accelerate dust to hypervelocities is presented. High speed dust will be used to measure magnetic field lines in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. The plasma gun produces a high density (n{sub e}{approx_equal}10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}) and low temperature (a few eV) deuterium plasma, ejected by JxB forces which provide drag on the dust particles in its path. The dust will be entrained by the plasma to velocities of 1-30 km/s, depending on the dust mass. Carbon dust particles will be used, with diameters from 1 to 50 {mu}m. The key components of the plasmadynamic accelerator are a coaxial plasma gun operated at 10 kV (with an estimated discharge current of 200 kA), a dust dispenser activated by a piezoelectric transducer, and power and remote-control systems.

  11. The Prisma Hyperspectra Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizzo, R.; Ananasso, C.; Guarini, R.; Lopinto, E.; Candela, L.; Pisani, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    PRISMA (PRecursore IperSpettrale della Missione Applicativa) is an Italian Space Agency (ASI) hyperspectral mission currently scheduled for the lunch in 2018. PRISMA is a single satellite placed on a sun- synchronous Low Earth Orbit (620 km altitude) with an expected operational lifetime of 5 years. The hyperspectral payload consists of a high spectral resolution (VNIR-SWIR) imaging spectrometer, optically integrated with a medium resolution Panchromatic camera. PRISMA will acquire data on areas of 30 km Swath width and with a Ground Sampling Distance (GSD) of 30 m (hyperspectral) and of 5 m Panchromatic (PAN). The PRISMA Ground Segment will be geographically distributed between Fucino station and ASI Matera Space Geodesy Centre and will include the Mission Control Centre, the Satellite Control Centre and the Instrument Data Handling System. The science community supports the overall lifecycle of the mission, being involved in algorithms definition, calibration and validation activities, research and applications development.

  12. Martian atmospheric radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Bernhard Lee

    1994-01-01

    A computer model is used to study the radiative transfer of the martian winter-polar atmosphere. Solar heating at winter-polar latitudes is provided predominately by dust. For normal, low-dust conditions, CO2 provides almost as much heating as dust. Most heating by CO2 in the winter polar atmosphere is provided by the 2.7 micron band between 10 km and 30 km altitude, and by the 2.0 micron band below 10 km. The weak 1.3 micron band provides some significant heating near the surface. The minor CO2 bands at 1.4, 1.6, 4.8 and 5.2 micron are all optically thin, and produce negligible heating. O3 provides less than 10 percent of the total heating. Atmospheric cooling is predominantly thermal emission by dust, although CO2 15 micron band emission is important above 20 km altitude.

  13. A study of the effects of thunderstorm distance and topography on the atmospheric electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastelis, Nikolaos; Kourtidis, Konstantinos; Kotroni, Vasiliki; Lagouvardos, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    The atmospheric electric field, though not measured as routinely as other meteorological variables, can be utilized in a variety of applications, including that of approaching or developing thunderstorms recognition. In the current work, the operational active radius of an electric field mill located at the boundary between a valley and a mountain range is evaluated for such use, using also lightning location data from the ZEUS network. The active radius of the electric field mill was around 15 km for the mountain range, while for the valley region it increased to about 30 km. The potential gradient (PG) declined exponentially as distance to thunderclouds increased. The PG response to approaching charged clouds was also studied using the most severe thunderstorm of the study period as a test case.

  14. Reclaiming Our Lives in the Wake of a Nuclear Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Ando, R

    2016-04-01

    Ryoko Ando lives and works in Iwaki-shi, which is located in the coastal area of Fukushima Prefecture. On 11 March 2011, Iwaki was hit by the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami. Then the nuclear plant accident at Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, also located in the coastal area of Fukushima Prefecture, added to the woes of Iwaki residents. Although Iwaki-shi is outside of the ‘restricted area’ set up by the government in the 20 km radius around the nuclear power plant, some municipalities in Iwaki-shi lie within the 30 km radius zone. The residents of Iwaki were naturally concerned about the effects of radioactive contamination. On top of these, they had to confront a wide range of issues, including confusion and miscommunication, reputation risk and infrastructural constraints due to the influx of residents from the ‘restricted area’.

  15. Remote sensing and spectral analysis of plumes from ocean dumping in the New York Bight Apex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The application of the remote sensing techniques of aerial photography and multispectral scanning in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of plumes from ocean dumping of waste materials is investigated in the New York Bight Apex. Plumes resulting from the dumping of acid waste and sewage sludge were observed by Ocean Color Scanner at an altitude of 19.7 km and by Modular Multispectral Scanner and mapping camera at an altitude of 3.0 km. Results of the qualitative analysis of multispectral and photographic data for the mapping, location, and identification of pollution features without concurrent sea truth measurements are presented which demonstrate the usefulness of in-scene calibration. Quantitative distributions of the suspended solids in sewage sludge released in spot and line dumps are also determined by a multiple regression analysis of multispectral and sea truth data.

  16. Remote and ground-based measurements of ozone profiles during the MAP/GLOBUS 1983 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Noe, J.; Brillet, J.; Turati, C.; Megie, G.; Godin, S.

    1987-05-01

    Ozone observations were carried out during the MAP/GLOBUS campaign in September 1983 by five ground-based instruments located either at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (the Dobson spectrophotometer, the IR SISAM spectrometer, and the UV Lidar) the Bordeaux Observatory (a microwave spectrometer), or at the Biscarosse station (another Dobson spectrophotometer). A balloon-borne microwave spectrometer was flown from Aire-sur-l'Adour on September 28. A brief description of the instruments is given. Results obtained by the different instruments are also given. Their comparison is done first with respect to the ozone content over the whole month of September, then within layers 4, 5 and part of 6 for which Brewer-Mast sonde measurements were included, and finally for vertical profiles at altitudes higher than 30 km. Most comparisons show a good agreement, in general within 5 percent on the average.

  17. Hydrocarbon geochemistry of hydrothermally generated petroleum from Escanaba trough, offshore Californi U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rapp, J.B.; Hostettler, F.D.

    1990-01-01

    In 1986, three samples of sulfide-rich sediments, impregnated with hydrothermally derived, asphaltic petroleum, were recovered in a dredge and by submersible from Escanaba Trough, the sediment-covered, southern end of the Gorda Ridge spreading axis, offshore northern California. The molecular distributions of hydrocarbons in the two pyrrhotite-rich samples recovered by submersible are similar and compare well the hydrocarbon composition of the first pyrrhotite-rich samples containing petroleum discovered at a 1985 dredge site about 30 km to the south of the site of the submersible dive. In contrast, the 1986 dredge sample, composed of a polymetallic assemblage of sulfides, containes petroleum in which the distribution of hydrocarbons indicates a slightly higher of maturity relative to the other samples. The observation that petroleum of variable composition occurs with metallic sulfides at two and probably more distinct site indicates that petroleum generation may be a common process in the hydrothermally active Escanaba Trough. ?? 1990.

  18. Black Mountains crustal section, Death Valley extended terrain, California

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, D.K.; Wernicke, B. )

    1990-06-01

    Recent reconstructions of Cenozoic extension in the southern Great Basin juxtapose the Panamint Range above the Black Mountains and indicate major tectonic denudation of the Black Mountains during Tertiary extension. Structural and geologic characteristics of the Black Mountains and consideration of the regional geology of surrounding ranges suggest that the Black Mountains block may represent a 10 to 30 km preextensional crustal section that has been uplifted along a major detachment zone. Geobarometry and ductile deformation features in a synrift, intermediate to mafic batholith and metamorphism of Eocambrian sedimentary rock on the western side of the range appear to support this hypothesis. These data suggest that the Black Mountains block is one of the youngest and perhaps among the deepest exposed examples of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes.

  19. The Asian Tsunami in Sri Lanka: A Personal Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Chris

    2005-01-01

    AGU Fellow Chris Chapman experienced the devastating Asian tsunami firsthand in Sri Lanka. The following is his account, written in the immediate aftermath of the disaster; the footnotes were added later. Chapman is a scientific advisor at Schlumberger Cambridge Research and a specialist in theoretical seismology. At 9:30 A.M. local time (0330 GMT) on Boxing Day, 26 December, my wife, Lillian, and I were eating breakfast at the beachside Triton Hotel1 in Ahungalla, Sri Lanka (about 30 km north of Galle). The previous week we had toured Sri Lanka, ending our trip traveling through Yala National Park and Galle. These were places we hardly knew of before, but now images of them are indelibly imprinted on the world. Of about 150 staying at the Yala Safari Game Lodge, only 11 survived. The center of Galle, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, a sixteenth- to seventeenth-century Portuguese/Dutchfort and port, is essentially gone.

  20. Monitoring of crustal movements in the San Andreas fault zone by a satellite-borne ranging system. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, M.

    1976-01-01

    The Close Grid Geodynamic Measurement System is conceived as an orbiting ranging device with a ground base grid of reflectors or transponders (spacing 1.0 to 30 km), which are projected to be of low cost (maintenance free and unattended), and which will permit the saturation of a local area to obtain data useful to monitor crustal movements in the San Andreas fault zone. The system includes a station network of 75 stations covering an area between 36 deg N and 38 deg N latitudes, and 237 deg E and 239 deg E longitudes, with roughly half of the stations on either side of the faults. In addition, the simulation of crustal movements through the introduction of changes in the relative positions between grid stations, weather effect for intervisibility between satellite and station and loss of observations thereof, and comparative evaluation of various observational scheme-patterns have been critically studied.

  1. How the first stars shaped the faintest gas-dominated dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeke, Robbert; Vandenbroucke, Bert; de Rijcke, Sven

    2016-08-01

    Cosmological simulations predict that dark matter halos with circular velocities lower than 30 km/s should have lost most of their neutral gas by heating of the ultra-violet background. This is in stark contrast with gas-rich galaxies such as e.g. Leo T, Leo P and Pisces A, which all have circular velocities of ~15 km/s (Ryan-Weber et al. 2008, Bernstein-Cooper et al. 2014, Tollerud et al. 2015). We show that when we include feedback from the first stars into our models, simulated dwarfs have very different properties at redshift 0 than when this form of feedback is not included. Including this Population-III feedback leads to galaxies that lie on the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation over the entire mass range of star forming dwarf galaxies, as well as reproducing a broad range of other observational properties.

  2. New probable dwarf galaxies in northern groups of the Local Supercluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachentsev, I. D.; Karachentseva, V. E.; Huchtmeier, W. K.

    2007-08-01

    We have searched for nearby dwarf galaxies in 27 northern groups with characteristic distances 8 15 Mpc based on the Second Palomar Sky Survey prints. In a total area of about 2000 square degrees, we have found 90 low-surface-brightness objects, more than 60% of which are absent from known catalogs and lists. We have classified most of these objects (˜80%) as irregular dwarf systems. The first 21-cm line observations of the new objects with the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope showed that the typical linear diameters (1 2 kpc), internal motions (˜30 km s-1), and hydrogen masses (˜2 × 107 M ⊙) of the new galaxies correspond to those expected for the dwarf population of nearby groups.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: New dwarf galaxies in northern groups (Karachentsev+, 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachentsev, I. D.; Karachentseva, V. E.; Huchtmeier, W. K.

    2008-01-01

    We have searched for nearby dwarf galaxies in 27 northern groups with characteristic distances 8-15Mpc based on the Second Palomar Sky Survey prints. In a total area of about 2000 square degrees, we have found 90 low-surface-brightness objects, more than 60% of which are absent from known catalogs and lists. We have classified most of these objects (80%) as irregular dwarf systems. The first 21-cm line observations of the new objects with the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope showed that the typical linear diameters (1-2kpc), internal motions (30km/s), and hydrogen masses (2x107M{sun}) of the new galaxies correspond to those expected for the dwarf population of nearby groups. (2 data files).

  4. Properties of haze in the atmosphere of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnopolsky, V. A.; Sandel, B. R.; Herbert, F.

    1992-01-01

    Voyager UV spectrometer measurements of CH4 and haze of the Triton atmosphere combined with the haze brightness profile determined by the narrow angle camera are used to infer a haze optical thickness of 0.024 at 1500 A and 0.0078 in the spectral range of the narrow angle camera centered at 4700A, rho/gamma = 0.36 +/- 0.1 g/cu cm (gamma is the quantum yield of condensate), and values of r(c) varying from 0.1 +/- 0.02 micron at 30 km to 0.15 +/- 0.03 micron near the surface. Other auxiliary properties of the haze are also determined. The value found for rho/gamma corresponds to a packing coefficient of 0.6 gamma if C2H4 is the main condensible species.

  5. Physics of sub-micron cosmic dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, N. L.

    1974-01-01

    Laboratory tests with simulated micrometeoroids to measure the heat transfer coefficient are discussed. Equations for ablation path length for electrically accelerated micrometeoroids entering a gas target are developed which yield guidelines for the laboratory measurement of the heat transfer coefficient. Test results are presented for lanthanum hexaboride (LaB sub 6) microparticles in air, argon, and oxygen targets. The tests indicate the heat transfer coefficient has a value of approximately 0.9 at 30 km/sec, and that it increases to approximately unity at 50 km/sec and above. Test results extend to over 100 km/sec. Results are also given for two types of small particle detectors. A solid state capacitor type detector was tested from 0.61 km/sec to 50 km/sec. An impact ionization type detector was tested from 1.0 to 150 km/sec using LaB sub 6 microparticles.

  6. Formaldehyde Surface Distributions and Variability in the Mexico City Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junkermann, W.; Mohr, C.; Steinbrecher, R.; Ruiz Suarez, L.

    2007-05-01

    Formaldehyde ambient air mole fractions were measured throughout the dry season in March at three different locations in the Mexico City basin. The continuously running instruments were operated at Tenago del Aire, a site located in the Chalco valley in the southern venting area of the basin, at the Intituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP) in the northern part of the city and about 30 km north of the city at the campus of the Universidad Tecnològica de Tecamac (UTTEC). The technique used is the Hantzsch technology with a time resolution of 2 minutes and a detection limit of 100 ppt. Daily maxima peaked at 35 ppb formaldehyde in the city and about 15 to 20 ppb at the other sites. During night formaldehyde levels dropped to about 5 ppb or less. It is evident that the observed spatial and temporal variability in near surface formaldehyde distributions is strongly affected by local and regional advection processes.

  7. Population, reproduction and foraging of pigeon guillemots at Naked Island, Alaska, before and after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Bird study number 9. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Oakley, K.L.; Kuletz, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    Following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, we studied pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) breeding just 30 km from the grounding site. The post-spill population was 43% less than the pre-spill population, but we could not attribute the entire decline to the spill because a decline in the PWS guillemot population may have predated the spill. However, relative declines in the population were greater along oiled shorelines, suggesting that the spill was responsible for some of the decline. The most likely explanation for the few effects observed is that oil was present on the surface waters of the study area for a relatively short period before the guillemots returned to begin their annual reproductive activities.

  8. Estimated SAGE II ozone mixing ratios in early 1993 and comparisons with Stratospheric Photochemistry, Aerosols and Dynamic Expedition measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, G. K.; Veiga, R. E.; Poole, L. R.; Zawodny, J. M.; Proffitt, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    An empirical time-series model for estimating ozone mixing ratios based on Stratospheric Aerosols and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) monthly mean ozone data for the period October 1984 through June 1991 has been developed. The modeling results for ozone mixing ratios in the 10- to 30- km region in early months of 1993 are presented. In situ ozone profiles obtained by a dual-beam UV-absorption ozone photometer during the Stratospheric Photochemistry, Aerosols and Dynamics Expedition (SPADE) campaign, May 1-14, 1993, are compared with the model results. With the exception of two profiles at altitudes below 16 km, ozone mixing ratios derived by the model and measured by the ozone photometer are in relatively good agreement within their individual uncertainties. The identified discrepancies in the two profiles are discussed.

  9. The production of platinum-coated silicate nanoparticle aggregates for use in hypervelocity impact experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillier, Jon K.; Sestak, S.; Green, S. F.; Postberg, F.; Srama, R.; Trieloff, M.

    2009-12-01

    We present a method for producing metal-coated low-density (≲1600 kg m -3) aggregate silicate dust particles for use in hypervelocity impact (HVI) experiments. Particles fabricated using the method are shown to have charged and electrostatically accelerated in the Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik (MPI-K) 2 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, allowing the production of impact ionisation mass spectra of silicate particles (impacting at velocities ranging from <4 to >30 km s -1, corresponding to sizes of >1 to <0.1 μm) using the large area mass analyser (LAMA) instrument, designed for cosmic dust detection in space. Potential uses for the coated grains, such as in the calibration of aerogel targets similar to those used on the Stardust spacecraft, are also discussed.

  10. Variations in propagation delay times for line ten (TV) based time transfers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, M. C.; Shaw, B. W.

    1982-01-01

    Variation in the propagation delay for a 30 km TV (Line Ten) radio link was evaluated for a series of 30 independent measurements. Time marks from TV Channel 5 WTTG in Washington, D.C. were simultaneously measured at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory and at the United States Naval Observatory against each stations' local cesium standard clocks. Differences in the stations' cesium clocks were determined by portable cesium clock transfers. Thirty independent timing determinations were made. The root mean square deviation in the propagation delay calculated from the timing determinations was 11 ns. The variations seen in the propagation delays are believed to be caused by environmental factors and by errors in the portable clock timing measurements. In correlating the propagation delay variations with local weather conditions, only a moderate dependence on air temperature and absolute humidity was found.

  11. Power spectra of mesospheric velocities in polar regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czechowsky, P.; Ruster, R.

    1985-01-01

    The mobile SOUSY radar was operated on Andoya in Northern Norway during the MAP/WINE campaign from November 1983 to February 1984 and for about two weeks in June 1984 to study the seasonal dependence of mesospheric structures and dynamics at polar latitudes. During the winter period, measurements were carried out on 57 days, primarily in coordination with the schedule of the rocket experiments. Echoes were detected in the troposphere and stratosphere up to 30 km and at mesospheric heights from about 50 to 90 km with a distinct maximum around noon. In summer, the radar system was operated continuously from 19th to the 28th of June 1984. Echoes occurred almost for 24 hours in the height range from 70 to 95 km showing no recognizable diurnal variation. Similar observations in polar latitudes were carried out for several years with the Poker Flat Radar in Alaska.

  12. Real-time high-speed motion blur compensation system based on back-and-forth motion control of galvanometer mirror.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Takanoshin; Ishikawa, Masatoshi

    2015-12-14

    We developed a novel real-time motion blur compensation system for the blur caused by high-speed one-dimensional motion between a camera and a target. The system consists of a galvanometer mirror and a high-speed color camera, without the need for any additional sensors. We controlled the galvanometer mirror with continuous back-and-forth oscillating motion synchronized to a high-speed camera. The angular speed of the mirror is given in real time within 10 ms based on the concept of background tracking and rapid raw Bayer block matching. Experiments demonstrated that our system captures motion-invariant images of objects moving at speeds up to 30 km/h.

  13. Observation of ion-cyclotron-frequency mode-conversion flow drive in tokamak plasmas.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y; Rice, J E; Wukitch, S J; Greenwald, M J; Hubbard, A E; Ince-Cushman, A; Lin, L; Porkolab, M; Reinke, M L; Tsujii, N

    2008-12-05

    Strong toroidal flow (Vphi) and poloidal flow (Vtheta) have been observed in D-3He plasmas with ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) mode-conversion (MC) heating on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The toroidal flow scales with the rf power Prf (up to 30 km/s per MW), and is significantly larger than that in ICRF minority heated plasmas at the same rf power or stored energy. The central Vphi responds to Prf faster than the outer regions, and the Vphi(r) profile is broadly peaked for r/a < or =0.5. Localized (0.3 < or = r/a < or =0.5) Vtheta appears when Prf > or =1.5 MW and increases with power (up to 0.7 km/s per MW). The experimental evidence together with numerical wave modeling suggests a local flow drive source due to the interaction between the MC ion cyclotron wave and 3He ions.

  14. Remote sensing and spectral analysis of plumes from ocean dumping in the New York Bight Apex

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    The application of the remote sensing techniques of aerial photography and multispectral scanning in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of plumes from ocean dumping of waste materials is investigated in the New York Bight Apex. Plumes resulting from the dumping of acid waste and sewage sludge were observed by Ocean Color Scanner at an altitude of 19.7 km and by Modular Multispectral Scanner and mapping camera at an altitude of 3.0 km. Results of the qualitative analysis of multispectral and photographic data for the mapping, location, and identification of pollution features without concurrent sea truth measurements are presented which demonstrate the usefulness of in-scene calibration. Quantitative distributions of the suspended solids in sewage sludge released in spot and line dumps are also determined by a multiple regression analysis of multispectral and sea truth data.

  15. Infrasound and seismic detections associated with the 7 September 2015 Bangkok fireball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caudron, Corentin; Taisne, Benoit; Perttu, Anna; Garcés, Milton; Silber, Elizabeth A.; Mialle, Pierrick

    2016-12-01

    A bright fireball was reported at 01:43:35 UTC on September 7, 2015 at a height of ˜30 km above 14.5°N, 98.9°E near Bangkok, Thailand. It had a TNT yield equivalent of 3.9 kilotons (kt), making it the largest fireball detected in South-East Asia since the ˜50 kt 2009 Sumatra bolide. Infrasonic signals were observed at four infrasound arrays that are part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) and one infrasound array located in Singapore. Acoustic bearings and event origin times inferred from array processing are consistent with the eyewitness accounts. A seismic signal associated with this event was also likely recorded at station SRDT, in Thailand. An acoustic energy equivalent of 1.15 ± 0.24 kt is derived from the Singaporean acoustic data using the period of the peak energy.

  16. Planetary atmospheres minor species sensor balloon flight test to near space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peale, Robert E.; Fredricksen, Christopher J.; Muraviev, Andrei V.; Maukonen, Douglas; Quddusi, Hajrah M.; Calhoun, Seth; Colwell, Joshua E.; Lachenmeier, Timothy A.; Dewey, Russell G.; Stern, Alan; Padilla, Sebastian; Bode, Rolfe

    2015-05-01

    The Planetary Atmospheres Minor Species Sensor (PAMSS) is an intracavity laser absorption spectrometer that uses a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser in an open external cavity for sensing ultra-trace gases with parts-per-billion sensitivity. PAMSS was flown on a balloon by Near Space Corporation from Madras OR to 30 km on 17 July 2014. Based on lessons learned, it was modified and was flown a second time to 32 km by World View Enterprises from Pinal AirPark AZ on 8 March 2015. Successes included continuous operation and survival of software, electronics, optics, and optical alignment during extreme conditions and a rough landing. Operation of PAMSS in the relevant environment of near space has significantly elevated its Technical Readiness Level for trace-gas sensing with potential for planetary and atmospheric science in harsh environments.

  17. The 1977 intertropical convergence zone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppoff, I. G. (Editor); Page, W. A. (Editor); Margozzi, A. P. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Data are presented from the 1977 Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) Experiment conducted in the Panama Canal Zone in July 1977. Measurements were made daily over a 16-day period when the ITCZ moved across the Canal Zone. Two aircraft (Learjet and U-2) flew daily and provided data from horizontal traverses at several altitudes to 21.3 km of ozone, temperature, pressure, water vapor, aerosols, fluorocarbons, methane, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and nitric acid. Balloonsondes flown four times per day provided data on ozone, wind fields, pressure, temperature, and humidities to altitudes near 30 km. Rocketsondes provided daily data to altitudes near 69 km. Satellite photography provided detailed cloud information. Descriptions of individual experiments and detailed compilations of all results are provided.

  18. SHIELD II: WSRT HI Spectral Line Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Alex Jonah Robert; Cannon, John M.; Adams, Elizabeth A.; SHIELD II Team

    2016-01-01

    The "Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs II" ("SHIELD II") is a multiwavelength, legacy-class observational campaign that is facilitating the study of both internal and global evolutionary processes in low-mass dwarf galaxies discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. We present new results from WSRT HI spectral line observations of 22 galaxies in the SHIELD II sample. We explore the morphology and kinematics by comparing images of the HI surface densities and the intensity weighted velocity fields with optical images from HST, SDSS, and WIYN. In most cases the HI and stellar populations are cospatial; projected rotation velocities range from less than 10 km/s to roughly 30 km/s.Support for this work was provided by NSF grant AST-1211683 to JMC at Macalester College, and by NASA through grant GO-13750 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  19. New radiosonde techniques to measure radiation profiles through the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kräuchi, Andreas; Philipona, Rolf; Romanens, Gonzague; Levrat, Gilbert

    2013-04-01

    Solar and thermal radiation fluxes are usually measured at Earth's surface and at the top of the atmosphere. Here we show radiosonde techniques that allow measuring radiation flux profiles and the radiation budget from the Earth's surface to above 30 km in the stratosphere. During two-hour flights solar shortwave and thermal longwave irradiance, downward and upward, is measured with four individual sensors at one-second resolution, along with standard PTU radiosonde profiles. Daytime and nighttime shortwave and longwave radiation measurements, and 24 hours surface measurements, allow determining radiation budget- and total net radiation profiles through the atmosphere. We use a double balloon technique to prevent pendulum motion during the ascent and to keep the sonde as horizontal as possible. New techniques using auto controlled airplanes are now investigated to retrieve the sonde after release at a certain altitude and to land it if possible at the launch station.

  20. Kinematics in CTB 80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greidanus, H.; Strom, R. G.

    1990-12-01

    This paper presents data describing the radial kinematics of the core of the complex object CTB 80, believed to be a supernova remnant. The radial velocity of the CTB 80 was found to extend between -130 and 95 km/sec (LSR), with the emission being brightest and most concentrated in filaments around -30 km/sec, and weaker at higher velocities. The character of the position-velocity diagrams was found to be consistent with models of expanding ellipsoidal shells. A comparison with these models indicated a short dimension for the core along the line of sight, and favors a momentum-driven expansion. This type of expansion is indicative of a neutron star excitation for the core of CTB 80, as opposed to a normal supernova shock.

  1. Nongravitational motion of Comet P/Kopff during 1958-1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickman, H.; Sitarski, G.; Todorovic-Juchniewicz, B.

    1987-12-01

    225 astrometric observations from the last five apparitions of comet Kopff were collected in order to investigate the orbital motion of the comet. Values of all three nongravitational parameters (A1, A2 and A3) were found for three linkages of three consecutive apparitions, and by ascribing these to the respective mid-moments the authors observe a regular change with time for A2 and A3. Further they computed thermal models for the nucleus of comet Kopff in order to find the physical interpretations of the orbital results. These models considered an oblate spheroidal nucleus, and it was found that an equatorial radius of 3.0 km with 75% of the surface area in a state of free sublimation of H2O ice gives a reasonable account of the light curves observed at recent apparitions.

  2. Troll oil pipeline: Seabed surveying and pipeline routing in critical areas

    SciTech Connect

    Indreeide, A.; Nilsen, O.; Trodal, L.; Canu, M.; Baldascino, G.

    1996-12-01

    The 85 km long 16-in oil pipeline from the Troll Field to the Mongstad Refinery North of Bergen in Norway, including a nearshore/inshore section of some 30 km length which is characterized by a water depth down to 540 meters, complex and rocky seabed topography including extremely steep fjords walls. This inner section required a considerable amount of highly detailed and accurate surveying, in particular using remotely operated vehicles (ROV) to gather the required seabed documentation for pipeline routing engineering and construction. In particular a high precision in route definition was necessary, together with a common seabed reference system for engineering and construction in order to obtain a very accurate pipeline location within the actual narrow route corridor. This paper deals with the seabed surveying and documentation as well as the subsequent pipeline routing within the nearshore/inshore section of the pipeline route.

  3. Cross-Sensor Validation of the Optical Transient Detector (OTD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccippio, D. J.; Driscoll, K.; Koshak, W.; Blakeslee, R.; Boeck, W.; Mach, D.; Christian, H. J.; Goodman, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    Lightning data from the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) is used to perform preliminary validation of the satellite-based Optical Transient Detector (OTD). Sensor precision, accuracy, detection efficiency and biases of the deployed instrument are considered. We estimate the sensor to have, on average, better than 30 km spatial and 100 ms temporal accuracy. The detection efficiency for cloud-to-ground lightning is about 45-70%, slightly higher for intracloud lightning. There are only marginal day/night biases in the dataset, although 55 day averaging is required to remove sampling-based diurnal lightning cycle biases. The sensor detects statistically significant differences in the optical characteristics of intracloud, negative cloud-to-ground and positive cloud-to-ground lightning, although it cannot a priori determine flash types.

  4. Satellite observation of SO2 from El Chichon - Identification and measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpeters, R. D.; Heath, D. F.; Schlesinger, B. M.

    1984-01-01

    Absorption bands between 300 nm and 315 nm were observed in spectral scans of the atmospheric albedo made by the solar backscattered ultraviolet instrument (SBUV) on Nimbus 7 following the eruption of El Chichon. It is shown that these bands coincide with peaks in the absorption coefficient spectrum of SO2 and use the magnitude of the absorption to estimate the column content of SO2 present. A maximum concentration of 15 matm-cm of SO2 was observed west of Hawaii on April 15; the minimum detectable amount of SO2 in a single scan is about 1 matm-cm. The disappearance of the band structure at wavelengths below 300 nm indicates that the SO2 was between 20 km and 30 km altitude. An excess albedo was also observed near 300 nm which was attributed to increased scattering from volcanic aerosols; the wavelength of the scattering feature indicates that the aerosols also were near 25 km altitude.

  5. The Acraman impact structure: Estimation of the diameter by the ejecta layer thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurov, E. P.

    1993-01-01

    The big role of gigantic craters formation in geological history of the Earth was established by the example of the K/T boundary event. The discovery of the iridium anomaly in the sedimentary rocks of Vendian in the western part of Ukrainian shield allows to suppose its origin in connection with the great impact of that time. The only big impact structure of that age is the Acraman Crater in south-eastern part of Australia. The Acraman Crater is presented by deeply eroded structure, original diameter of which it is difficult to determine. By geological and morphological data the Acraman Crater is presented by an inner ring 30 km in diameter, an intermediate ring 90 km in diameter, and an outer ring about 150-160 km in diameter.

  6. Long-term increase in Karenia brevis abundance along the Southwest Florida Coast

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Larry E.; Compton, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Data collected along the southwest coast of Florida between Tampa Bay and Sanibel Island on the abundance of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis from 1954 to 2002 were examined for spatial and temporal patterns. K. brevis was found to be approximately 20-fold more abundant within 5 km of the shoreline than 20-30 km offshore. Overall, K. brevis was approximately 13-18-fold more abundant in 1994-2002 than in 1954-1963. In 1954-1963, K. brevis occurred primarily in the fall months. In 1994-2002, it was more abundant not only in the fall, but also in the winter and spring months. It is hypothesized that greater nutrient availability in the ecosystem is the most likely cause of this increase in K. brevis biomass, and the large increase in the human population and its activities in South Florida over the past half century is a major factor. PMID:18437245

  7. Vertical profile measurements of carbonylsulfide in the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Schmidt, U.

    Measurements of COS in the altitude region between 17 and 30 km were made, using a whole air sampling technique with subsequent gaschromatographic analysis. The data show COS mixing-ratios from about 200 pptv at 17 km decreasing to less then 20 pptv at about 28 km. This behaviour is in qualitative agreement with the model-calculations by Turco et al. (1981). From the correlation with CFCl3 and CF2Cl2 the lifetime with respect to removal in the stratosphere is calculated to be 69±28 years. This corresponds to a sink of between 47 and 112 * 109 g of COS per year in the stratosphere. Comparing this number to the estimated fluxes needed to sustain the background sulfuric-acid aerosol confirms that most of the non-volcanic aerosol is produced by the oxidation of COS in the stratosphere.

  8. Aerosol nucleation in the winter Arctic and Antarctic stratospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Patrick; Toon, O. B.; Turco, R. P.

    1990-01-01

    The formation rate of sulfuric-acid-water aerosol particles is calculated as a function of altitude for the conditions of the winter Arctic and Antarctic stratospheres. The theoretical results indicate that sulfate particle formation can occur in the polar winter stratosphere. Conditions for new particle formation are increasingly favorable as the altitude increases between 20 and 30 km because of the decrease in surface area of preexisting particles and increasing sulfuric-acid vapor supply. The theoretical predictions are consistent with observations of a high-altitude CN layer over Antarctica in the spring. Available vapor-pressure data indicate that ternary particles composed of sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and water are not thermodynamically stable under winter stratospheric conditions.

  9. Infrasound and seismic detections associated with the 7 September 2015 Bangkok fireball

    SciTech Connect

    Caudron, Corentin; Taisne, Benoit; Perttu, Anna; Garces, Milton; Silber, Elizabeth A.; Mialle, Pierrick

    2016-08-22

    A bright fireball was reported at 01:43:35 UTC on September 7, 2015 at a height of ~30 km above 14.5°N, 98.9°E near Bangkok, Thailand. It had a TNT yield equivalent of 3.9 kilotons (kt), making it the largest fireball detected in South–East Asia since the ~50 kt 2009 Sumatra bolide. Infrasonic signals were observed at four infrasound arrays that are part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) and one infrasound array located in Singapore. Acoustic bearings and event origin times inferred from array processing are consistent with the eyewitness accounts. A seismic signal associated with this event was also likely recorded at station SRDT, in Thailand. As a result, an acoustic energy equivalent of 1.15 ± 0.24 kt is derived from the Singaporean acoustic data using the period of the peak energy.

  10. Infrasound and seismic detections associated with the 7 September 2015 Bangkok fireball

    DOE PAGES

    Caudron, Corentin; Taisne, Benoit; Perttu, Anna; ...

    2016-08-22

    A bright fireball was reported at 01:43:35 UTC on September 7, 2015 at a height of ~30 km above 14.5°N, 98.9°E near Bangkok, Thailand. It had a TNT yield equivalent of 3.9 kilotons (kt), making it the largest fireball detected in South–East Asia since the ~50 kt 2009 Sumatra bolide. Infrasonic signals were observed at four infrasound arrays that are part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) and one infrasound array located in Singapore. Acoustic bearings and event origin times inferred from array processing are consistent with the eyewitness accounts. A seismic signal associated with this event was also likelymore » recorded at station SRDT, in Thailand. As a result, an acoustic energy equivalent of 1.15 ± 0.24 kt is derived from the Singaporean acoustic data using the period of the peak energy.« less

  11. Dynamic evolution of recurrent mass ejections observed in H-alpha and C IV lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmieder, B.; Mein, P.; Martres, M. J.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1984-01-01

    The mass ejections of 1 September, 1980 are studied from observations obtained with the MSDP spectrograph and with the Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter aboard the Solar Maximum Mission satellite. The analysis is focused on observations in the chromospheric H-alpha line and the transition region C IV 1548 A line. It is noted that cold and hot material had the same projection, although the upward C IV velocity structure was more extended than the H-alpha one. It is shown that the observed contrast of the H-alpha absorbing structure can be interpreted in terms of a dynamic cloud model overlying the chromosphere. Radial velocities of 25-30 km/s and -40 km/s are estimated for the first and second phases of ejection, respectively.

  12. Strontium-90 concentrations in human teeth in south Ukraine, 5 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Kulev, Y D; Polikarpov, G G; Prigodey, E V; Assimakopoulos, P A

    1994-10-28

    Approximately 1000 human teeth, collected in South Ukraine, in 1990-1991, were measured for 90Sr concentration. The teeth were grouped into 18 samples according to the age and sex of the donors. Measured levels of 90Sr concentrations were lower by a factor of 10 than measurements taken in the mid-1960s and mid-1970s. An interesting feature of the data is a 3-fold enhancement of contamination levels in the 25-45 year-old age group of the male population. A possible explanation for this anomaly is that this age group contains a significant number of men who were mobilized immediately after the Chernobyl accident for clean-up operations within the 30-km zone around the damaged nuclear power plant.

  13. Status of the Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio

    2014-11-01

    TAOS II is a next generation occultation survey with the goal of measuring the size distribution of the small objects (diameters between 0.5 and 30 km) in the Kuiper Belt. The project is a collaboration between the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, The survey will operate three 1.3 m telescopes at San Pedro Martir Observatory in Baja California, Mexico. Each telescope will be equipped with a custom camera comprising a focal plane array of CMOS imagers. Each camera will be capable of reading out image data from 10,000 stars at a cadence of 20 Hz. All telescopes will monitor the same set of stars simultaneously to search for coincident occultation events while minimizing the false positive rate. This poster describes the project and reports on the progress of the development of the survey infrastructure.

  14. Sediment waves on the Monterey fan levee: a preliminary physical interpretation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, W.R.; Hess, G.R.; Stow, D.A.V.; Bowen, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed survey of a 30 km2 area of abyssal-depth sediment waves associated with the levee of the Monterey fan valley shows a pattern of sinuous crests and troughs with parallel, well-bedded internal structure. Material in the upper 1 m of sediment consists predominantly of bioturbated, muddy coccolith ooze. A single thin, silty horizon can be correlated between adjoining waves. The sediment waves are considered to be formed most likely by low-velocity (10 cm/s), low-concentration turbidity flows approximately 100-800 m thick. This interpretation emphasizes the role of low-speed, low-concentration turbidity currents in the downslope movement of fine-grained material.- from Authors

  15. Climatology of the relationship between ozone lamina number and daily value of total ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krizan, Peter

    2016-04-01

    This poster deals with relationship between positive and negative lamina number and daily values of total ozone at the ozonosonde stations with sufficient length of observations. We search for this relationship at the European and the Japanese ozonosonde stations as well at the American and Canadian midlatitude stations and at the stations in the high latitudes At the European midlatitude stations there is a strong positive correlations between daily values of positive lamina number and daily values of ozone amount up to 30 km. These correlations are weaker and negative for negative lamina number. Are these findings geographically dependent? Is any latitudinal dependence of this relationship? Are there any differences between the Arctic and the Antarctica? This poster try to answer these question.

  16. Spectral Variability of Romano's Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryeva, O.; Abolmasov, P.

    2010-10-01

    We combine archival spectral observations of the LBV star V532 (Romano's star) together with existing photometric data in the B band. Spectroscopic data cover 15 years of observations (from 1992 to 2007). We show that the object in maximum of brightness behaves as an emission line supergiant while in minimum V532 moves along the sequence of late WN stars. In this sense, the object behaves similarly to the well-known Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) stars AG Car and R127, but is somewhat hotter at the minima. We identify about 100 spectral lines in the 3700-7300Å range. As of today, our spectroscopy is the most comprehensive for this object. The velocity of the wind is derived using the He I triplet lines (360±30 km s(-1) ). Physical parameters of the nebula around V532 are estimated.

  17. Spectral Variability of the LBV star V532 in M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryeva, O. V.

    2009-12-01

    We present the results of spectral monitoring of the LBV star V532 (Romano star) in the M33 galaxy. Spectroscopic data cover 15 years of observations (from 1992 to 2007) during which V532 evolved from 16 mag to 18.5 mag. Spectral data were compared with photometrical data in B band. We show that the object in maximum of brightness behaves as an emission line supergiant while in minimum V532 moves along the sequence of late WN stars. We identify about 100 spectral lines in 3700-7300 Å wavelength range. For today, our spectroscopy is the most comprehensive for this object. The velocity of the wind was derived using HeI triplet lines (360 ± 30 km s^{-1}). This value is consistent with the wind velocities of late WN. Physical parameters of the nebula around V532 are estimated.

  18. Remote sensing and spectral analysis of plumes from ocean dumping in the New York Bight Apex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The application of the remote sensing techniques of aerial photography and multispectral scanning in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of plumes from ocean dumping of waste materials is investigated in the New York Bight Apex. Plumes resulting from the dumping of acid waste and sewage sludge were observed by Ocean Color Scanner at an altitude of 19.7 km and by Modular Multispectral Scanner and mapping camera at an altitude of 3.0 km. Results of the qualitative analysis of multispectral and photographic data for the mapping, location, and identification of pollution features without concurrent sea truth measurements are presented which demonstrate the usefulness of in-scene calibration. Quantitative distributions of the suspended solids in sewage sludge released in spot and line dumps are also determined by a multiple regression analysis of multispectral and sea truth data.

  19. Novel wavelength division multiplex-radio over fiber-passive optical network architecture for multiple access points based on multitone generation and triple sextupling frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guangming; Guo, Banghong; Liu, Songhao; Huang, Xuguang

    2014-01-01

    An innovative wavelength division multiplex-radio over fiber-passive optical network architecture for multiple access points (AP) based on multitone generation and triple sextupling frequency is proposed and demonstrated. A dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DD-MZM) is utilized to realize the multitone generation. Even sidebands are suppressed to make the adjacent frequency separation twice the frequency of the local oscillator by adjusting the modulation voltage of the DD-MZM. Due to adopting three fiber Bragg gratings to reflect the unmodulated sidebands for uplink communications source free at optical network unit (ONU), is achieved. The system can support at least three APs at one ONU simultaneously with a 30 km single-mode fiber (SMF) transmission and 5 Gb/s data rate both for uplink and downlink communications. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show the architecture has an excellent performance and will be a promising candidate in future hybrid access networks.

  20. Power spectra of mesospheric velocities in polar regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czechowsky, P.; Ruster, R.

    1985-01-01

    The mobile SOUSY radar was operated on Andoya in Northern Norway during the MAP/WINE campaign from November 1983 to February 1984 and for about two weeks in June 1984 to study the seasonal dependence of mesospheric structures and dynamics at polar latitudes. During the winter period, measurements were carried out on 57 days, primarily in coordination with the schedule of the rocket experiments. Echoes were detected in the troposphere and stratosphere up to 30 km and at mesospheric heights from about 50 to 90 km with a distinct maximum around noon. In summer, the radar system was operated continuously from 19th to the 28th of June 1984. Echoes occurred almost for 24 hours in the height range from 70 to 95 km showing no recognizable diurnal variation. Similar observations in polar latitudes were carried out for several years with the Poker Flat Radar in Alaska.

  1. Determining Sources and Transport of Nuclear Contamination in Hudson River Sediments with Plutonium, Neptunium, and Cesium isotope ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenna, T. C.; Chillrud, S. N.; Chaky, D. A.; Simpson, H. J.; McHugh, C. M.; Shuster, E. L.; Bopp, R. F.

    2004-12-01

    Different sources of radioactive contamination contain characteristic and identifiable isotopic signatures, which can be used to study sediment transport. We focus on Pu-239, Pu-240, Np-237 and Cs-137, which are strongly bound to fine grained sediments. The Hudson River drainage basin has received contamination from at least three separate sources: 1) global fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, which contributed Pu, Np and Cs; 2) contamination resulting from reactor releases at the Indian Point Nuclear Power Plant (IPNPP) located on the Hudson River Estuary ˜70km north of New York Harbor, where records document releases of Cs-137; 3) contamination resulting from activities at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) located on the Mohawk River, where incomplete records document releases of Cs-137 but no mention is made of Pu or Np. Here we report measurements of Pu isotopes, Np-237 and Cs-137 for a series of sediment cores collected from various locations within the drainage basin: 1) Mohawk River downstream of KAPL, 2) Hudson River upstream of its confluence with the Mohawk River, and 3) lower Hudson River at a location in close proximity to IPNPP. In addition, we present data from selected samples from two other lower Hudson River locations: One site located ˜30km downstream of IPNPP and another ˜30km upstream of IPNPP. By comparing the isotopic ratios Pu-240/Pu-239, Np-237/Pu-239, and Cs-137/Pu-239, measured in fluvial sediments to mean global fallout values, it is possible to identify and resolve different sources of non-fallout contamination. To date, isotopic data for sediments indicate non-fallout sources of Pu-239, Pu-240, and Cs-137; Np-237, however, appears to originate from global fallout only. Mohawk River sediments downstream of KAPL exhibit enrichments in Pu-239, Pu-240, and Cs-137 that are 7 to 20 times higher than levels expected from global fallout as indicated from Np-237. The elevated levels, non-fallout isotopic signatures

  2. [Cytogenetic indices for somatic mutagenesis in mammals exposed to chronic low-dose irradiation].

    PubMed

    Kostenko, S A; Ermakova, O V; Sushko, S N; Fyedorova, E V; Dzhus, P P; Baschlykova, L A; Kurylenko, Yu F; Raskosha, O V; Savin, A O; Shaforost, A S

    2015-01-01

    We used cytogenetic analysis in the studies of the biological effects of a radiation factor of natural and artificial origin (under conditions ofthe 30-km exclusion zone ofthe Chernobyl experimental landfills in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia). The studies have been performed on various types of mammals: domestic animals--cows, pigs, horses and rodents--root voles, the Af mouse line, and yellow necked field mouse, bank voles. We found significant changes in the level of MN and chromosomal aberrations in the animals that were exposed to the conditions of chronic low-dose radiation for a long time (bothin the habitat and upon exposure in the Chernobyl zone) regardless of the type of animal and nature of contamination.

  3. Temporal variations in regional models of the Sargasso Sea from GEOS-3 altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, R. S.; Coleman, R.; Hirsch, B.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers temporal variations in regional models of the Sargasso sea from GEOS-3 telemetry. The methods of regional models and the analysis of overlapping passes are utilized, and short-wave maxima and minima in the regional surface models are examined for correlations with surface and remote sensed infrared temperature data supplemented with subsurface expendable bathythermograph data (XBT). The analysis of overlapping passes provide a better picture of instanteneous sea surface height (SSH) variability through wavelengths greater than 30 km. Correlation studies with cyclonic and anticyclonic ocean eddies from infrared imagery and XBT data indicate satisfactory agreement with equivalent SSH features 98% of the time if the time varying factors are allowed for.

  4. The Companion of the RR Lyrae Star TV Boo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohm-Vitense, Erika

    In her study of the RR Lyrae star TV Boo, Claudia Oliveira at the University of British Columbia, measured over a period of 3 days a mean radial velocity of Vr = -110 km/sec, while measurements made a few years earlier had shown V, - -30 km/sec. These measurements indicate orbital motions of a binary. Combining all available measurements an orbital period around 60 days is suggested. The color-color plot of V-I versus B-V is abnormal and indicates a blue companion. This must then be either a white dwarf or a horizontal branch star on the very blue end with decreasing Mv. This then is an extremely interesting binary which for the first time can give direct information about the masses of such stars. We want to observe the blue companion of this RR Lyrae star in order to determine its properties and possibly measure its orbital velocity.

  5. Comparison of SAGE 2 ozone measurements and ozone soundings at Uccle (Belgium) during the period February 1985 to January 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debacker, Hugo; Demuer, Dirk; Veiga, R. E.; Zawodny, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The ozone profiles obtained from 24 balloon soundings, at 50 deg 48 min N, 4 deg 21 min E, carried out with the electro-chemical ozonesondes are discussed. The data were used as correlative data to the ozone profiles acquired by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE 2). Good agreement was obtained between the two data sets. The difference of percentage between the ozone column density of the mean balloon and SAGE profile is 4.4% in the altitude region between 10 to 26 km. From the statistical analysis it seems that there is a difference between the mean profiles at the level of the ozone maximum and around the 30 km level. Similar results are obtained with an error analysis of both data. The differences between the mean profiles in the lower stratosphere are probably real, and are due to the presence of ozone.

  6. Heat flow in eastern Egypt - The thermal signature of a continental breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Boulos, F. K.; Hennin, S. F.; El-Sherif, A. A.; El-Sayed, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    It is noted that the Red Sea is a modern example of continental fragmentation and incipient ocean formation. A consistent pattern of high heat flow in the Red Sea margins and coastal zone, including Precambrian terrane up to at least 30 km from the Red Sea, has emerged from the existing data. It is noted that this pattern has important implications for the mode and mechanism of Red Sea opening. High heat flow in the Red Sea shelf requires either a high extension of the crust in this zone (probably with major basic magmatic activity) or young oceanic crust beneath this zone. High heat flow in the coastal thermal anomaly zone may be caused by lateral conduction from the offshore lithosphere and/or from high mantle heat flow. It is suggested that new oceanic crust and highly extended continental crust would be essentially indistinguishable with the available data in the Red Sea margins, and are for many purposes essentially identical.

  7. [Reasons for Hospital Treatment of Psychiatric Patients before and after the Opening of a Satellite Ward].

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, R P; Schmidt-Michel, P O

    2002-04-01

    A satellite ward is a psychiatric ward at a general hospital settled within the catchment area that is administered by a psychiatric hospital. The objective of the satellite model is to approach community treatment on the one hand and somatic medicine on the other hand, consequently diminishing the threshold for hospital treatment. This study investigated whether the diagnostic, psychopathologic and social reasons for admissions changed from this catchment area due to the lower threshold of a satellite ward. The results were controlled with another catchment area's admissions to the 30 km distant psychiatric hospital. The opening of the satellite ward was followed by an 81 % increase of admissions. In particular, admissions of patients with neuroses and personality disorders were more frequent. There was no change of the severity code of psychopathology at admission. From the catchment area of the satellite ward less patients were admitted involuntarily whereas more admissions happened due to social reasons and after patients' own decision.

  8. Enceladus's and Dione's floating ice shells supported by minimum stress isostasy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuthe, Mikael; Rivoldini, Attilio; Trinh, Antony

    2016-10-01

    Enceladus's gravity and shape have been explained in terms of a thick isostatic ice shell floating on a global ocean, in contradiction of the thin shell implied by librations. Here we propose a new isostatic model minimizing crustal deviatoric stress and demonstrate that gravity and shape data predict a 38 ± 4 km thick ocean beneath a 23 ± 4 km thick shell agreeing with—but independent of—libration data. Isostatic and tidal stresses are comparable in magnitude. South polar crust is only 7 ± 4 km thick, facilitating the opening of water conduits and enhancing tidal dissipation through stress concentration. Enceladus's resonant companion, Dione, is in a similar state of minimum stress isostasy. Its gravity and shape can be explained in terms of a 99 ± 23 km thick isostatic shell overlying a 65 ± 30 km thick global ocean, thus providing the first clear evidence for a present-day ocean within Dione.

  9. A REVISED ASTEROID POLARIZATION-ALBEDO RELATIONSHIP USING WISE/NEOWISE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Wright, E. L.; McMillan, R. S.; Tholen, D. J.; Blain, A. W.

    2012-04-20

    We present a reanalysis of the relationship between asteroid albedo and polarization properties using the albedos derived from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. We find that the function that best describes this relation is a three-dimensional linear fit in the space of log (albedo)-log (polarization slope)-log (minimum polarization). When projected to two dimensions, the parameters of the fit are consistent with those found in previous work. We also define p* as the quantity of maximal polarization variation when compared with the albedo and present the best-fitting albedo-p* relation. Some asteroid taxonomic types stand out in this three-dimensional space, notably the E, B, and M Tholen types, while others cluster in clumps coincident with the S- and C-complex bodies. We note that both low albedo and small (D < 30 km) asteroids are underrepresented in the polarimetric sample, and we encourage future polarimetric surveys to focus on these bodies.

  10. Lidar- and balloon-borne particle counter comparisons following recent volcanic eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, D. J.; Rosen, J. M.; Reiter, R.; Jager, H.

    1983-01-01

    Balloon-borne particle counter measurements at Laramie, Wyoming (41 deg N) are used to calculate the expected lidar backscatter at 0.694 micron wavelength from July 1979 to February 1982, a period which included at least four detectable perturbations of the stratospheric aerosol layer due to volcanic eruptions. These calculations are compared with lidar measurements conducted at Garmisch-Partenkirchen (47.5 deg N) during the same period. While the agreement is generally good using only the main mode in the particle size distribution (radius about 0.07 micron) during approximately the first 6 months following a major volcanic eruption, a measured secondary mode near 1 micron radius, when included, improves the agreement. Calculations of the expected backscatter at 25-30 km reveal that substantial number of particles diffuse into this high altitude region about 7 months after a major eruption, and these particles should be taken into account when normalizing lidar at these altitudes.

  11. Repeaterless transmission of eight channels at 10 Gb/s over 137 km (11 Tb/s-km) of dispersion-shifted fiber using unequal channel spacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forghieri, Fabrizio; Gnauck, A. H.; Tkach, R. W.; Chraplyvy, A. R.; Derosier, R. M.

    1994-11-01

    Experimental evidence of the effectiveness of a proper allocation of channel frequencies to suppress four-wave-mixing crosstalk is presented by comparing an eight-channel WDM system with unequal channel spacing with a conventional equally spaced WDM system with the same optical bandwidth. Repeaterless transmission of eight 10-Gb/s WDM channels over 137 km (11 Tb/s-km) of dispersion-shifted fiber was demonstrated and error-free operation was achieved over a wide range of input powers using unequally spaced channels. The same system with equally spaced channels could not achieve a probability of error lower than 10(exp -6). The use of unequal channel spacing allows fiber input power to be increased by as much as 7 dB, which can be translated to a fivefold increase of the bit rate per channel (and therefore of the system capacity), or to an increase of the system length by about 30 km.

  12. Shock-Induced phase transition of single crystal copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neogi, Anupam; Mitra, Nilanjan

    2017-05-01

    We have carried out a series of multi-million atoms non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the effect of crystal orientation over the shock induced plasticity and phase transformation in single crystal copper. Crystallographic orientation of [100], [110] and [111] has been studied for various intensity of shock ranging from 1.0 km/s to 3.0 km/s. During shock wave propagation along <100> and <110>, a FCC-to-BCC phase transformation has been observed to occur behind the shock front at higher intensity of shock. Nucleated body centered phase is identified through common neighbor analysis, polyhedral matching template method, radial distribution function and also from the energetic of the particles.

  13. Lagrangian observations of surface coastal flows North of 30∘S in the Humboldt Current system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín, Víctor H.; Delgado, Luisa E.

    2007-03-01

    We analyze the surface circulation of the coastal waters of the Humboldt Current system based on five Lagrangian satellite-tracked drifters (three launched on January 2005 and two on January 2006) deployed at 30∘S, lasting 30 and 60 days, respectively. Based on the concurrent analysis of buoy's records, sea surface temperature (SST) satellite images and local wind forcing, we propose that the coastal surface circulation between 30∘S and 23∘S can be described as a 0.2ms-1 equatorward flow. Coastal export seems to depend upon the generation of cold-water, locally forced, squirts advecting upwelling waters up to 295 km offshore. Within the nearshore zone ( <30km from the coast), near-inertial motion and alongshore changes in current direction may serve as mechanisms for enhancing water residence time.

  14. Volatile inventory of Mars-2: Primordial sources and fractionating processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, R. O.

    1987-01-01

    The total volatile inventory of Mars has been modeled using meteoritic and presumed primordial abundances in the early solar system. Evidence is presented which indicates that the elemental abundances of the noble gases on Earth and Mars are similar, and their ratios are comparable to those in average carbonaceous chondrites with the exception of xenon and krypton. In order to account for presently observed variations in gas abundances, two primordial sources were used. One was the solar composition similar to the solar wind, and the other of carbonaceous grains that were the source for trace exotic components. For Mars, a model in which the early, high solar EUV flux with continued hydrogen production by differentiation results in mass fractionation of the primordial atmosphere, early depletion of xenon, and later depletion of gases lighter than krypton. The result is that the primordial Mars water inventory may have been on the order of 20 to 30 km if spread over the planet.

  15. Quaternary tectonics and basin history of Pahrump and Stewart Valleys, Nevada and California. [Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffard, J.L. )

    1991-05-01

    The Pahrump fault system is an active fault system located in Pahrump and Stewart Valleys, Nevada and California, in the southern part of the Basin and Range Province. This system is 50 km long by 30 km wide and is comprised of three fault zones: the right-lateral East Nopah fault zone, the right-oblique Pahrump Valley fault zone, and the normal West Spring Mountains fault zone. All three zones have geomorphic evidence for late Quaternary activity. Analysis of active fault patterns and seismic reflection lines suggests that the Pahrump basin has had a two-stage genesis, an early history associated with a period of low angle detachment faulting probably active 10-15 Ma, and a more recent history related to the present dextral shear system, probably active post-4 Ma.

  16. Quaternary tectonics and basin history of Pahrump and Stewart Valleys, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffard, J.L.

    1991-05-01

    The Pahrump fault system is an active fault system located in Pahrump and Stewart Valleys, Nevada and California, in the southern part of the Basin and Range Province. This system is 50 km long by 30 km wide and is comprised of three fault zones: the right-lateral East Nopah fault zone, the right-oblique Pahrump Valley fault zone, and the normal West Spring Mountains fault zone. All three zones have geomorphic evidence for late Quaternary activity. Analysis of active fault patterns and seismic reflection lines suggests that the Pahrump basin has had a two-stage genesis, an early history associated with a period of low angle detachment faulting probably active 10-15 Ma, and a more recent history related to the present dextral shear system, probably active post-4 Ma.

  17. Variable anisotropy of small-scale stratospheric irregularities retrieved from stellar scintillation measurements by GOMOS/Envisat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Valery; Dalaudier, Francis; Sofieva, Viktoria

    In this work, we consider possibilities for studying the anisotropy of small-scale air density irregularities using satellite observations of bi-chromatic stellar scintillations during tangential occultations. Estimation of the anisotropy coefficient (the ratio of the characteristic horizontal to vertical scales) and other atmospheric parameters is based on the comparison of simulated/theoretical and experimental auto-spectra and coherency spectra of scintillation. Our analyses exploit a 3D model of the spectrum of atmospheric inhomogeneities, which consists of anisotropic and isotropic components. For the anisotropic component, a spectral model with variable anisotropy is used. Using stellar scintillations measurements by GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars) fast photometers, estimates of the anisotropy coefficient are obtained for atmospheric irregularities with vertical scales of 8-55 m at altitudes of 43-30 km. It is shown that the anisotropy increases from about 10 to 50 with increasing vertical scales.

  18. The rifting of continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonatti, Enrico

    1987-03-01

    Continental rifts are shown to be produced by the upwelling of hot mantle material which thins, weakens, and cracks the lithosphere. The Island of Zabargad in the Red Sea is composed of rocks made of upper mantle and lower crustal materials. Zabargad grabbos crystallized at least 30 km below the crust and contain garnet, which only crystallizes under high pressure. Similar rock in crust off the east coast of North America and in the Atlantic rift reveals the underplating of continental crust by basaltic magma, which eventually reaches the surface through faults. Magnetic data are described which show that breakthrough points are spaced at regular intervals. The spacing is closer in continental rifts (50 km) than in oceanic rifts (150 km). A thermal anomaly model is proposed wherein magmatic plumes separate from the denser mantle, a periodic process over distance, and move upward through the crust. Mineralogical evidence supporting the model are discussed.

  19. H2S and CO2 emissions from Cerro Prieto geothermal power plant, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta, Oscar; Franco, Luis; Castro, Telma; Taran, Yuri; Bernard, Ruben; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Navarro, Rafael; Saavedra, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    Cerro Prieto geothermal power plant has an operation capacity of 570 MW distributed in four powerhouses being the largest geothermal plant in Mexico. The geothermal field has 149 production wells. It is located in Cerro Prieto, Baja California, 30 km to the south of the Mexico-US border. Two sampling campaigns were performed in December 2012 and May 2013 where geothermal fluids from 46 production wells and 10 venting stacks were obtained and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Average CO2 and H2S composition of samples from venting stacks were 49.4% and 4.79%, respectively. Based on the chemical composition of samples, the geothermal power plant emits every day from venting stacks 869 tons of CO2, plus 68 tons of H2S, among other non-condensable gases.

  20. Change in statistics of drought in a land use scenario for Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilian, Markus; Chavez, Erik; Lucarini, Valerio

    2016-04-01

    The land use changes due to an intensified and expanding agricultural and industrial activity is affecting regional weather and climate in Brazil. We analyse the results of a land use change driven Weather and Research Forecasting Model (WRF) using classical drought indices and specific agricultural yield loss drought optimum indices. The objective is to assess changes in risk exposure driven by changes in weather patterns subject to different scenarios of land use changes in Brazil. The WRF model is driven by land use changes as well as the ECHAM5 climate model (with the A1B scenario) on a 60km and 30km grid. In order to determine the risk exposure of an important economic sector to changes in land use change we focus on maize as one of the principal crop grown in Brazil.

  1. Discharge dynamics of pin-to-plate dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Liqun; Huang, Xiaojiang; Zhang Jie; Zhang Jing; Shi, J. J.

    2010-11-15

    The discharge dynamics of pin-to-plate dielectric barrier discharge was studied in atmospheric helium at 20 kHz. The discharge was predominately ignited in positive half cycle of applied voltage with sinusoidal waveform. The temporal evolution of the discharge was investigated vertically along the discharge gap and radically on the dielectric surface by time resolved imaging. It is found that a discharge column with a diameter of 2 mm was ignited above the pin electrode and expanded toward a plate electrode. On the dielectric surface with space charge accumulation, plasma disk in terms of plasma ring was formed with radius up to 25 mm. The expansion velocity of plasma ring can reach a hypersonic speed of 3.0 km/s. The ionization wave due to electron diffusion is considered to be the mechanism for plasma ring formation and dynamics.

  2. The RS CVn Binary HD 155555: A Comparative Study of the Atmospheres for the Two Component Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Airapetian, V. S.; Dempsey, R. C.

    1997-01-01

    We present GHRS/HST observations of the RS CVn binary system HD 155555. Several key UV emission lines (Fe XXI, Si IV, O V, C IV) have been analyzed to provide information about the heating rate throughout the atmosphere from the chromosphere to the corona. We show that both the G and K components reveal features of a chromosphere, transition region and corona. The emission measure distribution as a function of temperature for both components is derived and compared with the RS Cvn system, HR 1099, and the Sun. The transition region and coronal lines of both stars show nonthermal broadenings of approx. 20-30 km/s. Possible physical implications for coronal heating mechanisms are discussed.

  3. [Accidents of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants and future].

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    A massive earthquake of magnitude 9 terribly happened far out at sea of Tohoku area on 11 March, 2011. After this earthquake the hugest tsunami in the history came to the hundreds km of the seashore of Tohoku area. Due to this tsunami all of the four nuclear power plants of Fukushima Daiichi lost every electric power and, soon after this, loss nuclear fuels from number 1 to 3 reactors melt through their power containers. According to this phenomena, large amount of the radio-activities have been released in the air. There were some releases but major contaminations happened at the time of the two releases in the morning of 15 March, 2011. Due to this, to the direction of the northwest until the Iitate Village over 30km zone was contaminated. In this paper I explain the time course of the accidents and that how contaminated.

  4. The Martian impact cratering record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, Robert G.; Croft, Steven K.; Barlow, Nadine G.

    1992-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the Martian impact cratering record is presented. The major differences in impact crater morphology and morphometry between Mars and the moon and Mercury are argued to be largely the result of subsurface volatiles on Mars. In general, the depth to these volatiles may decrease with increasing latitude in the southern hemisphere, but the base of this layer may be at a more or less constant depth. The Martial crustal dichotomy could have been the result of a very large impact near the end of the accretion of Mars. Monte Carlo computer simulations suggest that such an impact was not only possible, but likely. The Martian highland cratering record shows a marked paucity of craters less than about 30 km in diameter relative to the lunar highlands. This paucity of craters was probably the result of the obliteration of craters by an early period of intense erosion and deposition by aeolian, fluvial, and glacial processes.

  5. Optimization of an electromagnetic generator for strong shocks in low pressure gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larour, Jean; Singh, Raj Laxmi; Stehlé, Chantal; Ciardi, Andrea; Chaulagain, Uddhab; Suzuki-Vidal, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present the design and optimization of an electromagnetic generator, able to produce strong shocks in noble gases, relevant to astrophysical conditions. It is a powerful accelerating device which ejects a quasi-planar plasma sheath out of a set of coaxial conical electrodes where a pulsed 100-kA current is passing. A simple model is used to optimize the operation parameters. Preliminary experiments show that the generator is capable of launching supersonic shocks in Argon, in the form of a thin plasma layer with the speed of ∼1-30 km/s. A three-dimension MHD simulation gives a description consistent with the model and with the observations.

  6. Calculation of total effective dose equivalent and collective dose in the event of a LOCA in Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Raisali, G; Davilu, H; Haghighishad, A; Khodadadi, R; Sabet, M

    2006-01-01

    In this research, total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) and collective dose (CD) are calculated for the most adverse potential accident in Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant from the viewpoint of radionuclides release to the environment. Calculations are performed using a Gaussian diffusion model and a slightly modified version of AIREM computer code to adopt for conditions in Bushehr. The results are comparable with the final safety analysis report which used DOZAM code. Results of our calculations show no excessive dose in populated regions. Maximum TEDE is determined to be in the WSW direction. CD in the area around the nuclear power plant by a distance of 30 km (138 man Sv) is far below the accepted limits. Thyroid equivalent dose is also calculated for the WSW direction (maximum 25.6 mSv) and is below the limits at various distances from the reactor stack.

  7. Hydraulic fracturing and the Crooked Lake Sequences: Insights gleaned from regional seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Ryan; Stern, Virginia; Novakovic, Mark; Atkinson, Gail; Gu, Yu Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Within central Alberta, Canada, a new sequence of earthquakes has been recognized as of 1 December 2013 in a region of previous seismic quiescence near Crooked Lake, ~30 km west of the town of Fox Creek. We utilize a cross-correlation detection algorithm to detect more than 160 events to the end of 2014, which is temporally distinguished into five subsequences. This observation is corroborated by the uniqueness of waveforms clustered by subsequence. The Crooked Lake Sequences have come under scrutiny due to its strong temporal correlation (>99.99%) to the timing of hydraulic fracturing operations in the Duvernay Formation. We assert that individual subsequences are related to fracturing stimulation and, despite adverse initial station geometry, double-difference techniques allow us to spatially relate each cluster back to a unique horizontal well. Overall, we find that seismicity in the Crooked Lake Sequences is consistent with first-order observations of hydraulic fracturing induced seismicity.

  8. Myasthenia gravis and endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Bernd Volker; Valero-Burgos, Encarna; Costa, Ricardo

    2012-08-01

    This is the first report of a runner with myasthenia gravis who completed an ultra endurance event. Myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disease that usually results in skeletal muscle weakness, which worsens with exercise and strenuous aerobic exercise, is generally contraindicated. Our runner completed a 220-km, 5-day ultramarathon and presented with various symptoms including muscular skeletal weakness, cramps, generalized fatigue, unintelligible speech, involuntary eye and mouth movements, problems swallowing, food lodging in his throat, and problems breathing. Risk factors identified for exacerbations are running in extreme temperatures, prolonged runs (especially a distance of 30 km or more), running uphill, lack of sleep, and stress. The medical team was in the novel situation to look after a runner with myasthenia gravis and needed to be aware of the patient's condition, symptoms, and risk factors to safely care for him.

  9. Comparative study of two tsunamigenic earthquakes in the Solomon Islands: 2015 Mw 7.0 normal-fault and 2013 Santa Cruz Mw 8.0 megathrust earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Harada, Tomoya; Satake, Kenji; Ishibe, Takeo; Gusman, Aditya Riadi

    2016-05-01

    The July 2015 Mw 7.0 Solomon Islands tsunamigenic earthquake occurred ~40 km north of the February 2013 Mw 8.0 Santa Cruz earthquake. The proximity of the two epicenters provided unique opportunities for a comparative study of their source mechanisms and tsunami generation. The 2013 earthquake was an interplate event having a thrust focal mechanism at a depth of 30 km while the 2015 event was a normal-fault earthquake occurring at a shallow depth of 10 km in the overriding Pacific Plate. A combined use of tsunami and teleseismic data from the 2015 event revealed the north dipping fault plane and a rupture velocity of 3.6 km/s. Stress transfer analysis revealed that the 2015 earthquake occurred in a region with increased Coulomb stress following the 2013 earthquake. Spectral deconvolution, assuming the 2015 tsunami as empirical Green's function, indicated the source periods of the 2013 Santa Cruz tsunami as 10 and 22 min.

  10. Deceleration of the solar wind in the earth's foreshock region - Isee 2 and Imp 8 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonifazi, C.; Moreno, G.; Lazarus, A. J.; Sullivan, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    The deceleration of the solar wind in the region of the interplanetary space filled by ions backstreaming from the earth's bow shock and associated waves is studied using a two-spacecraft technique. This deceleration depends on the solar wind bulk velocity; at low velocities (below 300 km/s) the velocity decrease is about 5 km/s, while at higher velocities (above 400 km/s) the decrease may be as large as 30 km/s. The energy balance shows that the kinetic energy loss far exceeds the thermal energy which is possibly gained by the solar wind; therefore at least part of this energy must go into waves and/or into the backstreaming ions.

  11. GPR Application for Road Management System in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitonak, Martin; Filipovsky, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Road Management System in Slovakia was established in 1996. Data for database are collected from Falling Weight Deflectometer, Skiddometer and Profilograph from 25 separated sections with average length of 30 km on yearly basis. The focus is especially on roads that have been built before the year 1996. In September 2014 the Slovak Road Administration announced the new project task which involved additional data request such as structure thicknesses, application to determine the thicknesses of bound layers and base layers, rutting analysis, transverse and longitudinal roughness and cross fall, ditch depths, the road width and pavement width. The request for data processing included the interpretation of the data in graphical display. The requested delivery of the final project data was in December 2014. The presentation summarizes the experiences and results of the data collection methods and technologies, data processing and evaluation methods and finally presenting the results. Also key new finding will be presented.

  12. A seismic survey of the Manson disturbed area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sendlein, L. V. A.; Smith, T. A.

    1971-01-01

    The region in north-central Iowa referred to as the Manson disturbed area was investigated with the seismic refraction method and the bedrock configuration mapped. The area is approximately 30 km in diameter and is not detectable from the surface topography; however, water wells that penetrate the bedrock indicate that the bedrock is composed of disturbed Cretaceous sediments with a central region approximately 6 km in diameter composed of Precambrian crystalline rock. Seismic velocity differences between the overlying glacial till and the Cretaceous sediments were so small that a statistical program was developed to analyze the data. The program developed utilizes existing 2 segment regression analyses and extends the method to fit 3 or more regression lines to seismic data.

  13. Characteristics of Four Upward-Pointing Cosmic-Ray-like Events Observed with ANITA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, P. W.; Nam, J.; Romero-Wolf, A.; Hoover, S.; Allison, P.; Banerjee, O.; Beatty, J. J.; Belov, K.; Besson, D. Z.; Binns, W. R.; Bugaev, V.; Cao, P.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J. M.; Connolly, A.; Dailey, B.; Deaconu, C.; Cremonesi, L.; Dowkontt, P. F.; Duvernois, M. A.; Field, R. C.; Fox, B. D.; Goldstein, D.; Gordon, J.; Hast, C.; Hebert, C. L.; Hill, B.; Hughes, K.; Hupe, R.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Kowalski, J.; Lam, J.; Learned, J. G.; Liewer, K. M.; Liu, T. C.; Link, J. T.; Lusczek, E.; Matsuno, S.; Mercurio, B. C.; Miki, C.; Miočinović, P.; Mottram, M.; Mulrey, K.; Naudet, C. J.; Ng, J.; Nichol, R. J.; Palladino, K.; Rauch, B. F.; Reil, K.; Roberts, J.; Rosen, M.; Rotter, B.; Russell, J.; Ruckman, L.; Saltzberg, D.; Seckel, D.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Stafford, S.; Stockham, J.; Stockham, M.; Strutt, B.; Tatem, K.; Varner, G. S.; Vieregg, A. G.; Walz, D.; Wissel, S. A.; Wu, F.; Anita Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    We report on four radio-detected cosmic-ray (CR) or CR-like events observed with the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA), a NASA-sponsored long-duration balloon payload. Two of the four were previously identified as stratospheric CR air showers during the ANITA-I flight. A third stratospheric CR was detected during the ANITA-II flight. Here, we report on characteristics of these three unusual CR events, which develop nearly horizontally, 20-30 km above the surface of Earth. In addition, we report on a fourth steeply upward-pointing ANITA-I CR-like radio event which has characteristics consistent with a primary that emerged from the surface of the ice. This suggests a possible τ -lepton decay as the origin of this event, but such an interpretation would require significant suppression of the standard model τ -neutrino cross section.

  14. The fractured Moon: Production and saturation of porosity in the lunar highlands from impact cratering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderblom, Jason M.; Evans, Alexander J.; Johnson, Brandon C.; Melosh, H. Jay; Miljković, Katarina; Phillips, Roger J.; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Bierson, Carver J.; Head, James W.; Milbury, Colleen; Neumann, Gregory A.; Nimmo, Francis; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.; Sori, Michael M.; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2015-09-01

    We have analyzed the Bouguer anomaly (BA) of ~1200 complex craters in the lunar highlands from Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory observations. The BA of these craters is generally negative, though positive BA values are observed, particularly for smaller craters. Crater BA values scale inversely with crater diameter, quantifying how larger impacts produce more extensive fracturing and dilatant bulking. The Bouguer anomaly of craters larger than 93-19+47 km in diameter is independent of crater size, indicating that there is a limiting depth to impact-generated porosity, presumably from pore collapse associated with either overburden pressure or viscous flow. Impact-generated porosity of the bulk lunar crust is likely in a state of equilibrium for craters smaller than ~30 km in diameter, consistent with an ~8 km thick lunar megaregolith, whereas the gravity signature of larger craters is still preserved and provides new insight into the cratering record of even the oldest lunar surfaces.

  15. On the periodicity hypothesis of the ages of large impact craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabushita, Shin

    2002-08-01

    An analysis is made of the periodicity hypothesis of the ages of large craters, based on the compilation by Grieve with the addition of recently identified craters. A method earlier proposed by Broadbent is used to derive a period, and the significance of the derived period is tested by a Monte Carlo experiment. In accordance with the result of Stothers, the ages of large craters (D>30km) are shown to exhibit a period close to 37.5Myr. Monte Carlo experiments show, however, that the derived period is far from being statistically significant. A subset of crater data earlier adopted by Napier for the purpose of similar investigation is also tested, and it is shown that they also exhibit a similar period at an almost identical level of confidence. A brief discussion is made of the relation between the derived period and that associated with faunal mass extinctions.

  16. Analysis and Optimization of a Piezoelectric Harvester on a Car Damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafarge, B.; Delebarre, C.; Grondel, S.; Curea, O.; Hacala, A.

    Low power levels obtained from piezoelectric conversion of ambient vibrations appear to be a promising solution to supply wireless sensors embedded inside automotive suspension. However such a solution requires overall an optimum power extraction from the piezoelectric power harvester. This leads to the use of a sufficiently accurate and flexible modelling method to find the optimal characterics and configuration of the harvester. To this end, an innovative bond graph model of the piezoelectric harvester embedded in the quarter vehicle system is proposed for providing the harvested power when a car travels a road with a speed bump at 30 km/h. Results show that around of 0.5 milliwatt electrical power is harvested when varying key parameters like the location and characteristics of the piezoelectric device.

  17. Tomographic evidence for a subducted seamount beneath the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica: The cause of the 1990 Mw = 7.0 Gulf of Nicoya earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husen, S.; Kissling, E.; Quintero, R.

    2002-04-01

    Tomographic images constrain the existence of a subducted seamount beneath the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. The subducted seamount is found at a depth of 30 km within the rupture area of the March 25, 1990, Mw = 7.0 Gulf of Nicoya earthquake. The Gulf of Nicoya earthquake was a typical thrust-type subduction earthquake and occurred on a shallow dipping thrust fault parallel or along the boundary between the subducting Cocos plate and the overriding plate. Precise relocation of the mainshock and its aftershocks in a 3-D P-wave velocity model shows that the area of the mainshock rupture is coincident with the imaged subducted seamount. Most of the aftershocks are relocated within or close to the inferred subducted seamount above the subducting oceanic plate. We interpret the subducted seamount as an asperity whose rupture caused the 1990 Gulf of Nicoya earthquake.

  18. Out-of-hospital births and the supply of maternity units in France.

    PubMed

    Blondel, Béatrice; Drewniak, Nicolas; Pilkington, Hugo; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2011-09-01

    Maternity unit closures in France have increased distances that women travel to deliver in hospital. We studied how the supply of maternity units influences the rate of out-of-hospital births using birth certificate data. In 2005-6, 4.3 per 1000 births were out-of-hospital. Rates were more than double for women living 30km or more from their nearest unit and were even higher for women of high parity. These associations persisted in multilevel analyses adjusting for other maternal characteristics. Long distances to maternity units should be a concern to health planners because of the maternal and infant health risks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cretaceous oblique detachment tectonics in the Fosdick Mountains, Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFadden, R.; Siddoway, C.S.; Teyssier, C.; Fanning, C.M.; Kruckenberg, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    The Fosdick Mountains form an E-W trending migmatite dome in the northern Ford Ranges of Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica. Pervasively folded migmatites derived from lower Paleozoic greywacke and middle Paleozoic plutonic rocks constitute the dome. New field research documents a transition from melt-present to solid-state deformation across the south flank of the dome, and a mylonitic shear zone mapped for 30 km between Mt. Iphigene and Mt Richardson. Kinematic shear sense is dextral normal oblique, with top-to-the-SW and -WSW transport. A U-Pb age of 107 Ma, from a leucosome-filled extensional shear band, provides a meltpresent deformation age, and a U-Pb age of 96 Ma, from a crosscutting granitic dike, gives a lower age limit for deformation. The shear zone, here named the South Fosdick detachment zone, forms the south flank of the migmatite dome and was in part responsible for the exhumation of mid-crustal rocks.

  20. Low-cost bidirectional hybrid fiber-visible laser light communication system based on carrier-less amplitude phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jing; Dong, Huan; Deng, Rui; Chen, Lin

    2016-08-01

    We propose a bidirectional hybrid fiber-visible laser light communication (fiber-VLC) system. To reduce the cost of the system, the cheap and easy integration red vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, low-complexity carrier-less amplitude phase modulation format, and wavelength reuse technique are utilized. Meanwhile, the automatic gain control amplifier voltage and bias voltage for downlink and uplink are optimized. The simulation results show that, by using the proposed system, the bit error rate of 3.8×10-3 can be achieved for 16-Gbps CAP signal after 30-km standard single mode fiber and 8-m VLC bidirectional transmission. Therefore, it indicates the feasibility and potential of proposed system for indoor access network.