Science.gov

Sample records for 30-second wingate test

  1. Association between anaerobic components of the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit and 30-second Wingate test.

    PubMed

    Bertuzzi, R; Kiss, M A P D M; Damasceno, M; Oliveira, R S F; Lima-Silva, A E

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between the anaerobic components of the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) and of the 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (30-WAnT). Nine male physical education students performed: a) a maximal incremental exercise test; b) a supramaximal constant workload test to determine the anaerobic components of the MAOD; and c) a 30-WAnT to measure the peak power (PP) and mean power (MP). The fast component of the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and blood lactate accumulation were measured after the supramaximal constant workload test in order to determine the contributions made by alactic (ALMET) and lactic (LAMET) metabolism. Significant correlations were found between PP and ALMET (r=0.71; P=0.033) and between MP and LAMET (r=0.72; P=0.030). The study results suggested that the anaerobic components of the MAOD and of the 30-WAnT are similarly applicable in the assessment of ALMET and LAMET during high-intensity exercise.

  2. Relationship between the 30-second wingate test and characteristics of isometric and explosive leg strength in young subjects.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Cengiz

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a possible relation between power performance of the Wingate test (WT) and isometric leg strength (ILS) and explosive leg strength (ELS) characteristics in young men and women with different physical fitness levels. A total of 166 subjects, including 98 young men and 68 young women, were included in the study. The subjects were divided into a regular exercise group and a sedentary group. The physical and body mass index characteristics of the subjects were not different, and they had not taken part in the directed jumping. When the regular exercise and sedentary groups were considered together with men, women, and total population groups, no significant correlation existed between WT anaerobic fatigue index and ILS and ELS (p > 0.05), but significant positive correlations existed among peak power, peak power per weight, mean power, mean power per weight, and WT power, which were recorded in 5-second intervals (p < 0.001). Although the 5-second WT parameters were significantly correlated with ILS and ELS for the first 15-second period, this correlation was more pronounced for the last 15 seconds for all groups (p < 0.01). As a result, this study indicated that regular physical activity has a positive significant relation on WT power, ILS, and ELS in both sedentary men and women and those engaged in regular sports activities.

  3. Comparison of the Wingate and Bosco anaerobic tests.

    PubMed

    Sands, William A; McNeal, Jeni R; Ochi, Marshall T; Urbanek, Terri L; Jemni, Monem; Stone, Michael H

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the Wingate cycling and Bosco repeated jumps anaerobic tests. Eleven men (21.36 +/- 1.6 years; 179.1 +/- 9.3 cm; 78.7 +/- 11.0 kg) and 9 women (21.89 +/- 3.66 years; 171.8 +/- 10.0 cm; 75.9 +/- 21.4 kg), all university athletes, volunteered to participate. Subjects performed each test in random order. The tests consisted of a 30-second Wingate test and a 60-second Bosco test. The Wingate test was conducted using a Monark cycle ergometer and the Bosco test was conducted on a force platform. Following the performance of each test, peak lactate concentrations were determined. Average and peak power values were statistically greater in men and on the Bosco test. Peak lactate values were statistically greater in men but did not differ based on test. Correlations between peak lactate concentrations between tests and lactate values with peak or average power were not statistically significant. The relationship between peak power between tests was statistically significant among men, but not women. The results of the study indicated that the Bosco and Wingate tests, which both measure anaerobic characteristics, appear to measure different aspects of anaerobic power and capacity. The Bosco test also may be inappropriate for athletes who are not well trained in jumping.

  4. Analysis of seated and standing triple Wingate tests.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert W; Snyder, Ann C; Dorman, Jason C

    2009-05-01

    Observations of athletes in seated and standing cycling positions in laboratory and field settings have led to the perception that they produce different outputs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in power output and physiological responses between seated and standing positions of athletes during 3 consecutive Wingate tests. Seven (n = 7) elite-level speedskaters completed 3 x 30-second Wingate tests (resistance = 7.5% body weight) with 3.5 minutes of recovery between each test in both seated and standing positions. During the recovery period, athletes pedaled against no resistance in the seated position. Testing was randomized and separated by at least 48 hours. Power output, heart rate, blood lactate, and muscle oxygenation data were collected. Statistical analysis of comparable tests (i.e., seated Wingate test 1 [WinD1] compared with standing Wingate test 1 [WinU1]; WinD2:WinU2; WinD3:WinU3) revealed no significant differences between the seated and standing variables. Position during a short-duration maximal-effort exercise test on a stationary bike did not produce statistically different results in power, maximal heart rate, blood lactate, or muscle oxygenation. As no differences were detected between positions, practitioners can allow subjects to choose their position. Also, if a subject rises out of the seat during a "seated" test, this change may not affect the subject's physiological variables. However, transitioning from one position to the other during the test is not advised due to the possible chance of injury. It should be acknowledged that there may be reasons for stipulating one position over another (e.g., injuries, leg length).

  5. Effects of acute salbutamol intake during a Wingate test.

    PubMed

    Collomp, K; Le Panse, B; Portier, H; Lecoq, A-M; Jaffre, C; Beaupied, H; Richard, O; Benhamou, L; Courteix, D; De Ceaurriz, J

    2005-09-01

    To investigate the impact of acute salbutamol intake on performance and selected hormonal and metabolic variables during supramaximal exercise, 13 recreational male athletes performed two 30-second Wingate tests after either placebo (PLA, lactose) or salbutamol (SAL, 4 mg) oral administration, according to a double-blind and randomized protocol. Blood samples collected at rest, end of the Wingate test, recovery (5, 10, 15 min) were tested for growth hormone (GH), insulin (INS), blood glucose (GLU), and lactate determination. We found the peak and mean power performed significantly increased after SAL vs. PLA (PPSAL: 896 +/- 46; PPPLA: 819 +/- 57 W; MPSAL: 585 +/- 27; MPPLA: 534 +/- 35 W, p < 0.05), whereas no change was observed in the fatigue index. Blood glucose and INS were significantly increased by SAL at rest, at the end of the Wingate test, and during the 5 first minutes of recovery (p < 0.05). Plasma GH was significantly decreased by SAL (p < 0.05) during the recovery whereas end-exercise and recovery blood lactate tended but were not significantly increased after SAL vs. PLA. From these data, acute salbutamol intake at therapeutical dosage did appear to improve peak power and mean power during a supramaximal exercise, but the mechanisms involved need further investigation.

  6. Effect of the Wingate test on mechanomyography and electromyography.

    PubMed

    Rana, Sharon R

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine mechanomyographic (MMG) and electromyographic (EMG) amplitude responses of the superficial quadriceps femoris muscles during the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). Ten healthy adults (age 21 +/- 1.2 years) volunteered to perform the WAnT on a calibrated Monark 894E cycle ergometer while the EMG and MMG signals were recorded. The EMG and MMG amplitude and power output (W) values per 5-second segments of the test were averaged and normalized to the highest value found during the test, respectively. The statistical analysis indicated that EMG amplitude did not change significantly over the 30-second test, but W and MMG amplitude decreased significantly. There is dissociation between EMG and MMG amplitude over the 30-second anaerobic test, providing evidence that MMG amplitude could be used as a monitor of W during such a task. MMG amplitude could potentially be used as a direct monitor of mechanical activity, which could be of benefit to those who train athletes when a direct assessment of mechanical contribution from a given muscle to a fatiguing activity is desired (such as when monitoring an injury), but it must be studied under various conditions, such as the current study, before such applications are made.

  7. Postexercise syncope: Wingate syncope test and effective countermeasure.

    PubMed

    Lacewell, Alisha N; Buck, Tahisha M; Romero, Steven A; Halliwill, John R

    2014-01-01

    Altered systemic haemodynamics following exercise can compromise cerebral perfusion and result in syncope. As the Wingate anaerobic test often induces presyncope, we hypothesized that a modified Wingate test could form the basis of a novel model for the study of postexercise syncope and a test bed for potential countermeasures. Along these lines, breathing through an impedance threshold device has been shown to increase tolerance to hypovolaemia, and could prove beneficial in the setting of postexercise syncope. Therefore, we hypothesized that a modified Wingate test followed by head-up tilt would produce postexercise syncope, and that breathing through an impedance threshold device (countermeasure) would prevent postexercise syncope in healthy individuals. Nineteen recreationally active men and women underwent a 60 deg head-up tilt during recovery from the Wingate test while arterial pressure, heart rate, end-tidal CO2 and cerebral tissue oxygenation were measured on a control day and a countermeasure day. The duration of tolerable tilt was increased by a median time of 3 min 48 s with countermeasure in comparison to the control (P < 0.05), and completion of the tilt test increased from 42 to 67% with the countermeasure. During the tilt, mean arterial pressure was greater (108.0 ± 4.1 versus 100.4 ± 2.4 mmHg; P < 0.05) with the countermeasure in comparison to the control. These data suggest that the Wingate syncope test produces a high incidence of presyncope, which is sensitive to countermeasures such as inspiratory impedance.

  8. Anaerobic testing using the Wingate and Evans-Quinney protocols with and without toe stirrups.

    PubMed

    LaVoie, N; Dallaire, J; Brayne, S; Barrett, D

    1984-03-01

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on the measurement of maximal anaerobic power. The Evans-Quinney (1981) protocol which considers leg volume as well as body weight in establishing optimal load settings on the bicycle ergometer has been shown to result in significantly higher anaerobic power outputs than the body weight-relative Wingate protocol. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the anaerobic power outputs during bicycle ergometer work using the Wingate and Evans-Quinney protocols with and without toe stirrups. Fifty male physical education and varsity athletes (average age 22.6 years) volunteered to participate in this experiment. All subjects performed a total of four maximal 30-second anaerobic power tests utilizing the force settings established by the Wingate (load [L] = 0.075 kp/kg body weight) and Evans-Quinney (L = -0.4914-0.2151 (weight, kg) + 2.1124 (leg volume, litre) protocol. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of four counterbalanced orders of test administration. Analysis of data indicated significant differences (P less than or equal to .05) among the variables of: 5-second peak power (W), 30-second anaerobic capacity (W) and percent fatigue as a function of test protocol. Significantly higher values were obtained for all variables under the Evans-Quinney test procedure using toe stirrups while the Wingate test procedure without toe stirrups showed significantly lower values for all variables. It was concluded that the Evans-Quinney load setting protocol with toe stirrups resulted in significantly higher power measures than any of the other treatments tested.

  9. Effects of load on wingate test performances and reliability.

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Hamdi; Rouis, Majdi; Coudrat, Laure; Attiogbé, Elvis; Vandewalle, Henry; Driss, Tarak

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 2 braking forces (8.7 and 11% of body mass, BM) on Wingate test performance, peak lactate ([La]pk), peak heart rate (HRpk), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE). Sixteen male physical education students (age: 22.7 ± 1.3 years, height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m, BM: 74.3 ± 9.6 kg) performed, in a randomized order, 2 Wingate tests at 8.7% BM and 2 Wingate tests at 11% BM on a Monark cycle ergometer on 4 separate sessions. The results showed that the reliability level of mechanical measures was not affected by the braking force and was relatively similar for each variable in both braking forces (0.886 < ICC < 0.985). In addition, peak power, mean power, fatigue slope, and RPE were significantly higher (8.2, 7.0, 11.9, and 4.1%, respectively, all < 0.05) using a braking force of 11% BM compared with 8.7% BM, whereas there was no significant effect of braking force on [La]pk and HRpk. In conclusion, the results of this study suggested that the reliability of the Wingate test does not depend on the used load, and a braking force of 11% BM is more optimal for power output during Wingate test in active adults.

  10. Peak power during repeated wingate trials: implications for testing.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Ryan M; Rundell, Kenneth W; Evans, Tina M; Levine, Alan M

    2010-02-01

    Maximal power production is of primary importance for many sporting events. Therefore, using a test that has been shown to be both valid and reliable will allow for accurate baseline testing, measurement of progress, and evaluation of performance. This study examined peak power (PP) during repeated Wingate trials after no warm-up (NWU), a steady state warm-up, and an interval warm-up. In a randomized placebo-controlled study, 11 subjects (38 +/- 8.2 years) performed two 10-second Wingate trials with 4 minutes of recovery between efforts. Warm-up protocols were completed before each Wingate trial and were immediately followed by trial I. Peak power was measured during each trial. Results indicate that PP is not significantly (p > 0.05) different from trial I to trial II for either of the warm-up protocols. The NWU trial II was significantly greater than the NWU trial I (855 +/- 230 W > 814 +/- 222 W, p < 0.05) when analyzed with a paired samples t-test. Peak power appears to be greatest after a general self-selected warm-up, but not after a previously intense bike warm-up. When testing for maximal power output via the Wingate anaerobic test, one should allow for a familiarization trial and should ensure full recovery between this trial and the baseline evaluation.

  11. Estimating Hemodynamic Responses to the Wingate Test Using Thoracic Impedance

    PubMed Central

    Astorino, Todd A.; Bovee, Curtis; DeBoe, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Techniques including direct Fick and Doppler echocardiography are frequently used to assess hemodynamic responses to exercise. Thoracic impedance has been shown to be a noninvasive alternative to these methods for assessing these responses during graded exercise to exhaustion, yet its feasibility during supramaximal bouts of exercise is relatively unknown. We used thoracic impedance to estimate stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) during the Wingate test (WAnT) and compared these values to those from graded exercise testing (GXT). Active men (n = 9) and women (n = 7) (mean age = 24.8 ± 5.9 yr) completed two Wingate tests and two graded exercise tests on a cycle ergometer. During exercise, heart rate (HR), SV, and CO were continuously estimated using thoracic impedance. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to identify potential differences in hemodynamic responses across protocols. Results: Maximal SV (138.6 ± 37.4 mL vs. 135.6 ± 26.9 mL) and CO (24.5 ± 6.1 L·min-1 vs. 23.7 ± 5.1 L·min-1) were similar (p > 0.05) between repeated Wingate tests. Mean maximal HR was higher (p < 0.01) for GXT (185 ± 7 b·min-1) versus WAnT (177 ± 11 b·min-1), and mean SV was higher in response to WAnT (137.1 ± 32.1 mL) versus GXT (123.0 ± 32.0 mL), leading to similar maximal cardiac output between WAnT and GXT (23.9 ± 5.6 L·min-1 vs. 22.5 ± 6.0 L·min-1). Our data show no difference in hemodynamic responses in response to repeated administrations of the Wingate test. In addition, the Wingate test elicits similar cardiac output compared to progressive cycling to VO2max. Key points Measurement of cardiac output (CO), the rate of oxygen transport delivered by the heart to skeletal muscle, is not widely-employed in Exercise Physiology due to the level of difficulty and invasiveness characteristic of most techniques used to measure this variable. Nevertheless, thoracic impedance has been shown to provide a noninvasive and simpler approach to continuously

  12. Allometric Scaling of Wingate Anaerobic Power Test Scores in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzler, Ronald K.; Stickley, Christopher D.; Kimura, Iris F.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we developed allometric exponents for scaling Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) power data that are reflective in controlling for body mass (BM) and lean body mass (LBM) and established a normative WAnT data set for college-age women. One hundred women completed a standard WAnT. Allometric exponents and percentile ranks for peak (PP)…

  13. Comparison of two anaerobic water polo-specific tests with the Wingate test.

    PubMed

    Bampouras, Theodoros M; Marrin, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to compare 2 water polo-specific tests-the 14 x 25-m swims (SWIM) and the 30-second crossbar jumps (30CJ)-with a laboratory-based test of anaerobic power, the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). Thirteen elite women's water polo players (mean +/- SD: age 22.0 +/- 4.4 years, height 168.7 +/- 7.9 cm, body mass 65.9 +/- 6.1 kg, body fat 23.6 +/- 3.5 %, maximum oxygen uptake 51.4 +/- 4.5 mlxkgxmin) participated in the study. The SWIM involved 14 repeated "all-out" sprints every 30 seconds. Swimming time was recorded, and sprint velocity, mean velocity (Vmean), and the gradient of the linear regression equation (GRADIENT) were calculated. The 30CJ involved repeated in-water water polo jumps and touching the goal crossbar with both hands. The number of touches in 30 seconds was recorded. Additionally, the subjects completed a 30-second WAnT, and mean power (Mp) and fatigue index (FI) were calculated. Kendall tau (tau) rank correlation was used to examine for correlation between ranks. Significance level was set at p tests. It was suggested that the WAnT may not be an appropriate evaluation tool for anaerobic power assessment of water polo players, stressing the importance of sport-specific tests.

  14. Wingate Anaerobic Test Percentile Norms in Colombian Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Albán, Carlos A; La Rotta-Villamizar, Diego R; Romero-García, Jesús A; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) became one of the most convenient tests used to evaluate anaerobic capacity and the effectiveness of anaerobic training programs for a variety of power sports. However, its use and interpretation as an evaluative measurement are limited because there are few published reference values derived from large numbers of subjects in nonathletic populations. We present reference values for the WAnT in Colombian healthy adults (aged 20-80 years old). The sample comprised 1,873 subjects (64% men) from Cali, Colombia, who were recruited for the study between 2002 and 2012. The 30-second WAnT was performed on a Monark ergometer. The WAnT resistance was set at 0.075 kp · kg(-1) body mass (BM). The mean absolute peak power (PP), relative PP normalized to the BM, and the fatigue index (FI%) were calculated using the LMS method (L [curve Box-Cox], M [curve median], and S [curve coefficient of variation]) and expressed as tabulated percentiles from 3 to 97 and as smoothed centile curves (P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90, P97). Mean ± SD values for the patients' anthropometric data were 38.1 ± 11.7 years of age, 72.7 ± 14.2 kg weight, 1.68 ± 0.09 m height, and 25.6 ± 4.2 body mass index. Our results show that mean absolute PP value, relative PP relative values normalized to BM, and FI were 527.4 ± 131.7 W, 7.6 ± 2.3 W · kg(-1), and 29.0 ± 15.7%, respectively. Men performed better than women in terms of PP and FI values. Nevertheless, the mean PP decreased with age and sex. Age-specific PP and FI normative values among healthy Colombian adults are defined. A more specific set of reference values is useful for clinicians and researchers studying anaerobic capacity in healthy adults.

  15. [Maximal anaerobic capacity of man in a modified Wingate test].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, B B; Chelnokova, E V

    1992-01-01

    We studied the possibility of using a 380B Siemens-Elema (Sweden) bicycle ergometer to determine the maximal anaerobic capacity of healthy subjects during a modified Wingate test. Exercise was performed under stable moment conditions, with calculation of braking resistance on the basis of the subjects lean body mass. The values of total work performed and maximal power may be used for comparative evaluation of physical work capacity in participants of training and rehabilitation programs.

  16. Maximal power outputs during the Wingate anaerobic test.

    PubMed

    Patton, J F; Murphy, M M; Frederick, F A

    1985-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the resistance loads which elicit maximal values of power output (PO) during performance of the Wingate test (WT). Nineteen male subjects (mean age, 25.1 yrs; mean VO2 max, 3.52 l/min) performed multiple WTs in a random order at resistances ranging from 3.23 to 6.76 joules/pedal rev/kg BW. Tests were carried out on a Monark cycle ergometer modified to permit instantaneous application of resistance. Revolutions were determined by a computer interfaced frequency counter. The mean resistances eliciting the highest peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) outputs were 5.65 and 5.53 joules/pedal rev/kg BW, respectively (average of 5.59 joules/pedal rev/kg BW). Both PP and MP were significantly higher (15.5% and 13.0%, respectively) using a resistance load of 5.59 compared to the Wingate setting of 4.41 joules/pedal rev/kg BW. The test-retest reliability for PP and MP ranged between 0.91 and 0.93 at both resistance loads. Body weight and thigh volume did not significantly estimate the individual resistances eliciting maximal POs. The data suggest that resistance be assigned according to the subjects BW but consideration be given to increasing the resistance from that presently used in various laboratories.

  17. Wingate Test is a Strong Predictor of 1500m Performance in Elite Speed Skaters.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Nico; Orie, Jac; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Foster, Carl; de Koning, Jos J

    2017-03-02

    Wingate test scores are strongly associated with anaerobic capacity in athletes involved in speed-endurance sports. In speed skating Wingate results are known to predict performance cross-sectionally, but have not been investigated relative to their ability to predict performance longitudinally.

  18. Mechanically braked elliptical Wingate test: modification considerations, load optimization, and reliability.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Ozgur; Colakoglu, Muzaffer; Kuzucu, Erinc O; Yildiztepe, Engin

    2012-05-01

    The 30-second, all-out Wingate test evaluates anaerobic performance using an upper or lower body cycle ergometer (cycle Wingate test). A recent study showed that using a modified electromagnetically braked elliptical trainer for Wingate testing (EWT) leads to greater power outcomes because of larger muscle group recruitment. The main purpose of this study was to modify an elliptical trainer using an easily understandable mechanical brake system instead of an electromagnetically braked modification. Our secondary aim was to determine a proper test load for the EWT to reveal the most efficient anaerobic test outcomes such as peak power (PP), average power (AP), minimum power (MP), power drop (PD), and fatigue index ratio (FI%) and to evaluate the retest reliability of the selected test load. Delta lactate responses (ΔLa) were also analyzed to confirm all the anaerobic performance of the athletes. Thirty healthy and well-trained male university athletes were selected to participate in the study. By analysis of variance, an 18% body mass workload yielded significantly greater test outcomes (PP = 19.5 ± 2.4 W·kg, AP = 13.7 ± 1.7 W·kg, PD = 27.9 ± 5 W·s, FI% = 58.4 ± 3.3%, and ΔLa = 15.4 ± 1.7 mM) than the other (12-24% body mass) tested loads (p < 0.05). Test and retest results for relative PP, AP, MP, PD, FI%, and ΔLa were highly correlated (r = 0.97, 0.98, 0.94, 0.91, 0.81, and 0.95, respectively). In conclusion, it was found that the mechanically braked modification of an elliptical trainer successfully estimated anaerobic power and capacity. A workload of 18% body mass was optimal for measuring maximal and reliable anaerobic power outcomes. Anaerobic testing using an EWT may be more useful to athletes and coaches than traditional cycle ergometers because a greater proportion of muscle groups are worked during exercise on an elliptical trainer.

  19. [Catecholamine response to the Wingate test in untrained women].

    PubMed

    Vincent, Sophie; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette; Berthon, Phanélie Marie; Zouhal, Hassane; Jacob, Christophe; Bentue-Ferrer, Danièle; Delamarche, Paul

    2003-10-01

    Supramaximal exercises are well known to induce a severe stress on the adrenal medulla and nervous sympathetic system. This stress induces increased plasma catecholamines concentrations. The responses of catecholamines to supramaximal exercises in women are still not well characterized and have been studied mostly in trained subjects. Hence the aim of the present study was to evaluate plasma catecholamine responses to a Wingate test in young and untrained women (n = 6) and men (n = 7). Venous plasma catecholamine concentrations were determined by HPLC, at rest, at the end of the warm-up and of the exercise, and during recovery (5, 10, 20, and 30 mn). Our results failed to show any significant difference in resting catecholamine concentrations ([A]p: 0.41 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.45 +/- 0.05 nmol. L-1; [NA]p: 3.28 +/- 0.68 vs. 2.58 +/- 0.26 nmol.L-1), kinetics, and maximal plasma catecholamine concentrations (Amax: 4.47 +/- 1.08 vs. 3.31 +/- 0.63 nmol.L-1; NAmax: 18.05 +/- 1.11 vs. 14.01 +/- 2.02 nmol.L-1) in response to the Wingate test between women and men, respectively. The Amax/NAmax ratio used as an index of adrenal medulla sensitivity to sympathetic input was also similar between genders. In conclusion, this study was able to demonstrate, in untrained subjects, that gender did not alder the sympatho-adrenergic response induced by a severe stress.

  20. Contribution of energy systems during a Wingate power test.

    PubMed

    Smith, J C; Hill, D W

    1991-12-01

    Six men performed a total of 23 modified Wingate power tests against 5.5 kp (53.9 N) resistance on a Monark 864 ergometer. Breath-by-breath VO2 was measured using a SensorMedics 4400 metabolic cart. Peak anaerobic power (highest 5 s; mean(s.e.m.)) was 819(16) W (11.1(0.6) W kg-1) and anaerobic capacity (work in 30 s; mean(s.e.m.)) was 18.2(0.2) kJ (248(11) J kg-1). Contributions of ATP-PC, glycolytic and aerobic systems each 5 s were estimated. ATP-PC power (mean(s.e.m.)) peaked at 750(14) W (10.2(0.6) W kg-1) in the first 5 s; glycolytic power (mean(s.e.m.] peaked at 497(11) W (6.8(0.7) W kg-1) between 10 and 15 s into the test; aerobic power (mean(s.e.m.)) peaked at 157(5) W (2.1(0.3) W kg-1) during the last 5 s of the test, and VO2 exceeded 90% VO2peak Over the entire 30 s, aerobic contribution was 16%, glycolytic contribution was 56%, and ATP-PC contribution was 28%. It is concluded that glycolytic power peaks within the first 15 s of high power exercise; also, aerobic metabolism responds quickly during 'anaerobic' exercise and makes a significant contribution to the work performed.

  1. Effects of benzodiazepine during a Wingate test: interaction with caffeine.

    PubMed

    Collomp, K R; Ahmaidi, S B; Caillaud, C F; Audran, M A; Chanal, J L; Préfaut, C G

    1993-12-01

    To assess the effects of benzodiazepine alone and associated with caffeine on performance and substrate responses during supramaximal exercise, seven healthy volunteers performed the Wingate test after ingestion of placebo (Pla), benzodiazepine alone, i.e., 1 mg of lorazepam (Bz), and benzodiazepine followed by 250 mg of caffeine (Bz-Caf). Peak power (PP), mean power (MP), and percentage of power decrease (%PD) were determined, and substrate responses were estimated by blood lactate and catecholamine concentrations. Four hours after Bz ingestion, there was a significant decrease in PP (PPBz: 626 +/- 72 vs PPPla: 669 +/- 78 W), maximal blood lactate (La max) (La maxBz: 9.5 +/- 1.5 vs La maxPla: 12.4 +/- 1.8 mmol.l-1), and end-exercise epinephrine (E) (EBz: 339 +/- 113 vs EPla: 672 +/- 247 ng.l-1). No other changes were noted. Caffeine ingestion 1 h before the test (Bz-Caf) corrected the decrease in La max (La maxBz-Caf: 11.5 +/- 1.4 mmol.l-1) and E (EBz-Caf: 573 +/- 190 ng.l-1) but was unable to prevent the impairment of performance (PPBz-Caf: 625 +/- 68 W vs PPPla). Moderate benzodiazepine intake significantly altered performance and substrate responses during supramaximal exercise. Moderate caffeine intake antagonized the metabolic but not the performance effects of 1 mg of lorazepam.

  2. Reliability of Wingate testing in adolescents with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Myriam; Gine-Garriga, Maria; Fernhall, Bo

    2009-02-01

    The Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) has not been used to assess individuals with Down syndrome (DS) and it is unknown if it is reliable in this population. We investigated the reliability of the WAnT in 19 adolescents with DS (age = 14.8 yrs; weight = 52.7 kg; height = 146.3 cm). Participants completed, on separate days, two standards WAnT using a resistance of 0.7 Nm x body weight (kg) in individuals > 14 years old, and 0.5 Nm x body weight (kg) in participants < 14 years of age. Data were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), dependent t tests and Bland-Altman plots. There was a significant difference between days for peak power (210.37 W vs. 236.26 W; ICC = 0.93), but not for mean power (158.72 vs. 168.71 W; ICC = 0.86), time to peak power (6.67 vs. 6.28 s; ICC = 0.69), or the fatigue index (9.33 vs. 5.43 W/sec; ICC = 0.09). Adolescents with DS exhibit low WAnT performance compared with previously published data on adolescents without DS and the reliability of WAnT is questionable in this population.

  3. Isometric knee extensor fatigue following a Wingate test: peripheral and central mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-del-Olmo, M; Rodriguez, F A; Marquez, G; Iglesias, X; Marina, M; Benitez, A; Vallejo, L; Acero, R M

    2013-02-01

    Central and peripheral fatigue have been explored during and after running or cycling exercises. However, the fatigue mechanisms associated with a short maximal cycling exercise (30 s Wingate test) have not been investigated. In this study, 10 volunteer subjects performed several isometric voluntary contractions using the leg muscle extensors before and after two bouts of cycling at 25% of maximal power output and two bouts of Wingate tests. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electrical motor nerve stimulation (NM) were applied at rest and during the voluntary contractions. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation (VA), twitch amplitude evoked by electrical nerve stimulation, M wave and motor potential evoked by TMS (MEP) were recorded. MVC, VA and twitch amplitude evoked at rest by NM decreased significantly after the first and second Wingate tests, indicating central and peripheral fatigue. MVC and VA, but not the twitch amplitude evoked by NM, recovered before the second Wingate test. These results suggest that the Wingate test results in a decrease in MVC associated with peripheral and central fatigue. While the peripheral fatigue is associated with an intramuscular impairment, the central fatigue seems to be the main reason for the Wingate test-induced impairment of MVC.

  4. Wingate Anaerobic Test peak power and anaerobic capacity classifications for men and women intercollegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Zupan, Michael F; Arata, Alan W; Dawson, Letitia H; Wile, Alfred L; Payn, Tamara L; Hannon, Megan E

    2009-12-01

    The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) has been established as an effective tool in measuring both muscular power and anaerobic capacity in a 30-second time period; however, there are no published normative tables by which to compare WAnT performance in men and women intercollegiate athletics. The purpose of this study was to develop a classification system for anaerobic peak power and anaerobic capacity for men and women National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I college athletes using the WAnT. A total of 1,585 (1,374 men and 211 women) tests were conducted on athletes ranging from the ages of 18 to 25 years using the WAnT. Absolute and relative peak power and anaerobic capacity data were recorded. One-half standard deviations were used to set up a 7-tier classification system (poor to elite) for these assessments. These classifications can be used by athletes, coaches, and practitioners to evaluate anaerobic peak power and anaerobic capacity in their athletes.

  5. Validity of the Wingate anaerobic test for the evaluation of elite runners.

    PubMed

    Legaz-Arrese, Alejandro; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Carranza-García, Luis E; Torres-Dávila, Celeste G

    2011-03-01

    This study aimed to determine performance differences, based on the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), between homogeneous groups of elite male and female runners competing at distances ranging from 100 m to the marathon. We also attempted to establish a link between running ability and performance as measured by the WAnT. In total, 116 world-class runners (86 men and 30 woman) volunteered to participate in our study. Subjects were tested for peak power (PP, 5-second output) and mean power (MP, 30-second output) using WAnT procedures. Runners were classified into groups according to their best performances times. For male runners, PP and MP outputs decreased with increasing distance (p < 0.001). This trend was also true for female runners (p < 0.005). However, for both sexes, there were no significant differences in the PP values among 100-, 400-, and 800-m runners, and there were also no differences in the MP values for subjects that ran distances of 100 m compared with the values for subjects that ran distances of 400 and 800 m. In addition, no significant differences were observed in the PP and MP values between subjects that ran distances of 800, 1,500, and 3,000 m. Performance in the WAnT was not significantly associated with running performance in any distance event. The results of this study indicate that the WAnT is not a useful tool for the evaluation of elite runners.

  6. Effects of short-term salbutamol ingestion during a Wingate test.

    PubMed

    Le Panse, B; Collomp, K; Portier, H; Lecoq, A-M; Jaffre, C; Beaupied, H; Richard, O; Benhamou, L; De Ceaurriz, J; Courteix, D

    2005-09-01

    The effects of a chronic salbutamol intake (SAL, 12 mg/d during 3 weeks) on changes in body composition, metabolic indices and performance during a 30-second Wingate test were determined in 8 strength-trained male athletes (T) and 7 sedentary male (UT) subjects, according to a double-blind, randomized, cross-over protocol. Blood samples were collected both at rest, at the end of the test, and during passive recovery (5 min, 10 min, 15 min) for leptin (at rest), and blood lactate measurements. No significant changes in lean body mass, fat mass, and leptin were observed with SAL treatment in either group during the trial. Peak power was significantly increased (p < 0.05) after SAL intake in all subjects (T: 11.9 %; UT: 8.3 %) with a decrease in time to peak power with SAL compared to placebo (PLA) (p < 0.05). There was no change in total work performed and in fatigue indices with SAL compared to PLA. Blood lactate was significantly increased after SAL vs. PLA during the recovery (p < 0.05) in all subjects. The data demonstrate that the chronic administration of therapeutic levels of salbutamol increases maximal anaerobic power in man, irrespective of the subjects' training status. This study also rules out any implication of an anabolic effect in this improvement in performance during supramaximal exercise. Further studies are necessary to clarify the mechanisms involved.

  7. Changes in power assessed by the Wingate Anaerobic Test following downhill running.

    PubMed

    Nottle, Carmel; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2007-02-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage on power despite power being a key performance variable in a number of sporting events. The aim of this study was to examine changes in anaerobic power (30-second Wingate Test), isometric strength of the knee extensors and flexors, muscle soreness, and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity following downhill running. Eight men performed a 40-minute downhill (-7%) run on a treadmill, and measurements were taken on 6 occasions (2 baseline and 0.5, 24, 72, and 120 hours postrun). A second group of men (n = 5) had the measurements taken on 6 occasions without downhill running and served as a control group. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant changes in any measures across time for the control group. Following downhill running, significant (p < 0.05) decreases in strength (0.5-24 hours), and significant increases in muscle soreness (0.5-72 hours) and plasma CK activity (0.5-120 hours) were observed. A significant decrease in peak and average power (approximately 5%) was evident only 0.5 hours postrun, and the decrease was smaller in magnitude than that of strength (approximately 15%). These results suggest that power is less affected than strength after eccentric exercise, and the effect of reduced power on sport performance seems negligible.

  8. Assessing accuracy of measurements for a Wingate Test using the Taguchi method.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Kathryn L; Gordon, Rae S; Davies, Bruce; Baker, Julien S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the effects of four variables on the results obtained for a Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). This study used a 30 second WAnT and compared data collection and analysed in different ways in order to form conclusions as to the relative importance of the variables on the results. Data was collected simultaneously by a commercially available software correction system manufactured by Cranlea Ltd., (Birmingham, England) system and an alternative method of data collection which involves the direct measurement of the flywheel velocity and the brake force. Data was compared using a design of experiments technique, the Taguchi method. Four variables were examined - flywheel speed, braking force, moment of inertia of the flywheel, and time intervals over which the work and power were calculated. The choice of time interval was identified as the most influential variable on the results. While the other factors have an influence on the results, the decreased time interval over which the data is averaged gave 9.8% increase in work done, 40.75% increase in peak power and 13.1% increase in mean power.

  9. Low sampling rates bias outcomes from the Wingate test.

    PubMed

    Santos, E L; Novaes, J S; Reis, V M; Giannella-Neto, A

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to apply a simple method for acquisition of power output (PO) during the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) at a high sampling rate ( S(R)) and to compare the effect of lower S(R) on the measurements extracted from the PO. 26 male subjects underwent 2 WAnTs on a cycle ergometer. The reference PO was calculated at 30 Hz as a function of the linear velocity, the moment of inertia and the frictional load. The PO was sampled at 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 Hz. Both the peak (16.03±2.22 W·kg (-1)) and mean PO (10.34±1.01 W·kg (-1)) presented lower relative values when the S(R) was lower. Peak PO was attenuated by 0.29-42.07% for decreasing sampling rates, resulting in different values for 0.2 and 1 Hz ( P<0.001). When the S(R) was 0.2 Hz, the time to peak was delayed by 53.81% ( P<0.001) and the fatigue index was attenuated by 22.12% ( P<0.001). In conclusion, due to the differences achieved here and the fact that the peak flywheel frequency is around 2.3 Hz, we strongly recommend that the PO be sampled at 5 Hz instead of 0.2 Hz in order to avoid biased errors and misunderstandings of the WAnT results.

  10. How anaerobic is the Wingate Anaerobic Test for humans?

    PubMed

    Beneke, R; Pollmann, C; Bleif, I; Leithäuser, R M; Hütler, M

    2002-08-01

    The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) is generally used to evaluate anaerobic cycling performance, but knowledge of the metabolic profile of WAnT is limited. Therefore the energetics of WAnT was analysed with respect to working efficiency and performance. A group of 11 male subjects [mean (SD), age 21.6 (3.8) years, height 178.6 (6.6) cm, body mass 82.2 (12.1) kg] performed a maximal incremental exercise test and a WAnT. Lactic and alactic anaerobic energy outputs were calculated from net lactate production and the fast component of the kinetics of post-exercise oxygen uptake. Aerobic metabolism was determined from oxygen uptake during exercise. The WAnT mean power of 683 (96.0) W resulted from a total energy output above the value at rest of 128.1 (23.2) kJ x 30 s(-1) [mean metabolic power=4.3 (0.8) kW] corresponding to a working efficiency of 16.2 (1.6)%. The WAnT working efficiency was lower (P < 0.01) than the corresponding value of 24.1 (1.7)% at 362 (41) W at the end of an incremental exercise test. During WAnT the fractions of the energy from aerobic, anaerobic alactic and lactic acid metabolism were 18.6 (2.5)%, 31.1 (4.6)%, and 50.3 (5.1)%, respectively. Energy from metabolism of anaerobic lactic acid explained 83% and 81% of the variance of WAnT peak and mean power, respectively. The results indicate firstly that WAnT requires the use of more anaerobically derived energy than previously estimated, secondly that anaerobic metabolism is dominated by glycolysis, thirdly that WAnT mechanical efficiency is lower than that found in aerobic exercise tests, and fourthly that the latter finding partly explains discrepancies between previously published and the present data about the metabolic profile of WAnT.

  11. Analysis of anaerobic capacity in rowers using Wingate test on cycle and rowing ergometer.

    PubMed

    Klasnja, Aleksandar; Barak, Otto; Popadić-Gaćesa, Jelena; Drapsin, Miodrag; Knezević, Aleksandar; Grujić, Nikola

    2010-01-01

    The 30-s all-out Wingate test has been used in athletes of all sport specialties to measure the capacity for short duration, high power output while cycling. The aim of this study was to establish differences in measuring anaerobic capacity between the classic Wingate test on a cycling ergometer and the modified Wingate test on a rowing ergometer in rowers. A group of20 rowers was tested by both the cycle and rowing ergometers during 30s of maximum power to test anaerobic capacity and to make correlation between these tests. The parameters measured were the peak power and mean power. The peak power on the cycling ergometer was 475 +/- 75.1W and 522.4 +/- 81W (p < 0.05) on the rowing ergometer. The mean power on the cycling ergometer and the rowing ergometer was 344.4 +/- 51.1W and 473.7W +/- 67.2, (p < 0.05) respectively. The maximum values were achieved at the same time on both ergometers, but remained on the higher level till the end of the test on the rowing ergometer. By correlating the anaerobic parameters of the classic Wingate test and a modified Wingate test on the rowing ergometer a significant positive correlation was detected in the peak power (r = 0.63, p < 0.05) as well as in the mean power (r = 0.65, p < 0.05). The results show that the rowers achieved better results of the anaerobic parameters on the rowing ergometer compared to the cycling ergometer due to a better mechanical efficiency. It is concluded that the modified Wingate test on the rowing ergometer can be used in rowers for testing their anaerobic capacity as a sport specific test ergometer since it provides more precise results.

  12. Allometric scaling of Wingate anaerobic power test scores in men.

    PubMed

    Stickley, Christopher D; Hetzler, Ronald K; Wages, Jennifer J; Freemyer, Bret G; Kimura, Iris F

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the appropriate magnitude of allometric scaling of the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) power data for body mass (BM) and established normative data for the WAnT for adult men. Eighty-three men completed a standard WAnT using 0.1 kg·kg(-1) BM resistance. Allometric exponents and percentile ranks for 1-second peak power (PP), 5-second PP, and mean power (MP) were established. The Predicted Residual Sum of Squares (PRESS) procedure was used to assess external validity while avoiding data splitting. The mean 1-second PP, 5-second PP, and MP were 1,049.1 ± 168.8 W, 1,013.4 ± 158.6 W, and 777.9 ± 105.0 W, respectively. Allometric exponents for 1-second PP, 5-second PP, and MP scaled for BM were b = 0.89, 0.88, and 0.86, respectively. Correlations between allometrically scaled 1-second PP, 5-second PP, and MP, and BM were r = -0.03, -0.03, and -0.02, respectively, suggesting that the allometric exponents derived were effective in partialling out the effect of BM on WAnT values. The PRESS procedure values resulted in small decreases in R² (0.03, 0.04, and 0.02 for 1-second PP, 5-second PP, and MP, respectively) suggesting acceptable levels of external validity when applied to independent samples. The allometric exponents and normative values provide a useful tool for comparing WAnT scores in college-aged females without the confounding effect of BM. It is suggested that exponents of b = 0.89 (1-second PP), b = 0.88 (5-second PP), and b = 0.86 (MP) be used for allometrically scaling WAnT power values in healthy adult men and that the confidence limits for these allometric exponents be considered as 0.66-1.0 for PP and 0.69-1.0 for MP. The use of these exponents in allometric scaling of male WAnT power values provide coaches and practitioners with valid means for comparing power production between individuals without the confounding influence of BM.

  13. The effect of different calculation methods of flywheel parameters on the Wingate Anaerobic Test.

    PubMed

    Coleman, S G; Hale, T

    1998-08-01

    Researchers compared different methods of calculating kinetic parameters of friction-braked cycle ergometers, and the subsequent effects on calculating power outputs in the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). Three methods of determining flywheel moment of inertia and frictional torque were investigated, requiring "run-down" tests and segmental geometry. Parameters were used to calculate corrected power outputs from 10 males in a 30-s WAnT against a load related to body mass (0.075 kg.kg-1). Wingate Indices of maximum (5 s) power, work, and fatigue index were also compared. Significant differences were found between uncorrected and corrected power outputs and between correction methods (p < .05). The same finding was evident for all Wingate Indices (p < .05). Results suggest that WAnT must be corrected to give true power outputs and that choosing an appropriate correction calculation is important. Determining flywheel moment of inertia and frictional torque using unloaded run-down tests is recommended.

  14. Lactate and catecholamine responses in male and female sprinters during a Wingate test.

    PubMed

    Gratas-Delamarche, A; Le Cam, R; Delamarche, P; Monnier, M; Koubi, H

    1994-01-01

    A total of six male and six female sprinters at the same national competition level and aged 18-20 years performed a force/velocity test and a 30-s supramaximal exercise test (Wingate test) on 2 different days, separated by a maximal interval of 15 days. The maximal anaerobic power (Wmax) was determined from the force/velocity test, and the mean anaerobic power (W) from the Wingate test. Immediately after the Wingate test, a 5-ml venous blood sample was drawn via a heparinized catheter in an antebrachial vein for subsequent catecholamine (adrenaline and noradrenaline) analysis. After 5 min recovery a few microliters of capillary blood were also taken for an immediate lactate determination. Even expressed per kilogram lean body mass, Wmax and W were significantly lower in women. The lactate and adrenaline responses induced by the Wingate test were also less pronounced in this group whereas the noradrenaline levels were not significantly different in men and women. Above all, very different relationships appeared between lactate, adrenaline, noradrenaline and W according to sex. Thus, as reported by other authors, the adrenergic response to a supramaximal exercise seemed to be lower in women than in men. Nevertheless a different training status between the two groups, even at same national competition level, could not be excluded and might contribute, at least in part, to the gender differences observed in the present study.

  15. An elliptical trainer may render the Wingate all-out test more anaerobic.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Ozgur; Colakoglu, Muzaffer; Kuzucu, Erinc O; Delextrat, Anne

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of the 3 main energy pathways during a 30-second elliptical all-out test (EAT) compared with the Wingate all-out test (WAT). Participants were 12 male team sport players (age, 20.3 ± 1.8 years; body mass, 74.8 ± 12.4 kg; height, 176.0 ± 9.10 cm; body fat, 12.1 ± 1.0%). Net energy outputs from the oxidative, phospholytic, and glycolytic energy systems were calculated from oxygen uptake data recorded during 30-second test, the fast component of postexercise oxygen uptake kinetics, and peak blood lactate concentration, respectively. In addition, mechanical power indices were calculated. The main results showed that compared with WAT, EAT was characterized by significantly lower absolute and relative contributions of the oxidative system (16.9 ± 2.5 J vs. 19.8 ± 4.9 J; p ≤ 0.05 and 11.2 ± 1.5% vs. 15.7 ± 3.28%; p ≤ 0.001). In addition, significantly greater absolute and relative contributions of the phospholytic system (66.1 ± 15.8 J vs. 50.7 ± 15.9 J; p ≤ 0.01 and 43.8 ± 6.62% vs. 39.1 ± 6.87%; p ≤ 0.05) and a significantly greater absolute contribution of the glycolytic system (68.6 ± 18.4 J vs. 57.4 ± 13.7 J; p ≤ 0.01) were observed in EAT compared with WAT. Finally, all power indices, except the fatigue index, were significantly greater in EAT than WAT (p ≤ 0.05). Because of the significantly lower aerobic contribution in EAT compared with WAT, elliptical trainers may be a good alternative to cycle ergometers to assess anaerobic performance in athletes involved in whole-body activities.

  16. Comparison of Sprint and Run Times with Performance on the Wingate Anaerobic Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharp, Gerald D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Male volunteers were studied to examine the relationship between the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) and sprint-run times and to determine the influence of age and weight. Results indicate the WAnT is a moderate predictor of dash and run times but becomes a stronger predictor when adjusted for body weight. (Author/MT)

  17. Test-retest reliability, criterion-related validity, and minimal detectable change of score on an abbreviated Wingate test for field sport participants.

    PubMed

    Hachana, Younes; Attia, Ahmed; Nassib, Sabri; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel

    2012-05-01

    Repeat measurements in 69 young adults were performed to assess the test-retest reliability and the 95% confidence interval of the difference in score between paired observations (MDC95) of a Wingate test as abbreviated for field sport participants (test of a 15-second duration [15-secT]). Test-retest reliability was excellent for peak power output (PPO) and mean power output (MPO), independently of their mode of expression and was moderate for the fatigue index (FI). The standard errors of measurement (SEM) for absolute, relative, and derived PPO and MPO values ranged from 2.6 to 3.7%, all being smaller than the corresponding smallest worthwhile change (SWC). In contrast, FI values were rated as "marginal," with an SEM (9.6%) greater than the SWC (1.7). The range of MDC95 values for PPO and MPO were 9.9-10.4 and 7.37-7.42%, respectively. The absolute MPO showed the highest test-retest reliability and was the most effective in detecting real change. A second phase of the study evaluated the criterion-related validity of the 15-secT in 43 young men who performed 15-secT and standard 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (30-secT) in random order, on 2 separate occasions. There were no significant intertest differences in absolute, relative, or derived PPO. However, the FI for the 30-secT was greater than that for the 15-secT. Intertest correlations were highly significant for both MPOs and FIs. These findings suggest that the abbreviated Wingate test offers a reliable and valid tool for the evaluation of PPO and MPO, at least in young physical education students.

  18. Lower Wingate Test Power Outcomes From "All-Out" Pretest Pedaling Cadence Compared With Moderate Cadence.

    PubMed

    Lunn, William R; Zenoni, Maria A; Crandall, Ian H; Dress, Ashley E; Berglund, Michelle L

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different pretest pedaling cadences on power outcomes obtained during the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). Vigorously exercising adult men (n = 14, 24.9 ± 1.2 years) and women (n = 14, 20.4 ± 0.6 years) participated in a randomized crossover study during which they performed the 30-second WAnT on a mechanically braked cycle ergometer (0.075 kg·kg(-1) body weight) under 2 conditions. Participants pedaled maximally with an unloaded flywheel during 5 seconds before resistance was applied and the test began (FAST). In another trial, participants maintained a moderate cadence (80 revolutions per minute [rpm]) during 5 seconds before the test began (MOD). All other components of the WAnT were identical. Peak power (PP), mean power (MP), minimum power (MinP), fatigue index (%FAT), and maximum cadence during test were recorded. Comparisons were made using a 2 × 2 factorial repeated-measures analysis of variance. Regardless of gender, the FAST condition resulted in 22.2% lower PP (612.6 ± 33.0 W vs. 788.3 ± 43.5 W), 13.3% lower MP (448.4 ± 22.2 W vs. 517.2 ± 26.4 W), 11.7% lower MinP (280.9 ± 14.8 W vs. 318.3 ± 17.2 W), and 9.0% lower %FAT (53.5 ± 1.3% vs. 58.8 ± 1.5%) than MOD condition (p < 0.01; mean ± SD). Similar outcomes were observed within gender. The authors conclude that practitioners of the WAnT should instruct participants to maintain a moderate pedal cadence (∼80 rpm) during 5 seconds before the test commences to avoid bias from software sampling and peripheral fatigue. Standardizing the pretest pedal cadence will be important to exercise testing professionals who compare data with norms or generate norms for specific populations.

  19. Time-of-Day Effects on EMG Parameters During the Wingate Test in Boys.

    PubMed

    Souissi, Hichem; Chtourou, Hamdi; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim; Souissi, Nizar; Amri, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    In boys, muscle power and strength fluctuate with time-of-day with morning nadirs and afternoon maximum values. However, the exact underlying mechanisms of this daily variation are not studied yet. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the time-of-day effects on electromyographic (EMG) parameters changes during a Wingate test in boys. Twenty-two boys performed a 30-s Wingate test (measurement of muscle power and fatigue) at 07:00 and 17:00-h on separate days. Surface EMG activity was recorded in the Vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and vastus medialis muscles throughout the test and analyzed over a 5-s span. The root-mean-square (RMS) and mean-power-frequency (MPF) were calculated. Neuromuscular efficiency (NME) was estimated from the ratio of power to RMS. Muscle power (8.22 ± 0.92 vs. 8.75 ± 0.99 W·kg(-1) for peak power and 6.96 ± 0. 72 vs. 7.31 ± 0.77 W·kg(-1) for mean power, p < 0.001) and fatigue (30.27 ± 7.98 vs. 34.5 ± 10. 15 %, p < 0.05) during the Wingate test increased significantly from morning to evening. Likewise, MPF (102.14 ± 18.15 vs. 92.38 ± 12.39 Hz during the first 5-s, p < 0.001) and NME (4.78 ± 1.7 vs. 3.88 ± 0.79 W·mV(-1) during the first 5-s, p < 0.001) were higher in the evening than the morning; but no significant time-of-day effect was noticed for RMS. Taken together, these results suggest that peripheral mechanisms are more likely the cause of the child's diurnal variations of muscle power and fatigue during the Wingate test. Key pointsIn boys, performances during the Wingate test fluctuate with the time-of-day.MPF and NME are higher in the evening during the Wingate cycling test.RMS is unaffected by the time-of-day.The evening improvement in muscle power and fatigue is due to an enhancement of the muscle contractile properties.

  20. Time-of-Day Effects on EMG Parameters During the Wingate Test in Boys

    PubMed Central

    Souissi, Hichem; Chtourou, Hamdi; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim; Souissi, Nizar; Amri, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    In boys, muscle power and strength fluctuate with time-of-day with morning nadirs and afternoon maximum values. However, the exact underlying mechanisms of this daily variation are not studied yet. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the time-of-day effects on electromyographic (EMG) parameters changes during a Wingate test in boys. Twenty-two boys performed a 30-s Wingate test (measurement of muscle power and fatigue) at 07:00 and 17:00-h on separate days. Surface EMG activity was recorded in the Vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and vastus medialis muscles throughout the test and analyzed over a 5-s span. The root-mean-square (RMS) and mean-power-frequency (MPF) were calculated. Neuromuscular efficiency (NME) was estimated from the ratio of power to RMS. Muscle power (8.22 ± 0.92 vs. 8.75 ± 0.99 W·kg-1 for peak power and 6.96 ± 0. 72 vs. 7.31 ± 0.77 W·kg-1 for mean power, p < 0.001) and fatigue (30.27 ± 7.98 vs. 34.5 ± 10. 15 %, p < 0.05) during the Wingate test increased significantly from morning to evening. Likewise, MPF (102.14 ± 18.15 vs. 92.38 ± 12.39 Hz during the first 5-s, p < 0.001) and NME (4.78 ± 1.7 vs. 3.88 ± 0.79 W·mV-1 during the first 5-s, p < 0.001) were higher in the evening than the morning; but no significant time-of-day effect was noticed for RMS. Taken together, these results suggest that peripheral mechanisms are more likely the cause of the child’s diurnal variations of muscle power and fatigue during the Wingate test. Key pointsIn boys, performances during the Wingate test fluctuate with the time-of-day.MPF and NME are higher in the evening during the Wingate cycling test.RMS is unaffected by the time-of-day.The evening improvement in muscle power and fatigue is due to an enhancement of the muscle contractile properties. PMID:24149343

  1. Effect of time of day on aerobic contribution to the 30-s Wingate test performance.

    PubMed

    Souissi, Nizar; Bessot, Nicolas; Chamari, Karim; Gauthier, Antoine; Sesboüé, Bruno; Davenne, Damien

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of time of day on aerobic contribution during high-intensity exercise. A group of 11 male physical education students performed a Wingate test against a resistance of 0.087 kg . kg(-1) body mass. Two different times of day were chosen, corresponding to the minimum (06:00 h) and the maximum (18:00 h) levels of power. Oxygen uptake (.VO(2)) was recorded breath by breath during the test (30 sec). Blood lactate concentrations were measured at rest, just after the Wingate test, and again 5 min later. Oral temperature was measured before each test and on six separate occasions at 02:00, 06:00, 10:00, 14:00, 18:00, and 22:00 h. A significant circadian rhythm was found in body temperature with a circadian acrophase at 18:16+/-00:25 h as determined by cosinor analysis. Peak power (P(peak)), mean power (P(mean)), total work done, and .VO(2) increased significantly from morning to afternoon during the Wingate Test. As a consequence, aerobic contribution recorded during the test increased from morning to afternoon. However, no difference in blood lactate concentrations was observed from morning to afternoon. Furthermore, power decrease was greater in the morning than afternoon. Altogether, these results indicate that the time-of-day effect on performances during the Wingate test is mainly due to better aerobic participation in energy production during the test in the afternoon than in the morning.

  2. A comparison of 'anaerobic' components of O2 debt and the Wingate test.

    PubMed

    Goslin, B R; Graham, T E

    1985-09-01

    This study compared measurements which were considered traditionally to reflect alactacid and lactacid components of anaerobic metabolism. Subjects (men (N = 9) and women (N = 5)) on one occasion performed an exhaustive cycle ergometer ride at VO2 max and had peak lactate and O2 debt (fast and slow components) determined. On a second occasion, they performed a Wingate test. All data were normalized for body weight. Very few correlations were found between O2 debt or peak lactate and the peak power, mean power and power decrease of the Wingate test. In particular, both peak lactate and the fast O2 debt component had low, nonsignificant correlations with either peak or mean power. The study failed to support the traditional assumptions that both tests are quantifying the same anaerobic energy systems.

  3. A comparison of two anaerobic test measurement systems using an upper body Wingate test.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Chris; Kay, Tony D; Walker, Natalie; Price, Mike J

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare performance measures acquired by two different Wingate Anaerobic Test systems; Cranlea and Monark. Twenty participants undertook 58 Wingate tests against a 4% body mass resistive load on a cycle ergometer adapted for arm cranking. Corrected peak power output (PP; W) was recorded using 1 rev min(-1), 0.5, 1 and 5 s averages and mean power output (MP; W). The Cranlea system recorded the greatest PP (589 ± 267 W) compared with the Monark (546 ± 267 W; P < 0.001). The PP using all other methods was also greater for the Cranlea compared with the Monark system (P < 0.001) with mean differences of 55 ± 18 W for 1 s averages and 22 ± 18 W for MP. Correlations between all PPs were strong (r = 0.99 - 0.97; P < 0.001). In conclusion, although the Cranlea system provides a consistently greater corrected PP it may not be enough to substantially differentiate between systems.

  4. Correcting the Wingate test for changes in kinetic energy of the ergometer flywheel.

    PubMed

    Bassett, D R

    1989-12-01

    The rotating flywheel of a cycle ergometer possesses kinetic energy (KE) by virtue of its rotation about the center of mass. The energy released as the flywheel velocity (FV) decreases during the course of a Wingate test is used to accomplish mechanical work. The subject should not be "credited" with this work since the energy storage occurred prior to the start of the 30-s test. The total KE (KE-total) in the flywheel of a Monark ergometer was determined using the formula KEtotal = 1/2 I omega 2. The KE available to do work (KEwork) was measured by loading the ergometer with 1 Kp (9.8 N), spinning it at predetermined rates, and observing the number of revolutions completed as it coasted to a stop. The difference between KEtotal and KE-work was attributable to friction. The mechanical power supplied by the flywheel in any 5-s period of the Wingate test was found to be: Flywheel power (W) = .00185 (FVstart2-FVend2)/5s where FV is expressed in rpm. This indicates that Wingate test scores should be corrected by subtracting the flywheel power output from the total power output. The correction lowers peak power (PP), mean power (MP), and fatigue index (% fatigue) by 6.2%, 3.0%, and 6.6% in active male subjects (P less than 0.05).

  5. PPARA intron polymorphism associated with power performance in 30-s anaerobic Wingate Test.

    PubMed

    Petr, Miroslav; Stastny, Petr; Št'astný, Petr; Pecha, Ondřej; Šteffl, Michal; Šeda, Ondřej; Kohlíková, Eva

    2014-01-01

    To date, polymorphisms in several genes have been associated with a strength/power performance including alpha 3 actinin, ciliary neurotrophic factor, vitamin D receptor, or angiotensin I converting enzyme, underlining the importance of genetic component of the multifactorial strength/power-related phenotypes. The single nucleotide variation in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha gene (PPARA) intron 7 G/C (rs4253778; g.46630634G>C) has been repeatedly found to play a significant role in response to different types of physical activity. We investigated the effect of PPARA intron 7 G/C polymorphism specifically on anaerobic power output in a group of 77 elite male Czech ice hockey players (18-36 y). We determined the relative peak power per body weight (Pmax.kg(-1)) and relative peak power per fat free mass (W.kg(-1)FFM) during the 30-second Wingate Test (WT30) on bicycle ergometer (Monark 894E Peak bike, MONARK, Sweden). All WT30s were performed during the hockey season. Overall genotype frequencies were 50.6% GG homozygotes, 40.3% CG heterozygotes, and 9.1% CC homozygotes. We found statistically significant differences in Pmax.kg(-1) and marginally significant differences in Pmax.kg(-1)FFM values in WT30 between carriers and non-carriers for C allele (14.6 ± 0.2 vs. 13.9 ± 0.3 W.kg(-1) and 15.8 ± 0.2 vs. 15.2 ± 0.3 W.kg(-1)FFM, P = 0.036 and 0.12, respectively). Furthermore, Pmax.kg(-1)FFM strongly positively correlated with the body weight only in individuals with GG genotypes (R = 0.55; p<0.001). Our results indicate that PPARA 7C carriers exhibited higher speed strength measures in WT30. We hypothesize that C allele carriers within the cohort of trained individuals may possess a metabolic advantage towards anaerobic metabolism.

  6. Aerobic and anaerobic contribution to Wingate test performance in sprint and middle-distance runners.

    PubMed

    Granier, P; Mercier, B; Mercier, J; Anselme, F; Préfaut, C

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the aerobic and anaerobic contributions to performance during the Wingate test in sprint and middle-distance runners and whether they were related to the peak aerobic and anaerobic performances determined by two commonly used tests: the force-velocity test and an incremental aerobic exercise test. A group of 14 male competitive runners participated: 7 sprinters, aged 20.7 (SEM 1.3) years, competing in 50, 100 and 200-m events and 7 middle-distance runners, aged 20.0 (SEM 1.0) years, competing in 800, 1,000 and 1,500 m-events. The oxygen uptake (VO2) was recorded breath-by-breath during the test (30 s) and during the first 20 s of recovery. Blood samples for venous plasma lactate concentrations were drawn at rest before the start of the test and during the 20-min recovery period. During the Wingate test mean power (W) was determined and three values of mechanical efficiency, one individual and two arbitrary, 16% and 25%, were used to calculate the contributions of work by aerobic (Waer,ind,16%,25%) and anaerobic (Wan,ind,16%,25%) processes. Peak anaerobic power (Wan,peak) was estimated by the force-velocity test and maximal aerobic energy expenditure (Waer,peak) was determined during an incremental aerobic exercise test. During the Wingate test, the middle-distance runners had a significantly greater VO2 than the sprinters (P < 0.001), who had significantly greater venous plasma lactate concentrations (P < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Effects of cooling the legs on performance in a standard Wingate anaerobic power test.

    PubMed

    Crowley, G C; Garg, A; Lohn, M S; Van Someren, N; Wade, A J

    1991-12-01

    The possibility that peripheral hypothermia may impair muscular performance in various sports led us to assess the usefulness of the Wingate anaerobic power test in subjects with normal and cooled leg muscles. Using this test without modification, peak power, average power output, and cumulated work to the point of fatigue were all decreased by cooling, although the fatigue index (the declining rate of change of power output) was less. It is concluded that this test could usefully be employed in field studies to assess the possibility that muscle chilling may influence a person's potential for producing maximal bursts of muscular work.

  8. Plasma glucose, insulin and catecholamine responses to a Wingate test in physically active women and men.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Sophie; Berthon, Phanélie; Zouhal, Hassane; Moussa, Elie; Catheline, Michel; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette

    2004-01-01

    The influence of gender on the glucose response to exercise remains contradictory. Moreover, to our knowledge, the glucoregulatory responses to anaerobic sprint exercise have only been studied in male subjects. Hence, the aim of the present study was to compare glucoregulatory metabolic (glucose and lactate) and hormonal (insulin, catecholamines and estradiol only in women) responses to a 30-s Wingate test, in physically active students. Eight women [19.8 (0.7) years] and eight men [22.0 (0.6) years] participated in a 30-s Wingate test on a bicycle ergometer. Plasma glucose, insulin, and catecholamine concentrations were determined at rest, at the end of both the warm-up and the exercise period and during the recovery (5, 10, 20, and 30 min). Results showed that the plasma glucose increase in response to a 30-s Wingate test was significantly higher in women than in men [0.99 (0.15) versus 0.33 (0.20) mmol l(-1) respectively, P<0.05]. Plasma insulin concentrations peaked at 10 min post-exercise and the increase between this time of recovery and the end of the warm-up was also significantly higher in women than in men [14.7 (2.9) versus 2.3 (1.9) pmol l(-1) respectively, P<0.05]. However, there was no gender difference concerning the catecholamine response. The study indicates a gender-related difference in post-exercise plasma glucose and insulin responses after a supramaximal exercise.

  9. The contribution of energy systems during the upper body Wingate anaerobic test.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Dale; Kerr, Ava; Wiegand, Aaron; Solomon, Colin; Harvey, Leonie; McLellan, Chris

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the contribution of the aerobic, anaerobic lactic, and alactic systems during an upper body Wingate Anaerobic test (WAnT). Oxygen uptake and blood lactate were measured before, during, and after the WAnT and body composition analyzed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The contribution of the energy systems was 11.4% ± 1.4%, 60.3% ± 5.6%, and 28.3% ± 4.9% for the aerobic, anaerobic lactic, and alactic systems, respectively.

  10. Effects of caffeine ingestion on performance and anaerobic metabolism during the Wingate Test.

    PubMed

    Collomp, K; Ahmaidi, S; Audran, M; Chanal, J L; Préfaut, C

    1991-10-01

    In order to determine the effects of caffeine ingestion on performance and metabolic responses during supramaximal exercise, six healthy volunteers performed the Wingate Anaerobic Test twice. Sixty min before each trial, while in a fasting state, they took capsules containing either caffeine (5 mg/kg) or a placebo, according to a single blind and randomized procedure. Caffeine administration did not significantly change either maximal anaerobic capacity (AC) or power (AP) and power decrease (PD). It did, however, induce significant (p less than 0.05) increases in both catecholamine and blood lactate levels as compared to values obtained after placebo administration. Moreover, maximal blood lactate occurred earlier (p less than 0.05), and lactate output seemed to be greater with caffeine (p less than 0.01). There was a strong correlation, both with and without caffeine, between epinephrine and lactate levels (r = 0.81) and between both AP and AC and lactate levels. These data suggest that caffeine, essentially via epinephrine, modifies glycolytic metabolism but fails to improve performance during the Wingate Anaerobic Test in nonspecifically trained subjects.

  11. A modified Wingate test for measuring anaerobic work of the upper body in junior rowers.

    PubMed

    Koutedakis, Y; Sharp, N C

    1986-12-01

    Eight elite junior oarsmen (ER) and sixteen club level rowers (CR) were tested for upper body strength (trunk, arms) and for mean, peak and minimum power outputs using the Double-Arm Anaerobic Work Test (DAAWT). This test is a modified version of the original Wingate test whereby athletes can be tested using trunk and both arms simultaneously. Multiple Discriminant Analysis was used to determine if the DAAWT variables alone were sensitive enough to discriminate between the two groups. Additionally, Pearson's correlation coefficients and ANOVA were employed. Results indicate that mean power and power difference expressed in absolute values (Watts) could successfully classify junior oarsmen into appropriate groups (91.8%, P less than 0.001). In addition, there was a fairly high correlation (r = 0.81) between mean power and strength in the ER. The strongest ER demonstrated the least fatigue while highly significant differences between the groups in most of the other variables examined have also been demonstrated.

  12. Drilling and testing of well 340, Fort Wingate Army Depot, McKinley County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shomaker, John W.

    1969-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey was requested by Fort Wingate Army Depot to designate a well location, suggest construction and testing procedures, and provide continuing technical advice with respect to the drilling of a new production well. The location was determined during a brief preliminary study of the Depot's water supply which is summarized in a report transmitted to the Depot in April of 1968, and the Geological Survey's suggestions for construction and testing are contained in the specifications written by the Post Engineer at the Depot as part of the well-drilling contract. A representative of the the Geological Survey was present during most of the drilling and testing of the well.

  13. Effects of time of day and the wingate test on appetite perceptions, food intake and plasma levels of adipokines.

    PubMed

    Bilski, J; Jaworek, J; Pokorski, J; Nitecki, J; Nitecka, E; Pokorska, J; Mazur-Bialy, A; Szklarczyk, J

    2016-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that several aspects of adipose-related physiology including adipokine release, exhibit daily oscillations. Physical exercise exerts a strong influence on adipokine release and a possible reverse disruption of peripheral circadian clocks. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of time of day and the Wingate test on appetite perception, food intake and plasma levels of adipokines. Twenty-four moderately active non-smoking males (mean ± S.D. age: 27.1 ± 3.1 years; height: 1.79 ± 0.1 m; weight: 76.1 ± 11.7 kg) were recruited for this study and divided in two groups; one fed with an ad libitum test meal and another one without an ad libitum test meal. Each subject participated in the following studies performed at 11:00 and 23:00 hours on separate days: 1) Exercise study (ES): a 30-second Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT), and 2) sedentary study (SS). Subjects rated their appetite perceptions (hunger and prospective food consumption) on a 100-milimeter visual analogue scale (VAS) at baseline, after exercise, after test meal and during the postprandial/control period. At those time points blood samples were obtained for the measurement of plasma leptin, visfatin and apelin concentrations. Appetite perception and energy intake results at test meal decreased in response to WAnT in comparison with sedentary subjects. Time of day had no statistically significant effect on energy intake but the appetite perception score after test meal at 24:00 hours was statistically higher than that after test meal at 12:00 hours. No significant differences in the tested plasma adipokine concentrations between the trials existed at baseline, however, all plasma adipokine levels at 24:00 hours were higher than those at 12:00 hours. Plasma apelin concentrations after WAnT were significantly higher than its pre-exercise value at 12:00 hours, unlike those at 24:00 hours. Sedentary experiments showed a modest, yet significant, rise in plasma apelin levels

  14. Training status (endurance or sprint) and catecholamine response to the Wingate-test in women.

    PubMed

    Jacob, C; Zouhal, H; Vincent, S; Gratas-Delamarche, A; Berthon, P M; Bentué-Ferrer, D; Delamarche, P

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if, as for men, training status induces different catecholamine responses to exercise. To do this, we investigated the effect of training status (sprint or endurance) on plasma catecholamine response to a supramaximal exercise in women. Nineteen subjects took part in our study: six untrained subjects (UT), seven endurance trained subjects (ET) and six sprint trained ones (ST). The trained subjects (ET and ST) were all competing at a high national level. The maximal power (W max ) and the mean power (W) were determined from the Wingate-test. Blood lactate, adrenaline (A) and noradrenaline (NA) were analysed at rest (La 0, A 0 and NA 0 ), immediately at the end of the exercise (A max and NA max ) and after 5 min recovery (La max [3 min in arterialized blood], A 5 and NA 5 ). The disappearance of A and NA was judged by the ratio (A max -A 5 )/A max and (NA max -NA 5 )/NA 5. The ratio A max /NA max was considered as an index of the adrenal medulla responsiveness to the sympathetic nervous activity. As expected, during the Wingate-test ST exhibited significantly higher performances compared to UT and ET. But in contrast to the men's data no difference was observed between the three groups both for La max (13.1 +/- 0.8 mmol x L (-1); 14.8 +/- 1.0 mmol x L (-1) and 11.2 +/- 0.5 mmol x L (-1) respectively for ET, ST and UT), NA max (22.1 +/- 1.2 nmol x L (-1); 13.1 +/- 2.4 nmol x L (-1) and 20.2 +/- 7 nmol x L (-1)respectively for ET, ST and UT) and A max (4.1 +/- 0.8 nmol x L (-1); 2.6 +/- 0.6 nmol x L (-1); 13.1 +/- 0.6 nmol x L (-1) respectively for ET, ST and UT). Consequently the ratio A max /NA max was similar in UT, ET and ST (respectively 0.2 +/- 0.03; 0.2 +/- 0.04; 0.17 +/- 0.04), These results indicated, in contrast to the men's data, that the catecholamine response to the Wingate-test did not differ between female subjects of different status of training. In conclusion this study did not find any significant effect of training

  15. Accurate assessment of work done and power during a Wingate anaerobic test.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Kathryn L; Gordon, Rae S; Baker, Julien S; Davies, Bruce

    2007-04-01

    A Monark cycle ergometer is used in physiological studies to measure work done and power. In this paper, the accuracy of a Monark rope-braked cycle ergometer was examined for a Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT). The traditional method of determining brake torque fails to take into account rope-brake theory and, as the brake torque is used to determine the moment of inertia of the flywheel, a second error is introduced into the calculation to determine the work done or power. In this study, the rope tensions were measured to determine the actual brake torque. A deceleration test was carried out to determine the moment of inertia of the system. The work done by subjects of different masses was calculated for various accelerations and it was found that the traditional calculations overestimate work done and power by between 12% and 14.7%.

  16. Oxygen uptake during upper body and lower body Wingate anaerobic tests.

    PubMed

    Price, Michael; Beckford, Christopher; Dorricott, Adam; Hill, Cameron; Kershaw, Megan; Singh, Munesh; Thornton, Ian

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the aerobic contribution to upper body and lower body Wingate Anaerobic tests (WAnT). Eight nonspecifically trained males volunteered to take part in this study. Participants undertook incremental exercise tests for peak oxygen uptake and two 30-s WAnT (habituation and experimental) for both the upper and lower body. The resistive loadings used were 0.040 and 0.075 kg·kg body mass(-1), respectively. Peak power output (PPO) and mean power output (MPO) were calculated for each WAnT. The aerobic contribution of each WAnT was assessed using breath by breath expired gas analysis. Peak oxygen uptake was lower for the upper body when compared with the lower body (P = 0.001). Similarly, PPO and MPO were greater for the lower body (both P < 0.001). Absolute oxygen uptake during the upper body WAnT was lower than for the lower body (P = 0.013), whereas relative oxygen uptake (% peak oxygen uptake) was similar (P = 0.997). The mean aerobic contribution for the upper body WAnT (43.5% ± 29.3%) was greater than for the lower body (29.4% ± 15.8%; P < 0.001). The greater aerobic contribution to the WAnT observed for the upper body in comparison with the lower body is likely due to methodological differences in upper and lower body WAnT protocols and potentially differences in anaerobic power production and exercise efficiency. The results of this study suggest that differences may exist for the aerobic contribution of upper and lower body Wingate anaerobic tests.

  17. Cross-validation of the 20- versus 30-s Wingate anaerobic test.

    PubMed

    Laurent, C Matthew; Meyers, Michael C; Robinson, Clay A; Green, J Matt

    2007-08-01

    The 30-s Wingate anaerobic test (30-WAT) is the most widely accepted protocol for measuring anaerobic response, despite documented physical side effects. Abbreviation of the 30-WAT without loss of data could enhance subject compliance while maintaining test applicability. The intent of this study was to quantify the validity of the 20-s Wingate anaerobic test (20-WAT) versus the traditional 30-WAT. Fifty males (mean +/- SEM; age = 20.5 +/- 0.3 years; Ht = 1.6 +/- 0.01 m; Wt = 75.5 +/- 2.6 kg) were randomly selected to either a validation (N = 35) or cross-validation group (N = 15) and completed a 20-WAT and 30-WAT in double blind, random order on separate days to determine peak power (PP; W kg(-1)), mean power (MP; W kg(-1)), and fatigue index (FI; %). Utilizing power outputs (relative to body mass) recorded during each second of both protocols, a non-linear regression equation (Y (20WAT+10 )= 31.4697 e(-0.5)[ln(X (second)/1174.3961)/2.6369(2)]; r (2) = 0.97; SEE = 0.56 W kg(-1)) successfully predicted (error approximately 10%) the final 10 s of power outputs in the cross-validation population. There were no significant differences between MP and FI between the 20-WAT that included the predicted 10 s of power outputs (20-WAT+10) and the 30-WAT. When derived data were subjected to Bland-Altman analyses, the majority of plots (93%) fell within the limits of agreement (+/-2SD). Therefore, when compared to the 30-WAT, the 20-WAT may be considered a valid alternative when used with the predictive non-linear regression equation to derive the final power output values.

  18. Diurnal variation in Wingate-test performance and associated electromyographic parameters.

    PubMed

    Chtourou, Hamdi; Zarrouk, Nidhal; Chaouachi, Anis; Dogui, Mohamed; Behm, David G; Chamari, Karim; Hug, François; Souissi, Nizar

    2011-10-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate time-of-day effects on electromyographic (EMG) activity changes during a short-term intense cycling exercise. In a randomized order, 22 male subjects were asked to perform a 30-s Wingate test against a constant braking load of 0.087 kg·kg(-1) body mass during two experimental sessions, which were set up either at 07:00 or 17:00 h. During the test, peak power (P(peak)), mean power (P(mean)), fatigue index (FI; % of decrease in power output throughout the 30 s), and evolution of power output (5-s span) throughout the exercise were analyzed. Surface EMG activity was recorded in both the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles throughout the test and analyzed over a 5-s span. The root mean square (RMS) and mean power frequency (MPF) of EMG were calculated. Neuromuscular efficiency (NME) was estimated from the ratio of power to RMS. Resting core temperature, P(peak), P(mean), and FI were significantly higher (p < .05) in the evening than morning test (e.g., P(peak): 11.6 ± 0.8 vs. 11.9 ± 1 W·kg(-1)). The results showed that power output decreased following two phases. During the first phase (first 20s), power output decreased rapidly and values were higher (p < .05) in the evening than in the morning. During the second phase (last 10s), power decreased slightly and appeared independent of the time of day of testing. This power output decrease was paralleled by evolution of the MPF and NME. During the first phase, NME and MPF were higher (p < .05) in the evening. During the second phase, NME and MPF were independent of time of day. In addition, no significant differences were noticed between 7:00 and 17:00 h for EMG RMS during the whole 30 s. Taken together, these results suggest that peripheral mechanisms (i.e., muscle power and fatigue) are more likely the cause of the diurnal variation of the Wingate-test performance rather than central mechanisms.

  19. Muscle fibre conduction velocity during a 30-s Wingate anaerobic test.

    PubMed

    Stewart, David; Farina, Dario; Shen, Chao; Macaluso, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    Ten male volunteers (age 29.2 ± 5.2 years, mean ± SD) were recruited to test the hypothesis that muscle fibre conduction velocity (MFCV) would decrease with power output during a 30-s Wingate test on a mechanically-braked cycle ergometer. Prior to the main test, the optimal pre-fixed load corresponding to the highest power output was selected following a random series of six 10-s sprints. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were detected from the right vastus lateralis with linear adhesive arrays of eight electrodes. Power output decreased significantly from 6-s until the end of the test (860.9 ± 207.8 vs. 360.9 ± 11.4 W, respectively) and was correlated with MFCV (R=0.543, P<0.01), which also declined significantly by 26.8 ± 11% (P<0.05). There was a tendency for the mean frequency of the EMG power spectrum (MNF) to decrease, but average rectified values (ARV) remained unchanged throughout the test. The parallel decline of MFCV with power output suggests changes in fibre membrane properties. The unaltered ARV, together with the declined MFCV, would indicate either a decrease in discharge rate, de-recruitment of fatigued motor units or elongation of still present motor unit action potentials.

  20. Optimization of force in the Wingate Test for children with a neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    Van Mil, E; Schoeber, N; Calvert, R E; Bar-or, O

    1996-09-01

    Determination of the optimal braking force (Fopt in the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) among healthy people has been determined based on total body mass. The abnormal muscle mass to total body mass ratio in individuals with neuromuscular disabilities invalidates this approach. This study was intended to validate the optimal force obtained from the Force Velocity Test (FVT) and from an estimate of lean arm volume as two alternative predictors for the Fopt. Twenty-eight 6- to 16-yr-old girls and boys with neuromuscular diseases performed the arm WAnT six times (three trials in each of two visits) against various braking forces to directly determine Fopt. They also performed the arm Force Velocity Test to assess optimal force (FoptFVT). Lean arm volume was determined by anthropometry (ALV) and water displacement (WLV). Correlations between Fopt on the one hand, and FoptFVT, WLV, and ALV on the other, were: R2 = 0.91, 0.81, and 0.82, respectively. Total body mass was the worst predictor (R2 = 0.65). Thus, Fopt obtained from either FVT or lean arm volume estimate is a useful predictor of the Fopt for mean power of the WAnT in children and adolescents with a neuromuscular disability.

  1. Optimizing the Wingate Anaerobic Cycling Test for youth with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Joyce; Larché, Maggie J; Timmons, Brian W

    2011-08-01

    The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) can assess muscle function in youth with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Our objective was to compare peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) when the WAnT is performed with a standard vs. an optimized braking force. Eight patients with JIA between the ages of 8 and 18 participated in two sessions. Optimal braking force was determined with a series of 15-s force-velocity tests performed against braking forces ranging from 3.5 to 8.5% of body weight. Participants then performed two randomized WAnTs against the standard (4.5%) and optimal braking forces. PP tended to be greater in the optimized vs. standard WAnT (12.5 ± 2.6 vs. 10.8 ± 1.0 W/kg, respectively; p = .07). No differences were observed for MP (standard: 6.2 ± 0.9 vs. optimized: 6.2 ± 1.1 W/kg; p = .9). Optimization of the WAnT tended to increase PP by 10-28% in youth with JIA.

  2. Diurnal evolution of cycling biomechanical parameters during a 60-s Wingate test.

    PubMed

    Lericollais, R; Gauthier, A; Bessot, N; Davenne, D

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the evolution of pedaling kinetics and kinematics during a short-term fatigue cycling exercise at two times of day. Twenty active male subjects were asked to perform a 60-s Wingate test against a constant braking resistance during two experimental sessions at 06:00 and 18:00 hours, i.e., very close to the hours of core temperature values, which are, respectively, the lowest and the highest. The results showed that the fatigue index was higher (P<0.05) at 18:00 hours (71.4%) than at 06:00 hours (69.2%) and power output was higher (P<0.05) in the evening than in the morning during the first 20 s of the test, after which no difference was observed. Taken together, these results showed a greater progression of fatigue in the evening than in the morning. The diurnal variations in performance and fatigue were associated (P<0.001) with diurnal changes in cycling kinematic parameters, characterized by a reduction in the range of motion of the ankle angle in the evening. These findings show that a time-of-day effect on movement patterns occurs during an anaerobic cycling exercise and that this phenomenon has a direct influence on performance and fatigue.

  3. Performance during the Wingate anaerobic test and muscle morphology in males and females.

    PubMed

    Froese, E A; Houston, M E

    1987-02-01

    Performance indices during the Wingate 30-s anaerobic test and their relationship to muscle morphology of the vastus lateralis muscle were studied in 30 untrained male and female subjects. Absolute values for peak power (P05), total work performed (TW), power decrease (PD), and post-test blood lactate concentration were significantly greater for the male subjects. When expressed per unit of body mass or leg volume, both P05 and TW were larger for the males than the females (P less than 0.05). Significant correlations were noted for P05, TW, PD, and blood lactate and the percent of fast-twitch (FT) fibers and the percent relative area of FT fibers for the male but not the female subjects. The results from this experiment reveal a significant influence of muscle morphology on short-term anaerobic work performance for these male subjects. The absence of a similar relationship for the women subjects was likely due to the use of an inappropriately high resistance setting.

  4. Acute effects of three different stretching protocols on the wingate test performance.

    PubMed

    Franco, Bruno L; Signorelli, Gabriel R; Trajano, Gabriel S; Costa, Pablo B; de Oliveira, Carlos G

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of different stretching exercises on the performance of the traditional Wingate test (WT). Fifteen male participants performed five WT; one for familiarization (FT), and the remaining four after no stretching (NS), static stretching (SS), dynamic stretching (DS), and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). Stretches were targeted for the hamstrings, quadriceps, and calf muscles. Peak power (PP), mean power (MP), and the time to reach PP (TP) were calculated. The MP was significantly lower when comparing the DS (7.7 ± 0.9 W/kg) to the PNF (7.3 ± 0.9 W/kg) condition (p < 0.05). For PP, significant differences were observed between more comparisons, with PNF stretching providing the lowest result. A consistent increase of TP was observed after all stretching exercises when compared to NS. The results suggest the type of stretching, or no stretching, should be considered by those who seek higher performance and practice sports that use maximal anaerobic power.

  5. Does power indicate capacity? 30-s Wingate anaerobic test vs. maximal accumulated O2 deficit.

    PubMed

    Minahan, C; Chia, M; Inbar, O

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between anaerobic power and capacity. Seven men and seven women performed a 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Test on a cycle ergometer to determine peak power, mean power, and the fatigue index. Subjects also cycled at a work rate predicted to elicit 120 % of peak oxygen uptake to exhaustion to determine the maximal accumulated O (2) deficit. Peak power and the maximal accumulated O (2) deficit were significantly correlated (r = 0.782, p = 0.001). However, when the absolute difference in exercise values between groups (men and women) was held constant using a partial correlation, the relationship diminished (r = 0.531, p = 0.062). In contrast, we observed a significant correlation between fatigue index and the maximal accumulated O (2) deficit when controlling for gender (r = - 0.597, p = 0.024) and the relationship remained significant when values were expressed relative to active muscle mass. A higher anaerobic power does not indicate a greater anaerobic capacity. Furthermore, we suggest that the ability to maintain power output during a 30-s cycle sprint is related to anaerobic capacity.

  6. The effects of bicycle frame geometry on muscle activation and power during a wingate anaerobic test.

    PubMed

    Ricard, Mark D; Hills-Meyer, Patrick; Miller, Michael G; Michael, Timothy J

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of bicycle seat tube angles (STA) of (72° and 82°) on power production and EMG of the vastus laeralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), semimembranous (SM), biceps femoris (BF) during a Wingate test (WAT). Twelve experienced cyclists performed a WAT at each STA. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to identify differences in muscular activation by STA. EMG variables were normalized to isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Paired t-tests were used to test the effects of STA on: peak power, average power, minimum power and percent power drop. Results indicated BF activation was significantly lower at STA 82° (482.9 ± 166.6 %MVC·s) compared to STA 72° (712.6 ± 265.6 %MVC·s). There were no differences in the power variables between STAs. The primary finding was that increasing the STA from 72° to 82° enabled triathletes' to maintain power production, while significantly reducing the muscular activation of the biceps femoris muscle. Key PointsRoad cyclists claim that bicycle seat tube angles between 72° and 76° are most effective for optimal performance in racing.Triathletes typically use seat tube angles greater than 76°. It is thought that a seat tube angle greater than 76° facilitates a smoother bike to run transition in the triathlon.Increasing the seat tube angle from 72 to 82 enabled triathletes' to maintain power production, while significantly reducing the muscular activation of the biceps femoris muscle.Reduced hamstring muscular activation in the triathlon frame (82 seat tube angle) may serve to reduce hamstring tightness following the bike phase of the triathlon, allowing the runner to use a longer stride length.

  7. Post-exercise syncope: Wingate syncope test and visual-cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Sieck, Dylan C; Ely, Matthew R; Romero, Steven A; Luttrell, Meredith J; Abdala, Pedro M; Halliwill, John R

    2016-08-01

    Adequate cerebral perfusion is necessary to maintain consciousness in upright humans. Following maximal anaerobic exercise, cerebral perfusion can become compromised and result in syncope. It is unknown whether post-exercise reductions in cerebral perfusion can lead to visual-cognitive deficits prior to the onset of syncope, which would be of concern for emergency workers and warfighters, where critical decision making and intense physical activity are combined. Therefore, the purpose of this experiment was to determine if reductions in cerebral blood velocity, induced by maximal anaerobic exercise and head-up tilt, result in visual-cognitive deficits prior to the onset of syncope. Nineteen sedentary to recreationally active volunteers completed a symptom-limited 60° head-up tilt for 16 min before and up to 16 min after a 60 sec Wingate test. Blood velocity of the middle cerebral artery was measured using transcranial Doppler ultrasound and a visual decision-reaction time test was assessed, with independent analysis of peripheral and central visual field responses. Cerebral blood velocity was 12.7 ± 4.0% lower (mean ± SE; P < 0.05) after exercise compared to pre-exercise. This was associated with a 63 ± 29% increase (P < 0.05) in error rate for responses to cues provided to the peripheral visual field, without affecting central visual field error rates (P = 0.46) or decision-reaction times for either visual field. These data suggest that the reduction in cerebral blood velocity following maximal anaerobic exercise contributes to visual-cognitive deficits in the peripheral visual field without an apparent affect to the central visual field.

  8. Comparison of Effect of One Course of Intense Exercise (Wingate test) on Serum Levels of Interleukin-17 in Different Groups of Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Tofighee, Asghar; Khazaei, Hossein Ali; Jalili, Arman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research on the effects of exercise on immune function, has a wide range of sporting activities. Study on the long-term effects of regular exercise on serum levels of cytokines such as interleukin-17 have shown that moderate and regular exercise, has an important role in the prevention and treatment of many diseases. Objectives: Exhaustive exercise has a deep effect on cellular, humoral, innate immunity and the amount of cytokines of an athlete’s immune system. So this study was designed to compare the effect of one course of exhaustive exercise on serum levels of interleukin (IL)-17 in different groups of athletes. Patients and Methods: Forty professional athletes with a mean age of 25.1 ± 5.0 years, divided equally in 4 groups (handball, volleyball, Sepak-takraw and climbing) were selected for this purpose. 30 second Wingate test for each athlete was used to assess anaerobic power. Blood samples before, immediately after and 2 hours after exercise was collected and the amount of serum IL-17 was measured. Results: The results showed that the level of IL-17 in the study groups before and after the two hours exercise did not significantly change in all four groups. Conclusions: The results showed that short anaerobic exercise has no effect on the level of IL-17. PMID:25741409

  9. Diurnal variation in Wingate test performances: influence of active warm-up.

    PubMed

    Souissi, Nizar; Driss, Tarak; Chamari, Karim; Vandewalle, Henry; Davenne, Damien; Gam, Abdelkader; Fillard, Jean-Robert; Jousselin, Eric

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of active warm-up duration on the diurnal fluctuations in anaerobic performances. Twelve physical education students performed a medical stress test (progressive test up to exhaustion) and four Wingate tests (measurement of peak power [P(peak)], mean power [P(mean)], and fatigue index during an all-out 30 s cycling exercise). The tests were performed in separate sessions (minimum interval = 36 h) in a balanced and randomized design at 08:00 and 18:00 h, either after a 5 min (5-AWU) or a 15 min active warm-up (15-AWU). AWU consisted of pedaling at 50% of the power output at the last stage of the stress exhausting test. Rectal temperature was collected throughout the sessions. A two-way ANOVA (warm-up x time of day) revealed a significant interaction for P(peak) (F((1.11)) = 6.48, p < 0.05) and P(mean) (F((1.11)) = 5.84, p < 0.05): the time-of-day effect was significant (p < 0.001) in contrast with the effect of warm-up duration (p > 0.05). P(peak) and P(mean) improved significantly from morning to afternoon after both 5-AWU and 15-AWU, but the effect of warm-up duration was significant in the morning only. Indeed, the values of P(peak) or P(mean) were the same after both warm-up protocols in the afternoon. For rectal temperature, there was no interaction between time-of-day and warm-up duration. Rectal temperature before and after both the warm-up protocols was higher in the afternoon, and the effect of warm-up duration on temperature was similar at 08:00 and 18:00 h. In conclusion, the interpretation of the results of the anaerobic performance tests should take into account time-of-day and warm-up procedures. Longer warm-up protocols are recommended in the morning to minimize the diurnal fluctuations of anaerobic performances.

  10. Effectiveness of Omura's ST.36 point (True ST.36) needling on the Wingate anaerobic test results of young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ozerkan, Kemal Nuri; Bayraktar, Bulent; Yucesir, Ilker; Cakir, Baris; Yilddiz, Fatih

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the "Omura's ST.36 point" (True ST.36) needling of young soccer players with the Wingate test. The Wingate test is a widely used and very well known ergometric bicycle test to measure anaerobic power. The Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (B.D.O.R.T.) of Yoshiaki Omura, M.D., Sc.D. was used to determine the "Omura's ST.36 point" (True ST.36). Young soccer players (N = 20) between 15-16 years of age (Mean = 15.25 +/- 0.44) were involved in the study. Subjects were divided into two groups (ST.36 and Omura's ST.36) randomly. The groups were statistically similar in respect to their number, age, height and weight respectively, N = 10; 15.40 +/- 0.52, 15.10 +/- 0.32; 171.50 +/- 3.57, 171.00 +/- 4.81; 65.60 +/- 4.01, 61.50 +/- 4.77. The anaerobic power of the subjects were measured using Monark 894E ergometric bicycle. The breaking resistance was 75 g per kg of body weight of the subjects. The peak power, average power, minimum power and power drop were measured as absolute values and per kg of body weight. Subjects were tested twice, with and without acupuncture application. In one group needling was on ST.36, and in the other group it was on "Omura's ST.36 point." Before each test, subjects warmed up for 5 minutes by cycling on the same ergometer at 60 rotations per minute (RPM), without load. Statistically significant increases were measured with the needling of Omura's ST 36 point in peak power (p < 0.01), and relative peak power (p < 0.01) in comparison to Wingate test results without needling. ST.36 needling showed statistically insignificant increases of the same measurements and comparison. We conclude that needling of both points, but especially Omura's ST.36, seem to be effective for increasing the anaerobic power of young soccer players measured with Wingate anaerobic power test. More research is needed to support these findings in all aspects.

  11. Validity of cycling peak power as measured by a short-sprint test versus the Wingate anaerobic test.

    PubMed

    Coso, Juan Del; Mora-Rodríguez, Ricardo

    2006-06-01

    To validate the measurement of peak power output (PPO) using a short cycling sprint test (inertial load (IL) test), we compare it to the widely accepted Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT). Fifteen healthy, young, active subjects performed 2 experimental trials. In each trial, subjects warmed up and sprinted 4 times for the IL test. After recovery, they cycled for 30 s at maximum capacity for the WAnT. The experimental trial was replicated 3 d later to test for reliability. Inter- and intra-day PPO measured with the IL test was very reliable (R(1) = 0.99 and R(1) = 0.94, respectively). The correlation between the IL and WAnT was highly significant (r = 0.82; P < 0.001), although the absolute PPO values were markedly higher for the IL test (1268 +/- 41 W vs. 786 +/- 27 W; P < 0.001). In conclusion, cycling PPO can be validly assessed with the IL test. The higher PPO attained with an IL test could be related to better identification of peak power, since both velocity and resistance are free to vary during the sprint in comparison with the WAnT, where resistance is fixed. Owing to the short duration of the sprint (4 s) and high intra-day reliability despite a short recovery time (180 s), the IL test is optimal for repeated measurements of anaerobic performance.

  12. Elite Female Athletes' Ventilatory Compensation to Decreased Inspired O[subscript 2] during the Wingate Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Sarah; Belcoe, Ana; Shawcross, Callan; May, Alyssa; Monteverde, Cristina; McCann, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if anaerobic performance as measured by the Wingate is decremented in elite female athletes when fraction of inspired oxygen is decreased from 20.9% to 10%. Method: Nine collegiate female soccer players (M[subscript weight] = 63.2 ± 10 kg, M[subscript height] = 164 ± 4.7 cm, M[subscript age] =…

  13. [Effects of ß-alanine supplementation on wingate tests in university female footballers].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Fernando; Delgado Ormeño, Alex; Rivera Lobos, Patricio; Tapia Aranda, Víctor; Cristi-Montero, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    Introducción: El fútbol es un deporte intermitente que desarrolla acciones de alta intensidad usando la vía anaeróbica, por tal razón, la fatiga muscular se produciría principalmente por el aumento de la acidosis. La carnosina, la cual se forma a partir de L-histidina y ß-alanina, ha demostrado producir un efecto “Tampón” sobre la acidosis muscular. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto de la suplementación con ß-alanina, en tres pruebas de Wingate sucesivas, y comparar la potencia media, máxima y el lactato sanguíneo en seleccionadas universitarias de fútbol femenino. Métodos: Se evaluaron 10 jugadoras de futbol, quienes realizaron tres Wingate, descansando 5 min entre cada sprint, determinando la potencia media, máxima y el lactato al final de cada prueba, posteriormente consumieron 2,4 gr/día de ß-alanina por 30 días y se repitieron las pruebas. El grupo control (n=8) realizó las mismas pruebas, pero sin consumir el suplemento. Se usó el cicloergómetro Monark (Ergomedic 874E) y para medir lactato el Lactate Pro 2. Resultados: El grupo con suplementación, mejoró significativamente (p.

  14. Familiarization Effects of an Elliptical All-out Test and the Wingate Test Based on Mechanical Power Indices.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Ozgur

    2013-01-01

    The Wingate all-out test (WAT) is commonly used to estimate anaerobic capabilities of athletes by using an upper or lower body cycle ergometer, however, a new test modality called elliptical all-out test (EAT) which measures activated whole-body locomotor tasks has recently been proposed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the familiarization effects of a 30-s EAT versus WAT. Twenty male trained athletes performed pre-familiarization (Trial- I), post-familiarization (Trial-II) and retest of Trial-II (Trial-III) sessions on both cycle ergometer and elliptical trainer. Peak power (PP), average power (AP), power drop (PD) and fatigue index ratio (FI%) were analyzed using student's t-test for paired samples and correlated by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Moreover, an error detection procedure was administered using data attained from illogical interrelations among 5-s segments of 30-s tests. The main results showed that there were significant familiarization effects in all mechanical power outputs obtained from Trial-I and Trial-II in both EAT (ICC = 0.49-0.55) and WAT (ICC = 0.50-0.57) performances (p ≤ 0.01). Significant segmental disorders were detected in power production during Trial-I of EAT, however, none existed in any of test trails in the WAT (p ≤ 0.001). After familiarization sessions, reliability coefficients between Trial-II and Trial-III showed moderate to strong-level agreements for both EAT (ICC = 0.74-0.91) and the WAT (ICC=0.76-0.93). Our results suggested that prior to the performance tests, combination of a well designed familiarization session with one full all-out test administration is necessary to estimate the least moderately reliable and accurate test indices for both WAT and EAT. Key PointsA well designed familiarization session, and then, one additional all-out test administration, several days prior to main test, is suggested to estimate more accurate and reliable retest correlations for both cycling and elliptical

  15. Lower Wingate Test Power Outcomes from 'All-Out' Pre-Test Pedaling Cadence Compared to Moderate Cadence.

    PubMed

    Lunn, William R; Zenoni, Maria A; Crandall, Ian H; Dress, Ashley E; Berglund, Michelle L

    2013-11-20

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different pre-test pedaling cadences on power outcomes obtained during the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). Vigorously-exercising adult males (n = 14, 24.9 ± 1.2 y) and females (n = 14, 20.4 ± 0.6 y) participated in a randomized, crossover study during which they performed the 30-s WAnT on a mechanically-braked cycle ergometer (0.075 kg/kg body weight) under two conditions. Participants pedaled maximally with an unloaded flywheel during 5 s before resistance was applied and the test began (FAST). In another trial, participants maintained a moderate cadence (80 rpm) during 5 s before test start (MOD). All other components of the WAnT were identical. Peak power (PP), mean power (MP), minimum power (MinP), fatigue index (%FAT) and maximum cadence during test (maxRPM) were recorded. Comparisons were made using a 2x2 factorial RMANOVA. Regardless of gender, the FAST condition resulted in 22.2% lower PP (612.6 ± 33.0 W vs. 788.3 ± 43.5 W), 13.3 % lower MP (448.4 ± 22.2 W vs. 517.2 ± 26.4 W), 11.7% lower MinP (280.9 ± 14.8 W vs. 318.3 ± 17.2 W), and 9.0% lower %FAT (53.5 ± 1.3 % vs. 58.8 ± 1.5 %) than in MOD (p < 0.01; means ± sd). Similar outcomes were observed within gender. The authors conclude that practitioners of the WAnT should instruct participants to maintain a moderate pedal cadence (∼80 rpm) during the 5 s before the test commences to avoid bias from software sampling and peripheral fatigue. Standardizing the pre-test pedal cadence will be important to exercise testing professionals who compare data to norms or generate norms for specific populations.

  16. The effects of whole-body vibration on the Wingate test for anaerobic power when applying individualized frequencies.

    PubMed

    Surowiec, Rachel K; Wang, Henry; Nagelkirk, Paul R; Frame, Jeffrey W; Dickin, D Clark

    2014-07-01

    Recently, individualized frequency (I-Freq) has been introduced with the notion that athletes may elicit a greater reflex response at differing levels (Hz) of vibration. The aim of the study was to evaluate acute whole-body vibration as a feasible intervention to increase power in trained cyclists and evaluate the efficacy of using I-Freq as an alternative to 30Hz, a common frequency seen in the literature. Twelve highly trained, competitive male cyclists (age, 29.9 ± 10.0 years; body height, 175.4 ± 7.8 cm; body mass, 77.3 ± 13.9 kg) participated in the study. A Wingate test for anaerobic power was administered on 3 occasions: following a control of no vibration, 30 Hz, or I-freq. Measures of peak power, average power (AP), and the rate of fatigue were recorded and compared with the vibration conditions using separate repeated measures analysis of variance. Peak power, AP, and the rate of fatigue were not significantly impacted by either the 30 Hz or I-Freq vibration interventions (p > 0.05). Given the trained status of the individuals in this study, the ability to elicit an acute response may have been muted. Future studies should further refine the vibration parameters used and assess changes in untrained or recreationally trained populations.

  17. Oxygen saturation in the triceps brachii muscle during an arm Wingate test: the role of training and power output.

    PubMed

    Kounalakis, Stylianos N; Koskolou, Maria D; Geladas, Nickos D

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of training and power output on muscle oxygen desaturation during and resaturation after an arm Wingate test (WAnT). Two groups of subjects were studied; the first group consisted of nine athletes participating in upper arm anaerobic sports and the second group of 11 university students. As a consequence, the group of athletes (HP) produced higher peak and mean power output (p < 0.01) than the group of university students (LP). Muscle oxygenation status was evaluated by using near infrared spectroscopy at the triceps brachii. The HP group exhibited 17.6 +/- 8.0% less muscle oxygen desaturation than the LP group (p < 0.05) but similar muscle total hemoglobin during exercise and faster (p < 0.05) muscle oxygen resaturation during recovery (tau = 12.4 +/- 5.2 sec in HP vs. tau = 24.2 +/- 11.0 sec in LP). These results indicate that the HP group exhibits less muscle desaturation during an arm WAnT and has a faster resaturation rate, probably attributed to differences in muscle mass, muscle fiber recruitment capability, and ATP production through anaerobic pathways.

  18. Reliability and discriminative ability of a modified Wingate rowing test in 12- to 18-year-old rowers.

    PubMed

    Mikulic, Pavle; Emersic, Davor; Markovic, Goran

    2010-11-01

    We evaluated (1) the test-retest reliability of the Wingate test conducted on a rowing ergometer, and (2) the sensitivity of this test in determining the differences in performance attained by 12- to 18-year-old rowers. Altogether, 297 male rowers aged 12.0-18.9 years (mean ± s: 14.8 ± 1.7) completed a maximal 30-s test on a rowing ergometer, and 80 rowers representing all age groups were retested after 5-7 days. No change was evident in participants' performance in terms of mean power output (P = 0.726; Cohen's d = 0.04), maximal power output (P = 0.567; Cohen's d = 0.06), and minimum power output (P = 0.318; Cohen's d = 0.11) in the second test. The intra-class correlation coefficients were high (≥0.973) and coefficients of variation were low (≤7.3%). A series of analyses of variance were used to compare the performances among 12- to 18-year-old rowers, and age-related increases in performance were evident (P < 0.001; Cohen's d = 1.91-1.96). The age-related increases in performance were similar, although reduced, when the effects of body mass were partitioned out when using analysis of covariance (P < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.82-0.85). The results suggest that: (1) the described test is reliable and can be used for maximal-intensity exercise assessment in youth rowing, and (2) it discriminates performance among 12- to-18-year-old rowers.

  19. Cardiac output but not stroke volume is similar in a Wingate and VO2peak test in young men.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Piero; Betschon, Katharina; Boutellier, Urs; Toigo, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Wingate test (WT) training programmes lasting 2-3 weeks lead to improved peak oxygen consumption. If a single 30 s WT was capable of significantly increasing stroke volume and cardiac output, the increase in peak oxygen consumption could possibly be explained by improved oxygen delivery. Thus, we investigated whether a single WT increases stroke volume and cardiac output to similar levels than those obtained at peak exercise during a graded cycling exercise test (GXT) to exhaustion. Fifteen healthy young men (peak oxygen consumption 45.0 ± 5.3 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) performed one WT and one GXT on separate days in randomised order. During the tests, we estimated cardiac output using inert gas rebreathing (nitrous oxide and sulphur hexafluoride) and subsequently calculated stroke volume. We found that cardiac output was similar (18.2 ± 3.3 vs. 17.9 ± 2.6 l min(-1); P = 0.744), stroke volume was higher (127 ± 37 vs. 94 ± 15 ml; P < 0.001), and heart rate was lower (149 ± 26 vs. 190 ± 12 beats min(-1); P < 0.001) at the end (27 ± 2 s) of a WT as compared to peak exercise during a GXT. Our results suggest that a single WT produces a haemodynamic response which is characterised by similar cardiac output, higher stroke volume and lower heart rate as compared to peak exercise during a GXT.

  20. Mechanically versus electro-magnetically braked cycle ergometer: performance and energy cost of the Wingate Anaerobic Test.

    PubMed

    Micklewright, D; Alkhatib, A; Beneke, R

    2006-04-01

    Performance and metabolic profiles of the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) were compared between a mechanically resisted (ME) and an electro-magnetically braked (EE) cycle ergometer. Fifteen healthy subjects (24.0+/-3.5 years, 180.5+/-6.1 cm, 75.4+/-11.9 kg) performed a WAnT on ME, and EE 3 days apart. Performance was measured as peak power (PP), minimum power (MP), mean power (AP), time to PP (TTPP), fatigue rate (FR), and maximum cadence (RPM(MAX)). Lactic (W (LAC)) and alactic (W (PCR)) anaerobic energy were calculated from net lactate appearance and the fast component of post-exercise oxygen uptake. Aerobic metabolism (W (AER)) was calculated from oxygen uptake during the WAnT. Total energy cost (W (TOT)) was calculated as the sum of W (LAC), W (PCR), and W (AER). There was no difference between ME and EE in PP (873+/-159 vs. 931+/-193 W) or AP (633+/-89 vs. 630+/-89 W). In the EE condition TTPP (2.3+/-0.7 vs. 4.3+/-0.7 s) was longer (P<0.001), MP (464+/-78 vs. 388+/-57 W) was lower (P<0.001), FR (15.2+/-5.2 vs. 20.5+/-6.8%) was higher (P<0.005), and RPM(MAX) (168+/-18 vs. 128+/-15 rpm) was slower (P<0.001). There was no difference in W (TOT) (1,331+/-182 vs. 1,373+/-120 J kg(-1)), W (AER) (292+/-76 vs. 309+/-72 J kg(-1)), W (PCR) (495+/-153 vs. 515+/-111 J kg(-1)) or W (LAC) (545+/-132 vs. 549+/-141 J kg(-1)) between ME and EE devices. The EE produces distinctly different performance measures but valid metabolic WAnT results that may be used to evaluate anaerobic fitness.

  1. The dynamics of distance, velocity and acceleration of power output in the 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Test.

    PubMed

    Bell, W; Cobner, D

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse the dynamics of distance, velocity and acceleration of the 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Test. Participants were 53 young adult Rugby Union football players of mean age 21.6±2.5 yr, 180.5±7.2 cm height and 89.3±12.7 kg body mass. Measurements of power were obtained using a friction-belt cycle ergometer (Monark 864, Varberg, Sweden). Individual data were aligned according to peak power output, which resulted in a mean value of 1 216±256 W, compared with one of 1 180±256 W when calculated cross-sectionally (p<0.0001). The derivatives of velocity and acceleration were obtained using the mathematical software Mathcad. Distance, velocity and acceleration curves were plotted simultaneously at 1 s intervals before and after peak power output (-4 s to +28 s). The initial rise of the distance curve was the result of a general trend in decreasing positive velocities as far as peak power output, followed thereafter by a gradual deterioration of power, the result of negative velocities from peak power output to +28 s peak power output. The initial values of the acceleration curve showed a fluctuating decelerating trend of negative values to peak power output; subsequently all values remained positive running along the zero acceleration time axis. Coefficients of correlation between peak power output and power values at -1 s to -3 s were 0.80, 0.65 and 0.63 respectively (p<0.001). The relationship between velocity and acceleration was - 0.968 (p<0.01).

  2. Reliability and validity of a 20-s alternative to the wingate anaerobic test in team sport male athletes.

    PubMed

    Attia, Ahmed; Hachana, Younes; Chaabène, Helmi; Gaddour, Abdelmajid; Neji, Zied; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel

    2014-01-01

    The intent of this study was to evaluate relative and absolute reliability of the 20-s anaerobic test (WAnT20) versus the WAnT30 and to verify how far the various indices of the 30-s Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT30) could be predicted from the WAnT20 data in male athletes. The participants were Exercise Science majors (age: 21.5±1.6 yrs, stature: 0.183±0.08 m, body mass: 81.2±10.9 kg) who participated regularly in team sports. In Phase I, 41 participants performed duplicate WAnT20 and WAnT30 tests to assess reliability. In Phase II, 31 participants performed one trial each of the WAnT20 and WAnT30 to determine the ability of the WAnT20 to predict components of the WAnT30. In Phase III, 31 participants were used to cross-validate the prediction equations developed in Phase II. Respective intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) for peak power output (PPO) (ICC = 0.98 and 0.95) and mean power output (MPO) (ICC 0.98 and 0.90) did not differ significantly between WAnT20 and WAnT30. ICCs for minimal power output (POmin) and fatigue index (FI) were poor for both tests (range 0.53 to 0.76). Standard errors of the means (SEM) for PPO and MPO were less than their smallest worthwhile changes (SWC) in both tests; however, POmin and FI values were "marginal," with SEM values greater than their respective SWCs for both tests values. Stepwise regression analysis showed that MPO had the highest coefficient of predictability (R = 0.97), with POmin and FI considerable lower (R = 0.71 and 0.41 respectively). Cross-validation showed insignificant bias with limits of agreement of 0.99±1.04, 6.5±92.7 W, and 1.6±9.8% between measured and predicted MPO, POmin, and FI, respectively. WAnT20 offers a reliable and valid test of leg anaerobic power in male athletes and could replace the classic WAnT30.

  3. The effect of acute hypoxia at low altitude and acute normoxia at high altitude on performance during a 30-s Wingate test in children.

    PubMed

    Blonc, S; Falgairette, G; Bedu, M; Fellmann, N; Spielvogel, H; Coudert, J

    1994-10-01

    The effect of acute hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.137 +/- 0.001) at Low Altitude (LA: Clermont-Ferrand, 330 m) and acute normoxia (FIO2 = 0.306 +/- 0.006) at High Altitude (HA: La Paz, 3600 m) on performance during a 30-s Wingate test has been investigated in prepubertal children (Tanner stage 1). Twenty five boys (LA, n = 10; HA, n = 15) aged from 10.6 to 12.7 years performed two Wingate tests at random: at LA, one in normoxia (ambient air) and one in acute hypoxia and at HA, one in chronic hypoxia (ambient air) and one in acute normoxia. The subjects performed the two tests using the same calibrated cycle ergometer. Peak Power (PP), Mean Power (MP), O2 uptake during the 30 s (VO2) and blood lactate accumulation (delta [L]s) were measured. Compared to normoxia, acute hypoxia at LA did not alter PP (8.0 +/- 1.1 vs 7.9 +/- 1.3 W.kg-1 BW) and MP (6.1 +/- 0.7 vs 6.1 +/- 1.1 W.kg-1 BW). Similarly, compared to chronic hypoxia, acute normoxia at HA did not modify these parameters (PP: 7.4 +/- 1.5 vs 7.3 +/- 1.8; MP: 5.4 +/- 1.2 vs 5.5 +/- 1.1; W.kg-1 BW). VO2 and delta [L]s were neither significantly changed by acute hypoxia at LA (520 +/- 50 vs 550 +/- 60 ml O2; 5.3 +/- 1.7 vs 4.8 +/- 1.7 mmol.l-1) nor by acute normoxia at HA (530 +/- 110 vs 500 +/- 90 ml O2; 3.4 +/- 1.3 vs 3.3 +/- 1.0 mmol.l-1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Intermittent Theta Burst Over M1 May Increase Peak Power of a Wingate Anaerobic Test and Prevent the Reduction of Voluntary Activation Measured with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Giboin, Louis-Solal; Thumm, Patrick; Bertschinger, Raphael; Gruber, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Despite the potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to improve performances in patients suffering from motor neuronal afflictions, its effect on motor performance enhancement in healthy subjects during a specific sport task is still unknown. We hypothesized that after an intermittent theta burst (iTBS) treatment, performance during the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) will increase and supraspinal fatigue following the exercise will be lower in comparison to a control treatment. Ten subjects participated in two randomized experiments consisting of a WAnT 5 min after either an iTBS or a control treatment. We determined voluntary activation (VA) of the right knee extensors with TMS (VATMS) and with peripheral nerve stimulation (VAPNS) of the femoral nerve, before and after the WAnT. T-tests were applied to the WAnT results and a two way within subject ANOVA was applied to VA results. The iTBS treatment increased the peak power and the maximum pedalling cadence and suppressed the reduction of VATMS following the WAnT compared to the control treatment. No behavioral changes related to fatigue (mean power and fatigue index) were observed. These results indicate for the first time that iTBS could be used as a potential intervention to improve anaerobic performance in a sport specific task.

  5. Intermittent Theta Burst Over M1 May Increase Peak Power of a Wingate Anaerobic Test and Prevent the Reduction of Voluntary Activation Measured with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Giboin, Louis-Solal; Thumm, Patrick; Bertschinger, Raphael; Gruber, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Despite the potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to improve performances in patients suffering from motor neuronal afflictions, its effect on motor performance enhancement in healthy subjects during a specific sport task is still unknown. We hypothesized that after an intermittent theta burst (iTBS) treatment, performance during the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) will increase and supraspinal fatigue following the exercise will be lower in comparison to a control treatment. Ten subjects participated in two randomized experiments consisting of a WAnT 5 min after either an iTBS or a control treatment. We determined voluntary activation (VA) of the right knee extensors with TMS (VATMS) and with peripheral nerve stimulation (VAPNS) of the femoral nerve, before and after the WAnT. T-tests were applied to the WAnT results and a two way within subject ANOVA was applied to VA results. The iTBS treatment increased the peak power and the maximum pedalling cadence and suppressed the reduction of VATMS following the WAnT compared to the control treatment. No behavioral changes related to fatigue (mean power and fatigue index) were observed. These results indicate for the first time that iTBS could be used as a potential intervention to improve anaerobic performance in a sport specific task. PMID:27486391

  6. Crossfit training changes brain-derived neurotrophic factor and irisin levels at rest, after wingate and progressive tests, and improves aerobic capacity and body composition of young physically active men and women.

    PubMed

    Murawska-Cialowicz, E; Wojna, J; Zuwala-Jagiello, J

    2015-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein that stimulates processes of neurogenesis, the survival of neurons and microglia, stimulates neuroplasticity, and takes part in the differentiation of cells developed in the hippocampus. BDNF is also released from skeletal muscles during exercise and can facilitate cross-talk between the nervous and muscular system. Irisin, the exercise hormone, is also released from skeletal muscles and is involved in oxidation processes in the organism. It is a vital issue from the point of view of prophylaxis and treatment through exercise of age-related diseases (e.g. senile dementia), obesity, type-2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to assess the changes in BDNF and irisin levels in young people after a 3-month CrossFit training program. At baseline and after the training, levels of BDNF and irisin were assayed before and after Wingate and progressive tests. Physical performance, body mass and composition, and muscle circumferences were also measured. There were noted: an improvement in aerobic capacity, an increase in VO2max, a reduction in adipose tissue percentage in women and an increase in LBM in all subjects. After CrossFit training the resting BDNF level increased significantly in all subjects while the resting level of irisin decreased in women, without changes in men. The resting level of BDNF at baseline was higher in men than in women. At baseline we observed an increased level of BDNF in women after Wingate and progressive tests, but in men only after the progressive test. After 3 months of CrossFit training the level of BDNF increased in all subjects, and also was higher in men than in women. In women we did not observe significant differences after both tests in comparison to rest. After the training BDNF was lower in men after Wingate and progressive tests than at rest. At baseline irisin level decreased in women after the Wingate and progressive tests. Changes in men were not observed after both tests

  7. Delayed uric Acid accumulation in plasma provides additional anti-oxidant protection against iron-triggered oxidative stress after a wingate test.

    PubMed

    Souza-Junior, Tp; Lorenço-Lima, L; Ganini, D; Vardaris, Cv; Polotow, Tg; Barros, Mp

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species are produced during anaerobic exercise mostly by Fe ions released into plasma and endothelial/muscle xanthine oxidase activation that generates uric acid (UA) as the endpoint metabolite. Paradoxically, UA is considered a major antioxidant by virtue of being able to chelate pro-oxidative iron ions. This work aimed to evaluate the relationship between UA and plasma markers of oxidative stress following the exhaustive Wingate test. Plasma samples of 17 male undergraduate students were collected before, 5 and 60 min after maximal anaerobic effort for the measurement of total iron, haem iron, UA, ferric-reducing antioxidant activity in plasma (FRAP), and malondialdehyde (MDA, biomarker of lipoperoxidation). Iron and FRAP showed similar kinetics in plasma, demonstrating an adequate pro-/antioxidant balance immediately after exercise and during the recovery period (5-60 min). Slight variations of haem iron concentrations did not support a relevant contribution of rhabdomyolysis or haemolysis for iron overload following exercise. UA concentration did not vary immediately after exercise but rather increased 29% during the recovery period. Unaltered MDA levels were concomitantly measured. We propose that delayed UA accumulation in plasma is an auxiliary antioxidant response to post-exercise (iron-mediated) oxidative stress, and the high correlation between total UA and FRAP in plasma (R-Square = 0.636; p = 0.00582) supports this hypothesis.

  8. DELAYED URIC ACID ACCUMULATION IN PLASMA PROVIDES ADDITIONAL ANTI-OXIDANT PROTECTION AGAINST IRON-TRIGGERED OXIDATIVE STRESS AFTER A WINGATE TEST

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Junior, TP; Lorenço-Lima, L; Ganini, D; Vardaris, CV; Polotow, TG

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are produced during anaerobic exercise mostly by Fe ions released into plasma and endothelial/muscle xanthine oxidase activation that generates uric acid (UA) as the endpoint metabolite. Paradoxically, UA is considered a major antioxidant by virtue of being able to chelate pro-oxidative iron ions. This work aimed to evaluate the relationship between UA and plasma markers of oxidative stress following the exhaustive Wingate test. Plasma samples of 17 male undergraduate students were collected before, 5 and 60 min after maximal anaerobic effort for the measurement of total iron, haem iron, UA, ferric-reducing antioxidant activity in plasma (FRAP), and malondialdehyde (MDA, biomarker of lipoperoxidation). Iron and FRAP showed similar kinetics in plasma, demonstrating an adequate pro-/antioxidant balance immediately after exercise and during the recovery period (5–60 min). Slight variations of haem iron concentrations did not support a relevant contribution of rhabdomyolysis or haemolysis for iron overload following exercise. UA concentration did not vary immediately after exercise but rather increased 29% during the recovery period. Unaltered MDA levels were concomitantly measured. We propose that delayed UA accumulation in plasma is an auxiliary antioxidant response to post-exercise (iron-mediated) oxidative stress, and the high correlation between total UA and FRAP in plasma (R-Square = 0.636; p = 0.00582) supports this hypothesis. PMID:25435669

  9. Effects of Creatine and Sodium Bicarbonate Coingestion on Multiple Indices of Mechanical Power Output During Repeated Wingate Tests in Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Griffen, Corbin; Rogerson, David; Ranchordas, Mayur; Ruddock, Alan

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of creatine and sodium bicarbonate coingestion on mechanical power during repeated sprints. Nine well-trained men (age = 21.6 ± 0.9 yr, stature = 1.82 ± 0.05 m, body mass = 80.1 ±12.8 kg) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced, crossover study using six 10-s repeated Wingate tests. Participants ingested either a placebo (0.5 g·kg(-1) of maltodextrin), 20 g·d(-1) of creatine monohydrate + placebo, 0.3 g·kg(-1) of sodium bicarbonate + placebo, or coingestion + placebo for 7 days, with a 7-day washout between conditions. Participants were randomized into two groups with a differential counterbalanced order. Creatine conditions were ordered first and last. Indices of mechanical power output (W), total work (J) and fatigue index (W·s(-1)) were measured during each test and analyzed using the magnitude of differences between groups in relation to the smallest worthwhile change in performance. Compared with placebo, both creatine (effect size (ES) = 0.37-0.83) and sodium bicarbonate (ES = 0.22-0.46) reported meaningful improvements on indices of mechanical power output. Coingestion provided small meaningful improvements on indices of mechanical power output (W) compared with sodium bicarbonate (ES = 0.28-0.41), but not when compared with creatine (ES = -0.21-0.14). Coingestion provided a small meaningful improvement in total work (J; ES = 0.24) compared with creatine. Fatigue index (W·s(-1)) was impaired in all conditions compared with placebo. In conclusion, there was no meaningful additive effect of creatine and sodium bicarbonate coingestion on mechanical power during repeated sprints.

  10. Heart rate variability and nonlinear analysis of heart rate dynamics following single and multiple Wingate bouts.

    PubMed

    Millar, Philip J; Rakobowchuk, Mark; McCartney, Neil; MacDonald, Maureen J

    2009-10-01

    Sprint interval training involves short bouts of high-intensity exercise and has produced training responses similar to those of endurance training. The effects of multiple supramaximal exercise bouts on neurocardiac modulation have not been examined. Therefore, we investigated the recovery of heart rate (HR) variability and nonlinear HR dynamics in 10 young (20.1 +/- 1.2 years) healthy males following single (1) and multiple (4) Wingate tests. HR variability was assessed with time and frequency domain measures, whereas nonlinear HR dynamics were determined by assessing the complexity (sample entropy) and fractal nature (detrended fluctuation analysis) of the HR time series. Responses were determined at pre-exercise baseline and at 3 time points during recovery from exercise: Post1 (5-20 min), Post2 (45-60 min), and Post3 (105-120 min). Following a single Wingate test, all temporal and spectral HR measures had returned to baseline by 1 h of recovery. In contrast, these measures were different from baseline at 2 h following multiple Wingate tests. Fractal HR properties were altered (p < 0.05) at Post1 following a single Wingate test and at Post1 and Post2 following multiple Wingate tests. HR complexity was reduced (p < 0.001) throughout the 2-h recovery following both exercise conditions. In conclusion, Wingate tests result in alterations in cardiac autonomic control, with multiple Wingate tests resulting in larger, more prolonged alterations. Based on the results of the single Wingate test, nonlinear measures, such as HR complexity, may be more sensitive in detecting subtle alterations in neurocardiac behaviour, compared with traditional measures of HR variability.

  11. Does upper body strength and power influence upper body Wingate performance in men and women?

    PubMed

    Lovell, D; Mason, D; Delphinus, E; Eagles, A; Shewring, S; McLellan, C

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of muscular strength and power on upper body Wingate performance in men and women. Muscular strength (1 repetition maximum bench press), muscular power (bench throws) and upper body anaerobic performance (Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT)) was assessed in 24 men and 16 women. Men had significantly ( P<0.001) higher absolute and relative peak and mean power and blood lactate concentration during the WAnT compared to their female counterparts. Men also produced significantly ( P<0.001) higher strength and absolute and relative peak and mean power during the bench press and throw, respectively, compared to the female participants. For men body mass and mean power produced during the bench throw explained approximately 84% and 87% of the variance in Wingate peak ( P<0.001 and P=0.039, respectively) and mean ( P<0.001 and P=0.028, respectively) power. For women mean power produced during the bench throw explained approximately 72% and 52% of the variance in Wingate peak ( P=0.002) and mean ( P=0.017) power, respectively. For men body mass and to a lesser extent muscular power best predicts upper body Wingate performance while for women only muscular power predicts upper body Wingate performance.

  12. 30. SECOND FLOOR, NORTHEAST ROOM, SOUTH WALL. Bolection mold fireplace ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. SECOND FLOOR, NORTHEAST ROOM, SOUTH WALL. Bolection mold fireplace surround probably original with house and only remaining one thus. Note bolection panel molds on raised-panel door, also probably original with house. - Mulberry, Cooper River, West Branch, Moncks Corner, Berkeley County, SC

  13. 30. SECOND FLOOR EAST SIDE APARTMENT WEST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. SECOND FLOOR EAST SIDE APARTMENT WEST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 6-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS THROUGH NORTH WALL. ORIGINAL LOUVERED DOORS FRAME CLOSET AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  14. Anaerobic energy provision does not limit Wingate exercise performance in endurance-trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Calbet, J A L; De Paz, J A; Garatachea, N; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Chavarren, J

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of severe acute hypoxia on exercise performance and metabolism during 30-s Wingate tests. Five endurance- (E) and five sprint- (S) trained track cyclists from the Spanish National Team performed 30-s Wingate tests in normoxia and hypoxia (inspired O(2) fraction = 0.10). Oxygen deficit was estimated from submaximal cycling economy tests by use of a nonlinear model. E cyclists showed higher maximal O(2) uptake than S (72 +/- 1 and 62 +/- 2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.05). S cyclists achieved higher peak and mean power output, and 33% larger oxygen deficit than E (P < 0.05). During the Wingate test in normoxia, S relied more on anaerobic energy sources than E (P < 0.05); however, S showed a larger fatigue index in both conditions (P < 0.05). Compared with normoxia, hypoxia lowered O(2) uptake by 16% in E and S (P < 0.05). Peak power output, fatigue index, and exercise femoral vein blood lactate concentration were not altered by hypoxia in any group. Endurance cyclists, unlike S, maintained their mean power output in hypoxia by increasing their anaerobic energy production, as shown by 7% greater oxygen deficit and 11% higher postexercise lactate concentration. In conclusion, performance during 30-s Wingate tests in severe acute hypoxia is maintained or barely reduced owing to the enhancement of the anaerobic energy release. The effect of severe acute hypoxia on supramaximal exercise performance depends on training background.

  15. The Effect of Passive versus Active Recovery on Power Output over Six Repeated Wingate Sprints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Egla-Irina D.; Smoliga, James M.; Zavorsky, Gerald S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of active versus passive recovery on 6 repeated Wingate tests (30-s all-out cycling sprints on a Velotron ergometer). Method: Fifteen healthy participants aged 29 (SD = 8) years old (body mass index = 23 [3] kg/m[superscript 2]) participated in 3 sprint interval training sessions separated…

  16. Evaluation of the Monark Wingate ergometer by direct measurement of resistance and velocity.

    PubMed

    MacIntosh, B R; Bryan, S N; Rishaug, P; Norris, S R

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of the new basket-loaded Wingate ergometer introduced by Monark (Model 834E). Velocity was measured directly from the pedal switch while tension was measured with transducers on each end of the brake lacing. Moment of inertia of the flywheel was determined and accounted for in the calculation of power. Constant load tests (39.24 to 98.1 N), were done at pedaling speeds from 80 to 140 r x min(-1) (flywheel angular velocity = 30-50 rad x s(-1)). The load transmitted to the lacing at the front and back of the flywheel was 95.5 +/- 0.8% (mean +/- SEM) and 6.71 +/- 0.8%, respectively, of the load in the basket. Thus, the resultant tension (front minus back) was on average 88.8 +/- 0.57% of the applied load. The velocity recorded by the Monark Wingate Ergometer computer program (MWECP) was the same (100.4 +/- 1.56%) as that determined from the pedal switch directly. Five male mountain bikers performed a 30-s all-out test. Peak power calculated by MWECP (1181 +/- 55W) was always higher (p < .01) than that calculated from direct measures of tension and velocity (1102 +/- 66W), when not taking into account the moment of inertia. These experiments suggest that the basket-loaded Monark Wingate ergometer does not provide a correct calculation of power because of incomplete load transmission to the flywheel.

  17. Effect of Red Bull energy drink on repeated Wingate cycle performance and bench-press muscle endurance.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Scott C; Candow, Darren G; Little, Jonathan P; Magnus, Charlene; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Red Bull energy drink on Wingate cycle performance and muscle endurance. Healthy young adults (N = 15, 11 men, 4 women, 21 +/- 5 y old) participated in a crossover study in which they were randomized to supplement with Red Bull (2 mg/kg body mass of caffeine) or isoenergetic, isovolumetric, noncaffeinated placebo, separated by 7 d. Muscle endurance (bench press) was assessed by the maximum number of repetitions over 3 sets (separated by 1-min rest intervals) at an intensity corresponding to 70% of baseline 1-repetition maximum. Three 30-s Wingate cycling tests (load = 0.075 kp/kg body mass), with 2 min recovery between tests, were used to assess peak and average power output. Red Bull energy drink significantly increased total bench-press repetitions over 3 sets (Red Bull = 34 +/- 9 vs. placebo = 32 +/- 8, P %%%lt; 0.05) but had no effect on Wingate peak or average power (Red Bull = 701 +/- 124 W vs. placebo = 700 +/- 132 W, Red Bull = 479 +/- 74 W vs. placebo = 471 +/- 74 W, respectively). Red Bull energy drink significantly increased upper body muscle endurance but had no effect on anaerobic peak or average power during repeated Wingate cycling tests in young healthy adults.

  18. Allometric scaling of Wingate anaerobic powertest scores in women.

    PubMed

    Hetzler, Ronald K; Stickley, Christopher D; Kimura, Iris E

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we developed allometric exponents for scaling Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) power data that are effective in controlling for body mass (BM) and lean body mass (LBM) and established a normative WAnT data set for college-age women. One hundred women completed a standard WAnT Allometric exponents and percentile ranks for peak (PP) and mean power (MP) were established. Allometric exponents were applied to WAnT scores for an independent sample (n=31) to assess external validity. PP and MP were 477.0 W (SD = 80.0) and 372.6 W (SD = 61.5), respectively. Allometrice exponents for PP and MP scaled for BM were b = 0.92 and b = 0.76, respectively, and for LBM they were b = 0.93 and b = 0.91, respectively. In the independent sample, these exponents produced correlations between allometrically scaled PP and MP and BM of r = -.02 and r = .02, respectively. Correlations between allometrically scaled PP and MP and LBM were r = .004 and r = -.02, respectively. The allometric exponents were effective in partialing out the effect of BM for PP and MP and demonstrated acceptable levels of external validity when applied to an independent sample. The allometric exponents and normative values provide a useful tool for comparing WAnT scores in college-age women without the confounding effects of BM or LBM.

  19. Mechanically braked Wingate powers: agreement between SRM, corrected and conventional methods of measurement.

    PubMed

    Balmer, James; Bird, Steve; Davison, R C Richard; Doherty, Mike; Smith, Paul

    2004-07-01

    In this study, we assessed the agreement between the powers recorded during a 30 s upper-body Wingate test using three different methods. Fifty-six men completed a single test on a Monark 814E mechanically braked ergometer fitted with a Schoberer Rad Messtechnik (SRM) powermeter. A commercial software package (Wingate test kit version 2.21, Cranlea, UK) was used to calculate conventional and corrected (with accelerative forces) values of power based on a resistive load (5% body mass) and flywheel velocity. The SRM calculated powers based on torque (measured at the crank arm) and crank rate. Values for peak 1 and 5 s power and mean 30 s power were measured. No significant differences (P >0.05) were found between the three methods for 30 s power values. However, the corrected values for peak 1 and 5 s power were 36 and 23% higher (P <0.05) respectively than those for the conventional method, and 27 and 16% higher (P <0.05) respectively than those for the SRM method. The conventional and SRM values for peak 1 and 5 s power were similar (P >0.05). Power values recorded using each method were influenced by sample time (P <0.05). Our results suggest that these three measures of power are similar when sampled over 30 s, but discrepancies occur when the sample time is reduced to either 1 or 5 s.

  20. Master Environmental Plan: Fort Wingate Depot Activity, Gallup, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Biang, C.A.; Yuen, C.R.; Biang, R.P.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1990-12-01

    The master environmental plan is based on an environmental assessment of the areas requiring environmental evaluation (AREEs) at Fort Wingate Depot Activity near Gallup, New Mexico. The Fort Wingate Depot Activity is slated for closure under the Base Closure and Realignment Act, Public Law 100--526. The MEP assesses the current status, describes additional data requirements, recommends actions for the sites, and establishes a priority order for actions. The plan was developed so that actions comply with hazardous waste and water quality regulations of the State of New Mexico and applicable federal regulations. It contains a brief history of the site, relevant geological and hydrological information, and a description of the current status for each AREE along with a discussion of the available site-specific data that pertain to existing or potential contamination and the impact on the environment. 35 refs., 27 figs., 23 tabs.

  1. Standing and seated Wingate protocols in human cycling. A comparison of standard parameters.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Raoul F; Maines, Joseph M; Eisenmann, Joey C; Wilkinson, John G

    2002-11-01

    While the Wingate test is traditionally administered with the restriction that the subject stay seated, competition cyclists generally rise out of the saddle when sprinting. The purpose of this investigation, therefore, was to determine whether the results of Wingate tests are different if they are obtained when the subject is in a seated compared to a standing position. A group of 12 male cyclists, competing at the college level, performed four 30 s Wingate tests over the course of 2 weeks. Two practice tests were first administered, one with the subjects standing on the pedals and one with them seated, followed by two similar tests for the record in a randomized order. Each test was performed on a friction-loaded ergometer (resistance: 8.5% body mass, starting cadence 60 rpm). For the standing tests, the participants rose out of the saddle when the load was applied and remained standing throughout. Power was computed using a commercially available software/ hardware package that accounted for both the load on the flywheel, and the flywheel and crank system acceleration. Power values in the standing and seated trials for the [mean (SD)] 1 s peak [19.4 (1.4) W x kg(-1), 17.9 (1.7) W x kg(-1)], 5 s peak [16.8 (0.9) W x kg(-1), 15.7 (1.1) W x kg(-1)], 30 s average [11.0 (0.4) W x kg(-1), 10.4 (0.6) W x kg(-1)], and 5 s minimal power [8.3 (0.5) W x kg(-1), 7.5 (0.6) W x kg(-1)] were all significantly greater in the standing compared to the seated trials (P < 0.01). However, the fatigue index was not significantly different [51 (5)% standing. 52 (5)% seated; P = 0.25]. Since greater power output was achieved when the subjects were standing on the pedals, it may be more appropriate to test cyclists when they are in the standing position to gain a better representation of their capability to exert maximal power.

  2. Role of energy systems in two intermittent field tests in women field hockey players.

    PubMed

    Lemmink, Koen A P M; Visscher, Susan H

    2006-08-01

    The energetics of 2 field tests that reflect physical performance in intermittent sports (i.e., the Interval Shuttle Sprint Test [ISST] and the Interval Shuttle Run Test [ISRT]) were examined in 21 women field hockey players. The ISST required the players to perform 10 shuttle sprints starting every 20 seconds. During the ISRT, players alternately ran 20-m shuttles for 30 seconds and walked for 15 seconds with increasing speed. Anaerobic and aerobic power tests included Wingate cycle sprints and a .V(O2)max cycle test, respectively. Based on correlation and regression analyses, it was concluded that for the ISST, anaerobic energetic pathways contribute mainly to energy supply for peak sprint time, while aerobic energetic pathways also contribute to energy supply for total sprint time. Energy during the ISRT is supplied mainly by the aerobic energy system. Depending on the aspect of physical performance a coach wants to determine, the ISST or ISRT can be used.

  3. The Effect of Prior Upper Body Exercise on Subsequent Wingate Performance

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Marie Clare; Robergs, Robert; Baird, Marianne Findlay; Baker, Julien S.

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported previously that the upper body musculature is continually active during high intensity cycle ergometry. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of prior upper body exercise on subsequent Wingate (WAnT) performance. Eleven recreationally active males (20.8 ± 2.2 yrs; 77.7 ± 12.0 kg; 1.79 ± 0.04 m) completed two trials in a randomised order. In one trial participants completed 2 × 30 s WAnT tests (WAnT1 and WAnT2) with a 6 min recovery period; in the other trial, this protocol was preceded with 4 sets of biceps curls to induce localised arm fatigue. Prior upper body exercise was found to have a statistically significant detrimental effect on peak power output (PPO) during WAnT1 (P < 0.05) but no effect was observed for mean power output (MPO) (P > 0.05). Handgrip (HG) strength was also found to be significantly lower following the upper body exercise. These results demonstrate that the upper body is meaningfully involved in the generation of leg power during intense cycling. PMID:24895566

  4. Enhanced Preliminary Assessment Report: Fort Wingate Depot Activity Gallup, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    Fort Wingate Depot Activity * Gallup, New Mexico I fMarch 1990 DTIC I il E-LEcTrEII JUN 12 1990U Is eQ prepared for U Commander U.S. Army Toxic and...Activity Gallup, New Mexico March 1990 prepared for Commander, U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010...Claslification) Enhanced Preliminary Assessment Report: Fort Wingate Depot Activity, Gallup, New Mexico 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) 3a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b

  5. Collection Development Statement for the Reference Collection of the Ethel K. Smith Library, Wingate University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetherbee, James M.

    This document is a statement of guidelines for the collection of reference materials at the Ethel K. Smith Library in Wingate University (North Carolina). The library's mission statement is given at the outset. Then parameters are established for the reference collection's scope and size, including subject-area and media priorities. The statement…

  6. George W. Wingate High School Integrated Bilingual Career Education Program. Final Evaluation Report, 1978-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irizarry, Ruddie A.; And Others

    The Wingate High School Bilingual program served 280 limited English speaking Haitian students with Title VII funds. The program, which included students in grades 9 through 12, was designed to offer bilingual instruction and supportive services with the aim of mainstreaming program participants. Students received English as a Second Language…

  7. George W. Wingate High School Bilingual Program ESEA Title VII Final Evaluation Report, 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Educational Evaluation.

    This is an evaluation report of the fifth year of a bilingual career education program, funded under Title VII and carried out at George W. Wingate High School, Brooklyn, New York. The program was designed to offer bilingual instruction and supportive services to the school's Haitian population, with the aim of preparing these students to…

  8. George W. Wingate High School Multilingual Survival Skills Program, 1985-1986. OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    The Multilingual Survival Skills Program, in its final year of a three-year funding cycle, provided instructional and support services to 350 Haitian and Hispanic students of limited English proficiency (LEP) at George Wingate High School (Brooklyn, New York). The program emphasized the acquisition of English language skills, using students'…

  9. Dialysis access venous stenosis: treatment with balloon angioplasty 30-second vs. 1-minute inflation times.

    PubMed

    Elramah, Mohsen; Boujelbane, Lamya; Yevzlin, Alexander S; Wakeen, Maureen; Astor, Brad C; Chan, Micah R

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous balloon angioplasty is the standard of care in the endovascular treatment of dialysis access venous stenosis. The significance of balloon inflation times in the treatment of these stenoses is not well defined. Our objective was to examine the outcomes of 30-second vs. 1-minute balloon inflation times on primary-assisted patency of arteriovenous fistulae and grafts. Using a prospectively collected vascular access database, we identified a total of 75 patients referred for access dysfunction during a 5-year period. These patients received 223 interventions (178 with 30-second inflations and 45 with 1-minute inflations). We compared primary-assisted patency during the subsequent 9 months across groups defined by inflation times. Demographics and baseline characteristics were similar across groups. Immediate technical success and patency in the first 3 months were similar across groups (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34-2.20). After 3 months, however, a 1-minute inflation time was associated with greater incidence of access failure (adjusted HR [aHR] = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.09-2.79). Other predictors of access failure included age over 60 (aHR = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01-1.04), central location of the lesion (aHR = 2.49; CI: 1.27-4.89), and three or more prior procedures (aHR 2.48; CI: 1.19-5.16). Our data suggest that shorter balloon inflation times may be associated with improved longer term access patency, although the benefit was not observed until after 3 months. Given the increasing demands of maintaining access patency in the era of the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative and Fistula First, the role of angioplasty times requires further study.

  10. George W. Wingate High School, Bilingual Demonstration College Preparatory Program. O.E.E. Evaluation Report, 1982-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjostrom, Barbara R.; Sica, Michael

    The Bilingual Demonstration College Preparatory Program, in its second year of funding, provided English as a second language (ESL) and native language instruction, in addition to bilingual instruction in mathematics, social studies, and science, to 120 Spanish-speaking students in grades 9-12 at George W. Wingate High School (Brooklyn, New York).…

  11. Physiological testing of basketball players: toward a standard evaluation of anaerobic fitness.

    PubMed

    Delextrat, Anne; Cohen, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the changes in the rules of the game instituted in 2000 have modified the physiological factors of success in basketball. The performances of 8 elite male players and 8 average-level players were compared in order to identify which components of fitness among agility, speed, anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, and upper body strength were key determinants of performance in modern basketball. Each subject performed 7 tests, including vertical jump (VJ), 20-m sprint, agility T test, suicide sprint, 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), isokinetic testing of the knee extensors, and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press test. The statistical difference in the anaerobic performances was assessed by Student's t test. The main results showed that, compared to average-level players, elite-level players achieved significantly better performances in the agility T test (+6.2%), VJ test (+8.8%), peak torques developed by knee extensors (+20.2%), and 1RM bench press (+18.6%, p < 0.05). In contrast, no significant difference between groups was observed on 20-m sprint, suicide run, and parameters of the WAnT (p > 0.05). These results emphasized the importance of anaerobic power in modern basketball, whereas anaerobic capacity does not seem to be a key aspect to consider. In this context, coaches are advised to avoid using exercises lasting >/=30 seconds in their physical fitness programs, but instead to focus on short and intense tests such as VJ, agility T test, and sprints over very short distances (5 or 10 m).

  12. Predicting sprint kinematic parameters from anaerobic field tests in physical education students.

    PubMed

    Berthoin, S; Dupont, G; Mary, P; Gerbeaux, M

    2001-02-01

    The relations among kinematic parameters measured during the first 10 seconds of 100-m sprint and anaerobic tests were studied in 22 male physical education students. During the first 10 seconds of the sprint, the position of the runners was "continuously" measured with a laser telemeter. Maximal acceleration (Amax), maximal velocity (Vmax), and time to reach Vmax (tVmax) were derived from position data. In addition, the subjects performed anaerobic tests: squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and force-velocity test to measure maximal power, maximal theoretical cranking velocity (VO), maximal theoretical isometric force, and the Wingate anaerobic test (30 seconds). The mean 100-m run time of the subjects was 12.6 +/- 0.9 seconds. The highest correlations were calculated between Amax and V0 (r = 0.55, p < 0.01) and CMJ (r = 0.48, p < 0.05) and Vmax and SJ (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and CMJ (r = 0.56, p < 0.05). The tVmax was uncorrelated to other tests. Because the CMJ was the anaerobic performance best correlated to the different kinematic parameters of the run, our results fail to identify one anaerobic test that specifically explains one sprint kinematic parameter.

  13. Remote detection of fluid-related diagenetic mineralogical variations in the Wingate Sandstone at different spatial and spectral resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okyay, Unal; Khan, Shuhab D.

    2016-02-01

    Well-exposed eolian units of the Jurassic system on the Colorado Plateau including the Wingate Sandstone, show prominent color variations throughout southeastern Utah due to diagenetic changes that include precipitation and/or removal of iron oxide, clay, and carbonate cement. Spatially variable characteristic diagenetic changes suggest fluid-rock interactions through the sandstone. Distinctive spectral signatures of diagenetic minerals can be used to map diagenetic mineral variability and possibly fluid-flow pathways. The main objective of this work was to identify characteristic diagenetic minerals, and map their spatial variability from regional to outcrop scale in Wingate Sandstone exposures of Lisbon Valley, Utah. Laboratory reflectance spectroscopy analysis of the samples facilitated identification of diagnostic spectral characteristics of the common diagenetic minerals and their relative abundances between altered and unaltered Wingate Sandstone. Comparison of reflectance spectroscopy with satellite, airborne, and ground-based imaging spectroscopy data provided a method for mapping and evaluating spatial variations of diagenetic minerals. The Feature-oriented Principal Component Selection method was used on Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data so as to map common mineral groups throughout the broader Wingate Sandstone exposure in the area. The Minimum Noise Fraction and Spectral Angle Mapper methods were applied on airborne HyMap and ground-based hyperspectral imaging data to identify and map mineralogical changes. The satellite and airborne data showed that out of 25.55 km2 total exposure of Wingate Sandstone in Lisbon Valley, unaltered sandstone cover 12.55 km2, and altered sandstone cover 8.90 km2 in the northwest flank and 5.09 km2 in the southern flank of the anticline. The ground-based hyperspectral data demonstrated the ability to identify and map mineral assemblages with two-dimensional lateral continuity on near

  14. Satellite-driven estimation of terrestrial carbon flux over Far East Asia with 30-second grid resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, T.; Saigusa, N.; Nasahara, K. N.; Ito, A.; Hashimoto, H.; Nemani, R. R.; Hirata, R.; Ichii, K.; Takagi, K.; Saitoh, T. M.; Ohta, T.; Murakami, K.; Oikawa, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle is strongly affected by local natural phenomena and local human-induced activities that alter carbon exchange via vegetation and soil activities. In order to accurately understand terrestrial carbon cycle mechanisms, it is necessary to estimate spatial and temporal variations in carbon flux and storage using process-based models with the highest possible resolution. We estimated terrestrial carbon fluxes using the biosphere model integrating eco-physiological and mechanistic approaches using Satellite data (BEAMS) and satellite observations with 30-second grid resolution. The study area is the central Far East Asia region, which lies between 30 degree and 50 degree north latitude and 125 degree and 150 degree east longitude. Aiming to simulate terrestrial carbon exchanges under realistic land surface conditions, we applied as many satellite-observation means as possible, such as the standard MODIS, TRMM, and SRTM high-level land products. Validated using gross primary productivity (GPP), net ecosystem production (NEP), net radiation and latent heat with ground measurements at six flux sites, the model estimations showed reasonable seasonal and annual patterns. In extensive analysis, total amounts of GPP and NPP were determined to be 2.1 PgC/year and 0.9 PgC/year. The total NEP estimate was +5.6 TgC/year, meaning that the land area played a role as a carbon sink for these six years. In analyses of areas with complicated topography, the 30-second grid estimation could prove to be an effective product to evaluate the effect of landscape on the terrestrial carbon cycle. The method presented here is an appropriate approach to gain a better understanding of terrestrial carbon exchange, both spatially and temporally.

  15. Orde Wingate and the British Internal Security Strategy during the Arab Rebellion in Palestine, 1936-1939

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    25-26; Sykes. Crossroads to Israel: 1917-1948, 9. See also Herbert Sidebotham, British Imperial Interests in Palestine (Letchworth; The Garden City...300. 59 prominence as George Antonius.126 Wingate also met and quickly established a close relationship with Chaim Weizmann, one of the principal...Forces in History ed. George Mosse (London: Sage Publications, 1975), 120-121; David Ben-Gurion, “Britain’s contribution to Arming the Hagana,” Jewish

  16. Heart Rate Variability Analysis in Revascularized Individuals Submitted to an Anaerobic Potency Test

    PubMed Central

    Gutian, Geraldo Mendes; Kawaguchi, Leandro Yukio Alves; de Almeida Fagundes, Alessandra; Russo, Adriana Kowalesky; Monteiro, Emmelin Souza; Monteiro, Andrea; de Paula, Alderico R; Ribeiro, Wellington; Osorio, Rodrigo Alexis Lazo

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the behavior of autonomic modulation before, during and after the Modified Wingate Test (WanMT), through the analysis of Heart Rate Variability (HRV). Six volunteers between the ages of 40 and 70, post-revascularization procedures (angioplasty and/or surgery, mean duration 10 months), were submitted to supervised training for at least 10 to 14 months. The following protocol, divided into 5 phases, was used: 1) Rest Phase (RP): 180 seconds; 2) Submaximum Phase (SP): 30 seconds; 3) Maximum Phase (MP): 30 seconds; 4) Active Recuperation Phase (ARP); 120 seconds and; 5) Passive Recuperation Phase (PRP): 180 seconds. For the WanMT Test, we selected the load of 3.75% of corporal weight for all volunteers. To analyze the HRV, we used the following parameters: the interval RRr, MNN, SDNN, RMSSD and PNN50. We only observed results for the group according to RMSSD parameters during the rest phase of the test protocol in which the group remained in vagal presence and during all other phases in vagal depression. However, when we analyzed the PNN50, we observed that the group was in medium vagal presence during all of the phases of the test though there was no statistically significant difference (p> 0.05) between the phases. Therefore, we can say that all of the individuals had a similar profile in the autonomic response to the WanMT, confirmed by the parameters studied in the analysis of the HRV in the time domain. PMID:17957271

  17. Heart rate variability analysis in revascularized individuals submitted to an anaerobic potency test.

    PubMed

    Gutian, Geraldo Mendes; Kawaguchi, Leandro Yukio Alves; de Almeida Fagundes, Alessandra; Russo, Adriana Kowalesky; Monteiro, Emmelin Souza; Monteiro, Andrea; de Paula, Alderico R; Ribeiro, Wellington; Osorio, Rodrigo Alexis Lazo

    2007-10-22

    The objective of this study was to analyze the behavior of autonomic modulation before, during and after the Modified Wingate Test (WanMT), through the analysis of Heart Rate Variability (HRV). Six volunteers between the ages of 40 and 70, post-revascularization procedures (angioplasty and/or surgery, mean duration 10 months), were submitted to supervised training for at least 10 to 14 months. The following protocol, divided into 5 phases, was used: 1) Rest Phase (RP): 180 seconds; 2) Submaximum Phase (SP): 30 seconds; 3) Maximum Phase (MP): 30 seconds; 4) Active Recuperation Phase (ARP); 120 seconds and; 5) Passive Recuperation Phase (PRP): 180 seconds. For the WanMT Test, we selected the load of 3.75% of corporal weight for all volunteers. To analyze the HRV, we used the following parameters: the interval RRr, MNN, SDNN, RMSSD and PNN50. We only observed results for the group according to RMSSD parameters during the rest phase of the test protocol in which the group remained in vagal presence and during all other phases in vagal depression. However, when we analyzed the PNN50, we observed that the group was in medium vagal presence during all of the phases of the test though there was no statistically significant difference (p> 0.05) between the phases. Therefore, we can say that all of the individuals had a similar profile in the autonomic response to the WanMT, confirmed by the parameters studied in the analysis of the HRV in the time domain.

  18. Late Cenozoic sedimentation and volcanism during transtensional deformation in Wingate Wash and the Owlshead Mountains, Death Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luckow, H.G.; Pavlis, T.L.; Serpa, L.F.; Guest, B.; Wagner, D.L.; Snee, L.; Hensley, T.M.; Korjenkov, A.

    2005-01-01

    New 1:24,000 scale mapping, geochemical analyses of volcanic rocks, and Ar/Ar and tephrochronology analyses of the Wingate Wash, northern Owlshead Mountain and Southern Panamint Mountain region document a complex structural history constrained by syntectonic volcanism and sedimentation. In this study, the region is divided into five structural domains with distinct, but related, histories: (1) The southern Panamint domain is a structurally intact, gently south-tilted block dominated by a middle Miocene volcanic center recognized as localized hypabyssal intrusives surrounded by proximal facies pyroclastic rocks. This Miocene volcanic sequence is an unusual alkaline volcanic assemblage ranging from trachybasalt to rhyolite, but dominated by trachyandesite. The volcanic rocks are overlain in the southwestern Panamint Mountains by a younger (Late Miocene?) fanglomerate sequence. (2) An upper Wingate Wash domain is characterized by large areas of Quaternary cover and complex overprinting of older structure by Quaternary deformation. Quaternary structures record ???N-S shortening concurrent with ???E-W extension accommodated by systems of strike-slip and thrust faults. (3) A central Wingate Wash domain contains a complex structural history that is closely tied to the stratigraphic evolution. In this domain, a middle Miocene volcanic package contains two distinct assemblages; a lower sequence dominated by alkaline pyroclastic rocks similar to the southern Panamint sequence and an upper basaltic sequence of alkaline basalt and basanites. This volcanic sequence is in turn overlain by a coarse clastic sedimentary sequence that records the unroofing of adjacent ranges and development of ???N-S trending, west-tilted fault blocks. We refer to this sedimentary sequence as the Lost Lake assemblage. (4) The lower Wingate Wash/northern Owlshead domain is characterized by a gently north-dipping stratigraphic sequence with an irregular unconformity at the base developed on granitic

  19. The effect of gender on left ventricular function immediately after the wingate test.

    PubMed

    Ben-Sira, D; Sagiv, M

    1997-01-01

    The effect of gender on left ventricular systolic function and exercise haemodynamics in healthy young subjects was studied during 30-s all-out sudden strenuous dynamic exercise. A group of 22 men [19.3 (SD 1) years] 20 women [19.1 (SD 1) years] volunteered to participate in this study. Two-dimensional direct M-mode and Doppler echocardiograph studies were performed with the subject in the sitting position. The Doppler examination of flow was located with continuous-wave, interrogating ascending aorta measurements. The subjects completed the study without showing any electrocardiograph abnormalities. An interaction effect with stroke volume (P < 0.05) was characterized by a decrease in the men and an increase of stroke volume in the women. Cardiac output rose significantly (P < 0.05) up to 14.5 (SD 6) 1.min-1) for the men and 12.1 (SD 4) 1.min-1 for the women compared to the rest values [5.8 (SD 0.4) and 4.7 (SD 0.5) 1.min-1, respectively]. Flow velocity integral and acceleration time differed significantly between the two groups at rest (P < 0.05). During exercise these differences showed an interaction effect (P < 0.05). These results would indicate that normal men and women respond to sudden strenuous exercise by reducing their left ventricular systolic function, with a significantly greater decrease in women (P < 0.05). The gender differences in the haemodynamic responses during the present study, may, as suggested by others, be attributable to differences in energy metabolism. In addition, changes in Doppler parameters of aortic flow, haemodynamics and blood pressure responses during sudden strenuous exercise differed markedly from those seen before with endurance exercise.

  20. Concurrent Verbal Encouragement and Wingate Anaerobic Cycle Test Performance in Females: Athletes vs. Non-Athletes.

    PubMed

    Bullinger, Dyana L; Hearon, Christopher M; Gaines, Stacey A; Daniel, Michael L

    To examine the effect of concurrent verbal encouragement on the performance of the WAnT in female athletes vs. female non-athletes. College-age female subjects were recruited where ten of the subjects were intercollegiate athletes (ATH, n1 =10) and the nine were non-athletes (NON, n2 =9). The WAnT was novel to all subjects and the subjects were blinded to the study's purpose. Prior to the experimental trials, subjects were measured for body composition and performed a familiarity WAnT trial without verbal encouragement. Subjects then performed the WAnT twice, once with concurrent verbal encouragement (VE) and once without (NVE), in a balanced cross-over design. Peak (PP) and mean power (MP), and total work (TW) were compared between ATH and NON across VE and NVE using an ANOVA (1 between, 1 within), α=0.05. ATH and NON did not differ (p>0.05) in age or body composition with the exception of fat-free mass which differed significantly (ATH=53.7±6.6, NON=46.1±5.7 kg) (p<0.05). A significant (p<0.05) main effect for ATH/NON was observed where ATH outperformed NON when pooled across VE/NVE trials for PP (ATH=13.0±1.4, NON=11.3±1.7 W·kg(-1)), MP (ATH=7.7±1.1, NON=6.7±0.9 W·kg-1) and TW (ATH=232±35, NON=201±26 J·kg(-1)). When pooled across all subjects (ATH and NON), the VE/NVE trials did not differ (p>0.05) for PP (VE=12.4±1.7, NVE=12.0±1.9 W·kg(-1)), MP (VE=7.3±1.1, NVE=7.2±1.2 W·kg(-1)) and TW (VE=219±33, NVE=215±35 J·kg(-1)). The ATH/NON interaction with VE/NVE was not significant (p>0.05). Concurrent verbal encouragement does not affect performance on the WAnT in females, nor does it affect WAnT performance in female athletes and non-athletes differently.

  1. Wingate Anaerobic Test Peak Power and Anaerobic Capacity Classification for Men and Women Intercollegiate Athletes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    including football, sprinting, soccer, baseball, lacrosse, and gymnastics - use anaerobic metabolism extensively during competition. This study...1 . 3 62j + 7.7 167.1 + 7 .9 Tennis, track, soccer, and gymnastics urements allow a coach to observe individual improvements; however, it is...require short bursts of peak power and a high anaerobic capacity during competition to include lacrosse, gymnastics , sprint cycling, football, baseball

  2. Establishing the Test-Retest Reliability & Concurrent Validity for the Repeat Ice Skating Test (RIST) in Adolescent Male Ice Hockey Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Allan; Faught, Brent E.; Przysucha, Eryk; McPherson, Moira; Montelpare, William

    2012-01-01

    In this study the authors examine the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the Repeat Ice Skating Test (RIST). This was an on-ice field anaerobic test that measured average peak power and was validated with 3 anaerobic lab tests: (a) vertical jump, (b) the Margaria-Kalamen stair test, and (c) the Wingate Anaerobic Test. The…

  3. Medical professionals convicted of accessing child pornography--presumptive lifetime prohibition on paediatric practice? Health Care Complaints Commission v Wingate.

    PubMed

    Shats, Kathy; Faunce, Thomas

    2008-05-01

    Health Care Complaints Commission v Wingate [2007] NSWCA 326 concerns an appeal from the New South Wales Medical Tribunal regarding its findings on professional misconduct outside the practice of medicine in relation to a doctor convicted of possessing child pornography. The latest in a number of cases on this issue in Australia, it highlights the complexity of such decisions before medical tribunals and boards, as well as the diversity of approaches taken. Considering both this case and the recent Medical Practitioners Board of Victoria case of Re Stephanopoulos [2006] MPBV 12, this column argues that Australian tribunals and medical boards may not yet have achieved the right balance here in terms of protecting public safety and the reputation of the profession as a whole. It makes the case for a position statement from Australian professional bodies to create a presumption of a lifetime prohibition on paediatric practice after a medical professional has been convicted of accessing child pornography.

  4. The 30-Second Spot Quiz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rank, Hugh

    Based on the pattern of "the pitch" (Hi/Trust Me/You Need/Hurry/Buy), this sequence of questions can be used to focus on the "skeleton" underneath the surface variations of radio and television commercials, and newspaper and magazine ads. The five questions, which include evaluation criteria, are as follows: (1) What attention-getting techniques…

  5. Motivation and motoric tests in sports.

    PubMed

    Karaba-Jakovljević, Dea; Popadić-Gaćesa, Jelena; Grujić, Nikola; Barak, Otto; Drapsin, Miodrag

    2007-01-01

    Motivation in sport performance has been an interesting topic for many investigators during the past decade. This area can be considered from different viewpoints: motivation for participation in sport activity, achievement motivation, competitiveness etc. Motivation plays an important role in all out tests, as well as in sport activities and at all levels of competition. Motivation climate, or positive social environment may influence and modulate motivation of individuals involved in sports. Experience has shown that conventional encouragement and feedback during the test may affect its outcome. According to Wingate research team recommendations, verbal encouragement, as a motivation factor, was given to all examined subjects during Wingate anaerobic test, which is considered the most reliable test for assessing anaerobic capacity. The investigated group consisted of 30 young men--medical students, who were not actively involved in any programmed sport activity. The investigated group included second-year students of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad chosen by random sampling. The Wingate anaerobic test was performed in all subjects, and changes of parameters when test was performed with verbal encouragement, were recorded The results show statistically significant increase of Wingate test parameters when conducted with verbal encouragement: anaerobic power (622/669 W); relative anaerobic power (7.70/8.27 W/kg); slope of the power (95.5/114 W/s); relative slope of the power (1.18/1.40 W/s/kg); anaerobic capacity (12.7/13.2 kJ) and relative anaerobic capacity (158/164 J/kg).

  6. Effects of active vs. passive recovery on work performed during serial supramaximal exercise tests.

    PubMed

    Spierer, D K; Goldsmith, R; Baran, D A; Hryniewicz, K; Katz, S D

    2004-02-01

    The current investigation was undertaken to determine the effects of active versus passive recovery on work performance during repeated bouts of supramaximal exercise. Six healthy sedentary subjects and 9 moderately trained healthy hockey players performed serial 30-second Wingate anaerobic power tests (WAnT) on a bicycle ergometer interposed with 4 minutes of active recovery at a work rate corresponding to 28 % of VO(2)max or passive recovery at rest. Peak power, mean power, total work achieved, and fatigue index were calculated for the serial WAnT. Capillary blood lactate was determined at 5-minute intervals after the last WAnT during 30 minutes of active or passive recovery. Mean power was significantly greater during active recovery in sedentary subjects when compared with passive recovery (388 +/- 42 vs. 303 +/- 37 W, p < 0.05), but did not differ according to recovery mode in moderately trained hockey players (589 +/- 22 W active vs. 563 +/- 26 W passive, p = 0.14). Total work achieved significantly increased during active when compared with passive recovery in sedentary subjects (34 890 +/- 3768 vs. 27 260 +/- 3364 J, p < 0.02) and moderately trained hockey players (86 763 +/- 9151 vs. 75 357 +/- 8281 J, p < 0.05). Capillary blood lactate levels did not differ during active when compared with passive recovery in sedentary subjects but were significantly lower during active when compared with passive recovery in moderately trained hockey players. These data demonstrate that active recovery at a work rate corresponding to 28 % of VO(2)max increases total work achieved during repeated WAnT when compared with passive recovery in sedentary subjects and moderately trained hockey players.

  7. 46 CFR 160.176-13 - Approval Tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Each test subject must be able to swim and relax in the water. Note: Some tests have inherent hazards... water and swim for approximately 30 seconds and then, on command, inflate the lifejacket using only oral... lifejacket and is instructed to enter the water and swim for approximately 30 seconds, bring both hands...

  8. 46 CFR 160.176-13 - Approval Tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Each test subject must be able to swim and relax in the water. Note: Some tests have inherent hazards... water and swim for approximately 30 seconds and then, on command, inflate the lifejacket using only oral... lifejacket and is instructed to enter the water and swim for approximately 30 seconds, bring both hands...

  9. F-1 Engine Gas Generator Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    The gas generator from an F-1 engine is test-fired at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., on Jan. 24, 2013. Data from the 30 second test will be used in the development of advance...

  10. Effect of individual time to peak power output on the expression of peak power output in the 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Test.

    PubMed

    Bell, W; Cobner, D M

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to examine a proposal which stated that individual power values should be aligned according to peak power output (PPO) before calculating the mean value of PPO. This procedure removes the variation in time it takes for individuals to reach PPO. Participants were forty-one University Rugby Union Football players of mean age 21.7 +/- 2.6 years, height 181.4 +/- 6.9 cm and body mass 88.9 +/- 12.7 kg. Data were collected using a friction-belt cycle ergometer (Monark 864, Varberg, Sweden). A significantly larger mean value for PPO was found when results were calculated from time-aligned rather than cross-sectional data (1154 +/- 246 vs. 1121 +/- 254 W, p < 0.0001); the mean difference was approximately 3 %. Additionally, the average profile of the power output curve was more reflective of individual power curves. The negative correlation between PPO and the time taken to reach PPO was - 0.32 (p < 0.05), confirming the view that the earlier the time taken to reach PPO the larger the PPO. It was concluded that the mean value of PPO and the corresponding profile for power output curves are best represented by the analysis of time-aligned rather than cross-sectional data.

  11. Geochemical evidence of groundwater flow paths and the fate and transport of constituents of concern in the alluvial aquifer at Fort Wingate Depot Activity, New Mexico, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Andrew J.; Henry, David W.; Langman, Jeffery B.

    2013-01-01

    As part of an environmental investigation at Fort Wingate Depot Activity, New Mexico, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, interpreted aqueous geochemical concentrations to better understand the groundwater flow paths and the fate and transport of constituents of concern in the alluvial aquifer underlying the study area. The fine-grained nature of the alluvial matrix creates a highly heterogeneous environment, which adds to the difficulty of characterizing the flow of groundwater and the fate of aqueous constituents of concern. The analysis of the groundwater geochemical data collected in October 2009 provides evidence that is used to identify four groundwater flow paths and their extent in the aquifer and indicates the dominant attenuation processes for the constituents of concern. The extent and interaction of groundwater flow paths were delineated by the major ion concentrations and their relations to each other. Four areas of groundwater recharge to the study area were identified based on groundwater elevations, hydrogeologic characteristics, and geochemical and isotopic evidence. One source of recharge enters the study area from the saturated alluvial deposits underlying the South Fork of the Puerco River to the north of the study area. A second source of recharge is shown to originate from a leaky cistern containing production water from the San Andres-Glorieta aquifer. The other two sources of recharge are shown to enter the study area from the south: one from an arroyo valley draining an area to the south and one from hill-front recharge that passes under the reported release of perchlorate and explosive constituents. The spatial extent and interaction of groundwater originating from these various sources along identified flow paths affect the persistence and attenuation of constituents of concern. It was determined that groundwater originating in the area of a former explosives’ wash-out operation and an

  12. 49 CFR 178.356-3 - Tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tests. 178.356-3 Section 178.356-3 Transportation... Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.356-3 Tests. (a) Leakage test—Each inner liner assembly... must be held for at least 30 seconds. Liners failing to pass this test may not be used until...

  13. 49 CFR 178.356-3 - Tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tests. 178.356-3 Section 178.356-3 Transportation... Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.356-3 Tests. (a) Leakage test—Each inner liner assembly... must be held for at least 30 seconds. Liners failing to pass this test may not be used until...

  14. 49 CFR 178.356-3 - Tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tests. 178.356-3 Section 178.356-3 Transportation... Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.356-3 Tests. (a) Leakage test—Each inner liner assembly... must be held for at least 30 seconds. Liners failing to pass this test may not be used until...

  15. 49 CFR 178.356-3 - Tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tests. 178.356-3 Section 178.356-3 Transportation... Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.356-3 Tests. (a) Leakage test—Each inner liner assembly... must be held for at least 30 seconds. Liners failing to pass this test may not be used until...

  16. Effects of a selective sleep deprivation on subsequent anaerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Mougin, F; Bourdin, H; Simon-Rigaud, M L; Didier, J M; Toubin, G; Kantelip, J P

    1996-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a partial sleep deprivation on a subsequent supramaximal exercise evaluated from the 30 second Wingate test, and on the following recovery. To take into account the active muscle mass, the Wingate test was performed against a constant braking force related to the data of a force-velocity test conducted on a Monark cycle ergometer (Model 814 E with weights) one week before the experimental test. Eight highly trained athletes were enrolled for this study. The changes in ventilatory and metabolic responses were analyzed during and upon completion of physical 30 second exercise, taking place after two nights, in other words, after a reference night and after a night with reduced sleep. Partial sleep deprivation was obtained by delaying bedtime until 3 a.m. The 30 second Wingate test was performed between 9 a.m. and noon the following days, using a Monark ergometer (Model 814 F). The analyses of change scores disclosed that there were no main significant effects for measures of ventilation, lactates and pH(v) levels under the two experimental conditions. The peak power, the mean power output and the peak velocity recorded after partial sleep deprivation were not modified in comparison with the values obtained after the reference night. These findings suggest that acute sleep loss did not contribute to alterations in supramaximal exercise.

  17. The Total Work Measured During a High Intensity Isokinetic Fatigue Test Is Associated With Anaerobic Work Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Bosquet, Laurent; Gouadec, Kenan; Berryman, Nicolas; Duclos, Cyril; Gremeaux, Vincent; Croisier, Jean Louis

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether total work measured during a high intensity isokinetic fatigue test (TWFAT) could be considered as a valid measure of anaerobic work capacity (AWC), such as determined by total work measured during a Wingate Anaerobic Test (TWWAnT). Twenty well-trained cyclists performed 2 randomly ordered sessions involving a high intensity isokinetic fatigue test consisting in 30 reciprocal maximal concentric contractions of knee flexors and extensors at 180°·s-1, and a Wingate Anaerobic Test. We found that TWFAT of knee extensors was largely lower than TWWAnT (4151 ± 691 vs 22313 ± 2901 J, respectively, p < 0.05, Hedge’s g = 4.27). Both measures were highly associated (r = 0.83), and the 95% limits of agreement (LoA) represented 24.5% of TWWAnT. TWFAT of knee flexors (2151 ± 540 J) was largely lower than TWWAnT (p < 0.05, g = 9.52). By contrast, both measures were not associated (r = 0.09), and the 95% LoA represented 31.1% of TWWAnT. Combining TWFAT of knee flexors and knee extensors into a single measure (6302 ± 818 J) did not changed neither improved these observations. We still found a large difference with TWWAnT (p < 0.05, g = 5.26), a moderate association (r = 0.65) and 95% LoA representing 25.5% of TWWAnT. We concluded that TWFAT of knee extensors could be considered as a valid measure of AWC, since both measure were highly associated. However, the mean difference between both measures and their 95% LoA were too large to warrant interchangeability. Key points Total work performed during a high intensity isokinetic fatigue test can be considered as a valid measure of anaerobic work capacity (as determined by total work performance during a 30-s Wingate anaerobic test). The 95% limits of agreement are two large to allow a direct comparison between both measures. In other words, it is not possible to estimate the magnitude of performance improvement during a 30-s Wingate anaerobic test from that observed during a

  18. The Total Work Measured During a High Intensity Isokinetic Fatigue Test Is Associated With Anaerobic Work Capacity.

    PubMed

    Bosquet, Laurent; Gouadec, Kenan; Berryman, Nicolas; Duclos, Cyril; Gremeaux, Vincent; Croisier, Jean Louis

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether total work measured during a high intensity isokinetic fatigue test (TWFAT) could be considered as a valid measure of anaerobic work capacity (AWC), such as determined by total work measured during a Wingate Anaerobic Test (TWWAnT). Twenty well-trained cyclists performed 2 randomly ordered sessions involving a high intensity isokinetic fatigue test consisting in 30 reciprocal maximal concentric contractions of knee flexors and extensors at 180°·s(-1), and a Wingate Anaerobic Test. We found that TWFAT of knee extensors was largely lower than TWWAnT (4151 ± 691 vs 22313 ± 2901 J, respectively, p < 0.05, Hedge's g = 4.27). Both measures were highly associated (r = 0.83), and the 95% limits of agreement (LoA) represented 24.5% of TWWAnT. TWFAT of knee flexors (2151 ± 540 J) was largely lower than TWWAnT (p < 0.05, g = 9.52). By contrast, both measures were not associated (r = 0.09), and the 95% LoA represented 31.1% of TWWAnT. Combining TWFAT of knee flexors and knee extensors into a single measure (6302 ± 818 J) did not changed neither improved these observations. We still found a large difference with TWWAnT (p < 0.05, g = 5.26), a moderate association (r = 0.65) and 95% LoA representing 25.5% of TWWAnT. We concluded that TWFAT of knee extensors could be considered as a valid measure of AWC, since both measure were highly associated. However, the mean difference between both measures and their 95% LoA were too large to warrant interchangeability. Key pointsTotal work performed during a high intensity isokinetic fatigue test can be considered as a valid measure of anaerobic work capacity (as determined by total work performance during a 30-s Wingate anaerobic test).The 95% limits of agreement are two large to allow a direct comparison between both measures. In other words, it is not possible to estimate the magnitude of performance improvement during a 30-s Wingate anaerobic test from that observed during a high

  19. Development of a Specific Anaerobic Field Test for Aerobic Gymnastics

    PubMed Central

    Paineli, Vitor de Salles; Azevedo, Rafael de Almeida; Borelli, Claudia Cristine Gomes; Lancha Junior, Antônio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to develop a valid specific field test to evaluate anaerobic physical performance in Aerobic Gymnastics athletes. We first designed the Specific Aerobic Gymnast Anaerobic Test (SAGAT), which included gymnastics-specific elements performed in maximal repeated sprint fashion, with a total duration of 80-90 s. In order to validate the SAGAT, three independent sub-studies were performed to evaluate the concurrent validity (Study I, n=8), the reliability (Study II, n=10) and the sensitivity (Study III, n=30) of the test in elite female athletes. In Study I, a positive correlation was shown between lower-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03 and Peak power: p = 0.02, r = -0.72, CI: -0.95 to -0.04) and between upper-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.67, CI: -0.94 to 0.02 and Peak power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03). Additionally, plasma lactate was similarly increased in response to SAGAT (p = 0.002), lower-body Wingate Test (p = 0.021) and a simulated competition (p = 0.007). In Study II, no differences were found between the time to complete the SAGAT in repeated trials (p = 0.84; Cohen’s d effect size = 0.09; ICC = 0.97, CI: 0.89 to 0.99; MDC95 = 0.12 s). Finally, in Study III the time to complete the SAGAT was significantly lower during the competition cycle when compared to the period before the preparatory cycle (p < 0.001), showing an improvement in SAGAT performance after a specific Aerobic Gymnastics training period. Taken together, these data have demonstrated that SAGAT is a specific, reliable and sensitive measurement of specific anaerobic performance in elite female Aerobic Gymnastics, presenting great potential to be largely applied in training settings. PMID:25876039

  20. Development of a specific anaerobic field test for aerobic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Alves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues; Borelli, Marcello Tadeu Caetano; Paineli, Vitor de Salles; Azevedo, Rafael de Almeida; Borelli, Claudia Cristine Gomes; Lancha Junior, Antônio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to develop a valid specific field test to evaluate anaerobic physical performance in Aerobic Gymnastics athletes. We first designed the Specific Aerobic Gymnast Anaerobic Test (SAGAT), which included gymnastics-specific elements performed in maximal repeated sprint fashion, with a total duration of 80-90 s. In order to validate the SAGAT, three independent sub-studies were performed to evaluate the concurrent validity (Study I, n=8), the reliability (Study II, n=10) and the sensitivity (Study III, n=30) of the test in elite female athletes. In Study I, a positive correlation was shown between lower-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03 and Peak power: p = 0.02, r = -0.72, CI: -0.95 to -0.04) and between upper-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.67, CI: -0.94 to 0.02 and Peak power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03). Additionally, plasma lactate was similarly increased in response to SAGAT (p = 0.002), lower-body Wingate Test (p = 0.021) and a simulated competition (p = 0.007). In Study II, no differences were found between the time to complete the SAGAT in repeated trials (p = 0.84; Cohen's d effect size = 0.09; ICC = 0.97, CI: 0.89 to 0.99; MDC95 = 0.12 s). Finally, in Study III the time to complete the SAGAT was significantly lower during the competition cycle when compared to the period before the preparatory cycle (p < 0.001), showing an improvement in SAGAT performance after a specific Aerobic Gymnastics training period. Taken together, these data have demonstrated that SAGAT is a specific, reliable and sensitive measurement of specific anaerobic performance in elite female Aerobic Gymnastics, presenting great potential to be largely applied in training settings.

  1. 49 CFR 179.300-16 - Tests of tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.300-16 Tests of tanks. (a) After postweld heat treatment, tanks shall be subjected to hydrostatic expansion test in a water jacket, or by other approved... for 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to insure complete expansion of tank. Pressure gage...

  2. 49 CFR 179.300-16 - Tests of tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.300-16 Tests of tanks. (a) After postweld heat treatment, tanks shall be subjected to hydrostatic expansion test in a water jacket, or by other approved... for 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to insure complete expansion of tank. Pressure gage...

  3. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... elements that are discussed are ambient air temperature and humidity, minimum test cell size, solar heating..., within the test cell, during all phases of the air conditioning test sequence to 95 ±2 °F on average and... of 30 second intervals. Records of cell air temperatures and values of average test temperatures...

  4. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... elements that are discussed are ambient air temperature and humidity, minimum test cell size, solar heating..., within the test cell, during all phases of the air conditioning test sequence to 95 ±2 °F on average and... of 30 second intervals. Records of cell air temperatures and values of average test temperatures...

  5. Design and fabrication of a 30 second pulsed plasma generator

    SciTech Connect

    Biagi, L.A.; Ehlers, K.W.; Lietzke, A.F.; Matuk, C.A.; Maruyama, Y.; Paterson, J.A.; Tanabe, J.T.

    1983-10-01

    The design and fabrication techniques for a large hybrid magnetic cusp plasma generator developed for 30 sec pulse length are described. Included are the magnetic cusp geometry features, water cooling characteristics, filament structures, and the high energy density actively cooled anode and electron dump employed.

  6. Development and assessment of the Monark cycle ergometer for anaerobic muscular exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, F. A.; Langevin, R. C.; Miletti, J.; Sacco, M.; Murphy, M. M.

    1983-07-01

    This report describes the system developed by this Institute to measure anaerobic power production using the protocol developed at the Wingate Institute in Israel. This test consists of 30 seconds of maximal cycling (or cranking) exercise against a resistance determined according to the body weight of the subject. The system consists of a modified Monark cycle ergometer, a universal counter to monitor flywheel revolutions, and a desktop computer for timing, control, and data processing. The modification of the ergometer for the instantaneous application of resistance is presented. In addition, the methods used to measure pedal revolutions and to calibrate the ergometer, and the analysis of the forces acting on the flywheel are described. Finally, a description of the procedure used in the performance of the Wingate test and a summary of the actual data output are presented.

  7. 49 CFR 179.300-16 - Tests of tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... postweld heat treatment, tanks shall be subjected to hydrostatic expansion test in a water jacket, or by... shall be maintained for 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to insure complete expansion of tank. Pressure gage shall permit reading to accuracy of one percent. Expansion gage shall permit reading of...

  8. 49 CFR 179.300-16 - Tests of tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... treatment, tanks shall be subjected to hydrostatic expansion test in a water jacket, or by other approved... for 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to insure complete expansion of tank. Pressure gage shall permit reading to accuracy of one percent. Expansion gage shall permit reading of total expansion...

  9. 49 CFR 179.300-16 - Tests of tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... treatment, tanks shall be subjected to hydrostatic expansion test in a water jacket, or by other approved... for 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to insure complete expansion of tank. Pressure gage shall permit reading to accuracy of one percent. Expansion gage shall permit reading of total expansion...

  10. Validity, Reliability, and Performance Determinants of a New Job-Specific Anaerobic Work Capacity Test for the Norwegian Navy Special Operations Command.

    PubMed

    Angeltveit, Andreas; Paulsen, Gøran; Solberg, Paul A; Raastad, Truls

    2016-02-01

    Operators in Special Operation Forces (SOF) have a particularly demanding profession where physical and psychological capacities can be challenged to the extremes. The diversity of physical capacities needed depend on the mission. Consequently, tests used to monitor SOF operators' physical fitness should cover a broad range of physical capacities. Whereas tests for strength and aerobic endurance are established, there is no test for specific anaerobic work capacity described in the literature. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate the reliability, validity, and to identify performance determinants of a new test developed for testing specific anaerobic work capacity in SOF operators. Nineteen active young students were included in the concurrent validity part of the study. The students performed the evacuation (EVAC) test 3 times and the results were compared for reliability and with performance in the Wingate cycle test, 300-m sprint, and a maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) test. In part II of the study, 21 Norwegian Navy Special Operations Command operators conducted the EVAC test, anthropometric measurements, a dual x-ray absorptiometry scan, leg press, isokinetic knee extensions, maximal oxygen uptake test, and countermovement jump (CMJ) test. The EVAC test showed good reliability after 1 familiarization trial (intraclass correlation = 0.89; coefficient of variance = 3.7%). The EVAC test correlated well with the Wingate test (r = -0.68), 300-m sprint time (r = 0.51), and 300-m mean power (W) (r = -0.67). No significant correlation was found with the MAOD test. In part II of the study, height, body mass, lean body mass, isokinetic knee extension torque, maximal oxygen uptake, and maximal power in a CMJ was significantly correlated with performance in the EVAC test. The EVAC test is a reliable and valid test for anaerobic work capacity for SOF operators, and muscle mass, leg strength, and leg power seem to be the most important determinants

  11. The effects of albuterol on power output in non-asthmatic athletes.

    PubMed

    Lemmer, J T; Fleck, S J; Wallach, J M; Fox, S; Burke, E R; Kearney, J T; Storms, W W

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the beta 2-agonist albuterol (salbutamol) at twice the normal dosage (360 micrograms) on power output during a 30-second Wingate test and pulmonary function in highly trained cyclists (4 category 1 and 10 category II U.S.C.F. track cyclists). The cyclists did not have a history of exercise induced bronchial spasms, and a 5 step methacholine challenge confirmed all subjects to be non-asthmatic. The project was performed in a random block, double blind design. Twenty minutes before the 30-second Wingate cycle ergometer exercise, albuterol (90 micrograms per dose) or a saline placebo was administered by inhaler in 4 metered doses. Pulmonary function tests were performed at rest, 20 minutes post-inhalation, and 5, 10, 15 minutes post-exercise. After a standard warm-up, a 30-second Wingate anaerobic power test was performed on a cycle ergometer at a resistance of 0.10 kg (kg body mass)-1. Multi-variate ANOVA revealed no significant difference between the albuterol and placebo treatment for the anaerobic power measures: peak power (1,136.7 +/- 40.9 vs 1,124.8 +/- 39.8 W, mean +/- s.e.), total work (27,213.6 +/- 653.1 vs 27,093.3 +/- 677.4j), time to peak power (4.5 +/- 0.2 vs 4.8 +/- 0.5 s), and fatigue index (16.5 +/- 1.8 vs 16.6 +/- 1.8 W.s-1). Peak heart rate (181.6 +/- 3.7 vs 181.4 +/- 3.8 bpm), or blood lactate (14.0 +/- 0.9 vs 13.8 +/- 0.8 mmol.l-1) 3 min after the exercise bout were not significantly different between treatments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Validity of the running anaerobic sprint test for assessing anaerobic power and predicting short-distance performances.

    PubMed

    Zagatto, Alessandro M; Beck, Wladimir R; Gobatto, Claudio A

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the running anaerobic sprint test (RAST) in anaerobic assessment and predicting short-distance performance. Forty members of the armed forces were recruited for this study (age 19.78 +/- 1.18 years; body mass 70.34 +/- 8.10 kg; height 1.76 +/- 0.53 m; body fat 15.30 +/- 5.65 %). The RAST test was applied to six 35-meter maximal running performances with a 10-second recovery between each run; the peak power, mean power, and the fatigue index were measured. The study was divided in two stages. The first stage investigated the reliability of the RAST using a test-retest method; the second stage aimed to evaluate the validity of the RAST comparing the results with the Wingate test and running performances of 35, 50, 100, 200, and 400 m. There were not significant differences between test-retest scores in the first stage of the study (p > 0.05) and were found significant correlations between these variables (intraclass correlation coefficient approximately = 0.88). The RAST had significant correlations with the Wingate test (peak power r = 0.46; mean power r = 0.53; fatigue index r = 0.63) and 35, 50, 100, 200, and 400 m performances scores (p < 0.05). The advantage of using the RAST for measuring anaerobic power is that it allows for the execution of movements more specific to sporting events that use running as the principal style of locomotion, is easily applied and low cost, and due to its simplicity can easily be incorporated into routine training. We concluded that this procedure is reliable and valid, and can be used to measure running anaerobic power and predict short-distance performances.

  13. Division I Hockey Players Generate More Power Than Division III Players During on- and Off-Ice Performance Tests.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Ben J; Fitzgerald, John S; Dietz, Calvin C; Ziegler, Kevin S; Ingraham, Stacy J; Baker, Sarah E; Snyder, Eric M

    2015-05-01

    Current research has found anthropometric and physiological characteristics of hockey players that are correlated to performance. These characteristics, however, have never been examined to see whether significant differences exist between on- and off-ice performance markers at different levels of play; Division I, Elite Junior, and Division III. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences that may exist between these characteristics in Division I (24), Elite Junior (10), and Division III hockey (11) players. Forty-five (age: 18-24 years) hockey players completed anthropometric, on-ice, and off-ice tests to ascertain average measures for each division of play. On-ice testing was conducted in full hockey gear and consisted of acceleration, top-speed, and on-ice repeated shift test (RST). Off-ice tests included vertical jump, Wingate, grip strength, and a graded exercise test performed on a skating treadmill to ascertain their (Equation is included in full-text article.). Division I players had significantly lower body fat than their Division III peers (p = 0.004). Division I players also scored significantly better on measures of anaerobic power; vertical jump (p = 0.001), Wingate peak power (p = 0.05), grip strength (p = 0.008), top speed (p = 0.001), and fastest RST course time (p = 0.001) than their Division III counterparts. There was no significant difference between Division I and Elite Junior players for any on- or off-ice performance variable. The results of this study indicate that performance differences between Division I and Division III hockey players seem to be primarily because of the rate of force production.

  14. A test to assess aerobic and anaerobic parameters during maximal exercise in young girls.

    PubMed

    McGawley, Kerry; Leclair, Erwan; Dekerle, Jeanne; Carter, Helen; Williams, Craig A

    2012-05-01

    The Wingate cycle test (WAnT) is a 30-s test commonly used to estimate anaerobic work capacity (AWC). However, the test may be too short to fully deplete anaerobic energy reserves. We hypothesized that a 90-s all-out isokinetic test (ISO_90) would be valid to assess both aerobic and anaerobic capacities in young females. Eight girls (11.9 ± 0.5 y) performed an exhaustive incremental test, a WAnT and an ISO_90. Peak VO2 attained during the ISO_90 was significantly greater than VO2peak. Mean power, end power, fatigue index, total work done and AWC were not significantly different between the WAnT and after 30 s of the 90-s test (i.e., ISO_30). However, 95% limits of agreement showed large variations between the two tests when comparing all anaerobic parameters. It is concluded that an ISO-90 may be a useful test to assess aerobic capacity in young girls. However, since the anaerobic parameters derived from the ISO_30 did not agree with those derived from a traditional WAnT, the validity of using an ISO_90 to assess anaerobic performance and capacity within this population group remains unconfirmed.

  15. Validity and reliability of the Hawaii anaerobic run test.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Iris F; Stickley, Christopher D; Lentz, Melissa A; Wages, Jennifer J; Yanagi, Kazuhiko; Hetzler, Ronald K

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of the Hawaii anaerobic run test (HART) by comparing anaerobic capacity measures obtained to those during the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). Ninety-six healthy physically active volunteers (age, 22.0 ± 2.8 years; height, 163.9 ± 9.5 cm; body mass, 70.6 ± 14.7 kg; body fat %, 19.29 ± 5.39%) participated in this study. Each participant performed 2 anaerobic capacity tests: the WAnT and the HART by random assignment on separate days. The reliability of the HART was calculated from 2 separate trials of the test and then determined through intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Blood samples were collected, and lactate was analyzed both pretest and posttest for each of the 2 exercise modes. Heart rate and rate of perceived exertion were also measured pre- and post-exercise. Hawaii anaerobic run test peak and mean momentum were calculated as body mass times highest or average split velocity, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficients between trials of the HART for peak and mean momentum were 0.98 and 0.99, respectively (SEM = 18.8 and 25.7, respectively). Validity of the HART was established through comparison of momentum on the HART with power on the WAnT. High correlations were found between peak power and peak momentum (r = 0.88), as well as mean power and mean momentum (r = 0.94). The HART was considered to be a reliable test of anaerobic power. The HART was also determined to be a valid test of anaerobic power when compared with the WAnT. When testing healthy college-aged individuals, the HART offers an easy and inexpensive alternative maximal effort anaerobic power test to other established tests.

  16. Physiological determinants of the cycling time trial.

    PubMed

    Støren, Øyvind; Ulevåg, Kåre; Larsen, Morten H; Støa, Eva M; Helgerud, Jan

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological determinants of endurance cycling time trial (TT) performance in a heterogeneous group of competitive male road cyclists. About 15 male cyclists who had all competed in cycling the preceding season were tested for the anthropometric variables height, body weight, leg length, ankle circumference, and body fat percentage. They were also tested for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), lactate threshold (LT), metabolic cost of cycling (CC), peak power output and average power output during a 30-second Wingate test, 1 repetition maximum and peak power in half squats, and a TT test on an ergometer. Heart rate and cadence (rounds per minute, RPM) were continuously measured during all cycle tests. Pearson Bivariate correlation tests and single linear regression tests were performed to obtain correlation coefficients (r), effect size (F), standard error of estimate (SEE), and 95% confidence interval. The single variable that correlated best with TT performance was power output at LT (r = 0.86, p < 0.01). Standard error of estimate was 7.5%. Lactate threshold expressed in %VO2max did not correlate significantly with TT performance. An equation representing both aerobic and anaerobic endurance capacity TT(w) = 0.95 ([VO2max/CC] TT%VO2max) + 0.05 (Wingate average) correlated strongly with TT laboratory performance (r = 0.93, p < 0.01, SEE = 5.7%). None of the strength, power, or anthropometric variables correlated significantly with TT laboratory performance.

  17. Blood glucose threshold and the metabolic responses to incremental exercise tests with and without prior lactic acidosis induction.

    PubMed

    Simões, Herbert Gustavo; Campbell, Carmen S G; Kushnick, Michael R; Nakamura, Akiko; Katsanos, Christos S; Baldissera, Vilmar; Moffatt, Robert J

    2003-08-01

    This study compared the metabolic-ventilatory responses and the glycemic threshold identified during lactate minimum (LM) and individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) tests. In addition, the ability to determine the anaerobic power, aerobic-anaerobic transition (Trans) (e.g. ventilatory threshold; VT) and the maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) all within a single incremental treadmill test (IT) was investigated. Fifteen physically fit men [25.9 (5.5) years; 77.4 (6.5) kg] performed the following: test 1, IT for IAT; and test 2, LM: 30-s Wingate test followed by 8 min rest and then an IT that was the same as test 1. Blood lactate concentration [lac], glucose concentration [gluc], pH, PO(2), PCO(2), base excess (BE) and ventilatory variables were measured. At the beginning of the IT for LM, the ventilation, PO(2) and VO(2) were higher and the pH, BE and PCO(2) were lower in relation to IAT ( P<0.05), while no differences were observed after reaching LM intensity during IT. Moreover, the Trans could be identified by [lac] (IAT, LM), minute ventilation [V(E;) VT identified during IAT protocol (VT-IAT) and VT identified during LM protocol (VT-LM)], and [gluc] (IGT, GM) during the IT for IAT and LM. The velocities (kilometers per hour) corresponding to IAT (12.6+/-1.6), VT-IAT (12.5+/-1.7), IGT (12.6+/-1.6), LM (12.5+/-1.5), VT-LM (12.3+/-1.5), and GM (12.6+/-1.9) were not different from each other and the LM and IAT protocols resulted in the similar VO(2max). We concluded that: (1) after reaching the LM the metabolic responses during IT are similar to IAT; (2) performing a Wingate test prior to an IT does not interfere with the Trans and VO(2max) attainment; (3) and the IGT and GM can predict the Trans.

  18. Bicarbonate ingestion has no ergogenic effect on consecutive all out sprint tests in BMX elite cyclists.

    PubMed

    Zabala, Mikel; Peinado, Ana B; Calderón, Francisco J; Sampedro, Javier; Castillo, Manuel J; Benito, Pedro J

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on consecutive "all out" sprint tests, analyzing the acid-base status and its influence on performance and perceived effort. Ten elite bicycle motocross (BMX) riders (20.7 ± 1.4 years, training experience 8-12 years) participated in this study which consisted of two trials. Each trial consisted of three consecutive Wingate tests (WTs) separated by 15 min recovery. Ninety minutes prior to exercise subjects ingested either NaHCO(3) (-) (0.3 g kg(-1) body weight) or placebo. Blood samples were collected for the assessment of blood acid-base status: bicarbonate concentration ([HCO(3) (-)]), pH, base excess (BE) and blood lactate concentration ([La(-)]). Performance variables of peak power (PP), mean power (MP), time to peak power and fatigue index were calculated for each sprint. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in acid-base variables [pH before WT1: 7.47 ± 0.05 vs. 7.41 ± 0.03; [HCO(3) (-)] before WT1: 29.08 ± 2.27 vs. 22.85 ± 0.24 mmol L(-1) (bicarbonate vs. placebo conditions, respectively)], but there were not significant differences in performance variables between trials [PP WT1: 1,610 ± 373 vs. 1,599 ± 370 W; PP WT2: 1,548 ± 460 vs. 1,570 ± 428 W; PP WT3: 1,463 ± 361 vs. 1,519 ± 364 W. MP WT1: 809 ± 113 vs. 812 ± 108 W; MP WT2: 799 ± 135 vs. 799 ± 124 W; MP WT3: 762 ± 165 vs. 782 ± 118 W (bicarbonate vs. placebo conditions, respectively)]. Rating of perceived effort (RPE) was not influenced nor ratings of perceived readiness. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion modified significantly the blood acid-base balance, although the induced alkalosis did not improve the Wingate test performance, RPE and perceived readiness across three consecutive WTs in elite BMX cyclists.

  19. Reliability and validity of the maximal anaerobic running test.

    PubMed

    Nummela, A; Alberts, M; Rijntjes, R P; Luhtanen, P; Rusko, H

    1996-07-01

    Physically active men (n = 13) twice performed the Maximal Anaerobic Running Test (MART) on a treadmill and once the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) on a cycle ergometer. The MART consisted of n 20-s runs with 100-s recovery between the runs. The speed of the first run was 14.6 km.h-1 and the inclination 4 degrees. Thereafter, the speed was increased by 1.37 km.h-1 every run until exhaustion. During all tests oxygen uptake was measured breath-by-breath and blood samples were taken from the fingertip 40s after each run to determine the lactate concentration (BLa). Power at submaximal BLa levels and maximal power (P5mM, P10mM and Pmax, respectively) were calculated and P was expressed as the oxygen demand of running according to the American College of Sports Medicine equation. In the MART the Pmax was 108 ml.kg-1.min-1 and peak BLa was 15.6 mM. The reliability for the power indices in the MART were as follows: r = 0.92 (p < 0.001) for Pmax r = 0.80 (p < 0.001) for P10mM and r = 0.67 (p = 0.01) for P5mM. The average contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure was calculated to be 68% but it ranged from 64% to 72% during the MART. Although four out of seven of the correlations between the corresponding variables of the MART and WAnT were significant (0.52 < r < 0.59) they were not high. It is concluded that the anaerobic energy production is high in the MART, the test is reliable, and that the treadmill and cycle ergometer test measure slightly different qualities.

  20. Relationships Between Anaerobic Performance, Field Tests and Game Performance of Sitting Volleyball Players.

    PubMed

    Marszalek, Jolanta; Molik, Bartosz; Gomez, Miguel Angel; Skučas, Kęstutis; Lencse-Mucha, Judit; Rekowski, Witold; Pokvytyte, Vaida; Rutkowska, Izabela; Kaźmierska-Kowalewska, Kalina

    2015-11-22

    The aim of this study was to evaluate relationships between anaerobic performance, field tests, game performance and anthropometric variables of sitting volleyball players. Twenty elite Polish sitting volleyball players were tested using the 30 s Wingate Anaerobic Test for arm crank ergometer and participated in six physical field tests. Heights in position to block and to spike, as well as arm reach were measured. Players were observed during the game on the court in terms of effectiveness of the serve, block, attack, receive and defense. Pearson analysis and the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used. The strongest correlations were found between the chest pass test and mean power and peak power (r=.846; p=.001 and r=.708; p=.0005, respectively), and also between the T-test and peak power (r= -.718; p=.001). Mean power correlated with the 3 m test (r= -.540; p=.014), the 5 m test (r= -.592; p=.006), and the T-test (r= -.582; p=.007). Peak power correlated with the 3 m test (r= -.632; p=.003), the 5 m test (r= -.613; p=.004), speed & agility (r= -.552; p=.012) and speed & endurance (r=-.546; p=.013). Significant correlations were observed between anthropometric parameters and anaerobic performance variables (p≤.001), and also between anthropometric parameters and field tests (p≤.05). Game performance and physical fitness of sitting volleyball players depended on their anthropometric variables: reach of arms, the position to block and to spike. The chest pass test could be used as a non-laboratory field test of anaerobic performance of sitting volleyball players.

  1. Reliability and validity of a new maximal anaerobic shuttle running test.

    PubMed

    Dardouri, W; Gharbi, Z; Selmi, M A; Sassi, R H; Moalla, W; Chamari, K; Souissi, N

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: first to assess the relative and absolute reliability of a new Maximal Anaerobic Shuttle Running Test (MASRT), and second to evaluate the criterion validity of the MASRT. 16 team sport players participated in this study. The velocity (VMASRT) and the number of shuttles achieved at volitional exhaustion were measured. To assess the reliability of the MASRT, each player performed the MASRT twice, on separate days. The criterion validity of the MASRT was determined by examining the relationship between MASRT indices and the Wingate test (WingT) performances. Results showed no difference between test-retest MASRT scores for VMASRT and the number of shuttles (P>0.05). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) values for VMASRT and Shuttle number were 0.84 and 0.80, respectively. The coefficients of variation (CV) and the mean difference (bias)±the 95% limits of agreement for the same variables were 3.6 and 12.9%, and 0.02±0.37m·s-1 and 0.3±6.7, respectively. The strongest correlation was found between mean power output relative to body mass (MPO) measured during the WingT and VMASRT (r=0.77, P<0.001). The MASRT constitutes a reliable and valid field tool for assessing short term repeated running capacity of team sport players.

  2. Relationship between body composition, leg strength, anaerobic power, and on-ice skating performance in division I men's hockey athletes.

    PubMed

    Potteiger, Jeffrey A; Smith, Dean L; Maier, Mark L; Foster, Timothy S

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between laboratory tests and on-ice skating performance in division I men's hockey athletes. Twenty-one men (age 20.7 +/- 1.6 years) were assessed for body composition, isokinetic force production in the quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and anaerobic muscle power via the Wingate 30-second cycle ergometer test. Air displacement plethysmography was used to determine % body fat (%FAT), fat-free mass (FFM), and fat mass. Peak torque and total work during 10 maximal effort repetitions at 120 degrees .s were measured during concentric muscle actions using an isokinetic dynamometer. Muscle power was measured using a Monark cycle ergometer with resistance set at 7.5% of body mass. On-ice skating performance was measured during 6 timed 89-m sprints with subjects wearing full hockey equipment. First length skate (FLS) was 54 m, and total length skate (TLS) was 89 m with fastest and average skating times used in the analysis. Correlation coefficients were used to determine relationships between laboratory testing and on-ice performance. Subjects had a body mass of 88.8 +/- 7.8 kg and %FAT of 11.9 +/- 4.6. First length skate-Average and TLS-Average skating times were moderately correlated to %FAT ([r = 0.53; p = 0.013] and [r = 0.57; p = 0.007]) such that a greater %FAT was related to slower skating speeds. First length skate-Fastest was correlated to Wingate percent fatigue index (r = -0.48; p = 0.027) and FLS-Average was correlated to Wingate peak power per kilogram body mass (r = -0.43; p = 0.05). Laboratory testing of select variables can predict skating performance in ice hockey athletes. This information can be used to develop targeted and effective strength and conditioning programs that will improve on-ice skating speed.

  3. Historic Properties Report: Fort Wingate Depot Activity, New Mexico.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    the area. Each has projecting wooden roof beams or vigas typical of architecture in the southwestern United States. This nonstandard construction...roof beams or vigas typical of architecture in the southwest. (Source: Field inventory photograph, 1984, Barbara Hightower, Building Technology, Inc

  4. The variability of high intensity exercise tests in -pre-pubertal boys.

    PubMed

    Ingle, L; Tolfrey, K

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the variability of different performance tests during high intensity exercise in active, untrained pre- and early pubertal boys. Participants were habituated to the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), force-velocity test (FVt), standing broad jump (SBJ), vertical jump test (VJT) and 40 m sprint test and repeated these procedures once a week for a period of 6 weeks. 54 active, but untrained, prepubertal boys (mean±SD) (age 12.1±0.3 years, stature 1.55±0.06 m, and body mass 47.9±10.2 kg) were recruited. After Wk2, the variability of short-term power output was low in prepubertal boys, for example, for WAnT-determined peak power (CV%=3.4%; ICC=0.982; mean bias±random error=10±50 W) and this trend was also evident for tests of athletic performance (for example, the 40 m sprint test, CV%=1.3%; ICC=0.990; mean bias±random error=0.01±0.59 s). Variability was reduced further at Wk6 for all high intensity exercise tests. The findings of the current study indicate that tests of short-term power output and athletic performance are reliable from a single measurement given an appropriate period of habituation and strict standardisation of test procedures in pre- and early pubertal boys.

  5. Muscle deoxygenation in aerobic and anaerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Nioka, S; Moser, D; Lech, G; Evengelisti, M; Verde, T; Chance, B; Kuno, S

    1998-01-01

    It has been generally accepted that the use of oxygen is a major contributor of ATP synthesis in endurance exercise but not in short sprints. In anaerobic exercise, muscle energy is thought to be initially supported by the PCr-ATP system followed by glycolysis, not through mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. However, in real exercise practice, we do not know how much of this notion is true when an athlete approaches his/her maximal capacity of aerobic and anaerobic exercise, such as during a graded VO2max test. This study investigates the use of oxygen in aerobic and anaerobic exercise by monitoring oxygen concentration of the vastus lateralis muscle at maximum intensity using Near Infra-red Spectroscopy (NIRS). We tested 14 sprinters from the University of Penn track team, whose competitive events are high jump, pole vault, 100 m, 200 m, 400 m, and 800 m. The Wingate anaerobic power test was performed on a cycle ergometer with 10% body weight resistance for 30 seconds. To compare oxygenation during aerobic exercise, a steady-state VO2max test with a cycle ergometer was used with 25 watt increments every 2 min. until exhaustion. Results showed that in the Wingate test, total power reached 774 +/- 86 watt, about 3 times greater than that in the VO2max test (270 +/- 43 watt). In the Wingate test, the deoxygenation reached approximately 80% of the established maximum value, while in the VO2max test resulted in approximately 36% deoxygenation. There was no delay in onset of deoxygenation in the Wingate test, while in the VO2max test, deoxygenation did not occur under low intensity work. The results indicate that oxygen was used from the beginning of sprint test, suggesting that the mitochondrial ATP synthesis was triggered after a surprisingly brief exercise duration. One explanation is that prior warm-up (unloaded exercise) was enough to provide the mitochondrial substrates; ADP and Pi to activate oxidative phosphorylation by the type II a and type I myocytes. In

  6. Measurement of anaerobic work capacities in humans.

    PubMed

    Green, S

    1995-01-01

    The development of simple, noninvasive tests of work capacities, underpinned primarily by anaerobic metabolism, proliferated in the early 1970s. A 30-second maximal cycle test developed at the Wingate Institute initiated efforts to develop work tests of anaerobic capacities. Such tests can be developed using any ergometer which simulates competitive conditions and enables an accurate determination of mechanical work output. A 10-second all-out test is commonly used to measure maximal work output generated primarily via the hydrolysis of high-energy phosphagens (i.e. the alactic work capacity). In contrast, a variety of constant-load and all-out tests of anaerobic (alactic plus lactic) work capacity have been proposed. It has been suggested that all-out tests provide more information about physiological capabilities and are easier to apply than constant-load tests. The optimal duration for an all-out test of anaerobic work capacity is proposed at 30 seconds, a duration which may also provide the basis for the development of accurate field tests of anaerobic capacity. There is evidence that the y-intercept of the maximal work-derivation regression is a valid work estimate of anaerobic capacity in athletes, although its utility is undermined by the number of tests required for its derivation.

  7. A Concept for the HIFiRE 8 Flight Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alesi, H.; Paull, A.; Smart, M.; Bowcutt, K. G.

    2015-09-01

    HIFiRE 8 is a hypersonic flight test experiment scheduled for launch in late 2018 from the Woomera Test Center in Australia. This project aims to develop a Flight Test Vehicle that will, for the first time, complete 30 seconds of scramjet powered hypersonic flight at a Mach Number of 7.0. The engine used for this flight will be a rectangular to elliptic shape transition scramjet. It will be fuelled with gaseous hydrogen. The flight test engine configuration will be derived using scientific and engineering evaluation in the UQ shock tunnel T4 and other potential ground-based facilities. This paper presents current plans for the HIFiRE 8 trajectory, mission events, airframe and engine designs and also includes descriptions of critical subsystems and associated modelling, simulation and analysis activities.

  8. Maximal anaerobic power test in athletes of different sport disciplines.

    PubMed

    Popadic Gacesa, Jelena Z; Barak, Otto F; Grujic, Nikola G

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the values of anaerobic energetic capacity variables in athletes engaged in different sport disciplines and to compare them in relation to specific demands of each sport. Wingate anaerobic tests were conducted on 145 elite athletes (14 boxers, 17 wrestlers, 27 hockey players, 23 volleyball players, 20 handball players, 25 basketball players, and 19 soccer players). Three variables were measured as markers of anaerobic capacity: peak power, mean power, and explosive power. The highest values of peak power were measured in volleyball 11.71 +/- 1.56 W.kg and basketball players 10.69 +/- 1.67 W.kg, and the difference was significant compared with the other athletes (p 0.05). The measured results show the influence of anaerobic capacity in different sports and the referral values of these variables for the elite male athletes. Explosive power presented a new dimension of anaerobic power, i.e., how fast maximal energy for power development can be obtained, and its values are high in all sports activities that demand explosiveness and fast maximal energy production. Coaches or other experts in the field could, in the future, find useful to follow and improve, through training process, one of the variables that is most informative for that sport.

  9. The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with muscle power in male Japanese athletes.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Naoki; Nakazato, Koichi; Min, Seok-ki; Ueda, Dai; Igawa, Shoji

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with muscular power in Japanese collegiate athletes by analyzing the mean and peak power results of a 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) with respect to the ACTN3 R577X genotype in 253 Japanese athletes (144 men and 109 women). Each athlete performed a 30-second WAnT with a resistance equal to 7.5% of his or her body weight. Genotyping for the ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) polymorphism was performed using the TaqMan approach. The ACTN3 R577X genotypes exhibited a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium distribution in our population. The relative and absolute mean power results of the 30-second WAnT did not differ significantly among the genotypes. However, the relative peak power result of the WAnT was significantly higher in the R-allele-dominant model groups than in the XX group in male but not female athletes. These results suggest that the ACTN3 R allele is associated with the relative peak power during the WAnT in male Japanese collegiate athletes.

  10. Computerized in vitro test for chemical toxicity based on tetrahymena swimming patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.; Cronise, Raymond J.; Looger, Loren L.; Relwani, Rachna A.; Johnson, Jacqueline U.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method for rapidly determining chemical toxicity was evaluated. The toxicity monitor includes an automated scoring of how motile biological cells (Tetrahymena pyriformis) slow down or otherwise change their swimming patterns in a hostile chemical environment. The device, called the Motility Assay Apparatus (MAA) is tested for 30 second determination of chemical toxicity in 20 aqueous samples containing trace organics and salts. With equal or better detection limits, results compare favorably to in vivo animal tests of eye irritancy, in addition to agreeing for all chemicals with previous manual evaluations of single cell motility.

  11. Test Architecture, Test Retrofit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Just like buildings, tests are designed and built for specific purposes, people, and uses. However, both buildings and tests grow and change over time as the needs of their users change. Sometimes, they are also both used for purposes other than those intended in the original designs. This paper explores architecture as a metaphor for language…

  12. The relationship between the yo-yo tests, anaerobic performance and aerobic performance in young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Karakoç, Barış; Akalan, Cengiz; Alemdaroğlu, Utku; Arslan, Erşan

    2012-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the relationship between performance in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YIRT1), the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (YIRT2) and the Yo-Yo endurance test (continuous) (YET) with maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and Wingate anaerobic performance (WaNT) test results in young soccer players (age 15.00 ± 0.0 years, body height 176.3 ± 4.2 cm and body mass 68.1 ± 3.6 kg). An ergospirometry device was used during the treadmill test (TRT) to determine VO2max. At the end of the study, significant differences were found between the Yo-Yo tests and TRT in terms of HRmax (TRT = 195,92, YIRT1 = 197,83, YIRT2 = 198,5 YET = 198) (p > 0.05). While there were moderate correlations between VO2max and YIRT 1-2 performances (respectively, r = 0.56, r = 0.53), there was only a weak relationship between VO2max and YET performance (r = 0.43) (distance covered). There were also moderate significant negative correlations between performance in the YIRT2 and peak power measured in the WaNT (r = -0.55), although there were no significant correlations between performance in the three tests and average power. A moderate negative correlation was found between performance in the YIRT2 and Fatigue index (FI) (r = -0,66). In conclusion, the YIRT2 may be a more suitable field test for determining both aerobic and anaerobic performance in soccer players.

  13. Vented Tank Resupply Experiment--Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.; Martin, Timothy A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the Vented Tank Resupply Experiment (VTRE) which was flown as a payload on STS 77. VTRE looks at the ability of vane Propellant Management Devices (PMD) to separate liquid and gas in low gravity. VTRE used two clear 0.8 cubic foot tanks one spherical and one with a short barrel section and transferred Refrigerant 113 between them as well as venting it to space. Tests included retention of liquid during transfer, liquid free venting, and recovery of liquid into the PMD after thruster firing. Liquid was retained successfully at the highest flow rate tested (2.73 gpm). Liquid free vents were achieved for both tanks, although at a higher flow rate (0.1591 cfm) for the spherical tank than the other (0.0400 cfm). Recovery from a thruster firing which moved the liquid to the opposite end of the tank from the PMD was achieved in 30 seconds.

  14. Test plan :

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2013-05-01

    This test plan is a document that provides a systematic approach to the planned testing of rooftop structures to determine their actual load carrying capacity. This document identifies typical tests to be performed, the responsible parties for testing, the general feature of the tests, the testing approach, test deliverables, testing schedule, monitoring requirements, and environmental and safety compliance.

  15. Pinworm test

    MedlinePlus

    Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... lay their eggs at night. Steps for the test are: Firmly press the sticky side of a ...

  16. Thyroid Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... calories and how fast your heart beats. Thyroid tests check how well your thyroid is working. They ... thyroid diseases such as hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Thyroid tests include blood tests and imaging tests. Blood tests ...

  17. Susceptibility Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also known as: Sensitivity Testing; Drug Resistance Testing; Culture and Sensitivity; C & S; Antimicrobial Susceptibility Formal name: Bacterial and Fungal Susceptibility Testing Related tests: Urine Culture ; Blood Culture ; Bacterial Wound Culture ; AFB Testing ; MRSA ; ...

  18. Pharmacogenomic Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary care providers Specialists Getting covered Research Basic science research Research in people ... screening Diagnostic testing Direct-to-consumer genetic testing Newborn screening Pharmacogenomic testing ...

  19. Predictive Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary care providers Specialists Getting covered Research Basic science research Research in people ... screening Diagnostic testing Direct-to-consumer genetic testing Newborn screening Pharmacogenomic testing ...

  20. Pregnancy Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Home A-Z Health Topics Pregnancy tests Pregnancy tests > A-Z Health Topics Pregnancy test fact ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy tests If you think you may be pregnant , ...

  1. VDRL test

    MedlinePlus

    ... The VDRL test is a screening test for syphilis. It measures substances (proteins), called antibodies, that your ... come in contact with the bacteria that cause syphilis. How the Test is Performed The test is ...

  2. Coombs test

    MedlinePlus

    Direct antiglobulin test; Indirect antiglobulin test; Anemia - hemolytic ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. ... There are 2 types of the Coombs test: Direct Indirect The direct ... that are stuck to the surface of red blood cells. Many diseases ...

  3. Ham test

    MedlinePlus

    Acid hemolysin test; Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria - Ham test; PNH - Ham test ... BJ. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  4. Trichomonas Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trichomonas vaginalis by Amplified Detection; Trichomonas vaginalis by Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA) Related tests: Pap Test , Chlamydia ... by one of the following methods: Molecular testing, direct DNA probes, or nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs)— ...

  5. Flight Tests of the Turbulence Prediction and Warning System (TPAWS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, David W.; Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

    2012-01-01

    Flight tests of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Turbulence Prediction And Warning System (TPAWS) were conducted in the Fall of 2000 and Spring of 2002. TPAWS is a radar-based airborne turbulence detection system. During twelve flights, NASA's B-757 tallied 53 encounters with convectively induced turbulence. Analysis of data collected during 49 encounters in the Spring of 2002 showed that the TPAWS Airborne Turbulence Detection System (ATDS) successfully detected 80% of the events at least 30 seconds prior to the encounter, achieving FAA recommended performance criteria. Details of the flights, the prevailing weather conditions, and each of the turbulence events are presented in this report. Sensor and environmental characterizations are also provided.

  6. Start-stop testing of two self-acting air-lubricated spiral groove thrust bearing coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunfee, J. D.; Shapiro, W.

    1974-01-01

    Start-stop tests were conducted on air-lubricated spiral-groove thrust bearings. Application of a matrix-bonded molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) coating over a porous chrome oxide coating resulted in significantly lower friction, compared to bearings coated with chrome oxide only. The MoS2 coated bearing sustained 15,000 start-stop cycles at a maximum of 3600 rpm. Each cycle was 15 seconds on, 30 seconds off. The chrome oxide coated bearing failed by local welding after 2030 cycles. Both types of coatings exhibited early failures under higher thrust loads when operating films were insufficient to sustain the load without overheating.

  7. Thyroid Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... the thyroid, a computerized tomography (CT) scan, or nuclear medicine tests, to diagnose and find the cause ... is having the scan for other health problems. Nuclear medicine tests. Nuclear medicine tests of the thyroid ...

  8. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  9. Lipase Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as: LPS Formal name: Lipase Related tests: Amylase , Trypsin , Trypsinogen At a Glance Test Sample The ... lipase is most often used, along with an amylase test , to help diagnose and monitor acute pancreatitis . ...

  10. IQ testing

    MedlinePlus

    IQ (intelligence quotient) testing is a series of exams used to determine your general intelligence in relation ... Many IQ tests are used today. Whether they measure actual intelligence or simply certain abilities is controversial. IQ tests ...

  11. Test Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedrick, Wanda B., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    There's accountability and then there's the testing craze an iatrogenic practice that undermines real learning. Hedrick documents the negative effects of testing, giving teachers another weapon in their arsenal against mindless preparation for high-stakes tests.

  12. Chlamydia Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... of testing for chlamydia. NAAT is a molecular test that detects the genetic material ( DNA ) of Chlamydia trachomatis . It is generally more sensitive and specific than other chlamydia tests and can be performed on a vaginal swab ...

  13. Does Increasing Active Warm-Up Duration Affect Afternoon Short-Term Maximal Performance during Ramadan?

    PubMed Central

    Baklouti, Hana; Aloui, Asma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Briki, Walid; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon. Methods Twelve healthy active men took part in the study. The experimental design consisted of four test sessions conducted at 5 p.m., before and during Ramadan, either with a 5-minute or a 15-minute warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. During each session, the subjects performed two vertical jump tests (squat jump and counter movement jump) for measurement of vertical jump height followed by a 30-second Wingate test for measurement of peak and mean power. Oral temperature was recorded at rest and after warming-up. Moreover, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Results Oral temperature was higher before Ramadan than during Ramadan at rest, and was higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up both before and during Ramadan. In addition, vertical jump heights were not significantly different between the two warm-up conditions before and during Ramadan, and were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Peak and mean power were not significantly different between the two warm-up durations before Ramadan, but were significantly higher after the 5-minute warm-up than the 15-minute warm-up during Ramadan. Moreover, peak and mean power were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up only during Ramadan. Conclusion The prolonged active warm-up has no effect on vertical jump height but impairs anaerobic power assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon. PMID:25646955

  14. Testing Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Trace Laboratories is an independent testing laboratory specializing in testing printed circuit boards, automotive products and military hardware. Technical information from NASA Tech Briefs and two subsequent JPL Technical Support packages have assisted Trace in testing surface insulation resistance on printed circuit board materials. Testing time was reduced and customer service was improved because of Jet Propulsion Laboratory technical support packages.

  15. RPR test

    MedlinePlus

    ... more specific test for syphilis, such as FTA-ABS . The FTA-ABS test will help distinguish between syphilis and other ... Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 239. Read More FTA-ABS test VDRL test Review Date 9/10/2015 ...

  16. Composite Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Impact Test Matrix for Each Team Impact Tests Qty. Reqd. Per Team Dimensions Steel- GFRP Hybrid Specimen 3 40” x 12” GFRP Control...5: Tension Test Specimen Details Table 2: Tension Test Matrix for Each Team Tension Tests Qty. Reqd. Per Team Dimensions Steel- GFRP Hybrid...Specimen 6 12” L x 1-2” W GFRP Control Specimen 3 12” L x 1-2” W Numerical Modelling A detailed numerical model

  17. Pregnancy test

    MedlinePlus

    ... eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 25. Read More Ectopic pregnancy HCG blood test - qualitative HCG blood test - quantitative HCG in urine Miscarriage ...

  18. Prenatal Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... may recommend you have an invasive test, like amniocentesis , to confirm the results. Chorionic villus sampling (also ... done at 15 to 22 weeks of pregnancy. Amniocentesis (also called amnio). Tests the amniotic fluid from ...

  19. Procalcitonin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & ... Complete Blood Count , Blood Culture , CSF Analysis All content on Lab Tests Online ...

  20. HPV Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... test for wider range of HPV types. 2009 Mar 13. US Food and Drug Administration. Available online ... approves two DNA tests to detect HPV. 2009 Mar 17. Infectious Disease News. Available online at http:// ...

  1. Potassium test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003484.htm Potassium test To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the amount of potassium in the fluid portion (serum) of the blood. ...

  2. Kidney Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney tests check to see how well your kidneys are working. They include blood, urine, and imaging tests. Early kidney disease usually does not have signs ...

  3. Urodynamic Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... the ability or inability to stop the urine flow in midstream. For precise measurements, imaging equipment takes pictures of the bladder filling ... postvoid residual measurement cystometric test leak point pressure measurement pressure flow ... urodynamic tests Uroflowmetry Uroflowmetry is ...

  4. Pertussis Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... as: Whooping Cough Tests Formal name: Bordetella pertussis Culture; Bordetella pertussis by PCR; Bordetella pertussis Antibodies (IgA, ... outbreak, at least one case be confirmed using culture. Culture – this test was the "gold standard" for ...

  5. Syphilis Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... been developed, making them convenient for screening purposes. Direct detection of bacteria —these tests are less commonly ... highly sensitive; can be used to exclude neurosyphilis. Direct detection tests (much less common): Microscopic Exam, Darkfield ...

  6. Seismic testing

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, S.

    1981-10-01

    Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) research programs in seismic testing to improve earthquake design guidelines lowers the safety-design costs of nuclear power plants. Explosive tests that simulate earthquakes help to determine how structures respond to ground motion and how these are related to soil and geologic conditions at a specific site. Explosive tests develop data for simulation using several computer codes. Photographs illustrate testing techniques. 6 references. (DCK)

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes three flame test demonstrations including "Student-Presented Demonstrations on the Colors of Transition Metal Complexes,""A Flame Test Demonstration Device," and "Vivid Flame Tests." Preparation and procedures are discussed. Included in the first demonstration is an evaluation scheme for grading student…

  8. Teacher Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Judy; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A one-page introduction is followed by summaries of articles and documents on teacher competency testing. George F. Madaus argues that, although tests serve some useful functions, treating them as a major mechanism for reforming education is questionable. Peter A. Garcia examines the negative impact of testing on minority teachers and minorities…

  9. Analytical testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flannelly, W. G.; Fabunmi, J. A.; Nagy, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical methods for combining flight acceleration and strain data with shake test mobility data to predict the effects of structural changes on flight vibrations and strains are presented. This integration of structural dynamic analysis with flight performance is referred to as analytical testing. The objective of this methodology is to analytically estimate the results of flight testing contemplated structural changes with minimum flying and change trials. The category of changes to the aircraft includes mass, stiffness, absorbers, isolators, and active suppressors. Examples of applying the analytical testing methodology using flight test and shake test data measured on an AH-1G helicopter are included. The techniques and procedures for vibration testing and modal analysis are also described.

  10. Microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence: application to detection of genomic and exosporium anthrax DNA in <30 seconds.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Kadir; Zhang, Yongxia; Hibbs, Stephen; Baillie, Les; Previte, Michael J R; Geddes, Chris D

    2007-11-01

    We describe the ultra-fast and sensitive detection of the gene encoding the protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis the causative agent of anthrax. Our approach employs a highly novel platform technology, Microwave-Accelerated Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence (MAMEF), which combines the use of Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence to enhance assay sensitivity and focused microwave heating to spatially and kinetically accelerate DNA hybridization. Genomic and exosporium target DNA of Bacillus anthracis spores was detected within a minute in the nanograms per microliter concentration range using low-power focused microwave heating. The MAMEF technology was able to distinguish between B. anthracis and B. cereus, a non-virulent close relative. We believe that this study has set the stage and indeed provides an opportunity for the ultra-fast and specific detection of B. anthracis spores with minimal pre-processing steps using a relatively simple but cost-effective technology that could minimize casualties in the event of another anthrax attack.

  11. Massage after exercise--responses of immunologic and endocrine markers: a randomized single-blind placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Olea, Nicolas; Ruíz, Concepción; del Castilo, Juan de Dios Luna; Martínez, Manuel; Lorenzo, Carmen; Díaz-Rodríguez, Lourdes

    2009-03-01

    The effectiveness of massage for postexercise recovery remains unclear, despite numerous studies on this issue. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of massage on endocrine and immune functions of healthy active volunteers after intense exercise. After repeated Wingate tests, the effects of whole-body massage and placebo on salivary cortisol, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and total protein levels were compared using a between-group design. Sixty healthy active subjects (23 women, 37 men) underwent 2 exercise protocol sessions at least 2 weeks apart and at the same time of day. The first session familiarized participants with the protocol. In the second session, after a baseline measurement, subjects performed a standardized warm-up followed by three 30-second Wingate tests. After active recovery, subjects were randomly allocated to massage (40-minute myofascial induction) or placebo (40-minute sham electrotherapy) group. Saliva samples were taken before and after the exercise protocols and after recovery. In both groups, the exercise protocol induced a significant increase in cortisol (p < 0.001), decrease in salivary IgA (sIgA) (p < 0.001), and increase in total proteins (p = 0.01) in saliva. Generalized estimating equations showed a significant effect of massage on sIgA rate (p = 0.05), a tendency toward significant effect on salivary total protein levels (p = 0.10), and no effect on salivary flow rate (p = 0.55) or salivary cortisol (p = 0.39). The sIgA secretion rate was higher after the recovery intervention than at baseline among women in the massage group (p = 0.03) but similar to baseline levels among women in the placebo group (p = 0.29). Massage may favor recovery from the transient immunosuppression state induced by exercise in healthy active women, of particular value between high-intensity training sessions or competitions on the same day.

  12. Testing Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Klaus

    in chapter 7 of this book, Klaus Hentschel first reviews Einstein's general attitude towards experiments, much more positive than generally believed, then reviews experimental tests of both special and general relativity, focussing on tests during Einstein's lifetime, incl. gravitational redshift, light deflection, perihelion motion. Among the non-standard tests, time-delay measurements, gyroscope experiments, the Nordtvedt effect, and gravitational waves are also discussed.

  13. Performance tests.

    PubMed Central

    Wetherell, A

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of psychological performance tests to assess the effects of environmental stressors. The large number and the variety of performance tests are illustrated, and the differences between performance tests and other psychological tests are described in terms of their design, construction, use, and purpose. The stressor emphasis is on the effects of drugs since that is where most performance tests have found their main application, although other stressors, e.g., fatigue, toxic chemicals, are mentioned where appropriate. Diazepam is used as an example. There is no particular performance emphasis since the tests are intended to have wide applicability. However, vehicle-driving performance is discussed because it has been the subject of a great deal of research and is probably one of the most important areas of application. Performance tests are discussed in terms of the four main underlying models--factor analysis, general information processing, multiple resource and strategy models, and processing-stage models--and in terms of their psychometric properties--sensitivity, reliability, and content, criterion, construct, and face validity. Some test taxonomies are presented. Standardization is also discussed with reference to the reaction time, mathematical processing, memory search, spatial processing, unstable tracking, verbal processing, and dual task tests used in the AGARD STRES battery. Some comments on measurement strengths and appropriate study designs and methods are included. PMID:9182033

  14. Rubella Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests ... for trustworthy health information. Verify Compliance . Produced by Advertisement

  15. Malnutrition Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests ... for trustworthy health information. Verify Compliance . Produced by Advertisement

  16. RSV Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests ... for trustworthy health information. Verify Compliance . Produced by Advertisement

  17. PTH Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests ... for trustworthy health information. Verify Compliance . Produced by Advertisement

  18. Progesterone Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests ... for trustworthy health information. Verify Compliance . Produced by Advertisement

  19. Thermal balance testing of MSAT 2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, Serge; Choueiry, Elie

    1994-01-01

    The present work reports on the recently completed infrared thermal balance/thermal vacuum testing of a MSAT satellite, the first satellite to provide mobile communications service for all of continental North America. MSAT is a two spacecraft program, using a three-axis stabilized Hughes HS-601 series Bus as the vehicle for the Canadian designed Payload. The thermal tests which were performed at the Canadian Space Agency's David Florida Laboratory in Ottawa, Canada, lasted approximately 35 days. The infrared (IR) heating rig was designed to provide radiant heat inputs into seven spacecraft zones during Thermal Vacuum (TV) testing. The TV test was divided into multiple phases. It began with a thermal balance cold phase, followed by a thermal cold cycle and a hot balance phase, complemented by a thermal hot cycle to finish with a thermal cycle with continuous monitoring of the Bus and Payload. The spacecraft's external heat fluxes were provided by IR lamp sources. To ensure flux uniformity, highly reflective baffles and IR East and West faces; the Earth facing (Nadir); and the inside of the thrust cylinder. The aft-end panel heat fluxes were provided by a heated LN2 shroud. The radiation flux intensity on the spacecraft zones from the various rig elements was measured using Monitored Background Radiometers (MBR's) and compared with direct calculations and with pretest predictions. The temperature measurement system was based on Uniform Temperature References (UTR's) located inside the chamber such that all feedthroughs were copper-copper. This system was devised to achieve a temperature measurement accuracy of plus/minus 0.5 C for over 850 thermocouples used in the test. A PC-(QNX-based) based real-time data acquisition system was utilized to provide continuous monitoring of all channels based on a 30-second time scan. In addition, the data acquisition system was able to retrieve telemetry stream from the Satellite Test Equipments (STE) station for real-time data

  20. Testing Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, S. Kathleen; Kitao, Kenji

    Speaking a second language is probably the most difficult skill to test in that it involves a combination of skills that may have no correlation with each other, and which do not lend themselves to objective testing. In addition, what can be understood is a function of the listener's background and ability as well as those of the speaker. Another…

  1. Microalbumin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... test to detect very small levels of a blood protein (albumin) in your urine. A microalbumin test is used ... kidney disease. Healthy kidneys filter waste from your blood and hang on to the healthy components, including proteins such as albumin. Kidney damage can cause proteins to leak through ...

  2. Testing Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes Georgia high-stakes testing case involving administrative law judge's recommendation (subsequently approved) that fifth-grade science teacher's teaching certificate be suspended for giving his students pretest copies of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills. Suggests No Child Left Behind Act will spawn similar litigation in the future. (PKP)

  3. Strength Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Londeree, Ben R.

    1981-01-01

    Postural deviations resulting from strength and flexibility imbalances include swayback, scoliosis, and rounded shoulders. Screening tests are one method for identifying strength problems. Tests for the evaluation of postural problems are described, and exercises are presented for the strengthening of muscles. (JN)

  4. Optical testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyant, James; Hochberg, Eric; Breault, Robert; Greivenkamp, John; Hunt, Gary; Mason, Pete; Mcguire, James; Meinel, Aden; Morris, Mike; Scherr, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Optical testing is one of the most vital elements in the process of preparing an optical instrument for launch. Without well understood, well controlled, and well documented test procedures, current and future mission goals will be jeopardized. We should keep in mind that the reason we test is to provide an opportunity to catch errors, oversights, and problems on the ground, where solutions are possible and difficulties can be rectified. Consequently, it is necessary to create tractable test procedures that truly provide a measure of the performance of all optical elements and systems under conditions which are close to those expected in space. Where testing is not feasible, accurate experiments are required in order to perfect models that can exactly predict the optical performance. As we stretch the boundaries of technology to perform more complex space and planetary investigations, we must expand the technology required to test the optical components and systems which we send into space. As we expand the observational wavelength ranges, so must we expand our range of optical sources and detectors. As we increase resolution and sensitivity, our understanding of optical surfaces to accommodate more stringent figure and scatter requirements must expand. Only with research and development in these areas can we hope to achieve success in the ever increasing demands made on optical testing by the highly sophisticated missions anticipated over the next two decades. Technology assessment and development plan for surface figure, surface roughness, alignment, image quality, radiometric quantities, and stray light measurement are presented.

  5. Patch tests*

    PubMed Central

    Lazzarini, Rosana; Duarte, Ida; Ferreira, Alessandra Lindmayer

    2013-01-01

    Patch tests were introduced as a diagnostic tool in the late nineteenth century. Since then, they have improved considerably becoming what they are today. Patch tests are used in the diagnostic investigation of contact dermatitis worldwide. Batteries or series previously studied and standardized should be used in patch testing. The methodology is simple, but it requires adequate training for the results to be correctly interpreted and used. Despite having been used for over a century, it needs improvement like all other diagnostic techniques in the medical field. PMID:24474094

  6. Summary of Glue Tests 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, D.; /Fermilab

    1993-01-07

    I have reported most of the results of my adhesive testing to members of the VLPC design team at one time or another, usually verbally, but I am wnnng this summary as an easy reference to the results I obtained. The adhesives I tested were for two primary purposes. The first was adhering optical fibers to Torlon 7130; the other was for securing an aluminum nitride substrate to the same material. I have not had access to a scanning electron microscope and someone with the knowledge to determine actual failure mechanisms, so the deductions I have made about why some adhesives have worked well at low temperatures for some purposes and not for other applications while a different material never worked and another always worked are partially speculation. They should be taken merely at face value with no particular results 'carved in stone' so to speak. The first aspect of my testing was adhesion of optical fiber to torlon. Knowing that this is a very important joint, I tested a variety of glues of two primary types: acrylic and W cure. W cure adhesives are known to possess reasonably good properties at low temperatures and are quite convenient to use as long as a W source is available. The W cure adhesives I tested were: Loctite Utak 376 and also 7EN484(?), Master Bond 1 Component W 15-7, and Norland optical adhesive 61. I found them quite easy to use, and they were packaged in a way in which they were not likely to cause a mess. Lab 6 e Perimenters generally used the Loctite 376 optical cure adhesive in their research into connecting scintillating fibers to the standard type. The acrylics I tested were Loctite Speed Bonder 324 and Permabond Quick Bond 610. These worked reasonably well, but they require a considerably longer set time than the W cure adhesives and are more complicated to use. (5 minutes set time or so for the acrylics versus about 30 seconds for the W. The Loctite must have the activator applied about 5 minutes prior to the adhesive application and the

  7. Misconceptions Tests or Misconceived Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Richard A.; Ransdell, Sarah E.

    1987-01-01

    States that taking a high school psychology course did not improve the performance of college students in an introductory psychology class on a modified version of Vaughan's misconceptions test (Test of Common Beliefs). Concludes that while college experience did lead to some improvement, comparison with other studies indicates that perhaps the…

  8. Physiological and Psychological Characteristics of Successful Combat Controller Trainees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Procedures Body Composition. Subjects’ skinfolds were taken by Lange calipers (Cambridge Instrument, Cambridge, MD) at the standard chest, abdomen...Ergomedic Wingate Test Ergometer (Monarch, Seattle, WA). These instruments are specially designed systems with instantaneous loading and braking

  9. Cholesterol Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Blood Cholesterol Formal name: Total Cholesterol Related tests: HDL Cholesterol , ...

  10. VMA Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... is primarily used to detect and rule out neuroblastomas in children with an abdominal mass or other ... homovanillic acid (HVA) test to help diagnose a neuroblastoma, to monitor the effectiveness of treatment, and to ...

  11. Neuropathy Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... strength and tone, and the ability to sense vibration, light touch, body position, temperature, and pain. Depending ... tests that record the ability to sense touch, vibration, cooling, and heat Nerve biopsy – to evaluate damage ...

  12. Runflat Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-09

    tire assembly tread life combat flat central tire inflation system (CTIS) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION...2 2. FACILITIES AND INSTRUMENTATION ......................... 2 2.1 Facilities...2 2.2 Instrumentation ...................................................................... 3 3. REQUIRED TEST

  13. Iron Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... detect and help diagnose iron deficiency or iron overload. In people with anemia , these tests can help ... also be ordered when iron deficiency or iron overload is suspected. Early iron deficiency often goes unnoticed. ...

  14. Albumin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... may also be ordered to evaluate a person's nutritional status. ^ Back to top When is it ordered? An ... albumin test to check or monitor a person's nutritional status. However, since albumin concentrations respond to a variety ...

  15. Trypsinogen Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... of some newborn screening programs to screen for cystic fibrosis (CF) . It may be used in conjunction with a sweat chloride test and/or a cystic fibrosis gene mutation panel to help identify CF. IRT ...

  16. Amylase Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Amylase Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Amy Formal name: Amylase Related tests: Lipase , Trypsin , Trypsinogen At a Glance ...

  17. AMA Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... M2 test may be ordered to help diagnose primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) . PBC is a serious condition in which ... be performed to look for characteristic signs of primary biliary cirrhosis in the liver tissue and to confirm the ...

  18. Sodium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  19. Fungal Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosis is needed, as in cases of persistent, deep, or systemic infections, more extensive testing may be ... mouth (thrush) Vaginal itching and discharge (yeast infection) Deep and systemic fungal infections may cause a variety ...

  20. ACT Test

    MedlinePlus

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser ...

  1. Troponins Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... affected by damage to skeletal muscles, so injections, accidents, and drugs that can damage muscle do not ... Learn more about ... Understanding Your Tests Inside the Lab In the News Article Index About This Site ...

  2. Test report :

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-08-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors have supplied their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and a subset of these systems were selected for performance evaluation at the BCIL. The technologies tested were electro-chemical energy storage systems comprised of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. MILSPRAY Military Technologies has developed an energy storage system that utilizes lead acid batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited assessment of the Milspray Scorpion Energy Storage Device.

  3. Test Anxiety

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... Like other anxiety reactions, test anxiety affects the body and the mind. When you're under stress, your body releases ...

  4. Lactate Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... oxygen delivered to cells and tissues, such as shock or congestive heart failure , this test can be ... treated for an acute condition, such as sepsis, shock or heart attack , or a chronic condition, such ...

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1990-01-01

    Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

  6. Ammonia Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Ammonia Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: NH3 Formal name: Ammonia, plasma Related tests: Liver Panel , ALT , AST , ALP , ...

  7. Test report :

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. Raytheon/KTech has developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the Raytheon/KTech Zinc-Bromide Energy Storage System.

  8. Test Report :

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. GS Battery and EPC Power have developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the GS Battery, EPC Power HES RESCU.

  9. Genomic Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Services released a report identifying gaps in the regulation, oversight, and usefulness of genetic testing. They expressed ... December 20, 2016 Content source: Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services (CSELS) , Public Health Genomics Email ...

  10. Test report :

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-08-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprised of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. Princeton Power Systems has developed an energy storage system that utilizes lithium ion phosphate batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the Princeton Power Systems Prototype Energy Storage System.

  11. Digoxin test

    MedlinePlus

    Heart failure - digoxin test ... Mann DL. Management of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of ...

  12. Bilirubin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also known as: Total Bilirubin; TBIL; Neonatal Bilirubin; Direct Bilirubin; Conjugated Bilirubin; Indirect Bilirubin; Unconjugated Bilirubin Formal ... Hepatitis B ; Hepatitis C ; Complete Blood Count ; Urinalysis ; Direct Antiglobulin Test ; Haptoglobin ; Reticulocyte Count All content on ...

  13. Testing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This bulletin from Sandia National Laboratories presents current research highlights in testing technology. Ion microscopy offers new nondestructive testing technique that detects high resolution invisible defects. An inexpensive thin-film gauge checks detonators on centrifuge. Laser trackers ride the range and track helicopters at low-level flights that could not be detected by radar. Radiation transport software predicts electron/photon effects via cascade simulation. Acoustic research in noise abatement will lead to quieter travelling for Bay Area Rapid Transport (BART) commuters.

  14. [The diagnostic value of vertical nystagmus in the simultaneous bilateral calibrated caloric vestibular test (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Toupet, M; Pialoux, P

    1981-01-01

    Vertical nystagmus provoked by simultaneous bilateral caloric stimulation has been known since 1907 (Bàràny). However, if a controlled and calibrated injection os water at 44 degrees C or 30 degrees C for 30 seconds at a flow rate of 250 ml/minute is given in normal subjects, this stimulus is insufficient to provoke a response, whilst in subjects with a central vestibular disorder there appear upward vertical movements with hot stimulation and downward movements with cold stimulation. The degree of this response is proportional to the degree of horizontal nystagmic responses to classical unilateral caloric tests. The authors feel that vertical nystagmic responses to simultaneous bilateral caloric stimulation reflect a loss of control of the vestibular reflex activity of the superior semicircular canals.

  15. Estrogen Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Men Estradiol (E2) and/or estrone (E1) testing in boys and men may be ordered when: A boy has delayed puberty, characterized by delayed development of muscle mass, lack of deepening of the voice or growth of body hair, slow or delayed growth of testicles and penis ...

  16. Homocysteine Test

    MedlinePlus

    PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. ... Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: ...

  17. Phosphorus Test

    MedlinePlus

    PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. ... Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: ...

  18. Chymotrypsin Test

    MedlinePlus

    PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. ... Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: ...

  19. AMA Test

    MedlinePlus

    PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. ... Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: ...

  20. TORCH Test

    MedlinePlus

    PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. ... Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: ...

  1. Gonorrhea Test

    MedlinePlus

    PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. ... Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: ...

  2. Triglycerides Test

    MedlinePlus

    PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. ... Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: ...

  3. Electrolytes Test

    MedlinePlus

    PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. ... Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: ...

  4. Myoglobin Test

    MedlinePlus

    PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. ... Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: ...

  5. Toxoplasmosis Testing

    MedlinePlus

    PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. ... Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: ...

  6. Prealbumin Test

    MedlinePlus

    PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. ... Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: ...

  7. Serotonin Test

    MedlinePlus

    PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. ... Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: ...

  8. Lead Test

    MedlinePlus

    PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. ... Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: ...

  9. Prolactin Test

    MedlinePlus

    PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. ... Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: ...

  10. Prenatal Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... baby with a birth defect — especially heart or genetic problems are carrying more than one baby have high blood pressure , diabetes , lupus , heart disease, ... A Week-by-Week Pregnancy Calendar Birth Plans Genetic Testing Staying Healthy During ... Having a Healthy Pregnancy Contact Us Print ...

  11. Rotational testing.

    PubMed

    Furman, J M

    2016-01-01

    The natural stimulus for the semicircular canals is rotation of the head, which also might stimulate the otolith organs. Vestibular stimulation usually induces eye movements via the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). The orientation of the subject with respect to the axis of rotation and the orientation of the axis of rotation with respect to gravity together determine which labyrinthine receptors are stimulated for particular motion trajectories. Rotational testing usually includes the measurement of eye movements via a video system but might use a subject's perception of motion. The most common types of rotational testing are whole-body computer-controlled sinusoidal or trapezoidal stimuli during earth-vertical axis rotation (EVAR), which stimulates primarily the horizontal semicircular canals bilaterally. Recently, manual impulsive rotations, known as head impulse testing (HIT), have been developed to assess individual horizontal semicircular canals. Most types of rotational stimuli are not used routinely in the clinical setting but may be used in selected research environments. This chapter will discuss clinically relevant rotational stimuli and several types of rotational testing that are used primarily in research settings.

  12. Mono Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be ... Mononucleosis (Mono) Test Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ...

  13. The effects of ionized and nonionized compression garments on sprint and endurance cycling.

    PubMed

    Burden, Richard J; Glaister, Mark

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ionized and nonionized compression tights on sprint and endurance cycling performance. Using a randomized, blind, crossover design, 10 well-trained male athletes (age: 34.6 ± 6.8 years, height: 1.80 ± 0.05 m, body mass: 82.2 ± 10.4 kg, VO2max: 50.86 ± 6.81 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed 3 sprint trials (30-second sprint at 150% of the power output required to elicit VO2max [pVO2max] + 3 minutes recovery at 40% pVO2max + 30-second Wingate test + 3 minutes recovery at 40% pVO2max) and 3 endurance trials (30 minutes at 60% pVO2max + 5 minutes stationary recovery + 10-km time trial) wearing nonionized compression tights, ionized compression tights, or standard running tights (control). There was no significant effect of garment type on key Wingate measures of peak power (grand mean: 1,164 ± 219 W, p = 0.812), mean power (grand mean: 716 ± 68 W, p = 0.800), or fatigue (grand mean: 66.5 ± 6.9%, p = 0.106). There was an effect of garment type on blood lactate in the sprint and the endurance trials (p < 0.05), although post hoc tests only detected a significant difference between the control and the nonionized conditions in the endurance trial (mean difference: 0.55 mmol·L(-1), 95% likely range: 0.1-1.1 mmol·L(-1)). Relative to control, oxygen uptake (p = 0.703), heart rate (p = 0.774), and time trial performance (grand mean: 14.77 ± 0.74 minutes, p = 0.790) were unaffected by either type of compression garment during endurance cycling. Despite widespread use in sport, neither ionized nor nonionized compression tights had any significant effect on sprint or endurance cycling performance.

  14. Microgrid Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Shirazi, M.; Kroposki, B.

    2012-01-01

    With the publication of IEEE 1574.4 Guide for Design, Operation, and Integration of Distributed Resource Island Systems with Electric Power Systems, there is an increasing amount of attention on not only the design and operations of microgrids, but also on the proper operation and testing of these systems. This standard provides alternative approaches and good practices for the design, operation, and integration of microgrids. This includes the ability to separate from and reconnect to part of the utility grid while providing power to the islanded power system. This presentation addresses the industry need to develop standardized testing and evaluation procedures for microgrids in order to assure quality operation in the grid connected and islanded modes of operation.

  15. test title

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    expectations by experimenters and testbed system managers, with minor automation from the testbed. We include design hooks for the system to use...scripting environment whose syntax enables specification of control flows that depend on controlled program outputs, thus automating system testing...Homeland Security and the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego, under contract No. N66001-07-C-2001, and by the National Science

  16. Earthquake Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    During NASA's Apollo program, it was necessary to subject the mammoth Saturn V launch vehicle to extremely forceful vibrations to assure the moonbooster's structural integrity in flight. Marshall Space Flight Center assigned vibration testing to a contractor, the Scientific Services and Systems Group of Wyle Laboratories, Norco, California. Wyle-3S, as the group is known, built a large facility at Huntsville, Alabama, and equipped it with an enormously forceful shock and vibration system to simulate the liftoff stresses the Saturn V would encounter. Saturn V is no longer in service, but Wyle-3S has found spinoff utility for its vibration facility. It is now being used to simulate earthquake effects on various kinds of equipment, principally equipment intended for use in nuclear power generation. Government regulations require that such equipment demonstrate its ability to survive earthquake conditions. In upper left photo, Wyle3S is preparing to conduct an earthquake test on a 25ton diesel generator built by Atlas Polar Company, Ltd., Toronto, Canada, for emergency use in a Canadian nuclear power plant. Being readied for test in the lower left photo is a large circuit breaker to be used by Duke Power Company, Charlotte, North Carolina. Electro-hydraulic and electro-dynamic shakers in and around the pit simulate earthquake forces.

  17. Testing Understanding and Understanding Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Jean; Ross, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Provides examples in which graphs are used in the statements of problems or in their solutions as a means of testing understanding of mathematical concepts. Examples (appropriate for a beginning course in calculus and analytic geometry) include slopes of lines and curves, quadratic formula, properties of the definite integral, and others. (JN)

  18. Changes evaluated in soccer-specific power endurance either with or without a 10-week, in-season, intermittent, high-intensity training protocol.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Jason; Gaskill, Steven; Ruby, Brent

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in soccer-specific power endurance of 34 female high school soccer players throughout a season either with or without an intermittent, high-intensity exercise protocol. Thirty-four female high school soccer players were tested prior to the 2000 fall season and again 10 weeks later. The tests included an abridged 45-minute shuttle test (LIST), hydrostatic weighing, vertical jump, 20-m running-start sprint, and 30-second Wingate test. The experimental group (EG; n = 17, age 16.5 +/- 0.9 years) completed a 10-week in-season plyometric, resistive training, and high-intensity anaerobic program. The control group (n = 17, age 16.3 +/- 1.4 years) completed only traditional aerobic soccer conditioning. Statistical significance was set at alpha < 0.05. The experimental group showed significant improvements in the LIST (EG = delta 394 seconds +/- 124 seconds), 20-m sprint (EG = Delta-0.10 seconds +/- 0.10 seconds), increase in fat-free mass (EG = delta 1.14 kg +/- 1.22 kg), and decreases in fat mass (EG = Delta-1.40 kg +/- 1.47 kg) comparing pre- to postseason. This study indicates that a strength and plyometric program improved power endurance and speed over aerobic training only. Soccer-specific power endurance training may improve match performance and decrease fatigue in young female soccer players.

  19. Tauwer Test

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, James; Iori, Maurizio; Ronzhin, Anatoly; /Fermilab

    2011-01-24

    TAUWER is a proposed astroparticle experiment to detect ultrahigh energy TAU neutrinos, using detector towers arrayed on a mountainside looking down into a valley. This test is to study the possibility of replacing Hamamatsu miniature PMTs with SiPMs for readout by determining the response of scintillation detectors with SiPM readout to low energy electrons, 2 GeV or lower, as the beam will provide. The detector itself is a compact package shown in the picture on the cover. it was used in a parasitic test beam run on December 15, 2010, to compare the relative timing of the signals from three counters for MIPs. The only change for this new run is the insertion of 1.5 cm of Pb in front of counter 2 or counter 3 during most of the running. The experiment takes some electron data without Pb for calibration purposes. The apparatus will be mounted on the moving table in MT6.2B.

  20. The effect of ephedra and caffeine on maximal strength and power in resistance-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew D; Cribb, Paul J; Cooke, Matthew B; Hayes, Alan

    2008-03-01

    Caffeine and ephedrine-related alkaloids recently have been removed from International Olympic Committee banned substances lists, whereas ephedrine itself is now permissible at urinary concentrations less than 10 mug.mL. The changes to the list may contribute to an increased use of caffeine and ephedra as ergogenic aids by athletes. Consequently, we sought to investigate the effects of ingesting caffeine (C) or a combination of ephedra and caffeine (C + E) on muscular strength and anaerobic power using a double-blind, crossover design. Forty-five minutes after ingesting a glucose placebo (P: 300 mg), C (300 mg) or C + E (300 mg + 60 mg), 9 resistance-trained male participants were tested for maximal strength by bench press [BP; 1 repetition maximum (1RM)] and latissimus dorsi pull down (LP; 1RM). Subjects also performed repeated repetitions at 80% of 1RM on both BP and LP until exhaustion. After this test, subjects underwent a 30-second Wingate test to determine peak anaerobic cycling power, mean power, and fatigue index. Although subjects reported increased alertness and enhanced mood after supplementation with caffeine and ephedra, there were no significant differences between any of the treatments in muscle strength, muscle endurance, or peak anaerobic power. Our results do not support the contention that supplementation with ephedra or caffeine will enhance either muscle strength or anaerobic exercise performance.

  1. Nuclear stress test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  2. Performance Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Systems Technology, Inc., Hawthorne, CA, developed an electronic Critical Tracking Task (CTT) system that analyzes and rates a subject's visual/motor responses for Ames Research Center. Originally applied to measuring the effects of long term confinement in the mid 1960's, the CTT system is now marketed as FACTOR 1000 by Performance Factors, Inc. Alameda, CA, under a licensing agreement with Systems Technology. The system is a non-invasive, self-administered test that takes less than a minute and detects impairment from a broad range of causes, including stress, fatigue, illness, drugs, or alcohol. It is used daily by Old Town Trolley Tours, San Diego, CA, to assess each driver's physical coordination skills prior to the start of each shift. FACTOR 1000 reduces liabilities and costs related to accidents, and costs less than one dollar per day per employee. Performance Factors is now BioFactors, Inc.

  3. Orchestrated Testing.

    PubMed

    Pallotto, Eugenia K; Chuo, John; Piazza, Anthony J; Provost, Lloyd; Grover, Theresa R; Smith, Joan R; Mingrone, Teresa; Moran, Susan; Morelli, Lorna; Zaniletti, Isabella; Brozanski, Beverly

    Health care quality improvement collaboratives implement care bundles to target critical parts of a complex system to improve a specific health outcome. The quantitative impact of each component of the care bundle is often unknown. Orchestrated testing (OT) is an application of planned experimentation that allows simultaneous examination of multiple practices (bundle elements) to determine which intervention or combination of interventions affects the outcome. The purpose of this article is to describe the process needed to design and implement OT methodology for improvement collaboratives. Examples from a multicenter collaborative to reduce central line-associated bloodstream infections highlight the practical application of this approach. The key components for implementation of OT are the following: (1) define current practice and evidence, (2) develop a factorial matrix and calculate power, (3) formulate structure for engagement, (4) analyze results, and (5) replicate findings.

  4. Drug testing.

    PubMed

    Cowan, David A

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of sports samples for prohibited substances began in the 1960s and has developed since then using modern technologies close to the latest scientific discoveries. In this chapter the latest techniques and applications are described as well as the role of the World Anti-Doping Agency as the controlling body for the implementation of these tests. For small molecules, apart from the routine use of GC-MS, the newer techniques include the use of isotope ratio MS to detect testosterone and nandrolone administration and LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem MS) to detect diuretics. For large molecules, several applications of LC-MS/MS are described as well as immunoprocedures for erythropoietin and human growth hormone. Finally, the latest method to detect homologous blood transfusion is briefly described.

  5. Early Jurassic magnetostratigraphy and paleolatitudes from the Hartford continental rift basin (eastern North America): Testing for polarity bias and abrupt polar wander in association with the central Atlantic magmatic province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Dennis V.; Olsen, Paul E.

    2008-06-01

    To determine whether the ˜200 Ma central Atlantic magmatic province (CAMP) coincides with a normal polarity bias and a purported abrupt change in polar wander at the J1 cusp, we collected samples for paleomagnetic study from 80 sites distributed over a ˜2500-m-thick section of sedimentary units that are interbedded with and overlie CAMP lavas in the Hartford basin, which together represent the initial 2.4 Ma of the Jurassic according to cycle stratigraphic analysis. Characteristic directions carried by hematite were isolated by thermal demagnetization in 71 sites and define a coherent magnetostratigraphy supported by a positive reversal test and an interbasin fold test. Despite a pronounced overall normal polarity bias (only three relatively short reverse polarity intervals could be confirmed in the sampled section), normal polarity Chron H24n that encompasses the CAMP extrusive zone is no more than 1.6 Ma in duration. Elongation/inclination analysis of the 315 characteristic directions, which have a flattened distribution, produces a result in agreement with a published mean direction for the CAMP volcanic units as well as published results similarly corrected for inclination error from the Newark basin. The three data sets (CAMP volcanics, Newark corrected sediments, and Hartford corrected sediments) provide a 201 Ma reference pole for eastern North America at 67.0°N, 93.8°E, A95 = 3.2°. Paleopoles from the Moenave and Wingate formations from the Colorado Plateau that virtually define the J1 cusp can be brought into agreement with the 201 Ma reference pole with corrections for net clockwise rotation of the plateau relative to eastern North America and presumed sedimentary inclination error. The corrected data show that apparent polar wander for North America proceeds directly toward higher latitudes over the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic with no obvious change that can be associated with CAMP.

  6. The macular photostress test in diabetes, glaucoma, and cataract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, António M. G.; Sousa, Raul A. R. C.; Rocha, Filomena A. S. Q.; Fernandes, Paula Sepúlveda; Macedo, António F.

    2013-11-01

    Purpose. The photostress recovery time test (PSRT) has been widely reported as a helpful screening clinical tool. However, the poor standardization of its measurement technique remains to be a limitation among clinicians. The purpose of this study is to apply a recommended clinical technique to measure the PSRT in some of the most commons eye diseases to ascertain whether these diseases affect the PSRT values. Methods. One hundred and one controls and 105 patients, with diagnosed diabetes (without visible signs of diabetic retinopathy), primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or cataracts underwent photostress testing. The test was performed with a direct ophthalmoscope for illuminating the macula for 30 seconds. Participants belonged to three age classes: A, B and C; and were divided into four groups: control, diabetic, POAG and cataract. The age range for A, B and C classes were respectively 43-54, 55-64 and 65-74 years. The groups were also further compared within each age class. In addition, the influence of age on PSRT was evaluated using the control group. Results. Results demonstrate that PSRT changes with age (p<0.02). In class A, diabetic group had a faster PSRT than control group, (mean +/- standard deviation) 20.22+/-7.51 and 26.14+/-8.34 seconds. The difference between these groups was statistical significant (t-test, p=0.012). Cataract and POAG groups did not affect the PSRT significantly. Conclusions. The technique used for the Photostress showed that diabetics, younger than 54 years, may have faster PSRT and that, aging delays PSRT.

  7. Heliostat tested

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-12-01

    An enormous glint of sunlight darted over gently sloping summits and the hairpin curves of the mountain road. Mirrors concentrated this glint into a single beam, which then shot through a thick sheet of aluminum. Such was the result of the first test run on heliostats of the unique Solntse scientific-production complex being erected in Tashkent Oblast. There will be 62 such heliostats, each with an area of 50 square meters. Hot beams will be transmitted to the concave mirror of a concentrator (2,000 square meters). And the glint that shoots from it effortlessly melts not only aluminum but also almost all known materials. A special melting furnace toward which the concentractor directs hundreds of kilowatts of energy, burns brighter than a thousand suns. The complex presently under construction is intended for acquisition of ultrahigh-heat and concurrently ultrapure materials needed by many industrial sectors. This is extremely difficult to do by traditional chemical methods and even by the most modern methods--ultrahigh frequency and cathode ray methods.

  8. [In vitro tests of internal tooth whitening agents on colored solutions do not replace tests on teeth].

    PubMed

    Bäumler, Marc A; Schug, Jens; Schmidlin, PatrickR; Imfeld, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Two in vitro tests for the assessment of whitening agents were evaluated. A simple, reproducible and cost-effective model using coloured solutions was compared to a tooth model. The following bleaching agents were investigated: 1) Sodium perborate tetrahydrate/30% H2O2, 2) sodium perborate tetrahydrate/3% H2O2, 3) thermocatalytic procedure with 30% H2O2 and 4) Opal-escence Endo. In the model using coloured solutions, the light absorption of the solutions was assessed one and 24 hours after application of the whitening agents. In discoloured teeth, whitening agents were placed in a simulated access cavity. In groups 1, 2, and 4, the agents were left in the cavity for three days, whereas in group 3 the substance was applied three times for 30 seconds. Bleaching processes were repeated three times. All bleaching agents proved effective in the model with coloured solutions, as well as in the tooth model. The effect was most pronounced after the first bleaching step. The results showed, however, that the simplified experiment with coloured solutions cannot replace the tooth model.

  9. APU diaphragm testing. Test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelley, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) fuel (hydrazine) tanks have had to be removed from the Columbia Shuttle (OV-102) because they have been in service for 11 years, which is the limit of their useful life. As part of an effort to determine whether the useful life of the fuel tanks can be extended, examination of the ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) diaphragm and the metal from one of the APU tanks is required. The JSC Propulsion and Power Division has requested White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) to examine the EPR diaphragm thoroughly and the metal casing generally from one tank. The objective is to examine the EPR diaphragm for signs of degradation that may limit the life of its function in the APU propellant tank. The metal casing will also be examined for signs of surface corrosion.

  10. Computer-Based Testing: Test Site Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Gerald A.

    Computer-based testing places great burdens on all involved parties to ensure test security. A task analysis of test site security might identify the areas of protecting the test, protecting the data, and protecting the environment as essential issues in test security. Protecting the test involves transmission of the examinations, identifying the…

  11. Mononucleosis spot test

    MedlinePlus

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  12. Dengue Fever Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... name: Dengue Antibodies (IgG, IgM); Dengue Virus by PCR Related tests: Arbovirus Testing , West Nile Virus Testing , ... testing are available: Molecular testing ( polymerase chain reaction, PCR )—this type of test detects the genetic material ...

  13. Reliability of sprint test indices in well-trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Coleman, D A; Wiles, J D; Nunn, M; Smith, M F

    2005-06-01

    The study aim was to assess reliability of repeated laboratory sprint tests in well-trained endurance cyclists. Eleven male cyclists (mean +/- standard deviation: 27 +/- 6 yr, 1.79 +/- 0.04 m, 70.1 +/- 3.3 kg) performed a maximal 30-second sprint test on four separate occasions using their own bicycle fitted with an SRM powermeter on a Kingcycle air-braked ergometer. Peak power output (W (peak)), mean power (W (mean)) and an index of fatigue (FI) were calculated. Three minutes post sprint, capillarised blood lactate measurements were taken and analysed. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between trials for W (peak), W (mean), FI and blood lactate concentration. Repeatability of W (peak), W (mean), and fatigue index improved across trials 2 and 3 when compared to trials 1 and 2. The highest CV for these variables was recorded between trials 3 and 4. The CV for W (peak) was 4.5 +/- 1.6 %, W (mean) 2.4 +/- 1.2 %, and FI 17.2 +/- 7.1 %. Intraclass reliability coefficients were 0.93 (95 % CI 0.84 - 0.98), 0.94 (95 % CI 0.86 - 0.98) and 0.89 (95 % CI 0.69 - 0.95) respectively. Blood lactate concentration ranged between 5.35 and 14.52 mmol.l(-1), with a mean CV of 12.1 +/- 4.2 %. The CV for trials 2 and 3 revealed the highest CV for blood lactate concentration (15.1 %). The lowest CV for this variable (10.2 %) was recorded between trials 3 and 4. The intraclass reliability coefficient for blood lactate concentration was 0.79 (95 % CI 0.58 - 0.93). The results of this study indicate that there is no improvement in the reliability of sprint test indices when assessing well-trained, experienced cyclists, riding on their own cycle equipment.

  14. Validating the Chinese version of the Verbal Learning Test for screening Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiung Chih; Kramer, Joel H; Lin, Ker Neng; Chang, Wen Neng; Wang, Ya-Ling; Huang, Chi-Wei; Lin, Yu Ting; Chen, Ching; Wang, Pei Ning

    2010-03-01

    Episodic memory tasks are one of the most sensitive tools to discriminate Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to validate a shorter version verbal memory test that will efficiently assess Chinese elderly with memory complaints. One hundred and eighty-five elderly with normal cognition (NC) and 217 AD patients were evaluated. Each participant received the Chinese Version Verbal Learning Test (CVVLT) consisting of 9 two-character nouns with 4 learning trials, 2 delayed recalls in 30 seconds and 10 minutes, and a word recognition test. In the NC elderly, age and sex had significant effects on recall scores in CVVLT, while education level showed an inverse correlation with 3 different patterns of errors made during the learning, recall, and recognition trials. AD patients had lower scores across all recall tests. In those with lower educational level, NC elderly had higher perseveration errors than AD patients. The cutoff value between the AD and NC groups in the 10-minute recall was 4/5 for those aged >75 years and 5/6 for those aged <75 years. This study has good validity in discriminating AD participants and the data here can help in diagnosing AD and mild cognitive impairment using the CVVLT.

  15. Acute Effects of Peristaltic Pneumatic Compression on Repeated Anaerobic Exercise Performance and Blood Lactate Clearance.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeffrey S; Friedenreich, Zachary D; Borges, Alexandra R; Roberts, Michael D

    2015-10-01

    External pneumatic compression (EPC) use in athletics is increasing. However, there is a paucity of evidence supporting the effectiveness of EPC in aiding recovery and performance. We sought to determine the efficacy of EPC for acute recovery of anaerobic power and lactate clearance following a fatigue protocol. Fourteen (n = 14; women = 7 and men = 7), apparently healthy, active subjects (aged 22.73 ± 4.05 years) were enrolled in this randomized crossover design study. After familiarization sessions, subjects completed 2 study trials separated by 3-7 days. Trials consisted of a fatigue protocol (two 30-second Wingate anaerobic tests (WAnTs) on a cycle ergometer separated by 3 minutes of rest), 30 minutes of treatment with EPC or sham, and, finally, a single 30-second WAnT. A peristaltic pulse EPC device was used with target inflation pressures of ∼70 mm Hg applied to the lower limbs. Peak power (PkP), average power (AP), and the fatigue index (FI) were recorded for each WAnT. Moreover, blood lactate concentration (BLa) was evaluated at baseline and at regular intervals during recovery (5, 15, 25, and 35 minutes postfatigue protocol). No significant differences in PkP, AP, and FI were observed. However, BLa was significantly lower at 25 and 35 minutes of recovery (8.91 ± 3.12 vs. 10.66 ± 3.44 mmol·L(-1) [p = 0.021] and 6.44 ± 2.14 vs. 7.89 ± 2.37 mmol·L(-1) [p = 0.006] for EPC vs. sham, respectively). Application of EPC during recovery may be a viable alternative when "inactive" recovery is desirable.

  16. Effects of two and five days of creatine loading on muscular strength and anaerobic power in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Law, Yu Li Lydia; Ong, Wee Sian; GillianYap, Tsien Lin; Lim, Su Ching Joselin; Von Chia, Ee

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the effects of 2 and 5 days of creatine loading, coupled with resistance training, on muscular strength and anaerobic performance in trained athletes. Seventeen trained men were randomly assigned to a creatine or a placebo group. The creatine supplementation group consumed 20 g of creatine per day (4 doses of 5 g per day), whereas the placebo group was given a placebo similar in appearance and taste over the 5-day supplementation duration. Anaerobic power and strength performance measures, in addition to blood and urine analysis, were conducted in the morning before the supplementation began and on the third and sixth day to establish the effect of 2 and 5 days of creatine loading, respectively. The study found that a 5-day creatine loading regime coupled with resistance training resulted in significant improvements in both average anaerobic power, as measured by the 30-second Wingate test and back squat strength compared with just training alone. However, 2 days of supplementation was not sufficient to produce similar performance gains as that observed at the end of 5 days of loading in trained men, despite increases in creatine uptake in the body. The standard 5-day loading regime should hence be prescribed to individuals supplementing with creatine for enhanced strength and power.

  17. Similarity in adaptations to high-resistance circuit vs. traditional strength training in resistance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, Pedro E; Perez-Gomez, Jorge; Chavarrias, Manuel; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2011-09-01

    To compare the effects of 8 weeks of high-resistance circuit (HRC) training (3-6 sets of 6 exercises, 6 repetition maximum [RM], ∼35-second interset recovery) and traditional strength (TS) training (3-6 sets of 6 exercises, 6RM, 3-minute interset recovery) on physical performance parameters and body composition, 33 healthy men were randomly assigned to HRC, TS, or a control group. Training consisted of weight lifting 3 times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training, 1RM strength on bench press and half squat exercises, bench press peak power output, and body composition (dual x-ray absorptiometry ) were determined. Shuttle run and 30-second Wingate tests were also completed. Upper limb (UL) and lower limb 1RM increased equally after both TS and HRC training. The UL peak power at various loads was significantly higher at posttraining for both groups (p ≤ 0.01). Shuttle-run performance was significantly better after both HRC and TS training, however peak cycling power increased only in TS training (p ≤ 0.05). Significant decreases were found in % body fat in the HRC group only; HRC and TS training both resulted in an increased lean but not bone mass. The HRC training was as effective as TS for improving weight lifting 1RM and peak power, shuttle-run performance and lean mass. Thus, HRC training promoted a similar strength-mass adaptation as traditional training while using a shorter training session duration.

  18. Cholesterol testing and results

    MedlinePlus

    Cholesterol test results; LDL test results; VLDL test results; HDL test results; Coronary risk profile results; Hyperlipidemia- ... Some cholesterol is considered good and some is considered bad. Different blood tests can be done to measure each ...

  19. Growth hormone suppression test

    MedlinePlus

    GH suppression test; Glucose loading test; Acromegaly - blood test; Gigantism - blood test ... At least 3 blood samples are taken. The test is done in the following way: The first blood sample is collected between 6 ...

  20. Heart failure - tests

    MedlinePlus

    CHF - tests; Congestive heart failure - tests; Cardiomyopathy - tests; HF - tests ... An echocardiogram (Echo) is a test that uses sound waves to create a moving picture of the heart. The picture is much more detailed than a plain ...

  1. Turbine blade testing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Testing procedures which could be used to model test turbine blades are developed. The methods studied were methods which used and extended current modal testing procedures. An acoustical impacting testing method was perfected for testing small turbine blades.

  2. HIV Antibody Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... test is performed that detects the genetic material ( RNA ) of the virus. An HIV RNA test will detect HIV in most people by ... next test to perform is an HIV-1 RNA test (nucleic acid amplification test, NAAT). If the ...

  3. Glucose urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine sugar test; Urine glucose test; Glucosuria test; Glycosuria test ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested right away. The health care provider uses a dipstick made with a color-sensitive pad. The ...

  4. Draft Test Guideline: Gammarid Acute Toxicity Test

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  5. Draft Test Guideline: Penaeid Acute Toxicity Test

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  6. Tests, Testing, and Genuine School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The pressing need to improve achievement in American schools is widely recognized. In "Tests, Testing, and Genuine School Reform," Herbert J. Walberg draws on scientific studies of tests and their uses to inform citizens, educators, and policy makers about well-established principles of testing, current problems, and promising evidence-based…

  7. Draft Test Guideline: Daphnid Chronic Toxicity Test

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  8. Draft Test Guideline: Chironomid Sediment Toxicity Test

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  9. Draft Test Guideline: Mysid Chronic Toxicity Test

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  10. Draft Test Guideline: Mysid Acute Toxicity Test

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  11. Speed, force, and power values produced from nonmotorized treadmill test are related to sprinting performance.

    PubMed

    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Gonzalez, Adam M; Wells, Adam J; Townsend, Jeremy R; Jajtner, Adam R; McCormack, William P; Robinson, Edward H; Fragala, Maren S; Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2014-07-01

    The relationships between 30-m sprint time and performance on a nonmotorized treadmill (TM) test and a vertical jump test were determined in this investigation. Seventy-eight physically active men and women (22.9 ± 2.7 years; 73.0 ± 14.7 kg; 170.7 ± 10.4 cm) performed a 30-second maximal sprint on the curve nonmotorized TM after 1 familiarization trial. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients produced significant (p ≤ 0.05) moderate to very strong relationships between 30-m sprint time and body mass (r = -0.37), %fat (r = 0.79), peak power (PP) (r = -0.59), relative PP (r = -0.42), time to peak velocity (r = -0.23) and TM sprint times at 10 m (r = 0.48), 20 m (r = 0.59), 30 m (r = 0.67), 40 m (r = 0.71), and 50 m (r = 0.75). Strong relationships between 30-m sprint time and peak (r = -0.479) and mean vertical jump power (r = -0.559) were also observed. Subsequently, stepwise regression was used to produce two 30-m sprint time prediction models from TM performance (TM1: body mass + TM data and TM2: body composition + TM data) in a validation group (n = 39), and then crossvalidated against another group (n = 39). As no significant differences were observed between these groups, data were combined (n = 72) and used to create the final prediction models (TM1: r = 0.75, standard error of the estimate (SEE) = 0.27 seconds; TM2: r = 0.84, SEE = 0.22 seconds). These final movement-specific models seem to be more accurate in predicting 30-m sprint time than derived peak (r = 0.23, SEE = 0.48 seconds) and mean vertical jump power (r = 0.31, SEE = 0.45 seconds) equations. Consequently, sprinting performance on the TM can significantly predict short-distance sprint time. It, therefore, may be used to obtain movement-specific measures of sprinting force, velocity, and power in a controlled environment from a single 30-second maximal sprinting test.

  12. What Is Diagnostic Testing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary care providers Specialists Getting covered Research Basic science research Research in people ... screening Diagnostic testing Direct-to-consumer genetic testing Newborn screening Pharmacogenomic testing ...

  13. Listening: Who's Testing What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Kittie W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses how listening is now being tested as three separate abilities, how test validity is affected by administration factors, criticisms of listening skills tests currently available, and criteria for development of reliable and valid listening tests. (MBR)

  14. Ketones urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  15. Coccidioides precipitin test

    MedlinePlus

    Coccidioidomycosis antibody test ... There is no special preparation for the test. ... The precipitin test is one of several tests that can be done to determine if you are infected with the fungus ...

  16. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... The test may be done in the following ways: After you have not eaten anything for at least 8 ...

  17. Sweat electrolytes test

    MedlinePlus

    Sweat test; Sweat chloride; Iontophoretic sweat test ... No special steps are needed before this test. ... The test is not painful. Some people have a tingling feeling at the site of the electrode. This feeling ...

  18. Lactose tolerance tests

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance ... Two common methods include: Lactose tolerance blood test Hydrogen breath test The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen in the air you breathe out. ...

  19. Allergy Skin Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic rhinitis) Allergic asthma Dermatitis (eczema) Food allergies Penicillin allergy Bee venom allergy Latex allergy Skin tests are ... may recommend this test to check for an allergy to insect venom or penicillin. Patch test Patch testing is generally done to ...

  20. Strep Throat Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Was this page helpful? Also known as: Throat Culture; Culture, Throat; Rapid Strep Test; Rapid Antigen Detection Test; ... beta hemolytic streptococcus Related tests: Influenza Tests ; Blood Culture ; ASO ; Anti-DNase B All content on Lab ...

  1. Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Home For Patients Search FAQs Prenatal ... Screening Tests FAQ165, September 2016 PDF Format Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Pregnancy What is prenatal genetic testing? ...

  2. Genetic Testing (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Genetic Testing KidsHealth > For Parents > Genetic Testing Print A ... blood, skin, bone, or other tissue is needed. Genetic Testing During Pregnancy For genetic testing before birth, ...

  3. Design of multi-megawatt actively cooled beam dumps for the Neutral-Beam Engineering Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, J.A.; Koehler, G.; Wells, R.P.

    1981-10-01

    The Neutral Beam Engineering Test Facility will test Neutral Beam Sources up to 170 keV, 65 Amps, with 30 second beam-on times. For this application actively cooled beam dumps for both the neutral and ionized particles will be required. The dumps will be able to dissipate a wide range of power density profiles by utilizing a standard modular panel design which is incorporated into a moveable support structure. The thermal hydraulic design of the panels permit the dissipation of 2 kW/cm/sup 2/ anywhere on the panel surface. The water requirements of the dumps are optimized by restricting the flow to panel sections where the heat flux falls short of the design value. The mechanical design of the beam-dump structures is described along with tests performed on a prototype panel. The prototype tests were performed on two different panel designs, one manufactured by Mc Donnell Douglas (MDAC) the other by United Technologies (UT). The dissipation capabilities of the panels were tested at the critical regions to verify their use in the beam dump assemblies.

  4. CRYSTAL FILTER TEST SET

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CRYSTAL FILTERS, *HIGH FREQUENCY, *RADIOFREQUENCY FILTERS, AMPLIFIERS, ELECTRIC POTENTIAL, FREQUENCY, IMPEDANCE MATCHING , INSTRUMENTATION, RADIOFREQUENCY, RADIOFREQUENCY AMPLIFIERS, TEST EQUIPMENT, TEST METHODS

  5. Automatic Test Program Generation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    presents a test description language, NOPAL , in which a user may describe diagnostic tests, and a software system which automatically generates test...programs for an automatic test equipment based on the descriptions of tests. The software system accepts as input the tests specified in NOPAL , performs

  6. Intelligent test integration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sztipanovits, J.; Padalkar, S.; Rodriguez-Moscoso, J.; Kawamura, K.; Purves, B.; Williams, R.; Biglari, H.

    1988-01-01

    A new test technology is described which was developed for space system integration. The ultimate purpose of the system is to support the automatic generation of test systems in real time, distributed computing environments. The Intelligent Test Integration System (ITIS) is a knowledge based layer above the traditional test system components which can generate complex test configurations from the specification of test scenarios.

  7. GED Testing Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GED Testing Service, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This GED Testing fact sheet provides information on: (1) GED[R] Tests; (2) Versions and Editions of the GED Tests; (3) Earning a Credential; (4) GED Testing Service[R]; (5) History of the GED Tests; (6) Who Accepts the GED Credential; (7) Public/Private Partnership of GEDTS; (8) Renowned GED Credential Recipients; (9) GED Testing Numbers for 2008;…

  8. Professional Issues in Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Robert G. L.

    1991-01-01

    The following issues in psychological testing in Australia are reviewed: (1) commercialization of testing; (2) test user qualifications; and (3) computerization of testing. Proposed solutions include development of user guidelines, accreditation standards, test standards, and a network of test data information; and regulation by a professional…

  9. Transient Pressure Test Article test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vibbart, Charles M.

    1988-01-01

    The Transient Pressure Test Article test program being conducted at NASA-Marshall is described. The main goal of the TPTA test program is to provide data to verify the sealing capability of the redesigned SRM field joints, the nozzle-to-case joint, and the igniter joint. The TPTA test program can be used to demonstrate the assembly/disassembly and reusability of the redesigned joints along with the adequacy of assembly/disassembly tooling, procedures, and inspections.

  10. Boilerplate Test Article (BTA) Modal Test Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.; Corliss, James M.; Mark, Stephen D.

    2017-01-01

    Modal testing of the Boilerplate Test Article (BTA) was performed to obtain data to determine the accuracy of the BTA LS- DYNA model in determining the structural response. The BTA is a full-scale steel and aluminum test article that is representative of the Orion Crew Module (CM), with similar outer-mold-line geometry, mass properties, and some similar structural features, including an internal pressure vessel connected to a backshell and heatshield via longerons, Retention and Release (R&R) brackets, and an aft ring. The structural design of the Orion CM is being developed based on LS-DYNA water landing simulations. To obtain data to evaluate the accuracy of LS-DYNA water impact landing simulations, a series of BTA water impacts was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Discrepancies between test and simulation data are attributed to three causes:(1) Test data variability and uncertainty, (2) LS-DYNA water model and fluid-structure coupling approximations; and (3) LS-DYNA structural modeling approximations. Two activities have been undertaken to assess the accuracy of the BTA LS-DYNA structural model separately from the fluid-structure coupling portion of the water landing simulations: 1) modal testing, and 2) static load testing. The results from the static load tests are documented in a separate report. For the modal test series, the following tests were performed: (1) BTA Fully-Assembled Model Test, (2) BTA Backshell Removed Modal Test, (3) Standalone Heatshield Modal Test, (4) Standalone Windward Backshell Panel Modal Test; and (5) Standalone Leeward Backshell Panel Modal Test. This report documents findings from correlation of modal test data with LS-DYNA modal analysis results. The following figures illustrate the correlation of the modal frequencies. Where multiple closely spaced modes have been identified, the points representing the upper and lower frequencies are shown connected by a dotted line.

  11. Effect of Short-Term Maximal Exercise on Biochemical Markers of Muscle Damage, Total Antioxidant Status, and Homocysteine Levels in Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Hammouda, Omar; Chtourou, Hamdi; Chaouachi, Anis; Chahed, Henda; Ferchichi, Salyma; Kallel, Choumous; Chamari, Karim; Souissi, Nizar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Prolonged physical exercise results in transient elevations of biochemical markers of muscular damage. This study examined the effect of short-term maximal exercise on these markers, homocysteine levels (Hcy), and total antioxidant status (TAS) in trained subjects. Methods Eighteen male football players participated in this study. Blood samples were collected 5-min before and 3-min after a 30-s Wingate test. Results The results indicated that plasma biochemical markers of muscle injury increased significantly after the Wingate test (P<0.05). Moreover, significant increase of white blood Cells and their main subpopulations (i.e. monocytes, neutrophiles, and lymphocytes) (P<0.001) has been observed. Likewise, uric acid, total bilirubin, and TAS increased significantly after exercise (P<0.05). However, Hcy levels were unaffected by the Wingate test (for 3-min post-exercise measurement). Conclusions Short-term maximal exercise (e.g. 30-s Wingate test) is of sufficient intensity and duration to increase markers of muscle damage, and TAS; but not Hcy levels. Increases in the selected enzymes probably come primarily from muscle damage, rather than liver damage. Moreover, increase of TAS confirms the Wingate test induced oxidative stress. PMID:23342222

  12. From Test Takers to Test Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kari

    2009-01-01

    As a classroom teacher, Kari Smith realized that traditional objective tests don't always assess what students actually know. But tests are so deeply embedded in the education system that it would be difficult to do away with them entirely. Smith decided to make tests into learning tools. In this article, Smith describes three strategies for…

  13. Test Technical Manual 2014 GED® Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GED Testing Service, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This manual was written to provide technical information regarding the General Educational Development (GED®) test as evidence that the GED® test is technically sound. Throughout this manual, documentation is provided regarding the development of the GED® test and data collection activities, as well as evidence of reliability and validity. This…

  14. The effects of enforced, rapid deceleration on performance in a multiple sprint test.

    PubMed

    Lakomy, Julie; Haydon, Daniel T

    2004-08-01

    The nature of multiple sprint sports such as soccer, hockey, and rugby is such that deceleration plays an important part in the movement patterns of players during a game and training. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of deceleration on fatigue during repeated sprint efforts. A group of 18 elite field hockey players (all men) performed a running repeated sprint ability test (6 x 40 m using maximal effort and departing every 30 seconds). In one condition, there was no deceleration zone, and in the second condition, the test had a deceleration component (rapid deceleration to a stop within 6 m of the end of each sprint). Sprint times under each condition were compared using a repeated-measures analysis of variance. No significant difference was seen between the 2 conditions for mean sprint times (p > 0.05) or for the mean fatigue index (p > 0.05). However, results showed a divergent trend, and further analysis extrapolating the data for an increased number of sprints showed that a significant difference (p < 0.05) would have been seen at the 11th sprint. Although this study found that the deceleration zone had little effect on the 6-sprint protocol, it was clear that the deceleration component would have shown an effect, giving rise to greater fatigue and slower sprint times, if the number of sprints had been increased. The implications are that deceleration training should be introduced into general fitness training programs for those competing in multiple sprint sports.

  15. Sonar Test and Test Instrumentation Support.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-10

    6487 < rM SEL ECTE CO, BU 9 1 Approved for public release;distribution unlimited. 611 095 A DNAR IA ST WI EST INSTRUMENTATIONJUPPORT.J ) Quaterly ...INSTRUMENTATION TEST AND EVALUATION 17 A. Introduction 17 B. Operational Testing of the AN/WQM-7 Sonar Test Set 17 C. AN/SQM-( ) Feasibility Study 19 VII. STUDY ...AN/WQM-5 Sonar Test Set Field Support IV. Special Purpose Passive Sonar Systems Support V. Sonar Instrumentation Test and Evaluation VI. Study of

  16. Aerobic and anaerobic changes with high-intensity interval training in active college-aged men.

    PubMed

    Ziemann, Ewa; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Łuszczyk, Marcin; Laskowski, Radoslaw; Olek, Robert A; Gibson, Ann L

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the aerobic and anaerobic benefits of high-intensity interval training performed at a work-to-rest ratio of 1:2 because little performance enhancement data exist based on this ratio. Recreationally active male volunteers (21 years, 184 cm, 81.5 kg) were randomly assigned to a training (interval training [IT] n = 10) or control group (n = 11). Baseline assessments were repeated after the last training session. Each participant underwent basic anthropometric assessment and performed a VO2max test on an electronically braked cycle ergometer and a 30-second Wingate test. Venous samples were acquired at the antecubital vein and subsequently processed for lactate (LA); samples were obtained at rest, and 5 and 15-minute post-Wingate test. The interval training used a cycling power output equivalent to 80% of VO2max (80% p VO2max) applied for 6 90-second bouts (each followed by 180-second rest) per session, 3 sessions per week, for 6 weeks. The control group maintained their normal routine for the 6-week period. Group × time repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that IT improved VO2max (5.5 ml · kg(-1) · min), anaerobic threshold (3.8 ml · kg(-1) · min), work output (12.5 J · kg(-1)), glycolytic work (11.5 J · kg(-1)), mean power (0.3 W · kg), peak power (0.4 W · kg(-1)), and max power (0.4 W · kg(-1)); p < 0.05. Posttesting LA was lower on average for IT at the 5-minute mark but significantly so at the 15-minute mark. Twenty-seven minutes of cycling at 80% p VO2max applied with a work-to-rest ratio of 1:2 and spread over 3 sessions per week for 6 weeks provided sufficient stimulus to significantly improve markers of anaerobic and aerobic performance in recreationally active college-aged men. Inclusion of such a protocol into a training program may rapidly restore or improve a client's or athlete's maximal functional capacity.

  17. Satellite battery testing status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, R.; Hall, S.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the large numbers of satellite cells currently being tested and anticipated at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NAVWPNSUPPCEN) Crane, Indiana, satellite cell testing is being integrated into the Battery Test Automation Project (BTAP). The BTAP, designed to meet the growing needs for battery testing at the NAVWPNSUPPCEN Crane, will consist of several Automated Test Stations (ATSs) which monitor batteries under test. Each ATS will interface with an Automation Network Controller (ANC) which will collect test data for reduction.

  18. Transient Pressure Test Article (TPTA) Test Firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) successfully test fired the third in a series of Transient Pressure Test Articles (TPTA) in its east test area. The test article was a short-stack solid rocket motor 52-feet long and 12-feet in diameter. The TPTA tests were designed to evaluate the effects of temperature, pressure and external loads encountered by the SRM, primarily during ignition transients. Instrumentation on the motor recorded approximately 1,000 charnels of data to verify the structural performance, thermal response, sealing capability of the redesign field, and case-to-nozzle joints. The TPTA test stand, 14-feet wide by 26-feet long by 33-feet high, was built in 1987. The TPTA series was a joint effort among Morton Thiokol, Inc., United Space Boosters, Inc., Wyle Laboratories, and MSFC. Wyle Laboratories conducted the tests for the MSFC, which manages the redesigned SRM program for NASA.

  19. Test chip assembler and test program generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pina, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    One of the major problems in working at the geometry level for the generation of either test structure or functional circuit designs is the amount of labor involved in the design phase. To reduce the amount of labor involved in both the design and test of the structures used, JPL has developed a design and test program consisting of a Test Chip Assembler (TCA) and a Test Program Generator (TPG), which creates the geometrical description of the structures and generates the necessary test information using a high-level language. This system reduces the design time for a test chip by a factor of 30. To analyze the data obtained from wafer probing, a statistical package called STMJPL was developed. Some of the capabilities of the JPL software (STMJPL) are described.

  20. Test Anxiety, Test Comfort and Student Achievement Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyans, Leslie J., Jr.

    The Illinois Inventory of Educational Progress (IIEP) Test Comfort Scale was administered and test results were studied in terms of student achievement and correlates of achievement. Using the revised, seven-item scale, it was determined that: in grade 4, there was no main significant effect for sex or ethnic differences, although Orientals and…

  1. Balloon launched decelerator test program: Post-test test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, D.; Schlemmer, J.; Hicks, F.; Michel, F.; Moog, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Balloon Launched Decelerator Test (BLDT) flights were conducted during the summer of 1972 over the White Sands Missile Range. The purpose of these tests was to qualify the Viking disk-gap band parachute system behind a full-scale simulator of the Viking Entry Vehicle over the maximum range of entry conditions anticipated in the Viking '75 soft landing on Mars. Test concerns centered on the ability of a minimum weight parachute system to operate without structural damage in the turbulent wake of the blunt-body entry vehicle (140 deg, 11.5 diameter cone). This is the first known instance of parachute operation at supersonic speeds in the wake of such a large blunt body. The flight tests utilized the largest successful balloon-payload weight combination known to get to high altitude (120kft) where rocket engines were employed to boost the test vehicle to supersonic speeds and dynamic pressures simulating the range of conditions on Mars.

  2. 49 CFR 179.500-14 - Test of tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maintained for 30 seconds, and sufficiently longer to insure complete expansion of tank. Pressure gauge shall permit reading to accuracy of one percent. Expansion gauge shall permit reading of total expansion to accuracy of one percent. Expansion shall be recorded in cubic cm. (b) No leaks shall appear and...

  3. Criteria for structural test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The results of a study to define criteria and techniques of design, analysis and test which permit the use of a single major structural test article for performing dynamic, fatigue, and static testing are presented. The criteria developed is applicable to both space vehicles and aircraft structures operating in the subsonic or supersonic regime. The feasibility of such an approach was demonstrated by defining test interactions, compatibilities and incompatibilities between the three different types of tests. The results of the study indicate that the single test article concept is feasible with a testing sequence of dynamic test followed by a fatigue and static test.

  4. The application of the RELIEF technique for velocity field measurements in the ASTF C1 test cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Aeropropulsion Systems Test Facility (ASTF) C1 Test Cell is to be configured for propulsion tests of National Aerospace Plane (NASP) engines over flight Mach number conditions ranging from 0.5 to 3.8. This facility is capable of continuously generating a 5 ft. x 5 ft. square free air jet flow field at a local Mach number up to 3.32 with a density of between 0.134 and 0.048 amagat and a static temperature of 257 K or less. The potential of the Raman Excitation + Laser Induced Electronic Fluorescence (RELIEF) velocity measurement technique for measuring the three dimensional velocity profile across the exit plane of this jet and the entrance plane to the test engine under these conditions is examined. Velocity measurements must be done to an accuracy of better than 1 percent. Flow direction must be measured to better than 1 deg for inlet performance evaluation. Measurements to these specifications need to be done with a grid spacing of approximately 1/100th of the cross sectional dimension of the free jet exit in a time not greater than 30 seconds.

  5. Cumulative achievement testing: progress testing in reverse.

    PubMed

    Swanson, D B; Holtzman, K Z; Butler, A

    2010-01-01

    This collaborative project between the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) and Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) School of Medicine explored the design and use of cumulative achievement tests in basic science education. In cumulative achievement testing, integrative end-of-unit tests are deliberately constructed to systematically retest topics covered in previous units as well as material from the just-completed unit. CWRU faculty developed and administered a series of six web-based cumulative achievement tests using retired United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) step 1 test material and tools provided by NBME's Customized Assessment Services, and trends in student performance were examined as the new CWRU basic science curriculum unfolded. This article provides the background information about test design and administration, as well as samples of score reporting information for students and faculty. While firm conclusions about the effectiveness of cumulative achievement testing are not warranted after a pilot test at a single school, preliminary results suggest that cumulative achievement testing may be an effective complement to progress testing, with the former used to encourage retention of already-covered material and the latter used to assess growth toward the knowledge and skills expected of a graduating student.

  6. Transient Pressure Test Article Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vibbart, Charles M.

    1989-01-01

    The Transient Pressure Test Article (TPTA) test program is being conducted at a new test facility located in the East Test Area at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. This facility, along with the special test equipment (STE) required for facility support, was constructed specifically to test and verify the sealing capability of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) field, igniter, and nozzle joints. The test article consists of full scale RSRM hardware loaded with inert propellant and assembled in a short stack configuration. The TPTA is pressurized by igniting a propellant cartridge capable of inducing a pressure rise rate which stimulates the ignition transient that occurs during launch. Dynamic loads are applied during the pressure cycle to simulate external tank attach (ETA) strut loads present on the ETA ring. Sealing ability of the redesigned joints is evaluated under joint movement conditions produced by these combined loads since joint sealing ability depends on seal resilience velocity being greater than gap opening velocity. Also, maximum flight dynamic loads are applied to the test article which is either pressurized to 600 psia using gaseous nitrogen (GN2) or applied to the test article as the pressure decays inside the test article on the down cycle after the ignition transient cycle. This new test facility is examined with respect to its capabilities. In addition, both the topic of test effectiveness versus space vehicle flight performance and new aerospace test techniques, as well as a comparison between the old SRM design and the RSRM are presented.

  7. Teaching to the Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sara Davis

    1999-01-01

    Academically sound methods for preparing students for standardized tests include establishing tests' importance, forming preparation teams, gathering information, aligning curricular and test objectives, teaching test-wiseness skills, informing stakeholders, involving students in preparation plans, infusing curriculum with test content, and…

  8. Longitudinal Multistage Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces longitudinal multistage testing (lMST), a special form of multistage testing (MST), as a method for adaptive testing in longitudinal large-scale studies. In lMST designs, test forms of different difficulty levels are used, whereas the values on a pretest determine the routing to these test forms. Since lMST allows for…

  9. Test vs. simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Charles C.

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in tabular form: (1) simulation capability assessments (no propulsion system test); (2) advanced vehicle simulation capability assessment; (3) systems tests identified events; (4) main propulsion test article (MPTA) testing evaluation; (5) Saturn 5, 1B, and 1 testing evaluation. Special vehicle simulation issues that are propulsion related are briefly addressed.

  10. Stool guaiac test

    MedlinePlus

    gFOBT; Guaiac smear test; Fecal occult blood test - guaiac smear; Stool occult blood test - guaiac smear ... This test detects blood in the digestive tract. It may be done if: You are being screened or tested for colon cancer You ...

  11. Growth hormone stimulation test

    MedlinePlus

    Arginine test; Arginine-GHRH test ... of re-inserting the needle each time. The test takes between 2 to 5 hours. The procedure ... eat for 10 to 12 hours before the test. Eating food can change the test results. Some ...

  12. CO2 blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  13. Vendor System Vulnerability Testing Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Davidson

    2005-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prepared this generic test plan to provide clients (vendors, end users, program sponsors, etc.) with a sense of the scope and depth of vulnerability testing performed at the INL’s Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Test Bed and to serve as an example of such a plan. Although this test plan specifically addresses vulnerability testing of systems applied to the energy sector (electric/power transmission and distribution and oil and gas systems), it is generic enough to be applied to control systems used in other critical infrastructures such as the transportation sector, water/waste water sector, or hazardous chemical production facilities. The SCADA Test Bed is established at the INL as a testing environment to evaluate the security vulnerabilities of SCADA systems, energy management systems (EMS), and distributed control systems. It now supports multiple programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, other government agencies, and private sector clients. This particular test plan applies to testing conducted on a SCADA/EMS provided by a vendor. Before performing detailed vulnerability testing of a SCADA/EMS, an as delivered baseline examination of the system is conducted, to establish a starting point for all-subsequent testing. The series of baseline tests document factory delivered defaults, system configuration, and potential configuration changes to aid in the development of a security plan for in depth vulnerability testing. The baseline test document is provided to the System Provider,a who evaluates the baseline report and provides recommendations to the system configuration to enhance the security profile of the baseline system. Vulnerability testing is then conducted at the SCADA Test Bed, which provides an in-depth security analysis of the Vendor’s system.b a. The term System Provider replaces the name of the company/organization providing the system

  14. Transient Pressure Test Article (TPTA) Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A forward segment is being lowered into the Transient Pressure Test Article (TPTA) test stand at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) east test area. The TPTA test stand, 14-feet wide, 27-feet long, and 33-feet high, was built in 1987 to provide data to verify the sealing capability of the redesign solid rocket motor (SRM) field and nozzle joints. The test facility applies pressure, temperature, and external loads to a short stack of solid rocket motor hardware. The simulated SRM ignition pressure and temperature transients are achieved by firing a small amount of specially configured solid propellant. The pressure transient is synchronized with external programmable dynamic loads that simulate lift off loads at the external tank attach points. Approximately one million pounds of dead weight on top of the test article simulates the weight of the other Shuttle elements.

  15. Transient Pressure Test Article (TPTA) Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A forward segment is being lowered into the Transient Pressure Test Article (TPTA) test stand at thw Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) east test area. The TPTA test stand, 14-feet wide, 27-feet long, and 33-feet high, was built in 1987 to provide data to verify the sealing capability of the redesign solid rocket motor (SRM) field and nozzle joints. The test facility applies pressure, temperature, and external loads to a short stack of solid rocket motor hardware. The simulated SRM ignition pressure and temperature transients are achieved by firing a small amount of specially configured solid propellant. The pressure transient is synchronized with external programmable dynamic loads that simulate lift off loads at the external tank attach points. Approximately one million pounds of dead weight on top of the test article simulates the weight of the other Shuttle elements.

  16. Tests Related to Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... testing also happens before you are pregnant, but embryos are tested instead of the parents. Eggs from ... called in-vitro fertilization, or IVF. The resulting embryos are then tested for increased risk of genetic ...

  17. Anthrax - blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... The anthrax blood test looks for antibodies against Bacillus anthracis , the bacteria that cause anthrax. How the ... Serologic test for B anthracis Images Blood test Bacillus anthracis References Hall GS, Woods GL. Medical bacteriology. ...

  18. Urine concentration test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Test is Performed For this test, the specific gravity of urine , urine electrolytes , and/or urine osmolality ... it is tested right away. For urine specific gravity, the health care provider uses a dipstick made ...

  19. Screening Tests for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... All people should know their HIV status. This Web page from womenshealth.gov talks about how to get tested for HIV, types of HIV tests, and confidential versus anonymous testing. Gonorrhea Fact Sheet - ...

  20. Color vision test

    MedlinePlus

    ... from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Adams AJ, Verdon WA, Spivey BE. ...

  1. Testing and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersoff, Donald N.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the legal issues concerning (1) cultural bias in educational tests; (2) the validity of employment tests; and (3) the disclosure of test materials. Discusses the legal interpretations of psychometric concepts that have arisen from recent litigation. (Author/GC)

  2. Common Tests for Arrhythmia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Tests for Arrhythmia Updated:Dec 21,2016 Several tests can help ... View an animation of arrhythmia . Common Tests for Arrhythmia Holter monitor (continuous ambulatory electrocardiographic monitor) Suspected arrhythmias ...

  3. Home blood sugar testing

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... Usual times to test your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your provider may ask you to check your blood sugar 2 hours after a ...

  4. Glucagon blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... type I - glucagon test; Hypoglycemia - glucagon test; Low blood sugar - glucagon test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel ... Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This ...

  5. PBG urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Porphobilinogen test ... temporarily stop taking medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ... This test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort.

  6. Creatine phosphokinase test

    MedlinePlus

    CPK test ... vein. The procedure is called a venipuncture . This test may be repeated over 2 or 3 days ... helps determine which tissue has been damaged. This test may be used to: Diagnose heart attack Evaluate ...

  7. Sickle cell test

    MedlinePlus

    Sickledex; Hgb S test ... This test is done to tell if a person has abnormal hemoglobin that causes sickle cell disease and sickle ... and no symptoms, or only mild ones. This test does not tell the difference between these two ...

  8. Methylene blue test

    MedlinePlus

    Methemoglobinemia - methylene blue test ... No special preparation is required for this test. ... which are genetic (problem with your genes). This test is used to tell the difference between methemoglobinemia ...

  9. ALP isoenzyme test

    MedlinePlus

    Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme test ... anything for 10 to 12 hours before the test, unless your health care provider tells you to do so. Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you ...

  10. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see how well your liver ... hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or you ...

  11. Dexamethasone suppression test

    MedlinePlus

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medication. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  12. Home Use Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... C Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Menopause Fecal Occult Blood Ovulation (Saliva Test) Ovulation (Urine Test) Pregnancy Prothrombin Vaginal pH Resources for You Home Use Tests: Glossary Page ...

  13. Hepatitis A Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Hepatitis A Testing Share this page: Was this page ... HAV-Ab total; Anti-HAV Formal name: Viral Hepatitis A Antibody Related tests: Hepatitis B Testing ; Hepatitis ...

  14. Exams and Test Descriptions

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread, and to monitor it during treatment. Imaging (Radiology) Tests Doctors use imaging tests to make pictures ( ... help determine if cancer treatment is working. Imaging (Radiology) Tests for Cancer Understanding Radiation Risk from Imaging ...

  15. Blood Test: Testosterone

    MedlinePlus

    ... Test: Estradiol Precocious Puberty Understanding Puberty Endocrine System Male Reproductive System Getting a Blood Test (Video) All About Puberty Blood Test (Video) Male Reproductive System Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ...

  16. PPD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a method used to diagnose silent (latent) tuberculosis (TB) infection. PPD stands for purified protein derivative. ... skin test; Tuberculin skin test; Mantoux test Images Tuberculosis in the kidney Tuberculosis in the lung Positive ...

  17. Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests Home For Patients Search FAQs Prenatal ... Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ164, September 2016 PDF Format Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests Pregnancy What is prenatal genetic testing? ...

  18. Home vision tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... testing. AMSLER GRID TEST This test helps detect macular degeneration . This is a disease that causes blurred vision, ... eye exam. People who are at risk of macular degeneration may be told by their ophthalmologist to perform ...

  19. Direct Antiglobulin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Direct Antiglobulin Test Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: DAT; Direct Coombs Test; Direct Anti-human Globulin Test Formal ...

  20. Liver function tests

    MedlinePlus

    Liver function tests are common tests that are used to see how well the liver is working. Tests include: ... M, Bowne WB, Bluth MH. Evaluation of liver function. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical ...

  1. hCG Test (Pregnancy Test)

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests ... for trustworthy health information. Verify Compliance . Produced by Advertisement

  2. Two-color, 30 second microwave-accelerated Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence DNA assays: a new Rapid Catch and Signal (RCS) technology.

    PubMed

    Dragan, Anatoliy I; Golberg, Karina; Elbaz, Amit; Marks, Robert; Zhang, Yongxia; Geddes, Chris D

    2011-03-07

    For analyses of DNA fragment sequences in solution we introduce a 2-color DNA assay, utilizing a combination of the Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence (MEF) effect and microwave-accelerated DNA hybridization. The assay is based on a new "Catch and Signal" technology, i.e. the simultaneous specific recognition of two target DNA sequences in one well by complementary anchor-ssDNAs, attached to silver island films (SiFs). It is shown that fluorescent labels (Alexa 488 and Alexa 594), covalently attached to ssDNA fragments, play the role of biosensor recognition probes, demonstrating strong response upon DNA hybridization, locating fluorophores in close proximity to silver NPs, which is ideal for MEF. Subsequently the emission dramatically increases, while the excited state lifetime decreases. It is also shown that 30s microwave irradiation of wells, containing DNA molecules, considerably (~1000-fold) speeds up the highly selective hybridization of DNA fragments at ambient temperature. The 2-color "Catch and Signal" DNA assay platform can radically expedite quantitative analysis of genome DNA sequences, creating a simple and fast bio-medical platform for nucleic acid analysis.

  3. Test Analysis Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, Frank F.

    2007-01-01

    Development of analysis guidelines for Exploration Life Support (ELS) technology tests was completed. The guidelines were developed based on analysis experiences gained from supporting Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) technology development in air revitalization systems and water recovery systems. Analyses are vital during all three phases of the ELS technology test: pre-test, during test and post test. Pre-test analyses of a test system help define hardware components, predict system and component performances, required test duration, sampling frequencies of operation parameters, etc. Analyses conducted during tests could verify the consistency of all the measurements and the performance of the test system. Post test analyses are an essential part of the test task. Results of post test analyses are an important factor in judging whether the technology development is a successful one. In addition, development of a rigorous model for a test system is an important objective of any new technology development. Test data analyses, especially post test data analyses, serve to verify the model. Test analyses have supported development of many ECLSS technologies. Some test analysis tasks in ECLSS technology development are listed in the Appendix. To have effective analysis support for ECLSS technology tests, analysis guidelines would be a useful tool. These test guidelines were developed based on experiences gained through previous analysis support of various ECLSS technology tests. A comment on analysis from an experienced NASA ECLSS manager (1) follows: "Bad analysis was one that bent the test to prove that the analysis was right to begin with. Good analysis was one that directed where the testing should go and also bridged the gap between the reality of the test facility and what was expected on orbit."

  4. Titanium Honeycomb Panel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. Lance; Thompson, Randolph C.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal-mechanical tests were performed on a titanium honeycomb sandwich panel to experimentally validate the hypersonic wing panel concept and compare test data with analysis. Details of the test article, test fixture development, instrumentation, and test results are presented. After extensive testing to 900 deg. F, non-destructive evaluation of the panel has not detected any significant structural degradation caused by the applied thermal-mechanical loads.

  5. Strapdown gyro test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, R. B.; Vanalstine, R.

    1977-01-01

    The power spectral noise characteristic performance of the Teledyne two-degree-of-freedom dry tuned gimbal gyroscope was determined. Tests were conducted using a current configuration SDG-5 gyro in conjunction with test equipment with minor modification. Long term bias stability tests were conducted as well as some first difference performance tests. The gyro, test equipment, and the tests performed are described. Results are presented.

  6. Test Response Patterning,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    REACTION(PSYCHOLOGY), PATTERN RECOGNITION), (*PERFORMANCE TESTS , STATISTICAL ANALYSIS), PSYCHOMETRICS, NUMERICAL METHODS AND PROCEDURES, ERRORS, TEST CONSTRUCTION(PSYCHOLOGY), MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION, PERSONALITY, BEHAVIOR

  7. CEQATR Thermal Test Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balusek, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    A thermal test overview of the Constellation Environmental Qualification and Acceptance Test Requirement (CEQATR) is presented. The contents include: 1) CEQATR Thermal Test Overview; 2) CxP Environments; 3) CEQATR Table 1.2-1; 4) Levels of Assembly; 5) Definitions for Levels of Assembly; 6) Hardware Applicability; 7) CEQATR Thermal-Related Definitions; 8) Requirements for unit-level thermal testing; 9) Requirements for major assembly level thermal testing; 10) General thermal testing requirements; 11) General thermal cycle, thermal vacuum profiles; 12) Test tolerances; 13) Vacuum vs Ambient; 14) Thermal Gradient; 15) Sequence of Testing; 16) Alternative Strategies; 17) Protoflight; 18) Halt/Hass; 19) Humidity; and 20) Tailoring.

  8. Testing for Software Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Ken; Lee, Yann-Hang; Wong, W. Eric; Xu, Dianxiang

    2007-01-01

    This research focuses on testing whether or not the hazardous conditions identified by design-level fault tree analysis will occur in the target implementation. Part 1: Integrate fault tree models into functional specifications so as to identify testable interactions between intended behaviors and hazardous conditions. Part 2: Develop a test generator that produces not only functional tests but also safety tests for a target implementation in a cost-effective way. Part 3: Develop a testing environment for executing generated functional and safety tests and evaluating test results against expected behaviors or hazardous conditions. It includes a test harness as well as an environment simulation of external events and conditions.

  9. Development of a rowing-specific VO2max field test.

    PubMed

    Huntsman, Heather D; DiPietro, Loretta; Drury, Daniel G; Miller, Todd A

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an aerobic capacity test for rowers using minimal equipment that could be used in the field. Thirty rowers (15 men and 15 women) between the ages of 18 and 26 years were recruited on a volunteer basis from the District of Columbia metro area. The testing protocol consisted of a maximum of 7 2-minute stages on a rowing ergometer, separated by 30-second breaks where lactic acid concentrations were analyzed. Starting intensity for men was 200 W, although women started at 150 W, and each stage increased by 50 W. Expired gasses were collected during the test, and athletes were asked to row until maximal volition so that the directly measured VO2max could be compared to predicted values. Peak heart rates from each completed stage were plotted, and regression equations were calculated to predict VO2max. Separate regression equations were calculated for men and women. The predicted VO2max values were approximately 23 and 25% lower than what was actually achieved for men and women, respectively. Heart rate was a stronger correlate of VO2max in men compared with in women. Among men, we observed a moderate and statistically significant correlation (r = 0.55; p = 0.05), whereas among women, no such agreement was observed (r = -0.05; p > 0.85). The principle finding of this study was that the test was adequate in predicting VO2max in men but was inadequate in its prediction in women. With slight modifications to the testing protocol, stronger correlations and a more accurate prediction of VO2max is expected in men.

  10. Computerized Testing: The Hidden Figures Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Ronald L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study adapted the Hidden Figures Test for use on PLATO and determined the reliability of the computerized version compared to the paper and pencil version. Results indicate the test was successfully adapted with some modifications, and it was judged reliable although it may be measuring additional constructs. (MBR)

  11. Test plan for Simulated Saltcake Retrieval Test

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2000-07-19

    This document describes the plan for a bench-scale laboratory test to evaluate physical and chemical parameters associated with dissolution of a simulated saltcake waste. Parameters to be measured during the test include water addition rate, liquid drainage rate, visual observations of flow patterns, physical appearance and volume of dissolving saltcake, chemical composition of drained liquid, and polarized light microscopy analysis of solids.

  12. PACS component testing: beta and acceptance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeyman-Buck, Janice C.; Frost, Meryll M.; Staab, Edward V.

    1997-05-01

    The functionality and performance expectations of all PACS components must be specified at the time of purchase and tested completely upon delivery to assure customer satisfaction and successful adoption of the new technology. This process may be more elaborate if the customer agrees to serve as a Beta test site for a new component or a new revision of an existing component.A carefully designed test plan will save time at installation, will allow the customer and vendor to agree on expectations, and will assure that the installation will proceed as planned. This paper describes the test procedure used at the University of Florida to accept each PACS component, either a commercial product, or one developed in house. A set of documents contain descriptions of the pre-installation environment, sets of studies to be used in the test, installation checklist, functional usage reports, subjective evaluations, and problem reporting forms. Training and user documentation is also reviewed and 'help lists' are created to help users perform the most common functions. Although details in the documents are changed to match the type of component being tested, the general form of the test remains the same. A formal procedure for testing the functionality and performance of new equipment can save time for both the vendor and the customer and, if specified at the time of purchase, can serve to document the expectations of the customer. Following these procedures will assure a successful installation and improve customer satisfaction.

  13. First results of the Test-Bed Telescopes (TBT) project: Cebreros telescope commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña, Francisco; Ibarra, Aitor; Racero, Elena; Montero, Ángel; Doubek, Jirí; Ruiz, Vicente

    2016-07-01

    The TBT project is being developed under ESA's General Studies and Technology Programme (GSTP), and shall implement a test-bed for the validation of an autonomous optical observing system in a realistic scenario within the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The goal of the project is to provide two fully robotic telescopes, which will serve as prototypes for development of a future network. The system consists of two telescopes, one in Spain and the second one in the Southern Hemisphere. The telescope is a fast astrograph with a large Field of View (FoV) of 2.5 x 2.5 square-degrees and a plate scale of 2.2 arcsec/pixel. The tube is mounted on a fast direct-drive mount moving with speed up to 20 degrees per second. The focal plane hosts a 2-port 4K x 4K back-illuminated CCD with readout speeds up to 1MHz per port. All these characteristics ensure good survey performance for transients and fast moving objects. Detection software and hardware are optimised for the detection of NEOs and objects in high Earth orbits (objects moving from 0.1-40 arcsec/second). Nominal exposures are in the range from 2 to 30 seconds, depending on the observational strategy. Part of the validation scenario involves the scheduling concept integrated in the robotic operations for both sensors. Every night it takes all the input needed and prepares a schedule following predefined rules allocating tasks for the telescopes. Telescopes are managed by RTS2 control software, that performs the real-time scheduling of the observation and manages all the devices at the observatory.1 At the end of the night the observing systems report astrometric positions and photometry of the objects detected. The first telescope was installed in Cebreros Satellite Tracking Station in mid-2015. It is currently in the commissioning phase and we present here the first results of the telescope. We evaluate the site characteristics and the performance of the TBT Cebreros

  14. Digface characterization test plan (remote testing)

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, K.; Hyde, R.; Allen, S.

    1993-08-01

    The objective of the Digface Characterization (DFC) Remote Testing project is to remotely deploy a sensor head (Mini-Lab) across a digface to determine if it can characterize the contents below the surface. The purpose of this project is to provide a robotics technology that allows removal of workers from hazards, increases speed of operations, and reduces life cycle costs compared to alternate methods and technologies. The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is funding the demonstration, testing, and evaluation of DFC. This document describes the test plan for the DFC remote deployment demonstration for the BWID. The purposes of the test plan are to establish test parameters so that the demonstration results are deemed useful and usable and perform the demonstration in a safe manner and within all regulatory requirements.

  15. Integrated Test and Evaluation Flight Test 3 Flight Test Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Michael Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability, Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project will conduct a series of Human-in-the-Loop and Flight Test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity and complexity of the previous tests and

  16. Bone Density Test

    MedlinePlus

    Tests and Procedures Bone density test By Mayo Clinic Staff A bone density test determines if you have osteoporosis — a disease that causes bones to ... your bones could be quite weak. A bone density test enhances the accuracy of calculating your risk ...

  17. Color identification testing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brawner, E. L.; Martin, R.; Pate, W.

    1970-01-01

    Testing device, which determines ability of a technician to identify color-coded electric wires, is superior to standard color blindness tests. It tests speed of wire selection, detects partial color blindness, allows rapid testing, and may be administered by a color blind person.

  18. Rh Factor Blood Test

    MedlinePlus

    Tests and Procedures Rh factor blood test By Mayo Clinic Staff Rhesus (Rh) factor is an inherited protein found on the surface of red ... positive. Your health care provider will recommend an Rh factor test during your first prenatal visit. This test ...

  19. Psychological Tests and Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Brenda Johnson; Isenstein, Vivian R.

    The problems with traditional testing, particularly as they relate to minorities, are discussed; and psychological tests designed specifically for Blacks are reviewed. Considered are general problems, problems with testing at the higher education level and for employment, and moral and legal implications of the testing controversy. The rationale…

  20. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive Liquid Rocket Engine testing is essential to risk reduction for Space Flight. Test capability represents significant national investments in expertise and infrastructure. Historical experience underpins current test capabilities. Test facilities continually seek proactive alignment with national space development goals and objectives including government and commercial sectors.

  1. Test Preparation: Your Role

    MedlinePlus

    ... information about preparations needed for specific tests on web sites like Lab Tests Online. However, you should always follow your healthcare ... may sometimes be elaborated on further on "The Test" tab. However, be sure ... on this or any other web site, as different labs may have varying testing ...

  2. Flight Test Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    Fort Rucker, AL 36362-5276 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER TOP 7-4-020 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...2 3. REQUIRED TEST CONDITIONS ............................................. 3 3.1...3. REQUIRED TEST CONDITIONS . 3.1 Air Vehicle Flight Test Techniques. Many different flight test techniques are in existence. As technology

  3. Deconstructing Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David William

    2008-01-01

    Recent changes to educational policy which have focused attention on the use of high stakes testing as performance and accountability measures have renewed interest in test anxiety both in the UK and the USA. The aim of this paper is to provide a critical examination of the test anxiety construct, and explore the ways in which test anxiety is…

  4. Testing Our Limits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tempel, Melissa Bollow

    2012-01-01

    Computerized testing, including the widely used MAP test, has infiltrated the public schools in Milwaukee and across the nation, bringing with it a frightening future for public education. High-stakes standardized tests can be scored almost immediately via the internet, and testing companies can now easily link districts to their online data…

  5. Testing. Occasional Papers 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culhane, P. T., Ed.; White, J., Ed.

    Five papers on testing in English as a second language are included in this volume. "A Preliminary Diagnostic Test for Adult Immigrants" by Johan I. Arthur presents the first stage in a project to develop a test for limited English speaking adults in the Colchester, Essex area. "An Initial Testing Battery on a Course for Air Traffic…

  6. Regulation of Genetic Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español: Regulación de pruebas genéticas Regulation of Genetic Tests Overview of Genetic Testing Introduction to Genetic ... Statements Congressional Activity Genetic Testing Resources Overview of Genetic Testing As the science of genomics advances, genetic ...

  7. Pre-Test Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Pre-tests are a non-graded assessment tool used to determine pre-existing subject knowledge. Typically pre-tests are administered prior to a course to determine knowledge baseline, but here they are used to test students prior to topical material coverage throughout the course. While counterintuitive, the pre-tests cover material the student is…

  8. Dtest Testing Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Cameron, Jonathan M.; Myint, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This software runs a suite of arbitrary software tests spanning various software languages and types of tests (unit level, system level, or file comparison tests). The dtest utility can be set to automate periodic testing of large suites of software, as well as running individual tests. It supports distributing multiple tests over multiple CPU cores, if available. The dtest tool is a utility program (written in Python) that scans through a directory (and its subdirectories) and finds all directories that match a certain pattern and then executes any tests in that directory as described in simple configuration files.

  9. Flight Test Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Although the scope of flight test engineering efforts may vary among organizations, all point to a common theme: flight test engineering is an interdisciplinary effort to test an asset in its operational flight environment. Upfront planning where design, implementation, and test efforts are clearly aligned with the flight test objective are keys to success. This chapter provides a top level perspective of flight test engineering for the non-expert. Additional research and reading on the topic is encouraged to develop a deeper understanding of specific considerations involved in each phase of flight test engineering.

  10. Muscular Activity and Fatigue in Lower-Limb and Trunk Muscles during Different Sit-To-Stand Tests

    PubMed Central

    Roldán-Jiménez, Cristina; Bennett, Paul; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I.

    2015-01-01

    Sit-to-stand (STS) tests measure the ability to get up from a chair, reproducing an important component of daily living activity. As this functional task is essential for human independence, STS performance has been studied in the past decades using several methods, including electromyography. The aim of this study was to measure muscular activity and fatigue during different repetitions and speeds of STS tasks using surface electromyography in lower-limb and trunk muscles. This cross-sectional study recruited 30 healthy young adults. Average muscle activation, percentage of maximum voluntary contraction, muscle involvement in motion and fatigue were measured using surface electrodes placed on the medial gastrocnemius (MG), biceps femoris (BF), vastus medialis of the quadriceps (QM), the abdominal rectus (AR), erector spinae (ES), rectus femoris (RF), soleus (SO) and the tibialis anterior (TA). Five-repetition STS, 10-repetition STS and 30-second STS variants were performed. MG, BF, QM, ES and RF muscles showed differences in muscle activation, while QM, AR and ES muscles showed significant differences in MVC percentage. Also, significant differences in fatigue were found in QM muscle between different STS tests. There was no statistically significant fatigue in the BF, MG and SO muscles of the leg although there appeared to be a trend of increasing fatigue. These results could be useful in describing the functional movements of the STS test used in rehabilitation programs, notwithstanding that they were measured in healthy young subjects. PMID:26506612

  11. Use of a smart phone based thermo camera for skin prick allergy testing: a feasibility study (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barla, Lindi; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Klaessens, John; van der Veen, Albert

    2016-02-01

    Allergy testing is usually performed by exposing the skin to small quantities of potential allergens on the inner forearm and scratching the protective epidermis to increase exposure. After 15 minutes the dermatologist performs a visual check for swelling and erythema which is subjective and difficult for e.g. dark skin types. A small smart phone based thermo camera (FLIR One) was used to obtain quantitative images in a feasibility study of 17 patients Directly after allergen exposure on the forearm, thermal images were captured at 30 seconds interval and processed to a time lapse movie over 15 minutes. Considering the 'subjective' reading of the dermatologist as golden standard, in 11/17 pts (65%) the evaluation of dermatologist was confirmed by the thermo camera including 5 of 6 patients without allergic response. In 7 patients thermo showed additional spots. Of the 342 sites tested, the dermatologist detected 47 allergies of which 28 (60%) were confirmed by thermo imaging while thermo imaging showed 12 additional spots. The method can be improved with user dedicated acquisition software and better registration between normal and thermal images. The lymphatic reaction seems to shift from the original puncture site. The interpretation of the thermal images is still subjective since collecting quantitative data is difficult due to motion patient during 15 minutes. Although not yet conclusive, thermal imaging shows to be promising to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of allergy testing using a smart phone based camera.

  12. Pancreatic exocrine function testing

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, J.S.

    1981-11-01

    It is important to understand which pancreatic function tests are available and how to interpret them when evaluating patients with malabsorption. Available direct tests are the secretin stimulation test, the Lundh test meal, and measurement of serum or fecal enzymes. Indirect tests assess pancreatic exocrine function by measuring the effect of pancreatic secretion on various nutrients. These include triglycerides labeled with carbon 14, cobalamin labeled with cobalt 57 and cobalt 58, and para-aminobenzoic acid bound to a dipeptide. Of all these tests the secretin stimulation test is the most accurate and reliable if done by experienced personnel. However, the indirect tests are simpler to do and appear to be comparable to the secretin test at detecting pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. These indirect tests are becoming clinically available and clinicians should familiarize themselves with the strengths and weaknesses of each.

  13. Entry/Exit Port testing, test report

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelman, R.H.

    1993-05-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module I (WRAP-1) facility must have the ability to allow 55-gallon drums to enter and exit glovebox enclosures. An Entry/Exit Port (Appendix 1, Figure 1), designed by United Engineers and Constructors (UE&C), is one method chosen for drum transfer. The Entry/Exit Port is to be used for entry of 55-gallon drums into both process entry gloveboxes, exit of 55-gallon drum waste pucks from the low-level waste (LLW) glovebox, and loadout of waste from the restricted waste management glovebox. The Entry/Exit Port relies on capture velocity air flow and a neoprene seal to provide alpha confinement when the Port is in the open and closed positions, respectively. Since the glovebox is in a slight vacuum, air flow is directed into the glovebox through the space between the overpack drum and glovebox floor. The air flow is to direct any airborne contamination into the glovebox. A neoprene seal is used to seal the Port door to the glovebox floor, thus maintaining confinement in the closed position. Entry/Exit Port testing took place February 17, 1993, through April 14, 1993, in the 305 building of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Testing was performed in accordance with the Entry/Exit Port Testing Test Plan, document number WHC-SD-WO26-TP-005. A prototype Entry/Exit Port built at the Hanford Site was tested using fluorescent paint pigment and smoke candles as simulant contaminants. This test report is an interim test report. Further developmental testing is required to test modifications made to the Port as the original design of the Port did not provide complete confinement during all stages of operation.

  14. Flight Test Series 3: Flight Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Mike; Sternberg, Daniel; Valkov, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    This document is a flight test report from the Operational perspective for Flight Test Series 3, a subpart of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. Flight Test Series 3 testing began on June 15, 2015, and concluded on August 12, 2015. Participants included NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Langley Research center, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., and Honeywell. Key stakeholders analyzed their System Under Test (SUT) in two distinct configurations. Configuration 1, known as Pairwise Encounters, was subdivided into two parts: 1a, involving a low-speed UAS ownship and intruder(s), and 1b, involving a high-speed surrogate ownship and intruder. Configuration 2, known as Full Mission, involved a surrogate ownship, live intruder(s), and integrated virtual traffic. Table 1 is a summary of flights for each configuration, with data collection flights highlighted in green. Section 2 and 3 of this report give an in-depth description of the flight test period, aircraft involved, flight crew, and mission team. Overall, Flight Test 3 gathered excellent data for each SUT. We attribute this successful outcome in large part from the experience that was acquired from the ACAS Xu SS flight test flown in December 2014. Configuration 1 was a tremendous success, thanks to the training, member participation, integration/testing, and in-depth analysis of the flight points. Although Configuration 2 flights were cancelled after 3 data collection flights due to various problems, the lessons learned from this will help the UAS in the NAS project move forward successfully in future flight phases.

  15. Test Control Center exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Have you ever wondered how the engineers at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., test fire a Space Shuttle Main Engine? The Test Control Center exhibit at StenniSphere can answer your questions by simulating the test firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine. A recreation of one of NASA's test control centers, the exhibit explains and portrays the 'shake, rattle and roar' that happens during a real test firing.

  16. Solderability test system

    DOEpatents

    Yost, F.; Hosking, F.M.; Jellison, J.L.; Short, B.; Giversen, T.; Reed, J.R.

    1998-10-27

    A new test method to quantify capillary flow solderability on a printed wiring board surface finish. The test is based on solder flow from a pad onto narrow strips or lines. A test procedure and video image analysis technique were developed for conducting the test and evaluating the data. Feasibility tests revealed that the wetted distance was sensitive to the ratio of pad radius to line width (l/r), solder volume, and flux predry time. 11 figs.

  17. Solderability test system

    DOEpatents

    Yost, Fred; Hosking, Floyd M.; Jellison, James L.; Short, Bruce; Giversen, Terri; Reed, Jimmy R.

    1998-01-01

    A new test method to quantify capillary flow solderability on a printed wiring board surface finish. The test is based on solder flow from a pad onto narrow strips or lines. A test procedure and video image analysis technique were developed for conducting the test and evaluating the data. Feasibility tests revealed that the wetted distance was sensitive to the ratio of pad radius to line width (l/r), solder volume, and flux predry time.

  18. NGST Optical Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keski-Kuha, Ritva

    1999-01-01

    An Integrated Product Team (IPT) was formed to develop a detailed optical test methodology for testing of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) mirrors and the optical system on the ground. Optical testing is a significant cost driver therefore the testing has to be planned in detailed fashion early. This paper will discuss the preliminary metrology test plan at the mirror component and telescope system level. Instrumentation, facilities and schedule will also be addressed.

  19. Design, analysis and testing of x-ray tube for next generation x-ray machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanganal, Santoshakumar; Rao Ratnala, Srinivas; Shivakumar Gouda, P. S.

    2016-09-01

    A conceptual design of x-ray metal tube frame assembly is done to establish the technical feasibility and characterize the performance of a base design of x-ray metal tube frame assembly to meet the experimental critical to qualities (CTQ's) of x-ray tube at 72 kW for 20 seconds. Experimental test configuration with linear variable differential transformers (LVDT's) & thermo-couples is set to study the thermal prediction of x-ray tube with model results. Graphs of temperature versus time and deflection versus time shows curve shape magnitudes within 5% and 1%. A thermal - structural analysis is considered in analyzing the thermal - structural behavior in x-ray metal tube by considering worst protocol as 3.2 kW in steady state condition and 14.4 kW in transient state condition for 30 seconds. This analysis is done by doing a conceptual design of x-ray metal tube frame assembly with major modifications in frame and electron collector based on thermal - structural results. 3D modelling of x-ray metal tube frame assembly is done in Creo parametric 2.0 CAD software and analysis is done in ANSYS 16.1 simulation software. FEA results of conceptual design are in good agreement with CTQ's results of x-ray tube at 72 kW for 20 seconds.

  20. Solid Propellant Test Article (SPTA) Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This photograph shows the Solid Propellant Test Article (SPTA) test stand with the Modified Nasa Motor (M-NASA) test article at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The SPTA test stand, 12-feet wide by 12-feet long by 24-feet high, was built in 1989 to provide comparative performance data on nozzle and case insulation material and to verify thermostructural analysis models. A modified NASA 48-inch solid motor (M-NASA motor) with a 12-foot blast tube and 10-inch throat makes up the SPTA. The M-NASA motor is being used to evaluate solid rocket motor internal non-asbestos insulation materials, nozzle designs, materials, and new inspection techniques. New internal motor case instrumentation techniques are also being evaluated.

  1. Antimicrobials Products Tested or Pending Testing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The agency has completed testing of the majority of registered hospital disinfectants and tuberculocide products. The list of products can assist users in making informed choices regarding infection control in their facilities.

  2. Letter Directionality Test, Word Directionality Test, and Sentence Directionality Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Brian T.

    Designed to measure the subject's ability to discriminate among alphabetic letters varied over three spatial dimensions (left-right, vertical, and combination left-right and vertical), the tests can be administered in groups and take about twenty minutes to complete. Ten letters of the alphabet were selected for assymetry (for example, b-d) and…

  3. Dynamic Testing: Toward a Multiple Exciter Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    sinusoidal motion is not sufficient to characterize such environments. Even though random vibration testing were then feasible, the initial limi...wheeled vehicles, which tend to be dominated by pre- dominantly low-frequency random vibrations , and aircraft and space vehicles that tend to be... random environments was a giant leap forward, the limitation continued of conducting vibration tests in one mechanical DOF at a time. The limitations

  4. Wolf Testing: Open Source Testing Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braasch, P.; Gay, P. L.

    2004-12-01

    Wolf Testing is software for easily creating and editing exams. Wolf Testing allows the user to create an exam from a database of questions, view it on screen, and easily print it along with the corresponding answer guide. The questions can be multiple choice, short answer, long answer, or true and false varieties. This software can be accessed securely from any location, allowing the user to easily create exams from home. New questions, which can include associated pictures, can be added through a web-interface. After adding in questions, they can be edited, deleted, or duplicated into multiple versions. Long-term test creation is simplified, as you are able to quickly see what questions you have asked in the past and insert them, with or without editing, into future tests. All tests are archived in the database. Written in PHP and MySQL, this software can be installed on any UNIX / Linux platform, including Macintosh OS X. The secure interface keeps students out, and allows you to decide who can create tests and who can edit information already in the database. Tests can be output as either html with pictures or rich text without pictures, and there are plans to add PDF and MS Word formats as well. We would like to thank Dr. Wolfgang Rueckner and the Harvard University Science Center for providing incentive to start this project, computers and resources to complete this project, and inspiration for the project's name. We would also like to thank Dr. Ronald Newburgh for his assistance in beta testing.

  5. Test Methods for Acceptance Testing of Telescopes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    instrument. Although various interferometer configurations are used, they all basically operate on the same principle. The beam from a stable continuous...a Goerz with a nominal focal length of 92 inches. This lens has been recoated and carefully aligned to produce excellent image quality. The focus...test. Such requirements are necessary when the procuring agency has no facilities for performing adequate tests. It is also an excellent policy even

  6. Nevada Test Site Sensor Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, B.J.; Boyer, W.B.

    1996-12-01

    A Sensor Test Facility (STF) was recently established at the Department of Energy`s Nevada Test Site (NTS). It has been used for a series of sensor tests that have demonstrated the usefulness of the testbed. The facility consists of a cut-and-cover bunker complex and the two square mile surrounding area. The STF was developed as a scientific testbed optimized for the development and evaluation of advanced sensor systems, including ground sensor systems designed to identify and detect hardened underground facilities. This was accomplished by identifying a facility in a remote location where seismic, acoustic, and electromagnetic interference would be minimal, establishing a testbed that would be accommodating to field testing, and conducting a thorough geophysical characterization of the area surrounding the facility in order to understand the local geology and its effects on geophysical signals emanating from the facility. The STF is representative of a number of cut-and-cover bunkers around the world that are used for the manufacture and/or storage of weapons of mass destruction. This paper provides a general description of the Nevada Test Site, the Sensor Test Facility, and the Geophysical Site Characterization.

  7. Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Jeremy; Devolites, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing, that is designed to serve as a testbed for advanced spacecraft technologies. The lander vehicle, propelled by a LOX/Methane engine and sized to carry a 500kg payload to the lunar surface, provides a platform for bringing technologies from the laboratory into an integrated flight system at relatively low cost. Morpheus onboard software is autonomous from ignition all the way through landing, and is designed to be capable of executing a variety of flight trajectories, with onboard fault checks and automatic contingency responses. The Morpheus 1.5A vehicle performed 26 integrated vehicle test flights including hot-fire tests, tethered tests, and two attempted freeflights between April 2011 and August 2012. The final flight of Morpheus 1.5A resulted in a loss of the vehicle. In September 2012, development began on the Morpheus 1.5B vehicle, which subsequently followed a similar test campaign culminating in free-flights at a simulated planetary landscape built at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility. This paper describes the integrated test campaign, including successes and setbacks, and how the system design for handling faults and failures evolved over the course of the project.

  8. Testing Tests on Active Galactic Nucleus Microvariability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Diego, José A.

    2010-03-01

    Literature on optical and infrared microvariability in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) reflects a diversity of statistical tests and strategies to detect tiny variations in the light curves of these sources. Comparison between the results obtained using different methodologies is difficult, and the pros and cons of each statistical method are often badly understood or even ignored. Even worse, improperly tested methodologies are becoming more and more common, and biased results may be misleading with regard to the origin of the AGN microvariability. This paper intends to point future research on AGN microvariability toward the use of powerful and well-tested statistical methodologies, providing a reference for choosing the best strategy to obtain unbiased results. Light curves monitoring has been simulated for quasars and for reference and comparison stars. Changes for the quasar light curves include both Gaussian fluctuations and linear variations. Simulated light curves have been analyzed using χ2 tests, F tests for variances, one-way analyses of variance and C-statistics. Statistical Type I and Type II errors, which indicate the robustness and the power of the tests, have been obtained in each case. One-way analyses of variance and χ2 prove to be powerful and robust estimators for microvariations, while the C-statistic is not a reliable methodology and its use should be avoided.

  9. TESTING TESTS ON ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI MICROVARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    De Diego, Jose A.

    2010-03-15

    Literature on optical and infrared microvariability in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) reflects a diversity of statistical tests and strategies to detect tiny variations in the light curves of these sources. Comparison between the results obtained using different methodologies is difficult, and the pros and cons of each statistical method are often badly understood or even ignored. Even worse, improperly tested methodologies are becoming more and more common, and biased results may be misleading with regard to the origin of the AGN microvariability. This paper intends to point future research on AGN microvariability toward the use of powerful and well-tested statistical methodologies, providing a reference for choosing the best strategy to obtain unbiased results. Light curves monitoring has been simulated for quasars and for reference and comparison stars. Changes for the quasar light curves include both Gaussian fluctuations and linear variations. Simulated light curves have been analyzed using {chi}{sup 2} tests, F tests for variances, one-way analyses of variance and C-statistics. Statistical Type I and Type II errors, which indicate the robustness and the power of the tests, have been obtained in each case. One-way analyses of variance and {chi}{sup 2} prove to be powerful and robust estimators for microvariations, while the C-statistic is not a reliable methodology and its use should be avoided.

  10. Wire Test Grip Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    Wire-testing issues, such as the gripping strains imposed on the wire, play a critical role in obtaining clean data. In a standard test frame fitted with flat wedge grips, the gripping action alone creates stresses on the wire specimen that cause the wire to fail at the grip location. A new test frame, which is outfitted with a vacuum chamber, negated the use of any conventional commercially available wire test fixtures, as only 7 in. (17.8 cm) existed between the grip faces. An innovative grip fixture was designed to test thin gauge wire for a variety of applications in an existing Instron test frame outfitted with a vacuum chamber.

  11. Metamorphic Testing for Cybersecurity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsong Yueh; Kuo, Fei-Ching; Ma, Wenjuan; Susilo, Willy; Towey, Dave; Voas, Jeffrey; Zhou, Zhi Quan

    2016-06-01

    Testing is a major approach for the detection of software defects, including vulnerabilities in security features. This article introduces metamorphic testing (MT), a relatively new testing method, and discusses how the new perspective of MT can help to conduct negative testing as well as to alleviate the oracle problem in the testing of security-related functionality and behavior. As demonstrated by the effectiveness of MT in detecting previously unknown bugs in real-world critical applications such as compilers and code obfuscators, we conclude that software testing of security-related features should be conducted from diverse perspectives in order to achieve greater cybersecurity.

  12. Testing technology, January 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Goetsch, B.

    1993-01-01

    This bulletin from Sandia Laboratories presents current research on testing technology. Fiber optics systems at the Nevada Test Site is replacing coaxial cables. The hypervelocity launcher is being used to test orbital debris impacts with space station shielding. A digital recorder makes testing of high-speed water entries possible. Automobile engine design is aided by an instrumented head gasket that detects the combustion zone. And composite-to-metal strength and fatigue tests provide new data on joint failures in wind turbine joint tests.

  13. Rules for Optical Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2014-01-01

    Based on 30 years of optical testing experience, a lot of mistakes, a lot of learning and a lot of experience, I have defined seven guiding principles for optical testing - regardless of how small or how large the optical testing or metrology task: Fully Understand the Task, Develop an Error Budget, Continuous Metrology Coverage, Know where you are, Test like you fly, Independent Cross-Checks, Understand All Anomalies. These rules have been applied with great success to the inprocess optical testing and final specification compliance testing of the JWST mirrors.

  14. Materials Test Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  15. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-09-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

  16. Smart HIV testing system.

    PubMed

    El Kateeb, Ali; Law, Peter; Chan, King

    2005-06-01

    The quick HIV testing method called "MiraWell Rapid HIV Test" uses a specialized testing kit to determine whether an individual's blood is contaminated with the HIV virus or not. When a drop of blood is placed on the center of the testing kit, a simple pattern will appear in the middle of the kit to indicate the test status, i.e., positive or negative. This HIV test should be done in a small clinic or in a lab and the test must be conducted by a trained technician. A smart HIV testing system was developed through this research to eliminate the human error that is associated with the use of the quick HIV testing kits. Also, the smart HIV system will improve the testing productivity in comparison to those achieved by the trained technicians. In this research, we have developed a cost-effective system that analyzes the image produced by the HIV kits. We have used a System-On-Chip (SOC) design approach based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology and the Xilinx Virtex SOC chip in building the system's prototype. The system used a CMOS digital camera to capture the image and an FPGA chip to process the captured image and send the testing results to the display unit. The system can be used in small clinics and pharmacies and eliminates the need for trained technicians. The system has been tested successfully and 98% of the tests were correct.

  17. ECN Pressure Test

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.; /Fermilab

    1991-07-18

    This note describes: the rationale for the test pressure of the inner ECN cryostat vessel, the equipment to be used in this test, the test procedure, the status of the vessel prior to the test, the actual test results, and a schematic diagram of the testing set up and the pressure testing permit. The test, performed in the evening of July 17, 1991, was a major success. Based on a neglible pressure drop indicated on the pressure gages (1/4 psi), the vessel appeared to be structurally sound throughout the duration of the test (approx. 1.5 hrs.). No pressure increases were observed on the indicators looking at the beam tube bellows volumes. There was no indication of bubbles form the soap test on the welds and most of the fittings that were checked. There were some slight deviations in the actual procedure used. The UO filter was removed after the vessel had bled down to about 18 psig in order to speed up that aspect of the test. The rationale was that the higher velocity gas had already passed through at the higher pressures and there was no visible traces of the black uo particles. The rate of 4 psi/10 minutes seemed incredibly slow and often that time was reduced to just over half that rate. The testing personnel was allowed to stay in the pit throughout the duration of the test; this was a slight relaxation of the rules.

  18. VIEW OF EAST TEST SITE FROM TOP OF STATIC TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST TEST SITE FROM TOP OF STATIC TEST TOWER VIEW INCLUDES STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS TEST STAND COLD CALIBRATION TEST STAND AND COMPONENTS TEST LAB. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  19. Effects of Acute Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Anaerobic Performance in Trained Female Cyclists.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Jordan M; Smith, Keyona; Moyen, Nicole E; Binns, Ashley; Gray, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal beta-alanine (BA) supplementation can improve exercise performance in males through increases in carnosine; however, females experience greater relative increases in carnosine compared to males. This potentially allows females to benefit from acute BA doses; however, effects of an acute BA dose on performance in females remain unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate how an acute dose of 1.6 g BA affects anaerobic performance in female cyclists. Twelve females (age=26.6±1.3 y) volunteered to participate in this randomized, double-blind study. All participants completed two supplement trials: 1) Placebo=34 g dextrose and 2) BA=1.6 g BA + 34 g dextrose. Thirty-minutes after supplementation, participants performed three repeated Wingate cycling tests with 2 min of active rest after each. Fatigue index, mean power, and peak power were measured during each Wingate. Lactate, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at rest, immediately after each Wingate, and after each active rest period. RPE significantly decreased (p<0.001) immediately following Wingates 1 and 2 and after each 2-min rest period for the BA trials; however, no differences were observed immediately after Wingate 3 (p>0.05). No significant supplementation effect was observed for any performance or physiological variable (p>0.05 for all variables). Findings suggest that an acute dose of BA (1.6 g) decreases RPE during anaerobic power activities in trained female cyclists.

  20. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  1. GI Radiographic Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... noninvasive technique that is very sensitive in detecting gastrointestinal cancer. This test is increasingly ordered for this purpose ... distant spread of a tumor (metastasis). Examples of gastrointestinal tumors for which this test ... C Inflammatory Bowel Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome ...

  2. Blood Test: Testosterone

    MedlinePlus

    ... Estradiol Precocious Puberty Understanding Puberty Endocrine System Male Reproductive System Getting a Blood Test (Video) All About Puberty Blood Test (Video) Male Reproductive System Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  3. Test Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At the test observation periscope in the Test Control Center exhibit in StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., visitors can observe a test of a Space Shuttle Main Engine exactly as test engineers might see it during a real engine test. The Test Control Center exhibit exactly simulates not only the test control environment, but also the procedure of testing a rocket engine. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative dispays and exhibits from NASA's lead center for rocket propulsion and remote sensing applications. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  4. Testing for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability (Biologics) HIV Home Test Kits Testing for HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  5. Visual acuity test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003396.htm Visual acuity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The visual acuity test is used to determine the smallest ...

  6. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  7. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle coordination A longer reaction time Impaired judgment Driving and operating machinery when you're drunk (intoxicated) ... test. Considerations The test does not measure the driving abilities of a person. Driving abilities vary among ...

  8. Vitamin A Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vitamin A testing is used to help diagnose vitamin A deficiency in people with symptoms, such as night blindness, ... of nutrients and who are at risk of vitamin A deficiency. Testing for this purpose is not common because ...

  9. Your Kidney Test Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood vessels healthy. Vitamin D is important for bones and heart health. 1 Your Kidney Test Results Other Important Tests, continued A1C (for patients with diabetes) Results Goal: Your Result: Total Cholesterol Normal: Less ...

  10. Chloride - urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... a condition that affects body fluids or acid-base balance. ... slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test result.

  11. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in ... helps doctors check on your overall health. The tests can also help to diagnose diseases and conditions ...

  12. Sediment Toxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment toxicity testing has become a fundamental component of regulatory frameworks for assessing the risks posed by contaminated sediments and for development of chemical sediment quality guidelines. Over the past two decades, sediment toxicity testing methods have advanced co...

  13. The first PANDA tests

    SciTech Connect

    Dreier, J.; Huggenberger, M.; Aubert, C.

    1996-08-01

    The PANDA test facility at PSI in Switzerland is used to study the long-term Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) performance. The PANDA tests demonstrate performance on a larger scale than previous tests and examine the effects of any non-uniform spatial distributions of steam and non-condensables in the system. The PANDA facility has a 1:1 vertical scale, and 1:25 ``system`` scale (volume, power, etc.). Steady-state PCCS condenser performance tests and extensive facility characterization tests have been completed. Transient system behavior tests were conducted late in 1995; results from the first three transient tests (M3 series) are reviewed. The first PANDA tests showed that the overall global behavior of the SBWR containment was globally repeatable and very favorable; the system exhibited great ``robustness.``

  14. Hepatitis B Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Hepatitis B Testing Share this page: Was this page ... known as: HBV Tests; Hep B; anti-HBs; Hepatitis B Surface Antibody; HBsAg; Hepatitis B Surface Antigen; ...

  15. Chloride test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... of body fluids and maintain the body's acid-base balance. This article is about the laboratory test ... signs that your body's fluid level or acid-base balance is disturbed. This test is most often ...

  16. ISS Update: Suitport Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Lynnette Madison interviews Joel Maganza, Test Director, about thermal vacuum chambers and unmanned and human-testing with the Suitport. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Jo...

  17. Phosphorus blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... II Osteomalacia Parathyroid hormone (PTH) blood test Rickets Sarcoidosis Review Date 11/1/2015 Updated by: Laura ... Balance Kidney Tests Liver Diseases Malnutrition Parathyroid Disorders Sarcoidosis Ulcerative Colitis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  18. Toddler test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    With proper preparation prior to a test or procedure, a toddler's fear and anxiety may be reduced. Preparing a child for a test may include going through the steps of the procedure, explaining the body part ...

  19. Follow-Up Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... the test is not important. The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center recommends additional testing, because the ... well. For more information contact the University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center at 773.702.7593 or ...

  20. Lyme Disease Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Borrelia Antibodies, IgM/IgG; Borrelia DNA Detection by PCR Related tests: CSF Analysis All content on Lab ... fluid (CSF) . In special cases, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing may be performed on a sample because ...

  1. Growth hormone test

    MedlinePlus

    ... under the skin) Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken) Alternative Names GH test Images Growth hormone stimulation test - series References Ali O. Hyperpituitarism, tall stature, and overgrowth ...

  2. Latex agglutination test

    MedlinePlus

    ... the results of this test. Normal Results Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider ...

  3. Rotavirus antigen test

    MedlinePlus

    ... is not found in the stool. Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your health care provider about the meaning of your specific test results.

  4. TB Screening Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as: Purified Protein Derivative; PPD; Mantoux; Latent Tuberculosis Infection Test; Interferon-gamma Release Assays; IGRA; T- ... else I should know? How is it used? Tuberculosis (TB) screening tests are not used as general ...

  5. Pleural Fluid Analysis Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... and susceptibility testing Adenosine deaminase – may help detect tuberculosis (TB) Less commonly, tests for infectious diseases, such ... of lymphocytes may be seen with cancers and tuberculosis . Cytology—a cytocentrifuged sample is treated with a ...

  6. Prenatal Genetic Testing Chart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Prenatal Genetic Testing Chart (Infographic) Home For Patients Search FAQs Prenatal Genetic Testing Chart (Infographic) PFSI010 ››› Weeks 1–4 Weeks ...

  7. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Liver > Liver Disease Information > Liver Function Tests Liver Function Tests Explore this section to learn more ... including a description and diagnosis. Why is the liver important? The liver is the second largest organ ...

  8. Vitamin A blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003570.htm Vitamin A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The vitamin A test measures the level of vitamin A ...

  9. Control system testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittler, W. H.; Collart, R. E.

    1984-08-01

    A three stage process of ground testing of the Space Telescope Pointing Control System is used for verification prior to on-orbit operation. First, development tests are conducted in a laboratory environment using flight/engineering model control sensor and actuators configured with an engineering model of the flight computer and data management system breadboards. These development tests validate the results of computer simulations predicting control system performance. Integration tests bring together flight system elements and software interfaced to a software simulation of vehicle dynamics to confirm closed loop performance. The final ground test phase, flight systems testing, is conducted on the fully assembled Space Telescope, verifies interfaces with the Fine Guidance Sensors and includes a thermal vacuum testing period. During the final test phase, the Point Control System is exercised with the dynamics simulator running in real time.

  10. 17-Ketosteroids urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... 6 to 12 mg per 24 hr Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.

  11. Who Trusts the Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurney, Roger

    1978-01-01

    The author reviews the advantages and disadvantages of standardized reading tests, with special reference to the new national reading tests designed by the Assessment of Performance Unit of the Department of Education and Science. (SJL)

  12. Ovulation home test

    MedlinePlus

    ... women to help determine the time in the menstrual cycle when getting pregnant is most likely. The test ... start testing depends on the length of your menstrual cycle. For example, if your normal cycle is 28 ...

  13. Ethylene glycol blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003564.htm Ethylene glycol blood test To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the level of ethylene glycol in the blood. Ethylene glycol is a ...

  14. Lactic acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Lactate test ... test. Exercise can cause a temporary increase in lactic acid levels. ... not getting enough oxygen. Conditions that can increase lactic acid levels include: Heart failure Liver disease Lung disease ...

  15. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003565.htm Methylmalonic acid blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid ...

  16. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  17. Physical Fitness of Police Academy Cadets: Baseline Characteristics and Changes During a 16-Week Academy.

    PubMed

    Crawley, Amy A; Sherman, Ross A; Crawley, William R; Cosio-Lima, Ludmila M

    2016-05-01

    Police academies traditionally emphasize the importance of being physically fit. The purpose of this research was to determine cadet baseline physical fitness characteristics and assess effectiveness of a 16-week training program. Sixty-eight cadets (61 men, 7 women) volunteered to have baseline physical fitness characteristics assessed, and 55 cadets (49 men, 6 women) completed further testing at weeks 8 and 16. The testing comprised hand grip (strength), arm crank (upper-body power), 30 seconds Wingate (lower body power), sum of skinfolds and percentage body fat (body composition), 40-yard dash (sprint speed), 1 repetition maximum bench press (strength), T-test (agility), and sit-and-reach (flexibility). In addition, cadets completed standardized state testing (push-ups, sit-ups, vertical jump, and half-mile shuttle run). The training program consisted of 1 hour sessions, 3 d·wk, including aerobic, plyometrics, body weight, and resistance exercise. Significant changes were found in agility (p < 0.01), upper-body and lower-body peak power (p ≤ 0.05), sit-ups (p < 0.01), push-ups (p ≤ 0.05) across the first 8 weeks, and in agility (p ≤ 0.05), lower-body peak power (p ≤ 0.05), sit-ups (p < 0.01), push-ups (p ≤ 0.05), half-mile shuttle run (p < 0.01) across the full 16 weeks. However, none of the variables showed significant change across the second half of the program (weeks 8-16). A number of individual parameters of physical fitness showed evidence of improvement in the first 8 weeks, whereas none of the variables showed significant improvement in the second 8 weeks. This suggests modifications could be made to increase overall effectiveness of cadet physical training specifically after the 8-week mark.

  18. Blade Testing Trends (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Desmond, M.

    2014-08-01

    As an invited guest speaker, Michael Desmond presented on NREL's NWTC structural testing methods and capabilities at the 2014 Sandia Blade Workshop held on August 26-28, 2014 in Albuquerque, NM. Although dynamometer and field testing capabilities were mentioned, the presentation focused primarily on wind turbine blade testing, including descriptions and capabilities for accredited certification testing, historical methodology and technology deployment, and current research and development activities.

  19. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-21

    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 October 2016 – 26 October 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Liquid Rocket Engine Testing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing SFTE Symposium 21 October 2016 Jake Robertson, Capt USAF AFRL...Distribution Unlimited. PA Clearance 16493 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing • Engines and their components are extensively static- tested in development • This

  20. Tests in Print II: An Index to Tests, Test Reviews, and the Literature on Specific Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buros, Oscar K., Ed.

    Tests in Print II is a comprehensive, annotated bibliography of all in-print tests published as separates for use with English-speaking subjects. The 1,155 two-column pages list 2,467 tests in print as of early 1974; 16,574 references through 1971 on specific tests; a reprinting of the 1974 APA-AERA-NCME Standards for Educational andPsychological…

  1. Mobilestar field test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubow, Wayne

    1988-01-01

    Various field tests were performed in order to gain practical experience and a broader understanding of mobile communications. The first phase consisted of CW propagation tests to develop firsthand experience of propagation phenomena. From this information, estimates of the feasibility and accuracy of power control were possible. The next phase tested the idea of power control. Equipment representative of that expected to be used in an actual mobile satellite communication system was assembled and tested under a variety of environments.

  2. Uniform Test Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belov, Dmitry I.

    2008-01-01

    In educational practice, a test assembly problem is formulated as a system of inequalities induced by test specifications. Each solution to the system is a test, represented by a 0-1 vector, where each element corresponds to an item included (1) or not included (0) into the test. Therefore, the size of a 0-1 vector equals the number of items "n"…

  3. Testing of Military Towbars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-28

    test. Performance tests required for a complete towing analysis include the following: (1) Physical Characteristics (TOP 02-2-5004). (2...S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Automotive Directorate (TEDT-AT-AD) U.S. Army Aberdeen Test Center 400 Colleran Rd Aberdeen Proving Ground , MD 21005 8...U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command 2202 Aberdeen Boulevard Aberdeen Proving Ground , MD 21005-5001 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR

  4. Coaxial test fixture

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, W.F.

    1984-03-30

    This invention pertains to arrangements for performing electrical tests on contact material samples, and in particular for testing contact material test samples in an evacuated environment under high current loads. Frequently, it is desirable in developing high-current separable contact material, to have at least a preliminary analysis of selected candidate conductor materials. Testing of material samples will hopefully identify materials unsuitable for high current electrical contact without requiring incorporation of the materials into a completed and oftentimes complex structure.

  5. Leishmania Skin Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Ninhydrin ), SDS-PAGE and non-viability testing . See Table 3 below: Table 3: Drug Substance Specifications Test Method Specification SDS-PAGE...AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-00-C-0030 TITLE: Leishmania Skin Test PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nielsen, H.S., Jr...TYPE FINAL, PHASE II ADDENDUM 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 APR 2009 - 28 FEB 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Leishmania Skin Test 5a

  6. Impact Tests for Woods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    Although it is well known that the strength of wood depends greatly upon the time the wood is under the load, little consideration has been given to this fact in testing materials for airplanes. Here, results are given of impact tests on clear, straight grained spruce. Transverse tests were conducted for comparison. Both Izod and Charpy impact tests were conducted. Results are given primarily in tabular and graphical form.

  7. Cold Flow Propulsion Test Complex Pulse Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDougal, Kris

    2016-01-01

    When the propellants in a liquid rocket engine burn, the rocket not only launches and moves in space, it causes forces that interact with the vehicle itself. When these interactions occur under specific conditions, the vehicle's structures and components can become unstable. One instability of primary concern is termed pogo (named after the movement of a pogo stick), in which the oscillations (cycling movements) cause large loads, or pressure, against the vehicle, tanks, feedlines, and engine. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a unique test technology to understand and quantify the complex fluid movements and forces in a liquid rocket engine that contribute strongly to both engine and integrated vehicle performance and stability. This new test technology was established in the MSFC Cold Flow Propulsion Test Complex to allow injection and measurement of scaled propellant flows and measurement of the resulting forces at multiple locations throughout the engine.

  8. 3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH, COMPONENTS TEST LABORATORY, DYNAMIC TEST FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH, COMPONENTS TEST LABORATORY, DYNAMIC TEST FACILITY (SATURN V IN BACKGROUND). - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Components Test Laboratory, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  9. Blood Test: Glucose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Glucose A A A What's in this article? What ... de sangre: glucosa What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

  10. Testing on Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Standardized tests are under a microscope as states prepare to administer new PARCC and Smarter Balanced tests aligned to the Common Core State Standards. This brief takes on five concerns about testing and is designed to help funders reframe the larger conversation to preserve a critical source of information about school, teacher and student…

  11. Thyroid Function Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Irving T.

    1979-01-01

    Describes two tests, T-4 and T-3, for hypothyroid based on the binding of the hormones by proteins. The tests were performed in courses for physicians, clinical chemists, laboratory technicians, and undergraduate science students by the individuals involved and on their own sera. These tests are commercially available in kit form. (GA)

  12. Testing Technology, June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Getsch, B; Floyd, H L; Parrott, L; Van Arsdall, A

    1992-01-01

    This report highlights the following topics: Photon Correlation Spectroscopy--a new application in jet fuel analysis, Testing news in brief; Solar test facility supports space station research; Shock isolation technique developed for piezoresistive accelerometer; High-speed photography captures Distant Image measurements; and, Radiation effects test revised for CMOS electronics.

  13. Validating Automated Speaking Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Jared; Van Moere, Alistair; Cheng, Jian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents evidence that supports the valid use of scores from fully automatic tests of spoken language ability to indicate a person's effectiveness in spoken communication. The paper reviews the constructs, scoring, and the concurrent validity evidence of "facility-in-L2" tests, a family of automated spoken language tests in Spanish,…

  14. Fluid dynamics test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayman, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Test method and apparatus determine fluid effective mass and damping in frequency range where effective mass may be considered as total mass less sum of slosh masses. Apparatus is designed so test tank and its mounting yoke are supported from structural test wall by series of flexures.

  15. NCCS Regression Test Harness

    SciTech Connect

    Tharrington, Arnold N.

    2015-09-09

    The NCCS Regression Test Harness is a software package that provides a framework to perform regression and acceptance testing on NCCS High Performance Computers. The package is written in Python and has only the dependency of a Subversion repository to store the regression tests.

  16. Test Science, Not Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; Gee, Thomas C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews some of the ways researchers estimate readability with a focus on multiple choice test items in science. Presents criteria to consider for minimizing readability problems in test items. Examines samples from the National Assessment of Educational Progress test bank for readability. (ML)

  17. Addressing Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salend, Spencer J.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that between 25% to 40% of students experience test anxiety, with students with disabilities and those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds having higher prevalence rates. Since test anxiety impacts student well-being and the validity of the important educational decisions based on testing data, this article…

  18. Aptitude Tests and Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coupland, D. E.

    1970-01-01

    Explains why in the United States the feeling is increasing that much of the aptitude testing now being done discriminates against minority group members seeking employment. Skeptical of eliminating the discriminatory aspects of testing, the article raises the question of eliminating testing itself. (DM)

  19. Testing History As Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James R.; Hart, James

    1973-01-01

    Some obvious difficulties of teaching and testing history as inquiry are reviewed. Examples of test items that require students to utilize thought processes developed through inquiry teaching are presented together with a rationale for their use. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives is proposed as a useful tool in test construction. (SM)

  20. A1C test

    MedlinePlus

    HbA1C test; Glycated hemoglobin test; Glycohemoglobin test; Hemoglobin A1C; Diabetes - A1C; Diabetic - A1C ... gov/pubmed/26696680 . Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb, glycohemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, HbA1a, HbA1b, HbA1c - blood. ...