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Sample records for 30-year longitudinal study

  1. Longitudinal Pathways between Maternal Mental Health in Infancy and Offspring Romantic Relationships in Adulthood: A 30-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal pathways between maternal mental health in infancy and offspring romantic relationship outcomes in adulthood were examined using a 30-year prospective longitudinal study of 196 mothers and their children. Structural equation modeling revealed that maternal mental health at 30 months was related to offspring relationship status and…

  2. Predicting Family Poverty and Other Disadvantaged Conditions for Child Rearing from Childhood Aggression and Social Withdrawal: A 30-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serbin, Lisa A.; Temcheff, Caroline E.; Cooperman, Jessica M.; Stack, Dale M.; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E.

    2011-01-01

    This 30-year longitudinal study examined pathways from problematic childhood behavior patterns to future disadvantaged conditions for family environment and child rearing in adulthood. Participants were mothers (n = 328) and fathers (n = 222) with lower income backgrounds participating in the ongoing Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project. Structural…

  3. Childhood family income and life outcomes in adulthood: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Sheree J; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John

    2012-06-01

    The aims of this study were to use data gathered over the course of a 30-year longitudinal study to examine the linkages between economic circumstances in childhood and subsequent developmental outcomes spanning educational achievement; economic circumstances; crime; mental health; and teenage pregnancy. All of these outcomes have been linked with childhood economic conditions and it is frequently argued that reducing income inequalities will mitigate psychosocial risks of children reared in families facing economic hardship. Alternatively it may be suggested that the associations between childhood family economic circumstances and later outcomes are mediated by individual, family and social factors that are correlated with low family income and contribute to later outcomes. To examine these issues, data were drawn from a birth cohort of New Zealand children born in 1977 and followed to age 30. Declining childhood family income was associated with a range of negative outcomes in adulthood, including: lower educational achievement; poorer economic circumstances; higher rates of criminal offending; higher rates of mental health problems; and higher rates of teenage pregnancy. After covariate adjustment, childhood family income remained significantly associated with educational achievement and economic circumstances, but was no longer significantly associated with the mental health, offending and teenage pregnancy outcomes. These findings suggest that, after due allowance has been made for social, family and individual contextual factors, low family income during childhood is associated with a range of educational and economic disadvantages in adulthood but is not directly related to increased risks of crime, mental health problems or teen pregnancy.

  4. Predictors and outcomes of persistent or age-limited registered criminal behavior: a 30-year longitudinal study of a Swedish urban population.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Lars R; Andershed, Anna-Karin

    2009-01-01

    This study uses data from the longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation, where an entire school-grade cohort of children in a middle-size Swedish city (n approximately 1.300) has been followed from ages 10 to 43 and 48 for women and men, respectively. Our findings indicate that the patterns of offending across the life-course differ between genders, where males seem to initiate their offending earlier than females. Further, there are very few women on a persistent offending-trajectory. Focusing on precursors to as well as consequences of offending as indexed in official registers, our results indicate that individuals in the persistent offender group have the most pronounced adjustment problems in school- as well as in middle age. Individual characteristics and behaviors (e.g., aggression, hyperactivity, antisocial behavior) vary systematically between individuals with different developmental offending patterns. The combination of an unstable upbringing and own antisocial behavior seems to be especially predictive for criminality. For persistent offenders, the prevalence of alcohol and psychiatric problems at adult age is high for males and extremely high for females (nine out of ten and six out of ten for each of the two problem types for females). Further, the importance for adjustment of the two-dimensional variation in the number of crimes committed during adolescence and adult age seems to have been surprisingly well captured by the "crude" division into the four offender groups that were used.

  5. Self and peer perceptions of childhood aggression, social withdrawal and likeability predict adult substance abuse and dependence in men and women: a 30-year prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Serbin, Lisa A; Stack, Dale M; Ledingham, Jane E; Schwartzman, Alex E

    2011-12-01

    While childhood behaviors such as aggression, social withdrawal and likeability have been linked to substance abuse outcomes in adolescence and adulthood, the mechanisms by which these variables relate are not yet well established. Self and peer perceptions of childhood behaviors in men and women were compared to assess the role of context in the prediction of drug and alcohol abuse and dependence. Participants (N=676) in an ongoing longitudinal project examining the relation between childhood behavior and adult mental health outcomes completed the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM IV regarding their histories of substance abuse in mid-adulthood (mean age=34, SD=2). In women, higher levels of both self and peer reported aggression were associated with drug and alcohol abuse and dependence, and higher levels of peer reported aggression were associated with higher levels of alcohol abuse and dependence. As well, higher levels of self-perceived likeability were protective regarding substance abuse and dependence outcomes. In men, higher levels of peer perceived social withdrawal were protective regarding substance abuse and dependence outcomes. Findings support the comparison of self and peer perceptions of childhood behavior as a method of assessing the mechanisms by which childhood behaviors impact adult outcomes, and suggest the importance of gender in the relation between childhood behaviors and adult substance abuse and dependence.

  6. Reading Disability and Adult Attained Education and Income: Evidence from a 30-Year Longitudinal Study of a Population-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Margaret J.; Speirs, Katherine E.; Shenassa, Edmond D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the impact of childhood reading disability (RD) on adult educational attainment and income. Participants' (N = 1,344) RD was assessed at age 7, and adult educational attainment and income were assessed in midlife using categorical variables. Participants with RD at age 7 were 74% (95% CI: 0.18, 0.37) less likely to attain a…

  7. Bullying in Childhood, Externalizing Behaviors, and Adult Offending: Evidence from a 30-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the developmental processes linking childhood bullying to criminal offending in adulthood, using data from a 30-year longitudinal study. The linkages between bullying in childhood and three criminal offending outcomes in adulthood were estimated both before and after control for a range of confounding factors. A series of…

  8. Fatal electrocution in adults--a 30-year study.

    PubMed

    Wick, Regula; Gilbert, John D; Simpson, Ellie; Byard, Roger W

    2006-04-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken of all cases of death in adults (>16 years) due to electrocution which were autopsied at Forensic Science SA, Adelaide, Australia, over a 30-year period from 1973 to 2002. A total of 96 cases were identified with 87 males (91%) (mean age=41.6 years; range 17 to 86 years) and nine females (9%) (mean age=49.2 years; range 20 to 76 years). Deaths were due to accidents in 66 cases (69%; M:F = 63:3), suicides in 28 cases (29%; M:F=24:4) and homicides in two cases (2%). Both homicide victims were females, with females accounting for only 5% of the accidents and 14% of suicides. The number of accidental deaths increased until the early 1990s and then declined, whereas suicidal electrocutions were only found in the last 20 years of the study. Most deaths (N = 80; 83%) were due to low voltage circuits (<1000 volts), with deaths due to high voltages occurring in 15 cases (16%). One death was due to lightning (1%). While suicides were evenly distributed throughout the year, most accidental deaths occurred in late spring and summer (N = 42; 64%) with the lowest number of accidental deaths occurring in winter and early spring. This report demonstrates a significantly higher rate of electrocution deaths among males, with a summer predominance of accidental deaths, most likely due to increased outdoor activities in better weather. The reduction in cases over the last decade of the study may be a reflection of the success of workplace and domestic safety campaigns. Female electrocution suicides and electrocution homicides were rare events.

  9. 30 Years of Extragalactic H II Region Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnett, D.

    2000-11-01

    The study of extragalactic H II regions has provided key data on ISM abundan ces in star-forming galaxies, and on the properties and physical mechanisms associated with starbursts. Manuel Peimbert and Silvia Torres-Peimbert were early pioneers in obtaining high-quality on physical conditions in extragalactic H II regions. In this review I will highlight their contributions to the field and our present-day understanding of giant H II regions and starbursts.

  10. Studies Using Single-Subject Designs in Sport Psychology: 30 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, G. L.; Thompson, K.; Regehr, K.

    2004-01-01

    A prominent feature of behavior-analytic research has been the use of single-subject designs. We examined sport psychology journals and behavioral journals published during the past 30 years, and located 40 studies using single-subject designs to assess interventions for enhancing the performance of athletes and coaches. In this paper, we…

  11. Studies using single-subject designs in sport psychology: 30 years of research

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Garry L.; Thompson, Kendra; Regehr, Kaleigh

    2004-01-01

    A prominent feature of behavior-analytic research has been the use of single-subject designs. We examined sport psychology journals and behavioral journals published during the past 30 years, and located 40 studies using single-subject designs to assess interventions for enhancing the performance of athletes and coaches. In this paper, we summarize that body of research, discuss its strengths and limitations, and identify areas for future research. PMID:22478434

  12. Recidivism Patterns Among Two Types of Juvenile Homicide Offenders: A 30-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, Norair; Heide, Kathleen M; Hummel, Erich V

    2016-07-01

    Although juvenile homicide has been a matter of concern in the United States since the 1980s, prior research has not addressed long-term recidivism patterns for convicted juvenile murderers. Furthermore, a prominent juvenile homicide typology had not previously been tested with U.S. offenders. The present study examined whether juvenile offenders who killed or attempted to kill during the commission of a crime differed from those who killed due to some type of conflict on pre-incarceration, incarceration, and post-incarceration variables. These offenders were sentenced to adult prison in the early 1980s. Follow-up data spanned 30 years. The results indicated that approximately 88% of released offenders have been rearrested. Analyses of pre-incarceration variables revealed that crime-oriented offenders were significantly more likely to commit the homicide offense using accomplices than conflict-oriented offenders, and the latter were significantly more likely to use a firearm during the homicide incident. The circumstances of the homicide, however, were not significantly related to any other pre-incarceration variables, release from prison, number of post-release arrests, and number of post-release violent offenses. The implications of the findings, their comparability to previous follow-up research on this typology, and avenues for future research are discussed.

  13. Great Expectations: Creative Achievements of the Sociometric Stars in a 30-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrance, E. Paul

    2004-01-01

    The creative achievements and characteristics of a group of ten high school students identified as the most creative by their high school peers were compared to those of ten participants from the same group who had the greatest number of publicly recognized creative achievements approximately 30 years later (Sociometric Stars vs. Beyonders).…

  14. Parkinson's disease progression at 30 years: a study of subthalamic deep brain-stimulated patients.

    PubMed

    Merola, Aristide; Zibetti, Maurizio; Angrisano, Serena; Rizzi, Laura; Ricchi, Valeria; Artusi, Carlo A; Lanotte, Michele; Rizzone, Mario G; Lopiano, Leonardo

    2011-07-01

    Clinical findings in Parkinson's disease suggest that most patients progressively develop disabling non-levodopa-responsive symptoms during the course of the disease. Nevertheless, several heterogeneous factors, such as clinical phenotype, age at onset and genetic aspects may influence the long-term clinical picture. In order to investigate the main features of long-term Parkinson's disease progression, we studied a cohort of 19 subjects treated with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation after >20 years of disease, reporting clinical and neuropsychological data up to a mean of 30 years from disease onset. This group of patients was characterized by an early onset of disease, with a mean age of 38.63 years at Parkinson's disease onset, which was significantly lower than in the other long-term subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation follow-up cohorts reported in the literature. All subjects were regularly evaluated by a complete Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, a battery of neuropsychological tests and a clinical interview, intended to assess the rate of non-levodopa-responsive symptom progression. Clinical data were available for all patients at presurgical baseline and at 1, 3 and 5 years from the subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation surgical procedure, while follow-up data after >7 years were additionally reported in a subgroup of 14 patients. The clinical and neuropsychological performance progressively worsened during the course of follow-up; 64% of patients gradually developed falls, 86% dysphagia, 57% urinary incontinence and 43% dementia. A progressive worsening of motor symptoms was observed both in 'medication-ON' condition and in 'stimulation-ON' condition, with a parallel reduction in the synergistic effect of 'medication-ON/stimulation-ON' condition. Neuropsychological data also showed a gradual decline in the performances of all main cognitive domains, with an initial involvement of executive functions, followed by the impairment

  15. Predictors of poor outcome after both column acetabular fractures: a 30-year retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Acetabular fractures are often combined with associated injuries to the hip joint. Some of these associated injuries seem to be responsible for poor long-term results and these injuries seem to affect the outcome independent of the quality of the acetabular reduction. The aim of our study was to analyze the outcome of both column acetabular fractures and the influence of osseous cofactors such as initial fracture displacement, hip dislocation, femoral head lesions and injuries of the acetabular joint surface. Methods A retrospective cohort study in patients with both column acetabular fractures treated over a 30 year period was performed. Patients with a follow-up of more than two years were invited for a clinical and radiological examination. Displacement was analyzed on initial and postoperative radiographs. Contusion and impaction of the femoral head was grouped. Injuries of the acetabular joint surface consisting of impaction, contusion and comminution were recorded. The Merle d’Aubigné Score was documented and radiographs were analysed for arthritis (Helfet classification), femoral head avascular necrosis (Ficat/Arlet classification) and heterotopic ossifications (Brooker classification). Results 115 patients were included in the follow up examination. Anatomic reduction (malreduction ≤ 1mm) was associated with a significantly better clinical outcome than nonanatomical reduction (p = 0.001). Initial displacement of more than 10mm (p = 0.031) and initial intraarticular fragments (p = 0.041) were associated with worse outcome. Other associated injuries, such as the presence of a femoral head dislocation, femoral head injuries and injuries to the acetabular joint surface showed no significant difference in outcome individually, but in fractures with more than two associated local injuries the risk for joint degeneration was significant higher (p < 0.001) than in cases with less than two of them. In the subgroup of

  16. Endotoxin and gender modify lung function recovery after occupational organic dust exposure: a 30 year study

    PubMed Central

    Valeri, Linda; Zhang, Feng-ying; Zheng, Bu-Yong; Mehta, Amar J.; Shi, Jing; Su, Li; Brown, Dan; Eisen, Ellen A; Christiani, David C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to determine the trajectory of lung function change after exposure cessation to occupational organic dust exposure, and to identify factors that modify improvement. METHODS The Shanghai Textile Worker Study is a longitudinal study of 447 cotton workers exposed to endotoxin-containing dust and 472 silk workers exposed to non-endotoxin-containing dust. Spirometry was performed at 5 year intervals. Air sampling was performed to estimate individual cumulative exposures. The effect of work cessation on FEV1 was modeled using generalized additive mixed effects models to identify the trajectory of FEV1 recovery. Linear mixed effects models incorporating interaction terms were used to identify modifiers of FEV1 recovery. Loss to follow-up was accounted for with inverse probability of censoring weights. RESULTS 74.2% of the original cohort still alive participated in 2011. Generalized additive mixed models identified a non-linear improvement in FEV1 for all workers after exposure cessation, with no plateau noted 25 years after retirement. Linear mixed effects models incorporating interaction terms identified prior endotoxin exposure (p=0.01) and male gender (p=0.002) as risk factors for impaired FEV1 improvement after exposure cessation. After adjusting for gender, smoking delayed the onset of FEV1 gain but did not affect the overall magnitude of change. CONCLUSIONS Lung function improvement after cessation of exposure to organic dust is sustained. Endotoxin exposure and male gender are risk factors for less FEV1 improvement. PMID:25666844

  17. Using Conference Submission Data to Uncover Broad Trends in Language Teaching: A Case Study of One Conference over 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Submissions to conferences can provide rich material for analysing characteristics and trends within a conference's history and that of similar conferences, as well as the associated field at large. The present study uses data gathered over 30 years from a language teachers' conference in Japan (JALT National) to expound upon patterns related to…

  18. Career Services at Colleges and Universities: A 30-Year Replication Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinson, Bonita M.; Reardon, Robert C.; Bertoch, Sara C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines career planning programs and career services offices at colleges and universities in the United States as viewed by senior student affairs officers (SSAOs). Findings from a 1979 study of career services offices (CSOs) were compared to the current findings. Additionally, new areas of research were examined in order to provide…

  19. The Index of Attitudes toward Homosexuals 30 Years Later: A Psychometric Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebert, Darcy Clay; Chonody, Jill; Rutledge, Scott Edward; Killian, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors report a validation study of the Index of Attitudes toward Homosexuals (IAH) to examine its ongoing usefulness. Method: Students (n = 331) completed surveys anonymously. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted and group differences analyzed. Results: Content validity was established conceptually, and preliminary…

  20. The Legacy and Impact of Open University Women's/Gender Studies: 30 Years On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkup, Gill; Whitelegg, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In 1983, the UK Open University (OU) offered its first women's/gender studies (WGS) course. Although a late entrant to the area, OU WGS courses were influential nationally and internationally for many feminists and WGS teachers and scholars. Not only did OU WGS courses have the largest WGS student cohort of any UK institution with over 8000…

  1. Changing incidence of glomerular disease in Olmsted County, Minnesota: a 30-year renal biopsy study.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Sundararaman; Leung, Nelson; Lager, Donna J; Melton, L Joseph; Bergstralh, Eric J; Rohlinger, Audrey; Fervenza, Fernando C

    2006-05-01

    Membranous nephropathy (MN) is considered the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in white adults, but recent studies have shown an increasing incidence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). These studies are difficult to interpret because the majority of cases came from urban tertiary referral centers. For validating these findings in the general population, trends in the incidence of various forms of glomerular disease (glomerulonephritis [GN]) among the residents of Olmsted County, MN were studied. Biopsy data of local patients who had a diagnosis of a nondiabetic glomerular disease from 1974 through 2003 were reviewed. Biopsies were categorized as (1) FSGS, (2) MN, (3) minimal change, (4) lupus nephritis, (5) membranoproliferative GN (MPGN), (6) IgA nephropathy (IgAN), (7) crescentic/necrotizing GN, and (8) other. Time trends in the annual age- and gender-adjusted (2000 US population) incidence rate per 100,000 Olmsted County population were estimated. A total of 195 biopsies were analyzed. Overall, IgAN was present in 22%, FSGS was present in 17%, and MN was present in 10%. Between 1974 to 1983 and 1994 to 2003, the incidence of any type of GN among Olmsted County residents increased more than two-fold (P < 0.001), FSGS by 13-fold (P < 0.001), and IgAN by three-fold (P = 0.002). Increases in MN were nonsignificant (2.5-fold; P = 0.13). Currently (1994 to 2003), the most frequent type of GN is IgAN (25%), followed by FSGS (20%) and MN (11%), with annual incidence rates of 2.1, 1.8, and 1.0 per 100,000/yr, respectively. This study confirms that the incidence of GN is growing overall, particularly for FSGS, which is the leading cause of nephrotic syndrome in white adults.

  2. Cleft lip and Palate: A 30-year Epidemiologic Study in North-East of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kianifar, Hamidreza; Hasanzadeh, Nadia; Jahanbin, Arezoo; Ezzati, Atefeh; Kianifar, Homa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cleft lip and palate are among the most common congenital anomalies worldwide. This study was conducted in order to explore the incidence and related factors of cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) among live births in Mashhad, North-Eastern Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, records of 28,519 infants born between March 1982 and March 2011 at three major hospitals in Mashhad were screened for oral clefts. Clinical and demographic factors relating to diagnosed cases, including birth date, gender, birth weight, maternal age, number of pregnancies, type and side of cleft and presence of other congenital anomalies were recorded for analysis. Results: The overall incidence of CL/P was 1.9 per 1,000 live births. Cleft lip associated with cleft palate (CLP) was the most prevalent type of cleft (50%), followed by isolated cleft lip (35.2%) and isolated cleft palate (14.8%). A total of 92.6% of oral clefts were bilateral and 5.5% were located on the right side. In addition, clefts were found to be more common in male than female births (male/female ratio=2.3). The rate of associated congenital anomalies in CL/P newborns was 37%. No significant differences were observed in the incidence of oral clefts across three decades of study; except for CLP which was significantly more prevalent between 2002–2011 (P=0.027). There were no significant differences with regard to season of birth, associated anomalies or maternal age of affected newborns in the three time periods of the study. Furthermore, maternal age and number of pregnancies were not significantly different among the three types of cleft (P=0.43 and P=0.91, respectively). Although the mean birth weight of patients affected with isolated cleft palate was considerably lower than that of the other two types of cleft, the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.05). Conclusion: This study indicates a frequency of CL/P close to the findings in East Asian countries and higher than

  3. Maternal Hb during pregnancy and offspring's educational achievement: a prospective cohort study over 30 years.

    PubMed

    Fararouei, Mohammad; Robertson, Claire; Whittaker, John; Sovio, Ulla; Ruokonen, Aimo; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hyppönen, Elina

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between maternal Hb levels during pregnancy and educational achievement of the offspring in later life. We analysed data obtained from the Northern Finnish Birth Cohort Study conducted in 1966, in which, data on mothers and offspring from pregnancy through to the age of 31 years were collected. The cohort comprised 11 656 individuals born from singleton births (51 % males and 49 % females). Maternal Hb levels were available from the third, seventh and ninth gestational months. Educational achievement was measured as school scores (range 4-10) taken at the ages of 14 (self-reported questionnaires) and 16 (school reports) years as well as the highest level of education at the age of 31 years. The present results showed a direct positive association between Hb levels and educational achievement in later life. After adjustment for sex, birth weight, birth month and a wide range of maternal factors (parity, smoking, mental status, whether pregnancy was wanted or not, education, social class and marital status), only maternal Hb levels that were measured at the ninth month were significantly associated with the offspring's school performance. If the levels were ≥ 110 g/l at all the three measurement points, offspring not only had better school scores at the ages of 14 and 16 years (β = 0·048, P = 0·04 and β = 0·68, P = 0·007, respectively), but also had an increased odds of having a higher level of education at the age of 31 years (OR = 1·14, P = 0·04). The present study suggests that low maternal Hb levels at the final stages of pregnancy are linked to the poorer educational achievement of the offspring. If our observation is confirmed, it would suggest that Fe prophylaxis even at fairly late stages of pregnancy may be beneficial for the subsequent health of the offspring. However, more studies are needed to fully establish the potential pathways and the clinical importance of the

  4. A 30+ Year AVHRR LAI and FAPAR Climate Data Record: Algorithm Description, Validation, and Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claverie, Martin; Matthews, Jessica L.; Vermote, Eric F.; Justice, Christopher O.

    2016-01-01

    In- land surface models, which are used to evaluate the role of vegetation in the context ofglobal climate change and variability, LAI and FAPAR play a key role, specifically with respect to thecarbon and water cycles. The AVHRR-based LAIFAPAR dataset offers daily temporal resolution,an improvement over previous products. This climate data record is based on a carefully calibratedand corrected land surface reflectance dataset to provide a high-quality, consistent time-series suitablefor climate studies. It spans from mid-1981 to the present. Further, this operational dataset is availablein near real-time allowing use for monitoring purposes. The algorithm relies on artificial neuralnetworks calibrated using the MODIS LAI/FAPAR dataset. Evaluation based on cross-comparisonwith MODIS products and in situ data show the dataset is consistent and reliable with overalluncertainties of 1.03 and 0.15 for LAI and FAPAR, respectively. However, a clear saturation effect isobserved in the broadleaf forest biomes with high LAI (greater than 4.5) and FAPAR (greater than 0.8) values.

  5. The association between teenage motherhood and poor offspring outcomes: A national cohort study across 30 years

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, Claire A; Långström, Niklas; Rickert, Martin E; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M

    2013-01-01

    Teenage motherhood is associated with poor offspring outcomes but these associations may be influenced by offspring birth year because of substantial social changes in recent decades. Existing research also has not examined whether these associations are due to the specific effect of mother’s age at childbirth or factors shared by siblings in a family. We used a population-based cohort study in Sweden comprising all children born from 1960–1989 (N=3,162,239), and a subsample of siblings differentially exposed to maternal teenage childbearing (N=485,259) to address these limitations. We examined the effect of teenage childbearing on offspring violent and nonviolent criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. Population-wide, teenage childbearing was associated with offspring criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. The magnitude of these associations increased over time. Comparisons of differentially exposed siblings indicated no within-family association between teenage childbearing and offspring violent and nonviolent criminal convictions or poor academic performance, although offspring born to teenage mothers were more likely to experience substance-related problems than their later-born siblings. Being born to a teenage mother in Sweden has become increasingly associated with negative outcomes across time, but the nature of this association may differ by outcome. Teenage childbearing may be associated with offspring violent and nonviolent criminal convictions and poor academic performance because of shared familial risk factors but may be causally associated with offspring substance-related problems. The findings suggest that interventions to improve offspring outcomes should delay teenage childbearing and target risk factors influencing all offspring of teenage mothers. PMID:23632141

  6. Blackfoot disease in Taiwan: a 30-year follow-up study

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, W.P.

    1989-06-01

    Blackfoot disease is an endemic peripheral vascular disease found among the inhabitants of a limited area on the southwest coast of Taiwan, where artesian well water with a high concentration of arsenic has been used for more than eighty years. The natural history of blackfoot disease, based on a prospective study of 1,300 patients, is presented. The overall male/female ratio was 1.5:1. Although the clinical onset was usually insidious, it may be quite sudden and almost always begins with numbness or coldness in one or more extremities, usually the feet. Ultimately, rest pain develops and progresses to gangrene. In this series, 68% of the patients underwent spontaneous or operative amputation, and the reamputation rate was 23.3%. Lower extremity involvement in blackfoot disease was observed in 97.7% of the cases. The average annual rate for major amputation was 3.81 per 100 patient-years. The factors influencing the prognosis, such as amputation in relation to age and disease onset, are analyzed. The case fatality rate was 66.5% during thirty years; 44% of these were cardiovascular deaths. The annual death rate was 4.84 per 100 patient-years. Other reported case fatality rates for vascular insufficiency are reviewed. A dose-response relationship between blackfoot disease and the duration of water intake was also noted. The survival rates after the onset of blackfoot disease were: five years, 76.0%; ten years, 59.5%; twenty years, 38.2%; thirty years, 28.6%. The 50% survival point was 13.5 years after onset of the disease.

  7. The association between teenage motherhood and poor offspring outcomes: a national cohort study across 30 years.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Claire A; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2013-06-01

    Teenage motherhood is associated with poor offspring outcomes but these associations may be influenced by offspring birth year because of substantial social changes in recent decades. Existing research also has not examined whether these associations are due to the specific effect of mother's age at childbirth or factors shared by siblings in a family. We used a population-based cohort study in Sweden comprising all children born from 1960 to 1989 (N = 3,162,239), and a subsample of siblings differentially exposed to maternal teenage childbearing (N = 485,259) to address these limitations. We examined the effect of teenage childbearing on offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. Population-wide teenage childbearing was associated with offspring criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. The magnitude of these associations increased over time. Comparisons of differentially exposed siblings indicated no within-family association between teenage childbearing and offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions or poor academic performance, although offspring born to teenage mothers were more likely to experience substance-related problems than their later-born siblings. Being born to a teenage mother in Sweden has become increasingly associated with negative outcomes across time, but the nature of this association may differ by outcome. Teenage childbearing may be associated with offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions and poor academic performance because of shared familial risk factors, but may be causally associated with offspring substance-related problems. The findings suggest that interventions to improve offspring outcomes should delay teenage childbearing and also target risk factors influencing all offspring of teenage mothers.

  8. Association between Birth Interval and Cardiovascular Outcomes at 30 Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Devakumar, D.; Hallal, P. C.; Horta, B. L.; Barros, F. C.; Wells, J. C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth interval is an important and potentially modifiable factor that is associated with child health. Whether an association exists with longer-term outcomes in adults is less well known. Methods Using the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, the association of birth interval with markers of cardiovascular health at 30 years of age was examined. Multivariable linear regression was used with birth interval as a continuous variable and categorical variable, and effect modification by gender was explored. Results Birth interval and cardiovascular data were present for 2,239 individuals. With birth interval as a continuous variable, no association was found but stratification by gender tended to show stronger associations for girls. When compared to birth intervals of <18 months, as binary variable, longer intervals were associated with increases in height (1.6 cm; 95% CI: 0.5, 2.8) and lean mass (1.7 kg; 95% CI: 0.2, 3.2). No difference was seen with other cardiovascular outcomes. Conclusions An association was generally not found between birth interval and cardiovascular outcomes at 30 years of age, though some evidence existed for differences between males and females and for an association with height and lean mass for birth intervals of 18 months and longer. PMID:26890250

  9. Changes in the management and survival rates of patients with oral cancer: a 30-year single-institution study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the management and 5-year survival rates of patients with oral cancer in our department over a 30-year period. Materials and Methods We investigated the patient distributions, treatment methods, method of neck dissection according to cancer stage, and 5-year survival rates for 700 oral cancer patients over the periods of 1982–1996 (256 patients), 1999–2006 (248 patients), and 2007–2011 (196 patients). Results Stage IV patients were the largest group in all of the time periods evaluated. Although surgery and radiotherapy were the most common methods in all periods (over 50%), the prevalence of patients who underwent concomitant chemoradiotherapy increased from 7.0% to 16.2%. The use of radical neck dissection decreased from 43.0% to 5.3%, while conservative surgical methods increased from 24.1% to 76.3%. Lastly, the overall 5-year survival rate increased from 31.6% to 63.5% during the study period. Conclusion Although the 5-year survival rate reached the same level as that of other developed countries during the course of our study, most patients continue to come to the hospital with stage IV disease. In order to increase the 5-year survival rate of oral carcinoma, it may be necessary to improve public education and social efforts relevant to early diagnosis. PMID:26904492

  10. Proximity to food establishments and body mass index in the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort over 30 years.

    PubMed

    Block, Jason P; Christakis, Nicholas A; O'Malley, A James; Subramanian, S V

    2011-11-15

    Existing evidence linking residential proximity to food establishments with body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) has been inconclusive. In this study, the authors assessed the relation between BMI and proximity to food establishments over a 30-year period among 3,113 subjects in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort living in 4 Massachusetts towns during 1971-2001. The authors used novel data that included repeated measures of BMI and accounted for residential mobility and the appearance and disappearance of food establishments. They calculated proximity to food establishments as the driving distance between each subject's residence and nearby food establishments, divided into 6 categories. The authors used cross-classified linear mixed models to account for time-varying attributes of individuals and residential neighborhoods. Each 1-km increase in distance to the closest fast-food restaurant was associated with a 0.11-unit decrease in BMI (95% credible interval: -0.20, -0.04). In sex-stratified analyses, this association was present only for women. Other aspects of the food environment were either inconsistently associated or not at all associated with BMI. Contrary to much prior research, the authors did not find a consistent relation between access to fast-food restaurants and individual BMI, necessitating a reevaluation of policy discussions on the anticipated impact of the food environment on weight gain.

  11. Adult neurobehavioral outcome of hyperbilirubinemia in full term neonates-a 30 year prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hokkanen, Laura; Launes, Jyrki; Michelsson, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Background. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (HB) may cause severe neurological damage, but serious consequences are effectively controlled by phototherapy and blood exchange transfusion. HB is still a serious health problem in economically compromised parts of the world. The long term outcome has been regarded favorable based on epidemiological data, but has not been confirmed in prospective follow-up studies extending to adulthood. Methods. We studied the long term consequences of HB in a prospective birth cohort of 128 HB cases and 82 controls. The cases are part of a neonatal at-risk cohort (n = 1196) that has been followed up to 30 years of age. HB cases were newborns ≥ 2500 g birth weight and ≥ 37 weeks of gestation who had bilirubin concentrations > 340 µmol/l or required blood exchange transfusion. Subjects with HB were divided into subgroups based on the presence (affected HB) or absence (unaffected HB) of diagnosed neurobehavioral disorders in childhood, and compared with healthy controls. Subjects were seen at discharge, 5, 9 and 16 years of life and parent's and teacher's assessments were recorded. At 30 years they filled a questionnaire about academic and occupational achievement, life satisfaction, somatic and psychiatric symptoms including a ADHD self-rating score. Cognitive functioning was tested using ITPA, WISC, and reading and writing tests at 9 years of life. Results. Compared to controls, the odds for a child with HB having neurobehavioral symptoms at 9 years was elevated (OR = 4.68). Forty-five per cent of the HB group were affected by cognitive abnormalities in childhood and continued to experience problems in adulthood. This was apparent in academic achievement (p < 0.0001) and the ability to complete secondary (p < 0.0001) and tertiary (p < 0.004) education. Also, the subgroup of affected HB reported persisting cognitive complaints e.g., problems with reading, writing and mathematics. Childhood symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity (p < 0

  12. Giftedness, Trauma, and Development: A Qualitative, Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…

  13. Childhood Otitis Media: A Cohort Study with 30-year Follow-Up of Hearing (The HUNT study)

    PubMed Central

    Aarhus, Lisa; Tambs, Kristian; Kvestad, Ellen; Engdahl, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To study the extent to which otitis media in childhood is associated with adult hearing thresholds. Furthermore, to study if the effects of otitis media on adult hearing thresholds are moderated by age or noise exposure. Design Population-based cohort study of 32,786 participants who had their hearing tested by pure-tone audiometry in primary school and again at ages ranging from 20–56 years. 3066 children were diagnosed with hearing loss, the remaining sample had normal childhood hearing. Results Compared to participants with normal childhood hearing, those diagnosed with childhood hearing loss caused by otitis media with effusion (n=1255), chronic suppurative otitis media (n=108) or hearing loss after recurrent acute otitis media (n=613) had significantly reduced adult hearing thresholds in the whole frequency range (2 dB/17–20 dB/7–10 dB, respectively). The effects were adjusted for age, sex and noise exposure. Children diagnosed with hearing loss after recurrent acute otitis media had somewhat improved hearing thresholds as adults. The effects of chronic suppurative otitis media and hearing loss after recurrent acute otitis media on adult hearing thresholds were larger in participants tested in middle adulthood (ages 40 to 56 years) than in those tested in young adulthood (ages 20 to 40 years). Eardrum pathology added a marginally increased risk of adult hearing loss (1–3 dB) in children with otitis media with effusion or hearing loss after recurrent acute otitis media. Our study could not reveal significant differences in the effect of self-reported noise exposure on adult hearing thresholds between the groups with otitis media and the group with normal childhood hearing. Conclusions This cohort study indicates that chronic suppurative otitis media and recurrent acute otitis media in childhood are associated with adult hearing loss, underlining the importance of optimal treatment in these conditions. It appears that ears with a subsequent

  14. Quality Control Measures over 30 Years in a Multicenter Clinical Study: Results from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial / Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Arends, Valerie L.; Danis, Ronald P.; Diminick, Lisa; Klumpp, Kandace A.; Morrison, Anthony D.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Steffes, Michael W.; Cleary, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of multicenter and/or longitudinal studies requires an effective quality assurance program to identify trends, data inconsistencies and process variability of results over time. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and the follow-up Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study represent over 30 years of data collection among a cohort of participants across 27 clinical centers. The quality assurance plan is overseen by the Data Coordinating Center and is implemented across the clinical centers and central reading units. Each central unit incorporates specific DCCT/EDIC quality monitoring activities into their routine quality assurance plan. The results are reviewed by a data quality assurance committee whose function is to identify variances in quality that may impact study results from the central units as well as within and across clinical centers, and to recommend implementation of corrective procedures when necessary. Over the 30-year period, changes to the methods, equipment, or clinical procedures have been required to keep procedures current and ensure continued collection of scientifically valid and clinically relevant results. Pilot testing to compare historic processes with contemporary alternatives is performed and comparability is validated prior to incorporation of new procedures into the study. Details of the quality assurance plan across and within the clinical and central reading units are described, and quality outcomes for core measures analyzed by the central reading units (e.g. biochemical samples, fundus photographs, ECGs) are presented. PMID:26529311

  15. Biologic score and mortality based on a 30-year mortality follow-up: radiation effects research foundation adult health study.

    PubMed

    Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Yamada, Michiko; Sasaki, Hideo; Fujita, Shoichiro

    2009-08-01

    This study aimed to test whether scored biologic functions can predict individual life expectancies and to investigate the disease-related and time-related differences in evaluated associations. A biologic score was defined as the first principal component score of the five physiological tests. Study participants were 4,871 people aged 35-74 years at baseline examination in 1970-1972 and followed until the end of 1999. We evaluated the prognostic value of the biologic score by Cox proportional hazard analysis. In all age and sex groups, increasing trends of mortality for all diseases by increment of biologic score were observed after adjustment for potential risk factors. The validity of the biologic score was significant throughout the entire study period. Each disease except cancer showed a significant association with biologic score at baseline examination. In conclusion, the biologic score is a valid predictor of life span in this large-scale prospective study of middle-aged and elderly Japanese.

  16. 30-Year Trends in Stroke Rates and Outcome in Auckland, New Zealand (1981-2012): A Multi-Ethnic Population-Based Series of Studies

    PubMed Central

    Feigin, Valery L.; Krishnamurthi, Rita V.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; McPherson, Kathryn M.; Barber, P. Alan; Parag, Varsha; Arroll, Bruce; Bennett, Derrick A.; Tobias, Martin; Jones, Amy; Witt, Emma; Brown, Paul; Abbott, Max; Bhattacharjee, Rohit; Rush, Elaine; Suh, Flora Minsun; Theadom, Alice; Rathnasabapathy, Yogini; Te Ao, Braden; Parmar, Priya G.; Anderson, Craig; Bonita, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background Insufficient data exist on population-based trends in morbidity and mortality to determine the success of prevention strategies and improvements in health care delivery in stroke. The aim of this study was to determine trends in incidence and outcome (1-year mortality, 28-day case-fatality) in relation to management and risk factors for stroke in the multi-ethnic population of Auckland, New Zealand (NZ) over 30-years. Methods Four stroke incidence population-based register studies were undertaken in adult residents (aged ≥15 years) of Auckland NZ in 1981–1982, 1991–1992, 2002–2003 and 2011–2012. All used standard World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria and multiple overlapping sources of case-ascertainment for hospitalised and non-hospitalised, fatal and non-fatal, new stroke events. Ethnicity was consistently self-identified into four major groups. Crude and age-adjusted (WHO world population standard) annual incidence and mortality with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated per 100,000 people, assuming a Poisson distribution. Results 5400 new stroke patients were registered in four 12 month recruitment phases over the 30-year study period; 79% were NZ/European, 6% Māori, 8% Pacific people, and 7% were of Asian or other origin. Overall stroke incidence and 1-year mortality decreased by 23% (95% CI 5%-31%) and 62% (95% CI 36%-86%), respectively, from 1981 to 2012. Whilst stroke incidence and mortality declined across all groups in NZ from 1991, Māori and Pacific groups had the slowest rate of decline and continue to experience stroke at a significantly younger age (mean ages 60 and 62 years, respectively) compared with NZ/Europeans (mean age 75 years). There was also a decline in 28-day stroke case fatality (overall by 14%, 95% CI 11%-17%) across all ethnic groups from 1981 to 2012. However, there were significant increases in the frequencies of pre-morbid hypertension, myocardial infarction, and diabetes

  17. Digit ratio (2D:4D), sex differences, allometry, and finger length of 12-30-year olds: evidence from the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) Internet study.

    PubMed

    Manning, John T

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have reported digit ratio (2D:4D) to be sexually dimorphic, (males lower 2D:4D than females). However, Kratochvíl and Flegr ([2009]: Biol Lett 5:643-646) have suggested that 2D regressed on 4D has an allometric regression line with nonzero Y-intercept that is shared by males and females. Thus, 2D is shorter than expected when 4D is long, and males have lower 2D:4D than females because they have longer fingers. In this study, it is shown that this suggestion may be incorrect because sex differences in slope were not considered. Participants were recruited in an Internet study and had an age range of 12-30 years. The expected sex difference in 2D:4D was found, and the regression of 2D on 4D showed a significant sex difference in slope (males lower than females). A comparison of 10 age groups (12 years, 13 years..., 21-30 years) showed that sexual dimorphism for fingers was age dependent, varying from monomorphic to very dimorphic. Changes in sexual dimorphism of 2D:4D were much less marked, but there was a significant reduction in mean 2D:4D with age. The tendency for slopes of 2D regressed on 4D to be lower in males compared with females was significant in eight age groups. Sex difference in 2D:4D varied across the age groups and was positively related to the magnitude of the difference in female and male slopes. In contrast to the report of Kratochvíl and Flegr, it was found that the regression of 2D on 4D showed sex differences in slope, and such differences gave rise to the sexual dimorphism in 2D:4D.

  18. Vulnerability and Resiliency: A Longitudinal Study of Asian Americans from Birth to Age 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Emmy E.

    A 30-year longitudinal study was undertaken in order to document the course, and determine the outcome, of all pregnancies in a community of Asian Americans on Kauai, the western most of the Hawaiian Islands and equidistant from the continental United States and Japan. The project's goal was to document both the good and poor outcomes of the…

  19. Climate warming alters effects of management on population viability of threatened species: results from a 30-year experimental study on a rare orchid.

    PubMed

    Sletvold, Nina; Dahlgren, Johan P; Oien, Dag-Inge; Moen, Asbjørn; Ehrlén, Johan

    2013-09-01

    Climate change is expected to influence the viability of populations both directly and indirectly, via species interactions. The effects of large-scale climate change are also likely to interact with local habitat conditions. Management actions designed to preserve threatened species therefore need to adapt both to the prevailing climate and local conditions. Yet, few studies have separated the direct and indirect effects of climatic variables on the viability of local populations and discussed the implications for optimal management. We used 30 years of demographic data to estimate the simultaneous effects of management practice and among-year variation in four climatic variables on individual survival, growth and fecundity in one coastal and one inland population of the perennial orchid Dactylorhiza lapponica in Norway. Current management, mowing, is expected to reduce competitive interactions. Statistical models of how climate and management practice influenced vital rates were incorporated into matrix population models to quantify effects on population growth rate. Effects of climate differed between mown and control plots in both populations. In particular, population growth rate increased more strongly with summer temperature in mown plots than in control plots. Population growth rate declined with spring temperature in the inland population, and with precipitation in the coastal population, and the decline was stronger in control plots in both populations. These results illustrate that both direct and indirect effects of climate change are important for population viability and that net effects depend both on local abiotic conditions and on biotic conditions in terms of management practice and intensity of competition. The results also show that effects of management practices influencing competitive interactions can strongly depend on climatic factors. We conclude that interactions between climate and management should be considered to reliably predict

  20. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis.

  1. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject’s age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis. PMID:26124106

  2. 30 Years Later - a New Approach to Sol Spiegelman's and Leslie Orgel's in vitro EVOLUTIONARY STUDIES Dedicated to Leslie Orgel on the occasion of his 70th birthday

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehlenschläger, Frank; Eigen, Manfred

    1997-12-01

    comprises the in vivo primer binding site (PBS) for the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. It could be shown that after only two serial transfers two RNA species (EP1 and EP2) emerged that were much shorter. EP1 (48b) and EP2 (54b) were formed by deletion mutations within the original 220b RNA template in the very beginning of the serial transfer experiment; due to their higher replication rate (calculated from the growth curves derived on-line) these two deletion mutants displaced the original 220b RNA template in the course of the following thirty transfers. We assume that these two RNA species evolved independently of each other. Their formation was probably induced by a strand-transfer reaction of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Sequence analyses of these two evolution products seem to confirm such a presented pathway. 30 years after Spiegelman's experiment, the study described here is another answer to the question he posed: `How do molecules evolve if the only demand is the biblical injunction: multiply?'. The answer, derived from a modified 3SR amplification system (mimicking a part of the HIV-1 replication cycle in vitro), is the same as thirty years ago: The RNA molecules adapt to the new conditions by throwing away any ballast not needed for fast replication. Clearly, this is only one aspect of molecular evolution; however, it shows that we should be careful in designating unidentified genetic material as `junk DNA'.

  3. Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.

    2007-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present study are to introduce the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability, the first longitudinal twin study in which subjects have been specifically selected for having a history of reading difficulties, and to present some initial assessments of the stability of reading performance and cognitive…

  4. Fears in Czech Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalcáková, Radka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kyjonková, Hana; Bouša, Ondrej; Jelínek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates developmental patterns of fear in adolescence. It is based on longitudinal data collected as a part of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) project. A total of 186 Czech adolescents (43% girls) were assessed repeatedly at the age of 11, 13, and 15 years. The free-response method was…

  5. A longitudinal study of confabulation.

    PubMed

    Dalla Barba, Gianfranco; Brazzarola, Marta; Marangoni, Sara; Barbera, Claudia; Zannoni, Ilaria

    2017-02-01

    Confabulation, the production of statements and actions that are unintentionally incongruous to the subject's history, background, present and future situation, is a rather infrequent disorder, observed in several conditions affecting the nervous system. Little is known about the quantitative and qualitative evolution of confabulation in time. In this study we evaluated longitudinally the evolution of this disorder in a group of severe confabulators, using the Confabulation Battery (CB), a sensitive tool to detect confabulations in various memory domains. It was found that confabulations were stable over time and not temporally limited. It was also found that "Habits Confabulations" (HCs), i.e., habits and repeated personal events mistaken as specific, unique past and future personal episodes, or well-known public events when semantic knowledge is concerned, was the more frequently observed type of confabulation. Confabulations were also more prominent in the domain of Temporal Consciousness (TC), i.e., a specific form of consciousness that allows individuals to remember their personal past, to be oriented in their present world and to predict their personal future, than in Knowing Consciousness (KC), i.e., a specific form of consciousness allowing individuals to be aware of past, present and future impersonal knowledge and information. Confabulations showed also persistence, i.e., confabulations at the same questions over time, and consistency, i.e., same type of confabulation at the same question over time. These findings are discussed within the framework of the Memory, Consciousness and Temporality Theory.

  6. 30 years of cosmic fullerenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berné, O.; Montillaud, J.; Mulas, G.; Joblin, C.

    2015-12-01

    In 1985, ``During experiments aimed at understanding the mechanisms by which long-chain carbon molecules are formed in interstellar space and circumstellar shells'', Harry Kroto and his collaborators serendipitously discovered a new form of carbon: fullerenes. The most emblematic fullerene (i.e. C_{60} ``buckminsterfullerene''), contains exactly 60 carbon atoms organized in a cage-like structure similar to a soccer ball. Since their discovery impacted the field of nanotechnologies, Kroto and colleagues received the Nobel prize in 1996. The cage-like structure, common to all fullerene molecules, gives them unique properties, in particular an extraordinary stability. For this reason and since they were discovered in experiments aimed to reproduce conditions in space, fullerenes were sought after by astronomers for over two decades, and it is only recently that they have been firmly identified by spectroscopy, in evolved stars and in the interstellar medium. This identification offered the opportunity to study the molecular physics of fullerenes in the unique physical conditions provided by space, and to make the link with other large carbonaceous molecules thought to be present in space : polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  7. Longitudinal Studies of Spelling Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick

    Noting that proposed models of literacy development suggest that reading and writing mutually influence and grow from each other, this paper summarizes aspects of stage theories of literacy development and an integrative model, and considers how the model fared in empirical longitudinal tests. The paper begins with a summary of the modal aspects…

  8. Test anxiety inventory: 30 years later.

    PubMed

    Szafranski, Derek D; Barrera, Terri L; Norton, Peter J

    2012-11-01

    Research suggests that test anxiety is associated with a number of maladaptive factors. The majority of test anxiety research includes the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) as a primary outcome variable. However, the TAI was normed on college undergraduates in 1980. The academic landscape has altered in a variety of ways in the past 30 years, which may result in out-of-date norms. This study examined changes in TAI scores in college undergraduates (n =437) as well as convergent validity with measures of trait anxiety and academic performance. Results indicated increases in TAI scores for females while holding constant for males. Additionally, females and males displayed positive correlations between the TAI and state-trait anxiety inventory, while only females displayed a significant negative correlation between the TAI and grade point average. Data provide evidence of changes in TAI scores. As a result, researchers should be careful when drawing conclusions based on original TAI norms, especially in the case of female undergraduates.

  9. Interannual control of plankton communities by deep winter mixing and prey/predator interactions in the NW Mediterranean: Results from a 30-year 3D modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, P. A.; Ulses, C.; Estournel, C.; Stemmann, L.; Somot, S.; Diaz, F.

    2014-05-01

    A realistic modeling approach is designed to address the role of winter mixing on the interannual variability of plankton dynamics in the north-western (NW) Mediterranean basin. For the first time, a high-resolution coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model (Eco3m-S) covering a 30-year period (1976-2005) is validated on available in situ and satellite data for the NW Mediterranean. In this region, cold, dry winds in winter often lead to deep convection and strong upwelling of nutrients into the euphotic layer. High nutrient contents at the end of winter then support the development of a strong spring bloom of phytoplankton. Model results indicate that annual primary production is not affected by winter mixing due to seasonal balance (minimum in winter and maximum in spring). However, the total annual water column-integrated phytoplankton biomass appears to be favored by winter mixing because zooplankton grazing activity is low in winter and early spring. This reduced grazing is explained here by the rarefaction of prey due to both light limitation and the effect of mixing-induced dilution on prey/predator interactions. A negative impact of winter mixing on winter zooplankton biomass is generally simulated except for mesozooplankton. This difference is assumed to stem from the lower parameterized mortality, top trophic position and detritivorous diet of mesozooplankton in the model. Moreover, model suggests that the variability of annual mesozooplankton biomass is principally modulated by the effects of winter mixing on winter biomass. Thus, interannual variability of winter nutrient contents in the euphotic layer, resulting from winter mixing, would control spring primary production and thus annual mesozooplankton biomass. Our results show a bottom-up control of mesozooplankton communities, as observed at a coastal location of the Ligurian Sea.

  10. Lessons from 30 Years of Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, David C.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation takes a brief historical look at flight software over the past 30 years, extracts lessons learned and shows how many of the lessons learned are embodied in the Flight Software product line called the core Flight System (cFS). It also captures the lessons learned from developing and applying the cFS.

  11. MEDPREP--30 Years of Making a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Evelyn W.; McGlinn, Shirley; Rainey, Michael; Bardo, Harold R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Medical/Dental Education Preparatory Program (MEDPREP) of Southern Illinois University School of Medicine. Over the course of its 30-year history, 68 percent of students have been accepted to professional schools, with 92 percent being accepted to medical schools and attending 90 different medical schools in the country. Of those…

  12. Is Long-Term Prognosis for Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Different from Prognosis for Autistic Disorder? Findings from a 30-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mordre, Marianne; Groholt, Berit; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Sponheim, Eili; Mykletun, Arnstein; Myhre, Anne Margrethe

    2012-01-01

    We followed 74 children with autistic disorder (AD) and 39 children with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD NOS) for 17-38 years in a record linkage study. Rates of disability pension award, marital status, criminality and mortality were compared between groups. Disability pension award was the only outcome measure that…

  13. Longitudinal Studies--Are They Worth It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Judith

    A longitudinal study of otitis media in young children, begun in 1981, aimed to provide information on the incidence and prevalence of otitis media in young children in the Newcastle (England) region and to follow their academic progress. Subjects selected for the study were kindergartners in five schools and represented an ethnically homogeneous…

  14. Is long-term prognosis for pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified different from prognosis for autistic disorder? Findings from a 30-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Mordre, Marianne; Groholt, Berit; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Sponheim, Eili; Mykletun, Arnstein; Myhre, Anne Margrethe

    2012-06-01

    We followed 74 children with autistic disorder (AD) and 39 children with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD NOS) for 17-38 years in a record linkage study. Rates of disability pension award, marital status, criminality and mortality were compared between groups. Disability pension award was the only outcome measure that differed significantly between the AD and PDD NOS groups (89% vs. 72%, p < 0.05). The lower rate of disability pension award in the PDD NOS group was predicted by better psychosocial functioning. The lack of substantial differences in prognosis between the groups supports a dimensional description of autism spectrum disorder, in line with proposed DSM-V revision.

  15. Biomechanics of Distance Running: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Richard C.; Gregor, Robert J.

    1976-01-01

    Training for distance running over a long period produces meaningful changes in the running mechanics of experienced runners, as revealed in this longitudinal study of the biomechanical components of stride length, stride rate, stride time, and support and nonsupport time. (MB)

  16. Collaborative Knowledge-Building: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Qing

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on knowledge-building in a technology-supported learning environment in higher education through a longitudinal study of a graduate course from 2003 to 2007. The primary question is: how do learning conditions designed into a graduate course contribute to collaborative knowledge building? In particular, two major…

  17. "JTPE": A 30-Year Retrospective of Published Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Jesse L.; Woods, Amelia M.; Daum, David N.; Ellison, Douglas; Trendowski, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    This case study presents an examination of 30 years of "Journal of Teaching in Physical Education" ("JTPE") research. The purpose of this study was to provide a retrospective view of "JTPE" and its contribution to the field of physical education. In this effort the current study employed citation analysis, co-author…

  18. Long-Term Impact of Family Arguments and Physical Violence on Adult Functioning at Age 30 Years: Findings from the Simmons Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradis, Angela D.; Reinherz, Helen Z.; Giaconia, Rose M.; Beardslee, William R.; Ward, Kirsten; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.

    2009-01-01

    Family arguments by the age of 15 and family physical violence by the age of 18 is found to significantly compromise key domains of adult functioning at age 30. The findings are based on data from 346 participants whose psychosocial development has been followed since age 5.

  19. What Can We Learn From Longitudinal Studies of Adult Development?

    PubMed Central

    Schaie, K. Warner

    2005-01-01

    This article distinguishes between normal and pathological aging, provides an interdisciplinary context, and then considers a sample case of cognitive aging. Developmental influences on cognition include the physiological infrastructure, genetic predispositions, and environmental influences. Different types of longitudinal studies are distinguished, and contrasting findings of cross-sectional and longitudinal are examined in the sample case of the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Also considered is the longitudinal context for intervention studies and the role of longitudinal family studies in assessing rate of aging and generational differences in rates of aging. Finally, attention is given to the role of longitudinal studies in the early detection of risk for dementia in advanced age. PMID:16467912

  20. Solid waste 30-year volume summary

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, O.J.; Armacost, L.L.; DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J.; Williams, N.C.

    1994-06-01

    A 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes to be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site is described in this report. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU/TRUM) waste that will require treatment, storage, and disposal at Hanford`s Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during the 30-year period from FY 1994 through FY 2023. The data used to complete this document were collected from onsite and offsite waste generators who currently, or are planning to, ship solid wastes to the Hanford Site. An analysis of the data suggests that over 300,000 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste will be managed at Hanford`s SWOC over the next 30 years. An extensive effort was made this year to collect this information. The 1993 solid waste forecast was used as a starting point, which identified approximately 100,000 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste to be sent to the SWOC. After analyzing the forecast waste volume, it was determined that additional waste was expected from the tank waste remediation system (TWRS), onsite decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities, and onsite remedial action (RA) activities. Data presented in this report establish a starting point for solid waste management planning. It is recognized that forecast estimates will vary (typically increasing) as facility planning and missions continue to change and become better defined, but the information presented still provides useful insight into Hanford`s future solid waste management requirements.

  1. A 30-Year Global Wave Hindcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrant, Tom; Hemer, Mark; Trenham, Claire; Greenslade, Diana

    2013-04-01

    Many Pacific Islands are vulnerable to impacts of waves through coastal inundation, coastal and beach erosion, wave driven lagoon circulation, disturbances to reef habitats etc. On steep continental shelves like Pacific island coral atolls, surface waves are the dominant contributor to coastal sea-level extremes via wave set-up. A recent review of the availability of modelled and observed wave data in the Pacific region noted the need for a high-quality multi-decadal wave climate data set. The absence of high temporal resolution spectral wave data was noted, with existing hindcast products assessed as being of inadequate spatial and temporal resolution in general. Wave hindcast resolution has historically been limited by the resolution of available winds. The recently completed National Centers for Environmental Prediction's (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) surface winds now provide a consistent product at 0.3°, hourly resolution over the past 30 years, providing a valuable source of forcing for wave hindcasting. As part of the Pacific-Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Program (PACCSAP), work is being carried out examining recent, existing and projected future ocean wave conditions with a focus on the Pacific region. As part of this work, a 30-year (1979-2009) global wave hindcast has been produced, using CFSR wind forcing. Details of this hindcast will be presented including an assessment of the quality of the data set using in-situ buoy and satellite altimeter data.

  2. Predictors of Transfer Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    Department of Psychology . : PREDICTORS OF TRANSFER AIIJUSTNEN: . A LONGITUDIN4AL STUDY"- Jaues B. Shaw Cynthia D. Fisher and Richard W. Woodman...1985 Acssa o NTIS GRA&I TR-ONR-7 DTIC TAB Unannounced E Just ification Distribution/ Department of Psychology Availability Codes Department of...PROJECT. TASKAREA & WORK UNIT NUMIBERS Departments of Management and Psychology 62763 N Texas.A&M University RF 63521 College Station, TX 77843 RF

  3. [Methodological problems of longitudinal studies on schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Häfner, H; an der Heiden, W

    2000-05-01

    Longitudinal studies are a key to understanding schizophrenia. They are the more informative, the longer the periods covered. Hence, good studies into the course of schizophrenia almost exclusively involve a lot of effort and cost. In practice, however, time-consuming methods and design variables must be avoided. The pitfalls this constraint produces are instructive of the difficulties longitudinal studies are faced with in striving for valid results. For reasons of research economy, requirements must be adjusted to study objectives. Studies into the short term course are less time-consuming, but because of the rapid changes in the illness course study intervals should be defined clearly and observed strictly. In long-term studies, too, one source of error lies in the highly varying lengths of illness of the patients studied. Even some of the classic long-term studies are marred by this error. The beginning of the follow-up period should be comparable across the study cohort and as close to illness onset as possible. To obtain generally valid results the probands must be representative of all the illness cases in the general population not only at the outset, but also all the later stages of the study. Besides the efforts to avoid attrition in the study cohort, ways must be found for correcting and estimating data for an acceptable proportion of drop-outs. In the analysis of course and outcome the indicators chosen must be apt to the traditional subtypes as well as to a theoretical symptom patterns and empirical symptom structures. In the context of typical design variables of longitudinal studies the assets and weaknesses of two retrospective and one prospective design will be discussed. Concerning the social course, importance of disease-independent factors, such as age, sex and level of social development at illness onset, as well as of control groups will be demonstrated. Predictor models will be discussed with reference to the direct and indirect influences

  4. Cognitive Systems Engineering: The Next 30 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is part of panel discussion on Cognitive Systems Engineering. The purpose of this panel is to discuss the challenges and future directions of Cognitive Systems Engineering for the next 30 years. I intended to present the work we have been doing with the Aviation Safety program and Space Human Factors Engineering project on Work Domain Analysis and some areas of Research Focus. Specifically, I intend to focus on the shift on the need to understand and model attention in mixed-initiative systems, the need for methods which can generate results to be used in trade-off decisions, and the need to account for a range of human behavior in the design.

  5. Gallstone ileus 30 years status postcholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Zens, Tiffany; Liebl, R Scott

    2010-12-01

    Gallstone ileus is an uncommon cause of small bowel obstruction which occurs in patients with chronic cholecystitis and gallstones who develop a cholecystoenteric fistula. Although gallstone ileus is relatively rare, it has a substantial mortality rate due in part to patient comorbidities and delays in treatment. We describe the case of a 94-year-old woman who presented with nausea, vomiting, mild abdominal tenderness, leukocytosis, and a 2.5-cm obstruction in her small bowel. Even though this patient underwent a total cholecystectomy 30 years prior, a 2.5-cm gallstone was surgically removed from her ileum. This case illustrates the importance of including gallstone ileus in the differential diagnosis for patients who present with small bowel obstruction even decades postcholecystectomy.

  6. A longitudinal study of urea cycle disorders.

    PubMed

    Batshaw, Mark L; Tuchman, Mendel; Summar, Marshall; Seminara, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC) is a member of the NIH funded Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network and is performing a longitudinal study of 8 urea cycle disorders (UCDs) with initial enrollment beginning in 2006. The consortium consists of 14 sites in the U.S., Canada and Europe. This report summarizes data mining studies of 614 patients with UCDs enrolled in the UCDC's longitudinal study protocol. The most common disorder is ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, accounting for more than half of the participants. We calculated the overall prevalence of urea cycle disorders to be 1/35,000, with 2/3rds presenting initial symptoms after the newborn period. We found the mortality rate to be 24% in neonatal onset cases and 11% in late onset cases. The most common precipitant of clinical hyperammonemic episodes in the post-neonatal period was intercurrent infections. Elevations in both blood ammonia and glutamine appeared to be biomarkers for neurocognitive outcome. In terms of chronic treatment, low protein diet appeared to result in normal weight but decreased linear growth while N-scavenger therapy with phenylbutyrate resulted in low levels of branched chain amino acids. Finally, we found an unexpectedly high risk for hepatic dysfunction in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. This natural history study illustrates how a collaborative study of a rare genetic disorder can result in an improved understanding of morbidity and disease outcome.

  7. A longitudinal study of urea cycle disorders

    PubMed Central

    Batshaw, Mark L.; Tuchman, Mendel; Summar, Marshall; Seminara, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The urea cycle disorders consortium (UCDC) is a member of the NIH funded Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network and is performing a longitudinal study of 8 urea cycle disorders (UCD) with initial enrollment beginning in 2006. The consortium consists of 14 sites in the U.S., Canada and Europe. This report summarizes data mining studies of 614 patients with UCD enrolled in the UCDC’s longitudinal study protocol. The most common disorder is ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, accounting for more than half of the participants. We calculated the overall prevalence of urea cycle disorders to be 1/35,000, with 2/3rds presenting initial symptoms after the newborn period. We found the mortality rate to be 24% in neonatal onset cases and 11% in late onset cases. The most common precipitant of clinical hyperammonemic episodes in the post-neonatal period was intercurrent infections. Elevations in both blood ammonia and glutamine appeared to be biomarkers for neurocognitive outcome. In terms of chronic treatment, low protein diet appeared to result in normal weight but decreased linear growth while N-scavenger therapy with phenybutyrate resulted in low levels of branched chain amino acids. Finally, we found an unexpectedly high risk for hepatic dysfunction in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. This natural history study illustrates how a collaborative study of a rare genetic disorder can result in an improved understanding of morbidity and disease outcome. PMID:25135652

  8. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: 30 years later.

    PubMed

    Lesur, O; Berthiaume, Y; Blaise, G; Damas, P; Deland, E; Guimond, J G; Michel, R P

    1999-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was first described about 30 years ago. Modern definitions and statements have recently been proposed to describe ARDS accurately, but none is perfect. Diffuse alveolar damage is the basic pathological pattern most commonly observed in ARDS, and the term includes permeability edema. The alveolar epithelium of the alveolar-capillary barrier is clearly a key component requiring repair, given its multipotent functional activity. Lung inflammation and neutrophil accumulation are essential markers of disease in ARDS, and a wide variety of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines have been described in the alveolar fluid and blood of patients. These molecules still have to prove their value as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers of ARDS. Supportive therapy in ARDS improved in the past decade; mechanical ventilation with lung protective strategies and patient positioning are gaining interest, but the indications for corticosteroids for ARDS are still debated. Nitric oxide may have a place in the treatment of one-third of patients. Novel approaches, such as surfactant replacement and liquid ventilation, may further improve supportive therapy. Innovative interventions may be on the horizon in treatments that help to resolve or modulate common pathways of ARDS, such as inflammation (eg, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor) or epithelial repair (eg, keratinocyte growth factor).

  9. Parental mediation and cyberbullying - a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chng, Grace S; Liau, Albert; Khoo, Angeline; Li, Dongdong

    2014-01-01

    Parents use active and restrictive mediation strategies to guide and regulate children's online participation and the online risks they encounter. However, changes in parental mediation do occur over time and the effectiveness of these strategies on cyberbullying demands for further empirical investigation. The current study addresses these issues with a sample of 1084 students (49% girls) in a longitudinal, three-wave design. Gender differences were tested via multi-group analyses. Longitudinal growth models showed that parental use of both active and restrictive mediation decreased over time. For both types of mediation, the mean rate of change had a significant effect on boys' engagement in cyberbullying, but not for girls. Initial levels of restrictive mediation, but not active mediation, were found to be significantly predictive of cyberbullying in both genders. Girls had higher initial levels of both parental mediation types in comparison to boys. The results reveal that the effectiveness of active and restrictive mediation in relation to students' cyberbullying differs and informs us on gender differences. The implications of these results for parental education in online mediation are discussed.

  10. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS.

  11. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS. PMID:26441696

  12. [Pacemaker implantation in dogs: results of the last 30 years].

    PubMed

    François, L; Chetboul, V; Nicolle, A; Carlos, C; Borenstein, N; Pouchelon, J L

    2004-07-01

    Pacemaker implantation in veterinary practice is still not well known and remains uncommon. However, this technique is the only possible way to cure animals suffering from symptomatic bradycardia whose state does not improve with a medical treatment. In most cases, the use of pacemakers in veterinary medicine leads to the disappearance of the clinical and electrocardiographic signs. This retrospective study concerning the last 30 years draws up an evaluation of the improvements, advantages and drawbacks of this method. Moreover, this study allows the understanding of the evolution of pacemakers' use in veterinary cardiology.

  13. Objectives, Design, and History of the National Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, J. A.; Collins, Elmer

    The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) is a federally supported longitudinal study of a national sample of some 23,000 young people first surveyed as high school seniors in the spring of 1972. The historical precedents of such a study include the work of Friend and Haggert in a Boston settlement house, Louis…

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Adjustment Following Family Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…

  15. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  16. NASA Planetary Science Summer School: Longitudinal Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giron, Jennie M.; Sohus, A.

    2006-12-01

    NASA’s Planetary Science Summer School is a program designed to prepare the next generation of scientists and engineers to participate in future missions of solar system exploration. The opportunity is advertised to science and engineering post-doctoral and graduate students with a strong interest in careers in planetary exploration. Preference is given to U.S. citizens. The “school” consists of a one-week intensive team exercise learning the process of developing a robotic mission concept into reality through concurrent engineering, working with JPL’s Advanced Project Design Team (Team X). This program benefits the students by providing them with skills, knowledge and the experience of collaborating with a concept mission design. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess the impact of the program on the past participants of the program. Data collected included their current contact information, if they are currently part of the planetary exploration community, if participation in the program contributed to any career choices, if the program benefited their career paths, etc. Approximately 37% of 250 past participants responded to the online survey. Of these, 83% indicated that they are actively involved in planetary exploration or aerospace in general; 78% said they had been able to apply what they learned in the program to their current job or professional career; 100% said they would recommend this program to a colleague.

  17. Nars: Over 30 Years of Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulssen, H.

    2014-12-01

    It is fair to say that modern seismology steadily evolved from a handful key initiatives and innovations dating back to the early 1980s. (1) The transition from non-mobile, narrow band sensors with analogue recording (pre-1980s) to portable, broadband sensors with digital recorders paved the way to flexible deployments, enabling various array and regional studies with the same instrumentation. Here I mention just two initiatives: NARS, which was the first digital, mobile network of broadband stations deployed in western Europe (1983-1987), and USarray (2003- ), which is the biggest program of recent times. Presently, innovative data acquisition systems for the oceans are underway and they will allow future imaging of the "inaccessible" parts of the Earth. (2) In the 1980s seismological data centers were set up to facilitate data archiving and distribution. Since then, open data exchange (not a matter of course) and easy data retrieval have become standard. The impact of this has been phenomenal: most observational studies efficiently retrieve data from these main seismological data centers and the archived seismograms are used for various types of studies, carried out by different persons and groups. (3) Seismic tomography changed the face of seismological research. From travel time to waveform tomography, from ray theory to finite frequency tomography: new and improved tomographic techniques greatly enhanced our images (and understanding) of the Earth's interior. (4) Many of these developments would not have been possible without young, motivated, seismologists that were educated and stimulated by insightful supervisors. One person has had a major impact on all these fields. NARS in the title stands for Nolet greatly Advanced Research in Seismology.

  18. Groundwater remediation: the next 30 years.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Paul W; Newell, Charles J

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater remediation technologies are designed, installed, and operated based on the conceptual models of contaminant hydrogeology that are accepted at that time. However, conceptual models of remediation can change as new research, new technologies, and new performance data become available. Over the past few years, results from multiple-site remediation performance studies have shown that achieving drinking water standards (i.e., Maximum Contaminant Levels, MCLs) at contaminated groundwater sites is very difficult. Recent groundwater research has shown that the process of matrix diffusion is one key constraint. New developments, such as mass discharge, orders of magnitude (OoMs), and SMART objectives are now being discussed more frequently by the groundwater remediation community. In this paper, the authors provide their perspectives on the existing "reach MCLs" approach that has historically guided groundwater remediation projects, and advocate a new approach built around the concepts of OoMs and mass discharge.

  19. Antiphospholipid syndrome: 30 years and our contribution.

    PubMed

    Koike, Takao

    2015-02-01

    In 1983, Graham Hughes first described the concept of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). In 1984, we described the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system which directly detected circulating aCL in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who revealed biological false positive serological test for syphilis. In 1990, three groups, including our group, independently reported the necessity of a cofactor for the binding of autoimmune anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) to the solid phase phospholipids. β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) was identified as this cofactor. In 1994,the epitope for aCL was shown to develop when β2GPI is adsorbed on polyoxygenated polystyrene plates. In 2000, we described antiprothrombin antibodies bind to prothrombin exposed to immobilized phosphatidylserine and established a phosphatidylserine dependent monoclonal antiprothrombin antibody. In 2004, a novel role of nicked β2GPI was identified in the negative feedback pathway of extrinsic fibrinolysis. Nicked β2GPI was found to bind angiostatin 4.5 and to attenuate its antiangiogenic property. In 2004, we demonstrated that the p38 MAPK pathway mediates induction of the TF gene in stimulated with human monoclonal anti- β2GPI antibodies. Very recently, β2GPI was identified as a complement regulator. The cross-link between complement activation and prothrombotic status in patients with APS has been drawn much attention. Genetic factors are hypothesized to play a role in the susceptibility to APS based on several family studies in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and/or clinical manifestations of APS. The genetics of β2GPI has been extensively studied. 247 Val/Leu polymorphism can affect the conformational change of β2-GPI and the exposure of the epitopes for aCL. We found that 247 Val was correlated with anti-β2-GPI production in patients with primary APS, and 247 Val may be important for β2-GPI antigenicity. STAT4 SNP in Japanese patients with SLE and/or APS. T

  20. Interactive computer program for optimal designs of longitudinal cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Tekle, Fetene B; Tan, Frans E S; Berger, Martijn P F

    2009-05-01

    Many large scale longitudinal cohort studies have been carried out or are ongoing in different fields of science. Such studies need a careful planning to obtain the desired quality of results with the available resources. In the past, a number of researches have been performed on optimal designs for longitudinal studies. However, there was no computer program yet available to help researchers to plan their longitudinal cohort design in an optimal way. A new interactive computer program for the optimization of designs of longitudinal cohort studies is therefore presented. The computer program helps users to identify the optimal cohort design with an optimal number of repeated measurements per subject and an optimal allocations of time points within a given study period. Further, users can compute the loss in relative efficiencies of any other alternative design compared to the optimal one. The computer program is described and illustrated using a practical example.

  1. 78 FR 44553 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Early Childhood Longitudinal Study... Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-11 (ECLS-K:2011), sponsored by the National...

  2. Massive transcranial parotid pleomorphic adenoma: recurrence after 30 years.

    PubMed

    Strub, Graham M; Georgolios, Alexandros; Graham, Robert S; Powers, Celeste N; Coelho, Daniel H

    2012-10-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma, also known as benign mixed tumor, is the most common tumor affecting the parotid gland and can reach massive size; however, intracranial invasion is rare. Recurrence of pleomorphic adenoma after excision is a well-known phenomenon and can present decades after resection of the primary tumor. Here we present the case of a 53-year-old man who presented to our clinic with ear fullness, otalgia, and hearing loss 30 years after undergoing total parotidectomy and external beam radiotherapy for pleomorphic adenoma. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a massive transcranial tumor invading the mastoid cavity, the dura of the posterior fossa, the fallopian and semicircular canals, the jugular foramen, the lateral infratemporal fossa skull base, the sigmoid and transverse sinuses, and the superior parapharyngeal region. Gross examination and histopathological studies confirmed that the mass was a recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Here we discuss the features of recurrent pleomorphic adenoma and review the current literature.

  3. J's Rhymes: A Longitudinal Case Study of Language Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inkelas, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    A longitudinal study of one children documents an invented language game consisting of suffixal reduplication and onset replacement. Argues that this game may more closely resemble adult rhyme. (Author/VWL)

  4. No association between mean telomere length and life stress observed in a 30 year birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Jodczyk, Sarah; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Pearson, John F; Kennedy, Martin A

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres are specialised structures that cap the ends of chromosomes. They shorten with each cell division and have been proposed as a marker of cellular aging. Previous studies suggest that early life stressors increase the rate of telomere shortening with potential impact on disease states and mortality later in life. This study examined the associations between telomere length and exposure to a number of stressors that arise during development from the antenatal/perinatal period through to young adulthood. Participants were from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS), a New Zealand longitudinal birth cohort which has followed participants from birth until age 30. Telomere length was obtained on DNA from peripheral blood samples collected from consenting participants (n = 677) at age 28-30, using a quantitative PCR assay. These data were assessed for associations with 26 measures of life course adversity or stress which occurred prior to 25 years of age. No associations were found between telomere length measured at age 28-30 years and life course adversity or stress for specific measures and for the summary risk scores for each developmental domain. The correlations were very small ranging from -0.06 to 0.06 with a median of 0.01, and none were statistically significant. Our results in this well-studied birth cohort do not support prior reports of such associations, and underscore the need for more extensive replication of proposed links between stress and telomere biology in larger cohorts with appropriate phenotypic data.

  5. Surveillance of Infectious Diseases by the Sentinel Laboratory Network in Belgium: 30 Years of Continuous Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Muyldermans, Gaëtan; Ducoffre, Geneviève; Leroy, Mathias; Dupont, Yves; Quolin, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In 1983 the sentinel laboratory network was established because of the need to describe the epidemiological evolution of infectious diseases. During the study period of 30 years (1983–2013), microbiology laboratories reported on weekly basis the laboratory diagnosed cases for a selection of infectious diseases. This resulted in a large longitudinal laboratory based database allowing to provide trends over time and distribution by person and place. During this period, adaptations to data collection were made due to changes in diagnostic methods and public health priorities, introduction and application of digital revolution, and multiple reorganizations of the laboratories. Since the surveillance network is dynamic, it necessitates a continuous evaluation to ensure that, over time, it continues to be representative of the general epidemiological trends in the country. Secondly the aim is to examine the robustness and stability of this surveillance system. Here we demonstrated that the flexibility of the data collection methodology by the sentinel laboratory network is unique and that adaptations do not affect the capacity of the system to follow trends. Therefore, the surveillance by this network is representative of the current epidemiological situation in Belgium. To our knowledge, no such surveillance network with such a long-term follow-up and demonstrated stability for multiple infectious diseases in the general population was earlier described. Furthermore, expected trends due to the implementation of vaccination or other events were accurately detected. The collected data obtained from this network allows interesting comparisons with other national and international information sources. PMID:27571203

  6. Separation-Individuation of Late Adolescents : A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Sevda; Gelbal, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in separation-individuation between late adolescents in the first, second, third and fourth year of higher education. The study sample used for this longitudinal study consisted of 148 students attending class studies, computer education and science education departments of Kirikkale University.…

  7. Pediatric tinea faciei in southern Spain: a 30-year survey.

    PubMed

    del Boz, Javier; Crespo, Vicente; de Troya, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Tinea faciei (TF) is a common clinical form of tinea in children that is frequently misdiagnosed and treated with corticosteroids. No large case series of TF focusing on children have been published. The aim of this study was to analyze the main epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiologic features of TF in children over a period of 30 years and compare these features with those of other tineas. We undertook a retrospective study of 818 cases of tinea in children at a referral hospital in southern Spain, diagnosed between 1977 and 2006, concentrating for this study on TF. Of the 73 cases of TF diagnosed, 50.7% were in girls. Most children (46.6%) were 4 to 9 years old. At the time of diagnosis, 29.2% of the cases had been treated with topical steroids. The most frequently isolated dermatophyte was Trichophyton mentagrophytes, which was isolated significantly more frequently in TF than in the other tineas. Cases of TF in children were not extremely unusual, emphasizing that TF must be considered in children with inflammatory facial eruptions. This consideration and the more-frequent use of mycologic tests can help achieve the correct diagnosis, when present.

  8. Social Class Differentiation in Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Mark; And Others

    In an effort to isolate the emergence and causes of social class differences in intellectual performance, this longitudinal study was undertaken as a follow-up on a cross-sectional study that yielded no social class differences on the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale for 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old black children. In the present study, 89 children…

  9. 30 years of finite-gap integration theory.

    PubMed

    Matveev, Vladimir B

    2008-03-28

    The method of finite-gap integration was created to solve the periodic KdV initial problem. Its development during last 30 years, combining the spectral theory of differential and difference operators with periodic coefficients, the algebraic geometry of compact Riemann surfaces and their Jacobians, the Riemann theta functions and inverse problems, had a strong impact on the evolution of modern mathematics and theoretical physics. This article explains some of the principal historical points in the creation of this method during the period 1973-1976, and briefly comments on its evolution during the last 30 years.

  10. Suprasegmental Phonology Development and Reading Acquisition: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calet, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Simpson, Ian C.; González-Trujillo, M. Carmen; Defior, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies implicate suprasegmental phonology in reading acquisition. However, little is known about how suprasegmental sensitivity develops or how it contributes to reading. Here, 130 Spanish primary-school children participated in this 2-year longitudinal study. Nonlinguistic rhythm, lexical-stress sensitivity and metrical-stress…

  11. English as a Foreign Language Spelling Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Sparks, Richard L.; Goldstein, Zahava

    2012-01-01

    English as a foreign language (EFL) spelling was examined longitudinally three times (4th, 9th, 12th grades) during 9 years of EFL study among Hebrew first language (L1) students. The study examined the impact of L1 literacy variables including phonemic awareness, word attack, and spelling on EFL spelling and the relationship between EFL literacy…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of School Districts' Sustained Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Pauline M.

    2011-01-01

    In this longitudinal study of one region in the state of Texas, there was an examination of district leadership and the sustaining of high student achievement for their districts. The results of this study suggest that sustained improvement of student achievement is very difficult. The districts that had sustained improvement had stable district…

  13. Longitudinal Study of Low and High Achievers in Early Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Jose I.; Aguilar, Manuel; Marchena, Esperanza; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Menacho, Inmaculada; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Longitudinal studies allow us to identify, which specific maths skills are weak in young children, and whether there is a continuing weakness in these areas throughout their school years. Aims: This 2-year study investigated whether certain socio-demographic variables affect early mathematical competency in children aged 5-7 years.…

  14. Homeschooling Education: Longitudinal Study of Methods, Materials, and Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Linda G.

    2012-01-01

    In a comprehensive study of two-hundred fifty homeschooling families in urban, rural and suburban areas of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the researcher examined all aspects of the instruction, materials and curricula employed by the families in a ten-year longitudinal study from 1998 through 2008. The researcher conducted interviews and…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Judge Leniency and Consistency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunz, Mary E.; O'Neill, Thomas R.

    This retrospective longitudinal study was designed to show grading leniency patterns of judges within and across clinical examination administrations. Data from 17 different administrations of the histology examination of the American Society of Clinical Pathologists over 10 years were studied. Over the 10 years there were 4,683 candidates and 57…

  16. Investigating Sexual Abuse: Findings of a 15-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…

  17. Theoretical study of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, H; Davidson, R C; Chung, M; Barnard, J J; Wang, T F

    2011-04-14

    The effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions is investigated using the generalized Courant-Snyder theory for coupled lattices. Recently, the concept and technique of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling have been proposed for applications in the Linac Coherent Light Source and other free-electron lasers to reduce the transverse emittance of the electron beam. Such techniques can also be applied to the driver beams for the heavy ion fusion and beam-driven high energy density physics, where the transverse emittance budget is typically tighter than the longitudinal emittance. The proposed methods consist of one or several coupling components which completely swap the emittances of one of the transverse directions and the longitudinal direction at the exit of the coupling components. The complete emittance exchange is realized in one pass through the coupling components. In the present study, we investigate the effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions. A weak coupling component is introduced at every focusing lattice, and we would like to determine if such a lattice can realize the function of emittance exchange.

  18. 7 CFR 625.12 - 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 30-year contracts. 625.12 Section 625.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., maintenance, and management of habitat and forest ecosystem functions and values. (b) For the duration of...

  19. 7 CFR 625.12 - 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 30-year contracts. 625.12 Section 625.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., maintenance, and management of habitat and forest ecosystem functions and values. (b) For the duration of...

  20. 7 CFR 625.12 - 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 30-year contracts. 625.12 Section 625.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., maintenance, and management of habitat and forest ecosystem functions and values. (b) For the duration of...

  1. [The past 30 years of Chinese Journal of Biotechnology].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ning

    2015-06-01

    This review addresses the association of "Chinese Journal of Biotechnology" and the development of biotechnology in China in the past 30 years. Topics include relevant awards and industrialization, development of the biotechnology discipline, and well know scientists in biotechnology, as well as perspectives on the journal.

  2. 7 CFR 625.12 - 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 30-year contracts. 625.12 Section 625.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., maintenance, and management of habitat and forest ecosystem functions and values. (b) For the duration of...

  3. Education and HIV/AIDS--30 Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggleton, Peter; Yankah, Ekua; Crewe, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Education has long been identified as having a key role to play in reducing HIV-related risk and vulnerability, and in mitigating the impact of the epidemic on affected individuals and communities. This article reflects on progress over a 30-year period with respect to older and more emergent forms of education concerning HIV and AIDS: treatment…

  4. Historical Lassa fever reports and 30-year clinical update.

    PubMed

    Macher, Abe M; Wolfe, Martin S

    2006-05-01

    Five cases of Lassa fever have been imported from West Africa to the United States since 1969. We report symptoms of the patient with the second imported case and the symptoms and long-term follow-up on the patient with the third case. Vertigo in this patient has persisted for 30 years.

  5. Early Cognitive Profiles of Emergent Readers: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunswick, Nicola; Martin, G. Neil; Rippon, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability to reading development in 142 English-speaking children from the start of kindergarten to the middle of Grade 2. Partial cross-lagged analyses revealed significant relationships between early performance on block design and…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescent Precursors to Running Away

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Bersani, Bianca E.

    2008-01-01

    Although previous research has examined correlates of running away among samples of currently homeless and runaway adolescents, little is known about what factors will predict the likelihood that a housed adolescent with no prior history of running away will leave home. As such, the current study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to…

  7. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  8. Longitudinal Field Research Methods for Studying Processes of Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Ven, Andrew H.; Huber, George P.

    1990-01-01

    This and the next issue of "Organization Science" contain eight papers that deal with the process of organizational change. The five papers in this issue feature the theory of method and practice of researchers engaged in longitudinal field studies aimed at understanding processes of organizational change. (MLF)

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Pretend Play in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, M. D.; Young, Gregory S.; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a longitudinal design (following subjects described in Rutherford & Rogers [2003, "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder", 33, 289-302]) to test for predictors of pretend play competence in a group of children with autism. We tested the hypothesis that developmental change in pretend play performance can be predicted by…

  10. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis…

  11. Stages of Headship: A Longitudinal Study of the Principalship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weindling, Dick

    This paper uses socialization theory to re-examine a unique, 10-year longitudinal study of headteachers so as to describe the stages of headship transition. It outlines prior models of leadership succession in both business and schools and produces a stage theory of headship that can be used not only as a research tool, but also as a way to assist…

  12. Health Benefits of Volunteering in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piliavin, Jane Allyn; Siegl, Erica

    2007-01-01

    We investigate positive effects of volunteering on psychological well-being and self-reported health using all four waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Confirming previous research, volunteering was positively related to both outcome variables. Both consistency of volunteering over time and diversity of participation are significantly…

  13. A Longitudinal Study on Learner Career Advancement in MOOCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuan; Paquette, Luc; Baker, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present progress towards a longitudinal study of the post-course career advancement of MOOC learners. We present initial results and analysis plans for how to link this to in-course behaviour, towards better understanding the goals of all MOOC learners.

  14. Exploring Dynamism in Willingness to Communicate: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Yiqian Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines dynamism in students' situational willingness to communicate (WTC) within a second language classroom. This longitudinal study involved twelve English as a Second Language (ESL) participants who enrolled in an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) programme in New Zealand for five months. Based on data from classroom…

  15. Anxiety Sensitivity and Panic Attacks: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wen; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a risk factor for panic genesis has obtained compelling support, but the clinical/practical importance of AS in panic genesis has been questioned. In addition, the association between panic experience and AS increase has not been clearly demonstrated. Through this 1-year longitudinal study among…

  16. Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…

  17. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Relational and Physical Aggression in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crick, Nicki R.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Burr, Jean E.; Cullerton-Sen, Crystal; Jansen-Yeh, Elizabeth; Ralston, Peter

    2006-01-01

    To understand the development of relational aggression during early childhood, 91 girls and boys ("M" age=39.0; "SD"=7.6 months) and their teachers participated in an 18-month longitudinal study. Children were observed for relational and physical aggression during free play in four time periods. Individually administered interviews were conducted…

  19. A Longitudinal Study of the Talent Search Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Ernest W.; Landers, Jama McMahan

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the impact of participation in the federally funded Talent Search program at The University of Tennessee, Knoxville. The Talent Search program provides career exploration and counseling services to low-income students with the potential to be first-generation college graduates. Postsecondary education enrollment…

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Idiom and Text Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levorato, M. Chiara; Roch, Maja; Nesi, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The relation between text and idiom comprehension in children with poor text comprehension skills was investigated longitudinally. In the first phase of the study, six-year-old first graders with different levels of text comprehension were compared in an idiom and sentence comprehension task. Text comprehension was shown to be more closely related…

  1. Violence Viewing and Adolescent Aggression: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viemero, Vappu

    A longitudinal field study conducted in Turku, Finland, traced the development of aggression as a function of the viewing of violence by children from the ages of 7 and 9 to the ages of 15 and 17 to explore the connection between violence viewing and viewers' aggression, and to shed light on the question of causality. The 220 subjects, both male…

  2. Secondary Analysis of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Tyler A.; Knollman, Greg A.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines published secondary analyses of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) data, with a primary focus upon statistical objectives, paradigms, inferences, and methods. Its primary purpose was to determine which statistical techniques have been common in secondary analyses of NLTS2 data. The review begins with an…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of ESL Learners' Fluency and Comprehensibility Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derwing, Tracey M.; Munro, Murray J.; Thomson, Ron I.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal mixed-methods study compared the oral fluency of well-educated adult immigrants from Mandarin and Slavic language backgrounds (16 per group) enrolled in introductory English as a second language (ESL) classes. Speech samples were collected over a 2-year period, together with estimates of weekly English use. We also conducted…

  4. A Longitudinal Study on Internship Effectiveness in Vocational Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Chin-Sheng; Yang, Jen-te; Cheng, Shu-yun; Su, Chiakai

    2013-01-01

    A cooperative education experience (or internship placement) is an essential component of the curricula of vocational higher education. The efficacy of internship placements has become one of the major concerns facing those who develop education curricula. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore the relationships among the…

  5. Attachment from Infancy to Adulthood: The Major Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossmann, Klaus E., Ed.; Grossmann, Karin, Ed.; Waters, Everett, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This volume provides unique and valuable firsthand accounts of the most important longitudinal studies of attachment. Presented are a range of research programs that have broadened the understanding of early close relationships and their role in individual adaptation throughout life. In addition to discussing the findings that emerged from each…

  6. Pierce College Longitudinal Study: First Year Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, M. Stephen; Hunter, Russell

    During 1977-78 Pierce College undertook a study to (1) examine major reasons for attrition; (2) determine reasons for student attendance at Pierce; (3) determine the long-range effects of academic residence at Pierce for its students; and (4) experimentally determine the effects on retention of special treatment, through a "caring ombudsman." Each…

  7. Tourism Degree Internships: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Graham

    2003-01-01

    This case study briefly reviews the development of tourism degrees in the United Kingdom before considering the experiences obtained by students on year-long internship programmes over a period of 8 years. Verbatim confidential comments, from students, are provided and specific transferable skills discussed. Whilst some skills can be developed…

  8. Young Children's Improvisations: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flohr, John W.

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the behavior of 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children engaged in improvisational musical tasks. Ten subjects from each of the four age levels participated in the 4-year investigation, which lasted until the 2-year-olds reached 5 years of age. Children met individually with the investigator for 15 minutes…

  9. Method for Studying Helicopter Longitudinal Maneuver Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Kenneth B

    1954-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of helicopter maneuver stability is made and the results are compared with experimental results for both a single and a tandem rotor helicopter. Techniques are described for measuring in flight the significant stability derivatives for use with the theory to aid in design studies of means for achieving marginal maneuver stability for a prototype helicopter.

  10. Concepts for NASA longitudinal health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Pool, S. L.; Leach, C. S.; Moseley, E.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    Clinical data collected from a 15-year study of the homogenous group of pre-Shuttle astronauts have revealed no significant long-term effects from spaceflight. The current hypothesis suggests that repeated exposures to the space environment in the Shuttle era will similarly have no long-term health effects. However, a much more heterogenous group of astronauts and non-astronaut scientists will fly in Shuttle, and data on this group's adaptation to the space environment and readaptation to earth are currently sparse. In addition, very little information is available concerning the short- and long-term medical consequences of long duration exposure to space and subsequent readaptation to the earth environment. In this paper, retrospective clinical information on astronauts is reviewed and concepts for conducting epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of spaceflight on humans, including associated occupational risks factors, are presented.

  11. Benchmarking pathology services: implementing a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gordon, M; Holmes, S; McGrath, K; Neil, A

    1999-05-01

    This paper details the benchmarking process and its application to the activities of pathology laboratories participating in a benchmark pilot study [the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasian (RCPA) Benchmarking Project]. The discussion highlights the primary issues confronted in collecting, processing, analysing and comparing benchmark data. The paper outlines the benefits of engaging in a benchmarking exercise and provides a framework which can be applied across a range of public health settings. This information is then applied to a review of the development of the RCPA Benchmarking Project. Consideration is also given to the nature of the preliminary results of the project and the implications of these results to the on-going conduct of the study.

  12. Longitudinal studies of exposure to cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, R; Chettle, D R; Scott, M C; Blindt, M; Mason, H J

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of urinary proteins, blood and urinary cadmium, and in vivo kidney and liver cadmium have been made for a group of workers at several times between 1981 and 1990. The possibility of the introduction of measurement artifacts due to the use of different in vivo measurement systems has been assessed and is considered to be small. Changes in cadmium body burden with time have been studied in relation to kidney function. The results suggest several interesting patterns, although more data are needed to elucidate these further. They do, however, show the effectiveness of good hygiene in the workplace. PMID:1515347

  13. Levels of empathy in undergraduate emergency health, nursing, and midwifery students: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Brett; Brown, Ted; Boyle, Malcolm; McKenna, Lisa; Palermo, Claire; Etherington, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This research examines the extent and nature of empathy among emergency health (paramedic), nursing, and midwifery students at one Australian university and investigates the longitudinal changes in empathy levels across the course of study. Methods First-, second-, and third-year students at Monash University completed the Jefferson Scale of Empathy–Health Professional (JSE-HP) in 2008, 2009, and 2010, and the resulting mean empathy scores were analyzed by course, year of course, year of study, age, and sex. Results Midwifery students were found to have higher empathy levels than nursing and emergency health students. Second- and third-year students scored higher than their counterparts in the first year. Empathy levels dipped in 2009 and rose in 2010. Students aged 26–30 years and 31–35 years recorded higher scores than their younger colleagues, and female students were found to be more empathic than their male counterparts. Conclusion The finding that empathy levels are relatively stable over the term of study contributes to the understanding of how empathy evolves over the course of study and offers insights into the importance of incorporating and promoting empathy in health care curricula. PMID:25246815

  14. A longitudinal study of administrative segregation.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Maureen L; Klebe, Kelli J; Metzner, Jeffrey; Dvoskin, Joel; Fellner, Jamie; Stucker, Alysha

    2013-01-01

    The use of administrative segregation for inmates with and without mental illness has generated considerable criticism. Segregated inmates are locked in single cells for 23 hours per day, are subjected to rigorous security procedures, and have restricted access to programs. In this study, we examined whether inmates in segregation would show greater deterioration over time on psychological symptoms than would comparison offenders. The subjects were male inmates, with and without mental illness, in administrative segregation, general population, or special-needs prison. Subjects completed the Brief Symptom Inventory at regular intervals for one year. Results showed differentiation between groups at the outset and statistically significant but small positive change over time across all groups. All groups showed the same change pattern such that there was not the hypothesized differential change of inmates within administrative segregation. This study advances the empirical research, but replication research is needed to make a better determination of whether and under what conditions harm may or may not occur to inmates in solitary confinement.

  15. Ophthalmologic complications of meningomyelocele: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Biglan, A W

    1990-01-01

    Patients with spina bifida have multiple ophthalmologic problems, many of which are preventable. Most of the problems are related to the hydrocephalus, which is caused by the coexisting Arnold-Chiari malformation. When patients are treated for hydrocephalus, and comprehensive eye care is available, 94% of the patients will have 6/12 visual acuity or better. Strabismus is common but it responds well to medical and surgical treatment. Children with spina bifida should have frequent examinations by an ophthalmologist who is familiar with the diagnosis and management of the defects recorded in this study. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:2095031

  16. Neuropathologic Studies of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA)

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Richard J.; Resnick, Susan M.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Crain, Barbara J.; Pletnikova, Olga; Rudow, Gay; Iacono, Diego; Riudavets, Miguel A.; Driscoll, Ira; Price, Donald L.; Martin, Lee J.; Troncoso, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) was established in 1958 and is one the oldest prospective studies of aging in the USA and the world. The BLSA is supported by the National Institute of Aging (NIA) and its mission is to learn what happens to people as they get old and how to sort out changes due to aging and from those due to disease or other causes. In 1986, an autopsy program combined with comprehensive neurologic and cognitive evaluations was established in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins University Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center (ADRC). Since then, 211 subjects have undergone autopsy. Here we review the key clinical neuropathological correlations from this autopsy series. The focus is on the morphological and biochemical changes that occur in normal aging, and the early neuropathological changes of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We highlight the combined clinical, pathologic, morphometric, and biochemical evidence of asymptomatic AD, a state characterized by normal clinical evaluations in subjects with abundant AD pathology. We conclude that in some individuals, successful cognitive aging results from compensatory mechanisms that occur at the neuronal level (i.e., neuronal hypertrophy and synaptic plasticity) whereas a failure of compensation may culminate in disease. PMID:19661626

  17. Longitudinal study of alexithymia and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Chahraoui, Khadija; Duchene, Céline; Rollot, Fabien; Bonin, Bernard; Moreau, Thibault

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the course of alexithymia and its relation with anxiety and depression in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), over a period of 5 years. Methods Sixty-two MS patients were examined at two timepoints, 5 years apart, and they answered questionnaires collecting socio-demographic, medical, and psychological data (depression, anxiety, alexithymia). Results Our data show that emotional disorders remain stable over time in patients with MS, particularly as regards alexithymia and anxiety. Conversely, the rate of depression decreased between the two evaluations, falling from 40% to 26%. The two dimensions of alexithymia (i.e., difficulty describing and difficulty identifying feelings) were correlated with anxiety and depression, whereas the third component of alexithymia (externally oriented thinking) was independent, and was the only component to change over time, with a significant fall observed at 5 years. Conclusion Alexithymia was associated with increased severity of anxiety and attack relapses. PMID:24653957

  18. 1995 solid waste 30-year container volume summary

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, K.J.; DeForest, T.J.; Patridge, M.D.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes a 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes by container category. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU-TRUM) waste. These volumes and their associated container categories will be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site for storage, treatment, and disposal at Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during a 30-year period from FY 1995 through FY 2024. The data presented in this report establish a baseline for solid waste management both in the present and future. With knowledge of the volumes by container type, decisions on the facility handling and storage requirements can be adequately made. It is recognized that the forecast estimates will vary as facility planning and missions continue to change and become better defined; however, the data presented in this report still provide useful insight into Hanford`s future solid waste management requirements.

  19. Early Intervention and AAC: What a Difference 30 Years Makes.

    PubMed

    Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A; Barton-Hulsey, Andrea; Whitmore, Ani S

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of early intervention and AAC over the 30-year period since the founding of the journal Augmentative and Alternative Communication in 1985. It discusses the global context for early intervention and addresses issues pertaining to young children from birth to 6 years of age. It provides a narrative review and synthesis of the evidence base in AAC and early intervention. Finally, it provides implications for practice and future research directions.

  20. The enduring legacy of Alma Ata: 30 years on.

    PubMed

    Exworthy, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The 1978 Alma Ata conference and declaration was a landmark in defining and providing a direction for primary healthcare. Despite the initial enthusiasm for Alma Ata, its impact appeared to have declined in the 1990s. However, in recent years, there has been a revitalisation of primary healthcare. This article reviews the Alma Ata conference and declaration, assesses its waxing and waning, and examines its recent revival. The paper draws conclusions about the relevance of Alma Ata, 30 years on.

  1. A review of longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Lisa; Waldie, Karen; D'Souza, Stephanie; Peterson, Elizabeth R; Morton, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Antenatal depression is a known risk factor for postnatal depression; both are common disorders associated with negative impacts on child development. Few studies have followed up women from pregnancy and through the postnatal period to explore how rates of depression change. This review evaluates recent evidence on depression during pregnancy and after childbirth. A search of Embase, PsychINFO, MEDLINE and Cochrane Reviews was carried out to identify longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression. Studies that measured depression during pregnancy and up to 1 year after childbirth were evaluated against a set of criteria (e.g. less than 50 % attrition). Of the initial 523 studies identified, 16 studies met the final inclusion criteria with a total of 35,419 women. The average rate of antenatal depression across these studies was 17 and 13 % postnatal depression. The longitudinal nature of the studies revealed that on average 39 % of those who experienced antenatal depression went on to have postnatal depression. Similarly, on average, 47 % of those with postnatal depression had also experienced antenatal depression. On average, almost 7 % of women reported significant depressive symptoms in pregnancy that persisted after childbirth. The review provided evidence that rates of depression tend to be higher during pregnancy than in the first year following childbirth. Furthermore, the longitudinal data show that there is much movement between the groups categorised as depressed or not depressed. There is evidence that postnatal depression is often a continuation of existing antenatal depression.

  2. Physical Performance of Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A 30-Year Follow up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahtinen, Ulla; Rintala, Pauli; Malin, Antero

    2007-01-01

    Physical performance of Finnish adolescents (33 females, 44 males) with moderate intellectual disability (ID) was studied over a 30-year period. This study is an extension of Lahtinen's previous work on documenting the performance of individuals with intellectual disabilities over time. This study consisted of analyzing data from a total of four…

  3. The Seattle Longitudinal Study: Relationship Between Personality and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Schaie, K. Warner; Willis, Sherry L.; Caskie, Grace I.L.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the history, measures and principal findings of the Seattle Longitudinal Study. This study began in 1956 focusing upon age differences and age changes in cognitive abilities. Its sampling frame is a large HMO in the Pacific Northwest. The study has been expanded to investigate various influences on cognitive aging including, cognitive styles, personality traits, life styles, and family environment. Current interest is also in the early detection of risk for dementia. In addition, this article reports original analyses of the relation of personality dimensions to cognitive abilities (both concurrent and longitudinal). While personality remains relatively stable over the adult life span, modest proportions of variance are shared between various personality traits and the cognitive abilities. PMID:16755303

  4. Predictors of attrition in a longitudinal study of substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Claus, Ronald E; Kindleberger, Lisa R; Dugan, Mary C

    2002-01-01

    Previous research has emphasized the importance of minimizing attrition in longitudinal studies. The authors examined the influence of demographic, clinical, and process factors on attrition from a longitudinal study of 286 substance abusers recruited at a central intake unit. Univariate tests showed that those who completed three, six, and 12 month interviews had higher baseline alcohol and drug use and were more likely to provide three or more contacts when recruited, to be female, to have been married, and to have previously received substance abuse or psychiatric treatment. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that complete data participants (those who completed all three ASI interviews) were nearly three times more likely to have previously received psychiatric treatment and twice as likely to have completed an early engagement interview. In addition, they were twice as likely to be female, and nearly twice as likely to be employed, own a residence, have completed high school, and be married. Procedures that may help decrease study attrition are discussed.

  5. Family Boundary Ambiguity: A 30-Year Review of Theory, Research, and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jason S.; Olson, Chad D.; Buckmiller, Nicolle

    2007-01-01

    Since its introduction 30 years ago, family boundary ambiguity (BA) has been a widely used construct in family stress research and clinical intervention. In this article, we present a comprehensive and interdisciplinary review of published research studies that have used BA as a primary variable. Our review identified 37 studies investigating BA…

  6. Web-based tracking methods in longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Williams, Izaak L; O'Donnell, Clifford R

    2014-08-01

    The use of online resources to reduce the attrition of program participants in longitudinal studies is examined. Higher-risk individuals, those involved in illegal activities, and females with last name changes are typically more difficult to locate. The effectiveness of using online resources for these participants is addressed. These resources include social networking sites, people-finder search engines, telephone and address directories, judicial records, and death records. The strengths and limitations of these resources are presented and discussed. Longitudinal studies using these resources are examined to evaluate their successful follow-up rates. The results of these studies indicate that participant characteristics are more important to successful follow-up than the length of time since participation or sample size. The use of multiple online sites increased follow-up rates, especially for those who are typically difficult to locate. The variables and websites to consider are discussed, and six lessons learned are offered. The prospective use of online participant involvement is especially important for successful longitudinal evaluation and program planning.

  7. Academic dishonesty among Italian nursing students: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Macale, Loreana; Ghezzi, Valerio; Rocco, Gennaro; Fida, Roberta; Vellone, Ercole; Alvaro, Rosaria

    2017-03-01

    Considering the ethical issues related to nursing and that Ethics is an integral part of the nursing education in the degree course, one would suppose that academic dishonesty might be less frequent in nursing students than in students of other disciplines. However, several studies show that this trend of deceitful behaviour seems to be similar among the university nursing students and those of other disciplines. The aim of this study is to investigate the phenomenon of academic dishonesty in the classroom from a longitudinal perspective within a cohort of Italian nursing students. A non-experimental longitudinal design was used. All nursing students were recruited from the Nursing Science Bachelor Degree Program of a big Italian university in the centre of Italy and participants were part of an ongoing longitudinal research project which started in 2011 on nursing students' wellbeing. The results show that students get accustomed to taking academically deceitful actions. They come to consider their behaviours acceptable and normal, thereby stabilizing them, which increases the probability of stabilizing subsequent deceitful behaviours. The stability through time of academic cheating behaviours committed during higher education, within the study's timeframe, provides important perspectives into the establishment of rigorous standards of ethical and moral behaviours by the students.

  8. Enzymatic biofuel cells: 30 years of critical advancements.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Michelle; Abdellaoui, Sofiene; Minteer, Shelley D

    2016-02-15

    Enzymatic biofuel cells are bioelectronic devices that utilize oxidoreductase enzymes to catalyze the conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy. This review details the advancements in the field of enzymatic biofuel cells over the last 30 years. These advancements include strategies for improving operational stability and electrochemical performance, as well as device fabrication for a variety of applications, including implantable biofuel cells and self-powered sensors. It also discusses the current scientific and engineering challenges in the field that will need to be addressed in the future for commercial viability of the technology.

  9. Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome: 30 Years of Study

    PubMed Central

    Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome is one of the names that has been attached to one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes in humans. The labels DiGeorge sequence, 22q11 deletion syndrome, conotruncal anomalies face syndrome, CATCH 22, and Sedlačková syndrome have all been attached to the same disorder. Velo-cardio-facial syndrome has an expansive phenotype with more than 180 clinical features described that involve essentially every organ and system. The syndrome has drawn considerable attention because a number of common psychiatric illnesses are phenotypic features including attention deficit disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. The expression is highly variable with some individuals being essentially normal at the mildest end of the spectrum, and the most severe cases having life-threatening and life-impairing problems. The syndrome is caused by a microdeletion from chromosome 22 at the q11.2 band. Although the large majority of affected individuals have identical 3 megabase deletions, less than 10% of cases have smaller deletions of 1.5 or 2.0 megabases. The 3 megabase deletion encompasses a region containing 40 genes. The syndrome has a population prevalence of approximately 1:2,000 in the U.S., although incidence is higher. Although initially a clinical diagnosis, today velo-cardio-facial syndrome can be diagnosed with extremely high accuracy by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and several other laboratory techniques. Clinical management is age dependent with acute medical problems such as congenital heart disease, immune disorders, feeding problems, cleft palate, and developmental disorders occupying management in infancy and preschool years. Management shifts to cognitive, behavioral, and learning disorders during school years, and then to the potential for psychiatric disorders including psychosis in late adolescence and adult years. Although the majority of people with velo-cardio-facial syndrome do not develop psychosis, the risk for severe psychiatric illness is 25 times higher for people affected with velo-cardio-facial syndrome than the general population. Therefore, interest in understanding the nature of psychiatric illness in the syndrome remains strong. PMID:18636631

  10. 30 years of study of Kingella kingae: post tenebras, lux.

    PubMed

    Ceroni, Dimitri; Dubois-Ferrière, Victor; Cherkaoui, Abdessalam; Lamah, Léopold; Renzi, Gesuele; Lascombes, Pierre; Wilson, Belaieff; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2013-02-01

    Kingella kingae is a Gram-negative bacterium that is today recognized as the major cause of joint and bone infections in young children. This microorganism is a member of the normal flora of the oropharynx, and the carriage rate among children under 4 years of age is approximately 10%. K. kingae is transmitted from child to child through close personal contact. Key virulence factors of K. kingae include expression of type IV pili, Knh-mediated adhesive activity and production of a potent RTX toxin. The clinical presentation of K. kingae invasive infection is often subtle and may be associated to mild-to-moderate biologic inflammatory responses, highlighting the importance a high index of suspicion. Molecular diagnosis of K. kingae infections by nucleic acid amplification techniques enables identification of this fastidious microorganism. Invasive infections typically respond favorably to medical treatment, with the exception of cases of endocarditis, which may require urgent valve replacement.

  11. Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome: 30 Years of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome is one of the names that has been attached to one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes in humans. The labels DiGeorge sequence, 22q11 deletion syndrome, conotruncal anomalies face syndrome, CATCH 22, and Sedlackova syndrome have all been attached to the same disorder. Velo-cardio-facial syndrome has an…

  12. Academic Performance of Language-Minority Students and All-Day Kindergarten: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mido

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effect of all-day kindergarten programs on the academic achievement of students from racial language minority and low socioeconomic class. The study employed a series of 3-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The study…

  13. 77 FR 20885 - Agency Information Collection (Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Longitudinal Study Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    .... 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey)'' in any correspondence. For Further Information or a Copy of....mclamb@va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey... Control Number: 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey). Type of Review: New data collection....

  14. Neonatal brain image segmentation in longitudinal MRI studies.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feng; Fan, Yong; Tang, Songyuan; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2010-01-01

    In the study of early brain development, tissue segmentation of neonatal brain MR images remains challenging because of the insufficient image quality due to the properties of developing tissues. Among various brain tissue segmentation algorithms, atlas-based brain image segmentation can potentially achieve good segmentation results on neonatal brain images. However, their performances rely on both the quality of the atlas and the spatial correspondence between the atlas and the to-be-segmented image. Moreover, it is difficult to build a population atlas for neonates due to the requirement of a large set of tissue-segmented neonatal brain images. To combat these obstacles, we present a longitudinal neonatal brain image segmentation framework by taking advantage of the longitudinal data acquired at late time-point to build a subject-specific tissue probabilistic atlas. Specifically, tissue segmentation of the neonatal brain is formulated as two iterative steps of bias correction and probabilistic-atlas-based tissue segmentation, along with the longitudinal atlas reconstructed by the late time image of the same subject. The proposed method has been evaluated qualitatively through visual inspection and quantitatively by comparing with manual delineations and two population-atlas-based segmentation methods. Experimental results show that the utilization of a subject-specific probabilistic atlas can substantially improve tissue segmentation of neonatal brain images.

  15. Preparation, piloting and validation for a longitudinal birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Golding, Jean

    2009-07-01

    No longitudinal study should go into the field prior to detailed piloting and validation studies of the measures and techniques to be used. Preparation should also involve the training of staff, the acquisition of space and appropriate equipment, and liaison with the community and ethical committees as well as with scientific collaborators. Because different measures will continually be introduced as the participants age, the preparation, piloting and validation studies have to be ongoing. Here we describe some of the different strategies that should be used.

  16. Cleft lip and palate surgery: 30 years follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Cesar A.

    2012-01-01

    Ten cleft lip and palate patients with complete unilateral (five patients) and bilateral (five patients) clefts were treated by a multidisciplinary team integrated by psychologists, surgeons, orthodontists, prosthodontists, pediatric dentists, and speech pathologists, to obtain ideal soft tissue and hard tissue continuity, facial symmetry, functional and esthetic dentitions, excellent nasal architecture, subtle, and hidden lip scars. No hypernasality and adequate social adaptation were found in the 30 years follow-up (20-30 years follow-up with an average of 25.5 years). The patients were treated in a pro-active fashion avoiding complications and related problems, executing the ideal surgical, dental, and speech therapy plan, based on a close follow-up over the entire period. Those patients treated at the right time required less surgeries and less salvaging maneuvers and presented complete dentitions with less dental prosthesis or dental implants and stable occlusions, than those who missed the ideal dental and surgical treatment opportunities. The focus of this article is the need of a close long-term follow-up to ensure an ideal patient's quality of life. PMID:23483117

  17. Study of longitudinal dynamics in space-charge dominated beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Kai

    Modern accelerator applications, such as heavy ion fusion drivers, pulsed neutron sources, electron injectors for high-energy linear colliders, and X-ray Free Electron Lasers, demand beams with high intensity, low emittance and small energy spread. At low (non-relativistic) energies, the "electrostatic", collective interactions from space-charge forces existing in such intense beams play the dominant role; we characterize these beams as space-charge dominated beams. This dissertation presents numerous new findings on the longitudinal dynamics of a space-charge dominated beam, particularly on the propagation of density perturbations. In order to fully understand the complex physics of longitudinal space-charge waves, we combine the results of theory, computer simulation, and experiment. In the Long Solenoid Experimental system (LSE), with numerous diagnostic tools and techniques, we have, for the first time, experimentally measured the detailed energy profiles of longitudinal space-charge waves at different locations, both near the beam source and at the end of the transport system. Along with the current profiles, we have a complete set of experimental data for the propagation of space-charge waves. We compare these measured results to a 1-D theory and find better agreement for beams with perturbations in the linear regime, where the perturbation strength is less than 10%, than those with nonlinear perturbations. Using fast imaging techniques that we newly developed, we have, for the first time, obtained the progressive time-resolved images of longitudinal slices of a space-charge dominated beam. These images not only provide us time-resolved transverse density distribution of the beam, but also enable us to take time-resolved transverse phase space measurement using computerized tomography. By combining this information with the longitudinal energy measurement, we have, for the first time, experimentally constructed the full 6-D phase space. Part of the results

  18. Integrating Prospective Longitudinal Data: Modeling Personality and Health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures…

  19. Cohort Profile: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Steptoe, Andrew; Breeze, Elizabeth; Banks, James; Nazroo, James

    2013-01-01

    The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) is a panel study of a representative cohort of men and women living in England aged ≥50 years. It was designed as a sister study to the Health and Retirement Study in the USA and is multidisciplinary in orientation, involving the collection of economic, social, psychological, cognitive, health, biological and genetic data. The study commenced in 2002, and the sample has been followed up every 2 years. Data are collected using computer-assisted personal interviews and self-completion questionnaires, with additional nurse visits for the assessment of biomarkers every 4 years. The original sample consisted of 11 391 members ranging in age from 50 to 100 years. ELSA is harmonized with ageing studies in other countries to facilitate international comparisons, and is linked to financial and health registry data. The data set is openly available to researchers and analysts soon after collection (http://www.esds.ac.uk/longitudinal/access/elsa/l5050.asp). PMID:23143611

  20. Structural patterns in Swedish health policy: a 30-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Saltman, Richard B

    2015-04-01

    This perspective reviews key institutional and organizational patterns in Swedish health care over the last 30 years, probing the roots of several complicated policy questions that concern present-day Swedish decision-makers. It explores in particular the ongoing structural tension between stability, on the one hand, and the necessary levels of innovation and dynamism demanded by the current period of major clinical, technological, economic, social and supranational (EU) change. Where useful, the article compares Swedish developments with those in the other three European Nordic countries as well as other northern European health systems. Sweden's health sector evolution can provide valuable insight for other countries into the complexity involved in re-thinking tradeoffs between policies that emphasize stability as against those that encourage innovation in health sector governance and provision.

  1. Education and HIV/AIDS-30 years on.

    PubMed

    Aggleton, Peter; Yankah, Ekua; Crewe, Mary

    2011-12-01

    Education has long been identified as having a key role to play in reducing HIV-related risk and vulnerability, and in mitigating the impact of the epidemic on affected individuals and communities. This article reflects on progress over a 30-year period with respect to older and more emergent forms of education concerning HIV and AIDS: treatment education, education for HIV prevention, and education to encourage a positive and supportive community response. It points to a number of priorities for the future. These include analyzing more carefully different forms of HIV-related education, their consequences and effects, and identifying the specific effectivity of education in general and HIV-related education in particular in achieving positive outcomes. The potential of education to enable new ways of seeing, understanding, and hoping is stressed, as is the need to support education processes and systems that "think" faster than the epidemic.

  2. What Has 30 Years of HIV Vaccine Research Taught Us?

    PubMed Central

    Esparza, José

    2013-01-01

    When HIV was discovered and established as the cause of AIDS in 1983–1984, many people believed that a vaccine would be rapidly developed. However, 30 years have passed and we are still struggling to develop an elusive vaccine. In trying to achieve that goal, different scientific paradigms have been explored. Although major progress has been made in understanding the scientific basis for HIV vaccine development, efficacy trials have been critical in moving the field forward. Major lessons learned are: the development of an HIV vaccine is an extremely difficult challenge; the temptation of just following the fashion should be avoided; clinical trials are critical, especially large-scale efficacy trials; HIV vaccine research will require long-term commitment; and sustainable collaborations are needed to accelerate the development of an HIV vaccine. Concrete actions must be implemented with the sense of urgency imposed by the severity of the AIDS epidemic. PMID:26344345

  3. Longitudinal study of workers in an aluminum smelter

    SciTech Connect

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Enarson, D.A.; MacLean, L.; Irving, D.

    1989-05-01

    We conducted a 6-y follow-up study that included workers in an aluminum smelter in British Columbia. Of the original cohort, 951 workers left the industry and 985 workers participated in both studies. Comparison of those who left and those who remained showed that those who left were (1) older, (2) had a slightly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and (3) had lower lung function; this was especially true for workers who were 50 + y of age at the time the initial study was conducted. Analyses were conducted only on 586 male workers who did not change their job location or smoking habits between the initial and the follow-up study. Potroom workers in the ''high-exposure'' group had a significant reduction in the prevalence of cough, but experienced an increase in the prevalence of wheeze. There was no significant difference in the annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and forced vital capacity between the potroom workers and controls. In general, older workers and smokers had a greater decline in lung function compared to younger workers and nonsmokers. Leukocyte count done during the initial study was found to be an independent predictor of longitudinal decline in lung function. The lack of exposure effect on longitudinal decline in lung function could be due to ''healthy worker'' effect and improvement in the working condition of the smelter.

  4. National Longitudinal Study. Withdrawal from Institutions of Higher Education. An Appraisal with Longitudinal Data Involving Diverse Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetters, William B.

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972, the National Center for Education Statistics undertook a study of dropouts in higher education. Specifically, the study was designed to discover: (1) to what extent students withdraw from institutions of higher education before completion, and how these rates might…

  5. The wage effects of obesity: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Baum, Charles L; Ford, William F

    2004-09-01

    We use National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data to examine the effects of obesity on wages by gender. Sample means indicate that both men and women experience a persistent obesity wage penalty over the first two decades of their careers. We then control for a standard set of socioeconomic and familial variables but find that standard covariates do not explain why obese workers experience persistent wage penalties. This suggests that other variables -- including job discrimination, health-related factors and/or obese workers' behavior patterns -- may be the channels through which obesity adversely affects wages. The study closes with a discussion of the public policy implications suggested by these findings.

  6. Comparing classification methods for longitudinal fMRI studies.

    PubMed

    Schmah, Tanya; Yourganov, Grigori; Zemel, Richard S; Hinton, Geoffrey E; Small, Steven L; Strother, Stephen C

    2010-11-01

    We compare 10 methods of classifying fMRI volumes by applying them to data from a longitudinal study of stroke recovery: adaptive Fisher's linear and quadratic discriminant; gaussian naive Bayes; support vector machines with linear, quadratic, and radial basis function (RBF) kernels; logistic regression; two novel methods based on pairs of restricted Boltzmann machines (RBM); and K-nearest neighbors. All methods were tested on three binary classification tasks, and their out-of-sample classification accuracies are compared. The relative performance of the methods varies considerably across subjects and classification tasks. The best overall performers were adaptive quadratic discriminant, support vector machines with RBF kernels, and generatively trained pairs of RBMs.

  7. Sleep and the Transition to Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Sadeh, Avi; Dahl, Ronald E.; Shahar, Golan; Rosenblat-Stein, Shiran

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the links between sleep and pubertal development using a longitudinal design. Design: Three consecutive annual assessments of sleep and pubertal development. Sleep was assessed using a week of home actigraphy. Setting: Naturalistic sleep in the home setting of school children, Tel Aviv Area, Israel. Participants: A sample of 94 (41 boys) typically developing healthy school-age children (age range at first assessment: 9.9–11.2 years). Intervention: N/A Measurements and Results: The Petersen's Pubertal Development Scale (PDS) and Sexual Maturation Scale (SMS) were used to assess pubertal development, and a week of actigraphy served to assess naturalistic sleep patterns. The results reflect expected developmental trends: an increase in signs of pubertal maturation, delayed sleep onset, and shorter sleep time. After controlling for age, significant relationships were found between sleep onset time, true sleep time, and number of night wakings at Time 1 and pubertal ratings at Time 2, and pubertal changes from Time 1 to Time 2. Delayed and disrupted sleep at Time 1 predicted faster pubertal changes from Time 1 to Time 2. These results were supported by structural equation modeling. These findings were similar in boys and girls. Conclusions: Based on these longitudinal data, it appears that pubertal changes in sleep (delayed sleep phase and disrupted sleep patterns) antedate bodily changes associated with puberty. The underlying mechanisms explaining these predictive links should be further explored. Citation: Sadeh A; Dahl RE; Shahar G; Rosenblat-Stein S. Sleep and the transition to adolescence: a longitudinal study. SLEEP 2009;32(12):1602-1609. PMID:20041596

  8. Confounding in longitudinal studies in addiction treatment research

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Matthias; Dunn, Graham; Millar, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The effectiveness of treatment for people with substance use disorders is usually examined using longitudinal cohorts. In these studies, treatment is often considered as a time-varying exposure. The aim of this commentary is to examine confounding in this context, when the confounding variable is time-invariant and when it is time-varying. Method: Types of confounding are described with examples and illustrated using path diagrams. Simulations are used to demonstrate the direction of confounding bias and the extent that it is accounted for using standard regression adjustment techniques. Results: When the confounding variable is time invariant or time varying and not influenced by prior treatment, then standard adjustment techniques are adequate to control for confounding bias, provided that in the latter scenario the time-varying form of the variable is used. When the confounder is time varying and affected by prior treatment status (i.e. it is a mediator of treatment), then standard methods of adjustment result in inconsistency. Conclusions: In longitudinal cohorts where treatment exposure is time varying, confounding is an issue which should be considered, even if treatment exposure is initially randomized. In these studies, standard methods of adjustment may result be inadequate, even when all confounders have been identified. This occurs when the confounder is also a mediator of treatment. This is a likely scenario in many studies in addiction.

  9. Design and methods of the national Vietnam veterans longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schlenger, William E; Corry, Nida H; Kulka, Richard A; Williams, Christianna S; Henn-Haase, Clare; Marmar, Charles R

    2015-09-01

    The National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study (NVVLS) is the second assessment of a representative cohort of US veterans who served during the Vietnam War era, either in Vietnam or elsewhere. The cohort was initially surveyed in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) from 1984 to 1988 to assess the prevalence, incidence, and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other post-war problems. The NVVLS sought to re-interview the cohort to assess the long-term course of PTSD. NVVLS data collection began July 3, 2012 and ended May 17, 2013, comprising three components: a mailed health questionnaire, a telephone health survey interview, and, for a probability sample of theater Veterans, a clinical diagnostic telephone interview administered by licensed psychologists. Excluding decedents, 78.8% completed the questionnaire and/or telephone survey, and 55.0% of selected living veterans participated in the clinical interview. This report provides a description of the NVVLS design and methods. Together, the NVVRS and NVVLS constitute a nationally representative longitudinal study of Vietnam veterans, and extend the NVVRS as a critical resource for scientific and policy analyses for Vietnam veterans, with policy relevance for Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

  10. Confounding in longitudinal studies in addiction treatment research.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Matthias; Dunn, Graham; Millar, Tim

    2017-05-04

    Background: The effectiveness of treatment for people with substance use disorders is usually examined using longitudinal cohorts. In these studies, treatment is often considered as a time-varying exposure. The aim of this commentary is to examine confounding in this context, when the confounding variable is time-invariant and when it is time-varying. Method: Types of confounding are described with examples and illustrated using path diagrams. Simulations are used to demonstrate the direction of confounding bias and the extent that it is accounted for using standard regression adjustment techniques. Results: When the confounding variable is time invariant or time varying and not influenced by prior treatment, then standard adjustment techniques are adequate to control for confounding bias, provided that in the latter scenario the time-varying form of the variable is used. When the confounder is time varying and affected by prior treatment status (i.e. it is a mediator of treatment), then standard methods of adjustment result in inconsistency. Conclusions: In longitudinal cohorts where treatment exposure is time varying, confounding is an issue which should be considered, even if treatment exposure is initially randomized. In these studies, standard methods of adjustment may result be inadequate, even when all confounders have been identified. This occurs when the confounder is also a mediator of treatment. This is a likely scenario in many studies in addiction.

  11. INCAP Oriente longitudinal study: 40 years of history and legacy.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Melgar, Paul; Rivera, Juan A

    2010-02-01

    Our purpose in this article is to describe the objectives, design, overall coverage, and main domains of data collection of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama Oriente Longitudinal Study and subsequent follow-up studies. This supplementary feeding trial targeted to pregnant and lactating women and children from birth to 7 y of age, conducted in 4 rural Guatemalan villages (1969-77) with a series of follow-up studies (1988-2007), is one of the richest sources of information on the effects of nutrition, growth, development, and human capital in the developing world, with outstanding data from gestation to adult age and 40 y of follow-up. Its results have influenced nutrition knowledge and policy with over 300 scientific publications. We present brief descriptions of preliminary studies that were critical for the success of the trial and the design and methods used during the trial and in the follow-up studies, in chronological order.

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Memory Advantages in Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Ljungberg, Jessica K.; Hansson, Patrik; Andrés, Pilar; Josefsson, Maria; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2013-01-01

    Typically, studies of cognitive advantages in bilinguals have been conducted previously by using executive and inhibitory tasks (e.g. Simon task) and applying cross-sectional designs. This study longitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n = 178) between 35–70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task. The results are discussed in the light of successful aging. PMID:24023803

  13. Postural changes in dental hygienists. Four-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Barry, R M; Woodall, W R; Mahan, J M

    1992-01-01

    Numerous surveys identify the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints as a concern in dentistry. However, no longitudinal data exist to indicate whether postural changes occur as a result of practicing dental hygiene. The purpose of this preliminary, four-year longitudinal study was to investigate whether any postural changes developed during the hygienists' clinical education and/or during subsequent dental hygiene practice after one and/or two years. It was anticipated that the awkward positions and intense physical demands placed on hygienists might initiate musculoskeletal problems, but that no postural changes would occur over this short period of time. Nine of 10 dental hygienists in the graduating class of 1987 were surveyed for existing musculoskeletal complaints, and the subjects were photographed for a measurement of postural change. Responses from participants indicated an increase in musculoskeletal-related complaints in each of the six areas investigated. The photographic findings indicated that one of the nine hygienists showed an increase in forward head posture, a postural change.

  14. Longitudinal bunch dynamics study with coherent synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billinghurst, B. E.; Bergstrom, J. C.; Baribeau, C.; Batten, T.; May, T. E.; Vogt, J. M.; Wurtz, W. A.

    2016-02-01

    An electron bunch circulating in a storage ring constitutes a dynamical system with both longitudinal and transverse degrees of freedom. Through a self-interaction with the wakefields created by the bunch, certain of these degrees may get excited, defining a set of eigenmodes analogous to a spectroscopic series. The present study focuses on the longitudinal modes of a single bunch. The excitation of a mode appears as an amplitude modulation at the mode frequency of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by the bunch. The modulations are superimposed on a much larger continuum from CSR emission in the continuous mode. A given eigenmode is classified by the integer m which is the ratio of the mode frequency to the synchrotron frequency. The present measurements extend up to m =8 and focus on the region near the instability thresholds. At threshold the modes are excited sequentially, resembling a staircase when the mode frequencies are plotted as a function of bunch length or synchrotron frequency. Adjacent modes are observed to coexist at the boundaries between the modes. An energy-independent correlation is observed between the threshold current for an instability and the corresponding zero-current bunch length. Measurements were made at five beam energies between 1.0 and 2.9 GeV at the Canadian Light Source. The CSR was measured in the time domain using an unbiased Schottky diode spanning 50-75 GHz.

  15. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  16. Longitudinal Study: Efficacy of Online Technology Tools for Instructional Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uenking, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that the student population (secondary and post secondary) is becoming increasingly more technologically savvy. Use of the internet, computers, MP3 players, and other technologies along with online gaming has increased tremendously amongst this population such that it is creating an apparent paradigm shift in the learning modalities of these students. Instructors and facilitators of learning can no longer rely solely on traditional lecture-based lesson formals. In order to achieve student academic success and satisfaction and to increase student retention, instructors must embrace various technology tools that are available and employ them in their lessons. A longitudinal study (January 2009-June 2010) has been performed that encompasses the use of several technology tools in an instructional setting. The study provides further evidence that students not only like the tools that are being used, but prefer that these tools be used to help supplement and enhance instruction.

  17. Acute exercise and oxidative stress: a 30 year history

    PubMed Central

    Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey; Bloomer, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    The topic of exercise-induced oxidative stress has received considerable attention in recent years, with close to 300 original investigations published since the early work of Dillard and colleagues in 1978. Single bouts of aerobic and anaerobic exercise can induce an acute state of oxidative stress. This is indicated by an increased presence of oxidized molecules in a variety of tissues. Exercise mode, intensity, and duration, as well as the subject population tested, all can impact the extent of oxidation. Moreover, the use of antioxidant supplements can impact the findings. Although a single bout of exercise often leads to an acute oxidative stress, in accordance with the principle of hormesis, such an increase appears necessary to allow for an up-regulation in endogenous antioxidant defenses. This review presents a comprehensive summary of original investigations focused on exercise-induced oxidative stress. This should provide the reader with a well-documented account of the research done within this area of science over the past 30 years. PMID:19144121

  18. Changes in schoolgirls' body measurements during a 30 year period.

    PubMed

    Kaarma, Helje; Kasmel, Jaan; Koskel, Säde; Tiit, Ene-Margit

    2003-01-01

    Two data-sets containing the anthropometric measurements of Estonian schoolgirls aged 7-18 were analysed, one (set A) from the late sixties, size 1627 and the other (set K) from the late nineties, size 1546. In all data sets 8 measurements--three height, three breadth measures, chest circumference and mass--were measured using the same methodology, as well as BMI was calculated. The means of all the characteristics in age groups (size 100-150 individuals) were calculated and growth curves of means were approximated using polynomial least squares approximation. The maximal velocity points were found and the growth intensities in different body build groups were compared. It was proved that the usage of cross-sectional data for estimating growth curves is suitable for estimating the velocity of acceleration in different age groups. We found that the height of Estonian girls has increased during the last 30 years by about 4-5%, the breadth measurements--by about 1-2%, chest circumference up to 8% and BMI has decreased by 3-5%. The changes are quite modest in pre-puberty, most significant for girls aged 12-16 and smaller again for girls aged 17 and more. The maximal growth velocity has shifted for all characteristics to the earlier time. Comparison of different body build groups showed that the small girls of the sixties are quite similar to small girls in the nineties, but the differences are greater in the case of large and pycnomorphic girls.

  19. Longitudinal Studies of Attitude Change: Issues and Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    relative contributions of variables which are presently influencing attitudes from historical variables. Conversely a longitudinal method can be used to...different training techniques. Neidt and Meredith (1966) used a longitudinal method to determine the changes in attitudes of a single group of Air... longitudinal method is viewed as the most promising for measurement of change. With the increasing improvement in unobtrusive measures (e.g., Webb

  20. Semiparametric Stochastic Modeling of the Rate Function in Longitudinal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bin; Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Song, Peter X.-K.

    2011-01-01

    In longitudinal biomedical studies, there is often interest in the rate functions, which describe the functional rates of change of biomarker profiles. This paper proposes a semiparametric approach to model these functions as the realizations of stochastic processes defined by stochastic differential equations. These processes are dependent on the covariates of interest and vary around a specified parametric function. An efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is developed for inference. The proposed method is compared with several existing methods in terms of goodness-of-fit and more importantly the ability to forecast future functional data in a simulation study. The proposed methodology is applied to prostate-specific antigen profiles for illustration. Supplementary materials for this paper are available online. PMID:22423170

  1. Study of weld offset in longitudinally welded SSME HPFTP inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, J. B.; Spanyer, K. S.; Brunair, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    Welded joints are an essential part of rocket engine structures such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps. Defects produced in the welding process can be detrimental to weld performance. Recently, review of the SSME high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) titanium inlet X-rays revealed several weld discrepancies such as penetrameter density issues, film processing discrepancies, weld width discrepancies, porosity, lack of fusion, and weld offsets. Currently, the sensitivity of welded structures to defects is of concern. From a fatigue standpoint, weld offset may have a serious effect since local yielding, in general, aggravates cyclic stress effects. Therefore, the weld offset issue is considered in this report. Using the FEM and beamlike plate approximations, parametric studies were conducted to determine the influence of weld offsets and a variation of weld widths in longitudinally welded cylindrical structures with equal wall thicknesses on both sides of the joint. Following the study, some conclusions are derived for the weld offsets.

  2. Longitudinal study of spatial working memory development in young children.

    PubMed

    Tsujii, Takeo; Yamamoto, Eriko; Masuda, Sayako; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2009-05-27

    This study longitudinally compared activity in the frontal cortex during a spatial working memory task between 5-year-old and 7-year-old children using near-infrared spectroscopy. Eight children participated in this study twice, once at 5 years and once at 7 years of age. Behavioral analysis showed that older children performed the working memory task more precisely and more rapidly than younger children. Near-infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that right hemisphere dominance was observed in older children, whereas no hemispheric difference was apparent in younger children. Children with strengthened lateralization showed improved performance from 5 to 7 years. We therefore offer the first demonstration of the developmental changes in frontal cortical activation during spatial working memory tasks during the preschool period.

  3. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F.; Moen, Bente E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS. PMID:27157689

  4. Α Markov model for longitudinal studies with incomplete dichotomous outcomes.

    PubMed

    Efthimiou, Orestis; Welton, Nicky; Samara, Myrto; Leucht, Stefan; Salanti, Georgia

    2017-03-01

    Missing outcome data constitute a serious threat to the validity and precision of inferences from randomized controlled trials. In this paper, we propose the use of a multistate Markov model for the analysis of incomplete individual patient data for a dichotomous outcome reported over a period of time. The model accounts for patients dropping out of the study and also for patients relapsing. The time of each observation is accounted for, and the model allows the estimation of time-dependent relative treatment effects. We apply our methods to data from a study comparing the effectiveness of 2 pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia. The model jointly estimates the relative efficacy and the dropout rate and also allows for a wide range of clinically interesting inferences to be made. Assumptions about the missingness mechanism and the unobserved outcomes of patients dropping out can be incorporated into the analysis. The presented method constitutes a viable candidate for analyzing longitudinal, incomplete binary data.

  5. Α Markov model for longitudinal studies with incomplete dichotomous outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Welton, Nicky; Samara, Myrto; Leucht, Stefan; Salanti, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    Missing outcome data constitute a serious threat to the validity and precision of inferences from randomized controlled trials. In this paper, we propose the use of a multistate Markov model for the analysis of incomplete individual patient data for a dichotomous outcome reported over a period of time. The model accounts for patients dropping out of the study and also for patients relapsing. The time of each observation is accounted for, and the model allows the estimation of time‐dependent relative treatment effects. We apply our methods to data from a study comparing the effectiveness of 2 pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia. The model jointly estimates the relative efficacy and the dropout rate and also allows for a wide range of clinically interesting inferences to be made. Assumptions about the missingness mechanism and the unobserved outcomes of patients dropping out can be incorporated into the analysis. The presented method constitutes a viable candidate for analyzing longitudinal, incomplete binary data. PMID:27917593

  6. Rationales, design and recruitment of the Taizhou Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Lu, Ming; Qian, Ji; Yang, Yajun; Li, Shilin; Lu, Daru; Yu, Shunzhang; Meng, Wei; Ye, Weimin; Jin, Li

    2009-01-01

    Background Rapid economic growth in China in the past decades has been accompanied by dramatic changes in lifestyle and environmental exposures. The burdens of non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancer, have also increased substantially. Methods/design We initiated a large prospective cohort–the Taizhou Longitudinal Study–in Taizhou (a medium-size city in China) to explore the environmental and genetic risk factors for common non-communicable diseases. The sample size of the cohort will be at least 100,000 adults aged 30–80 years drawn from the general residents of the districts of Hailin, Gaogang, and Taixing (sample frame, 1.8 million) of Taizhou. A three-stage stratified sampling method will be applied. Baseline investigations include interviewer-administered questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and collection of buccal mucosal cells and blood specimens. DNA will be extracted for genetic studies and serum samples will be used for biochemical examinations. A follow-up survey will be conducted every three years to obtain information on disease occurrence and information on selected lifestyle exposures. Study participants will be followed-up indefinitely by using a chronic disease register system for morbidity and cause-specific mortality. Information on non-fatal events will be obtained for certain major categories of disease (e.g., cancer, stroke, myocardial infarction) through established registry systems. Discussion The Taizhou Longitudinal Study will provide a good basis for exploring the roles of many important environmental factors (especially those concomitant with the economic transformation in China) for common chronic diseases, solely or via interaction with genetic factors. PMID:19589173

  7. Forecasting California's earthquakes: What can we expect in the next 30 years?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, Edward H.; Milner, Kevin R.; ,

    2008-01-01

    In a new comprehensive study, scientists have determined that the chance of having one or more magnitude 6.7 or larger earthquakes in the California area over the next 30 years is greater than 99%. Such quakes can be deadly, as shown by the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta and the 1994 magnitude 6.7 Northridge earthquakes. The likelihood of at least one even more powerful quake of magnitude 7.5 or greater in the next 30 years is 46%?such a quake is most likely to occur in the southern half of the State. Building codes, earthquake insurance, and emergency planning will be affected by these new results, which highlight the urgency to prepare now for the powerful quakes that are inevitable in California?s future.

  8. Skin conductance fear conditioning impairments and aggression: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Schell, Anne; Baker, Laura; Raine, Adrian

    2015-02-01

    Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistently high on proactive aggression measures had significantly poorer conditioned responses at 18 years old when compared to others. This association was not found for reactive aggression. Consistent with prior literature, findings suggest that persistent antisocial individuals have unique neurobiological characteristics and that poor autonomic fear conditioning is associated with the presence of increased instrumental aggressive behavior.

  9. Early cognitive profiles of emergent readers: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Brunswick, Nicola; Neil Martin, G; Rippon, Georgina

    2012-02-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability to reading development in 142 English-speaking children from the start of kindergarten to the middle of Grade 2. Partial cross-lagged analyses revealed significant relationships between early performance on block design and matching letter-like forms tasks and later reading ability. Rhyme awareness correlated with later reading ability during the earliest stages, but onset awareness did not emerge as important until after the children had started reading. Digit span correlated significantly with future reading ability at every stage. These findings indicate that although phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability are all necessary for emergent reading, their relative importance varies across the first 2 years of reading development.

  10. [Autoaggression and pulse rate--a longitudinal study].

    PubMed

    Rohmann, U H; Elbing, U; Hartmann, H

    1988-12-01

    This article presents a model of autoaggressive behavior in which a distinction is made between determining and maintaining factors. Specific environmental, in particular social, and organismic variables are linked to them. The two types of variables interact, thus causing or maintaining autoaggressive behavior. A theory of autoaggression must therefore rely on multicausal/multimodal explanations. A connection between autoaggression and a high level of arousal suggests itself. In this single-case longitudinal study a comparison was made between heart rate and frequency of autoaggressive behavior. High heart rates were found to be correlated with low frequencies of autoaggressive behavior and vice versa. Decreasing autoaggressive behavior was coupled with increasing muscle relaxation and increasing motor activity. However, abnormally high heart rates were associated with both low and high levels of motor activity.

  11. The Development of Preschoolers' Living Kinds Concept: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Margett-Jordan, Tessa; Falcon, Rachael G; Witherington, David C

    2016-12-19

    Given limitations in the integrative scope of past research, basic questions about the organization and development of preschoolers' living kinds concept remain open to debate. This study was designed to address past limitations through use of a longitudinal design, extensive stimulus set, and alternate indices of understanding. Thirty-five English-speaking 3-year-olds from middle-class families in Albuquerque, NM participated in four testing sessions over 1 year. Indices of understanding included statements that preschoolers generated about various living and nonliving objects, biological properties they attributed to the objects, and their characterization of objects as "alive" or not. Results reveal a multifaceted picture of developmental change in preschoolers' living kinds concept involving both the construction and elaboration of a core biological understanding.

  12. J's rhymes: a longitudinal case study of language play.

    PubMed

    Inkelas, Sharon

    2003-08-01

    A longitudinal study of one child aged 2;5 documents an invented language game consisting of suffixal reduplication and onset replacement. Initially, reduplication is partial: the reduplicant enlarges in discrete increments over the five stages of the game until by the last stage reduplication is total. Reduplication is accompanied by a process of onset replacement, in which the reduplicant always begins with /b/. Early in the game, this replacive onset 'dissimilates' to /p/ whenever the reduplicant would independently have begun with /b/. In subsequent stages, other voiced obstruents trigger dissimilation as well. Though similar in many ways to adult language reduplication, it is argued that J's game may more closely resemble adult rhyme (both poetic and word rhyme). Regardless, the structure of the game clearly reveals the child's awareness, in the third year of life, of stress and metrical feet, segmental natural classes, and segments themselves (phonemic awareness).

  13. Health benefits of volunteering in the Wisconsin longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Piliavin, Jane Allyn; Siegl, Erica

    2007-12-01

    We investigate positive effects of volunteering on psychological well-being and self-reported health using all four waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Confirming previous research, volunteering was positively related to both outcome variables. Both consistency of volunteering over time and diversity of participation are significantly related to well-being and self-reported health. The relationship of volunteering to psychological well-being was moderated by level of social integration, such that those who were less well integrated benefited the most. Mattering appears to mediate the link between volunteering and wellbeing. Controls for other forms of social participation and for the predictors of volunteering are employed in analyses of well-being in 1992. We find volunteering effects on psychological well-being in 2004, controlling for 1992 wellbeing, thus providing strong evidence for a causal effect.

  14. Facial expression recognition in Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Torres, Bianca; Santos, Raquel Luiza; Sousa, Maria Fernanda Barroso de; Simões Neto, José Pedro; Nogueira, Marcela Moreira Lima; Belfort, Tatiana T; Dias, Rachel; Dourado, Marcia Cristina Nascimento

    2015-05-01

    Facial recognition is one of the most important aspects of social cognition. In this study, we investigate the patterns of change and the factors involved in the ability to recognize emotion in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Through a longitudinal design, we assessed 30 people with AD. We used an experimental task that includes matching expressions with picture stimuli, labelling emotions and emotionally recognizing a stimulus situation. We observed a significant difference in the situational recognition task (p ≤ 0.05) between baseline and the second evaluation. The linear regression showed that cognition is a predictor of emotion recognition impairment (p ≤ 0.05). The ability to perceive emotions from facial expressions was impaired, particularly when the emotions presented were relatively subtle. Cognition is recruited to comprehend emotional situations in cases of mild dementia.

  15. Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning Impairments and Aggression: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Schell, Anne; Baker, Laura; Raine, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistently high on proactive aggression measures had significantly poorer conditioned responses at 18 years old when compared to others. This association was not found for reactive aggression. Consistent with prior literature, findings suggest that persistent antisocial individuals have unique neurobiological characteristics and that poor autonomic fear conditioning is associated with the presence of increased instrumental aggressive behavior. PMID:25174802

  16. The nutritional situation in Swedish nursing homes - a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Borgström Bolmsjö, Beata; Jakobsson, Ulf; Mölstad, Sigvard; Ostgren, Carl Johan; Midlöv, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Poor nutritional status is widespread among the elderly and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to longitudinally describe the nutritional status in elderly people living in nursing homes. Nutritional status was recorded longitudinally in elderly people living in 11 different nursing homes in Sweden. Participants were examined at baseline by specially trained nurses who also assisted with questionnaires and collected data for current medical treatment from patient records. Nutritional status was evaluated at baseline and after 24 months with the mini nutritional assessment (MNA). The study included 318 subjects. The mean age of the participants was 85.0 years (range 65-101). At baseline, 41.6% were well nourished, 40.3% at risk of malnutrition, and 17.7% malnourished according to the MNA. Survival was significantly lower in the malnourished group. After 24 months, almost half of the population had died. The group of participants who survived at 24 months represents a population of better nutritional state, where 10.6% were malnourished at baseline increasing to 24.6% after 24 months. After 24 months, 38.7% of the participants showed a decline in nutritional state. The group with deteriorating MNA scores had higher weight, BMI values, and a higher hospitalization rate. The prevalence of malnutrition in nursing home residents increased over time and it is important to evaluate nutritional state regularly. Nutritional interventions should be considered in better nourished groups, as well as in malnourished individuals, to prevent a decline in nutritional state.

  17. Strategies for longitudinal neuroimaging studies of overt language production.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Jed A; Postman-Caucheteux, Whitney A; McArdle, Joseph J; Braun, Allen R

    2009-08-15

    Longitudinal fMRI studies of language production are of interest for evaluating recovery from post-stroke aphasia, but numerous methodological issues remain unresolved, particularly regarding strategies for evaluating single subjects at multiple timepoints. To address these issues, we studied overt picture naming in eleven healthy subjects, scanned four times each at one-month intervals. To evaluate the natural variability present across repeated sessions, repeated scans were directly contrasted in a unified statistical framework on a per-voxel basis. The effect of stimulus familiarity was evaluated using explicitly overtrained pictures, novel pictures, and untrained pictures that were repeated across sessions. For untrained pictures, we found that activation declined across multiple sessions, equally for both novel and repeated stimuli. Thus, no repetition priming for individual stimuli at one-month intervals was found, but rather a general effect of task habituation was present. Using a set of overtrained pictures identical in each session, no decline was found, but activation was minimized and produced less consistent patterns across participants, as measured by intra-class correlation coefficients. Subtraction of a baseline task, in which subjects produced a stereotyped utterance to scrambled pictures, resulted in specific activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and other language areas for untrained items, while overlearned stimuli relative to pseudo pictures activated only the fusiform gyrus and supplementary motor area. These findings indicate that longitudinal fMRI is an effective means of detecting changes in neural activation magnitude over time, as long as the effect of task habituation is taken into account.

  18. Gender differences in postpartum depression: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Artazcoz, Lucía

    2010-01-01

    Background The course of depression from pregnancy to 1 year post partum and risk factors among mothers and fathers are not known. Aims (1) To report the longitudinal patterns of depression from the third trimester of pregnancy to 1 year after childbirth; (2) to determine the gender differences between women and their partners in the effect of psychosocial and personal factors on postpartum depression. Methods A longitudinal cohort study was carried out over a consecutive sample of 769 women in their third trimester of pregnancy and their partners attending the prenatal programme in the Valencian Community (Spain) and follow-up at 3 and 12 months post partum. The outcome variable was the presence of depression at 3 or 12 months post partum measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Predictor variables were: psychosocial (marital dissatisfaction, confidant and affective social support) and personal (history of depression, partner's depression and negative life events, depression during the third trimester of pregnancy) variables. Logistic regression models were fitted via generalised estimating equations. Results At 3 and 12 months post partum, 9.3% and 4.4% of mothers and 3.4% and 4.0% of fathers, respectively, were newly diagnosed as having depression. Low marital satisfaction, partner's depression and depression during pregnancy increased the probability of depression during the first 12 months after birth in mothers and fathers. Negative life events increased the risk of depression only among mothers. Conclusions Psychosocial and personal factors were strong predictors of depression during the first 12 months post partum for both mothers and fathers. PMID:20515899

  19. Synthesising 30 Years of Mathematical Modelling of Echinococcus Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Jo-An M.; Williams, Gail M.; Yakob, Laith; Clements, Archie C. A.; Barnes, Tamsin S.; McManus, Donald P.; Yang, Yu Rong; Gray, Darren J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Echinococcosis is a complex zoonosis that has domestic and sylvatic lifecycles, and a range of different intermediate and definitive host species. The complexities of its transmission and the sparse evidence on the effectiveness of control strategies in diverse settings provide significant challenges for the design of effective public health policy against this disease. Mathematical modelling is a useful tool for simulating control packages under locally specific transmission conditions to inform optimal timing and frequency of phased interventions for cost-effective control of echinococcosis. The aims of this review of 30 years of Echinococcus modelling were to discern the epidemiological mechanisms underpinning models of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis transmission and to establish the need to include a human transmission component in such models. Methodology/Principal Findings A search was conducted of all relevant articles published up until July 2012, identified from the PubMED, Web of Knowledge and Medline databases and review of bibliographies of selected papers. Papers eligible for inclusion were those describing the design of a new model, or modification of an existing mathematical model of E. granulosus or E. multilocularis transmission. A total of 13 eligible papers were identified, five of which described mathematical models of E. granulosus and eight that described E. multilocularis transmission. These models varied primarily on the basis of six key mechanisms that all have the capacity to modulate model dynamics, qualitatively affecting projections. These are: 1) the inclusion of a ‘latent’ class and/or time delay from host exposure to infectiousness; 2) an age structure for animal hosts; 3) the presence of density-dependent constraints; 4) accounting for seasonality; 5) stochastic parameters; and 6) inclusion of spatial and risk structures. Conclusions/Significance This review discusses the conditions under which these

  20. TORUS2015: The AGN unification scheme after 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, P.; Hoenig, S. F.

    2015-09-01

    The torus paradigm has proved to be remarkably successful at unifying the observed zoo of active galaxy (AGN) classes, despite having many manifest holes. The field is still data-driven with novel observational results at multiple wavelengths emerging rapidly. We are only now beginning to map out the structure of dusty gas feeding and obscuring AGN, and to model its evolution in galaxy growth. But these have also brought out several apparently contradictory results which must hold the key to future progress. As we celebrate 30 years of the paradigm, this is the perfect time to draw together our current knowledge and reassess the state of the field. This will be an international workshop at the University of Southampton, UK, with the objective of laying out the major challenges to the field and paving future research directions. Our hope is to facilitate plenty of informal discussions between multiwavelength observers and theorists, addressing some key issues: * What is the main driver in the unification scheme? What are the roles of orientation, mass accretion rate and feedback? * What is the nature and structure of gas and dust in the torus? Do we have a self-consistent picture across multiple wavelengths? * How critical is the role of the torus as an interface between small nuclear scales and large galactic scales? Does galaxy evolution necessarily require tori? * How close are we to self-consistently simulating nuclear activity including AGN feeding and nuclear star-formation? Workshop Rationale The three themes of accretion, orientation, and evolution will be covered through invited and solicited contributions. Different to other conferences, we are building each session around some key papers that have shaped the field or those with great future potential to do so. We specifically pit competing ideas against each other to help painting a realistic picture of the state-of-the-art. Each session will end with discussion rounds delving into important future

  1. Paracrinicity: The Story of 30 Years of Cellular Pituitary Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Denef, C

    2008-01-01

    Living organisms represent, in essence, dynamic interactions of high complexity between membrane-separated compartments that cannot exist on their own, but reach behaviour in co-ordination. In multicellular organisms, there must be communication and co-ordination between individual cells and cell groups to achieve appropriate behaviour of the system. Depending on the mode of signal transportation and the target, intercellular communication is neuronal, hormonal, paracrine or juxtacrine. Cell signalling can also be self-targeting or autocrine. Although the notion of paracrine and autocrine signalling was already suggested more than 100 years ago, it is only during the last 30 years that these mechanisms have been characterised. In the anterior pituitary, paracrine communication and autocrine loops that operate during fetal and postnatal development in mammals and lower vertebrates have been shown in all hormonal cell types and in folliculo-stellate cells. More than 100 compounds have been identified that have, or may have, paracrine or autocrine actions. They include the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and γ-aminobutyric acid, peptides such as vasoactive intestinal peptide, galanin, endothelins, calcitonin, neuromedin B and melanocortins, growth factors of the epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, nerve growth factor and transforming growth factor-β families, cytokines, tissue factors such as annexin-1 and follistatin, hormones, nitric oxide, purines, retinoids and fatty acid derivatives. In addition, connective tissue cells, endothelial cells and vascular pericytes may influence paracrinicity by delivering growth factors, cytokines, heparan sulphate proteoglycans and proteases. Basement membranes may influence paracrine signalling through the binding of signalling molecules to heparan sulphate proteoglycans. Paracrine/autocrine actions are highly context-dependent. They are turned on/off when hormonal outputs need to be adapted to changing demands of

  2. An Investigation into Using National Longitudinal Studies to Examine Trends in Educational Attainment and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNiece, Rosie; Bidgood, Penelope; Soan, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Longitudinal studies can provide individual histories of educational attainment and are becoming widely used in educational research. Two national longitudinal studies, the National Child Development Study (NCDS) and the British Cohort Study of 1970 (BCS70), are used here to investigate changing trends in the educational attainment of children in…

  3. Longitudinal trajectories of arterial stiffness and the role of blood pressure: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    AlGhatrif, Majd; Strait, James B; Morrell, Chris H; Canepa, Marco; Wright, Jeanette; Elango, Palchamy; Scuteri, Angelo; Najjar, Samer S; Ferrucci, Luigi; Lakatta, Edward G

    2013-11-01

    Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, is an established independent cardiovascular risk factor. Little information is available on the pattern and determinants of the longitudinal change in PWV with aging. Such information is crucial to elucidating mechanisms underlying arterial stiffness and the design of interventions to retard it. Between 1988 and 2013, we collected 2 to 9 serial measures of PWV in 354 men and 423 women of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, who were 21 to 94 years of age and free of clinically significant cardiovascular disease. Rates of PWV increase accelerated with advancing age in men more than women, leading to sex differences in PWV after the age of 50 years. In both sexes, not only systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg but also SBP of 120 to 139 mm Hg was associated with steeper rates of PWV increase compared with SBP<120 mm Hg. Furthermore, there was a dose-dependent effect of SBP in men with marked acceleration in PWV rate of increase with age at SBP ≥140 mm Hg compared with SBP of 120 to 139 mm Hg. Except for waist circumference in women, no other traditional cardiovascular risk factors predicted longitudinal PWV increase. In conclusion, the steeper longitudinal increase of PWV in men than women led to the sex difference that expanded with advancing age. Age and SBP are the main longitudinal determinants of PWV, and the effect of SBP on PWV trajectories exists even in the prehypertensive range.

  4. Stress Process of Illicit Drug Use among U.S. Immigrants' Adolescent Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…

  5. Undergraduate nursing students' learning styles: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Sandra; McKee, Gabrielle; Huntley-Moore, Sylvia

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports on the main findings of a longitudinal study of the learning styles of one cohort of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students at an Irish university. The Honey and Mumford (2000a) Learning Styles Questionnaire was administered to a sample of students in their first (n=202) and final year of study (n=166), the final sample number (58) was based on matched pairs. The most common dominant learning style in first year was the dual learning category (35%) while a large proportion of the students (53%) in their final year had no dominant learning style. The preferred learning style of students in their first (69%) and final (57%) year was reflector. Learning styles were significantly different at the two time points and there was a significant relationship between some learning styles and students' age but not with academic achievement. Total scores of all learning styles showed significant improvements across the two time points of the study. An important implication for nurse education practice is the need for nurse educators to be aware of students' learning styles and in an attempt to maximise students' learning potential, utilise a range of teaching and learning methodologies and assessments that develop all learning styles.

  6. A longitudinal study relating carpeting with sick building syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Norbaeck, D.; Torgen, M. )

    1989-01-01

    A longitudinal questionnaire study was performed among personnel in two Swedish primary schools with wall-to-wall carpets and four schools with hard floor covering. The study groups consisted of all primary schools equipped with wall-to-wall carpets in the town of Uppsala, plus a random sample of two newer and two elderly primary schools with hard floor covering. In an initial cross-sectional study, the wall-to-wall carpet group reported an enhanced prevalence of eye and airway symptoms, face rashes, headache, abnormal tiredness and a sensation of being electrostatically charged in comparison with personnel in schools with hard floor covering. Since the enhanced prevalence of symptoms in the wall-to-wall carpets versus the hard floor covering group was also observed among persons without signs of atopy it was concluded that wall-to-wall carpets are not exclusively a problem for the sensitive atopic individual. The type of ventilation system (mechanical ventilation versus natural ventilation) had no significant effect on the symptom frequencies. After the removal of the wall-to-wall carpets, many of the reported symptoms decreased to a level similar to the group without previous or present exposure to such carpets. However, the frequency of airway symptoms remained enhanced among the wall-to-wall carpet group.

  7. [Changes in interpersonal values in student nurses: a longitudinal study].

    PubMed

    Nagata, H; Kondo, M; Ogawa, S

    1994-01-01

    Our cross-sectional studies of interpersonal values in female student nurses showed that (1) third graders attached more importance to the values of Support and Independence and less to those of Benevolence and Leadership than did first graders, and (2) the discrepancy between the ratings of what they were and those of what their ideal nurses were was greater in the third than in the first graders. We interpreted these differences between the two graders as indicating a developmental change brought about during the three years. This study examined the internal validity of this interpretation through the use of a longitudinal method. The KG-SIV (Kikuchi-Gordon Survey of Interpersonal Values) was administered twice to 85 female student nurses: immediately after entering their nursing schools and immediately before finishing them, with a testing interval of approximately three years. For each testing, subjects were asked to rate what they were and then what their ideal nurses were. Analyses produced almost the same results as obtained in cross-sectional studies: perceived values of Benevolence and Leadership decrease while those of Support and Independence increase over the three years, with the discrepancy increasing from the first to the second testing. Findings thus support the internal validity of our prior interpretation. The changes in interpersonal values found for the student nurses suggest a socialization process they undertake in nurse training and imply an increase of stress they experience in that process.

  8. Data management in a longitudinal cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, R J; Musick, B S; Olley, B; Hall, K S; Hendrie, H C; Oyediran, A B

    The Indianapolis-Ibadan Dementia Project compares the rates of dementia at two sites, one in the U.S.A. and one in Nigeria. This paper concentrates on the data management issues in this longitudinal cross-cultural study. Approximately 2500 elderly people were recruited at each site, and continue to be re-assessed every two years. All the data are collected on paper and then entered into a FoxPro relational database. Most of the data management, including data cleaning, is done in Indianapolis. The design of the data collection forms is particularly important in a cross-cultural study, with the questions and the coding of responses clear and simple. Since Nigeria and the U.S.A. have different levels of technological development, the computer hardware and software were chosen to be suitable for use at either site. Exchange visits have been needed to address data management issues and resolve unexpected problems. The data management on cross-cultural studies can be handled successfully, given careful planning.

  9. An overview of the design, implementation, and analyses of longitudinal studies on aging.

    PubMed

    Newman, Anne B

    2010-10-01

    Longitudinal studies have contributed substantially to understanding of aging and geriatric syndromes. These efforts have provided a base of knowledge of the critical factors to consider in designing and implementing new longitudinal studies in older adults. This review highlights some of the major considerations in planning and implementing this type of study. Longitudinal studies can assess change over time and specific disease endpoints. Such projects require multidisciplinary teams with expertise in the many health and contextual factors that must be considered. Recent advances in study design include the use of imaging and biomarkers to assess mechanisms and approaches that raise the ceiling on measurement and integrate assessment of exposures over time. Study implementation requires careful planning and monitoring to maintain fidelity to the scientific goals. Analysis of longitudinal data requires approaches that account for inevitable missing data. New studies should take advantage of the experience obtained from longitudinal studies on aging already conducted.

  10. Training Kentuckians for industrial jobs: a longitudinal study

    SciTech Connect

    Weseman, M.; Preston-Anderson, A.

    1982-09-01

    The Training and Technology (TAT) program, operated by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, in a Department of Energy facility, has trained unemployed Kentuckians for a number of years. The program is part of DOE's continuing effort to help supply trained personnel for the energy industry. During fiscal years 1978 to 1980, the period covered in this study, TAT enrolled 192 Kentuckians under CETA, Balance of State, and Governor's Special Grants contracts with the Department for Human Resources. One hundred sixty-seven (87%) of these participants completed the program, of which 154 (92%) were placed in unsubsidized employment. Average hourly wage rates for the 154 graduates placed in unsubsidized employment were as follows: FY 1980 - $6.05; FY 1979 - $4.94; and FY 1978 - $4.97. These data indicate short-term success but do not address the questions of postprogram employment stability and wage increases over time. In order to assess the long term impact of TAT, ORAU has conducted a longitudinal study of participants' employment experiences after training.

  11. Training Tennesseans for industrial jobs: a longitudinal study

    SciTech Connect

    Weseman, M.; Preston-Anderson, A.

    1982-09-01

    The Training and Technology (TAT) program is operated for the US Department of Energy by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, in a Department of Energy facility. The program is part of the Department's continuing efforts to help supply trained personnel for the energy industry. TAT has trained unemployed economically disadvantaged Tennesseans for 16 years. During fiscal years 1978 to 1980, the period covered in this study, TAT enrolled 460 Tennesseans under CETA, Title 2B contracts with the Department of Employment Security. Three hundred sixty (78%) of these participants completed the program, of which 335 (93%) were placed in unsubsidized employment. Average hourly wage rates for the 335 graduates placed in unsubsidized employment were as follows: FY 1980 - $6.32; FY 1979 - $5.12; FY 1978 - $5.71. These data indicate short-term success but do not address the questions of postprogram employment stability and wage increases over time. In order to assess the long-term impact of TAT, ORAU has conducted a longitudinal study of participants' employment experiences after training.

  12. Cardiovascular Health and Arterial Stiffness: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure measured at 4 to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m/s) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m/s) (P<0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P=0.004). PMID:24384629

  13. Longitudinal study of children exposed to sulfur oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, R.; Solomon, P.; Moyers, J.; Hayes, C.

    1985-05-01

    This study is a longitudinal comparison of the health of children exposed to markedly different concentrations of sulfur dioxide and moderately different concentrations of particulate sulfate. The four groups of subjects lived in two areas of one smelter town and in two other towns, one of which was also a smelter town. In the area of highest pollution, children were intermittently exposed to high SO/sub 2/ levels (peak three-hour average concentration exceeded 2,500 micrograms/m3) and moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= levels (average concentration was 10.1 micrograms/m3). When the children were grouped by the four gradients of pollution observed, the prevalence of cough (measured by questionnaire) correlated significantly with pollution levels (trend chi-square = 5.6, p = 0.02). No significant differences in the incidence of cough or other symptoms occurred among the groups of subjects over three years, and pulmonary function and lung function growth over the study were roughly equal among all the groups. These results suggest that intermittent elevations in SO/sub 2/ concentration, in the presence of moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= concentration, produced evidence of bronchial irritation in the subjects, but no chronic effect on lung function or lung function growth was detected.

  14. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Eric D; Lowery, Brian S; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Schaumberg, Rebecca L

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.

  15. Race, Ideology, and the Tea Party: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  16. The doubly labeled water method produces highly reproducible longitudinal results in nutrition studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is considered the reference method for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. However, the reproducibility of the DLW method in longitudinal studies is not well documented. This study was designed to evaluate the longitudinal reprodu...

  17. Peer Victimization in Childhood and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  18. The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

  19. A longitudinal study of category-specific agnosia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Richard M; Forde, Emer M E; Humphreys, Glyn W; Graham, Kim S

    2002-01-01

    We report a 12-year longitudinal case study on a 60-year-old male patient (DW) with category-specific agnosia. The extent to which DW's impairment has changed over time was evaluated using identical tests at time 1 (1988) and time 2 (2000). In particular, we assessed his ability to identify pictures and real objects, to draw from memory, and to access stored semantic information about living and non-living things. The principal findings were: (i). DW was significantly better at identifying real objects in comparison with line drawings. (ii). DW presented with a category-specific impairment for living things that remained consistent over the 12-year period. (iii). He significantly improved in his ability to identify real non-living objects over the 12-year period but real living objects remained at floor. (iv). His ability to access stored visual knowledge declined over time. On the basis of these data, we suggest that visual perception is required to maintain intact visual memories over a period of time. We also suggest that integrative visual agnosia co-occurs with a category-specific impairment for living things because the recognition of these items requires more global processing than for non-living things. In addition, we suggest that degradation to stored visual knowledge can cause category-specific naming impairments for living compared with non-living things because naming living things requires access to more detailed visual knowledge.

  20. Parent-Offspring Similarity for Drinking: A Longitudinal Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS). Drinking data was available for 1229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22–28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood. PMID:25224596

  1. Parent-offspring similarity for drinking: a longitudinal adoption study.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G

    2014-11-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study. Drinking data was available for 1,229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22-28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood.

  2. Neurophysiological Characterization of Subacute Stroke Patients: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Lamola, Giuseppe; Fanciullacci, Chiara; Sgherri, Giada; Bertolucci, Federica; Panarese, Alessandro; Micera, Silvestro; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo

    2016-01-01

    Various degrees of neural reorganization may occur in affected and unaffected hemispheres in the early phase after stroke and several months later. Recent literature suggests to apply a stratification based on lesion location and to consider patients with cortico-subcortical and subcortical strokes separately: different lesion location may also influence therapeutic response. In this study we used a longitudinal approach to perform TMS assessment (Motor Evoked Potentials, MEP, and Silent Period, SP) and clinical evaluations (Barthel Index, Fugl-Meyer Assessment for upper limb motor function and Wolf Motor Function Test) in 10 cortical-subcortical and 10 subcortical ischemic stroke patients. Evaluations were performed in a window between 10 and 45 days (t0) and at 3 months after the acute event (t1). Our main finding is that 3 months after the acute event patients affected by subcortical stroke presented a reduction in contralateral SP duration in the unaffected hemisphere; this trend is related to clinical improvement of upper limb motor function. In conclusion, SP proved to be a valid parameter to characterize cortical reorganization patterns in stroke survivors and provided useful information about motor recovery within 3 months in subcortical patients. PMID:27899888

  3. Some antecedents of academic self-concept: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chapman, J W; Lambourne, R; Silva, P A

    1990-06-01

    The influence of cognitive, achievement, and family background variables on academic self-concept was examined for 435 students participating in a major longitudinal study in New Zealand. Family background variables included mother's marital status at the birth of the child, family socio-economic status at the time the child was born, and family environment when the child was 7 years and 9 years of age. These factors were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. In addition, the general emotional status of mothers when their child was 3 years and 5 years old was not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. Mother's intelligence when the child was 3 years, and mother's expectations for school performance when the child started school at age 5 were not significantly related to academic self-concept. Similarly, cognitive and intellectual functioning at ages 3, 5, 7, and 9 years were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 7 and 9 years. Rather, academic self-concept at age 11 appeared to be influenced primarily by reading achievement and academic self-concept at age 9, and academic self-concept at age 9 was influenced primarily by reading achievement at age 7. It was concluded that academic self-concept is mainly a product of school achievement, and that any influence home background factors may have are likely to occur by means of their effect on school achievement.

  4. Spiritual stress and coping model of divorce: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2011-12-01

    This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities.

  5. Results from the Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students (LSAGS), an ongoing, joint project of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) and the American Institute of Physics (AIP), first collected survey data from astronomy and astrophysics graduate students in 2007-08. The LSAGS follows the same people, all of whom were in graduate school in 2006-07, over time as they start their careers. Most of the respondents are currently working as postdocs. There have been two rounds of the survey so far, and we have recently received funding for a third round from the National Science Foundation (AST-1347723). Results from the first round showed the importance of mentoring for graduate students. Data collection for the second round has been completed, and AIP has just begun analysis of these data. At this talk, I will present the results of the second survey. Ultimately, the LSAGS will *provide detailed data on trends in employment over 10+ years for a single cohort, *collect data on people who leave the field of astronomy during or after graduate school, *determine whether there are sex differences in attrition from astronomy and reasons for this, and *examine factors that precede decisions to persist in, or leave, the field of astronomy.

  6. Phenol reduces hypertonia and enhances strength: a longitudinal case study.

    PubMed

    McCrea, Patrick H; Eng, Janice J; Willms, Rhonda

    2004-06-01

    Phenyl alcohol blocks are used to relieve spasticity. Such nerve conduction blocks result from phenol-induced axonotmesis and could potentially affect muscle properties related to the ability to generate, maximize, and reduce force. This study assessed the 12-week longitudinal effect of phenol on position (stiffness) and velocity (damping) components of hypertonia, in addition to strength (peak torque and times to generate and reduce torque) in an individual with chronic elbow flexor spasticity following stroke. Phenol motor point injections of flexor muscles paradoxically increased the magnitude of flexion torque and decreased the times required to generate and reduce flexion and extension joint torques, in addition to reducing elbow extension stiffness and damping. Large reductions in the velocity-related component of hypertonia (damping changes > 90%) occurred immediately following injection, which is a finding that supports the velocity-dependent definition of spasticity. Although the changes in damping were large and transient, changes in stiffness and strength variables were small, slower to occur, and maintained. This suggests secondary changes following nerve block, possibly facilitated by regular elbow use subsequent to spasticity reduction.

  7. Minor delinquency and immigration: a longitudinal study among male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Titzmann, Peter F; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish Diaspora adolescents from the FSU in Israel. The participants (15.2 years old) completed 3 annual assessments. Latent growth curve models showed that ethnic German adolescents reported higher initial levels of delinquency than native German adolescents and lower levels than the Russian Jewish adolescents. Groups did not differ in the rate of change, indicating a decrease in delinquency over time. Peer-oriented leisure related positively and parental knowledge negatively with levels and change rates in delinquency in all groups, but could not fully account for the ethnic differences in delinquency levels. School bonding was associated negatively with delinquency only among native German adolescents. Acculturation-related hassles were an additional predictor for higher levels and also associated with change rates in the immigrant groups. Thus, general theories of delinquency apply to immigrants, but may be complemented by adding acculturation-specific challenges.

  8. Markers of gluten sensitivity in acute mania: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Faith; Stallings, Cassie; Origoni, Andrea; Vaughan, Crystal; Khushalani, Sunil; Yolken, Robert

    2012-03-30

    Increased levels of antibodies to gliadin, which is derived from the wheat protein gluten, have been reported in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in cross-sectional studies. We examined longitudinally the levels of antibody reactivity to gliadin in acute mania. The sample included 60 individuals assessed during a hospital stay for acute mania, 39 at a 6-month follow-up, and a sample of 143 non-psychiatric controls. Antibodies to gliadin were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The relationship of the antibodies to the clinical course of mania was analyzed by the use of regression models. Individuals with mania had significantly increased levels of IgG antibodies to gliadin, but not other markers of celiac disease, at baseline compared with controls in multivariate analyses. However, these levels were not significantly different from those of controls at the six month follow-up. Among the individuals with mania, elevated levels at follow-up were significantly associated with re-hospitalization in the 6-month follow-up period. The monitoring and control of gluten sensitivity may have significant effects on the management of individuals hospitalized with acute mania.

  9. Longitudinal study of habits leading to malocclusion development in childhood

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increased prevalence of malocclusions represents a secular trend attributed to the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The analysis of factors related to the causes of these changes is essential for planning public health policies aimed at preventing and clinically intercepting malocclusion. This study investigated the sucking habits, nocturnal mouth breathing, as well as the relation of these factors with malocclusion. Methods This is a longitudinal study in which 80 mother-child pairs were monitored from the beginning of pregnancy to the 30th month after childbirth. Home visits for interviews with the mothers were made on the 12th, 18th and 30th months of age. Finger sucking, pacifier sucking, bottle feeding, breastfeeding and nocturnal mouth breathing, were the variables studies. On the 30th month, clinical examinations were performed for overjet, overbite and posterior crossbite. A previously calibrated single examiner (Kappa coefficient = 0.92) was responsible for all examinations. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared or Fisher’s exact tests, at a significance level of 5%. Results Bottle feeding was the most prevalent habit at 12, 18 and 30 months (87.5%; 90% and 96.25%, respectively). Breastfeeding was 40%, 25% and 12.50% at 12, 18 and 30 months, respectively. Nearly 70% of the children in this study had some sort of malocclusion. Pacifier sucking habit at 12, 18 and 30 months of age was associated with overjet and open bite; and at 30 months, an association with overbite was also observed. Finger sucking habit and breastfeeding at 12, 18 and 30 months were also associated with overjet and open bite. The posterior crossbite was associated with bottle feeding at 12 and 30 months, and nocturnal mouth breathers at 12 and 18 months. Conclusions Sucking habits, low rates of breastfeeding, and nocturnal mouth breathing were risk factors for malocclusion. PMID:25091288

  10. Rationales, design and recruitment for the Elfe longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Bois, Corinne; Pirus, Claudine; Sarter, Hélène; Salines, Georges; Leridon, Henri

    2009-01-01

    Background Many factors act simultaneously in childhood to influence health status, life chances and well being, including pre-birth influences, the environmental pollutants of early life, health status but also the social influences of family and school. A cohort study is needed to disentangle these influences and explore attribution. Methods Elfe will be a nationally representative cohort of 20 000 children followed from birth to adulthood using a multidisciplinary approach. The cohort will be based on the INSEE Permanent Demographic Panel (EDP) established using census data and civil records. The sample size has been defined in order to match the representativeness criteria and to obtain some prevalence estimation, but also to address the research area of low exposure/rare effects. The cohort will be based on repeated surveys by face to face or phone interview (at birth and each year) as well as medical interview (at 2 years) and examination (at 6 years). Furthermore, biological samples will be taken at birth to evaluate the foetal exposition to toxic substances, environmental sensors will be placed in the child's homes. Pilot studies have been initiated in 2007 (500 children) with an overall acceptance rate of 55% and are currently under progress, the 2-year survey being carried out in October this year. Discussion The longitudinal study will provide a unique source of data to analyse the development of children in their environment, to study the various factors interacting throughout the life course up to adulthood and to determine the impact of childhood experience on the individual's physical, psychological, social and professional development. PMID:19772571

  11. Comparing Longitudinal Profile Patterns of Mathematics and Reading in Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten: The Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Se-Kang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare longitudinal patterns from Mathematics and Reading data from the direct child assessment of Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten (ECLS-K, US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics 2006), utilizing Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS). PAMS has been used initially…

  12. Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

  13. National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. Review and Annotation of Study Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Samuel S.; And Others

    Over 150 journal articles, papers presented at professional meetings, dissertations, government publications, contract reports, and studies in progress as of March 1977 on the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) are annotated and indexed by subject, author, and sponsoring agency. Introductory chapters describe the…

  14. Change over Time: Conducting Longitudinal Studies of Children’s Cognitive Development

    PubMed Central

    Grammer, Jennie K.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental scientists have argued that the implementation of longitudinal methods is necessary for obtaining an accurate picture of the nature and sources of developmental change (Magnusson & Cairns, 1996; Morrison & Ornstein, 1996; Magnusson & Stattin, 2006). Developmentalists studying cognition have been relatively slow to embrace longitudinal research, and thus few exemplar studies have tracked individual children’s cognitive performance over time and even fewer have examined contexts that are associated with this growth. In this article we first outline some of the benefits of implementing longitudinal designs. Using illustrations from existing studies of children’s basic cognitive development and of their school-based academic performance, we discuss when it may be appropriate to employ longitudinal (versus other) methods. We then outline methods for integrating longitudinal data into one’s research portfolio, contrasting the leveraging of existing longitudinal data sets with the launching of new longitudinal studies in order to address specific questions concerning cognitive development. Finally, for those who are interested in conducting longitudinal investigations of their own, we provide practical on-the-ground guidelines for designing and carrying out such studies of cognitive development. PMID:24955035

  15. Longitudinal study on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in households.

    PubMed

    Laarhoven, Laura M; de Heus, Phebe; van Luijn, Jeanine; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Duijkeren, Engeline

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) is an emerging pathogen in dogs and has been found in Europe, Asia and North America. To date most studies are one-point prevalence studies and therefore little is known about the dynamics of MRSP in dogs and their surrounding. In this longitudinal study MRSP colonization in dogs and the transmission of MRSP to humans, contact animals and the environment was investigated. Sixteen dogs with a recent clinical MRSP infection were included. The index dogs, contact animals, owners and environments were sampled once a month for six months. Samples taken from the nose, perineum and infection site (if present) of the index cases and contact animals, and the nares of the owners were cultured using pre-enrichment. Index cases were found positive for prolonged periods of time, in two cases during all six samplings. In five of the 12 households that were sampled during six months, the index case was intermittently found MRSP-positive. Contact animals and the environment were also found MRSP-positive, most often in combination with a MRSP-positive index dog. In four households positive environmental samples were found while no animals or humans were MRSP-positive, indicating survival of MRSP in the environment for prolonged periods of time. Genotyping revealed that generally similar or indistinguishable MRSP isolates were found in patients, contact animals and environmental samples within the same household. Within two households, however, genetically distinct MRSP isolates were found. These results show that veterinarians should stay alert with (former) MRSP patients, even after repeated MRSP-negative cultures or after the disappearance of the clinical infection. There is a considerable risk of transmission of MRSP to animals in close contact with MRSP patients. Humans were rarely MRSP-positive and never tested MRSP-positive more than once suggesting occasional contamination or rapid elimination of colonization of

  16. Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

    2009-12-01

    This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence.This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College.The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to

  17. Pelvic pain after childbirth: a longitudinal population study.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, Elisabeth Krefting; Owe, Katrine Mari; Pingel, Ronnie; Kristiansson, Per; Vangen, Siri; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2016-03-01

    In this longitudinal population study, the aims were to study associations of mode of delivery with new onset of pelvic pain and changes in pelvic pain scores up to 7 to 18 months after childbirth. We included 20,248 participants enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008) without preexisting pelvic pain in pregnancy. Data were obtained by 4 self-administered questionnaires and linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 4.5% of the women reported new onset of pelvic pain 0 to 3 months postpartum. Compared to unassisted vaginal delivery, operative vaginal delivery was associated with increased odds of pelvic pain (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.59). Planned and emergency cesarean deliveries were associated with reduced odds of pelvic pain (adjusted OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.74 and adjusted OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49-0.87, respectively). Planned cesarean delivery, young maternal age, and low Symptom Checklist-8 scores were associated with low pelvic pain scores after childbirth. A history of pain was the only factor associated with increased pelvic pain scores over time (P = 0.047). We conclude that new onset of pelvic pain after childbirth was not commonly reported, particularly following cesarean delivery. Overall, pelvic pain scores were rather low at all time points and women with a history of pain reported increased pelvic pain scores over time. Hence, clinicians should follow up women with pelvic pain after a difficult childbirth experience, particularly if they have a history of pain.

  18. Solvent/detergent-treated plasma: a tale of 30 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Liumbruno, Giancarlo Maria; Marano, Giuseppe; Grazzini, Gioia; Capuzzo, Enrico; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    Solvent/detergent-treated plasma was licensed >30 years ago. It has several specific characteristics, the most important being the standardized content of clotting factors, the lack of antibodies implicated in transfusion-related acute lung injury pathogenesis and the very high level of safety against transfusion-related viral infections. Since 1992, many clinical studies have confirmed its safety and efficacy in a wide range of congenital and acquired bleeding disorders. After a brief analysis of the pharmaceutical characteristics of solvent/detergent plasma, this review will focus on the clinical experience with this virus-inactivated plasma.

  19. Problematics of Time and Timing in the Longitudinal Study of Human Development: Theoretical and Methodological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Phelps, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Studying human development involves describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual change and interindividual differences in such change and, as such, requires longitudinal research. The selection of the appropriate type of longitudinal design requires selecting the option that best addresses the theoretical questions asked about…

  20. Use of Missing Data Methods in Longitudinal Studies: The Persistence of Bad Practices in Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelicic, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal…

  1. What Alumni Value from New Product Development Education: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Corie L.; Hey, Jonathan; Agogino, Alice M.; Beckman, Sara L.; Kim, Sohyeong

    2016-01-01

    We present a longitudinal study of what graduates take away from a cross-disciplinary graduate-level New Product Development (NPD) course at UC Berkeley over a 15-year period from 1996-2010. We designed and deployed a longitudinal survey and interviewed a segment of our NPD alumni population to better understand how well our course prepared these…

  2. Recruitment Modeling Applied to Longitudinal Studies of Group Differences in Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhyastha, Tara M.; Hunt, Earl; Deary, Ian J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Dykiert, Dominika

    2009-01-01

    In longitudinal studies data is collected in a series of waves. Each wave after the first suffers from attrition. Therefore it can be difficult to discriminate between changes in sample parameters due to a longitudinal process (e.g. ageing) and changes due to attrition. The problem is particularly vexing if one of the purposes is to compare…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Midage Women with Indicators of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather-Schmidt, A. Kate; Lee, Christina; Wade, Tracey D.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study of midage women has two main aims: to examine the effect of disordered eating (DE) on quality of life (QoL) among women, including a comparison with a younger cohort and to investigate the mediating roles of both depressive symptoms and social support on the longitudinal relationship between DE and QoL as potential…

  4. Changes in HRM in Europe: A Longitudinal Comparative Study among 18 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…

  5. Linking Land Surface Phenology and Growth Limiting Factor Shifts over the Past 30 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garonna, I.; Schenkel, D.; de Jong, R.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The study of global vegetation dynamics contributes to a better understanding of global change drivers and how these affect ecosystems and ecological diversity. Land-surface phenology (LSP) is a key response and feedback of vegetation to the climate system, and hence a parameter that needs to be accurately represented in terrestrial biosphere models [1]. However, the effects of climatic changes on LSP depend on the relative importance of climatic constraints in specific regions - which are not well understood at global scale. In this study, we analyzed a Phenology Reanalysis dataset [2] to evaluate shifts in three climatic drivers of phenology at global scale and over the last 30 years (1982-2012): incoming radiation, evaporative demand and minimum temperature. As a first step, we compared LAI as modeled from these three factors (LAIre) to remotely sensed observations of LSP (LAI3g, [3]) over the same time period. As a second step, we examined temporal trends in the climatic constraints at Start- and End- of the Growing Season. There was good agreement between phenology metrics as derived form LAI3g and LAIre over the last 30 years - thus providing confidence in the climatic constraints underlying the modeled data. Our analysis reveals inter-annual variation in the relative importance of the three climatic factors in limiting vegetation growth at Start- and End- of the Growing Season over the last 30 years. High northern latitudes, as well as northern Europe and central Asia, appear to have undergone significant changes in dominance between the three controls. We also find that evaporative demand has become increasingly limiting for growth in many parts of the world, in particular in South America and eastern Asia. [1] Richardson, A.D. et al. Global Change Biology 18, 566-584 (2012). [2] Stöckli, R. et al. J. Geophys. Res 116, G03020 (2011). [3] Zhu, Z. et al. Remote Sensing 5, 927-948 (2013).

  6. Global dietary quality, undernutrition and non-communicable disease: a longitudinal modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Green, Rosemary; Sutherland, Jennifer; Dangour, Alan D; Shankar, Bhavani; Webb, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the relationship between global dietary energy availability and dietary quality, and nutrition-related health outcomes. Design A worldwide longitudinal modelling study using country-level data. Data on total dietary energy availability and dietary energy from 10 distinct food groups (as a proxy for dietary quality) were obtained from the FAO Food Balance Sheets database. Indicators of development were abstracted from the World Bank's World Development Indicators database. Data on nutrition and health outcomes were taken from the WHO mortality database and major cross-country analyses. We investigated associations of energy availability from food groups and health and nutrition outcomes in the combined data set using mixed effects models, while adjusting for measures of development. Population 124 countries over the period 1980–2009. Main outcome measures Prevalence of stunting in children under 5 years and mortality rate from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in adults aged 55+ years. Results From 1980 to 2009, global dietary energy availability increased, and rates of child stunting and adult IHD mortality declined. After adjustment for measures of development, increased total dietary energy availability was significantly associated with reduced stunting rates (−0.84% per 100 kcal increase in energy, 95% CI −0.97 to −0.72) and non-significantly associated with increased IHD mortality rates (by 4.2 deaths per 100 000/100 kcal increase, 95% CI −1.85 to 10.2). Further analysis demonstrated that the changing availability of energy from food groups (particularly fruit, vegetables, starchy roots, meat, dairy and sugar) was important in explaining the associations with health outcomes. Conclusions Our study has demonstrated that by combining large, publicly available data sets, important patterns underlying trends in diet-related health can be uncovered. These associations remain even after accounting for measures of development over

  7. Habitual chocolate intake and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study: (1975-2010): Prospective observations.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Dearborn, Peter; Robbins, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Compounds in cocoa and chocolate have established cardiovascular benefits, including beneficial effects on insulin resistance, a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aims of this study was to investigate relations between habitual chocolate intakes and diabetes mellitus. Cross-sectional and prospective analyses were undertaken on 953 community-dwelling participants (mean age 62 years, 59% women) from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intakes, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, were related to prevalence of diabetes mellitus (cross-sectionally) and with risk of diabetes measured approximately five years later (prospectively). We also examined the relation between diabetes (the predictor) and chocolate consumption (the outcome) up to 30 years later. Chocolate intake was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes. Compared to participants who consumed chocolate more than once per week, those who never or rarely ate chocolate exhibited a significantly higher odds of having type 2 diabetes 5 years later (OR: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.03, 3.55, p = 0.04), after adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors including other polyphenol-rich beverages. However, individuals diagnosed with diabetes prior to the nutritional assessment consumed lower amounts of chocolate at the time of the dietary assessment. Our findings suggest that relations between chocolate and type 2 diabetes may be bi-directional.

  8. The development of moral emotions and decision-making from adolescence to early adulthood: a 6-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Colasante, Tyler; Buchmann, Marlis; Malti, Tina

    2014-04-01

    Adolescents' emotions in the context of moral decision-making repeatedly have been shown to predict actual behaviour. However, little systematic information on developmental change regarding these emotion expectancies has been available thus far. This longitudinal study investigated anticipated moral emotions and decision-making between the ages of 15 and 21 in a representative sample of Swiss adolescents (N = 1,258; 54 % female; M = 15.30 years). Anticipated moral emotions and decision-making were assessed through a semi-structured interview procedure. Using Bernoulli hierarchical linear modeling, it was found that positive feelings after a moral transgression (i.e., "happy victimizer" responses) decreased over time, whereas positive feelings after a moral decision (i.e., "happy moralist" responses) increased. However, this pattern was contingent upon the moral scenario presented. Systematic relationships between anticipated moral emotions and moral personality characteristics of sympathy, conscientiousness, and agreeableness were found, even when controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and cognitive ability. Overall, this study demonstrates that the development of anticipated moral emotions is not limited to childhood. Furthermore, our findings suggest that moral emotions serve as an important link between moral personality development and decision-making processes that are more proximal to everyday moral behavior.

  9. A Chinese Longitudinal Study on Work/Family Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Luo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore reciprocal relationships between work/family resources, work/family enrichment (WFE), and work/family satisfaction in a Chinese society. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal design was adopted using a three-wave panel sample. Data were obtained from 310 Taiwanese employees on three occasions,…

  10. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Accounting Students' Ethical Judgement Making Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed Saat, Maisarah; Porter, Stacey; Woodbine, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of a moral education programme on the ethical judgement making ability of university students. The programme comprises two forms of intervention: a dedicated ethics course and subsequent practical training. A total of 113 accounting students from six Malaysian universities participated in a longitudinal study…

  12. Exercise and Three Psychosocial Variables: A Longitudinal Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    in whom, when, and where exercise participation (EX) has significant effects on depression (DEP), self - esteem (SE), and quality of life (QOL). Data...subgroups, Depression Longitudinal, Residualized gain analysis, Self - Esteem , Navy Men and Women....A predominant opinion in research and society today maintains that exercise is beneficial for the reduction of depression and enhancement of self

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Individual and Organisational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Timothy T.; Armstrong, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine organisational learning (OL) and individual managerial learning and provide a comparative evaluation of the ability of each to generate organisational benefits. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical model of organisational learning is developed which was then longitudinally tested…

  14. Marriage and Career Role Expectations: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaub, Patricia K.

    The purpose of this paper is two-fold: (1) to assess the extent to which adolescent girls' sex role expectations reflect traditional or egalitarian concepts of marriage and career roles as evidenced in a longitudinal design; and (2) to compare both the adolescents' role projections and their subsequent enactment to the educational attainment and…

  15. Changes in Tropical Cyclone Intensity Over the Past 30 Years: A Global and Dynamic Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Liguang; Wang, Bin; Braun, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    The hurricane season of 2005 was the busiest on record and Hurricane Katrina (2005) is believed to be the costliest hurricane in U. S. history. There are growing concerns regarding whether this increased tropical cyclone activity is a result of global warming, as suggested by Emanuel(2005) and Webster et al. (2005), or just a natural oscillation (Goldenberg et al. 2001). This study examines the changes in tropical cyclone intensity to see what were really responsible for the changes in tropical cyclone activity over the past 30 years. Since the tropical sea surface temperature (SST) warming also leads to the response of atmospheric circulation, which is not solely determined by the local SST warming, this study suggests that it is better to take the tropical cyclone activities in the North Atlantic (NA), western North Pacific (WNP) and eastern North Pacific (ENP) basins as a whole when searching for the influence of the global-scale SST warming on tropical cyclone intensity. Over the past 30 years, as the tropical SST increased by about 0.5 C, the linear trends indicate 6%, 16% and 15% increases in the overall average intensity and lifetime and the annual frequency. Our analysis shows that the increased annual destructiveness of tropical cyclones reported by Emanuel(2005) resulted mainly from the increases in the average lifetime and annual frequency in the NA basin and from the increases in the average intensity and lifetime in the WNP basin, while the annual destructiveness in the ENP basin generally decreased over the past 30 years. The changes in the proportion of intense tropical cyclones reported by Webster et a1 (2005) were due mainly to the fact that increasing tropical cyclones took the tracks that favor for the development of intense tropical cyclones in the NA and WNP basins over the past 30 years. The dynamic influence associated with the tropical SST warming can lead to the impact of global warming on tropical cyclone intensity that may be very

  16. Use of Social Media by Western European Hospitals: Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Berben, Sivera AA; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. Objective To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. Methods In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. Results We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Conclusions Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health

  17. Examining the Factors That Influence Students' Science Learning Processes and Their Learning Outcomes: 30 Years of Conceptual Change Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jing-Wen; Yen, Miao-Hsuan; Liang, Jia-Chi; Chiu, Mei-Hung; Guo, Chorng-Jee

    2016-01-01

    This study used content analysis to examine the most studied conceptual change factors that influence students' science learning processes and their learning outcomes. The reviewed research included empirical studies published since Posner et al. proposed their conceptual change model 30 years ago (from 1982 to 2011). One hundred sixteen SSCI…

  18. Prediction in Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of Adoptive and Nonadoptive Families. The Delaware Family Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoopes, Janet L.

    A longitudinal study was conducted to determine factors predicting successful adoptions before placement and to identify differences and similarities between adoptive and biological families. Data collected on both adopted children and on their adoptive families before placement was related to data collected on the same children and families 6…

  19. Salutogenesis 30 Years Later: Where Do We Go from here?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Craig M.; Glascoff, Mary Alice; Felts, W. Michael

    2010-01-01

    In 1979 Aaron Antonovsky introduced the concept of salutogenesis as the study of health development. This approach contrasted with the concept of pathogenesis or the study of disease development. Pathogenesis works retrospectively from disease to determine how individuals can avoid, manage, and/or eliminate that disease. Salutogenesis works…

  20. Cognitive function, social functioning and quality of life in first-episode psychosis: A 1-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Popolo, Raffaele; Vinci, Giancarlo; Balbi, Andrea

    2010-03-01

    Abstract Objective. The majority of patients with schizophrenia have cognitive deficits early in the disease. We evaluated the relationship between cognitive function, social functioning and quality of life in patients with first-episode psychosis. Methods. This was a longitudinal study in 15 patients aged 18-30 years who had recently experienced a first psychotic episode and were treated with the atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole, cognitive-behavioural therapy, psycho-educational sessions, family supportive sessions and social interventions. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after 1 year. Cognitive assessment included attention, memory, language skills and problem solving. Social functioning, quality of life, and psychopathological evaluation were performed with validated tools. Results. At baseline, patients had a severe impairment of social functioning and a low quality of life, while a specific pattern of cognitive functions was not identified. After 1-year, we observed a significant improvement in social functioning and quality of life, without a significant decrease in cognitive function. Conclusion. Contrary to previous findings, we found that social functioning and quality of life are related, but independent of cognitive impairment. The use of antipsychotic agents that do not interefere with cognitive function plus psychological assistance is a valuable treatment approach in patients with first-episode schizophrenia.

  1. Recruiting and retaining mobile young injection drug users in a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lankenau, Stephen E; Sanders, Bill; Hathazi, Dodi; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson

    2010-04-01

    Longitudinal studies that research homeless persons or transient drug users face particular challenges in retaining subjects. Between 2005 and 2006, 101 mobile young injection drug users were recruited in Los Angeles into a 2-year longitudinal study. Several features of ethnographic methodology, including fieldwork and qualitative interviews, and modifications to the original design, such as toll-free calls routed directly to ethnographer cell phones and wiring incentive payments, resulted in retention of 78% of subjects for the first follow-up interview. Longitudinal studies that are flexible and based upon qualitative methodologies are more likely to retain mobile subjects while also uncovering emergent research findings.

  2. Thinking about Diagnostic Thinking: A 30-Year Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elstein, Arthur S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper has five objectives: (a) to review the scientific background of, and major findings reported in, Medical Problem Solving, now widely recognized as a classic in the field; (b) to compare these results with some of the findings in a recent best-selling collection of case studies; (c) to summarize criticisms of the hypothesis-testing model…

  3. Sample size in psychological research over the past 30 years.

    PubMed

    Marszalek, Jacob M; Barber, Carolyn; Kohlhart, Julie; Holmes, Cooper B

    2011-04-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) Task Force on Statistical Inference was formed in 1996 in response to a growing body of research demonstrating methodological issues that threatened the credibility of psychological research, and made recommendations to address them. One issue was the small, even dramatically inadequate, size of samples used in studies published by leading journals. The present study assessed the progress made since the Task Force's final report in 1999. Sample sizes reported in four leading APA journals in 1955, 1977, 1995, and 2006 were compared using nonparametric statistics, while data from the last two waves were fit to a hierarchical generalized linear growth model for more in-depth analysis. Overall, results indicate that the recommendations for increasing sample sizes have not been integrated in core psychological research, although results slightly vary by field. This and other implications are discussed in the context of current methodological critique and practice.

  4. 77 FR 39344 - Agency Information (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey)] Agency Information (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans.... Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey) in...

  5. 77 FR 22068 - Proposed Information Collection (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey)] Proposed Information Collection (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey)'' in...

  6. Mount St. Helens: A 30-year legacy of volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallance, James W.; Gardner, Cynthia A.; Scott, William E.; Iverson, Richard M.; Pierson, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    The spectacular eruption of Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980 electrified scientists and the public. Photodocumentation of the colossal landslide, directed blast, and ensuing eruption column—which reached as high as 25 kilometers in altitude and lasted for nearly 9 hours—made news worldwide. Reconnaissance of the devastation spurred efforts to understand the power and awe of those moments (Figure 1). The eruption remains a seminal historical event—studying it and its aftermath revolutionized the way scientists approach the field of volcanology. Not only was the eruption spectacular, but also it occurred in daytime, at an accessible volcano, in a country with the resources to transform disaster into scientific opportunity, amid a transformation in digital technology. Lives lost and the impact of the eruption on people and infrastructure downstream and downwind made it imperative for scientists to investigate events and work with communities to lessen losses from future eruptions.

  7. Longitudinal standards for height and height velocity in Korean children and adolescents: the Kangwha study. [corrected].

    PubMed

    Chae, Hyun Wook; Suh, Il; Kwon, Ah Reum; Kim, Ye Jin; Kim, Yong Hyuk; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Ha Yan; Oh, Sun Min; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Duk Hee; Kim, Ho-Seong

    2013-10-01

    Longitudinal standards for height and height velocity are essential to monitor for appropriate linear growth. We aimed to construct standards in Korean children and adolescents through the population-based longitudinal Kangwha study. Our study was a part of a community-based prospective cohort study from 1986 to 1999 with 800 school children. Height and height velocity were recorded annually from age 6 until final height. Results were compared with cross-sectional data from the 2007 Korean National Growth Charts. Final height was 173.5 cm in boys and 160.5 cm in girls. Although final height was similar between longitudinal and cross-sectional standards, the mean height for age was higher in the longitudinal standard by 1-4 cm from age 6 until the completion of puberty. Using the longitudinal standard, age at peak height velocity (PHV) was 12 in boys and 10 in girls; height velocity at PHV was 8.62 cm/yr in boys and 7.07 cm/yr in girls. The mean height velocity was less than 1 cm/yr at age 17 in boys and 15 in girls. Thus, we have presented the first report of longitudinal standards for height and height velocity in Korean children and adolescents by analyzing longitudinal data from the Kangwha cohort.

  8. Dopamine and reward: the anhedonia hypothesis 30 years on.

    PubMed

    Wise, Roy A

    2008-10-01

    The anhedonia hypothesis--that brain dopamine plays a critical role in the subjective pleasure associated with positive rewards--was intended to draw the attention of psychiatrists to the growing evidence that dopamine plays a critical role in the objective reinforcement and incentive motivation associated with food and water, brain stimulation reward, and psychomotor stimulant and opiate reward. The hypothesis called to attention the apparent paradox that neuroleptics, drugs used to treat a condition involving anhedonia (schizophrenia), attenuated in laboratory animals the positive reinforcement that we normally associate with pleasure. The hypothesis held only brief interest for psychiatrists, who pointed out that the animal studies reflected acute actions of neuroleptics whereas the treatment of schizophrenia appears to result from neuroadaptations to chronic neuroleptic administration, and that it is the positive symptoms of schizophrenia that neuroleptics alleviate, rather than the negative symptoms that include anhedonia. Perhaps for these reasons, the hypothesis has had minimal impact in the psychiatric literature. Despite its limited heuristic value for the understanding of schizophrenia, however, the anhedonia hypothesis has had major impact on biological theories of reinforcement, motivation, and addiction. Brain dopamine plays a very important role in reinforcement of response habits, conditioned preferences, and synaptic plasticity in cellular models of learning and memory. The notion that dopamine plays a dominant role in reinforcement is fundamental to the psychomotor stimulant theory of addiction, to most neuroadaptation theories of addiction, and to current theories of conditioned reinforcement and reward prediction. Properly understood, it is also fundamental to recent theories of incentive motivation.

  9. Integrating prospective longitudinal data: modeling personality and health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies.

    PubMed

    Kern, Margaret L; Hampson, Sarah E; Goldberg, Lewis R; Friedman, Howard S

    2014-05-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures across samples. Comparable items related to adult self-rated health, education, and alcohol use were harmonized, and data were pooled on harmonized items. A structural model was estimated as a multigroup analysis. Harmonized child personality factors were then used to examine markers of physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and mortality risk in the Terman sample. Harmonized conscientiousness predicted less physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and lower mortality risk in the Terman sample. These results illustrate how collaborative, integrative work with multiple samples offers the exciting possibility that samples from different cohorts and ages can be linked together to directly test life span theories of personality and health.

  10. Dopamine and Reward: The Anhedonia Hypothesis 30 years on

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Roy A.

    2011-01-01

    The anhedonia hypothesis – that brain dopamine plays a critical role in the subjective pleasure associated with positive rewards – was intended to draw the attention of psychiatrists to the growing evidence that dopamine plays a critical role in the objective reinforcement and incentive motivation associated with food and water, brain stimulation reward, and psychomotor stimulant and opiate reward. The hypothesis called to attention the apparent paradox that neuroleptics, drugs used to treat a condition involving anhedonia (schizophrenia), attenuated in laboratory animals the positive reinforcement that we normally associate with pleasure. The hypothesis held only brief interest for psychiatrists, who pointed out that the animal studies reflected acute actions of neuroleptics whereas the treatment of schizophrenia appears to result from neuroadaptations to chronic neuroleptic administration, and that it is the positive symptoms of schizophrenia that neuroleptics alleviate, rather than the negative symptoms that include anhedonia. Perhaps for these reasons, the hypothesis has had minimal impact in the psychiatric literature. Despite its limited heuristic value for the understanding of schizophrenia, however, the anhedonia hypothesis has had major impact on biological theories of reinforcement, motivation, and addiction. Brain dopamine plays a very important role in reinforcement of response habits, conditioned preferences, and synaptic plasticity in cellular models of learning and memory. The notion that dopamine plays a dominant role in reinforcement is fundamental to the psychomotor stimulant theory of addiction, to most neuroadaptation theories of addiction, and to current theories of conditioned reinforcement and reward prediction. Properly understood, it is also fundamental to recent theories of incentive motivation. PMID:19073424

  11. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large longitudinal cohort study designed to evaluate the association between children's exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiple path...

  12. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  13. A study of simplified methods for longitudinal control decoupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, R.; Ohmiya, H.; Ellis, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Using an inflight simulator, a simple longitudinal decoupling concept was compared with conventional airplane characteristics for the approach and landing tasks. The decoupling system allowed the pilot to command flight path angle changes with the stick with little or no accompanying speed change; likewise, speed changes with only small accompanying flight path changes could be made with throttle only. The unique feature of the concept is that it is an open loop (that is, nonfeedback) control system. Results indicate that in calm air and up to moderate levels of turbulence the decoupling system provides a substantial reduction in pilot workload.

  14. Longitudinal Changes in Adaptive Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome: Interim Findings from a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V. P.; Chung, Man Cheung; Haque, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    A study examined underlying factors for age-related decline in adaptive behavior in 128 adults with trisomy 21 over a three-year period. Presence of dementia was the only determining factor, although the difference in trend over time as compared to subjects without dementia was not significant. (Author/CR)

  15. Interim Solar Radiation Data Manual: 30-Year Statistics from the National Solar Radiation Data Base

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The 30-year (1961-1990) statistics contained in this document have been derived from the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). They outline solar radiation sources, as well as 30-year monthly and annual means of 5 solar radiation elements (three surface and two extraterrestrial) and 12 meteorological elements for 239 locations.

  16. Anorexia Nervosa: The Course of 15 Patients Treated From 20 to 30 Years Previously

    PubMed Central

    Farquharson, R. F.; Hyland, H. H.

    1966-01-01

    A follow-up study, after 20 to 30 years, of 15 patients with anorexia nervosa, formerly treated by the authors, revealed that only one patient failed to recover from the initial illness, and she ultimately became permanently incapacitated. Three patients have had neurotic symptoms periodically during the years following recovery, and one other became very thin in later life, but these four have been able to carry on fairly adequately for the most part. The remaining 10 patients have lived useful, well-adjusted lives, free of symptoms over the years. This study shows that despite the apparently severe emotional disturbances reflected in the marked physical changes that take place in young people suffering from this syndrome, a deep-rooted psychoneurotic or psychotic predisposition does not necessarily exist; the majority of the patients in this series recovered and remained well after relatively simple treatment. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:5902703

  17. Development of the perceptual span in reading: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Anja; Meixner, Johannes; Laubrock, Jochen

    2016-06-01

    The perceptual span is a standard measure of parafoveal processing, which is considered highly important for efficient reading. Is the perceptual span a stable indicator of reading performance? What drives its development? Do initially slower and faster readers converge or diverge over development? Here we present the first longitudinal data on the development of the perceptual span in elementary school children. Using the moving window technique, eye movements of 127 German children in three age groups (Grades 1, 2, and 3 in Year 1) were recorded at two time points (T1 and T2) 1 year apart. Introducing a new measure of the perceptual span, nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was used to separate window size effects from asymptotic reading performance. Cross-sectional differences were well replicated longitudinally. Asymptotic reading rate increased monotonously with grade, but in a decelerating fashion. A significant change in the perceptual span was observed only between Grades 2 and 3. Together with results from a cross-lagged panel model, this suggests that the perceptual span increases as a consequence of relatively well-established word reading. Stabilities of observed and predicted reading rates were high after Grade 1, whereas the perceptual span was only moderately stable for all grades. Comparing faster and slower readers as assessed at T1, in general, a pattern of stable between-group differences emerged rather than a compensatory pattern; second and third graders even showed a Matthew effect in reading rate and the perceptual span, respectively.

  18. Use of missing data methods in longitudinal studies: the persistence of bad practices in developmental psychology.

    PubMed

    Jelicić, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M

    2009-07-01

    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal studies obtained from three flagship developmental journals-Child Development, Developmental Psychology, and Journal of Research on Adolescence-we examined the number of longitudinal studies reporting missing data and the missing data techniques used. Of the 100 longitudinal studies sampled, 57 either reported having missing data or had discrepancies in sample sizes reported for different analyses. The majority of these studies (82%) used missing data techniques that are statistically problematic (either listwise deletion or pairwise deletion) and not among the methods recommended by statisticians (i.e., the direct maximum likelihood method and the multiple imputation method). Implications of these results for developmental theory and application, and the need for understanding the consequences of using statistically inappropriate missing data techniques with actual longitudinal data sets, are discussed.

  19. Perceptions of Study Newsletters for Older Cancer Patients in Longitudinal Studies.

    PubMed

    Mohamedali, Mustafa; Sandoval, Joanna; Thiruvarooran, Vikarnan; Stacey, Holly; O'Neill, Meagan; Breunis, Henriette; Timilshina, Narhari; Durbano, Sara; Alibhai, Shabbir M H

    2016-11-29

    To date, no study has examined the value of providing study newsletters in educating and motivating participants taking part in longitudinal intervention studies and reducing attrition in studies. The study team examined perceptions and satisfaction towards study newsletters, and their potential benefits, in a population of older men with prostate cancer participating in two ongoing longitudinal trials. Two study newsletters issues were mailed out 4 months apart to prostate cancer patients participating in a bone health and/or exercise intervention trial. Participants (n = 133) were invited to complete an 18-item custom-designed survey examining perceptions towards and satisfaction with the newsletter, and provide feedback about what makes an ideal study newsletter. Analyses were primarily descriptive. Resources required to produce a study newsletter were also calculated. Of 133 participants, 83 usable surveys were returned (response rate 62.4%). The mean satisfaction rating for the newsletter was 8.5/10 (SD 1.9) (10 = highly satisfied). Seventy eight percent said the newsletter encouraged them to continue to participate in the study, and 93% indicated that providing such study newsletters should be optional (64%) or mandatory (29%). Each newsletter required 31 h of study personnel time (mostly research student) to produce. Study participants were very satisfied with the newsletter and the majority indicated that study newsletters should be a regular practice in all long-term studies and may improve participant retention. Producing a newsletter is a low-cost method of educating participants in longitudinal studies. Its impact on recruitment and retention should be examined in clinical trials.

  20. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN LONGITUDINAL STUDIES OF AGING IN THE UNITED STATES*

    PubMed Central

    WEIR, DAVID

    2015-01-01

    We review recent developments in longitudinal studies of aging, focusing on the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Both studies are part of a trend toward biosocial surveys in which biological measurement is joined with traditional survey techniques, and a related trend toward greater harmonization across studies. Both studies have collected DNA samples and are working toward genotyping that would allow broadly based association studies. Increased attention to psychological measurement of personality and of cognitive ability using adaptive testing structures has also been shared across the studies. The HRS has expanded its economic measurement to longitudinal studies of consumption and to broader-based measurement of pension and Social Security wealth. It has added biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. The WLS has developed an integrated approach to the study of death and bereavement and an innovative use of high school yearbook photographs to capture information about health in early life of its participants. PMID:21302430

  1. Recurrent diplopia over a 30-year period: natural history of a Lewis and Sumner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, Romain; Bouwyn, Jean Paul; Wallon, David; Bedat-Millet, Anne-Laure; Ahtoy, Patrick; Perot, Guillaume; Hannequin, Didier; Maltête, David

    2012-06-01

    We described the case of a patient with recurrent episodes of isolated diplopia over the last 30 years. On her last event, neurological examination revealed not only a right third and sixth cranial nerves involvement, but also a right peripheral facial palsy and a motor weakness on the left ulnar territory. Electrophysiological nerves motor conduction study revealed a conduction block on the left ulnar nerve and a less severe on the right ulnar nerve. Asymmetrical upper limb sensorimotor weakness combined with conduction block and cranial nerves palsy led to a diagnosis of Lewis and Sumner syndrome (LSS). This case is unusual by the presentation of the disease and is, to our knowledge the longer natural disease course of LSS reported. Moreover, it suggests that the recurrent diplopia variant may represent a separate entity with a good prognosis even in absence of invasive treatment.

  2. A longitudinal study of families with technology-dependent children.

    PubMed

    Toly, Valerie Boebel; Musil, Carol M; Carl, John C

    2012-02-01

    Few researchers have longitudinally examined families caring for technology-dependent children at home. We tested a theoretically and empirically based conceptual model by examining family functioning and normalization in 82 mothers (female primary caregivers) twice over 12 months. Time 1 and Time 2 cross-sectional findings were consistent; the only predictor of family functioning was mothers' depressive symptoms. Contrary to the proposed model, normalization, caregiving duration, and home nursing hours were not directly related to family functioning. Baseline family functioning significantly predicted future family functioning. Also, mothers whose children were no longer technology-dependent at Time 2 reported significant improvements in family functioning and normalization. An intervention to address high levels of depressive symptoms of these mothers is essential to optimizing family functioning.

  3. A Longitudinal Study on Human Outdoor Decomposition in Central Texas.

    PubMed

    Suckling, Joanna K; Spradley, M Katherine; Godde, Kanya

    2016-01-01

    The development of a methodology that estimates the postmortem interval (PMI) from stages of decomposition is a goal for which forensic practitioners strive. A proposed equation (Megyesi et al. 2005) that utilizes total body score (TBS) and accumulated degree days (ADD) was tested using longitudinal data collected from human remains donated to the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF) at Texas State University-San Marcos. Exact binomial tests examined the rate of the equation to successfully predict ADD. Statistically significant differences were found between ADD estimated by the equation and the observed value for decomposition stage. Differences remained significant after carnivore scavenged donations were removed from analysis. Low success rates for the equation to predict ADD from TBS and the wide standard errors demonstrate the need to re-evaluate the use of this equation and methodology for PMI estimation in different environments; rather, multivariate methods and equations should be derived that are environmentally specific.

  4. Joint spatial Bayesian modeling for studies combining longitudinal and cross-sectional data

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Andrew B; Carroll, Rachel; Castro, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    Design for intervention studies may combine longitudinal data collected from sampled locations over several survey rounds and cross-sectional data from other locations in the study area. In this case, modeling the impact of the intervention requires an approach that can accommodate both types of data, accounting for the dependence between individuals followed up over time. Inadequate modeling can mask intervention effects, with serious implications for policy making. In this paper we use data from a large-scale larviciding intervention for malaria control implemented in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, collected over a period of almost 5 years. We apply a longitudinal Bayesian spatial model to the Dar es Salaam data, combining follow-up and cross-sectional data, treating the correlation in longitudinal observations separately, and controlling for potential confounders. An innovative feature of this modeling is the use of Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process to model random time effects. We contrast the results with other Bayesian modeling formulations, including cross-sectional approaches that consider individual-level random effects to account for subjects followed up in two or more surveys. The longitudinal modeling approach indicates that the intervention significantly reduced the prevalence of malaria infection in Dar es Salaam by 20% whereas the joint model did not suggest significance within the results. Our results suggest that the longitudinal model is to be preferred when longitudinal information is available at the individual level. PMID:24713159

  5. Validation of a 30+ year soil moisture record from multi-satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jeu, R.; Dorigo, W.; Wagner, W.; Chung, D.; Parinussa, R.; van der Werf, G.; Liu, Y.; Mittelbach, H.; Hirschi, M.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the ESA Climate Change Initiative soil moisture project a 30+ year consistent soil moisture dataset is currently in development by harmonizing retrievals from both passive and active microwave satellite observations. The harmonization of these datasets incorporates the advantage of both microwave techniques and spans the entire period from 1978 onwards. A statistical methodology based on scaling, ranking and blending was developed to address differences in sensor specifications to create one consistent dataset. A soil moisture dataset provided by a land surface model (GLDAS-1-Noah) was used to scale the different satellite-based products to the same range. The blending of the active and passive datasets was based on their respective performance, which is closely related to vegetation cover. While this approach imposes the absolute values of the land surface model dataset to the final product, it preserves the relative dynamics (e.g., seasonality, inter-annual variations) and trends of the original satellite derived retrievals. Different validation methods were performed to quantify the skill of the various soil moisture datasets at different temporal and spatial scales. In situ data from the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) were used to calculate the local correlation (both Pearson and Spearman) and Root Mean Square Difference between ground observations and the satellite retrievals for different climate regimes. In addition a triple collocation analysis was applied on the passive and active satellite products in order to analyze the error structures at a global scale for the different sensors. Furthermore, indirect proxies like tree ring width data were used to study the consistency of the inter-annual variability within the 30+ year dataset. The combination of these techniques revealed a strong dynamical behavior in data quality in both time and space. In the future this additional information on error dynamics could be used to further

  6. Immunity of patients surviving 20 to 30 years after allogeneic or syngeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Storek, J; Joseph, A; Espino, G; Dawson, M A; Douek, D C; Sullivan, K M; Flowers, M E; Martin, P; Mathioudakis, G; Nash, R A; Storb, R; Appelbaum, F R; Maloney, D G

    2001-12-15

    The duration of immunodeficiency following marrow transplantation is not known. Questionnaires were used to study the infection rates in 72 patients surviving 20 to 30 years after marrow grafting. Furthermore, in 33 of the 72 patients and in 16 donors (siblings who originally donated the marrow) leukocyte subsets were assessed by flow cytometry. T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), markers of T cells generated de novo, were quantitated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunoglobulin G(2) (IgG(2)) and antigen-specific IgG levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Infections diagnosed more than [corrected] 15 years after transplantation occurred rarely. The average rate was 0.07 infections per patient-year (one infection every 14 years), excluding respiratory tract infections, gastroenteritis, lip sores, and hepatitis C. The counts of circulating monocytes, natural killer cells, B cells, CD4 T cells, and CD8 T cells in the patients were not lower than in the donors. The counts of TREC(+) CD4 T cells in transplant recipients younger than age 18 years (at the time of transplantation) were not different from the counts in their donors. In contrast, the counts of TREC(+) CD4 T cells were lower in transplant recipients age 18 years or older, even in those with no history of clinical extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease, compared with their donors. The levels of total IgG(2) and specific IgG against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae were similar in patients and donors. Overall, the immunity of patients surviving 20 to 30 years after transplantation is normal or near normal. Patients who received transplants in adulthood have a clinically insignificant deficiency of de novo-generated CD4 T cells, suggesting that in these patients the posttransplantation thymic insufficiency may not be fully reversible.

  7. VIP Data Explorer: A Tool for Exploring 30 years of Vegetation Index and Phenology Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto-munoz, A.; Didan, K.; Rivera-Camacho, J.; Yitayew, M.; Miura, T.; Tsend-Ayush, J.

    2011-12-01

    Continuous acquisition of global satellite imagery over the years has contributed to the creation of long term data records from AVHRR, MODIS, TM, SPOT-VGT and other sensors. These records account for 30+ years, as these archives grow, they become invaluable tools for environmental, resources management, and climate studies dealing with trends and changes from local, regional to global scale. In this project, the Vegetation Index and Phenology Lab (VIPLab) is processing 30 years of daily global surface reflectance data into an Earth Science Data Record of Vegetation Index and Phenology metrics. Data from AVHRR (N07,N09,N11 and N14) and MODIS (AQUA and TERRA collection 5) for the periods 1981-1999 and 2000-2010, at CMG resolution were processed into one seamless and sensor independent data record using various filtering, continuity and gap filling techniques (Tsend-Ayush et al., AGU 2011, Rivera-Camacho et al, AGU 2011). An interactive online tool (VIP Data Explorer) was developed to support the visualization, qualitative and quantitative exploration, distribution, and documentation of these records using a simple web 2.0 interface. The VIP Data explorer (http://vip.arizona.edu/viplab_data_explorer) can display any combination of multi temporal and multi source data, enable the quickly exploration and cross comparison of the various levels of processing of this data. It uses the Google Earth (GE) model and was developed using the GE API for images rendering, manipulation and geolocation. These ESDRs records can be quickly animated in this environment and explored for visual trends and anomalies detection. Additionally the tool enables extracting and visualizing any land pixel time series while showing the different levels of processing it went through. User can explore this ESDR database within this data explorer GUI environment, and any desired data can be placed into a dynamic "cart" to be ordered and downloaded later. More functionalities are planned and will be

  8. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Aquatic Vegetation in Taihu Lake over the Past 30 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dehua; Lv, Meiting; Jiang, Hao; Cai, Ying; Xu, Delin; An, Shuqing

    2013-01-01

    It is often difficult to track the spatio-temporal variability of vegetation distribution in lakes because of the technological limitations associated with mapping using traditional field surveys as well as the lack of a unified field survey protocol. Using a series of Landsat remote sensing images (i.e. MSS, TM and ETM+), we mapped the composition and distribution area of emergent, floating-leaf and submerged macrophytes in Taihu Lake, China, at approximate five-year intervals over the past 30 years in order to quantify the spatio-temporal dynamics of the aquatic vegetation. Our results indicated that the total area of aquatic vegetation increased from 187.5 km2 in 1981 to 485.0 km2 in 2005 and then suddenly decreased to 341.3 km2 in 2010. Similarly, submerged vegetation increased from 127.0 km2 in 1981 to 366.5 km2 in 2005, and then decreased to 163.3 km2. Floating-leaf vegetation increased continuously through the study period in both area occupied (12.9 km2 in 1981 to 146.2 km2 in 2010) and percentage of the total vegetation (6.88% in 1981 to 42.8% in 2010). In terms of spatial distribution, the aquatic vegetation in Taihu Lake has spread gradually from the East Bay to the surrounding areas. The proportion of vegetation in the East Bay relative to that in the entire lake has decreased continuously from 62.3% in 1981, to 31.1% in 2005 and then to 21.8% in 2010. Our findings have suggested that drastic changes have taken place over the past 30 years in the spatial pattern of aquatic vegetation as well as both its relative composition and the amount of area it occupies. PMID:23823189

  9. What is learned from longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking? A critical assessment.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jon P

    2010-03-01

    This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation.

  10. What is Learned from Longitudinal Studies of Advertising and Youth Drinking and Smoking? A Critical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jon P

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation. PMID:20617009

  11. Integrating Prospective Longitudinal Data: Modeling Personality and Health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate two long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Using a five-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures across samples. Comparable items related to adult self-rated health, education, and alcohol use were harmonized, and data were pooled on harmonized items. A structural model was estimated, allowing paths to differ by sample. Harmonized child personality factors were then used to examine markers of physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and mortality risk in the Terman sample. Harmonized conscientiousness predicted less physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and lower mortality risk in the Terman sample. These results illustrate how collaborative, integrative work with multiple samples offers the exciting possibility that samples from different cohorts and ages can be linked together to directly test lifespan theories of personality and health. PMID:23231689

  12. Forbidden fruit? A longitudinal study of Christianity, sex, and marriage.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Does religion still play a role in explorations of romance and sexuality among adolescents and young adults in a secular society such as Norway? Does it influence the type of living arrangements chosen? A population-based sample (n = 2,454) was followed longitudinally from their midteens to their late 20s using survey and register data. Christian involvement in teenage years was associated with subsequent less "precoital" exploration, less masturbation, delayed sexual intercourse, and a smaller number of sex partners. However, there were no associations with prevalence of same-sex experiences. Christians also postponed initiating romantic relationships and chose marriage over cohabitation. Associations were reduced after controlling for confounding factors but remained significant. Some associations (for example, the form of residential union chosen) were present only in the most "active" Christians. In other areas, such as "precoital explorations" and the age at which intercourse is initiated, Christian norms seem to play a role in much broader segments of the population. The findings indicate that Christianity may continue to influence young Norwegians' experiences of sexuality and cohabitation more than has been expected.

  13. Gender representation in the vision sciences: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Emily A; Radonjic, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the current status and historical trends of gender representation within a research field is an important component of fostering a diverse and inclusive scientific community. Here, we report on the gender representation of a large sample of the vision science research community--the attendees of the Annual Meeting of the Vision Sciences Society (VSS). Our analysis shows that the majority of scientists at all career levels in our sample are male. This imbalance is most pronounced for the senior scientists, whereas predoctoral students are nearly balanced between the genders. Historically, the gender imbalance was larger than it is at present, and it has followed a slow-but-steady trend toward gender parity over the past decade. A longitudinal analysis based on tracking individual attendees shows a larger dropout rate for female than male predoctoral trainees. However, among the trainees who continue in the vision science field after graduate school, evidence suggests that career advancement is quite similar between the genders. In an additional analysis, we found that the VSS Young Investigator awardees and the abstract review committee members reflect substantial gender imbalances, suggesting that these recognitions have yet to catch up with the greater gender balance of the rising generation of junior vision scientists. We hope that this report will encourage awareness of issues of diversity in the scientific community and further promote the development of a research field in which all talented scientists are supported to succeed.

  14. Study of fatigue behavior of longitudinal welded pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simion, P.; Dia, V.; Istrate, B.; Hrituleac, G.; Hrituleac, I.; Munteanu, C.

    2016-08-01

    During transport and storage of the various fluids, welded pipes are subjected to cyclic loading due to pressure fluctuations that often exceed the prescribed values for normal operation. These cyclic loading can significantly reduce the life of the pipes; as a result the design should be based on the fatigue strength not only on static resistance. In general the fatigue strength of pipes is dependent by strength, pipe geometry and surface quality. In case of the electric longitudinal welded pipes, the fatigue strength is significantly limited by concentration of residual stress and the size of existing defects in the weld seam. This paper presents the fatigue behaviour of the electric welded pipes by high frequency, under conditions that simulate real operating conditions pipes. Fatigue testing was performed on welded pipes made of micro alloyed carbon steels. Some of these pipes were previously subjected to a heat treatment of normalization, in order to also determine the influence of heat treatment on the fatigue strength of welded pipes. To determine and correlate the different factors affecting the fatigue strength, welded pipes were also subjected to various tests: tensile tests, impact tests, measurement of micro hardness, microstructural analysis by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  15. Biased and unbiased estimation in longitudinal studies with informative visit processes

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, Charles E.; Neuhaus, John M.; Olin, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The availability of data in longitudinal studies is often driven by features of the characteristics being studied. For example, clinical databases are increasingly being used for research to address longitudinal questions. Because visit times in such data are often driven by patient characteristics that may be related to the outcome being studied, the danger is that this will result in biased estimation compared to designed, prospective studies. We study longitudinal data that follow a generalized linear mixed model and use a log link to relate an informative visit process to random effects in the mixed model. This device allows us to elucidate which parameters are biased under the informative visit process and to what degree. We show that the informative visit process can badly bias estimators of parameters of covariates associated with the random effects, while allowing consistent estimation of other parameters. PMID:26990830

  16. A two years longitudinal study of a transgenic Huntington disease monkey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A two-year longitudinal study composed of morphometric MRI measures and cognitive behavioral evaluation was performed on a transgenic Huntington’s disease (HD) monkey. rHD1, a transgenic HD monkey expressing exon 1 of the human gene encoding huntingtin (HTT) with 29 CAG repeats regulated by a human polyubiquitin C promoter was used together with four age-matched wild-type control monkeys. This is the first study on a primate model of human HD based on longitudinal clinical measurements. Results Changes in striatal and hippocampal volumes in rHD1 were observed with progressive impairment in motor functions and cognitive decline, including deficits in learning stimulus-reward associations, recognition memory and spatial memory. The results demonstrate a progressive cognitive decline and morphometric changes in the striatum and hippocampus in a transgenic HD monkey. Conclusions This is the first study on a primate model of human HD based on longitudinal clinical measurements. While this study is based a single HD monkey, an ongoing longitudinal study with additional HD monkeys will be important for the confirmation of our findings. A nonhuman primate model of HD could complement other animal models of HD to better understand the pathogenesis of HD and future development of diagnostics and therapeutics through longitudinal assessment. PMID:24581271

  17. Muscle Fiber Size and Function in Elderly Humans: A Longitudinal Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cross-sectional studies are likely to underestimate age-related changes in skeletal muscle strength and mass. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to assess whole muscle and single muscle fiber alterations in the same cohort of 12 older (mean age: start of study=71.1+/-5.4 yrs and end of study...

  18. Moebius syndrome. Case report was a 30-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Morello, D C; Converse, J M

    1977-09-01

    Moebius syndrome is uncommon, as reported in the literature. A patient with Moebius syndrome is reported, showing a 30-year follow-up after initial surgical treatment by bilateral partial transfers of the Masseter muscles.

  19. Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence to chronic medication: systematic review of longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Zwikker, Hanneke E; van den Bemt, Bart J; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; van den Ende, Cornelia H; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Materials and methods PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases were searched for studies meeting our inclusion criteria. The reference lists and the ISI Web of Knowledge of the included studies were checked. Studies were included if they had an English abstract, involved adult populations using CPMM living in Western countries, and if they investigated associations between psychosocial predictors and medication non-adherence using longitudinal designs. Data were extracted according to a literature-based extraction form. Study quality was independently judged by two researchers using a framework comprising six bias domains. Studies were considered to be of high quality if ≥four domains were free of bias. Psychosocial predictors for non-adherence were categorized into five pre-defined categories: beliefs/cognitions; coping styles; social influences and social support; personality traits; and psychosocial well-being. A qualitative best evidence synthesis was performed to synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Results Of 4,732 initially-identified studies, 30 (low-quality) studies were included in the systematic review. The qualitative best evidence synthesis demonstrated limited evidence for absence of a longitudinal association between CPMM non-adherence and the psychosocial categories. The strength of evidence for the review’s findings is limited by the low quality of included studies. Conclusion The results do not provide psychosocial targets for the development of new

  20. A longitudinal study of WIC participation on household food insecurity.

    PubMed

    Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth; Gorman, Kathleen S; Wilde, Parke; Kallio, Jan

    2011-07-01

    We examined the association between women's/children's duration of WIC participation and household food security status. For mothers (n = 21,863) and their children (n = 57,377) participating in WIC (2001-2006), longitudinal measures of household food security status were collected using a subscale of the USDA Food Security Module. Using logistic regression, household food security status at the last WIC visit was associated with measures of WIC duration (number of trimesters on WIC for pregnant women, and number of WIC visits for children). Among women with prenatal household food insecurity with hunger, odds of any post-partum household food insecurity was reduced with first (AOR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.48-0.94) or second trimester of entry (AOR= 0.64, 95% CI = 0.45-0.90) versus third. Among children with initial household food insecurity without hunger, an additional WIC visit reduced the odds of any household food insecurity (AOR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.90-0.94) and of household food insecurity with hunger (AOR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.89-0.98) at the last visit. Among those with initial household food insecurity with hunger, an additional WIC visit reduced the odds of any household food insecurity (AOR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92-0.99) and of household food insecurity with hunger (AOR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.83-0.94) at the last visit. Earlier and longer WIC participation may improve household food security status, particularly of vulnerable groups.

  1. A Longitudinal Investigation into L2 Learners' Cognitive Processes during Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The present study longitudinally investigates the cognitive processes of advanced L2 learners engaged in a multimedia task that elicited status-equal and status-unequal refusals in English during their study abroad. Data were collected three times by retrospective verbal report from 20 Chinese learners who were studying abroad over the course of…

  2. Longitudinal Study of Developmental Problems of Children: Comparison between Japan and U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueda, Reiko

    Two studies investigated behavioral problems in childhood. Study 1 longitudinally investigated similarities and differences in enuresis and nailbiting among Japanese and American children. Incidences of enuresis decreased as subjects' age increased. Socio-cultural and family tolerance were related to incidences of nailbiting. In Study 2, changes…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Pubertal Timing and Extreme Body Change Behaviors among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have examined the prevalence of disordered eating and other health risk behaviors among adolescent boys and girls. However, these studies generally have not examined predictors of these behaviors, and have not embedded the investigations within a theoretical framework. This study employed a longitudinal design to evaluate the…

  4. Family and Psychosocial Risk Factors in a Longitudinal Epidemiological Study of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuffe, Steven P.; McKeown, Robert E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Garrison, Carol Z.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of family and social risk factors with psychopathology in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Method: From 1986 to 1988, 3,419 seventh through ninth graders were screened with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The top decile scorers and a random sample of the remainder were interviewed…

  5. Youths' Caretaking of Their Adolescent Sisters' Children: Results from Two Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Patricia L.; Weisner, Thomas S.; Slonim, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    The extent and experiences of youths' caretaking of their adolescent sisters' children have been assessed in two longitudinal studies. The first study examines the caretaking patterns of 132 Latino and African American youth during middle and late adolescence. The second study involves 110 Latino youth whose teenage sister has recently given…

  6. Longitudinal Studies Using a "Natural Experiment" Design: The Case of Adoptees from Romanian Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Kumsta, Robert; Schlotz, Wolff; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the advantages and limitations of general population, high-risk and "natural experiment" longitudinal studies for studying psychological change. The English and Romanian Adoptees study is used as an example of a "natural experiment," and detailed findings are provided. Method: What is new is a focus on the young people who…

  7. How are qualitative methods used in diabetes research? A 30-year systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hennink, Monique M; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Sekar, Swathi; Griswold, Emily P; Ali, Mohammed K

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to describe how qualitative methods are used in global research on diabetes and identify opportunities whereby qualitative methods could further benefit our understanding of the human experience of diabetes and interventions to address it. We conducted a systematic review of National Library of Medicine, EMBASE, and Web of Science electronic databases to identify original research articles that used qualitative methods to study diabetes between 1980 and 2011. We identified 554 eligible articles and categorised these by geographic region, year of publication, study population, study design, research question, qualitative data collection methods, and journal type. Results show low use of qualitative methods in diabetes research over the past 30 years. The majority of articles (75%) reported using substantive qualitative research, while mixed-methods research has remained underutilised. Eighty-five per cent of articles reported studies conducted in North America or Europe, with few studies in developing countries. Most articles reported recruiting clinic-based populations (58%). Over half (54%) of research questions focused on patient experience and 24% on diabetes management. Qualitative methods can provide important insights about socio-cultural aspects of disease to improve disease management. However, they remain underutilised for understanding the diabetes experience, especially in Africa and Asia and amongst non-clinic populations.

  8. Two-wave longitudinal findings from the Berlin aging study: introduction to a collection of articles.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jacqui; Maas, Ineke; Mayer, Karl Ulrich; Helmchen, Hanfried; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Baltes, Paul B

    2002-11-01

    We provide background information for a collection of articles that describe two-wave longitudinal findings derived from the first intensive follow-up of participants of the Berlin Aging Study (BASE). Multidisciplinary data were collected during 1995-1996 from 206 survivors approximately 4 years after baseline assessment (1990-1993). The strengths of the initial BASE design, in terms of a focus on very old age, multidisciplinary intensive assessment, and an examination of selectivity issues, were maintained in this longitudinal extension of the study.

  9. In your 20s it's quantity, in your 30s it's quality: the prognostic value of social activity across 30 years of adulthood.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Cheryl L; Reis, Harry T; Duberstein, Paul R

    2015-03-01

    Social connection, a leading factor in the promotion of health, well-being, and longevity, requires social knowledge and the capacity to cultivate intimacy. Life span development theorists have speculated that social information-seeking goals, emphasized at the beginning of early adulthood, give way to emotional closeness goals in later stages of early adulthood. Drawing on developmental theory (Baltes & Carstensen, 2003; Baltes, 1997), this 30-year prospective study assessed social activity at age 20 and age 30 with experience sampling methods, and psychosocial outcomes (social integration, friendship quality, loneliness, depression, and psychological well-being) at age 50. Results supported the hypothesis that the quantity (but not the quality) of social interactions at age 20, and the quality (but not the quantity) of social interactions at age 30 predict midlife psychosocial outcomes. Longitudinal structural models revealed that age-20 interaction quantity had a direct, unmediated effect on age-50 social and psychological outcomes. The effects of age-20 interaction quality on midlife outcomes, on the other hand, were mediated by age-30 interaction quality. Our findings are consistent with the idea that selection and optimization serve important functions in early adulthood, and that engaging in developmentally appropriate social activity contributes to psychosocial adjustment in the decades that follow.

  10. In Your 20s it’s Quantity, in Your 30s it’s Quality: The Prognostic Value of Social Activity Across 30 Years of Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, Cheryl L.; Reis, Harry T.; Duberstein, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Social connection, a leading factor in the promotion of health, well-being, and longevity, requires social knowledge and the capacity to cultivate intimacy. Lifespan development theorists have speculated that social information-seeking goals, emphasized at the beginning of early adulthood, give way to emotional closeness goals in later stages of early adulthood. Drawing on developmental theory (Baltes, 1997; Baltes & Carstensen, 2003), this 30-year prospective study assessed social activity at age-20 and age-30 with experience sampling methods, and psychosocial outcomes (social integration, friendship quality, loneliness, depression, and psychological well-being) at age-50. Results supported the hypothesis that the quantity (but not the quality) of social interactions at age-20, and the quality (but not the quantity) of social interactions at age-30 predict midlife psychosocial outcomes. Longitudinal structural models revealed that age-20 interaction quantity had a direct, unmediated effect on age-50 social and psychological outcomes. The effects of age-20 interaction quality on midlife outcomes, on the other hand, were mediated by age-30 interaction quality. Our findings are consistent with the idea that selection and optimization serve important functions in early adulthood, and that engaging in developmentally appropriate social activity contributes to psychosocial adjustment in the decades that follow. PMID:25774426

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Early English Immersion and Literacy in Xi'an, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knell, Ellen Shipley

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the efficacy of early English immersion in the Shi Da Fu Elementary School in Xi'an, China. Three hundred and fifty one students were tested in Grades 1-6. There were two main purposes that motivated this longitudinal and cross-sectional study. The first goal was to compare the L1 and L2 language and literacy…

  12. Language Learning at Key Stage 2: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…

  13. A Longitudinal Study of the Determinants and Outcomes of Career Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carless, Sally A.; Arnup, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    The present longitudinal field study investigated the antecedents and consequences of an actual career change. The framework for this study was Rhodes and Doering's (1983) model of career change. We examined the effect of individual and organisational characteristics on career change behaviour. The individual characteristics were: traits (Openness…

  14. Exploring Student Teachers' Beliefs about Language Learning and Teaching: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmen, Kemal Sinan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a four-year longitudinal study of student teachers' beliefs about language learning and teaching over the course of an English teacher education (ELT) program. The study attempts to track possible changes in the beliefs and to analyze the impact of an ELT pre-service program by taking the program itself as a dynamic variable.…

  15. Impaired Perception of Syllable Stress in Children with Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Usha; Mead, Natasha; Fosker, Tim; Huss, Martina; Barnes, Lisa; Leong, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Prosodic patterning is a key structural element of spoken language. However, the potential role of prosodic awareness in the phonological difficulties that characterise children with developmental dyslexia has been little studied. Here we report the first longitudinal study of sensitivity to syllable stress in children with dyslexia, enabling the…

  16. Variability in Fundamental Frequency during Speech in Prodromal and Incipient Parkinson's Disease: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harel, Brian; Cannizzaro, Michael; Snyder, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Nearly two centuries ago, Parkinson (1817) first observed that a particular pattern of speech changes occur in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Numerous studies have documented these changes using a wide variety of acoustic measures, and yet few studies have attempted to quantify any such changes longitudinally, through the early…

  17. Latino Parental Involvement in Kindergarten: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durand, Tina M.

    2011-01-01

    Parental involvement in children's schooling is an important component of children's early school success. Few studies have examined this construct exclusively among Latino families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), the present investigation (N = 2,051) explored relations between Latino parents' home and school…

  18. Media Exposure, Aggression and Prosocial Behavior during Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2006-01-01

    Preschool children (N = 78) enrolled in multi-informant, multi-method longitudinal study were participants in a study designed to investigate the role of media exposure (i.e., violent and educational) on concurrent and future aggressive and prosocial behavior. Specifically, the amount of media exposure and the nature of the content was used to…

  19. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

  20. Continuity and Change in Work Values among Young Adults: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Paul; Knox, William E.

    1984-01-01

    Previous findings, from a more limited sample, of the stability of work values, their effects on occupational selection, and the socializing effects of occupations are all reconfirmed in a study using data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. (Author/IS)

  1. LIFESPAN: A tool for the computer-aided design of longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; Ghisletta, Paolo; Hertzog, Christopher; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2015-01-01

    Researchers planning a longitudinal study typically search, more or less informally, a multivariate space of possible study designs that include dimensions such as the hypothesized true variance in change, indicator reliability, the number and spacing of measurement occasions, total study time, and sample size. The main search goal is to select a research design that best addresses the guiding questions and hypotheses of the planned study while heeding applicable external conditions and constraints, including time, money, feasibility, and ethical considerations. Because longitudinal study selection ultimately requires optimization under constraints, it is amenable to the general operating principles of optimization in computer-aided design. Based on power equivalence theory (MacCallum et al., 2010; von Oertzen, 2010), we propose a computational framework to promote more systematic searches within the study design space. Starting with an initial design, the proposed framework generates a set of alternative models with equal statistical power to detect hypothesized effects, and delineates trade-off relations among relevant parameters, such as total study time and the number of measurement occasions. We present LIFESPAN (Longitudinal Interactive Front End Study Planner), which implements this framework. LIFESPAN boosts the efficiency, breadth, and precision of the search for optimal longitudinal designs. Its initial version, which is freely available at http://www.brandmaier.de/lifespan, is geared toward the power to detect variance in change as specified in a linear latent growth curve model. PMID:25852596

  2. Powerful and Cost-Efficient Designs for Longitudinal Intervention Studies with Two Treatment Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moerbeek, Mirjam

    2008-01-01

    Three issues need to be decided in the design stage of a longitudinal intervention study: the number of persons, the number of repeated measurements per person, and the duration of the study. The degree to which polynomial effects vary across persons and the drop-out pattern also influence the statistical power to detect intervention effects. This…

  3. Tracking Changes in Pre-Service EFL Teacher Beliefs in Greece: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheoudakis, Marina

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal study that aims to investigate pre-service EFL teacher beliefs about learning and teaching in Greece. The study attempts to track possible changes in those beliefs during a 3-year teacher education program and explores the impact of teaching practice, in particular, on student teachers' beliefs. The results…

  4. Power of Models in Longitudinal Study: Findings from a Full-Crossed Simulation Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Hua; Brooks, Gordon P.; Rizzo, Maria L.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Barcikowski, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Because the power properties of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models have not been clearly determined in the balanced design for longitudinal studies in the literature, the authors present a power comparison study of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models under 3…

  5. Gifted Girls and Nonmathematical Aspirations: A Longitudinal Case Study of Two Gifted Korean Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyeong Hwa; Sriraman, Bharath

    2012-01-01

    In this longitudinal study of two gifted Korean girls, experiences with early admittance into a gifted program are charted alongside their family and societal experiences that ultimately influenced their career choices in nonmathematical fields. The 8-year-long qualitative study involved extensive interviews with the two gifted girls and their…

  6. Individual Differences in Pronoun Reversal: Evidence from Two Longitudinal Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen E.; Demuth, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Pronoun reversal, the use of "you" for self-reference and "I" for an addressee, has often been associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and impaired language. However, recent case studies have shown the phenomenon also to occur in typically developing and even precocious talkers. This study examines longitudinal corpus data from two…

  7. Etiology of Pervasive versus Situational Antisocial Behaviors: A Multi-informant Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Jasmin; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Matthews, Timothy; Gray, Rebecca; Best-Lane, Janis; Pariante, Carmine M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to disentangle pervasive from situational antisocial behaviors using multiple informants, and to investigate their genetic and environmental etiologies in preadolescence and across time. Antisocial behaviors were assessed in 2,232 twins from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study at ages 5 and 12.…

  8. Prospective Prediction of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Catherine R.; Klonsky, E. David

    2011-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has become a significant public health problem. Although numerous studies have examined cross-sectional psychological correlates of NSSI, there has been little research examining predictors of NSSI over time. The present study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal correlates of NSSI in 81 young adult…

  9. The Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning: Challenging Assumptions. Research Brief. Perspectives on Literacy and Essential Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reder, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Professor Stephen Reder presented the Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning (LSAL) at The Centre's 2011 Fall Institute--IALS: Its Meaning and Impact for Policy and Practice--whose findings had implications far beyond assessment. Based on evidence from the ten-year study of more than a thousand adult high school drop-outs, Dr. Reder challenges many…

  10. Which Middle School Model Works Best? Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolan, Brian V.; Weiss, Christopher C.; Matthews, Jamaal S.

    2015-01-01

    There are few areas of school organization that reflect more dissatisfaction than how to structure the education of adolescents in the middle grades. This study uses multilevel models on nationally representative data provided by the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to investigate the relationship between schools' middle-level grade span and…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…

  12. Students' Perceptions of Campus Services. Maryland Longitudinal Study Research Highlights. Research Report 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ., College Park. Maryland Longitudinal Study Steering Committee.

    As part of the Maryland Longitudinal Study of 772 students entering the University of Maryland, College Park (UMCP) in 1980, the use and ratings of UMCP campus services by students in the third year of the study were analyzed. Findings included the following: (1) Representative Group (containing members of all ethnic groups) and Black Group…

  13. Serial-Order Short-Term Memory Predicts Vocabulary Development: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Majerus, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Serial-order short-term memory (STM), as opposed to item STM, has been shown to be very consistently associated with lexical learning abilities in cross-sectional study designs. This study investigated longitudinal predictions between serial-order STM and vocabulary development. Tasks maximizing the temporary retention of either serial-order or…

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Internet Addiction: The Role of Conscientiousness and Classroom Hostility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Kuss, Daria; Griffiths, Mark; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, research on Internet addiction (IA) has increased. However, almost all studies in the area are cross-sectional and do not examine the context in which Internet use takes place. Therefore, a longitudinal study examined the role of conscientiousness (as a personality trait) and classroom hostility (as a contextual factor) in…

  15. Attention Problems in Very Preterm Children from Childhood to Adulthood: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeman, Linda D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Very preterm (VP; gestational age <32 weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 grams) is related to attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. Methods: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born…

  16. A Longitudinal Investigation of Project-Based Instruction and Student Achievement in High School Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Emily J.; Dickinson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on how project-based instruction (PBI) influenced secondary social studies students' academic achievement and promoted College and Career Readiness (CCR). We explored and compared student achievement in a PBI high school versus a traditional instruction high school within the same rural school district. While…

  17. Exposure to Parental Cigarette Smoking and Child Problem Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Fagan, Pebbles

    2008-01-01

    This study examined exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), a major public health problem. ETS has been found to be associated with an increased risk of adverse health effects in children. This study utilizes data from a community-based, longitudinal investigation examining the relation between children's exposure to ETS and later…

  18. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Problems: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivertsen, Borge; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Hysing, Mari

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and chronicity of sleep problems in children who manifest problems believed to be typical of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Using data from a longitudinal total population study, symptoms of ASD, insomnia and potential explanatory factors were assessed at ages 7-9 and 11-13. Children were included in a group…

  19. Drug Exposure Opportunities and Use Patterns among College Students: Results of a Longitudinal Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Fitzelle, Dawn B.; Johnson, Erin P.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinking and drug use among college students are major public health concerns, yet few studies have examined these behaviors and their associated risk factors and consequences prospectively. This paper describes the sampling and recruitment methods of a longitudinal study of 1253 college students at a large, mid-Atlantic university.…

  20. Conditions for Ubiquitous Computing: What Can Be Learned from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Based on survey data and interview data collected over four academic years, this longitudinal study examined how a ubiquitous computing project evolved along with the changes in teachers, students, the human infrastructure, and technology infrastructure in the school. This study also investigated what conditions were necessary for successful…

  1. Positive Socialization Mechanisms in Secure and Insecure Parent-Child Dyads: Two Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Woodard, Jarilyn; Kim, Sanghag; Koenig, Jamie L.; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Barry, Robin A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Implications of early attachment have been extensively studied, but little is known about its long-term indirect sequelae, where early security organization moderates future parent-child relationships, serving as a catalyst for adaptive and maladaptive processes. Two longitudinal multi-trait multi-method studies examined whether early…

  2. Early Intervention and Juvenile Delinquency Prevention: Evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Emily A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of an early educational intervention and child-, family-, peer-, and school-level predictors on court-reported juvenile delinquency. Data were provided from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an ongoing investigation of the scholastic and social development of more than 1,500 low-income youths (93% of whom were…

  3. Social Dominance in Romantic Relationships: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Non-Verbal Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Collins, W. Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The study of social dominance has a long tradition within the peer relationships literature, but rarely has the topic been investigated observationally and longitudinally within other salient close relationships. The present study investigated the role of experiences in social relationships and adjustment indices in childhood in predicting later…

  4. Chronic Illness and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Older Adults: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Kee-Lee; Chi, Iris

    2002-01-01

    Depression is quite common among the elderly members of Hong Kong Chinese society. This study examined the impact of a series of chronic illnesses on change in depressive symptoms among the older people. The respondents were 260 people aged 70 years or older from a longitudinal study of a representative community sample of the elderly population…

  5. Training, Careers and Lives: A Longitudinal Study of a Teaching Dynasty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Bill

    1997-01-01

    Recounts the pedagogical history of the Anglo-Welsh Adams family that spans the 1840s to the 1930s in England and Wales. Comprises summarized biographical details of relevant family members and offers generalizations drawn from this longitudinal case study. Argues that this study highlights neglected aspects within educational history. (DSK)

  6. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in the Context of Cyberbullying: A Longitudinal Study among German Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Jakel, Anne; Schultze, Martin; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Although many studies have reported on internalising and externalising problems related to cyberbullying roles, there is a lack of longitudinal research in this area. This study reports (1) cross-sectional data from 412 German middle-school students to examine differences between cyberbullies, cybervictims and cyberbully-victims compared to…

  7. Rates of Bullying Perpetration and Victimisation: A Longitudinal Study of Secondary School Students in Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Tollit, Michelle; Kotevski, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Bullying perpetration and victimisation are common issues confronting schools. To understand the extent of bullying in schools and differences in the experiences of boys and girls, longitudinal studies of different subtypes of bullying perpetration and victimisation are essential. The current study aims to describe the rates of bullying…

  8. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study: 1996-2001 (BPS:1996/2001) Methodology Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Jennifer S.; Heuer, Ruth E.; Wheeless, Sara C.; Francis, Talbric L.; Franklin, Jeff W.; Dudley, Kristin M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the procedures and results of the full-scale Implementation of the final followup interview with the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study 1996/2001. This study follows a cohort first interviewed in 1996 in their first year of postsecondary education. (SLD)

  9. Development of Working Memory and Performance in Arithmetic: A Longitudinal Study with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study has aimed to investigate the relationship between the development of working memory and performance on arithmetic activities. Method: We conducted a 3-year longitudinal study of a sample of 90 children, that was followed during the first, second and third year of primary school. All children were tested on measures of WM…

  10. Longitudinal Study of Elementary School Effects: Design, Instruments, and Specifications for a Field Test. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Ernest D.; And Others

    Patterns of cognitive, affective, and social growth of elementary school children are described and the school and home variables which influence such growth are identified in this longitudinal study. This final report presents the final instruments and the interpretive data associated with them. The study permits the tracing of developmental…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Environmental and Outdoor Education: A Cultural Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal, Tali; Morag, Orly

    2013-01-01

    In this case-study, we present a longitudinal study of one elementary (grades 1-6) school's environmental education (EE) in order to understand the ways in which the school culture supports outdoor EE as a critical component of their science education program. The school, which was known for its school-based EE curriculum that encompasses an…

  12. Building a Constructivist Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Beginning History Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal interpretative case study examined the constructivist beliefs and related practices of four secondary history teachers from their teacher preparation through their first year in the classroom. The results of this study showed that issues of classroom control were major barriers for the implementation of constructivist-oriented…

  13. Information Behavior of People Diagnosed with a Chronic Serious Health Condition: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Jean, Beth Lenore

    2012-01-01

    This study consisted of a longitudinal investigation into the information behavior of people diagnosed with a particular chronic serious health condition, type 2 diabetes. This study sought to identify the factors that motivate or impede the information seeking and use of these individuals and to discover how these factors and their influences…

  14. Longitudinal Study of Nightmares in Children: Stability and Effect of Emotional Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schredl, Michael; Fricke-Oerkermann, Leonie; Mitschke, Alexander; Wiater, Alfred; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Nightmares are defined as dreams with strong negative emotions which awaken the dreamer and are common during childhood: cross-sectional data shows the highest prevalence rates between the ages of five and ten. The present longitudinal study was designed to study the stability of nightmares over the course of 2 years. Sleep questionnaires and…

  15. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up (BPS:90/94) Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Daniel J.; And Others

    This document provides a summary and evaluation of the methodological procedures and results of the full-scale implementation of the Beginning Postsecondary Student Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up, 1990-94 (BPS:90/94). The study was conducted for the National Center for Education Statistics by Research Triangle Institute with the assistance of…

  16. Social and Behavioural Outcomes in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Ginny; Golding, Jean; Norwich, Brahm; Emond, Alan; Ford, Tamsin; Steer, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare social and behavioural outcomes between children formally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with those of children who displayed autistic traits at preschool age, but remained undiagnosed as teenagers. Method: A secondary analysis of data from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  17. The Relationship between Working Memory for Serial Order and Numerical Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attout, Lucie; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Majerus, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Despite numerous studies, the link between verbal working memory (WM) and calculation abilities remains poorly understood. The present longitudinal study focuses specifically on the role of serial order retention capacities, based on recent findings suggesting a link between ordinal processing in verbal WM and numerical processing tasks. Children…

  18. Online Communication, Compulsive Internet Use, and Psychosocial Well-Being among Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Meerkerk, Gert-Jan; Vermulst, Ad A.; Spijkerman, Renske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between adolescents' online communication and compulsive Internet use, depression, and loneliness. The study had a 2-wave longitudinal design with an interval of 6 months. The sample consisted of 663 students, 318 male and 345 female, ages 12 to 15 years. Questionnaires were administered in a…

  19. Personal Context and Continuity of Human Thought: Recurrent Themes in a Longitudinal Study of Students' Conceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellden, Gustav F.

    The present study of personal context and continuity in twenty-three students' thinking builds upon data from a longitudinal study of the students' conceptualizations of ecological processes. Each student was interviewed eleven times from age 9-15 about the conditions for life, decomposition, and the role of the flower in plant reproduction. At…

  20. Evidence for a General ADHD Factor from a Longitudinal General School Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Sebastien; Flora, David B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Recent factor analytic studies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown that hierarchical models provide a better fit of ADHD symptoms than correlated models. A hierarchical model includes a general ADHD factor and specific factors for inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this 12-month longitudinal study was…

  1. Depressive Symptoms and School Burnout during Adolescence: Evidence from Two Cross-Lagged Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Savolainen, Hannu; Holopainen, Leena

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which middle and late adolescents' depressive symptoms predict their later school burnout and, in turn, the extent to which school burnout predicts depressive symptoms. Drawing on data gathered at ages 15-19 in two-three-wave longitudinal studies, we investigated cross-lagged paths…

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Career Maturity of Korean Adolescents: The Effects of Personal and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yon, Kyu Jin; Joeng, Ju-Ri; Goh, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study is to examine the effects of personal factors and contextual determinants on the career maturity change of Korean adolescents over a 5-year period. This study used data from the Korea Youth Panel Survey which was administered to 3,449 junior high students from Grades 8 to 12, starting in 2003. A linear…

  3. Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence, Peer Relations, and Risk for Internalizing Behaviors: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Kathleen; Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Cohen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the quality of peer relations as a mediator between exposure to IPV (intimate partner violence) and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 129 preadolescents and adolescents (ages 10-18), who were interviewed via telephone as part of a multigenerational, prospective, longitudinal study. Relational victimization is also…

  4. Job Demands and Resources as Antecedents of Work Engagement: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Ruokolainen, Mervi

    2007-01-01

    By utilizing a 2-year longitudinal design, the present study investigated the experience of work engagement and its antecedents among Finnish health care personnel (n = 409). The data were collected by questionnaires in 2003 (Time 1) and in 2005 (Time 2). The study showed that work engagement--especially vigor and dedication--was relatively…

  5. Listening Text Comprehension in Preschoolers: A Longitudinal Study on the Role of Semantic Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florit, Elena; Roch, Maja; Levorato, M. Chiara

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study analyzed (a) which lower- and higher-level semantic components uniquely predicted listening text comprehension and (b) the nature of the relation (i.e., direct and indirect) between the predictors and listening text comprehension in preschoolers. One-hundred and fifty-two children participated in the present study (68 females;…

  6. Understanding Differences in State Support for Higher Education across States, Sectors, and Institutions: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weerts, David J.; Ronca, Justin M.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines factors that explain differences in levels of state appropriations for higher education across states, sectors, and institutions between 1984 and 2004. The study sheds light on the complex relationship between institutional mission, state fiscal health, and state political context in explaining appropriations for…

  7. Development of the psychotherapy supervisor: review of and reflections on 30 years of theory and research.

    PubMed

    Watkins, C Edward

    2012-01-01

    The psychotherapy supervisor's development (i.e., the unfolding process of growth in being and becoming a supervisor) has long been considered a substantive issue in clinical supervision. Theory and clinical wisdom suggest that supervisors' level of development can have a significant and far-reaching impact on the supervision experience, potentially affecting supervisory alliance formation, in-session conceptualization and strategy utilization, and even the outcomes experienced by both supervisees and patients. Consensus seems to be that there is a critical need for empirical study of psychotherapy supervisor development. But with a generation of theory and research on psychotherapy supervisor development behind us, what do we know (or not know); where does this area of inquiry stand today, and what do we need to know about supervisor development going forward? In this paper, I attempt to address those questions. I examine the last 30-year period (approximately) of supervisor development theory, measurement, and quantitative and qualitative study; provide a contemporary status report of sorts on this subject; and identify some important matters for research and practical consideration. Despite a generation of inquiry, the psychotherapy supervisor still remains the largely unknown party in the supervision experience. But that long-standing reality can be changed, some possibilities for doing so are presented, and the promise of supervisor development study is seen to be an ever-inviting hope that awaits realization.

  8. Is the human left middle longitudinal fascicle essential for language? A brain electrostimulation study.

    PubMed

    De Witt Hamer, Philip C; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Gatignol, Peggy; Duffau, Hugues

    2011-06-01

    Human brain pathways required for language processing are poorly known. A new white matter tract in humans, the middle longitudinal fascicle, has recently been anatomically determined by diffusion tensor imaging and suggested to be essential for language. Our aim is to determine the importance of the middle longitudinal fascicle for language processing. This study is based on 8 patients with glioma resection at least involving the superior temporal gyrus of the left dominant hemisphere. Language is systematically examined pre- and postoperatively at 3 months. Intraoperative electrostimulation is used to map cortical and subcortical structures as functional boundaries of the glioma resection, including those essential for language processing. The resections are extensive (on average 62 ml, ranging from 21 to 111 ml) and include a large part of the middle longitudinal fascicle in all patients. Intraoperatively, no interference with picture naming is observed by electrostimulation of the middle longitudinal fascicle, while in all patients the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle is identified by eliciting semantic paraphasia as functional boundary. Postoperatively, no new permanent language deficits are detected by systematic language examination. Therefore, we suggest that the middle longitudinal fascicle may participate but is not essential for language processing.

  9. State-of-the-art in longitudinal studies on aging: an overview of the supplement.

    PubMed

    Tappen, Ruth M; Ouslander, Joseph G

    2010-10-01

    The articles in this supplement are based on a conference held in January 2008 sponsored by a grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The purpose of the conference was to summarize major findings and methodological issues in previous and ongoing longitudinal studies on aging and to identify potentially fruitful areas for future research. This article is a review and synthesis of the articles in this supplement. Each of the articles makes important contributions to summarizing existing research, identifying challenging methodological issues, or proposing areas that should be explored in future research. Three themes were identified: general improvement in the health status of the population aged 65 and older in the United States, a shift in longitudinal research on aging from a focus on the endpoints of disease to a focus on the preclinical stage and underlying mechanisms of these diseases, and contemporary developments in longitudinal research methodology. A number of practical suggestions were also drawn from the articles reviewed.

  10. Factors driving mortality and growth at treeline: a 30-year experiment of 92 000 conifers.

    PubMed

    Barbeito, Ignacio; Dawes, Melissa A; Rixen, Christian; Senn, Josef; Bebi, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the interplay between environmental factors contributing to treeline formation and how these factors influence different life stages remains a major research challenge. We used an afforestation experiment including 92 000 trees to investigate the spatial and temporal dynamics of tree mortality and growth at treeline in the Swiss Alps. Seedlings of three high-elevation conifer species (Larix decidua, Pinus mugo ssp. uncinata, and Pinus cembra) were systematically planted along an altitudinal gradient at and above the current treeline (2075 to 2230 m above sea level [a.s.l.]) in 1975 and closely monitored during the following 30 years. We used decision-tree models and generalized additive models to identify patterns in mortality and growth along gradients in elevation, snow duration, wind speed, and solar radiation, and to quantify interactions between the different variables. For all three species, snowmelt date was always the most important environmental factor influencing mortality, and elevation was always the most important factor for growth over the entire period studied. Individuals of all species survived at the highest point of the afforestation for more than 30 years, although mortality was greater above 2160 m a.s.l., 50-100 m above the current treeline. Optimal conditions for height growth differed from those for survival in all three species: early snowmelt (ca. day of year 125-140 [where day 1 is 1 January]) yielded lowest mortality rates, but relatively later snowmelt (ca. day 145-150) yielded highest growth rates. Although snowmelt and elevation were important throughout all life stages of the trees, the importance of radiation decreased over time and that of wind speed increased. Our findings provide experimental evidence that tree survival and height growth require different environmental conditions and that even small changes in the duration of snow cover, in addition to changes in temperature, can strongly impact tree survival and

  11. Tailored Panel Management: A Theory-Based Approach to Building and Maintaining Participant Commitment to a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2014-01-01

    Many psychological processes unfold over time, necessitating longitudinal research designs. Longitudinal research poses a host of methodological challenges, foremost of which is participant attrition. Building on Dillman’s work, we provide a review of how social influence and relationship research informs retention strategies in longitudinal studies. Objective: We introduce the tailored panel management (TPM) approach, which is designed to establish communal norms that increase commitment to a longitudinal study, and this commitment, in turn, increases response rates and buffers against attrition. Specifically, we discuss practices regarding compensation, communication, consistency, and credibility that increase longer term commitment to panel participation. Research design: Throughout the article, we describe how TPM is being used in a national longitudinal study of undergraduate minority science students. TheScienceStudy is a continuing panel, which has 12 waves of data collected across 6 academic years, with response rates ranging from 70% to 92%. Although more than 90% of participants have either left or graduated from their undergraduate degree program, this highly mobile group of people remains engaged in the study. TheScienceStudy has usable longitudinal data from 96% of the original panel. Conclusion: This article combines social psychological theory, current best practice, and a detailed case study to illustrate the TPM approach to longitudinal data collection. The approach provides guidance for other longitudinal researchers, and advocates for empirical research into longitudinal research methodologies. PMID:24590918

  12. [Spatiotemporal variation of soil pH in Guangdong Province of China in past 30 years].

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhi-Xing; Wang, Jing; Chai, Min; Chen, Ze-Peng; Zhan, Zhen-Shou; Zheng, Wu-Ping; Wei, Xiu-Guo

    2011-02-01

    Based on the 1980s' soil inventory data and the 2002-2007 soil pH data of Guangdong Province, the spatiotemporal variation of soil pH in the Province in past 30 years was studied. In the study period, the spatial distribution pattern of soil pH in the Province had less change (mainly acidic), except that in Pearl River Delta and parts of Qingyuan and Shaoguan (weak alkaline). The overall variation of soil pH was represented as acidification, with the average pH value changed from 5.70 to 5.44. Among the soil types in the Province, alluvial soil had an increased pH, lateritic red soil, paddy soil, and red soil had a large decrement of pH value, and lime soil was most obvious in the decrease of pH value and its area percentage. The soil acidification was mainly induced by soil characteristics, some natural factors such as acid rain, and human factors such as unreasonable fertilization and urbanization. In addition, industrialization and mining increased the soil pH in some areas.

  13. Paraganglioma, neuroblastoma, and a SDHB mutation: Resolution of a 30-year-old mystery.

    PubMed

    Schimke, R Neil; Collins, Debra L; Stolle, Catherine A

    2010-06-01

    Familial paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma (PGL/PCC) is genetically heterogenous with mutations in three of the four subunits of the heterotetrameric mitochondrial complex II enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) being causally responsible for the majority of cases. In addition to PGL/PCC an array of non-paraganglial tumors have been described in affected individuals. We present a 30-year follow-up on the family of a deceased patient who synchronously developed malignant neuroblastoma (NBL), PCC, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Other family members with late onset disease have come to our attention, and molecular study revealed a mutation in the SDHB gene. Despite the embryologic relationship, NBL has been seen in only two previous patients with familial PGL/PCC, both with deletions of the SDHB gene. Review of the literature suggests the lack of a reported association between NBL and familial PGL/PCC may be an ascertainment bias. We further suggest that study of the SDH genes in NBL survivors who develop secondary solid tumors, particularly RCC, may correct this bias, and provide for more effective and comprehensive tumor screening in this patient population.

  14. Roadmap for Loess/Paleosol Magnetism After 30 Years of Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagroix, F.; Taylor, S. N.; Guyodo, Y. J. B.; Till, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last 30 years, loess and paleosol deposits have provided the scientific community a unique opportunity to study past climate and environmental change of the continents. Fluctuating magnetic susceptibility of glacial loess and interglacial soil deposits in China, and a few places elsewhere, have been correlated with the marine isotope stages and ice core records, illustrating the loess-climate connection. Furthermore, the logarithm of the magnetic susceptibility and other ferrimagnetism dependant concentration parameters in modern topsoil are found to be linearly related to modern rainfall records. But, the transfer function is site specific. Others have suggested that the relationship is more universal if precipitation and evapotranspiration are considered together. This said, major roadblocks remain for loess/paleosol magnetism to reach its full potential as a quantitative tool in climate and environmental studies. Reaching this full potential is impaired primarily because of the difficulty in identifying iron oxides and oxyhydroxides other than magnetite or maghemite in natural samples and (semi-)quantifying their concentration and grain size. This talk will present results obtained recently through research targeting loess and paleosol magnetism emphasising the need to further consider the following scientific questions. Which environmental and climate variables cause the change in magnetism in soils? How does magnetism evolve with time, quantitatively, when soils are buried under newly deposited loess and become paleosols? Can we overcome the imprecision of paleomagnetic dating inherent to our poor understanding of the magnetization acquisition process in loess and soils?

  15. Education does not slow cognitive decline with aging: 12-year evidence from the victoria longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Glymour, M Maria; Sparks, Catharine; Bontempo, Daniel; Dixon, Roger A; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Manly, Jennifer J

    2011-11-01

    Although the relationship between education and cognitive status is well-known, evidence regarding whether education moderates the trajectory of cognitive change in late life is conflicting. Early studies suggested that higher levels of education attenuate cognitive decline. More recent studies using improved longitudinal methods have not found that education moderates decline. Fewer studies have explored whether education exerts different effects on longitudinal changes within different cognitive domains. In the present study, we analyzed data from 1014 participants in the Victoria Longitudinal Study to examine the effects of education on composite scores reflecting verbal processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency, and verbal episodic memory. Using linear growth models adjusted for age at enrollment (range, 54-95 years) and gender, we found that years of education (range, 6-20 years) was strongly related to cognitive level in all domains, particularly verbal fluency. However, education was not related to rates of change over time for any cognitive domain. Results were similar in individuals older or younger than 70 at baseline, and when education was dichotomized to reflect high or low attainment. In this large longitudinal cohort, education was related to cognitive performance but unrelated to cognitive decline, supporting the hypothesis of passive cognitive reserve with aging.

  16. Is SfM photogrammetry really the tool we've waited 30 years for?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Jim; Micheletti, Natan; Lane, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    SFM photogrammetry has evolved rapidly in the last few years, to the point where it is beginning to surpass terrestrial laser scanning for capturing 3-D models of natural surfaces. The ability to generate high resolution digital terrain models using just a consumer grade digital camera, or even a smart phone, is an important advance. The fact that this can be achieved at a range of scales and resolutions and from a variety of platforms, whilst using software which is freely available, appears almost incredible. This invited presentation seeks to place SfM photogrammetry in its proper historical context, by demonstrating just how rapidly techniques have evolved over the last 30 years. However, it is important to look forward and help ensure that future use is effective, even if spatial measurement expertise is limited. Consequently, the presentation will also demonstrate just how well-established lessons learnt in the past continue to remain important, particularly if accurate spatial data is desired. The application of SfM to a range of case studies will help to demonstrate the importance of scene geometry and accurate camera calibration and modelling. In addition, the establishment of external control remains critical for determining true change and the provision of independent checkpoints provides important verification of accuracies actually achieved. Recognition of these traditional photogrammetric principles and well-established practices should help ensure that expectations are both realistic and can be fulfilled, even for a new generation of non-expert users.

  17. A glimpse into 30 years of struggle against prostitution by the women's liberation movement in Norway.

    PubMed

    Strøm, Agnete

    2009-11-01

    The Women's Front of Norway has worked against prostitution for 30 years. In 2008 a law criminalizing the purchase of a sexual act was passed in Norway. This article describes the struggle and the main actors in lobbying for the law. In the 1980s, we raised awareness of prostitution and trafficking in women in a study of the pornography industry, and targeted sex tourist agencies organizing trips to the Philippines and Thailand. In the 1990s, our members in trade unions got their unions to take a stand against prostitution and against legalizing prostitution as "work". In 2006, the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions Congress supported a law criminalizing the buyer of a sexual act; this had a strong impact on the centre-left coalition Government. We invited leaders of the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women to Norway to meet parliamentarians and trade unionists, and kept up the pressure. From the start, the focus was on ensuring that the situation for women in prostitution was ameliorated. Our demands have been for better social services and job training. Street prostitution, especially in Oslo, has been curbed, and a growth in the indoor market has not been reported. Our next task is participating in the awareness campaign "Buying Sex is not a Sport" in connection with the Soccer World Cup, South Africa, 2010.

  18. Treatment performances of French constructed wetlands: results from a database collected over the last 30 years.

    PubMed

    Morvannou, A; Forquet, N; Michel, S; Troesch, S; Molle, P

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 3,500 constructed wetlands (CWs) provide raw wastewater treatment in France for small communities (<5,000 people equivalent). Built during the past 30 years, most consist of two vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) in series (stages). Many configurations exist, with systems associated with horizontal flow filters or waste stabilization ponds, vertical flow with recirculation, partially saturated systems, etc. A database analyzed 10 years earlier on the classical French system summarized the global performances data. This paper provides a similar analysis of performance data from 415 full-scale two-stage VFCWs from an improved database expanded by monitoring data available from Irstea and the French technical department. Trends presented in the first study are confirmed, exhibiting high chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal rates (87%, 93% and 84%, respectively). Typical concentrations at the second-stage outlet are 74 mgCOD L(-1), 17 mgTSS L(-1) and 11 mgTKN L(-1). Pollutant removal performances are summarized in relation to the loads applied at the first treatment stage. While COD and TSS removal rates remain stable over the range of applied loads, the spreading of TKN removal rates increases as applied loads increase.

  19. Psychological Distress among Nursing, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Students: A Longitudinal and Predictive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Helge Ronnestad, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the…

  20. Does Maternal Depression Predict Young Children's Executive Function?--A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Claire; Roman, Gabriela; Hart, Martha J.; Ensor, Rosie

    2013-01-01

    Background: Building on reports that parental maltreatment and neglect adversely affect young children's executive function (EF), this longitudinal study examined whether exposure to a more common risk factor, mothers' depressive symptoms, predicted individual differences in EF at school-age. Methods: We followed up at age 6 a socially diverse…

  1. Female Bisexuality from Adolescence to Adulthood: Results from a 10-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Debates persist over whether bisexuality is a temporary stage of denial or transition, a stable "3rd type" of sexual orientation, or a heightened capacity for sexual fluidity. The present study uses 5 waves of longitudinal data collected from 79 lesbian, bisexual, and "unlabeled" women to evaluate these models. Both the "3rd orientation" and…

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Conversations with Parents about Sex and Dating during College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Elizabeth M.; Thorne, Avril; Zurbriggen, Eileen L.

    2010-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is a time of sexual and romantic relationship development as well as change in the parent-child relationship. This study provides a longitudinal analysis of 30 young adults' (17 women, 13 men) sexual experiences, attitudes about sexuality and dating, and reported conversations with parents about sexuality and dating from the 1st…

  3. Classroom Connectivity and Algebra 1 Achievement: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Karen E.; Pape, Stephen J.; Owens, Douglas T.; Abrahamson, Louis; Silver, David; Sanalan, Vehbi A.

    2016-01-01

    Findings from three years of a longitudinal randomized control trial involving a national U.S. sample of Algebra 1 teachers and students are reported. The study examines the effects of a connected classroom technology (CCT) professional development and classroom intervention on student achievement when compared to classroom instruction with…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Marketing Practices at Private Christian Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a longitudinal study investigating current marketing practices at selected church-related, private, four-year compared to those in place in 1997. The role that institutional selectivity plays in the use of marketing activities was also investigated. The researcher surveyed the admissions directors or enrollment…

  5. A Snapshot of Young Children's Mathematical Competencies: Results from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Amy; Carmichael, Colin

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a snapshot of the mathematical competencies of children aged four to five years in Australian early childhood education settings, as perceived by their educators. Data are presented from a nationally-representative sample of 6511 children participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). The results…

  6. Gender Differences in the Content of Preschool Children's Recollections: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tõugu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia; Suits, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    Personal recollections constitute autobiographical memory that develops intensively during the preschool years. The two-wave longitudinal study focuses on gender differences in preschool children's independent recollections. The same children (N = 275; 140 boys, 135 girls) were asked to talk about their previous birthday and the past weekend at…

  7. Education Longitudinal Study of 2002: Base Year Data File User's Manual. NCES 2004-405

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Rogers, James E.; Siegel, Peter H.; Stutts, Ellen S.

    2004-01-01

    This manual has been produced to familiarize data users with the procedures followed for data collection and processing for the base year of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002). It also provides the necessary documentation for use of the public-use data files, as they appear on the ELS:2002 base year Electronic Codebook (ECB). Most…

  8. Longitudinal Stability Study for the FACET-II e+ Damping Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, Karl

    2016-11-29

    This is an initial study of the longitudinal, single-bunch stability in the proposed FACET-II e+ damping ring. It is preliminary because, at present, only a few specific features of the vacuum chamber are known.

  9. How Fast Do Students Forget What They Learn in Consumer Behavior? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Donald R.; Stewart, Kim A.

    2006-01-01

    The retention curve for knowledge acquired in a consumer behavior course is explored in a longitudinal study, tracking individual students from 8 to 101 weeks following course completion. Rasch measurement is used to link tests and to achieve intervally scaled measures of knowledge. The findings indicate that most of the knowledge gained in the…

  10. Young Children's Acquisition of Knowledge about the Earth: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannust, Triin; Kikas, Eve

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the acquisition of early knowledge of astronomy to determine whether children's knowledge at any point in time is consistent with a naive "mental model." Children were first assessed by means of open questions and drawing tasks at 2 and 3 years of age (N = 143). The knowledge was reassessed over the course of the…

  11. State Dependence and Trait Stability of Perfectionism: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Aldea, Mirela A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined state dependency on depression, trait stability, and state-trait characteristics of perfectionism in a short-term longitudinal study of university students. Relative stability of perfectionism was assessed with test-retest correlations across 3 time points, and results showed higher rank order and relative stability for…

  12. The External Validity of a Business Management Game: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Joseph; Roberts, C. Richard

    1986-01-01

    Describes a longitudinal study designed to determine whether a positive correlation exists between the economic performance of college seniors in a business decision-making simulation (The Business Management Laboratory) and business career success 5 years later as measured by salary level, salary improvement, promotions, and job satisfaction.…

  13. Colorism and Educational Outcomes of Asian Americans: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryabov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Using a nationally representative longitudinal data set, the current study examines the link between colorism and educational attainment of Asian American young adults. Three levels of educational attainment are used as outcomes: high school diploma, some college and a Bachelor's degree or higher. Independent variables include skin tone, ethnic…

  14. The Relationship between Early Language, Cognitive and Social Development through a Longitudinal Study of Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogura, Tamiko

    The development of and relationship between early language, symbolic play, sensorimotor skills, and social development were examined in a longitudinal study conducted in Japan with two young autistic males who were observed from the approximate ages of 2 to 4 years in clinic, day care, and home settings. One child acquired speech; the other did…

  15. A Library Credit Course and Student Success Rates: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jean Marie

    2014-01-01

    The University of West Georgia's Ingram Library has offered a fifteen-week two-hour credit course since 1998. In a longitudinal study covering twelve years, the library analyzed the progression and graduation rates of more than fifteen thousand students. Students who took the class during their undergraduate career were found to graduate at much…

  16. Examining College Developmental Learners' Reasons for Persisting in College: A Longitudinal Retention Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeri-Gold, Maria; Kearse, Wendy; Deming, Mary P.; Errico, Maryann; Callahan, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Presents results from a longitudinal study of 23 college developmental students, who were surveyed regarding their educational needs and objectives. Recommends that colleges: (1) create a student advisement center with academic counselors; (2) require that all incoming freshmen enroll in learning experience courses; and (3) schedule a monthly…

  17. The Precursors of Reading Ability in Young Readers: Evidence from a Four-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakhill, Jane V.; Cain, Kate

    2012-01-01

    We report a longitudinal study investigating the predictors of reading comprehension and word reading accuracy between the ages of 7 to 8 (UK Year 3) and 10 to 11 years (Year 6). We found that different skills predicted the development of each. Reading comprehension skill measured in Year 3 was a strong predictor of comprehension in Year 6;…

  18. Minority Achievement Gaps in STEM: Findings of a Longitudinal Study of Project Excite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Steenbergen-Hu, Saiying; Thomson, Dana; Rosen, Rhoda

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the outcomes of Project Excite on reducing minority students' achievement gaps in STEM over 14 years. Project Excite was designed to provide intensive supplemental enrichment and accelerated programming for high-potential, underrepresented minority students from third through eighth grades to better prepare them…

  19. Video-Based Interaction, Negotiation for Comprehensibility, and Second Language Speech Learning: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Kazuya; Akiyama, Yuka

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of video-based conversational interaction on the longitudinal development (one academic semester) of second language production by college-level Japanese English-as-a-foreign-language learners. Students in the experimental group engaged in weekly dyadic conversation exchanges with native speakers in the United States…

  20. Investigation of University Students' Self-Acceptance and Learned Resourcefulness: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceyhan, A. Aykut; Ceyhan, Esra

    2011-01-01

    Self-acceptance and learned resourcefulness of university students are important concepts in coping with the environmental and developmental stressors and in the development of healthy personality. In this study, university students' self acceptance and learned resourcefulness levels were investigated longitudinally. 198 university students' self…

  1. Effects of Early Relationships on Children's Perceived Control: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dan, Orrie; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bar-haim, Yair; Eshel, Yohanan

    2011-01-01

    People's response to stress depends to a large extent on their sense of perceived control over the situations they encounter. This longitudinal study of 136 children (70 girls) examined associations between attachment patterns and maternal sensitivity at 12 months of age, and perceived primary and secondary control at 11 years of age. Compared…

  2. Loss of Credit and Its Impact on High School Students: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, Stephen J.; And Others

    For students in most high schools, graduation is predicated on the successful completion of a specified number of courses or credits. In most cases when these students fail they are not retained in grade but become credit deficient. This report is concerned with a longitudinal study of loss of credit among high school students in the St. Paul…

  3. Statewide Longitudinal Study: Report on Academic Year 1979-80. Part 4--Spring 1980 Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Russell; Sheldon, M. Stephen

    As the fourth in a series of reports on a longitudinal study of over 7,000 students who entered 15 California community colleges in Fall 1978, this eight-chapter report profiles the students as of Spring 1980 in terms of: (1) demography, academic progress, and employment status; and (2) their distribution among 18 "prototypes," defined…

  4. Newspapers and Adult Understanding of Public Affairs: Two Longitudinal Community Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tichenor, P. J.; And Others

    Two longitudinal field studies of the process of information dissemination through newspapers were conducted on two different public affairs topics (regional planning and routing of a high voltage power line) in four communities to examine the role of newspapers in increasing levels of conflict and in creating greater levels of awareness and…

  5. Longitudinal Study of Performance of Students Entering Harper College, 1967-1980. Volume XI, No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, John A.

    A longitudinal study of full- and part-time students was undertaken at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to provide institutional data about student performance over time. Each fall from 1967 to 1980, transcripts of a random sample of 200 full-time and 200 part-time beginning credit students were analyzed to obtain data about students'…

  6. Prenatal Stress and Risk of Febrile Seizures in Children: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jorn; Obel, Carsten; Christensen, Jakob; Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether exposure to prenatal stress following maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures. In a longitudinal population-based cohort study, we followed 1,431,175 children born in Denmark. A total of 34,777 children were born to women who lost a close relative during pregnancy or within 1 year…

  7. Making Meaning in Writing: A Longitudinal Study of Young Children's Writing Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Linda

    This longitudinal study examined the development of the semantic "strand" (the relationship between drawing and writing, differentiation of literary genres, influence of literature, coherence, and part-whole coordination) of children's writing development over a 5-year period. Subjects, eight girls and nine boys enrolled in a small,…

  8. Morphological Awareness and Bilingual Word Learning: A Longitudinal Structural Equation Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko; Leong, Che Kan

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of morphological awareness to bilingual word learning of Malay-English bilingual children in Singapore where English is the medium of instruction. Participants took morphological awareness and lexical inference tasks in both English and Malay twice with an interval of about half a year, the first…

  9. School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated with Children's Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Ashalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2009-01-01

    School size and problems with neighbors is associated with a greater risk of being a bullying victim while family factors such as maltreatment and domestic violence are associated with involvement in bullying. The findings are based on the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study that involves 2,232 children.

  10. Measuring Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching: A Longitudinal Study Using Two Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copur-Gencturk, Yasemin; Lubienski, Sarah T.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines growth in teacher knowledge as measured by two popular assessments--Learning Mathematics for Teaching (LMT) and Diagnostic Teacher Assessments in Mathematics and Science (DTAMS). Using data collected from 24 teachers, we compare the extent to which each assessment captured teacher learning during a K-8 mathematics…

  11. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation as Predictors of Reading Literacy: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Michael; McElvany, Nele; Kortenbruck, Marthe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose in this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation with reading literacy development. In particular, the authors (a) investigated reading amount as mediator between motivation and reading literacy and (b) probed for bidirectional relationships between reading motivation and reading…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Negative Life Events, Stress, and School Experiences of Gifted Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean; Duncan, Nancy; Canady, Kate

    2009-01-01

    An 11-year mixed-methods, cross-sectional longitudinal study began with a group of 121 children, identified as gifted, and followed them until high-school graduation. Parents annually identified negative life events experienced by child and family, and, at graduation, students completed an open-ended retrospective questionnaire, focusing on…

  13. Child Care Quality and Children's Cognitive and Socio-Emotional Development: An Australian Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gialamas, Angela; Mittinty, Murthy N.; Sawyer, Michael G.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Lynch, John

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that high-quality non-parental child care can contribute to children's learning, development and successful transition to school. Research examining the quality of child care and the effect on children's development is not well documented outside the USA. We used data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children to…

  14. The Dynamics of an Online Knowledge Building Community: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myllari, Jarkko; Ahlberg, Mauri; Dillon, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a 5-year design experiment on cumulative knowledge building as part of an international project. Through a longitudinal study and analysis of cumulative research data, we sought to answer the question, "what happened and why in knowledge building?" Research data constitute messages which participants have written into a shared…

  15. Predictors of the Acquisition and Portability of Transferable Skills: A Longitudinal Portuguese Case Study on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Magda

    2015-01-01

    The basis for this longitudinal study was to find the predictors of transferable skills acquisition and portability among university sophomore students. The method employed was the path analysis using as variables: (1) the theoretical framework of transferable skills representations (Evers and Rush in "Manag Learn" 27(4):275-300, 1996;…

  16. The Relations of Effortful Control and Impulsivity to Children's Sympathy: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Michalik, Nicole; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Hofer, Claire; Kupfer, Anne; Valiente, Carlos; Liew, Jeffrey; Cumberland, Amanda; Reiser, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The relations of children's (n=214 at Time 1; M age=6 years at Time 1) dispositional sympathy to adult-reported and behavioral measures of effortful control (EC) and impulsivity were examined in a longitudinal study including five assessments, each two years apart. Especially for boys, relatively high levels of EC and growth in EC were related to…

  17. LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF SEMEN QUALITY AFTER INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF SEMEN QUALITY AFTER INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION. J. Rubes*, D. Zudova*, Veterinary Research Institute, Brno, CR, S.G. Selevan*, US EPA/ORD/NCEA, Washington, DC, D.P. Evenson, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, and S.D. Perreault, US ...

  18. Schooling, Childhood Poverty and International Development: Choices and Challenges in a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyden, Jo; James, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    Due to the rarity of longitudinal data, evidence on the benefits of education across the life-course is relatively sparse in developing countries. Young Lives is the only comparative dual-cohort study to combine data collection using mixed-methods at child, household, school and community levels, following 12,000 children in two cohorts across…

  19. Almost All Start but Who Continue? A Longitudinal Study of Youth Participation in Swedish Club Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsson, Britta Thedin; Lundvall, Suzanne; Redelius, Karin; Engstrom, Lars-Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Many young people in Sweden stop participating in club sports during their teens, but some continue. Drawing on a longitudinal study, the aim of this article is to highlight some of the characteristics of teenagers who continue with club sports and to discuss the relation between club-sport participation and social and cultural conditions, with…

  20. Person-Organization (Culture) Fit and Employee Commitment under Conditions of Organizational Change: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John P.; Hecht, Tracy D.; Gill, Harjinder; Toplonytsky, Laryssa

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines how person-organization fit, operationalized as congruence between perceived and preferred organizational culture, relates to employees' affective commitment and intention to stay with an organization during the early stages of a strategic organizational change. Employees in a large energy company completed surveys…

  1. Rural Disparities in Baseline Data of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: A Chartbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Cathy; Shores, Elizabeth F.; Zaslow, Martha; Brown, Brett; Aufseeser, Dena; Bell, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    This report shows the rural disparities in the baseline data of the Birth and Kindergarten Cohorts of the national Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The National Center for Rural Early Childhood Learning Initiatives, known as Rural Early Childhood, commissioned Child Trends to perform the analysis of key indicators of child well-being and…

  2. Long-Term Effects of Course-Embedded Undergraduate Research: The CASPiE Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szteinberg, Gabriela A.

    2012-01-01

    The Center for Authentic Science Practice in Education (CASPiE) is a National Science Foundation funded initiative that seeks to introduce first- and second-year undergraduate students to research in their mainstream laboratory courses. To investigate the effects of this research-based curriculum, a longitudinal study was initiated at Purdue…

  3. Long-Term Benefits of Full-Day Kindergarten: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, M. D.; Nickel, N. C.; Chateau, D.; Martens, P. J.; Taylor, C.; Crockett, L.; Katz, A.; Sarkar, J.; Burland, E.; Goh, C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    In the first longitudinal, population-based study of full-day kindergarten (FDK) outcomes beyond primary school in Canada, we used linked administrative data to follow 15 kindergarten cohorts (n ranging from 112 to 736) up to grade 9. Provincial assessments conducted in grades 3, 7, and 8 and course marks and credits earned in grade 9 were…

  4. Stability and Change in Work Values: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Jing; Rounds, James

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies was conducted to investigate stability and change in work values across the life span. Both rank-order stability and mean-level change were investigated using an integrative classification for intrinsic, extrinsic, social and status work values (Ross, Schwartz, & Surkis, 1999). Results of rank-order…

  5. Constructing a Measure for Longitudinal Medical Achievement Studies by the Rasch Model One-Step Equating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Linjun

    As part of a longitudinal study of the growth of general medical knowledge among osteopathic medical students, a simple, convenient, and accurate vertical equating method was developed for constructing a scale for medical achievement. It was believed that Parts 1, 2, and 3 of the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners' (NBOME) examination…

  6. Self-Rated Health and the "First Move" around Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Older Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nan E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: I examine whether less favorable self-rated health raises the risk of outmigration more for young-old adults (aged 53-63 at the start of the 10-year longitudinal study in 1994) in nonmetro than metro counties and increases the odds that both groups of outmigrants will choose metro over nonmetro destinations. Finally, I examine whether…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  8. Validating the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachs, Peter M.; Cooper, Diane L.

    2002-01-01

    Study assessed the effectiveness of the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA) in measuring psychosocial changes from the freshman year through the senior year using longitudinal research design. Results provide evidence of validity for the SDTLA and demonstrate that as a measurement tool, the SDTLA is sensitive to changes…

  9. Segmental Acquisition in Adult ESL Learners: A Longitudinal Study of Vowel Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Murray J.; Derwing, Tracey M.

    2008-01-01

    Research on second language (L2) phonetic learning indicates that, even in adults, segmental acquisition remains possible through L2 experience. However, the findings of previous cross-sectional studies of vowel and consonant learning have proved difficult to interpret. In this longitudinal investigation of 44 recent arrivals in Canada,…

  10. Multiracial Children and Poverty: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratter, Jenifer; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent growth in multiracial children among American children, we know very little about their well-being. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class (N?=?17,706), we evaluated the likelihood of living in poverty and near poverty for multiracial and monoracial children. Most multiracial groups have poverty or near…

  11. Strong Genetic Contribution to Peer Relationship Difficulties at School Entry: Findings from a Longitudinal Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Girard, Alain; Perusse, Daniel; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the genetic and environmental contributions to peer difficulties in the early school years. Twins' peer difficulties were assessed longitudinally in kindergarten (796 twins, "M"[subscript age] = 6.1 years), Grade 1 (948 twins, "M"[subscript age] = 7.1 years), and Grade 4 (868 twins, "M"[subscript…

  12. Does the Left Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus Play a Role in Language? A Brain Stimulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Nouet, Aurelien; Gatignol, Peggy; Capelle, Laurent; Duffau, Hugues

    2007-01-01

    Although advances in diffusion tensor imaging have enabled us to better study the anatomy of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), its function remains poorly understood. Recently, it was suggested that the subcortical network subserving the language semantics could be constituted, in parallel with the inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus, by…

  13. Teacher-Child Relationships and Social Competence: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study of Chinese Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiao; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Based on a two-year and three-wave longitudinal sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined the cross-lagged associations between teacher-child relationships and social competence, and the cross-system generalization of social competence between home and school. At each of the three waves, teachers rated the children's…

  14. The Interpersonal Antecedents of Supportive Parenting: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study from Infancy to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, K. Lee; Lawler, Jamie M.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hesemeyer, Paloma S.; Collins, W. Andrew; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study drew on prospective, longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission of positive parenting is mediated by competence in subsequent relationships with peers and romantic partners. Interview-based ratings of supportive parenting were completed with a sample of 113 individuals (46% male) followed from birth…

  15. The Development of Second Language Writing Complexity in Groups and Individuals: A Longitudinal Learner Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vyatkina, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the development of multiple dimensions of linguistic complexity in the writing of beginning learners of German both as a group and as individuals. The data come from an annotated, longitudinal learner corpus. The development of lexicogrammatical complexity is explored at 2 intersections: (a) between cross-sectional trendlines…

  16. From Initial Teacher Education through Induction and Beyond: A Longitudinal Study of Primary Teacher Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ní Chróinín, Déirdre; O'Sullivan, Mary

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of the relationship between beginning teachers' beliefs and the pedagogies of teacher education (TE) programmes that support their learning across time can enhance TE programme effectiveness. This 6-year longitudinal study examined the development and change of beginning primary classroom teachers' (n = 6) beliefs about…

  17. Relationships between Substance Use and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relationships between depressive symptoms and use of alcohol, cigarettes, and illicit substances among adolescents, addressing methodological limitations and potential confounding in the extant literature. The sample comprised adolescents who were surveyed in Grades 6 (n = 916), 9 (n = 804), and 11 (n = 791).…

  18. Factors Affecting the Implementation of Argument in the Elementary Science Classroom. A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anita M.; Hand, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal case study describes the factors that affect an experienced teacher's attempt to shift her pedagogical practices in order to implement embedded elements of argument into her science classroom. Research data was accumulated over 2 years through video recordings of science classes. The Reformed Teacher Observation Protocol (RTOP)…

  19. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR A LARGE LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruitment and Retention Issues for a Large Longitudinal Study of Children's Environmental Health *D Lobdell, S Gilboa, P Mendola (US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27711)

    An understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and rete...

  20. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, community-based, children's environmental health studies is needed. A series of 18 focus groups were conducted across the U.S. in February 2003. Pregnant women and exp...

  1. Using Evidence in L2 Argumentative Writing: A Longitudinal Case Study across High School and University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibler, Amanda K.; Hardigree, Christine

    2017-01-01

    This 8-year longitudinal case study of Fabiola, a Spanish-English bilingual, investigated her argumentative writing development, focusing on her use of evidence to support and develop arguments over time from high school through university. Data sources included 36 writing samples. Texts across grade levels and course types were analyzed to…

  2. Emotional Intelligence throughout Portuguese Secondary School: A Longitudinal Study Comparing Performance and Self-Report Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Ana; Faria, Luísa

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the developmental trajectories of ability and trait emotional intelligence (EI) in the Portuguese secondary school. Within a three-wave longitudinal design, 395 students (M[subscript age] = 15.4; SD = 0.74) completed both the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ) and the Vocabulary of Emotions Test (VET). Results…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Narrative Development in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic complexity…

  4. Children's Theory of Mind, Self-Perceptions, and Peer Relations: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosacki, Sandra Leanne

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored Theory of Mind (ToM), self-perceptions, and teacher ratings of peer relations of 91 children (52 females, ages 6-8?years) drawn from two schools situated in a mainly Euro-Canadian, middle socioeconomic status, semi-rural central Canadian context. ToM, self-perceptions, and teacher ratings of peer relations were…

  5. Understanding Student Stress and Coping in Elementary School: A Mixed-Method, Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotardi, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-method, longitudinal study examined daily school stress and coping strategies of elementary schoolchildren in the United States. Students (n = 65) between the ages of 7 and 11 years reported daily school stress measures for 8 weeks and completed individual stress and coping interviews. Results highlight critical relations between…

  6. Changing Stereotypes, Changing Grades: A Longitudinal Study of Stereotyping during a College Math Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Laura R.; Sekaquaptewa, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has illuminated an important connection between stereotypes and the performance of those targeted by a stereotype. This body of work suggests that even implicit (i.e., nonconscious and unintended) math-gender stereotyping is related to poor math performance among women. Our longitudinal study sought to measure students'…

  7. Predicting Children's Academic Achievement after the Transition to First Grade: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossaert, Goele; Doumen, Sarah; Buyse, Evelien; Verschueren, Karine

    2011-01-01

    The transition from kindergarten to first grade has been described as a critical period for children's academic development. Furthermore, research indicates that peer status is connected with academic adjustment, yet the underlying processes remain unclear. By means of a two-year longitudinal study during kindergarten and first grade (N = 153), we…

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Speech Timing in Young Children Later Found to Have Reading Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allan B.; Smith, Susan Lambrecht; Locke, John L.; Bennett, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the development of timing characteristics in early spontaneous speech of children who were later identified as having reading disability (RD). Method: Child-adult play sessions were recorded longitudinally at 2 and 3 years of age in 27 children, most of whom were at high familial risk for RD. For each speaking turn,…

  9. Longitudinal Study of Self-Regulation, Positive Parenting, and Adjustment Problems among Physically Abused Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen.; Haskett, Mary E.; Longo, Gregory S.; Nice, Rachel.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research using normative and high-risk samples indicates a significant link between problems with self-regulation and child maladjustment. Nevertheless, little is known about the processes that may modify the link between self-regulation and maladjustment. This longitudinal study examined the joint contributions of child self-regulation…

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Pragmatic Language Development in Three Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown how cochlear implants (CIs), in children with hearing impairments, have improved speech perception and production, but very little is known about the children's pragmatic language development. During a 4-year longitudinal study of three children with CIs, certain aspects of pragmatic language development were observed in free…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Information Technology Impact on Business Faculty in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jensen, J.; Alexander, Melody W.; Perrreault, Heidi; Waldman, Lila

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study compared business faculty's use of information technology in distance education as well as their perception of the technology's impact on their productivity and technology preferences between 2000 and 2006. Data were collected from 81 professors in 2000 and 140 professors in 2006 at AACSB-accredited business colleges across…

  12. Individual and Environmental Characteristics Associated with Cognitive Development in Down Syndrome: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couzens, Donna; Haynes, Michele; Cuskelly, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Background: Associations among cognitive development and intrapersonal and environmental characteristics were investigated for 89 longitudinal study participants with Down syndrome to understand developmental patterns associated with cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Materials and Methods: Subtest scores of the Stanford-Binet IV collected…

  13. A Longitudinal Study on Mathematics Teaching Efficacy: Which Factors (Un)Support the Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isiksal-Bostan, Mine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine prospective teachers' mathematics teaching efficacy belief during their enrollment in teacher education program and at the end of their first year of teaching. In addition, the factors that enhance or inhibit participants' efficacy belief and how these factors affect their mathematics teaching…

  14. Classroom Climate, Parental Educational Involvement, and Student School Functioning in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan Toren, Nurit; Seginer, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    In this 2-year longitudinal study, we examine the effects of perceived classroom climate and two aspects of parental educational involvement (home-based and school-based) on junior high school students' self-evaluation and academic achievement. Our main hypothesis was that perceived parental educational involvement mediates students' perceived…

  15. Minimizing Respondent Attrition in Longitudinal Research: Practical Implications from a Cohort Study of Adolescent Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boys, Annabel; Marsden, John; Stillwell, Garry; Hatchings, Kevin; Griffiths, Paul; Farrell, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the methods used to maximize retention in a longitudinal study of adolescent drinking. Strategies to minimize attrition included the collection of detailed contact information, incentives for participation, postcard and telephone reminders and telephone interviews. Ninety-six percent of the original sample completed the first follow-up…

  16. Longitudinal HIV Risk Behavior among the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies (DATOS) Adult Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over 5 years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first-year follow-up. However, results of…

  17. Scrutinizing Practicum for a More Powerful Teacher Education: A Longitudinal Study with Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serdar Tülüce, Hande; Çeçen, Sevdeger

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the role of school-based practicum in promoting pre-service English language teachers' professional development through the use of a longitudinal design in combination with qualitative methods. To achieve this aim, pre-service teachers were asked to successively reflect on video-recordings of their micro-lessons in their…

  18. Foreign Language Learning Motivation in Higher Education: A Longitudinal Study of Motivational Changes and Their Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Vera; Walter, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a study involving first-year modern foreign languages students enrolled in German degree courses at two major universities in the United Kingdom. It explores the experience of these students from a motivational angle. A longitudinal mixed-methods approach was employed in order to address the time- and context-sensitive…

  19. Student-Development Preparation and Placement: A Longitudinal Study of Graduate Students' and New Professionals' Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Jayne; Sherman, Karen J.

    1991-01-01

    Examined graduate students' and new professionals' choices and satisfaction with careers, preparation programs, and mentor relationships. Findings from four phases of longitudinal study begun in 1983 with graduate students in student development field suggest that entering students need to be adequately informed about changing career options in…

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Body Image and Strategies to Lose Weight and Increase Muscles among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, M. P.; Ricciardelli, L. A.

    2005-01-01

    A longitudinal study was used to examine age differences in the role of body mass index (BMI) and sociocultural pressures in predicting changes in body image and strategies to both lose weight and increase muscles among 443 children aged between 8 and 12 years (207 boys, 236 girls) over a 16-month period. The strongest predictors of body image and…

  1. Shyness and Emotion-Processing Skills in Preschoolers: A 6-Month Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Paul S.; Cerna, Sandra; Downs, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The present study utilized a short-term longitudinal research design to examine the hypothesis that shyness in preschoolers is differentially related to different aspects of emotion processing. Using teacher reports of shyness and performance measures of emotion processing, including (1) facial emotion recognition, (2) non-facial emotion…

  2. How Long Does Victimization Foster Fear of Crime? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele

    2010-01-01

    We studied the relationship between victimization and fear of crime longitudinally, analyzing data from the Observatory of the North-West (Italian national sample, N = 1,701, two waves: January 2006 and January 2007). We modeled fear of crime at T[subscript 2] using as independent variables: (a) the main sociodemographic variables and fear of…

  3. MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study: Fifth Year Report. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #29

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.; Carlson, Deven; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Wolf, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    This is the final report in a five-year evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP). This report features analyses of student achievement growth four years after the authors carefully assembled longitudinal study panels of MPCP and Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) students in 2006-07. The MPCP, which began in 1990, provides…

  4. MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study: Baseline Report. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Lucas-McLean, Juanita

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on the initial design, implementation and baseline results of the five-year Longitudinal Educational Growth Study (LEGS) of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) being conducted by the School Choice Demonstration Project (SCDP). The LEGS will be the first evaluation of the participant effects of the MPCP using…

  5. Developing Communicative Competence: A Longitudinal Study of the Acquisition of Mental State Terms and Indirect Requests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Mulder, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study involving 101 Dutch four- and five-year-olds charts indirect request (IR) and mental state term (MST) understanding and investigates the role that Theory of Mind (ToM) and general linguistic ability (vocabulary, syntax, and spatial language) play in this development. The results showed basic understanding of IR and MST in…

  6. A Longitudinal Evaluation Study of a Science Professional Development Program for K-12 Teachers: NERDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing-Taylor, Jacque M.

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal evaluation study of a science professional development program for K-12 teachers was conducted using the CIPP evaluation model. Eleven years of program data were described and analyzed. Elementary teachers comprised 62% of the 384 participants, 17% of all participants were middle school teachers, and 13% of all participants were…

  7. Recruiting and Retaining an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Older Adults in a Longitudinal Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin-Wells, Vonnette; McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes strategies developed to recruit and retain an ethnically diverse sample in a longitudinal intervention of 246 participants in the SeniorWISE study. The ethnic and socioeconomic differences of these participants necessitated the use of different methods of effectively communicating with this population. Recruitment benefited…

  8. Impact of Curriculum on Understanding of Professional Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Students Commencing Dental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieser, Jules A.; Dall'Alba, Gloria; Livingstone, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines changes in understanding of dental practice among a cohort of students in the early years of a dentistry programme. In their first two professional years, we identified five distinct understandings of dental practice that we have ordered from least to most comprehensive: "relieving pain or generally caring for…

  9. Sport Involvement and Educational Outcomes of High School Students: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Seunghyun; Feltz, Deborah L.; Kietzmann, Laura A.; Diemer, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relations among sport involvement and social and personal influences on high school students' educational expectations and attainment, using National Education Longitudinal Survey-88. Athletic engagement, educational expectations of significant others, peer support for academics, parental involvement in academics, and…

  10. Early Risk Indicators of Internalizing Problems in Late Childhood: A 9-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Janka; Smit, Filip; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Longitudinal studies on risk indicators of internalizing problems in childhood are in short supply, but could be valuable to identify target groups for prevention. Methods: Standardized assessments of 294 children's internalizing problems at the age of 2-3 years (parent report), 4-5 years (parent and teacher report) and 11 years…

  11. The Longitudinal Assessment Study (LAS): Eighteen Year Follow-Up. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Christopher M.

    Premised on the view that students with more years of Montessori education (MEY) would possess to a higher degree those qualities emphasized in the Montessori environment and that Montessori students would be as successful as students more traditionally educated, this report presents the final assessment for the Longitudinal Assessment Study,…

  12. Relationships between Family Connectedness and Body Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespo, Carla; Kielpikowski, Magdalena; Jose, Paul; Pryor, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the longitudinal links between perceptions of family connectedness and body satisfaction in 1,774 (52% female) adolescents. Participants (10-15 years of age at Time 1) completed self-report measures at three measurement occasions separated by 1 year each. Mean group difference results showed that both body satisfaction…

  13. A Longitudinal Study Showing How Students Use a Molecule Concept when Explaining Everyday Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofgren, Lena; Hellden, Gustav

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present results from a 10-year (1997-2006) longitudinal study in which we, by interviews once or twice every year, followed how students, throughout the compulsory school, developed their understanding of three situations in which transformations of matter occur. We believe that students have to meet scientific ideas early in…

  14. The Home Environment and School Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of Primary School Children in Swaziland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Margaret Zoller

    In rural Swaziland, fathers often migrate for work, leaving wives and children behind. The family is denied the presence of a husband, father, and role model, as well as economic support, which fathers often fail to remit home regularly. A longitudinal study investigated the effects of parent availability and other home characteristics on the…

  15. Investigating the Double-Deficit Hypothesis in Greek: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Georgiou, George K.; Kendeou, Panayiota

    2009-01-01

    This study examined longitudinally the double-deficit hypothesis in Greek, an orthographically consistent language, following a group of children from kindergarten to Grade 2. Four groups were formed on the basis of two composite scores of phonological and naming-speed criterion measures: a double-deficit group (DD; n = 17), a phonological deficit…

  16. The Development of Metacognitive Monitoring and Control in Second Graders: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebers, Claudia M.; Spiess, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Although metacognition is considered a central aspect of self-regulated learning and is often linked to learning outcomes, little is known about the intraindividual development and factors that lead to developmental improvement over time. This longitudinal study investigated 2nd graders' (N = 119, aged 8-9 years) metacognitive monitoring and…

  17. Effectiveness of Challenging Behavior IHP Objectives in Residential Settings: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancliffe, Roger J.; Hayden, Mary F.; Lakin, K. Charlie

    1999-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effectiveness of intervention for behavioral objectives in Individualized Habilitation Plans of 130 adults with mental retardation in residential settings. Little evidence of effective intervention was found using three indicators: discontinuation of the behavior objective, change in challenging behavior, and…

  18. Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…

  19. Academic and Work-Related Burnout: A Longitudinal Study of Working Undergraduate University Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the interaction between academic burnout and work-related burnout for a sample of working undergraduate university students. Using a longitudinal design we found that the factors of burnout (Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Efficacy) change significantly over the semester. In addition, the study suggests there are distinct differences in how…

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Unemployment Insurance Exhaustees: Final Report on Waves 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Walter; Corson, Walter

    The study reports the results of a two-wave longitudinal interview of over 2,000 individuals who exhausted their unemployment insurance (UI) benefits in October 1974. The interviews were conducted at the time of exhaustion and four months later in Atlanta, Baltimore, Chicago, and Seattle. UI exhaustees are a relatively representative cross-section…

  1. Change in University Teachers' Elearning Beliefs and Practices: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Little longitudinal research has examined change in university teachers' elearning beliefs and practices after their initial experience with elearning. This study addresses this gap by focusing on six teachers who developed and implemented an elearning resource, and the changes they made to the resource and its implementation over two years. A…

  2. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Chronic Maltreatment on Children's Behavioral and Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethier, L.S.; Lemelin, J.P.; Lacharite, C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present longitudinal study was to examine the links between chronicity of maltreatment and child behavioral and emotional problems. Method: Forty-nine maltreated children (32 victims of continuous, or chronic, maltreatment; 17 victims of transitory maltreatment) and their mothers were evaluated in their homes three times…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Disadvantaged Children Who Participated in Three Different Preschool Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Merle B.; And Others

    This 3-year study made a longitudinal comparison of three types of preschool intervention programs. The Traditional approach (two classes of 15 students and three teachers each) worked in conventional ways to improve personal, social, motor and general language development; children were placed in a regular public school kindergarten the following…

  4. Women in Intercollegiate Sport. A Longitudinal Study--Twenty Three Year Update, 1977-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, R. Vivian; Carpenter, Linda Jean

    This report presents data from a longitudinal study of women in intercollegiate sports, highlighting: participation opportunities for female athletes and the status of women as head coaches, assistant coaches, administrators, sports information directors, and athletic trainers. The average number of teams for women offered per school is at an…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Assessing APA Writing Competence at a BSW Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokaliari, Efrosini D.; Brainerd, Mary; Roy, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Presented is a longitudinal study evaluating a Bachelor of Social Work writing program. The independent variable is a BSW curriculum in which social work courses include American Psychological Association 5th edition writing modules. In 2005, a baseline was established. From 2006 to 2010, a writing program was implemented. Using a brief rating…

  6. The Relation between Morphological Awareness and Reading and Spelling in Greek: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittas, Evdokia; Nunes, Terezinha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the contribution of morphological awareness to the prediction of reading and spelling in Greek. The target group (N = 404) consisted of children, aged 6-9 years at the start of the project, who learn literacy in Cyprus. Because there are no standardized measures of morphological awareness for Greek…

  7. Spouse Health Status, Depressed Affect, and Resilience in Mid and Late Life: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookwala, Jamila

    2014-01-01

    This study used longitudinal data to examine the effects of spousal illness on depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older married individuals and the extent to which the adverse effects of illness in a spouse were mitigated by 2 psychological resources, mastery and self-esteem. Using 1,704 married participants who were 51 years of age on…

  8. Predictors of Reading Skills for Kindergartners and First Grade Students in Spanish: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Pallante, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of word reading and reading comprehension skills using longitudinal data from Spanish-speaking kindergartners (N = 163) and first grade students (N = 305) from high SES families in Chile. Individual differences in letter-naming fluency and phonemic segmentation fluency, but not vocabulary, were positive…

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Conceptual Change: Preservice Elementary Teachers' Conceptions of Moon Phases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.

    2007-01-01

    This research consists of a longitudinal study of 12 female elementary preservice teachers' conceptual understanding over the course of several months. The context in which the participants received instruction was in an inquiry-based physics course, and the targeted science content was the cause of moon phases. Qualitative research methods,…

  10. Parenthood and the Quality of Experience in Daily Life: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fave, Antonella Delle; Massimini, Fausto

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study analyzes the time budget and the quality of experience reported by new parents. Five primiparous couples were repeatedly administered Experience Sampling Method. They carried pagers sending random signals 6-8 times a day; at the signal reception, they filled out forms sampling current thoughts, activities, and the quality…

  11. Transitioning to College and Career: Interim Findings of the LAMP Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacAllum, Keith; Worgs, Donn; Bozick, Robert; McDonald, Deanne

    The Lansing Area Manufacturing Partnership (LAMP) is an academically rigorous, business/labor-driven school-to-career program in Lansing, Michigan, that includes business, union, school, and parent partners. The effects of participation in LAMP on transitions from school to higher education and work were examined in a longitudinal study that…

  12. Moving Forward: College and Career Transitions of LAMP Graduates. Findings from the LAMP Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacAllum, Keith; Yoder, Karla; Kim, Scott; Bozick, Robert

    A longitudinal study examined the college and career transitions of graduates of the Lansing Area Manufacturing Partnership (LAMP) program, which is a school-to-career (STC) program sponsored by the United Auto Workers, General Motors Corporation, and Michigan's Ingham County Intermediate School District. The progress of three cohorts of LAMP…

  13. What Happens after They Graduate? Results from a Longitudinal Study of STC Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacAllum, Keith; Bozick, Robert

    The Lansing Area Manufacturing Partnership (LAMP) is an academically rigorous, business/labor-driven school-to-career (STC) program in Lansing, Michigan, that includes business, union, school, and parent partners. The effects of participation in LAMP on transitions from school to higher education and work were examined in a longitudinal study of…

  14. "I Feel So Confused": A Longitudinal Study of Young Adolescents' Change in Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the growth of early adolescent self-esteem and self-concept as students progress through the middle level years (sixth through eighth grade). Based on mixed method longitudinal research conducted from 2004 to 2007, the study's findings suggest that this sample of 104 urban students' self-esteem changed most significantly…

  15. EFL Learning and Identity Development: A Longitudinal Study in 5 Universities in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yihong; Jia, Zengyan; Zhou, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Combining psychological and social perspectives and using mixed methods, this 4-year longitudinal study examined the EFL learning and self-identity development of about 1,000 students from 5 universities in Beijing, China. The self-designed questionnaire, administered 5 times during the 4 years, consisted of 7 identity categories of identity…

  16. L1/L2/L3 Writing Development: Longitudinal Case Study of a Japanese Multicompetent Writer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal case study, supplemented by cross-sectional comparisons among five groups of writers with differing backgrounds, investigates how Natsu, a Japanese multilingual writer, developed her L1, L2 (English), and L3 (Chinese) writing competence over two and a half years. To create a comprehensive picture of this multilingual writer, the…

  17. Home Language and Language Proficiency; A Large-Scale Longitudinal Study in Dutch Primary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert; van der Slik, Frans; De Bot, Kees

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a large-scale longitudinal study into the development of language proficiency of Dutch primary school children aged 7-10. Data on language proficiency and a range of background variables were analyzed. Results suggest that while immigrant children develop their language skill in Dutch considerably over 2 years, they are nonetheless…

  18. Developing Discourses of Knowledge and Understanding: Longitudinal Studies of Ph.D. Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandiko, Camille B.; Kinchin, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    Competing notions of what a Ph.D. has been, is and should be are undercurrents in doctoral education. A longitudinal study of Ph.D. supervision based on interviews and concept mapping was used to surface understandings of the purpose of a Ph.D. This research tracks change over time for both the student and the supervisor. The data were analysed…

  19. ALSPAC--the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. I. Study methodology.

    PubMed

    Golding, J; Pembrey, M; Jones, R

    2001-01-01

    ALSPAC (The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, formerly the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood) was specifically designed to determine ways in which the individual's genotype combines with environmental pressures to influence health and development. To date, there are comprehensive data on approximately 10,000 children and their parents, from early pregnancy until the children are aged between 8 and 9. The study aims to continue to collect detailed data on the children as they go through puberty noting, in particular, changes in anthropometry, attitudes and behaviour, fitness and other cardiovascular risk factors, bone mineralisation, allergic symptoms and mental health. The study started early during pregnancy and collected very detailed data from the mother and her partner before the child was born. This not only provided accurate data on concurrent features, especially medication, symptoms, diet and lifestyle, attitudes and behaviour, social and environmental features, but was unbiased by parental knowledge of any problems that the child might develop. From the time of the child's birth many different aspects of the child's environment have been monitored and a wide range of phenotypic data collected. By virtue of being based in one geographic area, linkage to medical and educational records is relatively simple, and hands-on assessments of children and parents using local facilities has the advantage of high quality control. The comprehensiveness of the ALSPAC approach with a total population sample unselected by disease status, and the availability of parental genotypes, provides an adequate sample for statistical analysis and for avoiding spurious results. The study has an open policy in regard to collaboration within strict confidentiality rules.

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Household Change on African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Tracey E.; Rowley, Stephanie; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Vansadia, Preeti; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of household change on adolescent development. We study household composition change and its effect on development, as measured by both internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors, in a sample of urban African American adolescents. Household change was defined based on the movement in or out of the…