You get the most benefit from exercise if you do it for at least 30 minutes a day for 5 to 6 days a week. But you do not have to do 30 minutes in a row. Studies suggest that you ... for 10 minutes 3 times a day as you do during a longer session.
Momtaz, Parisa; Park, Vivian; Panageas, Katherine S.; Postow, Michael A.; Callahan, Margaret; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Chapman, Paul B.
Purpose The approved dose of ipilimumab is 3 mg/kg infused over 90 minutes; however, in clinical trials, 10 mg/kg has also been infused over 90 minutes. At this higher dose, patients receive 3 mg/kg within the first 27 minutes of treatment. We sought to determine whether the standard dose of 3 mg/kg could be safely infused over 30 minutes. Methods We reviewed retrospectively the incidence of infusion-related reactions (IRRs) to ipilimumab at our institution in patients receiving doses of either 3 or 10 mg/kg infused over 90 minutes. Our findings led to a change in institutional guidelines for ipilimumab infusion time from 90 minutes to 30 minutes. We reviewed the first 14 months of our prospective experience using a 30-minute infusion of ipilimumab. Results Between April 1, 2008, and June 30, 2013, 595 patients received 2,507 doses of ipilimumab infused at either 3 mg/kg (n = 457) or 10 mg/kg (n = 138) over 90 minutes. Although the 10 mg/kg group had a higher incidence of IRRs (4.3%) than the 3 mg/kg group (2.2%), this difference was not statistically significant (P = .22). In 120 patients treated prospectively with ipilimumab 3 mg/kg infused over 30 minutes, seven patients (5.8%) had an IRR (P = .06 compared with 90-minute infusions). All IRRs occurred at dose 2; six were grade 2, and one was grade 3. All seven patients received subsequent doses of ipilimumab safely, the majority with premedication. Conclusion Ipilimumab at 3 mg/kg can be infused safely over 30 minutes with an acceptably low incidence of IRRs. After an IRR, patients can safely receive additional doses of ipilimumab with premedication. PMID:26124475
Bourdeau, Jacqueline; Bates, Anthony
An intrinsic link exists between instructional design (ID) and distance learning (DL). Their inextricability in the real world raises specific problems of interest in the field of ID. In no other teaching/learning situation is ID so essential as in DL. The conditions of DL make it a necessity to have long-term instructional planning, cost analysis, curriculum and course development, instructional materials development and maintenance, delivery plans, and detailed evaluation rules. Without all of these components, DL simply could not happen. It took some time for this neccessity to be acknowledged, as can be seen in the history of DL. However, ID becomes even more critical as increasingly costly and complex means are used. Conditions of learning have special features in DL, such as the role of media, since the professor, teacher or instructor is replaced by media for either transmitting information or for organizing learning activities. In this paper, the term distance learning will be used to mean media-based, remote or asynchronous learning supported by an instructional system. This paper introduces general features of DL and examines essential aspects of ID for DL, with special emphasis on ID methodologies and on media selection.
Describes possible computer applications in distance education, including both instructional and instructional and administrative support uses, and argues that computers will revolutionize educational and social dimensions of distance education practice with consequent effects on traditional educational systems. (MBR)
Kuntz, Patricia S.
A discussion of distance-delivered foreign language instruction in Wisconsin focuses on the selection of appropriate technology for instructional delivery and on the design of distance instruction. Issues relating to both secondary and postsecondary instruction are examined. The first section examines some of the considerations in selecting…
Rand, Angela Doucet
Providing library instruction in distance learning environments presents a unique set of challenges for instructional librarians. Innovations in computer-mediated communication and advances in cognitive science research provide the opportunity for designing library instruction that meets a variety of student information seeking needs. Using a…
Salomon, Kenneth D.
The accelerating development of distance education and the use of technology-mediated instructional materials over interactive computer networks has given rise to heightened interest and thought by faculty and administration alike about related copyright issues. The evolution of distance education from early morning television broadcasts to…
Presents the results of a survey among academic counselors at Indira Gandhi National Open University Regional Centre (IGNOU) (India) that was conducted to ascertain their awareness about instructional concepts of distance education and counseling practices. Concludes that counselors need training to be effective and make distance education a…
Marland, P. W.; Store, R. E.
Examines some traditional instructional strategies used to improve textual materials for learning at a distance, including advance organizers, overviews, pretests, objectives, and inserted questions, together with devices in typography and graphics. Research in each area is reviewed and guidelines are given for using each strategy. An extensive…
Ariadurai, S. Anbahan; Manohanthan, Rajalingam
This paper presents research on a convenience sample of the Open University of Sri Lanka's engineering faculty. Examined in this research are faculty's opinions on the instructional strategies they use to teach engineering courses at a distance. First, this paper details the pedagogical strategies used by the faculty, which is then followed by an…
Discusses a qualitative research study conducted in a distance-learning environment using satellite delivery. Describes changes in instructional design and adaptation issues which faculty and professionals involved in satellite-delivery learning situations used to be successful. (Author/AEF)
Nasrallah, Fayez K; Harirah, Hassan M; Vadhera, Rakesh; Jain, Venu; Franklin, Letitia T; Hankins, Gary D V
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the current guideline of 30-minute decision-to-incision interval (D-I) in emergent cesarean delivery (ECD) on neonatal and maternal outcomes. A retrospective chart review was conducted of pregnant women who underwent ECDs between January 1999 and December 2001. The overall median D-I was 20 minutes (range, 5 to 57 minutes). In 83 women (group I), D-I was < or = 30 minutes, and in 28 women (group II), it exceeded 30 minutes. Group I had more neonates with cord pH < 7.00, seizures, encephalopathy, and lower Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes than group II, but were not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in neonatal admission to the neonatal intensive care unit or length of stay between the two groups. Maternal complications were higher in group I, but not statistically significant. Although it was achieved in most of the ECDs, the guideline of 30-minute D-I does not seem to improve neonatal nor worsen maternal outcomes.
Gonzales, Brighid M.
As Internet and computer technologies have evolved, libraries have incorporated these technologies into the delivery of information literacy instruction. Of particular benefit is the ability of online tutorials to deliver information literacy instruction to students not physically present on campus. A survey of library and information science…
Trujillo, Leonard G
Distance education in occupational therapy programs is increasingly becoming an instructional norm. Technological advances and the common expected use of the Internet and its multiple options to communicate and share information have made its use also commonplace for occupational therapy educators. As with any instructional modality, Web-based instruction can offer a vibrant learning environment created through different teaching strategies, activities, and technologies. This article briefly outlines educational models and instructional designs that can be part of every occupational therapy program as they incorporate distance education and Web-based learning into their programs. The primary focus is on the incorporation of the constructivist approach.
Lin, Chin-Hung; Yang, Shu-Ching
Distance learning, where instruction is given to students despite wide separations of students and teachers, is increasingly popular. Videoconferencing, which is examined in this study, is a distance learning mode of featuring real-time interaction of students and teachers and provides sequence, real-time, vision, and actual interaction. This…
Bullock, Lyndal M.; Gable, Robert A.; Mohr, J. Darrell
In this article, the authors examine the literature on distance education and offer a brief chronology of its past-to-present development, with special attention to the evolution of technology-mediated instruction. They document some of the major trends related to both theoretical and practical aspects of distance education. In particular, they…
Nikolaou, Alexandra; Koutsouba, Maria
In an attempt to improve the effectiveness of distance learning, the present study aims to introduce an innovative way of creating and designing distance learning instructional material incorporating Bernice McCarthy's 4MAT Model based on learning styles. According to McCarthy's theory, all students can learn effectively in a cycle of learning…
As video-based instructional materials become available to distance learners to learn practical skills at a distance, it is important to assess the instructional effectiveness of these materials and to understand how students respond to them. This paper is the second part of a larger exploratory study that assessed the instructional effectiveness…
Jedlicka, Janet S.; Brown, Sarah W.; Bunch, Ashley E.; Jaffe, Lynn E.
In a mental health course, 22 occupational therapy students were randomly assigned to two-way interactive video/audio, chatrooms, or independent study for case study work. No significant differences were found in scores on three multiple-choice tests; 77% preferred interactive video/audio. Comfort with distance learning significantly increased.…
Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Malik, Muhammad Ashraf
Distance education is institutional concept of education centered round self-directed learning by means of correspondence courses with an integrated element of communication technology and facilitated with tutorial sessions, seminars etc. to meet need for enlargement of teaching force, improved professional standards and modernization of teaching…
Diao, Ruisheng; Makarov, Yuri V.; Samaan, Nader A.; Kujala, Ben
This paper proposes a new and systematic approach to investigating the impact of wind transfer between balancing authorities (BAs) with half-hour scheduling on load following requirements, which was traditionally scheduled on an hourly basis. The analysis is conducted for a few BAs in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. that are described as source BAs (sending renewables) and sink BAs (receiving renewables). The main hypothesis is that if the source BA could schedule interchange for wind on a half-hourly basis, it would make the schedule follow its net load more closely. The scheduling change in the source BA is matched by adding the corresponding component to the net load in the sink BA. The load-following requirements are calculated as: (a) by the difference between the net load and modified schedule in the source BA, and (b) the difference between modified net load and unchanged hourly schedule in the sink BA. Results are presented as hourly upward and downward load following requirements in the source and sink BA, and compared with the results obtained with all generators scheduled on an hourly basis. Thus, the proposed method can effectively help utilities better understand the impact of 30-minute scheduling and make better business decisions.
Ribeiro, Laís R. G.; Mesquita, Rafael B.; Vidotto, Laís S.; Merli, Myriam F.; Carvalho, Débora R.; de Castro, Larissa A.; Probst, Vanessa S.
Objective: To verify whether 30 minutes of rest between two incremental shuttle walking tests (ISWT) are enough for cardiovascular variables and perceived exertion to return to baseline values in healthy subjects in a broad age range. Method: The maximal exercise capacity of 334 apparently healthy subjects (age ≥18) was evaluated using the ISWT. The test was performed twice with 30 minutes of rest in between. Heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure (ABP), dyspnea, and leg fatigue were evaluated before and after each test. Subjects were allocated to 6 groups according to their age: G1: 18-29 years; G2: 30-39 years; G3: 40-49 years; G4: 50-59 years; G5: 60-69 years and G6: ≥70 years. Results: All groups had a good performance in the ISWT (median >90% of the predicted distance). The initial HR (HRi) of the second ISWT was higher than the first ISWT in the total sample (p<0.0001), as well as in all groups (p<0.0001). No difference was observed in the behavior of ABP (systolic and diastolic) and dyspnea between the two tests, but this difference occurred for leg fatigue (greater before the second ISWT) in G1 (p<0.05). Most subjects (58%) performed better in the second test. Conclusion: 30 minutes of rest between two ISWTs are not enough for all cardiovascular variables and perceived exertion to return to baseline values. However, this period appears to be sufficient for blood pressure and performance to recover in most subjects. PMID:25789556
Kulasekara, Geetha Udayangani; Jayatilleke, Buddhini Gayathri; Coomaraswamy, Uma
This study was carried out to explore learner perceptions on the instructional design features of interactive multimedia (IMM), which was especially designed to support the open and distance learners studying microbiology as a part of the BSc degree programme of the Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL). The purpose of developing this IMM was to…
Mishra, Sanjaya; Gaba, Ashok Kumar
Presents results of a study on the use of learning activities in self-instructional materials by distance learners of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU). It shows that learners make use of the activities extensively as they have positive perceptions about benefits of Self-Assessment Questions and Terminal Questions given in the…
Pike, Gary R.
Recently the Educational Testing Service (ETS) has modified its Student Instructional Report II (SIR II) for use in online distance education courses. The SIR II is a second-generation survey based on more than thirty years of experience with student evaluations (Centra, 1998; Centra and Gaubatz, n.d.). The e-SIR II is based on the highly…
Kaino, L. M.
Teaching mathematics through Open Distance Learning (ODL) has been a challenge to educators due to the nature of communication with learners and material delivery during instruction. In this paper, as a case study, we look at one mathematics module offered through ODL and the performance in the course for the past four years. A sample of 50…
Council of Chief State School Officers, Washington, DC.
The findings and recommendations of the United States Education and Instruction through Telecommunications (USE IT) project are presented. USE IT assessed the relationship of distance learning to the nation's educational needs, especially its role in achieving the National Education Goals. USE IT examined all levels of education, prekindergarten…
Moller, Leslie; Foshay, Wellesley R.; Huett, Jason
In this article, the authors offer the first of a three-part series on distance education. The authors discuss key trends in training and development which have five profound impacts on the field of Instruction Design (ID). These five effects concern: (1) quality; (2) needs assessment, ROI and measurement of outcomes; (3) the influence and fusion…
Hilditch, Cassie J.; Centofanti, Stephanie A.; Dorrian, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan
Study Objectives: To assess sleep inertia following 10-min and 30-min naps during a simulated night shift. Methods: Thirty-one healthy adults (aged 21–35 y; 18 females) participated in a 3-day laboratory study that included one baseline (BL) sleep (22:00–07:00) and one experimental night involving randomization to either: total sleep deprivation (NO-NAP), a 10-min nap (10-NAP) or a 30-min nap (30-NAP). Nap opportunities ended at 04:00. A 3-min psychomotor vigilance task (PVT-B), digit-symbol substitution task (DSST), fatigue scale, sleepiness scale, and self-rated performance scale were undertaken pre-nap (03:00) and at 2, 17, 32, and 47 min post-nap. Results: The 30-NAP (14.7 ± 5.7 min) had more slow wave sleep than the 10-NAP (0.8 ± 1.5 min; P < 0.001) condition. In the NO-NAP condition, PVT-B performance was worse than pre-nap (4.6 ± 0.3 1/sec) at 47 min post-nap (4.1 ± 0.4 1/sec; P < 0.001). There was no change across time in the 10-NAP condition. In the 30-NAP condition, performance immediately deteriorated from pre-nap (4.3 ± 0.3 1/sec) and was still worse at 47 min post-nap (4.0 ± 0.5 1/sec; P < 0.015). DSST performance deteriorated in the NO-NAP (worse than pre-nap from 17 to 47 min; P < 0.008), did not change in the 10-NAP, and was impaired 2 min post-nap in the 30-NAP condition (P = 0.028). All conditions self-rated performance as better than pre-nap for all post-nap test points (P < 0.001). Conclusions: This study is the first to show that a 10-min (but not a 30-min) nighttime nap had minimal sleep inertia and helped to mitigate short-term performance impairment during a simulated night shift. Self-rated performance did not reflect objective performance following a nap. Citation: Hilditch CJ, Centofanti SA, Dorrian J, Banks S. A 30-minute, but not a 10-minute nighttime nap is associated with sleep inertia. SLEEP 2016;39(3):675–685. PMID:26715234
... helicopter. This model helicopter will have the novel or unusual design feature of a 30-minute power rating... (VEMD) avionics, and an active vibration control system. Eurocopter France proposes that the EC130T2... EC130T2 model helicopter meets the applicable provisions of the regulations incorporated by reference...
Kwasu, Isaac Ali; Yalams, Simon Madugu; Ema, Ema
This paper presents an outline on how teachers can use "The Design Process and Animation Techniques to produce animated instructional resources (AIR) which, can be used to facilitate Open Distance Learning in especially Science and Technology Education. A model of the Animated Instructional Resource was developed for the teaching of Human…
Yates, Kenneth A.; Feldon, David F.
In the development of distance learning, advances in cognitive science merge with new technology to deliver instruction worldwide. However, one major difficulty in evaluating the efficacy of these tools is determining which elements of instruction truly lead to observed changes in student performance. As content, pedagogical methods, and media are…
Nassar, Mariangela Salles Pereira; Palinkas, Marcelo; Regalo, Simone Cecilio Hallak; Sousa, Luiz Gustavo de; Siéssere, Selma; Semprini, Marisa; Bataglion, Cristiane; Bataglion, César
The Lucia jig is a technique that promotes neuromuscular reprogramming of the masticatory system and allows the stabilization of the mandible without the interference of dental contacts, maintaining the mandible position in harmonic condition with the musculature in normal subjects or in patients with temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD). This study aimed to electromyographically analyze the activity (RMS) of the masseter and temporal muscles in normal subjects (control group) during the use of an anterior programming device, the Lucia jig, in place for 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes to demonstrate its effect on the stomatognathic system. Forty-two healthy dentate individuals (aged 21 to 40 years) with normal occlusion and without parafunctional habits or temporomandibular dysfunction (RDC/TMD) were evaluated on the basis of the electromyographic activity of the masseter and temporal muscles before placement of a neuromuscular re-programming device, the Lucia jig, on the upper central incisors. There were no statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in the electromyographic activity of the masticatory muscles in the different time periods. The Lucia jig changed the electromyographic activity by promoting a neuromuscular reprogramming. In most of the time periods, it decreased the activation of the masticatory muscles, showing that this device has wide applicability in dentistry. The use of a Lucia jig over 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes did not promote any statistically significant increase in muscle activity despite differences in the data, thus showing that this intra-oral device can be used in dentistry.
Galt, Kimberly A.
Objectives To evaluate an instructional model for teaching clinically relevant medicinal chemistry. Methods An instructional model that uses Bloom's cognitive and Krathwohl's affective taxonomy, published and tested concepts in teaching medicinal chemistry, and active learning strategies, was introduced in the medicinal chemistry courses for second-professional year (P2) doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students (campus and distance) in the 2005-2006 academic year. Student learning and the overall effectiveness of the instructional model were assessed. Student performance after introducing the instructional model was compared to that in prior years. Results Student performance on course examinations improved compared to previous years. Students expressed overall enthusiasm about the course and better understood the value of medicinal chemistry to clinical practice. Conclusion The explicit integration of the cognitive and affective learning objectives improved student performance, student ability to apply medicinal chemistry to clinical practice, and student attitude towards the discipline. Testing this instructional model provided validation to this theoretical framework. The model is effective for both our campus and distance-students. This instructional model may also have broad-based applications to other science courses. PMID:18483599
Benko de Rotaeche, Anne
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the variables found to influence learning in laboratory settings were able to produce effective student achievement when utilized in Venezuelan distance education. Three versions of the same instructional content were employed, and 42 volunteer college students were randomly assigned to three…
Nguyen, Dat-Dao; Zhang, Yue
This study uses the Learning-Style Inventory--LSI (Smith & Kolb, 1985) to explore to what extent student attitudes toward learning process and outcome of online instruction and Distance Learning are affected by their cognitive styles and learning behaviors. It finds that there are not much statistically significant differences in perceptions…
Tabor, R.W.; Frizzell, V.A.; Whetten, J.T.; Waitt, R.B.; Swanson, D.A.; Byerly, G.R.; Booth, D.B.; Hetherington, M.J.; Zartman, R.E.
This digital map database has been prepared by R. W. Tabor from the published Geologic map of the Chelan 30-Minute Quadrangle, Washington. Together with the accompanying text files as PDF, it provides information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The authors mapped most of the bedrock geology at 1:100,000 scale, but compiled Quaternary units at 1:24,000 scale. The Quaternary contacts and structural data have been much simplified for the 1:100,000-scale map and database. The spatial resolution (scale) of the database is 1:100,000 or smaller. This database depicts the distribution of geologic materials and structures at a regional (1:100,000) scale. The report is intended to provide geologic information for the regional study of materials properties, earthquake shaking, landslide potential, mineral hazards, seismic velocity, and earthquake faults. In addition, the report contains information and interpretations about the regional geologic history and framework. However, the regional scale of this report does not provide sufficient detail for site development purposes.
Amme, Robert C.
The developing nuclear power renaissance, coupled with related environmental consequences, is forcing a re-examination of the manner in which nuclear science and technology is (or is not) being taught in the United States. The 20-year hiatus of the nuclear power industry has been a decided factor in the relatively stagnant growth of nuclear physics and nuclear technology instruction, from middle school to graduate education. Furthermore, the general public remains fairly ignorant of the various features of nuclear power, at best having been briefly exposed to the subject only in a middle-school course in Physical Science. Essential to this renaissance is the capacity to deal with the regulatory environment and safety standards that must be addressed prior to new plant certification. Regrettably, too few individuals who are trained in environmental science are adequately prepared in the basic concepts of nuclear physics to deal with such issues as radioactive waste storage and transportation, biological effects of ionizing radiation, geological repositories, nuclear fuel reprocessing, etc. which are of great concern to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We are developing a master's degree, to be taught online, in the area of environmental impact assessment as it relates to these and other issues. To accommodate the need for laboratory exercises, we have adopted the virtual world developed by Linden Laboratory entitled Second Life; it is here that the student, as an avatar, will gain knowledge of the nature of ionizing radiation, radioactive half-lives, gamma and beta ray spectroscopy, neutron activation, and radiation shielding, using virtual apparatus and virtual radiation sources. Additionally, a virtual Generation III+ power reactor has been constructed on an adjoining Second Life island (entitled Science School II) which provides the visitor with a realistic impression of its inner workings. This presentation will provide the details of this construct and how it
Morrison, Gary R.; Anglin, Gary J.
There has been a rapid proliferation of online courses and shareable content objects. These courses often include a vast array of information, yet they are not instructionally sound. The primary purpose of this article is to provide a procedure (tool) that will help instructional designers determine if existing e-learning courses and sharable…
In this special issue, I bring together two studies to provide a comprehensive overview on diverse and interactive instructional methods aimed to facilitate higher levels of learning. One study explored the effects of group interaction using different instructional strategies focusing on the learning "process" using the Community of Inquiry…
Lim, Doo H.
Compared the perceived degree of learning and application of learning made by college students who took a course in either traditional classroom, Web-based, or satellite-based delivery format and identified reasons for high or low learning and application. Investigated which instructional strategies and instructional design factors affected…
Rodriguez, Cecilia; Lira, Juan R.
A study focused on 41 eighth-grade students from a south Texas middle school who read self-selected books for 30-minute periods 5 times weekly from October 1996 to May 1997 to determine if increased reading time and book self-selection would improve their reading achievement. The study also sought to determine the students' attitudes towards…
Lake, Don; And Others
Includes two articles: one describes the use of satellite transmissions to improve math and science instruction in elementary grades, including instructional design, transfer of learning, curriculum content, and distance learning instructors; the second one discusses new software and other technology for multicultural education. (LRW)
Bucci, David Andrew
Many institutions have increasingly turned to distance education as a way to meet student and institutional needs while living within a constantly shrinking budget. While distance education has the potential to meet many resource-based challenges, its presence provides additional challenges to the faculty who direct the learning environment and…
Tosho, Abdulrauf; Mutalib, Ariffin Abdul; Abdul-Salam, Sobihatun Nur
This paper describes an ongoing study related to a conceptual design model, which is specific to instructional interface design to enhance courseware usage. It was found that most of the existing courseware applications focus on the needs of certain target with most of the courseware offer too little to inclusive learners. In addition, the use of…
Wachter, Renee M.; Gupta, Jatinder N. D.
Examines whether the technological development of expert systems can be achieved successfully by students in distance instruction, and differences between distance learning and traditional campus education. Results suggest that not only can successful systems development be achieved but that the hands-on aspect of systems development contributes…
Smalley, Kristi D.
Distance education, especially that of online coursework, is growing at a phenomenal rate. Despite its growth, there is a lack of experimental and quasi-experimental research that has been conducted to investigate what factors influence students' experiences and academic success in online learning environments. Previous research has focused on…
Rudstam, Hannah; Gower, Wendy Strobel
Often, the aim of distance learning (DL) is to enhance individual learning, not to change workplace practices. Changing organizational policies, practices and behaviors related to disability calls for a different DL approach that engages users and contextualizes knowledge. In the disability arena, there is a need for programming that brings about…
Caspi, Avner; Gorsky, Paul
This article examines the impact of several variables on media choice among 51 distance education course coordinators at the Open University of Israel. Hypotheses were drawn from Media Richness Theory (Daft & Lengel, 1984), Social Influence Theory (Fulk, 1993), Media Symbolism (Trevino, Lengel & Daft, 1987), and Experience Account (King…
Forte-Turner, Alexandria; Schultz, Lynn; Miller-Dunleavy, Linda
The Military Career Transition Program (MCTP) at Old Dominion University (Virginia) is the primary alternative certification program for teacher licensure targeting military personnel who are transitioning into education careers. Beginning in the fall of 1998, the MCTP added distance learning to its existing course offerings at 5 of its 15 sites.…
Liu, Yuliang; Ginther, Dean W.
With the rapid development of computer technology in recent years, distance education, and especially computer-mediated communication (CMC), has expanded very quickly. The application of computer technology in education presents many unanswered questions, including issues related to impression formation and impression management in…
Timmermans, B; Coveliers, Y; Wuyts, F L; Van Looy, L
In a previous study, we investigated the effect of a twofold voice-training module in student teachers. In the present study, the original training module of 3 hours of indirect and 3 hours of direct group training was expanded with a 30-minute individual counseling session for each participant. The main focus was on the effects of this threefold training paradigm on the voice of the participants. The subjects were 81 students at the academic teaching program at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. The trained group (n=51) received the entire voice-training program, whereas the control group (n=30) received no voice training at all. A multidimensional test battery consisting of subjective evaluation and objective measurements was applied to both the groups at the study onset and again 4 months later to assess training results. Other than an improvement in the parameter strain, no significant change was observed for the subjective judgments. Several of the objective parameters did however improve in the trained group only, most significantly in female subjects. The impact of the 30-minute individual counseling session was small and differed for males and females. However, the results support the effectiveness of this training module and favor its introduction in the education of student teachers.
Park, Ji-Eun; Kim, Myoung-Hee
Many restaurants in Korea maintain quick-delivery service programs to satisfy customers. This service allows delivery workers limited time to deliver, which frequently put them in danger. Most of the workers are young, work part-time, and are rarely organized into trade unions. In this article, through a case study of the social movement to abolish the 30-minute delivery guarantee program of pizza companies in Korea, we argue that social movements involving social movement organizations (SMOs) and individual citizens could serve as a means to rectify this problem. We show how the SMOs developed and expanded the movement using a framing perspective and how the general public became involved through social media. Data was collected via online searching. Interview scripts from key players of SMOs and unofficial documents they provided were also reviewed. Three SMOs primarily led the movement, successfully forming a frame that emphasized social responsibility. SMOs also utilized social media to link their standing frame with unmobilized citizens and to expand the movement. We identified contributing factors and limitations of the movement and drew lessons that could be applied to other sectors where workers are in vulnerable positions.
Epp, Jordan; McKee, Jeanette
This report of practice describes a five-year process to establish and implement quality standards for a substantial portfolio of distance delivered courses at the Centre for Continuing and Distance Education, University of Saskatchewan. The report describes an analysis of the issues and the solutions found that led to our current curriculum…
Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Mupa, Mathew; Mhishi, Misheck; Dziva, Daimond
The practical work component offers unique challenges for university science courses. This is even more pertinent in an Open and Distance Learning (ODL) environment like the Bindura University of Science Education's Virtual and Open Distance Learning (VODL) programme. Effective ODL education should be flexible enough to accommodate science…
Nunes, J. M. Baptista; McPherson, M.; Rico, M.
This paper proposes an instructional systems design (ISD) approach for the design and development of a basic Networked Information and Communication Literacy Skills (NICLS) module. It concentrates on the design and development of a NICLS core skills pre-module for the Master of Arts in Information Technology Management (MA ITM) program at the…
Pear, Joseph J.; Kinsner, W.
Describes a computer program based on Keller's Personalized System of Instruction that has been used for on-campus and off-campus teaching by the University of Manitoba. Highlights include electronic mail, student attitudes and roles, costs, suggestions for future research, and examples from computer-aided personalized system of instruction…
King, Frederick B.; Young, Michael F.; Drivere-Richmond, Kelly; Schrader, P. G.
This paper offers precise definitions of distance learning and distance education, and their interrelationship. First, a single definition of learning is proposed, and then the concept of learning is broken down into three subcategories: instruction, exploration, and serendipity. Each is defined and the concepts of distance learning and distance…
Anderson, Ronald E.; And Others
Investigates the impact of a brief computer assisted instruction (CAI) experience on the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of high school students. A 20-30 minute science lesson on water pollution was administered to 350 students by Apple II microcomputers. Twenty references are listed. (FM)
This paper first summarizes, and then compares and contrasts two well-known instructional design models: Dick and Carey Model (DC) and Morrison, Ross and Kemp model (MRK). The target audiences of both models are basically instructional designers. Both models have applications for different instructional design settings. They both see the…
Glassman, Nanci A.; Perry, Jeannine B.; Giersch, Christopher E.; Lambert, Matthew A.; Pinelli, Thomas E.
NASA CONNECT is a research-, inquiry, and standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 30-minute instructional distance learning (television and web-based) programs for students in grades 6 8. Respondents who evaluated the programs in the series over the first five seasons (1998-99 through 2002-03) reported that (1) they used the programs in the series; (2) the goals and objectives for the series were met; (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; (4) the program content was developmentally appropriate for the grade level; and (5) the programs in the series enhanced and enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology.
Goethe House, New York, NY.
This set of lessons accompanies a series of 30-minute films for teaching about Germany. Available to educators throughout the United States upon request, the 17 films and accompanying instructional activities focus on culture, politics, economics, society, and sports and are appropriate for middle and high school students. Permission is granted to…
Wilkerson, Joyce A.; Elkins, Susan A.
This qualitative case study assessed web-based instruction in a computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) course designed for workforce development. The study examined students' and instructors' experience in a CAD/CAM course delivered exclusively on the Internet, evaluating course content and delivery, clarity of…
Struempler, Barbara; And Others
Satellite training about the new national food labeling system was provided to 97 Alabama extension agents and 67 program assistants. The program, which consisted of a 30-minute video and 25-minute question/answer call-in, proved an effective means of distance education. (SK)
The growth of online education has slowed down among community colleges, but it is still outpacing overall enrollment, while the quality of the education offered has improved from a pale imitation to a worthy competitor, administrators say. More than 5.5 million community college students enrolled in distance education programs in 2013-14,…
Yiou, Eric; Artico, Romain; Teyssedre, Claudine A.; Labaune, Ombeline; Fourcade, Paul
Despite the abundant literature on obstacle crossing in humans, the question of how the central nervous system (CNS) controls postural stability during gait initiation with the goal to clear an obstacle remains unclear. Stabilizing features of gait initiation include anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and lateral swing foot placement. To answer the above question, 14 participants initiated gait as fast as possible in three conditions of obstacle height, three conditions of obstacle distance and one obstacle-free (control) condition. Each of these conditions was performed with two levels of temporal pressure: reaction-time (high-pressure) and self-initiated (low-pressure) movements. A mechanical model of the body falling laterally under the influence of gravity and submitted to an elastic restoring force is proposed to assess the effect of initial (foot-off) center-of-mass position and velocity (or “initial center-of-mass set”) on the stability at foot-contact. Results showed that the anticipatory peak of mediolateral (ML) center-of-pressure shift, the initial ML center-of-mass velocity and the duration of the swing phase, of gait initiation increased with obstacle height, but not with obstacle distance. These results suggest that ML APAs are scaled with swing duration in order to maintain an equivalent stability across experimental conditions. This statement is strengthened by the results obtained with the mechanical model, which showed how stability would be degraded if there was no adaptation of the initial center-of-mass set to swing duration. The anteroposterior (AP) component of APAs varied also according to obstacle height and distance, but in an opposite way to the ML component. Indeed, results showed that the anticipatory peak of backward center-of-pressure shift and the initial forward center-of-mass set decreased with obstacle height, probably in order to limit the risk to trip over the obstacle, while the forward center-of-mass velocity at foot
Yiou, Eric; Artico, Romain; Teyssedre, Claudine A; Labaune, Ombeline; Fourcade, Paul
Despite the abundant literature on obstacle crossing in humans, the question of how the central nervous system (CNS) controls postural stability during gait initiation with the goal to clear an obstacle remains unclear. Stabilizing features of gait initiation include anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and lateral swing foot placement. To answer the above question, 14 participants initiated gait as fast as possible in three conditions of obstacle height, three conditions of obstacle distance and one obstacle-free (control) condition. Each of these conditions was performed with two levels of temporal pressure: reaction-time (high-pressure) and self-initiated (low-pressure) movements. A mechanical model of the body falling laterally under the influence of gravity and submitted to an elastic restoring force is proposed to assess the effect of initial (foot-off) center-of-mass position and velocity (or "initial center-of-mass set") on the stability at foot-contact. Results showed that the anticipatory peak of mediolateral (ML) center-of-pressure shift, the initial ML center-of-mass velocity and the duration of the swing phase, of gait initiation increased with obstacle height, but not with obstacle distance. These results suggest that ML APAs are scaled with swing duration in order to maintain an equivalent stability across experimental conditions. This statement is strengthened by the results obtained with the mechanical model, which showed how stability would be degraded if there was no adaptation of the initial center-of-mass set to swing duration. The anteroposterior (AP) component of APAs varied also according to obstacle height and distance, but in an opposite way to the ML component. Indeed, results showed that the anticipatory peak of backward center-of-pressure shift and the initial forward center-of-mass set decreased with obstacle height, probably in order to limit the risk to trip over the obstacle, while the forward center-of-mass velocity at foot
Matthews, Denise; Reiss, John G.
An instructional videoconference (IVC) is an interactive delivery mechanism for long-distance communication and education, which uses 2-way audio and 1- or 2-way video to facilitate interaction between presenters and learners who are separated by significant distance. This guide, intended for the staff of federal, state, and local programs that…
Wolfe, Thomas E.
Examines the expansive growth of distance learning in the United States Air Force (USAF). Highlights include interactive television and the Air Technology Network that uses satellites; computer-based instruction; online electronic campus; multimedia interactive courseware; CD-ROM; distance learning benefits; data collection; administration; and…
Orey, Michael; Koenecke, Lynne; Snider, Richard C.; Perkins, Ross A.; Holmes, Glen A.; Lockee, Barbara B.; Moller, Leslie A.; Harvey, Douglas; Downs, Margaret; Godshalk, Veronica M.
Contains four articles covering trends and issues on distance learning including: the experience of two learners learning via the Internet; a systematic approach to determining the scalability of a distance education program; identifying factors that affect learning community development and performance in asynchronous distance education; and…
Reviews relevant professional literature concerning hypermedia environments and adaptive instruction for online learning for distance education and continuing education. Highlights include aptitude-treatment interaction; cognitive processes; navigational paths; log files; and intelligent tutors. Contains 125 references. (LRW)
Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.
This paper provides an overview of Direct Instruction, an intensive instructional method for grades K-6 based on the theory that learning can be greatly accelerated if instructional presentations are clear, rule out likely misinterpretations and facilitate generalizations. Over 50 instructional programs have been developed based on this…
School librarians have always been teachers, even before the term "teacher-librarian" was coined. They teach every time they help students select books, locate and evaluate resources for research projects, or troubleshoot a computer problem. When they assist students, they explain and model the steps they are taking. Teaching for school librarians…
Nelson, Willis H.; Ross, Clyde Polhemus
The Jefferson Dolomite, Grand View Dolomite, and Three Forks Limestone, all of Devonian age, are the oldest rocks exposed in the quadrangle. Rocks that range from Mississippian to Permian in age are widespread; they are represented by the White Knob Limestone in the eastern part of the quadrangle and the Copper Basin Formation in the western part. The Copper Basin Formation, which is composed of non-carbonate detrital rocks, is interlayered with the White Knob Limestone near the middle of the quadrangle. This interlayering is herein interpreted to be the result of depositional interbedding, but it could be in part due to juxtaposition by faulting. The Challis Volcanics, of Tertiary age, cover much of the quadrangle, and except for a conspicuous basal conglomerate, lack distinctive subdivisions similar to those in neighboring areas. Alluvial deposits which may be in part as old as Pliocene are scattered through the quadrangle. Glaciation affected all higher parts of the quadrangle, and locally glacial deposits of at least three ages can be distinguished The latest two of these are probably of late Wisconsin Bull Lake and Pinedale ages. Basalt flows of probable Recent age extend into the southernmost part of the quadrangle and originate in part from vents there. Intrusive rocks, including plutons and related dikes of Tertiary age, are scattered throughout the quadrangle. They range from granite to quartz diorite in composition. The intrusive rocks seem to be related to the Challis Volcanics. The rocks of the quadrangle were strongly deformed and eroded prior to the deposition of the Challis Volcanics. No thrust faults have been recognized although such faults are plentiful in the adjacent region. Deformation has continued until recent times. All or parts of five mining districts are included in the quadrangle, and the total production probably exceeded $10,000,000. Mining has been quiet since World War II but activity has been renewed at times in the past and possibilities for the discovery of substantial new deposits seem promising. The mineral deposits formed largely by replacement, partly in areas of contact metamorphism. The metals present are varied but copper has been the main product. All of the deposits are believed to be related to the intrusions of Tertiary age.
Ulchaker, James C.; Albani, Justin
The urologic management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) beyond pharmaco-therapy has changed dramatically over the last decade. Open prostatectomy and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) have been the mainstays of surgical intervention for BPH. These procedures were initially reserved for patients with obstructive uropathy, prostatic bleeding, or bladder calculi. With improved techniques and lower morbidity, TURP is currently the "gold standard" of treatment for patients with BPH and troubling lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and patients are being treated prior to the development of these adverse sequelae. Nevertheless, TURP is still major surgery, requiring either a spinal or general anesthetic and an inpatient hospital stay. Furthermore, TURP is not uniformly successful. Up to 30% of patients report dissatisfaction from the procedure. Complications have been well described and include bleeding, bladder-neck contracture, erectile dysfunction retrograde ejaculation, urinary incontinence, and fluid/electrolyte imbalance (post-TUR syndrome). The mortality rate for TURP is approx. 2 - 10/1000 cases. Over the past decade, the number of TURPs being performed has been decreasing as minimally invasive therapies, including alpha-adrenergic blockers, are being used as "first-line" management with increasing frequency and success. In addition, urologists no longer just treat ill patients in urinary retention. The treatment paradigm has evolved to include patients with persistently troubling symptoms of bladder-outlet obstruction, prior to the development of such adverse sequelae. Furthermore, patients see the care of a urologist on an elective basis, and they frequently wish to avoid surgery. As described in prior chapters, advancements in our understanding of the pathophysiology of BPH have led toimprovements in its medical management and have delayed or precluded surgery in many patients. However, when pharmacotherapy fails, further treatment options need to be discussed. Minimally invasive therapies for BPH have evolved out of this need to "bridge the gap" between medical and surgical managment. This chapter describes the current modalities of minimally invasive treatment for benign prostatic obstruction caused by prostatic lobar hyperplasia, and their respective roles in our office practice.
Kubesch, Sabine; Walk, Laura; Spitzer, Manfred; Kammer, Thomas; Lainburg, Alyona; Heim, Rudiger; Hille, Katrin
Physical activity is not only beneficial to physical health but also to cognitive functions. In particular, executive functions that are closely related to learning achievement can be improved by acute and recurring physical activity. We examined the effects of a single 30-min physical education program in contrast to a 5-min movement break on…
Williams, P. John
A typical definition of distance education is the delivery of instruction in a format that separates the teacher and learner, often both in time and space. It tends to be an umbrella term that may encompass more specific forms of education such as distributed learning, independent study, correspondence education, satellite education, etc. This…
Gant, Lenora Peters
Describes the use of video teletraining (VTT) for distance learning in the Department of Defense. Topics include planning and organizing the VTT facility, staff development, site facilitators, the necessity of protocol, instructional design and development strategies, student involvement and interactivity, and evaluation and assessment. (LRW)
Leh, Amy S. C.; Jobin, Andrianna
Discussion of the benefits and drawbacks of distance education and online instruction in higher education focuses on quality control. Topics include quality of product, of learning, and of technology; student prerequisites; instructional design; faculty support systems; and program design, including professional development versus academic degree…
Establishes the connection between educational technology and distance education, instructional design, and delivery. Concludes that, although technology has had minimal influence in traditional classrooms, it is inextricably from distance education. (SK)
Watkins, Ryan; Kaufman, Roger; Guerra, Ingrid
Considers benefits of distance learning for various organizations including educational institutions, corporations, and government agencies. Topics include usefulness; measurable value added; the organizational elements model (OEM); an evaluation of distance education, from conventional instruction to future possibilities; and guidelines for…
Roueche, John E.; Herrscher, Barton R.
Of all the new approaches to junior college instruction, those that are student-centered and learning- oriented appear most promising. These approaches are often typified by teaching strategies that include individualized instruction, the specification of goals and objectives, and the use of instructional media. (JO)
Moore, Robert L.
The proliferation of distance education has occurred alongside the emerging technologies of the Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 environments, changing the way instructors approach, design, and deliver their instructional materials. In the past, instructional design (ID) practitioners relied on instruction system design (ISD) models that focused primarily on…
Murphy, Tim H.; And Others
Includes "The Time Is Now" (Murphy); "Technological Solution in Search of an Instructional Problem" (Willis, Touchstone); "'Principles' of Distance Education" (Peasley); "A Star Is Born!" (Swan); "Enrichment in the Classroom" (Blume, Talbert); "Practical Applications for Distance Education Technologies in Remote and Rural Areas" (Davis, Frick);…
Liu, Hong-Cheng; Yen, Jih-Rong
The development of computers in the past two decades has resulted in the changes of education in enterprises and schools. The advance of computer hardware and platforms allow colleges generally applying distance courses to instruction that both Ministry of Education and colleges have paid attention to the development of Distance Learning. To…
Cafolla, Ralph; Knee, Richard
Web Based Distance Learning (WBDL) is a form of distance learning based on providing instruction mainly on the World Wide Web. This paradigm has limitations, especially the lack of interactivity inherent in the Web. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the technologies the authors have used in their courses at Florida Atlantic…
Wallace, Teri, Ed.; Weatherman, Dick, Ed.
This newsletter theme issue on distance education serving individuals with disabilities considers historical developments, technology, staff training strategies, and staff training materials. It is noted that improving access to training for staff members can improve the quality of services for individuals with disabilities. The following articles…
Levinson, Cynthia Y.
Many administrators are meeting specific instructional needs of their students without always or solely relying on classroom teachers by utilizing distance education, i.e., instruction that takes place while the learner is physically distant from the instructor and/or the materials. Distance education is particularly appropriate in rural and small…
Teerikorpi, P.; Baryshev, Yu. V.
We discuss how the redshift (Mattig) method in the Friedmann cosmology relates to dynamical distance indicators based on Newton's gravity (Teerikorpi 2011). It belongs to the class of indicators where the relevant length inside the system is the distance itself (in this case the proper metric distance). As the Friedmann model has a Newtonian analogy, its use to infer distances has instructive similarities to classical dynamical distance indicators. In view of the theoretical exact linear distance-velocity law, we emphasize that it is conceptually correct to derive the cosmological distance via the route: redshift (primarily observed) -> space expansion velocity (not directly observed) -> metric distance (physical length in ``cm''). Important properties of the proper metric distance are summarized.
Florida Board of Governors, State University System, 2008
Distance learning is the term used when the delivery of instruction involves the separation of student(s) and the instructor by time and/or space. Some forms of distance learning include correspondence, telecourses, online instruction, computer assisted instruction, and instructional delivery that relies upon satellite, cable, broadcast (TV or…
Herrscher, Barton R.
Clearly stated learning objectives, a variety of learning activities, and units small enough for students to manage well are some of the crucial requirements for instructing developmental students. The model described depicts a typical systems design applied to instruction. (Author/LBH)
Pickens, Alex L., Ed.; Kali, Alex P., Ed.
To examine literacy instruction in light of recent research and practice, this journal issue presents five articles focusing on the creation of a literate society where people appreciate literature and can use reading and writing to enrich their lives. The first article, "Literacy Instruction: An Alternative" (A. S. Bayer), presents an…
Analyzes problems involved in the production of instructional materials for distance education and offers new pedagogical approaches to improve production of materials for distance education. Discusses past, present, and future methods used to design instructional materials, proposes models to aid in the production of instructional materials, and…
This paper identifies a set of universal instructional design (UID) principles appropriate to distance education (DE) and specifically tailored to the needs of instructional designers and instructors teaching online. These principles are then used to assess the accessibility level of a sample online course and the availability of options in its…
Simonson, Michael, Comp.; Crawford, Margaret, Comp.
The action research reports compiled in this revised Encyclopedia focus on distance education in South Dakota. Contents include: "Designing Instruction for Distance Education: Guide to Best Practice" (Michael Simonson); "Effectiveness of Strategies Used by South Dakota Distance Education Teachers" (Jan Brockel);…
Viggiano, Rachel; Ault, Meredith
Describes the provision of library instruction and reference services to students enrolled in distance learning courses at 73 Florida-based colleges and universities by the Florida Distance Learning Reference and Referral Center (RRC). Explains the use of chat software which allows real-time virtual reference assistance that supplements email,…
Kranch, Douglas A.
Distance education course designers working alone often do not have the luxury of fully developing their instruction before releasing their courses to students. The Individual Iterative Instructional Design (I3D) model is useful for educators who both develop and present their distance learning instructional units in areas ranging from higher…
Sozcu, Omer Faruk
This study examines the relationships between cognitive styles of field dependent learners with their attitudes towards e-learning (distance education) and instructional behavior in e-learning instruction. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) and the attitude survey (for students' preferences) towards e-learning instruction as distance education…
The number of school districts using instructional coaches is growing at a staggering rate. Coaching is becoming popular, in part, because many educational leaders recognize the old form of professional development, built around traditional in-service sessions for teachers, simply does not affect student achievement. By offering support, feedback,…
This guide is intended to help adult basic education (ABE) teachers teach their students to understand instructions in their daily lives. The 25 learning activities included all develop students' skills in the area of following directions by using basic situations drawn from everyday life. The following activities are included: sequencing pictures…
Dooley, Kim E.; Lindner, James R.; Richards, Lance J.
Comparison of agriculture courses delivered synchronously via interactive television (20 students) and asynchronously via the Web (22 students) showed similar achievement of core distance education competencies: adult learning, technology knowledge, instructional design, communication skills, graphic design, administration) regardless of delivery…
Mishra, R. R.; Ahmad, Nasim; Rai, N. K.
A study was conducted at one of the study centers of Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) to find out what extent material is self-instructional, and other factors related to print material and its effectiveness in distance education. Results are presented in this article. One major finding was that to a large extent, students were…
Meyer, Sabina R.; Crawford, Vernon A.
Describes a Florida school district's distance learning system, focusing on the instructional television system, which uses fiber optic cable to connect five high schools, the district television studios, district offices, and the community college. Descriptions of equipment needed, corporate participation, courses offered, and suggestions for…
Morales, Carlos Rafael
In the summer of 2003, members of Purdue University's School of Technology decided to produce 90 hours of HDTV-quality instructional video as part of a distance-learning initiative. To fully exploit the power of the video medium and the added resolution of high-definition television, the team used virtual-set and advanced computer-graphics…
Knott, Tara D.
Discussion of the evaluation of new educational technologies and their effectiveness in public education focuses on the use of distance learning. Topics addressed include evaluation audiences; the role of evaluation; the students and teachers using the technology; educational administrators; identified needs and instructional effectiveness;…
Bramble, William J.
The distance education and instructional technology projects that have been undertaken in Alaska over the last decade are detailed in this paper. The basic services offered by the "Learn Alaska Network" are described in relation to three user groups: K-12 education; postsecondary education; and general public education and information.…
This document contains three papers on distance learning and human resource development (HRD). "An Exploration of Perceived Differences in Teaching Roles between On-Site and On-line Instruction" (James J. Kirk) reports on a study in which 144 online instructors at selected institutions across the United States were asked to share their…
Dwyer, Francis; Li, Ning
Discussion of the development of distance education for instruction and training due to new technologies and software focuses on questions that need to be asked to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. Highlights include institutional and organizational concerns; content design analyses; development issues; implementation; evaluation; management…
Lee, Soomin; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Katsuura, Tetsuo
In recent years, parametric speakers have been used in various circumstances. In our previous studies, we verified that the physiological burden of the sound of parametric speaker set at 2.6 m from the subjects was lower than that of the general speaker. However, nothing has yet been demonstrated about the effects of the sound of a parametric speaker at the shorter distance between parametric speakers the human body. Therefore, we studied this effect on physiological functions and task performance. Nine male subjects participated in this study. They completed three consecutive sessions: a 20-minute quiet period as a baseline, a 30-minute mental task period with general speakers or parametric speakers, and a 20-minute recovery period. We measured electrocardiogram (ECG) photoplethysmogram (PTG), electroencephalogram (EEG), systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Four experiments, one with a speaker condition (general speaker and parametric speaker), the other with a distance condition (0.3 m and 1.0 m), were conducted respectively at the same time of day on separate days. To examine the effects of the speaker and distance, three-way repeated measures ANOVA (speaker factor x distance factor x time factor) were conducted. In conclusion, we found that the physiological responses were not significantly different between the speaker condition and the distance condition. Meanwhile, it was shown that the physiological burdens increased with progress in time independently of speaker condition and distance condition. In summary, the effects of the parametric speaker at the 2.6 m distance were not obtained at the distance of 1 m or less.
Planning an effective distance education (DE) course requires careful planning by experienced educators supported by strategically chosen instructional and delivery media components. The challenge of DE is to develop an instructional process that incorporates good teaching and learning strategies and provides remote students with a quality of…
Taylor, James C.
Although distance educators have embraced technologies that have significantly improved instruction, in part because of an interdisciplinary or team approach to instruction and use of mixed media, on-campus educators have largely ignored that technological potential. Institutional leaders are encouraged to create an environment that supports…
Cernicek, A.T.; Hahn, H.A.
Distance learning represents a strategy for leveraging resources to solve educational and training needs. Although many distance learning programs have been developed, lessons learned regarding differences between distance learning and traditional education with respect to learner characteristics have not been well documented. Therefore, we conducted a survey of 20 distance learning professionals. The questionnaire was distributed to experts attending the second Distance Learning Conference sponsored by Los Alamos National Laboratory. This survey not only acquired demographic information from each of the respondents but also identified important distance learning student characteristics. Significant distance learner characteristics, which were revealed statistically and which influence the effectiveness of distance learning, include the following: reading level, student autonomy, and self-motivation. Distance learning cannot become a more useful and effective method of instruction without identifying and recognizing learner characteristics. It will be important to consider these characteristics when designing all distance learning courses. This paper will report specific survey findings and their implications for developing distance learning courses. 9 refs., 6 tabs.
Clement, J P; Dodd-McCue, D; White, K R; Clement, D G; Mick, S S
Drawing upon the twelve-year history of Virginia Commonwealth University's (VCU) online distance learning Executive Program, this article identifies factors important to the success of online distance learning and major changes in distance learning over time. It discusses curriculum, instructional design, technology infrastructure and support, educational strategy and pedagogy, faculty, and student program dimensions. As one of the oldest online health administration or business programs, the Executive Program at VCU and this examination thereof are particularly suited to identify significant lessons learned from experience with online education. The article concludes with a summary of challenges facing this and other distance learning programs in health administration.
Distance learning has boomed in the last decade in developed as well as developing countries. Large open universities enrolling over 2 million students have been created in Asia. In the Middle East, distance learning institutions also have expanded. Small institutions and distance learning programs have taken hold in Africa, and Latin America offers an exciting array of distance learning institutions. Great Britain's Open University is fully consolidated and mature. Traditional distance learning programs, such as the University of California's Berkeley Extension Program in the US, continue to expand. A combination of reasons underlie the new interest in and growth of distance education, including, economic, pedagogical, timing and urgency, technological advances, managerial, sociopsychological. Distance education offers a good solution to a pressing problem, i.e., scarcity of resources. At current levels of investment in education, few countries in the developing world would be able to maintain their present levels of enrollments, much less improve access and quality. Distance education can offer flexible responses to different clients, different needs, and different types of students. Thus, in this regard, distance education is a perfect example of technology fit. If countries are to compete in international markets, updated education, training, and information must flow to countries' educational institutions and technological elites. In terms of technological advances, significant progress has been made in the areas of instructional design and student support systems through software design. Systems that manage complex operations now are widely available. As with other social innovation, the burden of proof continues to rest with the proponents of distance education. To improve the credibility of distance education, researchers need to address 4 major areas: student access; instructional design; student support systems; and evaluation and accreditation procedures.
Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis.
This handbook examines various topics of interest and concern to teachers as they work with instructional assistants forming a classroom instructional partnership and functioning as a team. These topics include: (1) instructional assistant qualifications; (2) duties--instructional, classroom clerical, auxillary; (3) factors to be considered when…
Leonard, Henry A.; Winkler, John D.; Hove, Anders; Ettedgui, Emile; Shanley, Michael G.; Sollinger, Jerry
The U.S. Army is in the process of implementing the Army Distance Learning Program, which is intended to improve training effectiveness and efficiency by substituting distance learning (DL) for portions of its current resident instruction program. To determine the potential effectiveness of DL in delivering military training, 25% of the resident…
Brown, H. Douglas
It is argued that acculturation, anomie, social distance, and perceived social distance rather than biological factors define a critical period independent of the age of the learner for second language acquisition. Suggestions for planning instructional strategies and selecting materials based on this hypothesis are given. (PMJ)
Elliott, Stephen J.; Kukula, Eric P.
Distance education as a stand-alone approach has grown tremendously in the past 10 years. The other form of distance education, often called hybrid, supplements traditional classroom instruction with online resources. The instructors deliver classroom lectures, but homework, assignments, and supplemental material may be retrieved online.…
Henrichsen, Lynn E., Ed.
The 14 cases in this book show how distance learning takes a variety of forms in teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL). The 15 chapters include the following: (1) "Beyond Adding Telecommunications to a Traditional Course: Insights into Human and Instructional Factors Affecting Distance Learning in TESOL" (Lynn E.…
Shih, Timothy; Hung, Jason
Future Directions in Distance Learning and Communication Technologies presents theoretical studies and practical solutions for engineers, educational professionals, and graduate students in the research areas of e-learning, distance education, and instructional design. This book provides readers with cutting-edge solutions and research directions…
Pease, Pamela S.
Distance learning systems are networks that transmit interactive instruction from one central location to multiple geographically separate ones. Lists steps for selecting and implementing distance learning in a school district that are based on experience in implementing TI-IN United Star Network's Star Schools project. (MLF)
Rashid, Muhammad; Elahi, Uzma
Educational technology plays an important role in distance education system. By adapting new communication educational technologies in distance educational programmes their quality could be ensured. Instructions conducted through the use of technologies which significantly or completely eliminate the traditional face to face communication between…
Piskurich, George M.
Discusses the use of satellite-mediated distance learning. Highlights include costs; implementation; interactive distance learning (IDL); instructional design; a case study of a training course designed for IDL that used satellite technology; and a checklist for planning satellite-mediated IDL. (LRW)
Lambert, Richard D.
Distance education in second languages in the United States has grown in a piecemeal, uncoordinated fashion, and it remains marginal to both distance education more generally and to the bulk of foreign language instruction throughout the country. One handicap, arising from very limited demand in business for foreign language skills, is lack of…
Bernard, Robert M.; Rubalcava, Beatriz Rojo de; St-Pierre, Denise
Provides an overview of issues relating to practice and research regarding collaborative online learning in distance education. Topics include traditional problems of distance education; instructional design issues, including course preparation, social climate and sense of community, instructor's role, and the effective use of technology; and…
Teaching and instructing is one of the challenging manifestations of informing, within which distance learning is considered harder than face-to-face instruction. Student retention is one of the major challenges of distance learning. Current innovative technologies enable widespread use of video lectures that may ease the loneliness of the…
Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi (India). Distance Education Council.
Since its inception in India in 1962, distance education has grown in popularity. The Distance Education Council (DEC) directs distance learning within India's higher education system. The DEC's promotion, coordination, and maintenance of standards for distance education are its three major roles. Its initiatives include grants, support for…
Rossman, Mark H., Ed.; Rossman, Maxine E., Ed.
This collection of articles on distance learning reflects the perspectives and concerns of the learner and the facilitator of learning in distance education setting. Eight chapters are included: (1) "The Evolution and Advantages of Distance Education" (John E. Cantelon) traces the history of distance education and demonstrates how it transcends…
Discusses learner/computer interaction, learner control, sequencing of instructional events, and graphic screen design as effective principles for the design of instructional software, including tutorials. (MBR)
Cadorath, Jill; Harris, Simon; Encinas, Fatima
Describes a mixed-mode bachelor degree course in English language teaching at the Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico) that was designed to help practicing teachers write appropriate distance education materials by giving them the experience of being distance students. Includes a course outline and results of a course evaluation. (Author/LRW)
Nichols, William Dee; Rupley, William H.
Instructional design is an integral part of a balanced approach to teaching vocabulary instruction. The goal of this paper is to reflect on several lessons using research-based vocabulary strategies, and to present think-alouds that detail the steps in matching instructional design with those strategies in order to reach the learning outcome.…
Harvey, Douglas M.; Lee, Jung
Examines how the use of server-based courseware development solutions affects the instructional design process when creating online distance education. Highlights include pedagogical, visual interface (e.g., visual metaphor and navigation layout), interaction, and instructional design implications of online courseware. (Contains 54 references.)…
Martin, Barbara L.; Bramble, William J.
Evaluates the effectiveness of the Florida Teletraining Project, a project that used video teletraining to provide distance education courses to United States military personnel. Describes the instructional methods and strategies used and reports results of performance tests and reactions of students and instructional personnel. Findings indicate…
This Digest reviews the literature on recent attempts to incorporate technology into the instruction of journalism and mass communication. It first discusses the four main categories of current technology use in journalism and mass communication: classroom instruction; online syllabi/materials; distance learning; and technological literacy. It…
Lohr, L. L.
Designing the instructional interface is a challenging endeavor requiring knowledge and skills in instructional and visual design, psychology, human-factors, ergonomic research, computer science, and editorial design. This paper describes the instructional interface, the challenges of its development, and an instructional systems approach to its…
Jackman, Diane H.; Swan, Michael K.
This handbook identifies the instructional models found to be effective for distance education using the Interactive Video Network (IVN) system. Each model is summarized briefly and followed by specific suggestions for the use of the model over the IVN system. For each model, information is given on instructor responsibility prior to, during, and…
Lehrer, Richard; And Others
This study examined the instructional effectiveness of three software learning environments--LOGO, drill and practice, and teacher-directed activities--for preschool special needs children. Cognitive distancing was applied to classify children and child-software interactions; dependent measures included indicators of problem solving, skill…
Maly, K.; Overstreet, C. M.; Gonzalez, A.; Denbar, M. L.; Cutaran, R.; Karunaratne, N.
This paper describes IRI (Interactive Remote Instruction), a computer-based system built at Old Dominion University (Virginia) in order to support distance education. The system is based on the concept of a virtual classroom where students at different locations have the same synchronous class experience, using networked computers to communicate…
Drea, John T.; Armistead, L. Pendleton
John Wood Community College (JWCC) serves a district population of approximately 90,000 in a predominantly rural section of west-central Illinois. In an effort to address the needs of the rural long-distance learner, JWCC has implemented a variety of instructional delivery techniques. Since its inception, JWCC has contracted with other area…
Atkinson, R. C.
The results are presented of a project of research and development on strategies for optimizing the instructional process, and dissemination of information about the applications of such research to the instructional medium of computer-assisted instruction. Accomplishments reported include construction of the author language INSTRUCT, construction of a practical CAI course in the area of computer science, and a number of investigations into the individualization of instruction, using the course as a vehicle.
Begins with a tribute to Professor G. Ram Reddy (founder of Indira Gandhi National Open University), then focuses on enhancing the role of open universities in providing borderless distance education. Highlights include the need for open distance-education; philosophy and vision; the distance teaching system; the role of information technology;…
Waters, John K.
Whoever said "Distance education begins in the 10th row" was taking a jab at the comatose kids at the back of his classroom, but the comment also taps into the old image of distance learners as disengaged themselves. That was then. Today, distance-learning programs are booming, in part due to demographic realities but also because recent advances…
Dow, Mirah J.; Algarni, Mohammed; Blackburn, Heidi; Diller, Karen; Hallett, Karen; Musa, Abdullahi; Polepeddi, Padma; Schwartz, Brian; Summey, Terri; Valenti, Sandra
This article offers a theoretical model of online, graduate student information seeking behavior. The qualitative methodology used to gather data for the development of the model included an electronic survey and semi-structured interviews conducted online using Adobe Connect Pro[TM]. Participating in the study were 238 graduate students enrolled…
Shale, Doug; Garrison, D. Randy
This paper describes an audio teleconferencing system enhanced with a microcomputer-based telewriting system and examines its application in the delivery of university courses in statistics, microcomputer applications in special education, nursing issues, introductory writing, and staff development for teachers. The actual application of the…
Schiel, Dietrich; Dassin, Joan; Magalhaes, Monica Giacomassi de Menezes de; Guerrini, Iria Muller
Describes the development of a distance education program in Brazil where students perform physics experiments in secondary schools assisted by a distance tutorial system. Discusses advantages of Web-based instruction; instructional design; public policy; student responses; teacher responses; and student performance. (Author/LRW)
Zai, Robert, III.; Wesley, Threasa L.
The use of distance learning technology has allowed Northern Kentucky University's W. Frank Steely Library to remove traditional boundaries between both distance and on-campus students. An emerging model that applies these distance learning methodologies to all students has proven effective for enhancing reference and instructional services. This…
Cyrs, Thomas E., Ed.; Menges, Robert J., Ed.; Svinicki, Marilla D., Ed.
In this volume, experienced distance educators provide insights into new trends in computer-based teaching and learning in postsecondary education. The book is divided into four parts: (1) Issues and Trends; (2) Instructional Design Principles for Distance Learning; (3) Alternative Delivery Systems for Distance Learning; and (4) Administrative…
Livio, Mario; Donahue, Megan; Panagia, Nino
Participants; Preface; Foreword; Early history of the distance scale problem, S. van den Bergh; Cosmology: From Hubble to HST, M. S. Turner; Age constraints nucleocosmochronology, J. Truran; The ages of globular clusters, P. Demarque; The linearity of the Hubble flow M. Postman; Gravitational lensing and the extragalactic distance scale, R. D. Blandford andT . Kundic; Using the cosmic microwave background to constrain the Hubble constant A. Lasenby and T M. Jones; Cepheids as distance indicators, N. R. Tanvir; The I-band Tully-Fisher relation and the Hubble constant, R. Giovanell; The calibration of type 1a supernovae as standard candles, A. Saha; Focusing in on the Hubble constant, G. A. Tammann & M. Federspiel; Interim report on the calibration of the Tully-Fisher relation in the HST Key Project to measure the Hubble constant, J. Mould et al.; Hubble Space Telescope Key Project on the extragalactic distance scale, W. L. Freedman, B. F. Madore and T R. C. Kennicutt; Novae as distance indicators, M. Livio; Verifying the planetary nebula luminosity function method, G. H. Jacoby; On the possible use of radio supernovae for distance determinations, K. W. Weiler et al.; Post-AGB stars as standard candles, H. Bond; Helium core flash at the tip of the red giant branch: a population II distance indicator, B. F. Madore, W. L. Freedman and T S. Sakai; Globular clusters as distance indicators, B. C. Whitmore; Detached eclipsing binaries as primary distance and age indicators, B. Paczynski; Light echoes: geometric measurement of galaxy distances, W. B. Sparks; The SBF survey of galaxy distances J. L. Tonry; Extragalactic distance scales: The long and short of it, V. Trimble.
Lee, A. Maughan
Discusses the mystical aura attached to the notion of a systems approach to instruction, briefly reviews some of the instructional systems which have been advanced, and suggests a method for successful implementation of the process. (LS)
Celik, Laurel A; Pancoe, Diane L
Hand washing remains the single most important action for preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Although easy and inexpensive, promoting hand hygiene in an elementary school can be a challenge. This study was a collaborativeproject between the co-investigators (a registered nurse at an urban elementary school and a senior high school student working on a senior International Baccalaureate research project), the 5th-grade science teacher, and a physician from the local children's hospital. The study purposes were to (a) determine the effectiveness of a 30-minute hand washing educational intervention at decreasing organisms on the hands of 5th-grade students and (b) introduce the 5th-grade students to the scientific method. Forty-one percent of the 5th-grade students used an effective hand washing technique after receiving instruction on proper hand washing.
Fletcher, J. D.
The techniques and effectiveness of systems for adjusting the pace, content, sequence, and style of instruction to fit the needs of individual learners are briefly reviewed. These systems are all designed to function in group instructional settings. They may be separated into print-oriented approaches (programmed instruction, personalized system…
Personalized systems of instruction (PSI), also called individualized instruction or contingency-managed instruction, were developed in the mid-1960s at the college level by Fred Keller, a reinforcement learning theorist. The Keller plan consists of five features: self-pacing, unit mastery, student tutors, optional motivational lectures, and…
Martin, Florence; Pastore, Raymond; Snider, Jean
This paper describes an instructional design class's experience developing instruction for the mobile web. The class was taught at a southeastern university in the United States in a master's level computer based instruction course. Two example projects are showcased and student reflections on design issues are highlighted. Additionally,…
Dirr, Peter J.
The bibliography lists 58 references (1969-74) on individualized instruction. Topics covered include computer assisted instruction, diagnostic teaching, and instructional materials, for handicapped as well as nonhandicapped children. Entries are listed in alphabetical order by author (or source) and usually include name of publisher, date, and…
This holistic approach to speechreading instruction proposes: enhancement of the child's self-motivation, strategy-based instruction, an interactive processing approach that focuses on meaning and psycholinguistic guessing, bisensory instruction, and a hierarchical continuum beginning with easy, successful activities that gradually increase in…
The coding language INSTRUCT is a high-level programing language designed for programing computer-assisted instruction lessons. As it is presently implemented on the PDP-10 computer, a "lesson processor" transforms the INSTRUCT lessons into a numeric code that can be understood by a teaching program called INST. INST controls the…
Ledford, Bruce R.; Sleeman, Phillip J.
This book is intended as a source for those who desire to apply a coherent system of instructional design, thereby insuring accountability. Chapter 1 covers the instructional design process, including: instructional technology; the role of evaluation; goal setting; the psychology of teaching and learning; task analysis; operational objectives;…
Although many schools claim to make use of individualized instruction, no common definition of this term has been agreed on. The author reviewed definitions of "individualized instruction" in five studies and then surveyed 30 community and junior colleges who claimed to be using this method of instruction to learn what their programs…
These three reports present instructional data for Mercer County Community College for Summer and Fall 1980 and Spring 1981. The first report, covering summer sessions from 1974 through 1980, examines instructional hours, class size, student credit hours (SCRH), student contact hours (SCH), income/cost measures, instructional staff, full-time…
Diehl, Donald W.; Penner, Wayman R.
This manual contains instructional materials which measure student performance on commercial carpentry behavioral objectives; criterion-referenced evaluation instruments are also included. Each of the manual's eleven sections consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional unit includes behavioral objectives, suggested activities…
Many administrators are so overwhelmed by the basic responsibilities of their daily work that there seems to be little or no time left for providing quality leadership in instruction. Instead, schools employ department chairs, instructional specialists, and coordinators to provide instructional leadership. How can administrators find time in the…
Cavanagh, Peter R., Ed.
Contributions from researchers in the field of running mechanics are included in the 13 chapters of this book. The following topics are covered: (1) "The Mechanics of Distance Running: A Historical Perspective" (Peter Cavanagh); (2) "Stride Length in Distance Running: Velocity, Body Dimensions, and Added Mass Effects" (Peter Cavanagh, Rodger…
Lumsden, Bruce; And Others
The impact of the computer on education may be greater than the impact of any other technological innovation since the development of the printing press. Although distance education has relied more extensively on technological means for delivering education to its students than has traditional classroom-centered education, most distance programs…
Salomon, Kenneth D.
Discusses the U.S. Copyright Office's May 25, 1999 Report on Copyright and Digital Distance Education. Presents the Register of Copyrights' recommendations to Congress as to how to "promote distance education through networks, while maintaining an appropriate balance between the rights of copyright owners and the needs of users of copyrighted…
Hamnett, Chris; Butler, Tim
In this paper we examine the role which distance, in a variety of forms, can play in the reproduction, intensification or reduction of educational inequality in different types of school systems in different countries. This is a very broad issue, and in the paper we examine the ways in which distance to school has emerged as an important factor in…
German Foundation for International Development, Bonn (West Germany).
Seminar and conference reports and working papers on distance education of adults, which reflect the experiences of many countries, are presented. Contents include the draft report of the 1979 International Seminar on Distance Education held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, which was jointly sponsored by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa…
Eysberg, Cees D.
A distance perception survey was used to get college students enrolled in a human geography course involved and interested in the topic of perception. Students were asked to arrange 12 European capitals in sequence according to their distance from Amsterdam. Survey results are presented. (RM)
Rinck, Mike; Denis, Michel
The authors conducted 2 experiments to study the metrics of spatial distance in a mental imagery task. In both experiments, participants first memorized the layout of a building containing 10 rooms with 24 objects. Participants then received mental imagery instructions and imagined how they walked through the building from one room to another. The…
Stotzer, Rebecca L.; Fujikawa, Keith; Sur, Jill; Arnsberger, Pam
The use of technology to facilitate education and the provision of an entire higher education degree has exploded in the last two decades. Social work educators have been a part of that trend and have started to utilize distance education (DE) technologies. There is a growing literature regarding the efficacy of DE instruction in social work, and…
Hardy, Kimberly; Meyer-Griffith, Katie
Recent changes in the higher education landscape have called for greater access and accountability in a number of areas, most particularly distance learning. While there is a very significant instructional aspect to this equation, providing effective support and services to students enrolled in online education is becoming comparatively important,…
Presents the findings of an empirical research study into the academic self-concept, study habits, and attitude towards distance education of students at the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) and relates these to their academic performance. Discusses variables and implications for learner support and instructional design. (Author/LRW)
Pena, Dely; Maitland, Christine
This report presents findings from the second nationally representative survey of distance education undertaken by the National Center for Education Statistics. The survey, released in December 1999, collected information about the 1997-1998 academic year. The report also presents new information about fields of study and instructional levels of…
Ansah, Angela O.; Johnson, James T.
Technology-based distance education (TBDE) is increasingly being used to supplement higher education needs and this is raising a variety of concerns in universities. This study examined the differences in the concerns expressed by instructional faculty of three comparable universities that differ primarily in their stages of implementing distance…
Shih, Timothy K.; Chang, Ya-Fung; Hsu, Hun-Hui; Wang, Ying-Hong; Chen, Yung-Hui
Distance education has been an important research issue of multimedia computing and communication. Since the instructional activities are implemented on cyberspace, how to control behaviors of students and to increase the degree of communication awareness have been a challenging issue. We propose a system based on the scaffolding theory. Behaviors…
Xiaoming, Yang; Shieh, Chich-Jen; Wu, Wu-Chung
In the modern society with changeable information technology learning and applications, students could acquire information application knowledge, which is not worse than those taught by teachers in classrooms, through the Internet, distance conference, and e-learning. Traditional instruction therefore is facing great challenges. When measuring the…
Bewley, William L.; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Kim, Jin-Ok; Lee, John J.; Saadat, Farzad
Because of the great promise of distance learning for delivering cost-effective instruction, there is great interest in determining whether or not it actually is effective, and--more interesting--determining what variables of design and implementation make it more or less effective. Unfortunately, much of the research has been based on simple…
Friend, Natalie S.
Discussion of distance learning focuses on the SBC Center for Learning that uses two types of video conferencing technology. Describes higher education and corporate learning programs and discusses future plans that will include emerging technologies and new instructional design models. (LRW)
Milheim, William D.
Describes the use of computers and satellites for delivering educational materials to distance learners. Topics discussed include teletex; videotex; telecommunications; computer use in the design and production of instructional materials; administrative uses of computers; satellite programing; and future possibilities. Examples of distance…
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Long distance message revenue. 32.5100 Section 32.5100 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Revenue Accounts §...
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Long distance message revenue. 32.5100 Section 32.5100 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Revenue Accounts §...
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Long distance message revenue. 32.5100 Section 32.5100 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Revenue Accounts §...
Littman, Marlyn Kemper
In this paper, the fundamental characteristics and capabilities of ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) networks in a distance learning environment are examined. Current and projected ATM applications are described, and issues and challenges associated with developing ATM networking solutions for instructional delivery are explored. Other topics…
Loeding, Barbara L.; Wynn, Marjorie
Describes experiences and concerns of instructors using the Instructional Television Fixed Signal (ITFS) program, a low-cost television system in which classes originating on the University of South Florida Lakeland campus are simultaneously broadcast live to various ITFS sites. Presents guidelines for distance learning regarding planning,…
Tuckman, Bruce W.; Orefice, Dominick S.
Four instructional treatments differing in structure and student responsibility were used with 60 abstract-thinking and 60 concrete-thinking students. A differentiated outcomes hypothesis is offered to account for the findings. (Authors)
McGraw, Tammy M.; Ross, John D.
This decision tool presents a progression of data collection and decision-making strategies that can increase the effectiveness of distance-based or distributed learning instruction. A narrative and flow chart cover the following steps: (1) basic assumptions, including purpose of instruction, market scan, and financial resources; (2) needs…
Logue, L. J.
Discusses the effect of vehicle mass on stopping distances. Analyzes an example of a sample vehicle and tire, and calculates the braking acceleration showing the effect of different factors on the stopping performance of the tires. (GA)
Pelton, J. N.; Bates, A. W.
Two articles evaluate the impact of new transmission and information technologies on education: "Technology and Education--Friend or Foe?" (Pelton) and "Third Generation Distance Education: The Challenge of New Technology" (Bates). (SK)
Abshire, J. B.
A geodetic distance measuring apparatus which compensates for the refractive index of the atmosphere is discussed. A mode locked laser system with a laser device and its peripheral components is utilized to derive two mutually phase locked optical wavelength signals and one phase locked microwave CW signal which respectively traverse the same distance measurement path. The optical signals are comprised of pulse type signals. Phase comparison of the two optical wavelength pulse signals is used to provide the dry air density while phase comparison of one of the optical wavelength pulse signals and the microwave CW signal issued to provide wet or water vapor density of the air. The distance to be measured corrected for the atmospheric dry air and water vapor densities in the measurement path is computed from these measurements. A time interval unit is included for measuring transit time of individual optical pulses for resolving the phase ambiguity needed with the phase measurements to give the true target distance.
Engilman, William D; Cox, Thomas H; Bednar, Eric D; Proffit, William R
Equipment for distance learning can be used to improve the quality of instruction in orthodontic programs. All departments now should have at least a point-to-point system to allow clinical faculty to provide instruction without being physically present on all occasions. For more instruction to be shared with other residency programs, a dual-streaming multipoint video conferencing system is needed. A basic system allows reception of this type of instruction, and an optimal system would allow originating and receiving such conferences. Recording interactive seminars so that they can be viewed later requires additional equipment so that postproduction editing and refinement can be accomplished. Lists of appropriate equipment for each level are provided.
This document contains four papers from a symposium on university instruction in human resource development (HRD). "Developing a Distance Learning HRD Baccalaureate Degree for Working Adults" (Barbara E. Hinton) documents the planning process for a distance learning baccalaureate HRD degree option and presents a 10-step distance learning model…
Academic distance learning programs have gained popularity and added to the demand for online library services. Librarians are now conducting instruction for distance learning students beyond their traditional work. Technology advancements have enhanced the delivery mode in distance learning across academic disciplines. Online conference tools…
This report provides background information and instructions to assist applicants in writing Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) applications. Initial feedback fro usage for the new instructions shows that the best instructions would not be read and followed by all applicants. Applications from more than thirty applicants who have received the new instructions indicated that few had read the instructions. Based on this feedback, the instructions have been further revised to include a title page and table of contents. A warning was also added to advise applicants of the potential penalty of delayed review if these instructions are not followed. This revision was intended to address the possibility that some applicants did not see or bother to follow the instructions which followed the background information about ERIP. Included are two examples of ERIP applications which have been prepared for handout at workshops or mailing to applicants. Writing of example applications was time consuming and more difficult than expected for several reasons: (1) Full disclosures can be lengthy, very detailed, and technical. This contrasts with the desire to prepare examples which are comparatively short and easy for the non-technical person to read. (2) Disclosures contain confidential information which should not be published. (3) It is difficult to imagine that applicants will study examples when they do not bother to read the basic instructions.
... promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency. Approval of this action is exempt from the CAA's general... no environmental justice issues nor is there any collective environmental impact resulting from its... burden. Executive Order 13045 (Protection of Children) This final rule does not pose an...
... termed the Common Integrated Global Avionics for Light Helicopters. This rotorcraft will be capable of... standards in 14 CFR 29.1049 (Hovering cooling test procedures), Sec. 29.1305 (Powerplant instruments), and... conditions: In addition to the requirements of Sec. 29.1049, the aircraft cooling effects due to use of...
Harveson, Andrew T.; Hannon, James C.; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Podlog, Leslie; Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Durrant, Lynne H.; Hall, Morgan S.; Kang, Kyoung-doo
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine differences in cognition between acute bouts of resistance exercise, aerobic exercise, and a nonexercise control in an untrained youth sample. Method: Ninety-four participants performed 30 min of aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, or nonexercise separated by 7 days each in a randomized…
Ma, Yi; Kang, Xiao-Nan; Ding, Wen-Bin; Yang, Hao-Zheng; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Jin; Huang, Yi-Ran; Dai, Hui-Li
Some biosamples obtained from biobanks may go through thawing before processing. We aim to evaluate the effects of thawing at room temperature for different time periods on gene expression analysis. A time course study with four time points was conducted to investigate the expression profiling on 10 thawed normal mice renal tissue samples through Affymetrix GeneChip mouse gene 2.0 st array. Microarray results were validated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) on 6 candidate reference genes and 11 target genes. Additionally, we used geNorm plus and NormFinder to identify the most stably expressed reference genes over time. The results showed RNA degraded more after longer incubation at room temperature. However, microarray results showed only 240 genes (0.91%) altered significantly in response to thawing at room temperature. The signal of majority altered probe sets decreased with thawing time, and the crossing point (Cp) values of all candidate reference genes correlated positively with the thawing time (p<0.05). The combination of B2M, ACTB and PPIA was identified as the best choice for qPCR normalization. We found most target genes were stable by using this normalization method. However, serious gene quantification errors were resulted from improper reference genes. In conclusion, thirty minutes of thawing at room temperature has a limited impact on microarray and qPCR analysis, gene expression variations due to RNA degradation in early period after thawing can be largely reduced by proper normalization.
Tabor, R.W.; Frizzell, V.A.; Whetten, J.T.; Waitt, R.B.; Swanson, D.A.; Byerly, G.R.; Booth, D.B.; Hetherington, M.J.; Zartman, R.E.
Summary -- The Chelan quadrangle hosts a wide variety of rocks and deposits and display a long geologic history ranging from possible Precambrian to Recent. Two major structures, the Leavenworth and Entiat faults divide cross the quadrangle from southeast to northwest and bound the Chiwaukum 'graben', a structural low preserving Tertiary sedimentary rocks between blocks of older, metamorphic and igneous rocks. Pre-Tertiary metamorphic rocks in the quadrangle are subdivided into five major tectonostratigraphic terranes: (1) the Ingalls terrane, equivalent to the Jurassic Ingalls Tectonic Complex of probable mantle and deep oceanic rocks origin, (2) the Nason terrane, composed of the Chiwaukum Schist and related gneiss, (3) the Swakane terrane, made up entirely of the Swakane Biotite Gneiss, a metamorphosed, possibly Precambrian, sedimentary and/or volcanic rock, (4) the Mad River terrane composed mostly of the rocks of the Napeequa River area (Napeequa Schist), a unit of oceanic protolith now considered part of the Chelan Mountains terrane (the Mad River terrane has been abandoned, 2001), and (5) the Chelan Mountains terrane, dominated by the Chelan Complex of Hopson and Mattinson (1971) which is composed of migmatite and gneissic to tonalite of deep-seated igneous and metamorphic origin.During an episode of Late Cretaceous regional metamorphism, all the terranes were intruded by deepseated tonalite to granodiorite plutons, including the Mount Stuart batholith, Ten Peak and Dirty Face plutons, and the Entiat pluton and massive granitoid rocks of the Chelan Complex. The Duncan Hill pluton intruded rocks of the Chelan Mountains terrane in the Middle Eocene. At about the same time fluvial arkosic sediment of the Chumstick Formation was deposited in a depression. The outpouring of basalt lavas to the southeast of the quadrangle during the Miocene built up the Columbia River Basalt Group. These now slightly warped lavas lapped onto the uplifted older rocks. Deformation, uplift, and erosion recorded in the rocks and deposits of the quadrangle continued into post-Miocene time. Quaternary deposits reflect advances of glaciers down the major valleys, a complicated history of catastrophic glacial floods down the Columbia River, the formation of lakes in the Columbia and Wenatchee river valleys by landslides and flood backwaters, and hillslope erosion by large and small landslides and debris flows.
Broadfoot, Stuart Graham
Developments in the interdisciplinary field of quantum information open up previously impossible abilities in the realms of information processing and communication. Quantum entanglement has emerged as one property of quantum systems that acts as a resource for quantum information processing and, in particular, enables teleportation and secure cryptography. Therefore, the creation of entangled resources is of key importance for the application of these technologies. Despite a great deal of research the efficient creation of entanglement over long distances is limited by inevitable noise. This problem can be overcome by creating entanglement between nodes in a network and then performing operations to distribute the entanglement over a long distance. This thesis contributes to the field of entanglement distribution within such quantum networks. Entanglement distribution has been extensively studied for one-dimensional networks resulting in "quantum repeater" protocols. However, little work has been done on higher dimensional networks. In these networks a fundamentally different scaling, called "long distance entanglement distribution", can appear between the resources and the distance separating the systems to be entangled. I reveal protocols that enable long distance entanglement distribution for quantum networks composed of mixed state and give a few limitations to the capabilities of entanglement distribution. To aid in the implementation of all entanglement distribution protocols I finish by introducing a new system, composed of an optical nanofibre coupled to a carbon nanotube, that may enable new forms of photo-detectors and quantum memories.
Jones, Judy I.; And Others
This report provides administrators, school boards, and policymakers with data to help them in the decision making process related to distance education systems. A literature review covers theories of distance education, distance education today, the economics of distance education, distance education and technology, transmission systems, and…
Keegan, Desmond, Ed.
This book contains the following papers examining the didactic, academic, analytic, philosophical, and technological underpinnings of distance education: "Introduction"; "Quality and Access in Distance Education: Theoretical Considerations" (D. Randy Garrison); "Theory of Transactional Distance" (Michael G. Moore);…
Naz, Bibi Asia
"Learning can be defined as change in a student's capacity for performance as a result of experience" (Kenneth D. Moore). The intended changes should be specified in instructional objectives. Viewed in this context, an objective can be defined as a clear and unambiguous description of your instructional intent. An objective is not a…
The key to improving student achievement isn't more teacher time--it's more teacher impact. But how do you decide which instructional practices will deliver the most bang for your buck? In this handbook, written for teachers but suitable for use by principals and instructional coaches, best-selling author Jim Knight presents the high-leverage…
Bancroft, Judith A.; Collins, Keith
An instructional design team, composed of experts in nursing, education, and media production, is used at the University of Wisconsin School of Nursing, Madison, to produce instructional units for a new curriculum. The authors summarize steps of team/faculty communications, team methodology, and factors influencing the team's effectiveness. (EA)
Austin Community Coll., TX.
This document describes the 1993-94 program review process for Austin Community College (ACC), in Texas. First, the goals of program review are briefly reviewed and ACC's mission and instructional philosophy are set forth. The structure and process is then described, indicating that an Instructional Program Review Committee (PRC), formed of two…
Tarver, Sara, Ed.
These three issues of a newsletter offer diverse kinds of information deemed to be of interest to Association for Direct Instruction (ADI) members--stories of successful implementations in different settings, write-ups of ADI awards, tips on "how to" deliver direct instruction (DI) more effectively, topical articles focused on particular…
Kenney, Jane L.; Roberts, Jane M. E.
This study examined the roles, functions, and effectiveness of a group of teachers who became Instructional Leaders (ILs), assuming major responsibility for assuring the implementation of a voluntary school improvement program within their respective schools. The program, called SITIP (School Improvement Through Instructional Process), and…
CATESOL Journal, 1992
This English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) journal periodical devotes entire issues to specific issues. The theme of this issue is "Content-Base Instruction." Articles include: "Syllabus Design in Content-Based Instruction" (David E. Eskey); "How Relevant Is Relevance?: An Examination of Student Needs, Interests, and…
Arguing that there is a current tendency among librarians to talk more about the evaluation of bibliographic instruction than to actually do anything about it, this paper examines limitations of and considerations pertaining to evaluation and includes: (1) a brief discussion of the history of bibliographic instruction; (2) discussion of types of…
Evans, L. J.
This study was conducted to determine the effects of instruction on using a formal media selection procedure on the media selection choices made by novice instructional designers. Twenty-nine male and female graduate students enrolled in a media design course at Arizona State University participated in the study. Media design problems were used…
Lipson, Joseph I.
An examination of the general uses of video in instruction helps to formulate appropriate policy for maximizing video production and use. Wide use of instructional television makes advanced knowledge more usable and increases public awareness of new discoveries, reduces the time lag between conception and application of ideas which change society,…
Kowal, Julie; Steiner, Lucy
Schools and districts invest a great deal of time and money in professional development for teachers through instructional coaching. With this effort comes the responsibility to design coaching programs that have the greatest potential to improve classroom instruction and, in turn, increase student learning. What research is available to help…
Usher, Mauricio H.
A deductive-inductive sequence of writing instruction, in which students are instructed systematically before they begin to write, would help students learn to write well. Educators who propose a trial and error pattern ignore the facts that those learning to write do not have unlimited time in which to learn and are not dealing with an inherent…
McAdoo, Monty L.
Being a great teacher is part and parcel of being a great librarian. In this book, veteran instruction services librarian McAdoo lays out the fundamentals of the discipline in easily accessible language. Succinctly covering the topic from top to bottom, he: (1) Offers an overview of the historical context of library instruction, drawing on recent…
Seigel, Marika A.
In the technical communication classroom, the received wisdom is that good instructions should "stay out of the way" of the users' engagement with technological systems. This article draws on Burke's concept of perspective by incongruity and on examples of instructions produced during the Women's Health Movement to demonstrate that sometimes…
DelliCarpini, M.; Alonso, O.
DelliCarpini and Alonso's book "Content-Based Instruction" explores different approaches to teaching content-based instruction (CBI) in the English language classroom. They provide a comprehensive overview of how to teach CBI in an easy-to-follow guide that language teachers will find very practical for their own contexts. Topics…
Brown, James W., Ed.
This collection of five articles presents the viewpoints of experts on various aspects of the field of instructional technology (IT). Wesley C. Meierhenry traces the history of IT from its original emphasis on audiovisual media to its current concern with instructional design and the use of systems and systematic approaches. Henry T. Ingle…
Banashak, Joan M.
The Innovative Instructional Incentive Plan represents a set of goals and action strategies for implementing the school improvement plan of the Fairway Elementary School in Miramar, Florida, where instructional time was being lost due to disruptive student behavior, and where behavioral infractions were not always dealt with quickly or…
A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE, A MAIL SURVEY, AND A TEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF JUNIOR COLLEGE DOCUMENTS INDICATE THAT, WHILE CALIFORNIA JUNIOR COLLEGES ARE CONCERNED ABOUT THE QUALITY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF INSTRUCTION, CONTROL OF THAT QUALITY IS RARELY A SYSTEMATIC ROUTINE ENTERPRISE BASED ON EXAMINATION OF BEHAVIOR CHANGES IN STUDENTS FOLLOWING INSTRUCTION.…
New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces.
Research findings on computer designed instruction and testing at the college level are discussed in 13 papers from the first Regional Conference on University Teaching at New Mexico State University. Titles and authors are as follows: "Don't Bother Me with Instructional Design, I'm Busy Programming! Suggestions for More Effective Educational…
Hubbard, Taylor E.
Discussion of postmodernism and bibliographic instruction in academic libraries is based on a prospectus for an experimental information course at Evergreen State College (Washington). Highlights include structural bibliographic instruction, including a taxonomic model; discourse analysis and bibliographic instruction; composition and…
Aktaruzzaman, Md; Plunkett, Margaret
Distance Education (DE) theorists have argued about the requirement for a theory to be comprehensive in a way that can explicate many of the activities associated with DE. Currently, Transactional Distance Theory (TDT) (Moore, 1993) and the Theory of Instructional Dialogue (IDT) (Caspi & Gorsky, 2006) are the most prominent theories, yet they…
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trip arm; height and distance from rail. 236.531... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Roadway § 236.531 Trip arm; height and distance from rail. Trip arm of automatic train stop device when in the stop position shall...
... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Trip arm; height and distance from rail. 236.531... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Roadway § 236.531 Trip arm; height and distance from rail. Trip arm of automatic train stop device when in the stop position shall...
... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Trip arm; height and distance from rail. 236.531... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Roadway § 236.531 Trip arm; height and distance from rail. Trip arm of automatic train stop device when in the stop position shall...
... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Trip arm; height and distance from rail. 236.531... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Roadway § 236.531 Trip arm; height and distance from rail. Trip arm of automatic train stop device when in the stop position shall...
... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Trip arm; height and distance from rail. 236.531... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Roadway § 236.531 Trip arm; height and distance from rail. Trip arm of automatic train stop device when in the stop position shall...
Bernath, Ulrich; Fichten, Wolfgang
Describes a nurses' training program in Germany that adapted self-instructional learning material for use by networked universities for distance education. Topics include testing, evaluation, and revision of the learning modules; adaptation in distance education; and empirical evidence for the process of adaptation. (LRW)
Purdue Univ., Hammond, IN. Calumet Campus.
This proceedings of the 2000 Topics on Distance Learning conference contains summaries of the following presentations: "The ABC's of Distance Learning via Full Motion Video" (Liz Owens); "Assessing the Cost of Technology in Instruction Using an Economic Model" (Joseph Lovrinic); "Collaboration Lessons Learned from the…
Reyes, Maria Elena
In the spring of 2001, the University of Alaska Fairbanks School of Education included a web-based instructional component in all distance education classes. This component aims to mediate access and equity issues in providing postsecondary education to rural Alaska residents. The number of courses offered through distance education had been…
Reisslein, Jana; Seeling, Patrick; Reisslein, Martin
The use of video in distance education courses has a long tradition, with many colleges and universities having been delivering distance education courses with video since the 80's using the Instructional Television Fixed Service (ITFS) and cable television. With the emergence of the Internet and the increased access bandwidths from private homes…
Hallyburton, Chad L.; Lunsford, Eddie
The history of learning biology through distance education is documented. A review of terminology and unique problems associated with biology instruction is presented. Using published research and their own teaching experience, the authors present recommendations and best practices for managing biology in distance-based formats. They offer ideas…
Lesh, Steven G.; Rampp, Lary C.
Learning at a distance has been on the fringe of educational acceptance since the first correspondence course was delivered through the mail system in return for academic credit. As distance learning has matured, elements of enhanced instructional design and advances in educational technology have migrated this medium of learning closer to the…
Hains, Ann Higgins; Conceicao-Runlee, Simone; Caro, Patricia; Marchel, Mary Ann
Although the creation of new models of higher education is revolutionizing the way colleges compete for students, distance education has a long history, with correspondence courses as the earliest examples. Presently, distance learning through multimedia technology and the Internet is the newest solution for delivering instruction to personnel who…
Profeta, Patricia C.
The provision of equitable library services to distance learning students emerged as a critical area during the 1990s. Library services available to distance learning students included digital reference and instructional services, remote access to online research tools, database and research tutorials, interlibrary loan, and document delivery.…
Prestera, Gustavo E.; Moller, Leslie A.
Suggests that asynchronous distance learning environments are best accomplished by establishing virtual learning communities, which break down traditional instructor-as-transmitter, learner-as-receiver roles and instead promote a more learner-driven environment. Instructional strategies for facilitating online distance learning are identified, and…
Digital libraries play a crucial role in distance learning. Nowadays, they are one of the fundamental information sources for the students enrolled in this learning system. These libraries contain huge amount of instructional data (text, audio and video) offered by the distance learning program. Organization of the digital libraries is…
Mirza, J. S.
Discusses conventional education, the state of distance education, and delivery modes for instruction at a distance. Results of a survey at the Open University of Hong Kong are presented, indicating that students preferred lecture-cum-tutorial support in a face-to-face manner over tutorial-only delivery. (AEF)
Lundeberg, Mary A.
This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.
Howard, Caroline, Ed.; Boettecher, Judith, Ed.; Justice, Lorraine, Ed.; Schenk, Karen, Ed.; Rogers, Patricia, Ed.; Berg, Gary, Ed.
The innovations in computer and communications technologies combined with on-going needs to deliver educational programs to students regardless of their physical locations, have lead to the innovation of distance education programs and technologies. To keep up with recent developments in both areas of technologies and techniques related to…
Grenzky, Janet; Maitland, Christine
As a followup to a survey of distance education faculty, the National Education Association conducted two 3-hour focus groups with 12 higher education faculty members in June 2000. The purpose of the groups was to gain more understanding of the complexity of feelings and opinions expressed in a telephone survey conducted in March 2000. The…
Villeneuve, Phyllis, Ed.
This report, from the Faculty Association of Community and Technical Colleges (FACTC) in Washington, focuses on various distance learning courses offered by the state's two-year colleges. The report contains 16 articles from faculty members and students, including: (1) "The Emperor's New Tutor: A Confession" (Sydney Wallace Stegall); (2)…
Murphy, Elizabeth; Rodriguez-Manzanares, Maria A.
Rapport has been recognized as important in learning in general but little is known about its importance in distance education (DE). The study we report on in this paper provides insights into the importance of rapport in DE as well as challenges to and indicators of rapport-building in DE. The study relied on interviews with 42 Canadian…
Miller, Brian W.; Brewer, William F.
Previous empirical studies using multiple-choice procedures have suggested that there are misconceptions about the scale of astronomical distances. The present study provides a quantitative estimate of the nature of this misconception among US university students by asking them, in an open-ended response format, to make estimates of the distances…
Florida Human Resources Development, Inc., Gainesville.
A survey was conducted to assess the current state of technology and distance learning awareness and usage in Florida's adult education and community-based programs. Data were gathered through a survey of 350 adult practitioners, literacy providers, community-based organizations and libraries throughout the state (125 responses [36 percent return…
This document contains three symposium papers on advances in distance learning. "The Adoption of Computer Technology and Telecommunications: A Case Study" (Larry M. Dooley, Teri Metcalf, Ann Martinez) reports on a study of the possible applications of two theoretical models (Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations model and the Concerns-Based…
Barker, Bruce O.
The Office of Technology Assessment authorized a series of case studies in 1989 to investigate how technologies, services, and programs are implemented in distance education projects. The studies were also intended to look at the role of local, state, and federal agencies, and other public and private entities in providing educational services to…
A 2008 report, "Keeping Pace with K-12 Online Learning," commissioned by North American Council for Online Learning (NACOL) and others, defines online learning as "teacher-led education that takes place over the Internet, with the teacher and student separated geographically." The term "distance learning" includes online education, but is…
Sixty years ago, distance education probably involved a pen, paper, and secretarial classes conducted via snail mail. Today, students in ever-increasing numbers are more likely to link to the Internet to learn how to conjugate French verbs or dissect frogs in Advanced Placement courses, according to a new landmark study from the U. S. Department…
Reviews past definitions of distance education and offers a new five-part definition of the concept. Topics discussed include the roles of the teachers and students; physical separation of teachers and learners; the influence of an educational organization; communication between teachers and students; and the use of technical media. (22…
Rahman, Monsurur; Karim, Reza; Byramjee, Framarz
Many educational institutions in the United States are currently offering programs through distance learning, and that trend is rising. In almost all spheres of education a developing country like Bangladesh needs to make available the expertise of the most qualified faculty to her distant people. But the fundamental question remains as to whether…
Boylan, Colin; Tuovinen, Juhani
Charles Sturt University (Riverina, Australia) has initiated the Certificate in Distance Teaching course for rural teachers working in a distance education setting to extend their understandings about rural and distance education topics. Two semester-long subjects constitute the course: pedagogy of distance teaching and organization of distance…
Fulantelli, Giovanni; Chiazzese, Giuseppe; Allegra, Mario
"Distance Training" models, when integrated in a more complex framework, such as a "Distance Consulting" model, present specific features and impose a revision of the strategies commonly adopted in distance training experiences. This paper reports on the distance training strategies adopted in a European funded project aimed at…
Luo, Heng; Robinson, Anthony C.; Detwiler, Jim
This study investigates the effect of geographic distance on students' distance learning experience with the aim to provide tentative answers to a fundamental question--does geographic distance matter in distance education? Using educational outcome data collected from an online master's program in Geographic Information Systems, this study…
Although programmed instruction in accounting is available, it is limited in scope and in acceptance. Teachers, however, may apply principles of programming to the individualizing of instruction. (Author)
Gualtieri, J. A.; Le Moigne, J.; Packer, C. V.
Comparing two binary images and assigning a quantitative measure to this comparison finds its purpose in such tasks as image recognition, image compression, and image browsing. This quantitative measurement may be computed by utilizing the Hausdorff distance of the images represented as two-dimensional point sets. In this paper, we review two algorithms that have been proposed to compute this distance, and we present a parallel implementation of one of them on the MasPar parallel processor. We study their complexity and the results obtained by these algorithms for two different types of images: a set of displaced pairs of images of Gaussian densities, and a comparison of a Canny edge image with several edge images from a hierarchical region growing code.
Abshire, J. B. (Inventor)
A mode locked laser system including a laser device and its peripheral components is utilized for deriving two mutually phase locked optical wavelength signals and one phase locked microwave CW signal which respectively traverse the same distance measurement path. Preferably the optical signals are comprised of pulse type signals. Phase comparison of the two optical wavelength pulse signals is used to provide a measure of the dry air density while phase comparison of one of the optical wavelength pulse signals and the microwave CW signal is used to provide a measure of the wet or water vapor density of the air. From these measurements is computed in means of the distance to be measured corrected for the atmospheric dry and water vapor densities in the measurement path.
Johnson, Helen Arleen
Distance education technologies may be applied to academic settings, continuing education/continuing medical education settings or in combination to both. This article provides an overview of what we have learned about academic and continuing education/continuing medical education in geriatrics and gerontology. It includes information on the scope of distance education, the strengths and challenges of distance education, and discusses issues related to technology, intellectual property, instructional design and curriculum development, collaborative effort, marketing, evaluation, and research.
Ford, Holland C.; Ciardullo, Robin
Nova shells are characteristically prolate with equatorial bands and polar caps. Failure to account for the geometry can lead to large errors in expansion parallaxes for individual novae. When simple prescriptions are used for deriving expansion parallaxes from an ensemble of randomly oriented prolate spheroids, the average distance will be too small by factors of 10 to 15 percent. The absolute magnitudes of the novae will be underestimated and the resulting distance scale will be too small by the same factors. If observations of partially resolved nova shells select for large inclinations, the systematic error in the resulting distance scale could easily be 20 to 30 percent. Extinction by dust in the bulge of M31 may broaden and shift the intrinsic distribution of maximum nova magnitudes versus decay rates. We investigated this possibility by projecting Arp's and Rosino's novae onto a composite B - 6200A color map of M31's bulge. Thirty two of the 86 novae projected onto a smooth background with no underlying structure due to the presence of a dust cloud along the line of sight. The distribution of maximum magnitudes versus fade rates for these unreddened novae is indistinguishable from the distribution for the entire set of novae. It is concluded that novae suffer very little extinction from the filamentary and patchy distribution of dust seen in the bulge of M31. Time average B and H alpha nova luminosity functions are potentially powerful new ways to use novae as standard candles. Modern CCD observations and the photographic light curves of M31 novae found during the last 60 years were analyzed to show that these functions are power laws. Consequently, unless the eruption times for novae are known, the data cannot be used to obtain distances.
Wichmann, Søren; Holman, Eric W.; Bakker, Dik; Brown, Cecil H.
In Ref. , Petroni and Serva discuss the use of Levenshtein distances (LD) between words referring to the same concepts as a tool for establishing overall distances among languages which can then subsequently be used to derive phylogenies. The authors modify the raw LD by dividing the LD by the length of the longer of the two words compared, to produce what could be called LDN (normalized LD). Other scholars [7,8] have used a further modification, where they divide the LDN by the average LDN among words not referring to the same concept. This produces what could be called LDND. The authors of Ref.  question whether LDND is a more adequate measure of distance than LDN. Here we show empirically that LDND is the better measure in the situation where the languages compared have not already been shown, by other, more traditional methods of comparative linguistics, to be related. If automated language classification is to be used as a tool independent of traditional methods then the further modification is necessary.
Burke, Louise M; Millet, Gregoire; Tarnopolsky, Mark A
The goal of training is to prepare the distance athlete to perform at his or her best during major competitions. Whatever the event, nutrition plays a major role in the achievement of various factors that will see a runner or walker take the starting line in the best possible form. Everyday eating patterns must supply fuel and nutrients needed to optimize their performance during training sessions and to recover quickly afterwards. Carbohydrate and fluid intake before, during, and after a workout may help to reduce fatigue and enhance performance. Recovery eating should also consider issues for adaptation and the immune system that may involve intakes of protein and some micronutrients. Race preparation strategies should include preparation of adequate fuel stores, including carbohydrate loading for prolonged events such as the marathon or 50-km walk. Fluid and carbohydrate intake during races lasting an hour or more should also be considered. Sports foods and supplements of value to distance athletes include sports drinks and liquid meal supplements to allow nutrition goals to be achieved when normal foods are not practical. While caffeine is an ergogenic aid of possible value to distance athletes, most other supplements are of minimal benefit.
Barlow, Angela T.; Frick, Tasha M.; Barker, Heather L.; Phelps, Amy J.
Modeling Instruction holds the potential for transforming science instruction and improving student achievement. Key to the success of Modeling Instruction, however, is the fidelity of implementation of its curriculum. This qualitative study examined the impact of Modeling Instruction professional development on participating teachers'…
Differentiated instruction means matching instruction to meet the different needs of learners. To deliver the wide range of instruction required to accommodate differing levels of learners in a classroom, teachers must use data-informed, small group instruction designed specifically to meet students' needs (Kosanovich, Ladinsky, Nelson, Torgesen,…
This paper highlights the instructional design process followed by the Maricopa Community College faculty in the creation of instructional modules in Digital Visual Literacy. The paper categorizes 10 tasks that an instructional designer, a teacher, or a trainer performs during the design phase of the instructional design process. The importance of…
Cohen, Anat; Nachmias, Rafi
This paper describes a quantitative cost effectiveness model for Web-supported academic instruction. The model was designed for Web-supported instruction (rather than distance learning only) characterizing most of the traditional higher education institutions. It is based on empirical data (Web logs) of students' and instructors' usage…
Van Steendam, Elke; Rijlaarsdam, G. C. W.; Van den Bergh, H. H.; Sercu, L.
The present study tests the effect of ability pairing in two instructional methods in L2 collaborative revision. Two continuous indices determine a pair: individual proficiency level, distance in proficiency between pair members (heterogeneity), and the interaction between both indices. Instructional methods tested are modelling and practising.…
Lee, Miyoung; Paulus, Trena
This study developed and formatively evaluated an instructional design theory to guide designers in selecting when and how to utilize interactions as instructional methods in a Web-based distance learning higher education environment. Research questions asked: What are the types and outcomes of interactions between participants in a Web-based…
Burbank, Lucille; Pett, Dennis
Discusses the importance of identifying the audience and determining specific objectives when designing printed instructional materials that will communicate effectively and provides detailed guidelines for dealing with such design factors as content, writing style, typography, illustrations, and page organization. (MBR)
Lorenz, Marian; Moose, Allan
Discusses the main categories of instructional software, including drill/practice, tutorials, simulation/problem solving, games, and management, along with factors involved in their design. (Author/MBR)
FINN, JAMES D.
A TEACHER SHORTAGE, LARGE CLASSES, AND NEED FOR QUALITY INSTRUCTION FORCED EDUCATION INTO MASS INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY. INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY IS GOVERNED BY SUCH SYSTEMS AS TELEVISION AND FILMS WHICH CAN REACH MORE STUDENTS WITH FEWER TEACHERS. THERE IS A TREND TOWARD INDIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION UTILIZING TEACHING MACHINES. IF A COMBINATION OF…
Pray, Lisa; Monhardt, Rebecca
The suggestions described here to adapt instruction for English Language Learners (ELLs) are based on the concept of "sheltered instruction," a model of language-support methods for instruction for ELLs derived primarily through the Sheltered Instruction Observational Protocol (SIOP) developed by Jana Echevarria, Mary Ellen Vogt, and Deborah Short…
Quality classroom instruction should be the foundation upon which any successful vocational agriculture program is developed. Important components of classroom instruction include Future Farmers of America activities, problem-solving-based instruction, lesson plans, discipline, and the use of a variety of instructional methods and techniques. (LRA)
Saba, Farhad; Mahon, J. Michael
Discusses telecommunications developments that are affecting distance educators. Topics include bandwidth; educational radio and television; instructional television-fixed services (ITFS); cable television; communication satellites; computers; digital telecommunications; the Internet; other protocols; future systems; telephone switches and…
more general psychologically oriented areas that cut across subject-matter categories. Background A large mount of research effort in recent years...our chapter by taking note of some general works which have contributed to the definition of the field of instructional psychology , the description of...more than minimally successful. Although we were able to verify a general awareness that instructional psychology has widespread applicability to
Blakesley, Lynn; Zahn, Steve
In an effort to improve access to education and to better serve residents of its 600 square mile district, Waubonsee Community College (WCC), in Sugar Grove, Illinois, utilizes telecourses, audiocourses, and live classes via microwave transmission to deliver instruction. Video and audio courses utilize prerecorded instructional materials,…
2007-01-01Using the unique orbit of NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and a depth-perceiving trick called parallax, astronomers have determined the distance to an invisible Milky Way object called OGLE-2005-SMC-001. This artist's concept illustrates how this trick works: different views from both Spitzer and telescopes on Earth are combined to give depth perception. Our Milky Way galaxy is heavier than it looks, and scientists use the term 'dark matter' to describe all the 'heavy stuff' in the universe that seems to be present but invisible to our telescopes. While much of this dark matter is likely made up of exotic materials, different from the ordinary particles that make up the world around us, some may consist of dark celestial bodies -- like planets, black holes, or failed stars -- that do not produce light or are too faint to detect from Earth. OGLE-2005-SMC-001 is one of these dark celestial bodies. Although astronomers cannot see a dark body, they can sense its presence from the way light acts around it. When a dark body like OGLE-2005-SMC-001 passes in front of a bright star, its gravity causes the background starlight to bend and brighten, a process called gravitational microlensing. When the observing telescope, dark body, and star system are closely aligned, the microlensing event reaches maximum, or peak, brightness. A team of astronomers first sensed OGLE-2005-SMC-001's presence when it passed in front of a star in a neighboring satellite galaxy called the Small Magellanic Cloud. In this artist's rendering, the satellite galaxy is depicted as the fuzzy structure sitting to the left of Earth. Once they detected this microlensing event, the scientists used Spitzer and the principle of parallax to figure out its distance. Humans naturally use parallax to determine distance. Each eye sees the distance of an object differently. The brain takes each eye's perspective and instantaneously calculates how far away the object is. To determine OGLE
This goal of this study was to examine the differences between lecturers and students' perceptions of the accessibility of instructional materials. The perceptions of 12 mature computing distance education students and 12 computing lecturers were examined using the knowledge elicitation techniques of card sorting and laddering. The study showed…
Prottas, David J.; Cleaver, Catherine M.; Cooperstein, Deborah
There continues to be a lack of congruence in the attitudes of faculty and administrators with respect to online or distance education. The authors developed and administered a questionnaire to assess pertinent attitudes and perceptions of full and part-time faculty (n= 421) toward online instruction at their private university in a U.S. Middle…
Rastovac, John J.; Slavsky, David B.
Describes a study in which paradoxes about seasons, hemispheres, and altitude were used to teach concepts in climatology. The misconceptions commonly held about the earth-sun distance relationship were used as an instructional strategy with an experimental group, which outgained the control group on an achievement test. (TW)
Laverty, Corinne Y. C.
Discusses ways instruction librarians can use the World Wide Web to serve students in the classroom, at the reference desk, in distance education, and as a self-directed learning tool. Outlines how the Web can function as a desktop publishing system, revitalize subject pathfinders and "how-to" guides, and promote the invention of interactive…
Carter, LaTanya Woods
The purpose of this causal comparative study is to test the theory of no significant difference that compares pre- and post-test assessment scores, controlling for the instructional delivery model of online and face-to-face students at a Mid-Atlantic university. Online education and virtual distance learning programs have increased in popularity…
Shaffer, Barbara A.
Graduate students are a significant segment in online instruction programs, yet little is known about how well they learn the necessary library research skills in this increasingly popular mode of distance learning. This pre- and posttest study and citation analysis examined learning and confidence among students in graduate education programs,…
Ryan, Michael; Jonick, Christine; Langub, Lee Woodham
This study seeks to identify common factors that leaders in online instruction consider most critical to successful teaching and learning at a distance. A quantitative and qualitative analysis of the teaching philosophy narratives of the nominees for the "University System of Georgia Regents' Teaching Excellence Award for Online…
In this chapter, we cover a number of important extensions of the basic hierarchical distance-sampling (HDS) framework from Chapter 8. First, we discuss the inclusion of “individual covariates,” such as group size, in the HDS model. This is important in many surveys where animals form natural groups that are the primary observation unit, with the size of the group expected to have some influence on detectability. We also discuss HDS integrated with time-removal and double-observer or capture-recapture sampling. These “combined protocols” can be formulated as HDS models with individual covariates, and thus they have a commonality with HDS models involving group structure (group size being just another individual covariate). We cover several varieties of open-population HDS models that accommodate population dynamics. On one end of the spectrum, we cover models that allow replicate distance sampling surveys within a year, which estimate abundance relative to availability and temporary emigration through time. We consider a robust design version of that model. We then consider models with explicit dynamics based on the Dail and Madsen (2011) model and the work of Sollmann et al. (2015). The final major theme of this chapter is relatively newly developed spatial distance sampling models that accommodate explicit models describing the spatial distribution of individuals known as Point Process models. We provide novel formulations of spatial DS and HDS models in this chapter, including implementations of those models in the unmarked package using a hack of the pcount function for N-mixture models.
Oh, Eunsoon; Cochran, Judith A.
This unique format of distance education instruction was executed between multiple faculty, staff and graduate students at the University of Missouri, St. Louis and the faculty and undergraduate students at Kongju National University in South Korea. The method of instruction allowed for visual presentation from one country while only one person at…
This dissertation is a comparative study, using a criterion-group design, examining the effectiveness of a blended instructional model and a distance instructional model in the teaching of a learning and motivation strategies class. Course effectiveness was determined based upon changes in student grade point averages over time from prior to…
Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.
Time-distance helioseismology is a method of ambient noise imaging using the solar oscillations. The basic realization that led to time-distance helioseismology was that the temporal cross correlation of the signals at two 'surface' (or photospheric) locations should show a feature at the time lag corresponding to the subsurface travel time between the locations. The temporal cross correlation, as a function of the location separation, is the Fourier transform of the spatio-temporal power spectrum of the solar oscillations, a commonly used function in helioseismology. It is therefore likely the characteristic ridge structure of the correlation function had been seen before without appreciation of its significance. Travel times are measured from the cross correlations. The times are sensitive to a number of important subsurface solar phenomena. These include sound speed variations, flows, and magnetic fields. There has been much interesting progress in the 17 years since the first paper on this subject (Duvall et al., Nature, 1993, 362, 430-432). This progress will be reviewed in this paper.
Peskin, A.; Swyler, K.
The college industry relationship has been identified as a key policy issue in Engineering Education. Collaborations between academic institutions and the industrial sector have a long history and a bright future. For Engineering and Engineering Technology programs in particular, industry has played a crucial role in many areas including advisement, financial support, and practical training of both faculty and students. Among the most important and intimate interactions are collaborative projects and formal cooperative education arrangements. Most recently, such collaborations have taken on a new dimension, as advances in technology have made possible meaningful technical collaboration at a distance. There are several obvious technology areas that have contributed significantly to this trend. Foremost is the ubiquitous presence of the Internet. Perhaps almost as important are advances in computer based imaging. Because visual images offer a compelling user experience, it affords greater knowledge transfer efficiency than other modes of delivery. Furthermore, the quality of the image appears to have a strongly correlated effect on insight. A good visualization facility offers both a means for communication and a shared information space for the subjects, which are among the essential features of both peer collaboration and distance learning.
Chen, J.; Safro, I.
Measuring the connection strength between a pair of vertices in a graph is one of the most important concerns in many graph applications. Simple measures such as edge weights may not be sufficient for capturing the effects associated with short paths of lengths greater than one. In this paper, we consider an iterative process that smooths an associated value for nearby vertices, and we present a measure of the local connection strength (called the algebraic distance; see [D. Ron, I. Safro, and A. Brandt, Multiscale Model. Simul., 9 (2011), pp. 407-423]) based on this process. The proposed measure is attractive in that the process is simple, linear, and easily parallelized. An analysis of the convergence property of the process reveals that the local neighborhoods play an important role in determining the connectivity between vertices. We demonstrate the practical effectiveness of the proposed measure through several combinatorial optimization problems on graphs and hypergraphs.
Giossos, Yiannis; Koutsouba, Maria; Lionarakis, Antonis; Skavantzos, Kosmas
One of the core theories of distance education is Michael Graham Moore's "Theory of Transactional Distance" that provides the broad framework of the pedagogy of distance education and allows the generation of almost infinite number of hypotheses for research. However, the review of the existing studies relating to the theory showed the use of a…
Pietras, Jesse John; Murphy, Robert J.
This paper provides an overview of distance learning activities in Connecticut and addresses the feasibility of such activities. Distance education programs have evolved from the one dimensional electronic mail systems to the use of sophisticated digital fiber networks. The Middlesex Distance Learning Consortium has developed a long-range plan to…
Cassner, Mary; Adams, Kate E.
Distance librarians as engaged professionals work in a complex environment of changes in technologies, user expectations, and institutional goals. They strive to keep current with skills and competencies to support distance learners. This article provides a selection of continuing education opportunities for distance librarians, and is relevant…
Foster, Jonathan B.; Jackson, James M.; Stead, Joseph J.; Hoare, Melvin G.; Benjamin, Robert A. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org E-mail: email@example.com
We test two different methods of using near-infrared extinction to estimate distances to dark clouds in the first quadrant of the Galaxy using large near-infrared (Two Micron All Sky Survey and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey) surveys. Very long baseline interferometry parallax measurements of masers around massive young stars provide the most direct and bias-free measurement of the distance to these dark clouds. We compare the extinction distance estimates to these maser parallax distances. We also compare these distances to kinematic distances, including recent re-calibrations of the Galactic rotation curve. The extinction distance methods agree with the maser parallax distances (within the errors) between 66% and 100% of the time (depending on method and input survey) and between 85% and 100% of the time outside of the crowded Galactic center. Although the sample size is small, extinction distance methods reproduce maser parallax distances better than kinematic distances; furthermore, extinction distance methods do not suffer from the kinematic distance ambiguity. This validation gives us confidence that these extinction methods may be extended to additional dark clouds where maser parallaxes are not available.
Koneman, Elmer; Gade, Wayne
GermWare Mycology is an image-rich, CD-ROM-based instruction divided into tutorial and reference programs. The tutorial program, designed for new students, provides only for sequential progress through each of the subject modules, so that each page of information is seen. In contrast, the reference program allows the more experienced learner with random and direct access to each facet of information. The aspergilli, the agents of chromomycosis, the dermatophytes, the dimorphic fungi, the hyaline molds, the dematiaceous molds, the yeasts, and the zygomyces are divided into separate modules. The tutorial program also includes an opening 'isolation procedures' module, in which details of specimen collection, culture media, and microscopic techniques are presented. The random access program includes system maps separating out each of the fungal species, and flow diagrams allowing an algorithm approach to species identifications. A global map is also included through which each fungal species can be directly accessed by the simple click of the mouse. Random access to information on the ecology, clinical presentations, pathology and therapy of the various mycotic diseases is also a feature of the reference program. A series of self-assessment exercises is included at the end of each module, with immediate 'pop-up' feedback to both correct and incorrect answers. The entire program includes over 2500 screens and over 700 color images and diagrams. GermWare Mycology is available through the Colorado Association for Continuing Medical Laboratory Education (CACMLE), who also can provide continuing education credits for individuals who complete a separate examination. For more information contact CACMLE at (303) 321-1734 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Green, P. J.; Morgan, W. A., Jr.
How can instructors achieve real-time pace matching with students during large class lectures? How can students become more invested in their own in-class learning? Peer Instruction, coming into widespread use for undergraduate physics courses across the U.S., and now for astronomy as well, can help resolve these perennial questions. As a crucial part of Peer Instruction, teachers pose a question that probes students' conceptual understanding and may also highlight common misconceptions (a ConcepTest). The ConcepTests become the subject of small interactive peer group debates in class. We are compiling a library of ConcepTests to facilitate the implementation of Peer Instruction in introductory undergraduate astronomy. We describe the ConcepTest library, tell you how to access it, and discuss modes of evaluation.
Peer Instruction for Astronomy is an instructor's guide to an exciting and easily-implemented enhancement for lecture classes in introductory astronomy. Application of this powerful and efficient teaching technique requires that the instructor have on hand a large number of thought-provoking, conceptual short answer questions aimed at a variety of levels. While significant numbers of such questions have been published for use in Physics, Peer Instruction for Astronomy provides the first such compilation for Astronomy, and includes hints on use of the technique and applications of the method. KEY TOPICS: Covers peer instruction, incentives, a large database of conceptual questions for use in class, and a list of readings and resources. MARKET: Ideal for introductory astronomy instructors at the undergraduate or advanced high school level.
Kilickaya, Ferit; Krajka, Jaroslaw; Latoch-Zielinska, Malgorzata
Nowadays, the implementation of e-learning, blended learning and distance learning in foreign language instruction has become widespread all over the world, including Turkey. With the generation of Digital Natives learning at schools, instructors face the challenge of providing distance learning courses and materials that would meet necessary…
Moorefield-Lang, Heather; Hall, Tracy
The purpose of this paper is to describe how a series of one-shot or single class library instruction webinars were created for on-campus and distance education students at Virginia Tech, a land grant institution in rural southwestern Virginia. Virginia Tech's distance learning department on campus trained in Centra 7.6 software and the lead…
Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Frederick J; Schatschneider, Christopher; Toste, Jessica; Lundblom, Erin; Crowe, Elizabeth C; Fishman, Barry
Too many children fail to learn how to read proficiently with serious consequences for their overall well-being and long term success in school. This may be because providing effective instruction is more complex than many of the current models of reading instruction portray; there are child characteristic by instruction (CXI) interactions. Here we present efficacy results for a randomized control field trial of the Individualizing Student Instruction (ISI) intervention, which relies on dynamic system forecasting intervention models to recommend amounts of reading instruction for each student, taking into account CXI interactions that consider his or her vocabulary and reading skills. The study, conducted in seven schools with 25 teachers and 396 first graders, revealed that students in the ISI intervention classrooms demonstrated significantly greater reading skill gains by spring than did students in control classrooms. Plus, they were more likely to receive differentiated reading instruction based on CXI interaction guided recommended amounts than were students in control classrooms. The precision with which students received the recommended amounts of each type of literacy instruction, the distance from recommendation, also predicted reading outcomes.
This paper argues that tutorial support should enhance the learning experience of students who enrol on a distance education programme. A rationale for such support is given as well as a definition of support for distance learners. The complex role of the tutor in distance learning is described which suggests the need for tutor preparation, particularly for tutors adapting to this mode of course delivery. The paper reports on two existing models used within distance education which have focused on the outcome of study. The paper introduces an alternative model of supportive learning which focuses on the development of the educational experience throughout the length of a distance-learning course.
A manual designed both as an instructional manual for beginning coders and as a reference manual for the coding language INSTRUCT, is presented. The manual includes the major programs necessary to implement the teaching system and lists the limitation of current implementation. A detailed description is given of how to code a lesson, what buttons to push, and what utility programs to use. Suggestions for debugging coded lessons and the error messages that may be received during assembly or while running the lesson are given.
Kuo, Eric; Wieman, Carl E.
Broad instructional methods like "interactive engagement" have been shown to be effective, but such general characterization provides little guidance on the details of how to structure instructional materials. In this study, we seek instructional specificity by comparing two ways of using an analogy to learn a target physical principle:…
Khalil, Mohammed K.; Elkhider, Ihsan A.
Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning…
Tennyson, Robert D.
Scientific advancements in cognitive science and instructional technology extend the behaviorally-oriented learning paradigm of instructional design and management in three major areas: (1) analysis of information-to-be-learned; (2) means of evaluating learners; and (3) linkage of learning theory to instructional prescriptions. The two basic types…
Roytek, Margaret A.
Instructional systems design (ISD) has been frequently criticised as taking too long to implement, calling for a reduction in cycle time--the time that elapses between project initiation and delivery. While instructional design research has historically focused on increasing "learner" efficiencies, the study of what instructional designers do to…
Leonard, William H.
Examines the pros and cons of laboratory instruction. Complaints lodged against laboratory instruction include its high cost, and lack of research supporting the lab. Justifications listed include science education research supporting the lab, psychology, and common sense. (DS)
Northampton County Area Community Coll., Bethlehem, PA.
Through a systematic acquisition policy, the library (1) supports the objectives of the college, the course content of the curricula, and the faculty's teaching methods; (2) provides intellectual and cultural fare for faculty, students, and community; (3) instructs and encourages students in library use. It tries to supply material on all subjects…
At some level, principals always have been instructional leaders--but never before has their role been more prominent. First, the accountability movement--No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in particular--thrust principals into the spotlight on academic achievement. Then budget cuts peeled away capacity at both the district and school levels, thinning…
Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Dept. of Education.
Intended as a tool for cosmetology teachers in Virginia public and private schools, the document is an instructional guide which offers 12 units of study, arranged in a three year course. Materials covered help prepare students for licensure in the State of Virginia and the guide is designed to cover the 1,500 hours required to be spent in the…
MAGER, ROBERT F.
THIS PROGRAMED TEXT INCLUDES A SELF-TEST OF ITS CONTENTS AND DEMONSTRATES HOW TO SPECIFY INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES BY BEHAVIOR OBSERVABLE IN A LEARNER, AND HOW TO WRITE OBJECTIVES, DEFINE DESIRED TERMINAL BEHAVIOR, AND STATE CRITERIA OF SUCCESSFUL LEARNING. THIS DOCUMENT IS AVAILABLE FOR $1.75 FROM FEARON PUBLISHERS, INC., 2165 PARK BLVD., PALO…
Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan
This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy (see note) developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas. The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…
Reading teachers need to provide for individual differences so that each pupil might attain optimally. Methods of teaching reading should be varied and thus reflect diverse philosophies of instruction. These philosophies should be analyzed and used to guide optimal pupil achievement. A philosophy of phoneme/grapheme relationships should be…
Bruening, Thomas H.; And Others
A series of theme articles discuss setting up laboratory hydroponics units, the school farm at the Zuni Pueblo in New Mexico, laboratory experiences in natural resources management and urban horticulture, the development of teaching labs at Derry (PA) High School, management of instructional laboratories, and industry involvement in agricultural…
CUSHMAN, M.L.; STURGES, A.W.
THE CATSKILL AREA PROJECT IN SMALL SCHOOL DESIGN, THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN AREA PROJECT FOR SMALL HIGH SCHOOLS, THE WESTERN STATES SMALL SCHOOLS PROJECT, AND THE TEXAS SMALL SCHOOLS PROJECT ARE DESCRIBED AND COMPARED. FINANCIAL SUPPORT COMPARISONS ARE MADE. METHODS OF IMPROVING INSTRUCTION ARE DIVIDED INTO TEACHER-CENTERED AND ADMINISTRATOR-CENTERED…
Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.
Objectification refers to the way in which everything (including human beings) is treated as an object, raw material, or resource to be manipulated and used. In this article, objectification refers to the way that education is often reduced to the packaging and delivery of information. A critique of objectification in instructional technology is…
The Instructional Aide Program (Shoreline Community College, Seattle, Washington) is a flexible curriculum designed to prepare students to meet the paraprofessional manpower needs of several kinds of institution. It was prepared after consultation with representatives of the schools, the YMCA, and the country park system. Other agencies still to…
Numerous reviews of the experimental research conclude that phonics is indispensable in word recognition instruction. However, there have been numerous objections to phonics teaching over the years. Some of the intolerance of phonics teaching reflects a lack of knowledge about the subject. Critics suggest that phonics hinders children's learning…
The recent evolution of instructional programs in colleges of agriculture has made them more usefu" to society and meaningful to the academic community. Seminars aimed at improving the effectiveness of teaching have also improved the quality of faculty counseling for undergraduates and graduates. For more than 10 years, curricula have been…
Kohut, Sylvester, Jr.
Individualized instruction is an educational program in which grade levels and time units are designed to permit the student to work at his own pace and level with the use of unipacs. The unipac, a "unique package," is a specially designed group of learning activities based on specific behavioral objectives chosen by the student. Unipacs consist…
Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.
Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for…
How many physical education programs incorporate tennis into the curriculum? How many physical educators feel proficient enough to teach tennis? Equally important, do students truly make progress when tennis is taught? Tennis instruction in secondary physical education settings is often frustrating for students and teachers alike. Many physical…
Since the article "Beyond Instructional Design: Making Learning Design a Reality" (Sims, 2006) was published, much has changed in the opportunities we have for learning, and Professor Rod Sims's thinking has evolved. In this article, Professor Rod Sims reflects upon his original article, and he offers an evolved model of learning design,…
This document contains three papers presented at a symposium on university instruction in human resource development (HRD) moderated by Janice Black at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Facilitating Transfer of Learning from the Classroom to the Workplace" (Brenda S. Gardner, Sharon J. Korth)…
A concept-based introduction to paratransit is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of paratransit generally refers to modes of transportation other than mass transit and solo-driven automobiles. The…
Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan
This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy developed as part of the descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas (see note). The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…
BECK, ISABEL H.
STUDIES OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION (ITV) HAVE SHOWN IT TO BE AT LEAST AS PRODUCTIVE AS STANDARD METHODS. WHEN IT IS AVAILABLE, THE COLLEGE TEACHER CAN SELECT THE MEANS BY WHICH HE CAN DO HIS BEST TEACHING. MANY TEACHERS REGARD ITV AS AN IMPORTANT AID WHICH FREES THEM FOR MORE EFFECTIVE TEACHING, GUIDANCE, AND EVALUATION. AS…
Examines the use of instructional management, which incorporates college student records and registration and acknowledges their place as partners with faculty in managing curriculum delivery. Describes the evolution of this approach at Boston College (Massachusetts), including applications in degree auditing, distributed systems, room scheduling,…
IDRA Newsletter, 1997
This theme issue includes five articles that focus on implementing instructional technology in ways that benefit all students, including limited-English-proficient, minority, economically disadvantaged, and at-risk students. "Cruising the Web with English Language Learners" (Laura Chris Green) presents three scenarios using the World…
Evans, Pamela Roland
Outlines the content and training methods used in the Program for Effective Teaching (PET), the successful staff development program of Newport News (Virginia). PET promotes application of five instructional skills: selecting learning objectives, teaching to the objectives, establishing learner focus, monitoring learner progress, and enhancing…
Dunkleman, Ellie; And Others
Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of four learning modules designed to instruct nursing students in techniques and equipment utilized for intramuscular injections. The first module, "Equipment for Intramuscular Injections" by Ellie Dunkleman, presents guidelines for selecting needles of the proper length and…
Fordyce, H. L.; Doshier, Dale
Using the standards of the American Welding Society and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, this welding instructional guidelines manual presents a course of study in accordance with the current practices in industry. Intended for use in welding programs now practiced within the Federal Prison System, the phases of the program are…
Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan
This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas (see note). The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…
Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan
This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas (see note). The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…
Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan
This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas (see note). The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…
This instructional guide for a one-half credit technological laboratory course for grades 10-12 focuses on apparel from the perspectives of personal decision making related to apparel, the apparel industry, and career preparation. Introductory materials are a course description; overview of course design; facilities, equipment, and resources; and…
Ohio Vocational Agriculture Instructional Materials Service, Columbus.
THE TITLE, IDENTIFICATION NUMBER, DATE OF PUBLICATION, PAGINATION, A BRIEF DESCRIPTION, AND PRICE ARE GIVEN FOR EACH OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND AUDIOVISUAL AIDS INCLUDED IN THIS CATALOG. TOPICS COVERED ARE FIELD CORPS, HORTICULTURE, ANIMAL SCIENCE, SOILS, AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING, AND FARMING PROGRAMS. AN ORDER FORM IS INCLUDED. (JM)
In this article, the author talks about George Orwell, his instructive errors, and the manner in which Orwell pierced worthless theory, faced facts and defended decency (with fluctuating success), and largely ignored the tradition of accumulated wisdom that has rendered him a timeless teacher--one whose inadvertent lessons, while infrequently…
Hendrix, Laborn J.; Pierce, Greg
This manual contains instructional materials for use in training millwrights working in industrial and commercial construction sites. Intended as an innovative complement to on-the-job training in construction, the material is written in terms of student performance using behavioral objectives and measured by criterion-referenced evaluation…
O'Bryan, Kenneth G.
Writing considerations specific to instructional television (ITV) situations are discussed in this handbook written for the beginner, but designed to be of use to anyone creating an ITV script. Advice included in the handbook is based on information obtained from ITV wirters, literature reviews, and the author's personal experience. The ITV…
Blanton, Lloyd H.; And Others
Seven articles in this issue focus on the use of realia in instruction. Authors discuss reasons why realia effectively motivate students and enhance learning; the place of realia in supervised occupational experience programs; the importance of real-life experiences to vocational agriculture; and student teaching as a reality experience. (SK)
In spite of repeated research into the matter, no evidence has been discovered to support the claim that color television is superior to black-and-white television as an instructional aid. It is possible that there are advantages to color television which are unmeasured or unmeasurable, but the current claims for color; that it heightens realism,…
Much of the research literature from the past 25 years has supported the importance of teaching grammar in the context of writing instruction (Calkins, 1980; DiStefano & Killion, 1984; Weaver, 1996,1998). Unlike other content areas, practice does not make perfect when learning grammar. While isolated drill and practice of grammatical concepts may…
Erickson, Carlton W. H.
This book presents a wide discussion of the educational and administrative tasks of the instructional media program director. It includes guidelines, principles, case studies, and examples of advanced media use, with emphasis on audiovisual media, the area in which innovation has occurred most. Strong leadership, technological competence, and good…
Oregon State Educational Coordinating Council, Salem.
In 1969 the 55th Legislative Assembly established the Oregon Program of Grants for the Improvement of Undergraduate Instruction. The Legislature directed that the program be administered by the Oregon Educational Coordinating Council and provided for an Advisory Committee to guide the Council. All public higher education institutions were eligible…
McNew, Ryan E; Gordon, Jeffry S; Weiner, Elizabeth E; Trangenstein, Patricia
Academic success requires support on a variety of levels as well as access to contemporary tools and services. Supporting students enrolled in a successful higher education distance learning program, requires a strong, properly trained IT support staff in addition to a stable IT environment. Our distance education program began with a regional market but has grown significantly over the past few years. This is primarily due to the success of our distance education tools and support which have contributed to achieving a ranking of eleventh of best graduate schools in nursing according to the U.S. News and World Report. The entire student population is "Bring Your Own Devices" (BYOD). Critical to this support is the initial configuration and loading of needed software during the first week of orientation. All of this success requires a robust team of members prepared in a range of skill sets from networking to instructional design.
Binney, J.; Burnett, B.; Kordopatis, G.; McMillan, P. J.; Sharma, S.; Zwitter, T.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Steinmetz, M.; Gilmore, G.; Williams, M. E. K.; Navarro, J.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Parker, Q.; Reid, W. A.; Seabroke, G.; Watson, F.; Wyse, R. F. G.
Probability density functions (pdfs) are determined from new stellar parameters for the distance moduli of stars for which the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) has obtained spectra with S/N ≥ 10. Single-Gaussian fits to the pdf in distance modulus suffice for roughly half the stars, with most of the other half having satisfactory two-Gaussian representations. As expected, early-type stars rarely require more than one Gaussian. The expectation value of distance is larger than the distance implied by the expectation of distance modulus; the latter is itself larger than the distance implied by the expectation value of the parallax. Our parallaxes of Hipparcos stars agree well with the values measured by Hipparcos, so the expectation of parallax is the most reliable distance indicator. The latter are improved by taking extinction into account. The effective temperature-absolute magnitude diagram of our stars is significantly improved when these pdfs are used to make the diagram. We use the method of kinematic corrections devised by Schönrich, Binney and Asplund to check for systematic errors for general stars and confirm that the most reliable distance indicator is the expectation of parallax. For cool dwarfs and low-gravity giants, <ϖ> tends to be larger than the true distance by up to 30 per cent. The most satisfactory distances are for dwarfs hotter than 5500 K. We compare our distances to stars in 13 open clusters with cluster distances from the literature and find excellent agreement for the dwarfs and indications that we are overestimating distances to giants, especially in young clusters.
Wisconsin Univ. System, Madison.
These proceedings contain 75 papers from information sessions that address important human factors in distance education from several perspectives, including implementation planning, management and policy, instructional design, teaching methods, faculty development, learning environments, learner supports, and evaluation. Among the papers are:…
Brown, Thomas J.
Long distance education has been a part of instructional delivery for more than one hundred years. Beginning as correspondence study accompanying the establishment of national postal systems, distance education has undergone dramatic change fueled by the rapid and recent explosion of technology. This exponential growth in technology has provided…
Koszalka, Tiffany A.; Ganesan, Radha
Course developers can be distracted from applying sound instructional design principles by the amount of flexibility offered through online course development resources (Kidney & Puckett, "Quarterly Review of Distance Education," 4 (2003), 203-212). Distance education course management systems (CMS) provide multiple features that can be easily…
Preston, Nancy R., Comp.
This annotated bibliography lists 10 articles and documents selected through a search of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) database. They are: (1) "The Use of Computers in the Instructional Process in Australian Distance Education" (Geoff Arger and Debbie Clayton); (2) "Distance Education Technologies: All That Glitters Is Not…
This study was performed to investigate the effects of live virtual classroom on students' achievement and to determine students' opinions about the live virtual physics classroom at distance learning. 63 second-year Distance Computer Education & Instructional Technology students enrolled in this study. At the live virtual physics classroom,…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of task-based writing instruction, a communicative language-teaching method, on second language acquisition and differentiation of instruction for English language learners during the independent work time instructional component of the Open Court Reading program. Through student-teacher…
Spector, J. Michael; And Others
Presents a taxonomy describing various uses of artificial intelligence techniques in automated instructional development systems. Instructional systems development is discussed in relation to the design of computer-based instructional courseware; two systems being developed at the Air Force Armstrong Laboratory are reviewed; and further research…
Herrscher, Barton R.
This syllabus for an 11-unit course of instruction is designed to prepare effective junior college teachers, counselors, and administrators, though its content can be generalized to all institutions concerned with systematic approaches to instruction. The specification of instructional objectives in terms of observable (and thus evaluable) student…
Mastropieri, Margo A.; And Others
Eight behavior disordered students (ages 7-11) in a self-contained class were given two units of instruction in science concepts in a crossover design, with each student receiving both mnemonic and traditional instruction. Student learning was significantly improved under mnemonic instruction, and high levels of concept retention were…
Castleberry, S.; Lagowski, J. J.
Explains how computer-based instructional techniques are being used to individualize general chemistry instruction. After describing the computer equipment and language used, author describes simulated experiments and computer programmed drill exercises. Outlines fifteen topics programmed for instruction. Comparisons were made between experimental…
Ng, Foo Seong David; Nguyen, Thanh Dong; Wong, Koon Siak Benjamin; Choy, Kim Weng William
This paper presents a review of the literature on principal instructional leadership in Singapore. The authors investigated the dimensions of instructional leadership in the practices of Singapore principals and highlighted the strategies these leaders adopt to enact their instructional roles. Singapore principals were found to play an active role…
Branson, Robert K.
This paper examines the practices and accomplishments of the military in the area of instructional technology. An examination of historical background is used to increase the precision of the definition of instructional technology. Specific contributions of the military are described and then uses of instructional technology in the military and…
Ayersman, David J.; Minden, Avril von
Provides a conceptual foundation for the development of hypermedia as an instructional tool for addressing individual differences in learning styles. Highlights include a literature review; computers and instruction; individual differences, computers, and instruction; cognitive controls; cognitive styles and learning; personality types; and future…
The first of eight major sections in this report on the use of instructional video at the University of Washington focuses on the usefulness of video. The second section provides an overview of videotape and videodisc technology, and the third lists instructional goals which may be achieved through instructional video. Examples of the use of video…
Bonet, Maria Luisa; St John, Katherine; Mahindru, Ruchi; Amenta, Nina
We give a 5-approximation algorithm to the rooted Subtree-Prune-and-Regraft (rSPR) distance between two phylogenies, which was recently shown to be NP-complete. This paper presents the first approximation result for this important tree distance. The algorithm follows a standard format for tree distances. The novel ideas are in the analysis. In the analysis, the cost of the algorithm uses a "cascading" scheme that accounts for possible wrong moves. This accounting is missing from previous analysis of tree distance approximation algorithms. Further, we show how all algorithms of this type can be implemented in linear time and give experimental results.
Dimitrijevic, T; Kahler, B; Evans, G; Collins, M; Moule, A
The quality of work carried out by dentists is dependent, among other things, on experience, training, and manual dexterity. Historical focus on the latter as a predictor of dental performance has failed to recognize that dental competence also requires good perceptual and visual skills, not only for gathering information but also for judging positions, distances, and the size of objects and shapes. Most predictive tests ignore visual and interpretative deficiencies that could make individual acquisition of skills and interpretation of instructions difficult. Ability to estimate depth and distance, the manner in which students learn this ability, whether and how it can be taught, or whether there is an association among ability, stereopsis, and dental performance has not been thoroughly examined; nor has the perception that dental students fully understand verbal and written instruction relating to depth and distance. This study investigated the ability of dentists and dental students to estimate and reproduce small depths and distances and the relationship of this ability to stereopsis, dental experience, and student performance. A total of 163 undergraduate dental students from three year groups and 20 experienced dentists and specialists performed three tasks. A depth-perception task involved estimation of the depth of two sets (2-mm or 4-mm wide) of nine computer milled slots ranging in depth from 0.5 to 4.0 mm. A distance task involved estimation of the width of specially prepared printed square blocks. In a writing task, participants recorded distances across a printed line on separate sheets of paper. All tasks were conducted at set positions in custom-made transportable light boxes. Stereopsis and visual acuity were also measured. Ability to perform perceptual tasks varied enormously, with the level of accuracy dependent on the type of task and dental experience. Many students had considerable difficulty in estimating depth. Inexperienced students performed
Vasiloudis, G.; Koutsouba, M.; Giossos, Y.; Mavroidis, I.
This paper studies the transactional distance between the students and the tutor as well as the autonomy of students in a postgraduate course of the Hellenic Open University (HOU). The aim of the paper is to examine how the relation between autonomy and transactional distance evolves during an academic year and how this relation is affected by…
This paper innovatively extends the application of transactional distance theory (TDT) to evidence-based policy development in Mauritius. In-depth interview data on student persistence from a range of stakeholders is used to understand the implications of distance education (DE) policy deficit. Policy deficit has surfaced as another dimension of…
McIntosh, Christopher, Ed.
Reflecting a common objective of ensuring quality Education for All, this book is a joint initiative of UNESCO and COL and jointly published. Lifelong Learning in Distance Higher Education brings together a diverse group of experts from many countries. The book provides a clear picture of the challenges, problems and potential of distance higher…
Okonkwo, Charity Akuadi
The National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) is Nigeria's only university dedicated to providing education through the use of distance instructional methods. So far, however, the lack of availability and poor distribution of course materials, which underpin instructional delivery at NOUN, continue to be hindrances to achieving the university's…
Instructor immediacy has been positively associated with many desirable academic outcomes including increased student learning. This study extends existing understanding of instructional immediacy behaviours in elearning by describing postgraduate nursing students' reflections on their own experience. An exploratory, descriptive survey design was used to collect qualitative data. Participants were asked what behaviours or activities help to create rapport or a positive interpersonal connection (immediacy) between students and their online teacher(s). Thematic analysis of the data revealed three main themes: acknowledging and affirming student's personal and professional responsibilities; providing clear and timely information; and utilising rich media. These findings give lecturers insight into instructional strategies they may adopt to increase immediacy in elearning and hence improve student learning outcomes.
Flickinger, Kathleen Anne
Distance education and Internet instruction are increasingly being used in college science teaching. In an effort to reach more students, Iowa State University's Human Anatomy and Physiology course was offered via Internet as well as via traditional lecture format. To assess the educational ramifications of this offering, three studies were conducted. In the first study, a collective case study approach was utilized to describe the learning environment created by an Internet-based college science course. In this study, three students were followed as they worked their way through the course. Collective case study methodologies were used to provide a rich description of the learning environment experienced by these students. Motivation, computer savvy, and academic and personal self-confidence appeared to impact the satisfaction level of the students enrolled in the class. To evaluate the effectiveness of the learning environment offered through the Internet-based science course, a quantitative comparison study was undertaken. In this study a comparison of achievement scores and study habits between students enrolled in the Internet-based class and those enrolled in the traditional section was made. Results from this study indicated that content understanding and retention did not appear to be effected by the type of instruction. Desirable study habits were reportedly used more frequently in the Internet section of the class than in the traditional class. To complete the description of the Internet course experience, a qualitative examination of Internet instructors' time commitment and level of teaching satisfaction was conducted. Data for this study consisted of interviews and researcher observations. Instructor time-on-task was initially quite high, and remained above the average spent on average face-to-face instruction in subsequent semesters. Additionally the role of the faculty member changed dramatically, causing some lessening of job satisfaction. Taken as
Orr, Kay; Stancil, Shirley
The Shuttle Data Systems Branch (SDSB) of the Flight Data Systems Division (FDSD) at Johnson Space Center contracted with Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to validate the effectiveness of an interactive video course on the code inspection process. The purpose of this project was to determine if this course could be effective for teaching NASA analysts the process of code inspection. In addition, NASA was interested in the effectiveness of this unique type of instruction (Digital Video Interactive), for providing training on software processes. This study found the Carnegie Mellon course, 'A Cure for the Common Code', effective for teaching the process of code inspection. In addition, analysts prefer learning with this method of instruction, or this method in combination with other methods. As is, the course is definitely better than no course at all; however, findings indicate changes are needed. Following are conclusions of this study. (1) The course is instructionally effective. (2) The simulation has a positive effect on student's confidence in his ability to apply new knowledge. (3) Analysts like the course and prefer this method of training, or this method in combination with current methods of training in code inspection, over the way training is currently being conducted. (4) Analysts responded favorably to information presented through scenarios incorporating full motion video. (5) Some course content needs to be changed. (6) Some content needs to be added to the course. SwRI believes this study indicates interactive video instruction combined with simulation is effective for teaching software processes. Based on the conclusions of this study, SwRI has outlined seven options for NASA to consider. SwRI recommends the option which involves creation of new source code and data files, but uses much of the existing content and design from the current course. Although this option involves a significant software development effort, SwRI believes this option
Bhushan, Bharat, Ed.; Rausaria, R. R., Ed.
This directory of distance education professionals in India covers personnel working in open universities, correspondence course institutes, and directorates of distance education of conventional universities and other national level research institutes. The information was derived from a set of structured questionnaires sent to all involved…
Isaev, Andrey; Kravets, Alla; Isaeva, Ludmila; Fomenkov, Sergey
Distance education has become a rather popular form of education recently. The advantages of this form are obvious and well-known. They include asynchronous learning, individualized learning trajectories and convenient case technologies. However, the distance form of education is not able to form the trainee's hands-on experience, especially…
Smidt, Esther; McDyre, Brian; Bunk, Jennifer; Li, Rui; Gatenby, Tanya
In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in distance learning in higher education. Given this, it is extremely important to understand faculty attitudes about distance education, not only because they can vary widely, but also because it is the faculty, through their design and implementation of online courses, that will shape the…
Tatkovic, Nevenka; Sehanovic, Jusuf; Ruzic, Maja
In accordance with the European processes of integrated and homogeneous education, the paper presents the essential viewpoints and questions covering the establishment and development of "distance learning" (DL) in Republic of Croatia. It starts from the advantages of distance learning versus traditional education taking into account…
This document, which examines the use of educational technologies for distance education for adults in Canada, consists of five narrative sections and a bibliography. The first section introduces the topic and the document's objectives (to describe those technologies used in Canadian adult distance education, paying particular attention to those…
Yildiz, Ezgi Pelin; Isman, Aytekin
In parallel with technological advances in today's world of education activities can be conducted without the constraints of time and space. One of the most important of these activities is distance education. The success of the distance education is possible with content quality. The proliferation of e-learning environment has brought a need for…
McQuinn, Kristen. B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Berg, Danielle; Kennicutt, Robert
M104 (NGC 4594; the Sombrero galaxy) is a nearby, well-studied elliptical galaxy included in scores of surveys focused on understanding the details of galaxy evolution. Despite the importance of observations of M104, a consensus distance has not yet been established. Here, we use newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging to measure the distance to M104 based on the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method. Our measurement yields the distance to M104 to be 9.55 ± 0.13 ± 0.31 Mpc equivalent to a distance modulus of 29.90 ± 0.03 ± 0.07 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian maximum likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties. The most discrepant previous results are due to Tully-Fisher method distances, which are likely inappropriate for M104 given its peculiar morphology and structure. Our results are part of a larger program to measure accurate distances to a sample of well-known spiral galaxies (including M51, M74, and M63) using the TRGB method. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.
McQuinn, Kristen. B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Berg, Danielle; Kennicutt, Robert
Great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the study of nearby spiral galaxies with diverse goals ranging from understanding the star formation process to characterizing their dark matter distributions. Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of these galaxies, yet many of the best studied nearby galaxies have distances based on methods with relatively large uncertainties. We have started a program to derive accurate distances to these galaxies. Here we measure the distance to M51—the Whirlpool galaxy—from newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging using the tip of the red giant branch method. We measure the distance modulus to be 8.58 ± 0.10 Mpc (statistical), corresponding to a distance modulus of 29.67 ± 0.02 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian Maximum Likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.
Tolvanen, Martti; Vihinen, Mauno
Distance learning as a computer-aided concept allows students to take courses from anywhere at any time. In bioinformatics, computers are needed to collect, store, process, and analyze massive amounts of biological and biomedical data. We have applied the concept of distance learning in virtual bioinformatics to provide university course material…
Schiller, Scott S.
Discusses the use of multimedia equipment for distance education. Topics addressed include use of the Internet; distance learning for educators; and cable television and/or fiber optics, including interactive television and satellite technology. A sidebar lists online and telecommunications providers. (LRW)
Williams, Marcia L.; Paprock, Kenneth; Covington, Barbara
Intended for individuals engaged in open and distance learning activities, this guide is designed with an applications focus that provides a "quick start" for immediate work needs. Built on an intuitive set of "How do I" questions, the book presents the foundation needed to teach from a distance. The format is a multimodel approach, combining…
Jones, Judy I.; Simonson, Michael
The costs of three types of transmission technology in distance education are compared, and the costs for equipping and installing a distance education classroom are estimated. Two of the technologies--fiber optics and microwave--deliver two-way, full motion video and two-way audio. The third technology, compressed video, also delivers two-way…
Rees, Fred J.; Downs, Dennis A.
Describes the origins and operations of the Iowa Communications Network, an interactive distance learning program. Presents several examples of how the network can benefit music educators in college and K-12 institutions. Maintains that the system can be a model for similar distance music education networks. (CFR)
Pival, Paul R.
Based on user lookups, "Merriam-Webster Online "proclaimed "Blog" the word of the year for 2004. Distance librarianship, until mid-way through 2004, was a subject that was underrepresented in the blogosphere. The inception of a blog called "The Distant Librarian: Comments on the World of Distance Librarianship" is chronicled in this article, along…
Fuller, Frank, Ed.; McBride, Ron, Ed.
This document contains the papers on distance education from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference. Topics covered include: the distance education degree program for the Master of Mathematics with a teaching option at Texas A&M University; the evolution of online learning; Internet-based distance…
Benefield, Lazelle E; Beck, Cornelia
Family caregivers are responsible for the home care of over 34 million older adults in the United States. For many, the elder family member lives more than an hour’s distance away. Distance caregiving is a growing alternative to more familiar models where: 1) the elder and the family caregiver(s) may reside in the same household; or 2) the family caregiver may live nearby but not in the same household as the elder. The distance caregiving model involves elders and their family caregivers who live at some distance, defined as more than a 60-minute commute, from one another. Evidence suggests that distance caregiving is a distinct phenomenon, differs substantially from on-site family caregiving, and requires additional assistance to support the physical, social, and contextual dimensions of the caregiving process. Technology-based assists could virtually connect the caregiver and elder and provide strong support that addresses the elder’s physical, social, cognitive, and/or sensory impairments. Therefore, in today’s era of high technology, it is surprising that so few affordable innovations are being marketed for distance caregiving. This article addresses distance caregiving, proposes the use of technology innovation to support caregiving, and suggests a research agenda to better inform policy decisions related to the unique needs of this situation. PMID:18044143
Fort, Florian; Jouany, Claire; Cruz, Pablo
Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e., ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits, and whole plant traits) in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species' ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems) are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems) are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance. PMID:25741353
Niall, K K
How naive can one experiment be? Imagine asking observers to judge distance -- yes, literally asking them. And in asking them, no visual evoked potentials were measured, and changes in blood flow to the occipital cortex were ignored. But serendipity occurs even to the well-prepared: One's best thought for a new experiment can prove to be one's first unbiased, uncomplicated thought.Here's a cursory review of the events: A number of observers were asked to judge distances between marked posts in a field at night. They made their judgments with the help of night vision goggles (NVG). At first the observers underestimated the distances on average. Then an experimenter began to correct the observers after each judgment. The observers' judgments of distance became accurate. On average, the observers began to estimate those distances accurately. Is this and incredible story or a difficult one?
Prignano, L.; Serva, M.
In a population with haploid reproduction any individual has a single parent in the previous generation. If all genealogical distances among pairs of individuals (generations from the closest common ancestor) are known it is possible to exactly reconstruct their genealogical tree. Unfortunately, in most cases, genealogical distances are unknown and only genetic distances are available. The genetic distance between two individuals is measurable from differences in mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) since in the case of humans or other complex organisms mtDNA is transmitted in a haploid manner. An analogous distance can be also computed for languages where it may be measured from lexical differences, in this case, nevertheless, haploid reproduction is only a raw approximation. Assuming a constant rate of mutation, these genetic distances are random and proportional only on average to genealogical ones. The reconstruction of the genealogical tree from the available genetic distances is forceful imprecise. In this paper we try to quantify the error one may commit in the reconstruction of the tree for different degrees of randomness. The errors may concern both topology of the tree (the branching hierarchy) and, in case of correct topology, the proportions of the tree (length of various branches).
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.
NASA CONNECT is an annual series of free integrated mathematics, science, and technology instructional distance learning programs for students in grades 5-8. Each program has three components: (1) a 30-minute television broadcast which can be viewed live or taped for later use; (2) an interactive Web activity that allows teachers to integrate…
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.
NASA CONNECT is a research and standards-based annual series of integrated mathematics, science, and technology instructional distance learning programs for students in grades 6-8. This program has three components: (1) a 30-minute television broadcast which can be viewed live or taped for later use; (2) a companion educator's guide including a…
Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio
Languages evolve over time according to a process in which reproduction, mutation and extinction are all possible. This is very similar to haploid evolution for asexual organisms and for the mitochondrial DNA of complex ones. Exploiting this similarity, it is possible, in principle, to verify hypotheses concerning the relationship among languages and to reconstruct their family tree. The key point is the definition of the distances among pairs of languages in analogy with the genetic distances among pairs of organisms. Distances can be evaluated by comparing grammar and/or vocabulary, but while it is difficult, if not impossible, to quantify grammar distance, it is possible to measure a distance from vocabulary differences. The method used by glottochronology computes distances from the percentage of shared 'cognates', which are words with a common historical origin. The weak point of this method is that subjective judgment plays a significant role. Here we define the distance of two languages by considering a renormalized edit distance among words with the same meaning and averaging over the two hundred words contained in a Swadesh list. In our approach the vocabulary of a language is the analogue of DNA for organisms. The advantage is that we avoid subjectivity and, furthermore, reproducibility of results is guaranteed. We apply our method to the Indo-European and the Austronesian groups, considering, in both cases, fifty different languages. The two trees obtained are, in many respects, similar to those found by glottochronologists, with some important differences as regards the positions of a few languages. In order to support these different results we separately analyze the structure of the distances of these languages with respect to all the others.
Kitsantas, Anastasia; Chow, Anthony
The purpose of the present study was to examine how college students' help seeking behavior varied across different instructional learning environments. Four hundred and seventy four (N=472) students enrolled in distance, distributed, and traditional classes were queried about their help seeking preferences, help seeking tendencies, personal…
Vismara, Laurie A.; Young, Gregory S.; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Griffith, Elizabeth McMahon; Rogers, Sally J.
Although knowledge about the efficacy of behavioral interventions for children with ASD is increasing, studies of effectiveness and transportability to community settings are needed. The current study conducted an effectiveness trial to compare distance learning vs. live instruction for training community-based therapists to implement the Early…
... restrictive block conditions stopping distance in advance. 236.502 Section 236.502 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control...
... restrictive block conditions stopping distance in advance. 236.502 Section 236.502 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control...
... restrictive block conditions stopping distance in advance. 236.502 Section 236.502 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control...
Demiray, Ugur, Ed.; Sever, N. Serdar, Ed.
The education system of our times has transformed greatly due to enormous developments in the IT field, ease in access to online resources by the individuals and the teachers adopting new technologies in their instructional strategies, be it for course design, development or delivery. The field of Distance and Online Education is experiencing…
Carrico, Kent; Neff, Ariel
Distance librarians working with graduate programs often discover many of their students have specialized information needs and require additional instruction. However, it can be impossible to discover these students without first becoming deeply involved with the program. Librarians at Benedictine University have developed a method for becoming…
Across the world, the distance mode of education is gaining momentum. It is a system in which schools, universities and other educational agencies offer instruction wholly or partly by mail. Eritrea is a newly independent country in Africa and is facing many challenges, particularly in its education sector. It does not have many educational…
All over the world, distance mode of education is gaining a momentum and becoming more popular than conventional education. It is a system in which schools, universities and other educational agencies offer instruction wholly or partly by mail. Eritrea is a newly independent country in Africa is been facing many challenges particularly in its…
Cagirgan Gulten, Dilek
This research aims to investigate primary preservice mathematics teachers' views on distance education and web pedagogical content knowledge in terms of the subscales of general web, communicative web, pedagogical web, web pedagogical content and attitude towards web based instruction. The research was conducted with 46 senior students in the…
Ellingson, Dee Ann; Notbohm, Matthew
Online distance education can take many forms, from a correspondence course with materials online to fully synchronous, live instruction. This paper describes a fully synchronous, live format using web-conferencing. Some useful features of web-conferencing and the way they are employed in this course are described. Instructor observations and…
Parrott, Deborah J.; Anderson, Joanna M.
LibGuides, as a method of creating pathfinders for instruction of information literacy and content management has long been used by academic libraries, but has not been widely used by school libraries. This article describes a collaborative plan between a distance education librarian and a professor of school library media using LibGuides to…
MacCuish, Donald A.
Describes a formative evaluation of the Air Command and Staff College (ACSC) distance learning program, which offers professional military education (PME). Highlights include use of the status study methodology; curriculum development; course design; learning theories; instructional systems design; best practices; and student assessment. (LRW)
Li, Kuiyuan; Amin, Raid; Uvah, Josaphat
A fully online graduate program that was developed at the UWF (University of West Florida) has been successfully implemented using synchronous instruction since fall 2009. The hybrid nature of the developed model has proven to be of benefit to both face-to-face and distance students. Aside from the robustness of students' discussions and…
Anderson, Terry; Dron, Jon
This paper updates earlier work in which we defined three generations of distance education pedagogy. We then describe emerging technologies that are most conducive to instructional designs that evolve with each generation. Finally we discuss matching the pedagogies with learning outcomes. (Contains 3 figures.)
Teng, Tian-Lih; Taveras, Marypat
This article outlines the evolution of a unique distance education program that began as a hybrid--combining face-to-face instruction with asynchronous online teaching--and evolved to become an innovative combination of synchronous education using live streaming video, audio, and chat over the Internet, blended with asynchronous online discussions…
Gunawardena, Charlotte N.
This paper discusses current practices in the use of communications technologies to deliver distance instruction as they were reported by respondents to a survey of 70 postsecondary educational institutions in the United States. Results of the 1987 survey indicate that non-interactive open-broadcast television, cable television, and videocassettes…
Gregg, Joe; Persichitte, Kay
To make effective use of a two-way interactive distance education system, classroom design should be a primary consideration. A properly designed classroom will enhance content objectives and increase acceptance of this type of instructional delivery. This paper describes key considerations for optimal design. Construction considerations include…
A descriptive case study was used to explore how repurposing and a pedagogical-based instructional design model, the multimodal model (Picciano, 2009), were used to create quality distance education courses in a rapid development setting at a Midwestern land grant university. Data triangulation was used to secure data from faculty member…
Vamosi, Alexander R.; Pierce, Barbara G.; Slotkin, Michael H.
In this study, the authors employed a novel, dual approach toward the delivery of course material to assess students' satisfaction with distance learning and their perceptions of its efficacy. Students in two sections of an Introduction to Financial Accounting course received instruction that alternated between traditional, live lectures and live…
An introductory course was developed for the Dutch Open University. Because the course was intended for adult distance learners, it was designed to be suitable for self-instruction in 200 hours or less. No suitable Dutch-language psychology text could be found; consequently, the course was based on the translation of a recent American book,…
Rood, Lea; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Bogels, Susan M.; Arntz, Arnoud
The current study compares the effects of experimentally induced rumination, positive reappraisal, distancing, and acceptance on affect states in adolescents aged 13-18. Participants (N = 160) were instructed to think about a recent stressful event. Next, they received specific instructions on how to think about that event in each condition.…
Barnett, H. J.; Denzau, A. T.; Dumolin, J. R.; Singh, J. P.
The use of television in schools as an aid to instruction is proposed for individualized instruction, repetition for slow learners, acceleration for fast learners, and lectures from the best teachers for all students. A dedicated school district cable system, a 40 channel cable to each school and classroom, is considered. This innovation offers an opportunity for improving the quality and content of the school's instruction and for reducing the cost.
Bates, Rodger A.
Distance education strategies for remotely deployed, highly mobile, or institutionalized populations are reviewed and critiqued. Specifically, asynchronous, offline responses for special military units, Native Americans on remote reservations, prison populations and other geographically, temporally or technologically isolated niche populations are…
Shimada, Yutaka; Hirata, Yoshito; Ikeguchi, Tohru; Aihara, Kazuyuki
Networks are widely used as a tool for describing diverse real complex systems and have been successfully applied to many fields. The distance between networks is one of the most fundamental concepts for properly classifying real networks, detecting temporal changes in network structures, and effectively predicting their temporal evolution. However, this distance has rarely been discussed in the theory of complex networks. Here, we propose a graph distance between networks based on a Laplacian matrix that reflects the structural and dynamical properties of networked dynamical systems. Our results indicate that the Laplacian-based graph distance effectively quantifies the structural difference between complex networks. We further show that our approach successfully elucidates the temporal properties underlying temporal networks observed in the context of face-to-face human interactions.
Shimada, Yutaka; Hirata, Yoshito; Ikeguchi, Tohru; Aihara, Kazuyuki
Networks are widely used as a tool for describing diverse real complex systems and have been successfully applied to many fields. The distance between networks is one of the most fundamental concepts for properly classifying real networks, detecting temporal changes in network structures, and effectively predicting their temporal evolution. However, this distance has rarely been discussed in the theory of complex networks. Here, we propose a graph distance between networks based on a Laplacian matrix that reflects the structural and dynamical properties of networked dynamical systems. Our results indicate that the Laplacian-based graph distance effectively quantifies the structural difference between complex networks. We further show that our approach successfully elucidates the temporal properties underlying temporal networks observed in the context of face-to-face human interactions. PMID:27725690
Jensen, Jeffrey L; Bohonak, Andrew J; Kelley, Scott T
Background The population genetic pattern known as "isolation by distance" results from spatially limited gene flow and is a commonly observed phenomenon in natural populations. However, few software programs exist for estimating the degree of isolation by distance among populations, and they tend not to be user-friendly. Results We have created Isolation by Distance Web Service (IBDWS) a user-friendly web interface for determining patterns of isolation by distance. Using this site, population geneticists can perform a variety of powerful statistical tests including Mantel tests, Reduced Major Axis (RMA) regression analysis, as well as calculate FST between all pairs of populations and perform basic summary statistics (e.g., heterozygosity). All statistical results, including publication-quality scatter plots in Postscript format, are returned rapidly to the user and can be easily downloaded. Conclusion IBDWS population genetics analysis software is hosted at and documentation is available at . The source code has been made available on Source Forge at . PMID:15760479
Gagnon, Yves; Savard, Olivier Tremblay; Bertrand, Denis; El-Mabrouk, Nadia
Given a phylogenetic tree involving Whole Genome Duplication events, we contribute to the problem of computing the rearrangement distance on a branch of a tree linking a duplication node d to a speciation node or a leaf s. In the case of a genome G at s containing exactly two copies of each gene, the genome halving problem is to find a perfectly duplicated genome D at d minimizing the rearrangement distance with G. We generalize the existing exact linear-time algorithm for genome halving to the case of a genome G with missing gene copies. In the case of a known ancestral duplicated genome D, we develop a greedy approach for computing the distance between G and D that is shown time-efficient and very accurate for both the rearrangement and DCJ distances.
Knight, Frances Le Cornu; Longo, Matthew R; Bremner, Andrew J
The tactile surface forms a continuous sheet covering the body. And yet, the perceived distance between two touches varies across stimulation sites. Perceived tactile distance is larger when stimuli cross over the wrist, compared to when both fall on either the hand or the forearm. This effect could reflect a categorical distortion of tactile space across body-part boundaries (in which stimuli crossing the wrist boundary are perceptually elongated) or may simply reflect a localised increased in acuity surrounding anatomical landmarks (in which stimuli near the wrist are perceptually elongated). We tested these two interpretations across two experiments, by comparing a well-documented bias to perceive mediolateral tactile distances across the forearm/hand as larger than proximodistal ones along the forearm/hand at three different sites (hand, wrist, and forearm). According to the 'categorical' interpretation, tactile distances should be elongated selectively in the proximodistal axis thus reducing the anisotropy. According to the 'localised acuity' interpretation, distances will be perceptually elongated in the vicinity of the wrist regardless of orientation, leading to increased overall size without affecting anisotropy. Consistent with the categorical account, we found a reduction in the magnitude of anisotropy at the wrist, with no evidence of a corresponding localised increase in precision. These findings demonstrate that we reference touch to a representation of the body that is categorically segmented into discrete parts, which consequently influences the perception of tactile distance.
Williams, Lawrence E.; Bargh, John A.
Current conceptualizations of psychological distance (e.g., construal-level theory) refer to the degree of overlap between the self and some other person, place, or point in time. We propose a complementary view in which perceptual and motor representations of physical distance influence people’s thoughts and feelings without reference to the self, extending research and theory on the effects of distance into domains where construal-level theory is silent. Across four experiments, participants were primed with either spatial closeness or spatial distance by plotting an assigned set of points on a Cartesian coordinate plane. Compared with the closeness prime, the distance prime produced greater enjoyment of media depicting embarrassment (Study 1), less emotional distress from violent media (Study 2), lower estimates of the number of calories in unhealthy food (Study 3), and weaker reports of emotional attachments to family members and hometowns (Study 4). These results support a broader conceptualization of distance-mediated effects on judgment and affect. PMID:18315805
KOPSTEIN, FELIX F.; SEIDEL, ROBERT J.
AN ATTEMPT IS MADE TO ASSESS THE ECONOMICS OF COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (CAI) VERSUS TRADITIONALLY ADMINISTERED INSTRUCTION (TAI) IN CONTROLLING THE STRUCTURE OF THE LEARNER'S STIMULUS ENVIRONMENT IN TEACHING AND TRAINING SITUATIONS. THERE IS A DISCUSSION OF THE NEED FOR A SOUND, OBJECTIVE ECONOMIC APPRAISAL OF THE VALUE TO SOCIETY OF…
Peryon, Charleen D.
A teaching method particularly effective with children who are hard to teach arithmetic and reading is described. Known as a direct instructional system for teaching arithmetic and reading, it is a set of materials in which everything the teacher says and does is specified. This technique is effective in small group instruction. Specific…
Gregory, Peter; Gregory, Karen; Eddy, Erik
Facebook is a website with over one billion users worldwide that is synonymous with social-networking. However, in this study, Facebook is used as an "instructional network". Two sections of an undergraduate calculus course were used to study the effects of participating in a Facebook group devoted solely to instruction. One section was…
Patterson, Sheila M.; Vitello, Elaine M.
The health education profession involves content areas which provide a plethora of opportunities for discussing ethics and ethical reasoning. This presentation advocates ethics instruction as an important component of professional preparation programs for health educators. The main goal of ethics instruction is to assist students in developing…
Martin, Florence; Klein, James; Sullivan, Howard
Forty years ago, Robert Gagne published the first edition of his book The Conditions of Learning (1965) in which he proposed nine events of instruction that provide a sequence for organizing a lesson. These events remain the foundation of current instructional design practice (Reiser, 2002; Richey, 2000). They represent desirable conditions in an…
Nash, Vickie Lynn
The diverse population of students in grades 1- 3 at a suburban elementary school has created a challenge for teachers when differentiating instruction in reading. The purpose of this doctoral project study was to explore the lived experiences of these teachers as they have acquired research-based instructional strategies in reading that support…
Magliaro, Susan G.; Lockee, Barbara B.; Burton, John K.
Rooted in behavioral theory, particularly the radical or selectivist behaviorism of B.F. Skinner (1953, 1954, 1966, 1968, 1974), the direct instruction (DI) approach to teaching is now well into its third decade of influencing curriculum, instruction, and research. It is also in its third decade of controversy. Our purpose is to present the DI…
Benson, Gregory M.; Hirschen, William
Discusses instruction that occurs at a point distant from the location of the learner(s) with an interactive video and/or visual component. Stresses the need for developing such instructional capabilities for schools, businesses, and industries. Describes audio-graphic teleconferencing, microwave transmission, instructional television fixed…
Altekruse, Michael K.; Brew, Leah
This chapter explores the pros and cons of Web-based instruction following the University of North Texas' decision to offer counseling courses on the Web. It seems that the most frequent arguments for Web-based instruction are its ability to reach students and its potential for course enrichment. The practice of providing live instruction on the…
LUELSDORFF, PHILIP A.
PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, A TEACHING METHOD WHICH INCORPORATES (1) A DETAILED SPECIFICATION OF TERMINAL BEHAVIOR, (2) A CAREFUL SEQUENCING OF THE MATERIAL INTO GRADED STEPS, AND (3) THE REINFORCEMENT OF STUDENT RESPONSE, WORKS MORE FAVORABLY IN CERTAIN INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA THAN IN OTHERS. CARROLL AND SKINNER BELIEVE THAT SUCCESS IN PROGRAMED…
This description of the marketing process as a practical way to manage the function of instruction development emphasizes the importance of the identification and evaluation of customer needs before developing objectives. To assist the instructional development agency in focusing on this aspect of planning, a check list of possible marketing…
Lunenburg, Frederick C.; Irby, Beverly J.
Teacher behavior research has shown that teacher behaviors, as well as specific teaching strategies, make a difference with regard to student achievement. Ten durable instructional strategies are discussed: set induction, stimulus variation, reinforcement, questioning, recognizing attending behavior, lecturing or direct instruction, planned…
Hopcus, Sharron; Armstrong, Ivan J.
This publication is designed to assist the instructor and students in understanding the latest concepts and techniques of the instructional phase of cosmetology programs. The instructional units are in five areas: (1) orientation, (2) professional practices: hair, (3) professional practices: skin and nails, (4) cosmetology science, and (5)…
Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Great Plains National Instructional Television Library.
The Great Plains National Instruction Television Library identifies, makes available, and distributes--on a lease basis--videotaped instructional television courses to educational institutions and agencies. It also has materials on 16mm film and kinescope available for lease. The total offering is nearly 150 recorded courses and related teacher…
Gulbahar, Yasemin; Kalelioglu, Filiz
This article explores the use of proper instructional techniques in online discussions that lead to meaningful learning. The research study looks at the effective use of two instructional techniques within online environments, based on qualitative measures. "Brainstorming" and "Six Thinking Hats" were selected and implemented…
Kneer, Marian E.
The author discusses the benefits of using individualized instructional methods in physical education and describes the various components of the method. General rationale for the implementation of individualized instruction is that subject matter taught is frequently dependent upon the processes provided for learning--if learning does not take…
Spector, J. Michael; And Others
Many researchers are attempting to develop automated instructional development systems to guide subject matter experts through the lengthy and difficult process of courseware development. Because the targeted users often lack instructional design expertise, a great deal of emphasis has been placed on the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to…
Boger, Stephanie, Ed.
This document contains the papers on instructional design from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference. Topics covered include: an adaptive e-framework for teacher training; assessing the integration of technology into the curriculum; promoting instructional planning; learning and using World Wide Web page…
Carnine, Douglas W.; And Others
Creating a learning and instructional environment for teaching students in a "humane and efficient" manner, this book is designed to empower teachers by providing them with specific suggestions for problems they will encounter as they provide students with direct, explicit instruction in reading. As in earlier editions, the book devotes…
Lamb, Bill H.
The Writing Program Director at Johnson County Community College (Kansas) developed quantitative measures for writing instruction evaluation which can support that institution's growing interest in and support for peer collaboration as a means to improving instructional quality. The first process (Interaction Analysis) has an observer measure…
Bridgewater, Rachel; Deitering, Anne-Marie; Munro, Karen
At the 2008 ALA Annual Conference, a wonderful Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) preconference was presented entitled "Library Instruction 2.0: Building Your Online Instruction Toolkit". The presentation was enlightening and provided numerous and valuable recommendations for Web 2.0 sites that can facilitate and enliven library…
Albaugh, Thomas A.; Porreca, Anthony G.
A study of 236 11th-grade accounting students was conducted to measure the economic literacy of students enrolled in high school business education. It was found that those students who had accounting instruction had mean scores that were higher than those students who did not have accounting instruction. (CT)
Grypp, Lynette; Luebeck, Jennifer
Technology is causing educators to rethink the entire notion of classroom learning, not only with respect to what learning should take place but also where it should take place. One such innovation is flipped instruction, broadly defined by Staker and Horn (2012) as an instructional model in which students learn partly through online delivery and…
Black, Dean; Bunderson, C. Victor
An individualized instructional development training program was developed that allows teachers to enter at several points and move through the instruction in a way that suits their own particular needs and challenges. The program was designed for implementation on the TICCIT computer controlled television system, although it could be adapted to…
Dageforde, Mary L.
This report documents the BASIC Instructional Program (BIP), a "hands-on laboratory" that teaches elementary programming in the BASIC language, as implemented in the MAINSAIL language, a machine-independent revision of SAIL which should facilitate implementation of BIP on other computing systems. Eight instructional modules which make up…
Luterbach, Kenneth J.
This article identifies the instructional technology programs offered in the College of Education at East Carolina University. Additionally, this article briefly discusses technological and pedagogical factors that influence work pursued in the instructional technology field today, which leads to introductions of the articles in the issue. Lastly,…
Conderman, Greg; Woods, C. Sheldon
In light of the importance science plays in people's lives and society, it is perplexing to observe the minimal attention given to science instruction--especially in the elementary grades. Though some information presented here is not new, the authors' intent is to stimulate a dialogue about effective elementary science instruction by offering a…
The pressure to improve the quality of instruction in schools may be higher today than at any other time in the history of U.S. education. To respond to this urgent demand, schools across the nation are hiring instructional coaches (ICs), even though there is little published research that shows what works and what does not work when it comes to…
Mattoon, Joseph S.; Klein, James D.
Discussion of learner control in computer-assisted instructional simulations focuses on an experiment conducted with undergraduate students that compared three different treatments for instructional control in an aircraft simulator. Topics addressed include performance on immediate and delayed posttests; practice; student attitudes; effects of…
This article discusses writing processes and writing process instruction, describes a computer writing environment called computer-assisted composing (CAC), reviews research on CAC that incorporates process instruction for elementary and secondary students, and examines CAC research that focuses on writing-disabled students. (50 references) (LRW)
de Graaff, Saskia; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Hasselman, Fred; Verhoeven, Ludo
Systematic-phonics instruction appears to be more effective than nonsystematic phonics instruction for teaching reading (Ehri, Nunes, Stahl, & Willows, 2001). In the present study, a systematic phonics approach was directly compared with a nonsystematic phonics approach for kindergarten children. Both approaches were delivered using computer…
Anderson, Richard C.; And Others
Two experiments investigated the impact of immediate knowledge of a correct response (KCR) upon learning in programed instruction. The 356 subjects completed a programed lesson on myocardial infarction taught by means of the PLATO IV computer assisted instructional system. Subjects who received KCR after responding learned significantly more than…
Woods, Julie Rowland
For more than 30 years, Education Commission of the States has tracked instructional time and frequently receives requests for information about policies and trends. In this Education Trends report, Education Commission of the States addresses some of the more frequent questions, including the impact of instructional time on achievement, variation…
Alparaque, Idrenne; Fagan, William T.
Designed to grade children's knowledge of commonly used instructional terms in a particular language arts program, the AIT consists of a verbal part and a situational part. Each part assesses the same commonly used instructional terms: word, begin, letter, name, makes sense, beginning sounds, print, trace, capital letter, rhyme, period, stands…
Atwood, Jan R.; Dinham, Sarah M.
Metatheoretical analysis of Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Verbal Learning and Gagne's Theory of Instruction using the Dickoff and James paradigm produced two instructional systems for basic statistics. The systems were tested with a pretest-posttest control group design utilizing students enrolled in an introductory-level graduate statistics…
Gilbert, Juan E.; Han, C. Y.
Examined whether there was a significant difference in learner outcomes from the use of Arthur (Gilbert & Han, 1999), a computer-based adaptive instructional system that provides personalized instruction to each learner. Found that Arthur does provide a significant difference in learner outcomes. (EV)
Ellis, Thomas I.
Effective schools research has verified that schools are rarely effective unless the principal is a proficient instructional leader. This article summarizes five recent studies examining the practices and qualities comprising good instructional leadership. A Seattle study by Richard L. Andrews disclosed a statistical correlation between student…
Low achievement on standardized tests may be attributed to many factors, including teaching methods. Differentiated instruction has been identified as a teaching method using different learning modalities that appeal to varied student interests with individualized instruction. The purpose of this quantitative study was to compare whole-group…
Miller, William F.
Describes the current state of instructional technology in Chinese universities. Topics discussed include organizational patterns in audiovisual centers; the use of various media, including film, videotapes, overhead projectors, and television; the use of technology in language instruction; audiovisual equipment and appropriate technology; and…
McKeown, James C.
A progress report of a study using computer assisted instruction (CAI) materials for an elementary course in accounting principles is presented. The study was based on the following objectives: (1) improvement of instruction in the elementary accounting sequence, and (2) help for transfer students from two-year institutions. The materials under…
Rutherford, William L.
A method for analyzing instructional techniques employed during reading group instruction is reported, and the characteristics of the effective reading teacher are discussed. Teaching effectiveness is divided into two categories: (1) how the teacher acts and interacts with children on a personal level and (2) how the teacher performs his…
ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is the instruction manual that explains how to use the Excel spreadsheet ARS-Media for Excel application. ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is provided as a pdf file....
Considine, William J.; And Others
Basic instruction programs, those designed to instruct students in sports, dance, and fitness, are physical education in its purest form. These seven articles examine basic instruction programs in terms of history, trends, goals, financing, student fitness, and lifetime activity. (MT)
Greiner, Keith; Westbrook, Thomas S.
Examined the relationship between academic service quality and instructional quality in higher education. Found a high correlation between academic service and instructional quality, with academic service overlapping instructional quality in three dimensions: enthusiasm, organization, and rapport. (EV)
This study investigated the effects of processing instruction (PI) and structured input (SI) on the acquisition of the subjunctive in adjectival clauses by 92 second-semester distance learners of Spanish. Computerized visual input enhancement (VIE) was combined with PI and SI in an attempt to increase the salience of the targeted grammatical form…
Jackson, Russell E
Distance perception is among the most pervasive mental phenomena and the oldest research topics in behavioural science. However, we do not understand well the most pervasive finding of distance perception research, that of large individual differences. There are large individual differences in acrophobia (fear of heights), which we commonly assume consists of an abnormal fear of stimuli perceived normally. Evolved navigation theory (ENT) instead suggests that acrophobia consists of a more normal fear of stimuli perceived abnormally. ENT suggests that distance perception individual differences produce major components of acrophobia. Acrophobia tested over a broad range in the present study predicted large individual differences in distance estimation of surfaces that could produce falls. This fear of heights correlated positively with distance estimates of a vertical surface-even among non-acrophobic individuals at no risk of falling and without knowledge of being tested for acrophobia. Acrophobia score predicted magnitude of the descent illusion, which is thought to reflect the risk of falling. These data hold important implications in environmental navigation, clinical aetiology and the evolution of visual systems.
Hasegawa, Yumiko; Koyama, Satoshi; Inomata, Kimihiro
This study examined the effect of anxiety states on the relationship between golf-putting distance and performance in an environment requiring high movement accuracy. Twenty-three amateur golfers attempted 15 putts at each of three putting distances, 1.25, 1.50, and 1.75m, under conditions characterized by both control demands and pressure. All attempts were recorded, and kinematic features were analyzed. Under conditions involving an audience and a monetary reward, the mean score on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Y-1 and the mean heart rate increased by 14 points and 11bpm, respectively. We grouped participants on an a posteriori basis using the median split. The backswing of high-anxiety performers shortened, the downswing speed declined, and the relative time to peak club-head velocity changed when putting under pressure from 1.25m. In contrast, no change in backswing or relative time to peak velocity was observed in low-anxiety performers, although impact velocity increased under this condition. These results indicate that the degree to which both low- and high-anxiety golfers were anxious about failure affected motor control at the 1.25-m distance, suggesting that a distortion in perceived distance may result from the interaction between putting distance and anxiety related to failure during golf putting.
Gilboy, Nicki; Howard, Patricia Kunz
The Research to Practice column attempts to serve two purposes: (1) fine-tune the research critique skills of advanced practice nurses and (2) suggest strategies to translate findings from a research study into bedside practice. For each column, a topic and a particular research study are selected. The stage is set by introducing the importance of the topic. The research paper is then reviewed and critiqued, and finally, the implications for translation into practice are discussed. This particular column reviews the article: Engel, K., Heisler, M., Smith, D., Robinson, C., Forman, J., & Ubel, P. (in press). Patient comprehension of emergency department care and instructions: Are patients aware of when they do not understand? Annals of Emergency Medicine.
Kurtz, Martha J.; Holden, Brandt E.
Distance education has become a very popular mode for providing education to students who would not otherwise be able to take classes. Although it has been used for lecture courses in chemistry, little is known about its relative effectiveness compared to on-site courses with regard to student performance. This study compared sections of organic chemistry in which distance education was the learning mode with sections that were taught on site. All sections were instructed in a team-teaching format. A local instructor taught the lab sections at all locations and lab reports were forwarded to the on-campus faculty via email. Surveys were prepared and administered to all sections of students for qualitative assessment. The surveys provided information on student attitudes toward distance learning as well as the corresponding lab section, team-teaching techniques, and course Web page. Exam and spatial ability scores were statistically analyzed to determine quantitative differences. The data revealed no statistically significant differences between the performance of the students learning by distance education and those in regular sections.
Distance distributions between paramagnetic centers in the range of 1.8 to 6 nm in membrane proteins and up to 10 nm in deuterated soluble proteins can be measured by the DEER technique. The number of paramagnetic centers and their relative orientation can be characterized. DEER does not require crystallization and is not limited with respect to the size of the protein or protein complex. Diamagnetic proteins are accessible by site-directed spin labeling. To characterize structure or structural changes, experimental protocols were optimized and techniques for artifact suppression were introduced. Data analysis programs were developed, and it was realized that interpretation of the distance distributions must take into account the conformational distribution of spin labels. First methods have appeared for deriving structural models from a small number of distance constraints. The present scope and limitations of the technique are illustrated.
Wong, L. Fai; Trinidad, S. G.
In recent years, Web-based distance learning (WBDL) systems have become a popular learning environment for many western learners. While it has been established as an effective learning alternative, WBDL is not flourishing in Hong Kong as expected. This paper proposes that this is because Hong Kong students are not trained to learn independently…
Smith, Erica; Coombe, Kennece
Two research projects focused on use of casual markers (graders) for correcting and grading distance education (DE) students' work. A Charles Sturt University project convened focus groups of DE students, casual DE markers, and lecturers who "managed" markers to uncover concerns. University of South Australia research focused on pedagogical issues…
We present a new iterative algorithm for the molecular distance geometry problem with inaccurate and sparse data, which is based on the solution of linear systems, maximum cliques, and a minimization of nonlinear least-squares function. Computational results with real protein structures are presented in order to validate our approach. PMID:23901894
Souza, Michael; Lavor, Carlile; Muritiba, Albert; Maculan, Nelson
We present a new iterative algorithm for the molecular distance geometry problem with inaccurate and sparse data, which is based on the solution of linear systems, maximum cliques, and a minimization of nonlinear least-squares function. Computational results with real protein structures are presented in order to validate our approach.
Clark, Robert Graham
Distance sampling is a technique for estimating the abundance of animals or other objects in a region, allowing for imperfect detection. This paper evaluates the statistical efficiency of the method when its assumptions are met, both theoretically and by simulation. The theoretical component of the paper is a derivation of the asymptotic variance penalty for the distance sampling estimator arising from uncertainty about the unknown detection parameters. This asymptotic penalty factor is tabulated for several detection functions. It is typically at least 2 but can be much higher, particularly for steeply declining detection rates. The asymptotic result relies on a model which makes the strong assumption that objects are uniformly distributed across the region. The simulation study relaxes this assumption by incorporating over-dispersion when generating object locations. Distance sampling and strip transect estimators are calculated for simulated data, for a variety of overdispersion factors, detection functions, sample sizes and strip widths. The simulation results confirm the theoretical asymptotic penalty in the non-overdispersed case. For a more realistic overdispersion factor of 2, distance sampling estimation outperforms strip transect estimation when a half-normal distance function is correctly assumed, confirming previous literature. When the hazard rate model is correctly assumed, strip transect estimators have lower mean squared error than the usual distance sampling estimator when the strip width is close enough to its optimal value (± 75% when there are 100 detections; ± 50% when there are 200 detections). Whether the ecologist can set the strip width sufficiently accurately will depend on the circumstances of each particular study. PMID:26950934
Weis, Stephan; Knauf, Andreas
We study a curve of Gibbsian families of complex 3 Multiplication-Sign 3-matrices and point out new features, absent in commutative finite-dimensional algebras: a discontinuous maximum-entropy inference, a discontinuous entropy distance, and non-exposed faces of the mean value set. We analyze these problems from various aspects including convex geometry, topology, and information geometry. This research is motivated by a theory of infomax principles, where we contribute by computing first order optimality conditions of the entropy distance.
Sinclair, Michael B.; DeBoer, Maarten P.; Smith, Norman F.
Disclosed is a long working distance interference microscope suitable for three-dimensional imaging and metrology of MEMS devices and test structures on a standard microelectronics probe station. The long working distance of 10-30 mm allows standard probes or probe cards to be used. This enables nanometer-scale 3-D height profiles of MEMS test structures to be acquired across an entire wafer. A well-matched pair of reference/sample objectives is not required, significantly reducing the cost of this microscope, as compared to a Linnik microinterferometer.
Castle, K. G.
I have developed a distance learning astronomy course with an integral lab. The materials for this course are available from the site below. Test and quiz contents can be obtained upon request In this distance-learning format, students take quizzes online, tests in person and meet with the instructor for assistance. Student activities include homework, laboratory exercises and observing projects using household and community resources. This course (Astro 128) has been approved to fulfill general education requirements for University of California and the California State University system. Materials include instructions and reference materials for measuring parallax, analyzing radial velocity and light curves, finding ages of star clusters, tracking planets, recording sunrise or sunset time, simulating lunar phases, assessing lunar feature ages, classifying stellar spectra from tracings, and classifying galaxy morphology. Students analyze actual astronomical data from the literature in many cases. A comparatively large number of observational examples allows each student to work with a unique assignment. Course management includes a calendar where students schedule meetings with the instructor and WebCT test, quiz and grade maintenance. Course materials are supplied with links to data sets in PDF. This class was developed with technical assistance from the Instructional Technology Department at Diablo Valley College.
Siegle, Joshua H.; Warren, William H.
In sensory substitution, the user may be directly aware of distal objects, as in everyday perception, or make explicit cognitive inferences based on an awareness of the proximal stimulation. Anecdotal evidence supports the experience of distal attribution, but so far there have been few rigorous experimental tests of the claim. In this study, blindfolded participants observed a target light using a device consisting of a finger-mounted photodiode that drives tactile vibration on the back. With the blindfold off and the target removed, participants moved a reference object to match the perceived egocentric distance of the target. Participants who were instructed to attend to the distal target improved significantly during two hours of practice, whereas those instructed to attend to proximal variables showed no improvement. Unsigned error increased with ratings of proximal attention but decreased with ratings of target object solidity, consistent with distal attribution. Performance transferred to the non-dominant arm and to a rotated body orientation, demonstrating that learning did not depend on a joint-specific sensorimotor relationship between target distance and arm configuration. The results experimentally confirm that distal attribution can occur in sensory substitution, based on a perceptual strategy rather than an explicit cognitive strategy. Moreover, they suggest that the informational basis for distal attribution is not a joint-specific sensorimotor relation, but a more abstract spatial invariant. PMID:20402243
Examines the changing world of education through distance education and discusses the need for ethics in distance education. Explains how to ethically develop policy for distance education, including Internet ethics, good practices guidelines, and involving faculty. (LRW)
Setzer, J. Carl; Lewis, Laurie
Nontraditional methods of instructional delivery at the postsecondary level, such as Technology based distance education course offerings, have been a topic of considerable attention and debate. To date, however, no nationally representative study has examined technology based distance education availability, course offerings, and enrollments in…
Mann, Bruce L.
Educational technologists might well describe online distance education as "a series of instructional events over the Internet that find their expression as learning events in a student". As a legal construct however, "online distance education" is simply "the intellectual property of its owner". This description is…
Mazrui, K.; And Others
A series of two 2-week workshops was conducted in East Africa in 1987 by the German Foundation for International Development to assist educators in the development of instructional materials for distance and adult education. These workshops were designed to: (1) bring together writers of distance education materials to share their experiences and…
Boord, Patricia M.
To address diminishing resources and increased training demands, the Operational Training Unit (OTU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation has saved almost $2 million by developing a distance education course to replace one full week of training at the FBI Academy. Discussion focuses on major issues faced by OTU in designing/delivering this…
Gallant, Joseph; Carlson, James
We present an analysis of a situation described in Milton's epic poem "Paradise Lost" in which we calculate the distance required for a nine-day free-fall from rest to the Earth. The resulting method is completely general, and can be applied to free-fall toward other bodies and to near-Earth free-fall as well.
Adams, Kate; Martin, Sara
A World Wide Web site, developed by University of Nebraska-Lincoln Information Services staff and funded by a NEB*SAT (Nebraska's multiple channel satellite and optical fiber educational telecommunications network) grant, provides a clearinghouse of distance education, Internet, and Web page development information that is useful to librarians and…
Mattice, Nancy J.; Dixon, Phillip Scott
This paper presents the results of a student survey on computer-mediated distance education (DE) at the College of the Canyons. The survey queried students about whether DE fit their lifestyle, previous DE courses, access to a computer, the Internet and e-mail, and whether they would enroll in an on-line course. A total of 906 surveys were…
This paper presents a generic method of calculating accurate horizontal and vertical object distances from digital images taken with any digital camera and lens combination, where the object plane is parallel to the image plane or tilted in the vertical plane. This method was developed for a project investigating the size, density and spatial…
Saba, Farhad, Ed.
Discusses next generation distance education systems, which include research in cognitive science, systems science, and communication theory to provide a learning environment with student autonomy congruent to prior learning, learning objectives, and content materials to be mastered. Describes Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL), object…
Examines factors that will influence how distance education is practiced in the first few decades of this new century. Discusses developments in digital technology; the exponential growth of knowledge about the brain, as well as physiology, chemistry, and psychology of learning; the system relationship between individual learners and instructors;…
As a case study of the potential of teaching from a distance for technical and vocational training, the author has described the new, experimental Mauritius College of the Air, located on an island in the Indian Ocean, which promotes education through radio and television broadcasts, correspondence, and occasional face-to-face tuition. (EA)
Reed, Diane; Sork, Thomas J.
Discusses issues in distance education for adults that can affect the welfare of others and suggests ethical sensitivity is needed. Ethical issues addressed include admission and retention of students; course development and presentation; program and course marketing; administrative issues; learner/instructor interaction; and evaluation. (29…
This paper discusses three possible ways of applying podcasts in distance education: podcasts of recordings of virtual classes, podcasts produced for specific pedagogical aims, and podcasts produced by external organizations. Through a survey we gained insight in the (until now limited) experiences of our distant students with podcasts, and also…
Schwitzer, Alan M.; Duggan, Mary H.
Old Dominion University's distance learning program, called TELETECHNET, brings the main-campus college experience to geographically distant learners at sites across Virginia and as far away as the state of Washington, as well as to military personnel on Navy bases, carriers, and submarines. In an interesting turnabout, the Summer Institute for…
Lambert, Michael P.
Details the design of a distance-learning facility through analysis of its functions, paper-handling requirements, and current and future communications-technology needs. It also lists special features the facility should have, including up-to-date wiring capacities for telecommunications, uplink and downlink capabilities to satellites, and…
This paper addresses some of the general issues of international cooperation within the context of distance education. Examples of the types of international cooperation are introduced in order to explain some of the pitfalls that can occur when coordinating organizations on an international level. Extensive discussion is undertaken concerning…
Cochran, W. W.
The application of radio telemetry techniques to the long distance tracking of birds is discussed. The types of equipment developed and methods for attachment to a bird are described. The operating range of the radio transmitter receiver system is examined, and methods for acquiring and analyzing the data are explained.
East, Jean F.; LaMendola, Walter; Alter, Catherine
As distance education models in social work education continue to grow, this study addresses prevalence and type of models in graduate social work programs and the perceptions of deans about the future of e-learning models of curriculum delivery. The study was an exploratory sequential mixed-methods design including a national survey of 121…