Science.gov

Sample records for 30-year service life

  1. Materials performance in CANDU reactors: The first 30 years and the prognosis for life extension and new designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapping, R. L.

    2008-12-01

    A number of CANDU reactors have now been in-service for more than 30 years, and several are planning life extensions. This paper summarizes the major corrosion degradation operating experience of various out-of-core (i.e., excluding fuel channels and fuel) materials in-service in currently operating CANDU reactors. Also discussed are the decisions that need to be made for life extension of replaceable and non-replaceable components such as feeders and steam generators, and materials choices for new designs, such as the advanced CANDU reactor (ACR) and enhanced CANDU-6. The basis for these choices, including a brief summary of the R&D necessary to support such decisions is provided. Finally we briefly discuss the materials and R&D needs beyond the immediate future, including new concepts to improve plant operability and component reliability.

  2. Disability-Free Life Expectancy Over 30 Years: A Growing Female Disadvantage in the US Population

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Douglas A.; Spillman, Brenda C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine changes in active life expectancy in the United States over 30 years for older men and women (aged ≥ 65 years). Methods. We used the 1982 and 2004 National Long Term Care Survey and the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study to estimate age-specific mortality and disability rates, the overall chances of survival and of surviving without disability, and years of active life for men and women. Results. For older men, longevity has increased, disability has been postponed to older ages, disability prevalence has fallen, and the percentage of remaining life spent active has increased. However, for older women, small longevity increases have been accompanied by even smaller postponements in disability, a reversal of a downward trend in moderate disability, and stagnation of active life as a percentage of life expectancy. As a consequence, older women no longer live more active years than men, despite their longer lives. Conclusions. Neither a compression nor expansion of late-life disability is inevitable. Public health measures directed at older women to postpone disability may be needed to offset impending long-term care pressures related to population aging. PMID:26985619

  3. Quality of Life as Perceived by 30 Year Old Army Veterans: Supplementary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sandra Reitz; Flanagan, John C.

    The supplementary report serves as documentation for the summary version (CE 005 383) and provides greater detail regarding study procedures and results. The investigation concerns the impact Army service has had on the quality of life of a representative sample of young Americans, which has been ascertained through interviews, data collection,…

  4. Quality of Life as Perceived by 30 Year Old Army Veterans. Technical Paper No. 263.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sandra Reitz; And Others

    An intensive investigation of the impact Army service has had on the quality of life for a representative sample of young Americans is analyzed in terms of possible improvement in Army personnel procedures. A total of 166 men (of a potential 200) and 49 women (of a potential 50) were interviewed. The information from these interviews; a review of…

  5. Free Delivery of a 30-YEAR Vegetation Product Archive by the Biopar Land Monitoring Core Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacholczyk, P.; Makhmara, H.; Lacaze, R. N.; Baret, F.; Weiss, M.; Verger, A.

    2012-12-01

    Geoland2 project is part of the GMES EU-lead initiative and intends to prepare, validate and demonstrate pre-operational service chains and products of the Land Monitoring Core Service. The BioPar Core Monitoring Service distributes through the Geoland 2 portal global products related to biophysical variables : the Leaf Area Index (LAI), the Fraction of green Vegetation Cover (FCover), the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR) and the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI). Long term global biophysical products are of great interest for earth science modeling applications and global change monitoring. Since end of 2011 a 12-year archive (1999-2011) of these biophysical vegetation products derived from SPOT/VEGETATION sensor, called GEOV1_VGT, is available and is continuously updated every ten days. Since this summer, a 20-year archive (1981-2000) of LAI, FAPAR and FCover biophysical vegetation products derived from the AVHRR long term data archive, called GEOV1_AVHRR, has been processed by CNES and is now available through the Geoland 2 portal. The LAI, FAPAR and FCover products issued from VGT and AVHRR data have the same characteristics (temporal resolution 10 days, global coverage) except for the spatial resolution (1/112° for VGT and 0.05° for AVHRR), with an overlap of two years (1999-2000). The evaluation of GEOV1_VGT and GEOV1_AVHRR archive indicates a very good agreement between the two datasets, including a similar level of accuracy in comparison with ground-based measurements made during the 1999-2000 overlap period. Despite that a more consistent 30-year global product at a lower resolution is very useful for communities studying carbon cycle, climate or water cycle. The last step, foreseen for this Autumn, is to process these two archives and to provide to the users a continuous 30-year vegetation product (called GEOV1_GCM) at 0.5° scale. Close to its end the BioPar project has provided demonstration products

  6. Economic growth and health progress in Italy: 30 years of National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Vannelli, Alberto; Buongiorno, Massimo; Zanardo, Michele; Basilico, Valerio; Capriata, Giulio; Rossi, Fabrizio; Pruiti, Vincenzo; Battaglia, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    On December 23 of 1978, during first Italian recession since the end of World War II, Parliament voted for Law 833 that gives birth to the Italian National Public Health Services (SSN) as the new and alternative model of health care system. It was the beginning of the match of Italian health care with the world class level of the public health care. Each crisis requires solidarity and actions. Maintaining levels of health and other social expenditures is critical to protect life and livelihood and to boost productivity. The purpose of the present study is to establish an alternative point of view to demonstrate that Gross Domestic Product, is a function of health care expenditure. The chronology of the events was created by using the laws published on "Gazzetta Ufficiale" (GU). In order to analyze the corporate effectiveness and efficiency, we have divided the SSN into its three main components, namely resources (input), services (output) and performances (outcome). Health services have certainly been pioneers and are still today standard-bearers of a challenge which has borne its fruits. According to the "Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development", SSN ranks second in the world classification of the return on the health care services in 2000. The World Health Organization has published in 2005 the same result: SSN ranks second in the world for ability and quality of the health care in relationship to the resources invested The continuous reforms of health care system introduced stability to the Italian system more than others countries. Success of SSN function rooted in the ability of system to adapt assuring mechanism of positive feed-back correction. In the future SSN, will required new set of reforms, such as redefinition of structures and mechanisms of governance, strategic plans, clinical administrations. PMID:23223322

  7. Education's Contribution to the Quality of Life of a National Sample of 30 Year-olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, John C.

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary data on the longitudinal study, Project Talent, indicate that education is making a large and important contribution to the quality of life of those sampled. Two main areas in which a large discrepancy exists between needs and present status are cited. (AM)

  8. Career Services at Colleges and Universities: A 30-Year Replication Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinson, Bonita M.; Reardon, Robert C.; Bertoch, Sara C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines career planning programs and career services offices at colleges and universities in the United States as viewed by senior student affairs officers (SSAOs). Findings from a 1979 study of career services offices (CSOs) were compared to the current findings. Additionally, new areas of research were examined in order to provide…

  9. Treatment outcomes, quality of life, and impact of hemophilia on young adults (aged 18-30 years) with hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Witkop, Michelle; Guelcher, Christine; Forsyth, Angela; Hawk, Sarah; Curtis, Randall; Kelley, Laureen; Frick, Neil; Rice, Michelle; Rosu, Gabriela; Cooper, David L

    2015-12-01

    The Hemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities (HERO) initiative assessed psychosocial issues reported by people with moderate to severe hemophilia and was led by a multidisciplinary international advisory board. This analysis reports data from young adult respondents (aged 18-30 years), including both US and overall global (including US respondents) results, and investigates treatment outcomes, quality of life, and impacts of hemophilia on relationships. More young adults in HERO received prophylaxis than on-demand treatment, although a majority reported not using factor products exactly as prescribed, and 50% of global respondents and 26% of US respondents reported issues with access to factor replacement therapy in the previous 5 years. Many young adults with hemophilia reported comorbidities, including bone/skeletal arthritis, chronic pain, and viral infections, and nearly half of young adults reported anxiety/depression. Most reported pain interference with daily activities in the past 4 weeks, although a majority reported participating in lower-risk activities and approximately half in intermediate-risk activities. Most young adults were very or quite satisfied with the support of partners/spouses, family, and friends, although roughly one-third reported that hemophilia affected their ability to develop close relationships with a partner. A majority of young adults reported that hemophilia has had a negative impact on employment, and 62% of global respondents and 78% of US respondents were employed at least part-time. Together these data highlight the psychosocial issues experienced by young adults with hemophilia and suggest that increased focus on these issues may improve comprehensive care during the transition to adulthood. PMID:26619194

  10. A Conversation with the Richmonds on Their 30 Years of Service with the American Board of Cardiovascular Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, David A.; Mongero, Linda B.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: David A. PalmerLinda B. MongeroBeth A. Richmond, PhD, and Mark G. Richmond, EdD, Co-Executive Directors serving for the ABCP, have assumed this role for the past 30 years. Their experience working with a variety of perfusionists in the field influenced the profession and some of the professionals we view as perfusion leaders. Anyone with time working as a clinical perfusionist acknowledges the role they have had establishing the certification process and influencing perfusion education. The goal of this article is simply to highlight the Board’s history through the words of both Co-Directors. Our profession, young in years, has a unique history. The names have not been changed and many of the stories have yet to be told. During the winter of 2009, we sat down with Beth and Mark Richmond to talk about their experience working with different Boards over the past 30 years. The following article is their story in their words. PMID:19806795

  11. Plant-soil feedbacks from 30-year family-specific soil cultures: phylogeny, soil chemistry and plant life stage

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabi, Zia; Bell, Thomas; Lewis, Owen T

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific negative feedback effects, where performance is reduced on soils conditioned by conspecifics, are widely documented in plant communities. However, interspecific feedbacks are less well studied, and their direction, strength, causes, and consequences are poorly understood. If more closely related species share pathogens, or have similar soil resource requirements, plants may perform better on soils conditioned by more distant phylogenetic relatives. There have been few empirical tests of this prediction across plant life stages, and none of which attempt to account for soil chemistry. Here, we test the utility of phylogeny for predicting soil feedback effects on plant survival and performance (germination, seedling survival, growth rate, biomass). We implement a full factorial experiment growing species representing five families on five plant family-specific soil sources. Our experiments exploit soils that have been cultured for over 30 years in plant family-specific beds at Oxford University Botanic Gardens. Plant responses to soil source were idiosyncratic, and species did not perform better on soils cultured by phylogenetically more distant relatives. The magnitude and sign of feedback effects could, however, be explained by differences in the chemical properties of “home” and “away” soils. Furthermore, the direction of soil chemistry-related plant-soil feedbacks was dependent on plant life stage, with the effects of soil chemistry on germination success and accumulation of biomass inversely related. Our results (1) suggest that the phylogenetic distance between plant families cannot predict plant–soil feedbacks across multiple life stages, and (2) highlight the need to consider changes in soil chemistry as an important driver of population responses. The contrasting responses at plant life stages suggest that studies focusing on brief phases in plant demography (e.g., germination success) may not give a full picture of plant

  12. Predicting service life margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, G. F.

    1971-01-01

    Margins are developed for equipment susceptible to malfunction due to excessive time or operation cycles, and for identifying limited life equipment so monitoring and replacing is accomplished before hardware failure. Method applies to hardware where design service is established and where reasonable expected usage prediction is made.

  13. Body mass index in early and middle adult life: prospective associations with myocardial infarction, stroke and diabetes over a 30-year period: the British Regional Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Christopher G; Kapetanakis, Venediktos V; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Wathern, Andrea K; Lennon, Lucy; Papacosta, Olia; Cook, Derek G; Wannamethee, S Goya; Whincup, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Adiposity in middle age is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes; less is known about the impact of adiposity from early adult life. We examined the effects of high body mass index (BMI) in early and middle adulthood on myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and diabetes risks. Design A prospective cohort study. Participants 7735 men with BMI measured in middle age (40–59 years) and BMI ascertained at 21 years from military records or participant recall. Primary and secondary outcome measures 30-year follow-up data for type 2 diabetes, MI and stroke incidence; Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the effect of BMI at both ages on these outcomes, adjusted for age and smoking status. Results Among 4846 (63%) men (with complete data), a 1 kg/m2 higher BMI at 21 years was associated with a 6% (95% CI 4% to 9%) higher type 2 diabetes risk, compared with a 21% (95% CI 18% to 24%) higher diabetes risk for a 1 kg/m2 higher BMI in middle age (hazard ratio (HR) 1.21, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.24). Higher BMI in middle age was associated with a 6% (95% CI 4% to 8%) increase in MI and a 4% (95% CI 1% to 7%) increase in stroke; BMI at 21 years showed no associations with MI or stroke risk. Conclusions Higher BMI at 21 years of age is associated with later diabetes incidence but not MI or stroke, while higher BMI in middle age is strongly associated with all outcomes. Early obesity prevention may reduce later type 2 diabetes risk, more than MI and stroke. PMID:26373398

  14. Child life services.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Child life programs are an important component of pediatric hospital-based care to address the psychosocial concerns that accompany hospitalization and other health care experiences. Child life specialists focus on the optimal development and well-being of infants, children, adolescents, and young adults while promoting coping skills and minimizing the adverse effects of hospitalization, health care, and/or other potentially stressful experiences. Using therapeutic play, expressive modalities, and psychological preparation as primary tools, in collaboration with the entire health care team and family, child life interventions facilitate coping and adjustment at times and under circumstances that might otherwise prove overwhelming for the child. Play and developmentally appropriate communication are used to: (1) promote optimal development; (2) educate children and families about health conditions; (3) prepare children and families for medical events or procedures; (4) plan and rehearse useful coping and pain management strategies; (5) help children work through feelings about past or impending experiences; and (6) establish therapeutic relationships with patients, siblings, and parents to support family involvement in each child's care. PMID:24777212

  15. 7 CFR 625.12 - 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 30-year contracts. 625.12 Section 625.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.12 30-year contracts. (a) To enroll land...

  16. Reactor service life extension program

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  17. Reactor service life extension program

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

    1990-12-31

    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  18. Maritime vessel obsolescence, life cycle cost and design service life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, O.; Ilie, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    Maritime vessels have long service life and great costs of building, manning, operating, maintaining and repairing throughout their life. Major actions are needed to repair, renovate, sometime built or even replace those scrapped when technology or demand changes determine obsolescence. It is regarded as a concern throughout vessel's entire life cycle and reflects changes in expectation regarding performances in functioning, safety and environmental effects. While service live may differ from physical lives, expectations about physical lives is the main factors that determines design service life. Performance and failure are illustrated conceptually and represented in a simplified form considering the evolution of vessels parameters during its service life. In the proposed methodology an accumulated vessel lifecycle cost is analyzed and obsolescence is characterized from ship's design, performances, maintenance and management parameters point of view. Romanian ports feeding Black Sea are investigated in order to provide comprehensive information on: number and types of vessels, transport capacity and life cycle length. Recommendations are to be made in order to insure a best practice in lifecycle management in order to reduce costs.

  19. Predicting the remaining service life of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear power plants are providing, currently, about 17 percent of the U.S. electricity and many of these plants are approaching their licensed life of 40 years. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out a program to develop a methodology for assessing the remaining safe-life of the concrete components and structures in nuclear power plants. This program has the overall objective of identifying potential structural safety issues, as well as acceptance criteria, for use in evaluations of nuclear power plants for continued service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is contributing to this program by identifying and analyzing methods for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete materials. This report examines the basis for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials of nuclear power facilities. Methods for predicting the service life of new and in-service concrete materials are analyzed. These methods include (1) estimates based on experience, (2) comparison of performance, (3) accelerated testing, (4) stochastic methods, and (5) mathematical modeling. New approaches for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials are proposed and recommendations for their further development given. Degradation processes are discussed based on considerations of their mechanisms, likelihood of occurrence, manifestations, and detection. They include corrosion, sulfate attack, alkali-aggregate reactions, frost attack, leaching, radiation, salt crystallization, and microbiological attack.

  20. 30 years of squeezed light generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Ulrik L.; Gehring, Tobias; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2016-05-01

    Squeezed light generation has come of age. Significant advances on squeezed light generation have been made over the last 30 years—from the initial, conceptual experiment in 1985 till today’s top-tuned, application-oriented setups. Here we review the main experimental platforms for generating quadrature squeezed light that have been investigated in the last 30 years.

  1. Lessons from 30 Years of Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, David C.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation takes a brief historical look at flight software over the past 30 years, extracts lessons learned and shows how many of the lessons learned are embodied in the Flight Software product line called the core Flight System (cFS). It also captures the lessons learned from developing and applying the cFS.

  2. Predictive Service Life Tests for Roofing Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, David M.; Cash, Carl G.; Davies, Arthur G.

    2002-09-01

    The average service life of roofing membranes used in low-slope applications on U.S. Army buildings is estimated to be considerably shorter than the industry-presumed 20-year design life, even when installers carefully adhere to the latest guide specifications. This problem is due in large part to market-driven product development cycles, which do not include time for long-term field testing. To reduce delivery costs, contractors may provide untested, interior membranes in place of ones proven satisfactory in long-term service. Federal procurement regulations require that roofing systems and components be selected according to desired properties and generic type, not brand name. The problem is that a material certified to have satisfactory properties at installation time will not necessarily retain those properties in service. The overall objective of this research is to develop a testing program that can be executed in a matter of weeks to adequately predict a membrane's long-term performance in service. This report details accelerated aging tests of 12 popular membrane materials in the laboratory, and describes outdoor experiment stations set up for long-term exposure tests of those same membranes. The laboratory results will later be correlated with the outdoor test results to develop performance models and predictive service life tests.

  3. Evaluation of HEPA filter service life

    SciTech Connect

    Fretthold, J.K.; Stithem, A.R.

    1997-07-14

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), has approximately 10,000 High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters installed in a variety of filter plenums. These ventilation/filtration plenum systems are used to control the release of airborne particulate contaminates to the environment during normal operations and potential accidents. This report summarizes the results of destructive and non-destructive tests on HEPA filters obtained from a wide variety of ages and service conditions. These tests were performed to determine an acceptable service life criteria for HEPA filters used at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). A total of 140 filters of various ages (1972 to 1996) and service history (new, aged unused, used) were tested. For the purpose of this report, filter age from manufacture date/initial test date to the current sample date was used, as opposed to the actual time a filter was installed in an operating system.

  4. Solid waste 30-year volume summary

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, O.J.; Armacost, L.L.; DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J.; Williams, N.C.

    1994-06-01

    A 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes to be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site is described in this report. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU/TRUM) waste that will require treatment, storage, and disposal at Hanford`s Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during the 30-year period from FY 1994 through FY 2023. The data used to complete this document were collected from onsite and offsite waste generators who currently, or are planning to, ship solid wastes to the Hanford Site. An analysis of the data suggests that over 300,000 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste will be managed at Hanford`s SWOC over the next 30 years. An extensive effort was made this year to collect this information. The 1993 solid waste forecast was used as a starting point, which identified approximately 100,000 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste to be sent to the SWOC. After analyzing the forecast waste volume, it was determined that additional waste was expected from the tank waste remediation system (TWRS), onsite decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities, and onsite remedial action (RA) activities. Data presented in this report establish a starting point for solid waste management planning. It is recognized that forecast estimates will vary (typically increasing) as facility planning and missions continue to change and become better defined, but the information presented still provides useful insight into Hanford`s future solid waste management requirements.

  5. New value packing technology extends service life

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.; Jackson, R. )

    1993-10-01

    New packing techniques can extend packing life and retain low stem leakage. The HPI can use these designs to avoid mandatory monitoring and repair schedules for valves that exceed the 500-ppm emission threshold. New EPA leakage limits will enforce monitoring and maintenance programs if more than 2% of the facility's valves exceed this limit. Because valves are dynamic, their control actions are prone to leakage. Also, the best fire-resistant packing material, graphite, has inherent deficiencies such as high compression stress and a high-friction coefficient that shortens its service life. Four basic principles overcome graphite packing's shortcomings for control valve applications. Examples show how these criteria improve sliding stem and rotary valve performance. Incorporating these principles into valve-packing designs can ensure long, low-maintenance service life, and the added benefit of low leakage. Graphite is a very important packing material for the HPI. Unlike fluoropolymer (e.g., PTFE) packing, graphite can tolerate high process temperature without decomposing or losing its sealing properties. More importantly, graphite packing is fire safe. It can survive a fire without a catastrophic failure that could add more flammable materials.

  6. A 30-Year Global Wave Hindcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrant, Tom; Hemer, Mark; Trenham, Claire; Greenslade, Diana

    2013-04-01

    Many Pacific Islands are vulnerable to impacts of waves through coastal inundation, coastal and beach erosion, wave driven lagoon circulation, disturbances to reef habitats etc. On steep continental shelves like Pacific island coral atolls, surface waves are the dominant contributor to coastal sea-level extremes via wave set-up. A recent review of the availability of modelled and observed wave data in the Pacific region noted the need for a high-quality multi-decadal wave climate data set. The absence of high temporal resolution spectral wave data was noted, with existing hindcast products assessed as being of inadequate spatial and temporal resolution in general. Wave hindcast resolution has historically been limited by the resolution of available winds. The recently completed National Centers for Environmental Prediction's (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) surface winds now provide a consistent product at 0.3°, hourly resolution over the past 30 years, providing a valuable source of forcing for wave hindcasting. As part of the Pacific-Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Program (PACCSAP), work is being carried out examining recent, existing and projected future ocean wave conditions with a focus on the Pacific region. As part of this work, a 30-year (1979-2009) global wave hindcast has been produced, using CFSR wind forcing. Details of this hindcast will be presented including an assessment of the quality of the data set using in-situ buoy and satellite altimeter data.

  7. Improving thermocouple service life in slagging gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Powell, Cynthia A.; Thomas, Hugh; Krabbe, Rick

    2005-01-01

    The measurement of temperature within slagging gasifiers for long periods of time is difficult/impossible because of sensor failure or blockage of inputs used to monitor gasifier temperature. One of the most common means of temperature measurement in a gasifier is physically, through the use of thermocouples in a gasifier sidewall. These units can fail during startup, standby, or during the first 40-90 days of gasifier service. Failure can be caused by a number of issues; including thermocouple design, construction, placement in the gasifier, gasifier operation, and molten slag attack of the materials used in a thermocouple assembly. Lack of temperature control in a gasifier can lead to improper preheating, slag buildup on gasifier sidewalls, slag attack of gasifier refractories used to line a gasifier, or changes in desired gas output from a gasifier. A general outline of thermocouple failure issues and attempts by the Albany Research Center to improve the service life of thermocouples will be discussed.

  8. Cognitive Systems Engineering: The Next 30 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is part of panel discussion on Cognitive Systems Engineering. The purpose of this panel is to discuss the challenges and future directions of Cognitive Systems Engineering for the next 30 years. I intended to present the work we have been doing with the Aviation Safety program and Space Human Factors Engineering project on Work Domain Analysis and some areas of Research Focus. Specifically, I intend to focus on the shift on the need to understand and model attention in mixed-initiative systems, the need for methods which can generate results to be used in trade-off decisions, and the need to account for a range of human behavior in the design.

  9. 7 CFR 625.12 - 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 30-year contracts. 625.12 Section 625.12 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.12 30-year contracts. (a) To enroll land in HFRP through the 30-year contract option, a landowner will sign a 30-year contract with NRCS....

  10. Test anxiety inventory: 30 years later.

    PubMed

    Szafranski, Derek D; Barrera, Terri L; Norton, Peter J

    2012-11-01

    Research suggests that test anxiety is associated with a number of maladaptive factors. The majority of test anxiety research includes the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) as a primary outcome variable. However, the TAI was normed on college undergraduates in 1980. The academic landscape has altered in a variety of ways in the past 30 years, which may result in out-of-date norms. This study examined changes in TAI scores in college undergraduates (n =437) as well as convergent validity with measures of trait anxiety and academic performance. Results indicated increases in TAI scores for females while holding constant for males. Additionally, females and males displayed positive correlations between the TAI and state-trait anxiety inventory, while only females displayed a significant negative correlation between the TAI and grade point average. Data provide evidence of changes in TAI scores. As a result, researchers should be careful when drawing conclusions based on original TAI norms, especially in the case of female undergraduates. PMID:22380930

  11. 1995 Solid Waste 30-year volume summary

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, O.J.; DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), provides a description of the annual low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed solid waste (TRU-TRUM) volumes expected to be managed by Hanford`s Solid Waste Central Waste Complex (CWC) over the next 30 years. The waste generation sources and waste categories are also described. This document is intended to be used as a reference for short- and long-term planning of the Hanford treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) activities over the next several decades. By estimating the waste volumes that will be generated in the future, facility planners can determine the timing of key waste management activities, evaluate alternative treatment strategies, and plan storage and disposal capacities. In addition, this document can be used by other waste sites and the general public to gain a better understanding of the types and volumes of waste that will be managed at Hanford.

  12. Solid Propulsion Systems, Subsystems, and Components Service Life Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hundley, Nedra H.; Jones, Connor

    2011-01-01

    The service life extension of solid propulsion systems, subsystems, and components will be discussed based on the service life extension of the Space Transportation System Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) and Booster Separation Motors (BSM). The RSRM is certified for an age life of five years. In the aftermath of the Columbia accident there were a number of motors that were approaching the end of their five year service life certification. The RSRM Project initiated an assessment to determine if the service life of these motors could be extended. With the advent of the Constellation Program, a flight test was proposed that would utilize one of the RSRMs which had been returned from the launch site due to the expiration of its five year service life certification and twelve surplus Chemical Systems Division BSMs which had exceeded their eight year service life. The RSRM age life tracking philosophy which establishes when the clock starts for age life tracking will be described. The role of the following activities in service life extension will be discussed: subscale testing, accelerated aging, dissecting full scale aged hardware, static testing full scale aged motors, data mining industry data, and using the fleet leader approach. The service life certification and extension of the BSMs will also be presented.

  13. Advertising Agency Libraries: 30 Years of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christianson, Elin B.; Waldron, Anne M.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a survey of advertising agency libraries and compares results of the current study with similar surveys from 1954 and 1969. Characteristics of the parent agency, organizational status and location, budgets, users, staff, collections, indexes and databases, reference books, and library services are the areas addressed. Data are presented…

  14. Reactor Dosimetry Aspects of the Service Life Extension of the Hungarian Paks NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zsolnay, Eva M.; Czifrus, Szabolcs; Fehér, Sándor; Hordósy, Gábor; Keresztúri, András; Kresz, Norbert; Oszvald, Ferenc

    2016-02-01

    The service life of the Hungarian Paks Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) will be extended from the originally planned 30 years to 50 years. To improve the reliability of the results obtained in frame of the old reactor pressure vessel (RPV) surveillance programme, new methods have been developed, and based on them, the old exposition data have been re-evaluated for all the four reactor units. At the same time, a new RPV surveillance programme has been developed and introduced, and long term irradiations have been performed to determine the radiation damage of the surveillance specimens due to the high fast neutron exposition. Neutron transport calculations have been performed with a validated neutron transport code system to determine the fast neutron exposition of the RPVs during the extended service life. The cavity dosimetry is in the introductory phase. This paper presents the new developments in the field of the RPV surveillance dosimetry and summarises the results obtained. According to the results the service life of the NPP can safely be extended for the planned 50 years.

  15. Service-Life Extension of Explosive Escape Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Schimmel, M. L.

    1987-01-01

    Chemical and functional tests yield conservative service-life estimates. Approach to extension of service lives of explosive devices in aircraft escape system developed, supported by testing of representative candidate devices to evaluate quantitatively effects of service, age, and degradation, and to enable responsible, conservative service-life determinations. Five types of explosive components evaluated: rigid and flexible explosive transfer lines; one-way transfers; flexible, linear-shaped charges; and initiation-handles. Extension of service in realistic manner provides both cost savings and increased system reliability.

  16. Silviculture: the next 30 years the past 30 years. Part III. The South

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, S.G.; Burkhardt, E.C.; Kellison, R.C.; van Lear, D.H.

    1986-06-01

    This paper discussed the need for modern forestry management in the South. The author defined the South as Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia. Of the 10 billion cubic feet of softwood harvested in the US in 1976, 44% came from the South. In addition, half of the 4.2 billion cubic feet of hardwoods harvested in the US in 1976 came from the South. Less than half of the southern forests were cultivated by trained foresters. With real forest management, a real potential should exist for increased forest production. The author discussed the history of these forest lands and the need for better forest management over the next 30 years. 12 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  17. Student-Life Stress in Education and Health Service Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascavage, Victoria; Winterman, Kathleen G.; Buot, Max; Wies, Jennifer R.; Lyzinski, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the effects of student-life stress on Education and Health Service majors (n = 195) at a private, religious, Midwestern university in the USA, we assessed student perception of overall stress level and physical stress level using the Student-life Stress Inventory. The targeted sample consisted of students with…

  18. A Life-Course Analysis of Military Service in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, John Paul; Carter, David E.; Cullen, Francis T.

    2005-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates that military service disconnects men from past social and personal disadvantages and thus potentially alters normal life-course patterns of development. Much of this research, however, has been conducted only with World War II veterans. Relatively few studies have examined the influence of military service in Vietnam…

  19. Investigation of mercury thruster isolators. [service life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantenieks, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Mercury ion thruster isolator lifetime tests were performed using different isolator materials and geometries. Tests were performed with and without the flow of mercury through the isolators in an oil diffusion pumped vacuum facility and cryogenically pumped bell jar. The onset of leakage current in isolators tested occurred in time intervals ranging from a few hours to many hundreds of hours. In all cases, surface contamination was responsible for the onset of leakage current and subsequent isolator failure. Rate of increase of leakage current and the leakage current level increased approximately exponentially with isolator temperature. Careful attention to shielding techniques and the elimination of sources of metal oxides appear to have eliminated isolator failures as a thruster life limiting mechanism.

  20. 30 years of preserving clonal genetic resources in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For more than 30 years, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) has preserved clonal plant genetic resources of horticultural crops in field gene banks. Facilities in Hilo, Hawaii; Mayaguez, Puerto Rico; Miami, Florida; and...

  1. Integrating service-life modeling and life-cycle assessment for recycled-aggregate concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Todd Lee

    The development and implementation of one-dimensional (a) analytical and (b) numerical service-life models for chloride-induced corrosion of reinforced concrete containing both recycled-aggregates and supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) are presented in this work. Both the analytical and numerical models account for initial chloride contamination levels due to previous applications. The effects of aggregate type (e.g., virgin, recycled aggregate, recycled mortar), aggregate replacement ratio, severity of chloride contamination levels, severity of in-service chloride exposure, reinforcement cover depth, SCM type (e.g., fly ash, slag, slice fume, metakaolin), and SCM replacement ratio on the expected service life of recycled-aggregate reinforced concrete were investigated. Results illustrated trends between concrete mixes and life cycle costs, which were employed to make conclusions on the trade-offs presented by cost, sustainability, and service life.

  2. Service Life Extension of the ISS Propulsion System Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamath, Ulhas; Grant, Gregory; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Shaevich, Sergey; Spencer, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a result of international collaboration in building a sophisticated laboratory of an unprecedented scale in Low Earth Orbit. After a complex assembly sequence spanning over a decade, some of the early modules launched at the beginning of the program would reach the end of their certified lives, while the newer modules were just being commissioned into operation. To maximize the return on global investments in this one-of-a-kind orbiting platform that was initially conceived for a service life until 2016, it is essential for the cutting edge research on ISS to continue as long as the station can be sustained safely in orbit. ISS Program is assessing individual modules in detail to extend the service life of the ISS to 2024, and possibly to 2028. Without life extension, Functional Cargo Block (known by its Russian acronym as FGB) and the Service Module (SM), two of the early modules on the Russian Segment, would reach the end of their certified lives in 2013 and 2015 respectively. Both FGB and SM are critical for the propulsive function of the ISS. This paper describes the approach used for the service life extension of the FGB propulsion system. Also presented is an overview of the system description along with the process adopted for developing the life test plans based on considerations of system failure modes, fault tolerance and safety provisions. Tests and analyses performed, important findings and life estimates are summarized. Based on the life extension data, FGB propulsion system, in general, is considered ready for a service life until 2028.

  3. Service Life Extension of the ISS Propulsion System Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamath, Ulhas; Grant, Gregory; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Shaevich, Sergey; Spencer, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a result of international collaboration in building a sophisticated laboratory of an unprecedented scale in Low Earth Orbit. After a complex assembly sequence spanning over a decade, some of the early modules launched at the beginning of the program would reach the end of their certified lives, while the newer modules were just being commissioned into operation. To maximize the return on global investments in this one-of-a-kind orbiting platform that was initially conceived for a service life until 2016, it is essential for the cutting edge research on ISS to continue as long as the station can be sustained safely in orbit. ISS Program is assessing individual modules in detail to extend the service life of the ISS to 2024, and possibly to 2028. Without life extension, Functional Cargo Block (known by its Russian acronym as FGB) and the Service Module (SM), two of the early modules on the Russian Segment, would reach the end of their certified lives in 2013 and 2015 respectively. Both FGB and SM are critical for the propulsive function of the ISS. This paper describes the approach used for the service life extension of the FGB propulsion system. Also presented is an overview of the system description along with the process adopted for developing the life test plans based on considerations of system failure modes, fault tolerance and safety provisions. Tests and analyses performed, important findings and life estimates are summarized. Based on the life extension data, FGB propulsion system, in general, is considered ready for a service life until 2028.

  4. 30 years of lymph node pathology: biomarkers and other advances.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Alan D

    2013-03-01

    Over the last 30 years there has been a massive change in both the clinical and pathologic aspects of malignant lymphomas. Pathologists are now able to evaluate cellular phenotypes and lineages of tumor cells using a wide variety of biomarkers and molecular techniques. The ability to identify tumor cell phenotypes has revolutionized the classification of lymphomas, leading to an internationally agreed system based on the reliable recognition of specific clinico-pathologic entities. The World Health Organization classification combines clinical features, histomorphology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular and genetic marker data to precisely categorize lymphomas. On the clinical front the increasing use of needle core biopsies has made it easier and quicker to obtain tissue samples, and the development of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography has revolutionized the assessment of patients both at presentation and after treatment. To improve overall outcomes for lymphoma patients there have been advances in the UK organization of cancer services. Cancer networks have been established, often with network multidisciplinary team meetings, and new diagnoses of lymphoma are reviewed on a network basis by pathologists specializing in the field. National and supranational quality control systems are in place for immunohistochemistry and for molecular techniques and multicenter clinical trials provide information about the efficacy of treatment regimens. The outcome of these advances is that a patient presenting in 2012 with suspected lymphoma can expect to be biopsied rapidly, to receive an accurate pathologic diagnosis by an expert hematopathologist, which will include prognostic marker information, and to have comprehensive disease assessment and discussion by a multidisciplinary team before embarking on the most appropriate treatment for his or her clinical situation. PMID:23417072

  5. Service life evaluation of rigid explosive transfer lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Kayser, E. G.; Schimmel, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a joint Army/NASA-sponsored research program on the service life evaluation of rigid explosive transfer lines. These transfer lines are used to initiate emergency crew escape functions on a wide variety of military and NASA aircraft. The purpose of this program was to determine quantitatively the effects of service, age, and degradation on rigid explosive transfer lines to allow responsible, conservative, service life determination. More than 800 transfer lines were removed from the U.S. Army AH-1G and AH-1S, the U.S. Air Force B-1 and F-111, and the U.S. Navy F-14 aircraft for testing. The results indicated that the lines were not adversely affected by age, service, or a repeat of the thermal qualification tests on full-service lines. Extension of the service life of rigid explosive transfer lines should be considered, since considerable cost savings could be realized with no measurable decrease in system reliability.

  6. Probabilistic/Fracture-Mechanics Model For Service Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, T., Jr.; Annis, C. G., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Computer program makes probabilistic estimates of lifetime of engine and components thereof. Developed to fill need for more accurate life-assessment technique that avoids errors in estimated lives and provides for statistical assessment of levels of risk created by engineering decisions in designing system. Implements mathematical model combining techniques of statistics, fatigue, fracture mechanics, nondestructive analysis, life-cycle cost analysis, and management of engine parts. Used to investigate effects of such engine-component life-controlling parameters as return-to-service intervals, stresses, capabilities for nondestructive evaluation, and qualities of materials.

  7. Design of a long service life integration CES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Zhijun; Deng, Loulou; Mei, Zhiwu; Hu, Xinchao

    2015-10-01

    In order to satisfy the reliability demand of the long-life satellite, and solve the weak link, we design an kind of the long service life integration CES (LFICES). In order to solve the problem from the late resistance increased product life, we perform the high torque motor technology research. Then we performed the accelerated life test of the rotating device. In the accelerated life test, we simulated operation of eight years, and the test results showed that the rotating device meet the design requirements of eight years. In this paper, we gives the design scheme of the LFICES. The telemetering data of the 26th remote sensing satellite in-orbit flight shows that the LFICES can stably work.

  8. Ion Engine Service Life Validation by Analysis and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Polk, James E.; Rawlin, Vincent K.

    1997-01-01

    Assessment of the NSTAR ion engine service life is being accomplished through a combination of long duration testing and probabilistic analyses of the credible failure modes. A literature review that examined 65 ion engine endurance tests perfromed over the past 35 years was conducted to compile a list of possible ion engine failure modes.

  9. Ion Engine Service Life Validation by Analysis and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Polk, James E.; Rawlin, Vincent K.

    1996-01-01

    Assessment of the NSTAR ion engine service life is being accomplished through a combination of long duration testing and probabilistic analyses of the credible failure modes. A literature review that examined 65 ion engine endurance tests perfromed over the past 35 years was conducted to compile a list of possible ion engine failure modes.

  10. SERVICE LIFE OF GEOSYNTHETICS IN HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential service life of synthetic polymer materials (geosynthetics) is of immediate importance in all countries where municipal solid waste and hazardous waste landfills are lined with these materials because of the need to know more about the aging characteristics and the ...

  11. Pre-Service Teachers in Second Life: Potentials of Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teoh, Jase

    2012-01-01

    An in-depth qualitative study with nine secondary pre-service teachers from an undergraduate "Language and Literacy" class was conducted to examine the potential of simulation using Second Life (SL) in teacher education. Games and simulations were operationally defined in the broadest sense to distinguish key characteristics between them. This…

  12. Theoretical Foundation for Mechanical Products Service Life Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovodov, V. V.; Valentov, A. V.; Lafetova, T. V.; Basalaev, M. N.

    2016-04-01

    The article presents theoretical foundations for prediction of service life of mechanical products, based on the fatigue theory and fatigue limit. Ultimate amplitude and ultimate stress diagrams are presented. Wohler curve, characterizing material durability, is constructed on the results of the tests.

  13. 30 years of finite-gap integration theory.

    PubMed

    Matveev, Vladimir B

    2008-03-28

    The method of finite-gap integration was created to solve the periodic KdV initial problem. Its development during last 30 years, combining the spectral theory of differential and difference operators with periodic coefficients, the algebraic geometry of compact Riemann surfaces and their Jacobians, the Riemann theta functions and inverse problems, had a strong impact on the evolution of modern mathematics and theoretical physics. This article explains some of the principal historical points in the creation of this method during the period 1973-1976, and briefly comments on its evolution during the last 30 years. PMID:17594966

  14. [Revista de Saúde Pública: 30 years of evolution].

    PubMed

    da Silva, L J

    1996-12-01

    Analysis of the main characteristics of the "Revista de Saúde Pública" during the 30 years of its existence. A parallel is traced with the evolution of brazilian public health. The dynamic aspect of the "Revista" is remembered as one of its main virtues. Its future in the constitution of the Mercosul regional block is discussed. PMID:9302818

  15. "JTPE": A 30-Year Retrospective of Published Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Jesse L.; Woods, Amelia M.; Daum, David N.; Ellison, Douglas; Trendowski, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    This case study presents an examination of 30 years of "Journal of Teaching in Physical Education" ("JTPE") research. The purpose of this study was to provide a retrospective view of "JTPE" and its contribution to the field of physical education. In this effort the current study employed citation analysis, co-author…

  16. Education and HIV/AIDS--30 Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggleton, Peter; Yankah, Ekua; Crewe, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Education has long been identified as having a key role to play in reducing HIV-related risk and vulnerability, and in mitigating the impact of the epidemic on affected individuals and communities. This article reflects on progress over a 30-year period with respect to older and more emergent forms of education concerning HIV and AIDS: treatment…

  17. Historical Lassa fever reports and 30-year clinical update.

    PubMed

    Macher, Abe M; Wolfe, Martin S

    2006-05-01

    Five cases of Lassa fever have been imported from West Africa to the United States since 1969. We report symptoms of the patient with the second imported case and the symptoms and long-term follow-up on the patient with the third case. Vertigo in this patient has persisted for 30 years. PMID:16704848

  18. Historical Lassa Fever Reports and 30-year Clinical Update

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Martin S.

    2006-01-01

    Five cases of Lassa fever have been imported from West Africa to the United States since 1969. We report symptoms of the patient with the second imported case and the symptoms and long-term follow-up on the patient with the third case. Vertigo in this patient has persisted for 30 years. PMID:16704848

  19. Better endings: a review of end-of-life services.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Tara; Richardson, Alison

    The NHS has undertaken research on the organisation and quality of end-of-life services, which provides valuable insights for those planning and delivering care for people approaching the end of life, and their families. The review of the findings, structured around the right care in the right place at the right time, highlights what is already known, and how research that is currently underway will address key gaps and uncertainties for frontline staff and clinical leaders. This article summarises the findings outlined in that review. PMID:27180460

  20. International Space Station Bacteria Filter Element Service Life Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) uses high-efficiency particulate air filters to remove particulate matter from the cabin atmosphere. Known as bacteria filter elements (BFEs), there are 13 elements deployed on board the ISS's U.S. segment in the flight 4R assembly level. The preflight service life prediction of 1 yr for the BFEs is based upon engineering analysis of data collected during developmental testing that used a synthetic dust challenge. While this challenge is considered reasonable and conservative from a design perspective, an understanding of the actual filter loading is required to best manage the critical ISS program resources. Testing was conducted on BFEs returned from the ISS to refine the service life prediction. Results from this testing and implications to ISS resource management are provided.

  1. 1995 solid waste 30-year container volume summary

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, K.J.; DeForest, T.J.; Patridge, M.D.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes a 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes by container category. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU-TRUM) waste. These volumes and their associated container categories will be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site for storage, treatment, and disposal at Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during a 30-year period from FY 1995 through FY 2024. The data presented in this report establish a baseline for solid waste management both in the present and future. With knowledge of the volumes by container type, decisions on the facility handling and storage requirements can be adequately made. It is recognized that the forecast estimates will vary as facility planning and missions continue to change and become better defined; however, the data presented in this report still provide useful insight into Hanford`s future solid waste management requirements.

  2. Effects of Planetary Gear Ratio on Mean Service Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Rubadeux, K. L.; Coe, H. H.

    1996-01-01

    Planetary gear transmissions are compact, high-power speed reductions which use parallel load paths. The range of possible reduction ratios is bounded from below and above by limits on the relative size of the planet gears. For a single plane transmission, the planet gear has no size at a ratio of two. As the ratio increases, so does the size of the planets relative to the sizes of the sun and ring. Which ratio is best for a planetary reduction can be resolved by studying a series of optimal designs. In this series, each design is obtained by maximizing the service life for a planetary with a fixed size, gear ratio, input speed power and materials. The planetary gear reduction service life is modeled as a function of the two-parameter Weibull distributed service lives of the bearings and gears in the reduction. Planet bearing life strongly influences the optimal reduction lives which point to an optimal planetary reduction ratio in the neighborhood of four to five.

  3. The enduring legacy of Alma Ata: 30 years on.

    PubMed

    Exworthy, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The 1978 Alma Ata conference and declaration was a landmark in defining and providing a direction for primary healthcare. Despite the initial enthusiasm for Alma Ata, its impact appeared to have declined in the 1990s. However, in recent years, there has been a revitalisation of primary healthcare. This article reviews the Alma Ata conference and declaration, assesses its waxing and waning, and examines its recent revival. The paper draws conclusions about the relevance of Alma Ata, 30 years on. PMID:25949564

  4. Transient Unexplained Shock in 30-year-old Trauma Patient.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Farzad; Ebrahimi Bakhtavar, Hanieh; Shahsavari Nia, Kavous; Mohammadi, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Shock as an inadequate tissue perfusion is one of the frequent causes of death in trauma patients. In this context, there are various reasons for hemodynamic instability and shock including hypovolemic (hemorrhagic), obstructive (cardiac tamponade, tension pneumothorax), cardiogenic, neurogenic, and rarely septic. In the present report, a 30-year-old trauma patient with full clinical signs and symptoms of shock referred while had unknown origin; it was finally recognized as anaphylactic shock. PMID:26495357

  5. The enduring legacy of Alma Ata: 30 years on

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The 1978 Alma Ata conference and declaration was a landmark in defining and providing a direction for primary healthcare. Despite the initial enthusiasm for Alma Ata, its impact appeared to have declined in the 1990s. However, in recent years, there has been a revitalisation of primary healthcare. This article reviews the Alma Ata conference and declaration, assesses its waxing and waning, and examines its recent revival. The paper draws conclusions about the relevance of Alma Ata, 30 years on. PMID:25949564

  6. Unidata: 30 Years of FOSS for the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, E.; Ramamurthy, M. K.; Young, J. W.; Fisher, W. I.; Rew, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Unidata's core mission is to serve academic research and education communities by facilitating access and use of real-time weather data. To this end, Unidata develops, distributes, and supports several Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) packages. These packages are largely focused on data management, access, analysis and visualization. This presentation will discuss the lessons Unidata has gathered over thirty years of FOSS development, support, and community building. These lessons include what it takes to be a successful FOSS organization, how to adapt to changing "best practices" and the emergence of new FOSS tools and services, and techniques for dealing with software end-of-life. We will also discuss our approach when supporting a varied user community spanning end users and software developers. Strong user support has been an important key to Unidata's successful community building.

  7. Aging mechanisms and service life of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruetschi, Paul

    In lead-acid batteries, major aging processes, leading to gradual loss of performance, and eventually to the end of service life, are: Anodic corrosion (of grids, plate-lugs, straps or posts). Positive active mass degradation and loss of adherence to the grid (shedding, sludging). Irreversible formation of lead sulfate in the active mass (crystallization, sulfation). Short-circuits. Loss of water. Aging mechanisms are often inter-dependent. For example, corrosion of the grids will lead to increased resistance to current flow, which will in turn impede proper charge of certain parts of the active mass, resulting in sulfation. Active mass degradation may lead to short-circuits. Sulfation may be the result of a loss of water, and so forth. The rates of the different aging processes strongly depend on the type of use (or misuse) of the battery. Over-charge will lead to accelerated corrosion and also to accelerated loss of water. With increasing depth-of-discharge during cycling, positive active mass degradation is accelerated. Some aging mechanisms are occurring only upon misuse. Short-circuits across the separators, due to the formation of metallic lead dendrites, for example, are usually formed only after (excessively) deep discharge. Stationary batteries, operated under float-charge conditions, will age typically by corrosion of the positive grids. On the other hand, service life of batteries subject to cycling regimes, will typically age by degradation of the structure of the positive active mass. Starter batteries are usually aging by grid corrosion, for instance in normal passenger car use. However, starter batteries of city buses, making frequent stops, may age (prematurely) by positive active mass degradation, because the batteries are subject to numerous shallow discharge cycles. Valve-regulated batteries often fail as a result of negative active mass sulfation, or water loss. For each battery design, and type of use, there is usually a characteristic

  8. Prediction of void swelling in the baffle ring of WWER-1000 reactors for service life of 30-60 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalchenko, A. S.; Bryk, V. V.; Lazarev, N. P.; Voyevodin, V. N.; Garner, F. A.

    2013-06-01

    Major internal components of WWER-type nuclear reactors are made from annealed 18Cr10NiTi steel, a close analog to AISI 321. Void swelling of the baffle ring in particular could be a major factor limiting operation of the reactor beyond the current 30 years license. A predictive swelling equation is needed to forecast the spatial variation of swelling so as to identify those areas requiring additional attention. Available data on the swelling of this steel arising from irradiation in the BOR-60 fast reactor was combined with data from a heavy ion accelerator at higher displacement rates to formulate a predictive equation of swelling for the WWER-relevant range of temperature, irradiation dose and dose rates. This equation was used to estimate the swelling distribution over a cross-section of the baffle ring of a WWER reactor during a service life up to 60 years, reaching a local maximum of ˜30% swelling. It was shown that void swelling extends over a larger portion of the baffle ring than previously expected and exhibits a very complex and irregular distribution in response to complex distributions of temperature and dpa rate. Most importantly, as operation is extended beyond 30 years several areas of the ring may experience swelling in excess of 10% where void-induced embrittlement begins and one area may exceed 20% after 45 years, a swelling level where a complete loss of ductility is known to occur.

  9. Life after the emergency services: an exploratory study of well being and quality of life in emergency service retirees.

    PubMed

    Bracken-Scally, M; McGilloway, S; Gallagher, S; Mitchell, J T

    2014-01-01

    Much is known about the negative impact of emergency services work, but no studies, to date, have investigated its long-term consequences. This cross-sectional study assesses the possible long-term effects on quality of life, of trauma exposure and emergency work in a sample of retirees from the Irish emergency services (n = 169) and a comparison group of non-emergency service retirees (n = 140). A multi-questionnaire postal survey was administered to assess quality of life (QoL; WHOQOL-BREF), experiences of trauma, and trauma symptoms (PSS-SR). QoL was significantly better in non-emergency retirees, whilst this group also had significantly fewer trauma symptoms. Incidents involving children were identified by a large proportion of emergency retirees as being particularly difficult to manage. The findings address a significant gap in our knowledge around the possible longer-term effects of emergency services work in an often neglected sub-group. Factors associated with increased QoL and reduced symptoms of PTSD are discussed, as are some possible recommendations for the future. PMID:25345234

  10. CIRIL: more than 30 years of interdisciplinary research at GANIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domaracka, Alicja; Grygiel, Clara; Méry, Alain; Bouffard, Serge; Cassimi, Amine

    2015-07-01

    The CIRIL: 30 years of interdisciplinary research at GANIL meeting was held in Caen, France, in October 2013. The meeting provided an excellent opportunity to present the research performed with ion beams delivered by the GANIL facility (Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds, Caen, France). This proceedings volume comprises a series of reviews from different disciplines (physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, etc) of the results obtained with GANIL ion beams. Unfortunately, the issue is missing two major research domains concerning the induced damage in metals and insulators. Therefore, we refer the interested readers to the following publications: metals [1] and insulators [2].

  11. Enzymatic biofuel cells: 30 years of critical advancements.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Michelle; Abdellaoui, Sofiene; Minteer, Shelley D

    2016-02-15

    Enzymatic biofuel cells are bioelectronic devices that utilize oxidoreductase enzymes to catalyze the conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy. This review details the advancements in the field of enzymatic biofuel cells over the last 30 years. These advancements include strategies for improving operational stability and electrochemical performance, as well as device fabrication for a variety of applications, including implantable biofuel cells and self-powered sensors. It also discusses the current scientific and engineering challenges in the field that will need to be addressed in the future for commercial viability of the technology. PMID:26163747

  12. Plus or Minus 30 Years in the Language Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Newport, Elissa L.

    2010-01-01

    The language sciences – Linguistics, Psycholinguistics, and Computational Linguistics – have not been broadly represented at the Cognitive Science Society meetings of the past 30 years, but they are an important part of the heart of cognitive science. This article discusses several major themes that have dominated the controversies and consensus in the study of language and suggests the most pressing issues of the future. These themes include differences among the language science disciplines in their view of numbers and symbols and of modular and distributed cognition; and the need for an increasing prominence of questions concerning language and the brain. PMID:20730034

  13. Technology development: HEPA filter service life test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchner, K.N.; Cummings, K.G.; Leck, W.C.; Fretthold, J.K.

    1995-05-31

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site) has approximately 10,000 High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters installed in a variety of filter plenums. These ventilation/filtration plenum systems are used to control the release of airborne particulate contaminates to the environment during normal operations and also during potential design-based accidents. The operational integrity of the HEPA filter plenums is essential to maintaining the margins of safety as required by building specific Final Safety Analysis Reports (FSARS) for protection of the public and environment. An Unreviewed Safety Question Determination (USQD), USDQ-RFP94.0615-ARS, was conducted in 1994 addressing the potential inadequacy of the safety envelope for Protected Area building HEPA plenums. While conducting this USQD, questions were raised concerning the maximum service life criteria for HEPA filters. Accident scenarios in existing FSARs identify conditions that could potentially cause plugging or damage of down stream HEPA filters as a result of impaction from failed filters. Additionally, available data indicates that HEPA filters experience structural degradation due to the effects of age. The Unresolved Safety Question (USQ) compensatory measures thus require testing and analysis of used HEPA filters in order to determine and implement service life criteria.

  14. Purpose in life and use of preventive health care services.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eric S; Strecher, Victor J; Ryff, Carol D

    2014-11-18

    Purpose in life has been linked with better health (mental and physical) and health behaviors, but its link with patterns of health care use are understudied. We hypothesized that people with higher purpose would be more proactive in taking care of their health, as indicated by a higher likelihood of using preventive health care services. We also hypothesized that people with higher purpose would spend fewer nights in the hospital. Participants (n = 7,168) were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 50, and tracked for 6 y. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, each unit increase in purpose (on a six-point scale) was associated with a higher likelihood that people would obtain a cholesterol test [odds ratio (OR) = 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.29] or colonoscopy (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.99-1.14). Furthermore, females were more likely to receive a mammogram/X-ray (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16-1.39) or pap smear (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.06-1.28), and males were more likely to receive a prostate examination (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.18-1.45). Each unit increase in purpose was also associated with 17% fewer nights spent in the hospital (rate ratio = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.77-0.89). An increasing number of randomized controlled trials show that purpose in life can be raised. Therefore, with additional research, findings from this study may inform the development of new strategies that increase the use of preventive health care services, offset the burden of rising health care costs, and enhance the quality of life among people moving into the ranks of our aging society. PMID:25368165

  15. Purpose in life and use of preventive health care services

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eric S.; Strecher, Victor J.; Ryff, Carol D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose in life has been linked with better health (mental and physical) and health behaviors, but its link with patterns of health care use are understudied. We hypothesized that people with higher purpose would be more proactive in taking care of their health, as indicated by a higher likelihood of using preventive health care services. We also hypothesized that people with higher purpose would spend fewer nights in the hospital. Participants (n = 7,168) were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 50, and tracked for 6 y. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, each unit increase in purpose (on a six-point scale) was associated with a higher likelihood that people would obtain a cholesterol test [odds ratio (OR) = 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08–1.29] or colonoscopy (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.99–1.14). Furthermore, females were more likely to receive a mammogram/X-ray (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16–1.39) or pap smear (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.06–1.28), and males were more likely to receive a prostate examination (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.18–1.45). Each unit increase in purpose was also associated with 17% fewer nights spent in the hospital (rate ratio = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.77–0.89). An increasing number of randomized controlled trials show that purpose in life can be raised. Therefore, with additional research, findings from this study may inform the development of new strategies that increase the use of preventive health care services, offset the burden of rising health care costs, and enhance the quality of life among people moving into the ranks of our aging society. PMID:25368165

  16. Effect of Cumulative Damage on Rocket Motor Service Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gligorijević, Nikola; Živković, Saša; Subotić, Sredoje; Rodić, Vesna; Gligorijević, Ivan

    2015-10-01

    Two series of antihail rocket propellant grains failed only 3 months after production, due to the appearance of cracks in the grain channel. Structural integrity analysis demonstrated sufficient reliability at the beginning of service life. Further analysis showed that under temperature loads, cumulative damage during the short period in field stocks caused the grain failure, despite the established opinion that such failure can become significant only after lengthy storage. A linear cumulative damage law is evaluated by exposing a number of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) composite propellant specimens to different but constant stress levels. The analysis showed that cumulative damage must not be overlooked at the design stage. Further, a positive correlation between the propellant cumulative damage law and tensile strength is strongly indicated.

  17. Design and analysis of seals for extended service life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Mark V.

    1992-12-01

    Space Station Freedom is being developed for a service life of up to thirty years. As a consequence, the design requirements for the seals to be used are unprecedented. Full scale testing to assure the selected seals can satisfy the design requirements are not feasible. As an alternative, a sub-scale test program has been developed by MSFC to calibrate the analysis tools to be used to certify the proposed design. This research has been conducted in support of the MSFC Integrated Seal Test Program. The ultimate objective of this research is to correlate analysis and test results to qualify the analytical tools, which in turn, are to be used to qualify the flight hardware. This research is totally focused on O-rings that are compressed by perpendicular clamping forces. In this type of seal the O-ring is clamped between the sealing surfaces by loads perpendicular to the circular cross section.

  18. Design and analysis of seals for extended service life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, Mark V.

    1992-01-01

    Space Station Freedom is being developed for a service life of up to thirty years. As a consequence, the design requirements for the seals to be used are unprecedented. Full scale testing to assure the selected seals can satisfy the design requirements are not feasible. As an alternative, a sub-scale test program has been developed by MSFC to calibrate the analysis tools to be used to certify the proposed design. This research has been conducted in support of the MSFC Integrated Seal Test Program. The ultimate objective of this research is to correlate analysis and test results to qualify the analytical tools, which in turn, are to be used to qualify the flight hardware. This research is totally focused on O-rings that are compressed by perpendicular clamping forces. In this type of seal the O-ring is clamped between the sealing surfaces by loads perpendicular to the circular cross section.

  19. Practical theories for service life prediction of critical aerospace structural components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Monaghan, Richard C.; Jackson, Raymond H.

    1992-01-01

    A new second-order theory was developed for predicting the service lives of aerospace structural components. The predictions based on this new theory were compared with those based on the Ko first-order theory and the classical theory of service life predictions. The new theory gives very accurate service life predictions. An equivalent constant-amplitude stress cycle method was proposed for representing the random load spectrum for crack growth calculations. This method predicts the most conservative service life. The proposed use of minimum detectable crack size, instead of proof load established crack size as an initial crack size for crack growth calculations, could give a more realistic service life.

  20. Approach for Service Life Extension of Explosive Devices for Aircraft Escape Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Schimmel, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    The service life evaluation of explosive devices used in a wide variety of aircraft escape systems is described. The purpose was to develop a service extension approach, supported by tests on candidate devices, to evaluate the effects of service, age, and degradation, and allow responsible, conservative, service life determinations. An overview is given on the recommended approach and experimental procedures for accurate service evaluations with test results on rigid and flexible explosive transfer lines, one-way transfers, and flexible linear shaped charges.

  1. 30-year PMC variability modeled by WACCM (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, D. R.; Merkel, A. W.

    2009-12-01

    It is clear from observational record that polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) exhibit long-term variability, and it is reasonable to assume that this variability is the result of changes in the background mesopause environment. Factors responsible for these changes include variations in solar irradiance over the 11-year sunspot cycle and trends in mesopause composition and temperature caused by increasing anthropogenic emissions in the troposphere. In this study we use the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), modified to include parameterized PMCs, to investigate this long-term variability. WACCM is driven with observed changes in the surface composition and solar spectral irradiance. Using multiple-linear regression analysis of WACCM PMC albedos, we calculate that in the northern hemisphere there was an increase of between 19% and 39% over the last 30 years, and that albedos can be reduced by up to 55% during solar maximum relative to solar minimum. Both responses increase with increasing latitude. In the southern hemisphere the solar response is similar to that in the northern hemisphere, but we find no long-term trend. Good agreement is found between WACCM and observations made by the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet instrument when PMC detection thresholds are accounted for. Finally, we examine the relative importance of composition versus temperature changes using a series of sensitivity experiments.

  2. Photosynthetic responses to 30 years of atmospheric change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunch, C. K.

    2009-12-01

    Plant physiological studies of responses to atmospheric CO2 concentration most frequently involve artificially increasing local CO2 concentration. However, CO2 levels in the atmosphere have already risen by more than 100 ppm over pre-industrial levels, and the response to that increase should also be considered. I measured changes in leaf-level photosynthesis over the most recent 50-60 ppm rise in atmospheric CO2, using photosynthetic studies from the late 1970s and early 1980s as a baseline. The study encompassed 17 plant species at three sites in California. The sites covered a rainfall range of 40 to 1000 mm year-1, and a mean annual temperature range of 12 to 24 oC. Species included annual forbs, perennial shrubs, and trees. Over the 30 years since the previous studies were carried out, leaf-level photosynthesis at ambient CO2 has risen by an average of 0.8 μmol m-2 s-1, a nonsignificant change. Stomatal conductance has declined, such that water use efficiency has increased by an average of 12.7%. The largest changes in photosynthetic characteristics were observed at the desert site.

  3. Acute exercise and oxidative stress: a 30 year history

    PubMed Central

    Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey; Bloomer, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    The topic of exercise-induced oxidative stress has received considerable attention in recent years, with close to 300 original investigations published since the early work of Dillard and colleagues in 1978. Single bouts of aerobic and anaerobic exercise can induce an acute state of oxidative stress. This is indicated by an increased presence of oxidized molecules in a variety of tissues. Exercise mode, intensity, and duration, as well as the subject population tested, all can impact the extent of oxidation. Moreover, the use of antioxidant supplements can impact the findings. Although a single bout of exercise often leads to an acute oxidative stress, in accordance with the principle of hormesis, such an increase appears necessary to allow for an up-regulation in endogenous antioxidant defenses. This review presents a comprehensive summary of original investigations focused on exercise-induced oxidative stress. This should provide the reader with a well-documented account of the research done within this area of science over the past 30 years. PMID:19144121

  4. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... life indicators; minimum requirements. 84.83 Section 84.83 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES... indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements. (a) Elapsed time indicators shall...

  5. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... life indicators; minimum requirements. 84.83 Section 84.83 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES... indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements. (a) Elapsed time indicators shall...

  6. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... life indicators; minimum requirements. 84.83 Section 84.83 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES... indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements. (a) Elapsed time indicators shall...

  7. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... life indicators; minimum requirements. 84.83 Section 84.83 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES... indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements. (a) Elapsed time indicators shall...

  8. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... life indicators; minimum requirements. 84.83 Section 84.83 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES... indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements. (a) Elapsed time indicators shall...

  9. Quality of Services and Quality of Life from Service Providers' Perspectives: Analysis with Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenaro, C.; Vega, V.; Flores, N.; Cruz, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Concepts such as support, quality of life and quality of services are customary in services for people with intellectual disabilities. The identification of the different ways of conceiving, prioritising and implementing these concepts by service providers can help to drive changes to achieve better personal outcomes for this…

  10. Drought Prediction in Iran during Next 30 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazanedari, L.; Zabol Abbasi, F.; Ghandhari, Sh.; Kouhi, M.; Malbousi, Sh.

    2009-09-01

    The effects of climate changes, especially due to increasing of greenhouse gasses, caused a lot of problems that affect different sections of society. One of the most important of these effects is the increasing of natural disasters such as flood, drought, tropical cyclones, raising sea level, dust storm, etc. Drought and flood are the most prevalent of these disasters in Iran. Because of the geographical location of Iran and the synoptic systems that affect this region, it is clear that dry is one of the characteristics of this region, and drought is one of the most important of natural disaster that affect this country. Drought affects the different sectors of society such as water resources, agriculture, industry, economy, health, etc therefore drought monitoring is necessary for planning in future. For this purpose, the climate data should be simulated for future period by using outputs of Atmospheric-Ocean General Circulation Model. In this paper precipitation data during 2010-2039 is simulated by downscaling via LARS-WG model. Then, drought situation is estimated according to DI and SPI, by using these data in Iran. The results of this study have showed that during next 30 years, drought conditions will be increase in Iran, and it confirms climate change event in this region. In addition, the most parts of Iran will experience severe and extreme drought in 2011, 2025, 2032, 2034, 2035, 2039, and among these years 2039 will have more critical drought situation. Keywords: Atmospheric General Circulation Models, Downscaling, LARS-WG, Drought, Decile Index, Standard Precipitation Index.

  11. 30 years of change in water-limited ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horion, S.; Fensholt, R.; Verbesselt, J.; Tagesson, T.; Grogan, K.; Ehammer, A.; Tian, F.

    2014-12-01

    Water availability limits plant growth and production in most terrestrial ecosystems. However these ecosystems do not show the same sensitivity to changes in precipitation. Water-limited ecosystems are defined here as ecosystems where rainfall is the dominant climate constraint to plant growth. Drought-prone and often characterized by increasing human pressure on land and natural resources, these regions are amongst the most vulnerable on Earth. Despite the many years of research, a clear understanding of changes in vegetation dynamics and species distribution, as well as related drivers, has not been reached yet. In this research we take advantage of the 30years time span offered by the GIMMS FAPAR3g dataset to investigate abrupt and gradual changes in Rain-Use Efficiency (RUE). Using the piece-wise regression method implemented in BFAST (Breaks For Additive Season and Trend) and BFAST01, a change type classification scheme is produced for water-limited ecosystems. Compared to classical non-parametric trend analysis, this approach allows detecting trend shifts during the study period. This global scale analysis revealed that for more than 50% of the cases no significant changes in RUE were registered between 1982 and 2011. Whereas when significant changes were registered, monotonic increase was the predominant type of changes. Large patches of reversing trends were also observed, notably in Asia (China, Kazakhstan), in the Sahelian region (Sudan, Ethiopia, Senegal), and in South America (Peru and Argentina). Even though reversing trends appear to be more frequently observed in regions with high land cover change dynamics, a comprehensive attribution of drivers for all recorded changes is still under discussion. Indeed the co-occurrence of global drivers (such as change in climate and in extreme events) and local drivers (such as land-cover changes) makes it a very delicate task.

  12. Decadal trends of global precipitation in the recent 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaofan; Zhai, Guoqing

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the decadal trends of global precipitation are calculated and compared using the CMAP, GPCP and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis monthly precipitation data over the past 30 years from 1979 to 2008. The major results include the followings: (1) The decadal trend of annually and globally averaged precipitation depends on a decreasing trend for the CMAP data, a flat trend for GPCP data, and an increasing trend for the reanalysis data. (2) The analysis of horizontal distributions of differences in temporally averaged precipitation between the second (1993-2008) and the first (1979-1993) 15 years shows that the decreasing trend in the CMAP data is associated with the reduction in precipitation over the oceans. The further analysis of difference in zonally averaged precipitation rate reveals the increased precipitation rate in both the Tropics and mid-latitudes. The reduction in precipitation over the oceans is significantly weaker in the GPCP data than in the CMAP data, which shows the flat trend in the global GPCP data. The increasing trend of global precipitation average for the reanalysis data is associated with the increase in precipitation off the equator as well as in the mid-latitudes. (3) The further analysis of precipitation statistics reveals that the decreasing trend for the CMAP data is associated with the reduction in high precipitation. The flat trend for the global GPCP data corresponds to the offset between the decrease in low precipitation and the increase in high precipitation. The increasing trend for the reanalysis data is related to the increase in high precipitation.

  13. Recruiting Minority Geoscientists: A 30 Year Success Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpa, L.; Pavlis, T. L.; Hall, F.

    2003-12-01

    The University of New Orleans (UNO) is located in a city rich in diversity and industries that employ geoscientists. Thus, it is an ideal place to develop a strong diversity program in geology and geophysics. In 1974, Dr. Louis Fernandez received a grant from the NSF to formally develop a minority recruiting program. The focus of that initial program was a field trip for local minority high school students and that trip has gone continuously every year since then. It is still our best tool for recruiting outstanding minority students into our department. The initial NSF funding disappeared long ago and was replaced variously by support from private industry and creative use of departmental funds which kept the program alive through some lean funding years. As a result of this effort UNO has graduated more minority, particularly African-American, geoscientist than any other institution in the US for most of the past 30 years. The field trip is not the only reason for our success. Indeed, retaining and graduating students, regardless of their ethnicity, required a serious commitment to education on the part of our department. There are six universities in the city of New Orleans and several more within commuting distance from the city. Three of the six local universities are HBCU's with excellent reputations but, fortunately for us, no geoscience degree programs. There are several strong geoscience departments in the non-minority serving institutions in our area that attract many outstanding local students. To meet the competition, we have worked with local K-12 teachers, developed additional programs to interest local 7-12 students, and worked closely with our majors to keep them in the program and help them succeed once they are recruited. This has required a cohesive effort on the part of our faculty and students that is constantly changing to meet new demands as our department has expanded in size and developed its research activities sometimes at the expense of

  14. TORUS2015: The AGN unification scheme after 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, P.; Hoenig, S. F.

    2015-09-01

    The torus paradigm has proved to be remarkably successful at unifying the observed zoo of active galaxy (AGN) classes, despite having many manifest holes. The field is still data-driven with novel observational results at multiple wavelengths emerging rapidly. We are only now beginning to map out the structure of dusty gas feeding and obscuring AGN, and to model its evolution in galaxy growth. But these have also brought out several apparently contradictory results which must hold the key to future progress. As we celebrate 30 years of the paradigm, this is the perfect time to draw together our current knowledge and reassess the state of the field. This will be an international workshop at the University of Southampton, UK, with the objective of laying out the major challenges to the field and paving future research directions. Our hope is to facilitate plenty of informal discussions between multiwavelength observers and theorists, addressing some key issues: * What is the main driver in the unification scheme? What are the roles of orientation, mass accretion rate and feedback? * What is the nature and structure of gas and dust in the torus? Do we have a self-consistent picture across multiple wavelengths? * How critical is the role of the torus as an interface between small nuclear scales and large galactic scales? Does galaxy evolution necessarily require tori? * How close are we to self-consistently simulating nuclear activity including AGN feeding and nuclear star-formation? Workshop Rationale The three themes of accretion, orientation, and evolution will be covered through invited and solicited contributions. Different to other conferences, we are building each session around some key papers that have shaped the field or those with great future potential to do so. We specifically pit competing ideas against each other to help painting a realistic picture of the state-of-the-art. Each session will end with discussion rounds delving into important future

  15. Paracrinicity: The Story of 30 Years of Cellular Pituitary Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Denef, C

    2008-01-01

    Living organisms represent, in essence, dynamic interactions of high complexity between membrane-separated compartments that cannot exist on their own, but reach behaviour in co-ordination. In multicellular organisms, there must be communication and co-ordination between individual cells and cell groups to achieve appropriate behaviour of the system. Depending on the mode of signal transportation and the target, intercellular communication is neuronal, hormonal, paracrine or juxtacrine. Cell signalling can also be self-targeting or autocrine. Although the notion of paracrine and autocrine signalling was already suggested more than 100 years ago, it is only during the last 30 years that these mechanisms have been characterised. In the anterior pituitary, paracrine communication and autocrine loops that operate during fetal and postnatal development in mammals and lower vertebrates have been shown in all hormonal cell types and in folliculo-stellate cells. More than 100 compounds have been identified that have, or may have, paracrine or autocrine actions. They include the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and γ-aminobutyric acid, peptides such as vasoactive intestinal peptide, galanin, endothelins, calcitonin, neuromedin B and melanocortins, growth factors of the epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, nerve growth factor and transforming growth factor-β families, cytokines, tissue factors such as annexin-1 and follistatin, hormones, nitric oxide, purines, retinoids and fatty acid derivatives. In addition, connective tissue cells, endothelial cells and vascular pericytes may influence paracrinicity by delivering growth factors, cytokines, heparan sulphate proteoglycans and proteases. Basement membranes may influence paracrine signalling through the binding of signalling molecules to heparan sulphate proteoglycans. Paracrine/autocrine actions are highly context-dependent. They are turned on/off when hormonal outputs need to be adapted to changing demands of

  16. Viscoelastic analysis of seals for extended service life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, Mark V.

    1993-01-01

    The space station is being developed for a service life of up to thirty years. As a consequence, the design requirements for the seals to be used are unprecedented. Full scale testing to assure the selected seals can satisfy the design requirements are not feasible. As an alternative, a sub-scale test program (2) has been developed by MSFC to calibrate the analysis tools to be used to certify the proposed design. This research has been conducted in support of the MSFC Integrated Seal Test Program. The ultimate objective of this research is to correlate analysis and test results to qualify the analytical tools which in turn, are to be used to qualify the flight hardware. Seals are simple devices, in wide spread use. The most common type of seal is the O-ring. O-ring seals are typically rings of rubber with a circular cross section. The rings are placed between the surfaces to be sealed, usually in a groove of some design. The particular design may differ based on a number of different factors. This research is focused on O-rings that are staticly compressed by perpendicular clamping forces, commonly referred to as face seals. In this type of seal the O-ring is clamped between the sealing surfaces by loads perpendicular to the circular cross section.

  17. Viscoelastic analysis of seals for extended service life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Mark V.

    1993-11-01

    The space station is being developed for a service life of up to thirty years. As a consequence, the design requirements for the seals to be used are unprecedented. Full scale testing to assure the selected seals can satisfy the design requirements are not feasible. As an alternative, a sub-scale test program (2) has been developed by MSFC to calibrate the analysis tools to be used to certify the proposed design. This research has been conducted in support of the MSFC Integrated Seal Test Program. The ultimate objective of this research is to correlate analysis and test results to qualify the analytical tools which in turn, are to be used to qualify the flight hardware. Seals are simple devices, in wide spread use. The most common type of seal is the O-ring. O-ring seals are typically rings of rubber with a circular cross section. The rings are placed between the surfaces to be sealed, usually in a groove of some design. The particular design may differ based on a number of different factors. This research is focused on O-rings that are staticly compressed by perpendicular clamping forces, commonly referred to as face seals. In this type of seal the O-ring is clamped between the sealing surfaces by loads perpendicular to the circular cross section.

  18. 30 year soil water trends along an elevation gradient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many of the issues associated with ongoing global climate change hinge on the impacts of the documented physical changes (e.g., rising temperature) on the ecological systems that sustain life. A primary interface between these two is the soil, where water and nutrients are stored for plant consumpti...

  19. Anorexia Nervosa: The Course of 15 Patients Treated From 20 to 30 Years Previously

    PubMed Central

    Farquharson, R. F.; Hyland, H. H.

    1966-01-01

    A follow-up study, after 20 to 30 years, of 15 patients with anorexia nervosa, formerly treated by the authors, revealed that only one patient failed to recover from the initial illness, and she ultimately became permanently incapacitated. Three patients have had neurotic symptoms periodically during the years following recovery, and one other became very thin in later life, but these four have been able to carry on fairly adequately for the most part. The remaining 10 patients have lived useful, well-adjusted lives, free of symptoms over the years. This study shows that despite the apparently severe emotional disturbances reflected in the marked physical changes that take place in young people suffering from this syndrome, a deep-rooted psychoneurotic or psychotic predisposition does not necessarily exist; the majority of the patients in this series recovered and remained well after relatively simple treatment. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:5902703

  20. Parent Involvement in Service Learning. Linking Learning with Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Cathryn Berger

    This guide focuses on the crucial role parents have regarding children and service. Section 1, developing a strategy for parent involvement, discusses parent support for service learning at school and parents' reinforcement of family participation in community service. Section 2, keeping parents informed, addresses three topics: information to…

  1. Sustaining the Image of Life: A Grounded Theory Study of Funeral Service Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sharen

    2012-01-01

    This grounded theory dissertation explores the educational experiences of funeral service students as they matriculate through the college of funeral service. Student interviews were utilized to explore the world of funeral service education. The analysis of the data led to the discovery of the theory, "Sustaining the Image of Life." The…

  2. Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome: 30 Years of Study

    PubMed Central

    Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome is one of the names that has been attached to one of the most common multiple anomaly syndromes in humans. The labels DiGeorge sequence, 22q11 deletion syndrome, conotruncal anomalies face syndrome, CATCH 22, and Sedlačková syndrome have all been attached to the same disorder. Velo-cardio-facial syndrome has an expansive phenotype with more than 180 clinical features described that involve essentially every organ and system. The syndrome has drawn considerable attention because a number of common psychiatric illnesses are phenotypic features including attention deficit disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. The expression is highly variable with some individuals being essentially normal at the mildest end of the spectrum, and the most severe cases having life-threatening and life-impairing problems. The syndrome is caused by a microdeletion from chromosome 22 at the q11.2 band. Although the large majority of affected individuals have identical 3 megabase deletions, less than 10% of cases have smaller deletions of 1.5 or 2.0 megabases. The 3 megabase deletion encompasses a region containing 40 genes. The syndrome has a population prevalence of approximately 1:2,000 in the U.S., although incidence is higher. Although initially a clinical diagnosis, today velo-cardio-facial syndrome can be diagnosed with extremely high accuracy by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and several other laboratory techniques. Clinical management is age dependent with acute medical problems such as congenital heart disease, immune disorders, feeding problems, cleft palate, and developmental disorders occupying management in infancy and preschool years. Management shifts to cognitive, behavioral, and learning disorders during school years, and then to the potential for psychiatric disorders including psychosis in late adolescence and adult years. Although the majority of people with velo-cardio-facial syndrome do not develop psychosis, the risk

  3. 30 years of HIV: what have we learned?

    PubMed

    Gazzard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    I saw my first patient with severe immune deficiency in 1979 - a very low CD4 count had been noted, but it was not until the first reports of an epidemic occurred in 1981 that the correct diagnosis was made. Subsequently, I have seen more than 15,000 patients with HIV-related immune deficiency, and my life has changed from helping terminally ill patients to die with dignity, in the early part of the epidemic to now providing drugs for an eminently treatable condition - a true miracle. I have a number of observations about the epidemic. Firstly, the courage with which many young people faced death and disablement was truly awe inspiring, and was the chief reason many of the earlier doctors treating these patients stayed in the field. Secondly, the role of activists was overwhelmingly positive forcing the epidemic to the top of the scientific and political agenda and keeping it there. It is also important that activism helped move an ethical agenda reducing the stigma of HIV infection and producing a liberal legal framework which allowed testing and treatment to be acceptable. The right of the world population to health as espoused by Jonathan Mann and others is also crucial. Thirdly, the combination of academic research, activist pressure (and scientific input) and mammon in the form of the pharmaceutical industry acting in concert produced knowledge which led to effective treatment in a breathtakingly short time. Particular tribute in my mind needs to be paid to the pharmaceutical companies in this regard. I believe that the scientific achievements of HIV research illustrate two things. First, science builds from one generation to the next and most (but not all of us) need to be humble about our personal contribution. Second, HIV treatment illustrates the primacy of well conducted randomized control trials. While cohort studies can add to our detailed knowledge of the epidemic, randomised controlled trials remain the cornerstone of most major advances. Fourthly

  4. Service needs and factors related to quality of life at time of service enrollment among persons living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Huba, G J; Melchior, L A; Cherin, D A; Steinberg, J; Smereck, G A; Richardson-Nassif, K; Reis, P; Meredith, K L; McDonald, S S; Larson, T A; Jean-Louis, E; German, V F; Gallagher, T; Brown, V B; Panter, A T; Marconi, K

    2000-01-01

    This article explores the relationships of HIV risk factors, service needs, and vulnerabilities to health-related quality of life in a sample of 1,371 participants newly enrolled into 13 innovative HIV/AIDS treatment model service demonstration projects. These projects targeted services to traditionally underserved populations. Eight distinct quality of life clusters of HIV patients were used in this analysis along with patient self-identified risk factors. The quality of life clusters were based on patient self-reported quality of life dimensions. The eight clusters were differentiated based on relative strengths and weaknesses in physical functioning, energy levels, and social functioning. Data on patient need-vulnerability factors and demographic characteristics were related to these eight clusters using the data modeling method of Exhaustive CHAID (Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector). Through this method, the characteristics most likely to be associated with higher and lower levels of quality of life at the time of enrollment into services were identified. The results provide further support that quality of life assessment is a useful clinical tool for monitoring patient progress. PMID:11211320

  5. From Energy Audits to Home Performance: 30 Years of Articles in Home Energy Magazine

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan

    2014-08-11

    Home Energy Magazine has been publishing articles about residential energy efficiency for 30 years. Its goal has been to disseminate technically reliable and neutral information to the practitioners, that is, professionals in the business of home energy efficiency. The articles, editorials, letters, and advertisements are a kind of window on the evolution of energy conservation technologies, policies, and organizations. Initially, the focus was on audits and simple retrofits, such as weatherstripping and insulation. Instrumentation was sparse sometimes limited to a ruler to measure depth of attic insulation and a blower door was exotic. CFLs were heavy, awkward bulbs which might, or might not, fit in a fixture. Saving air conditioning energy was not a priority. Solar energy was only for the most adventurous. Thirty years on, the technologies and business have moved beyond just insulating attics to the larger challenge of delivering home performance and achieving zero net energy. This shift reflects the success in reducing space heating energy and the need to create a profitable industry by providing more services. The leading edge of the residential energy services market is becoming much more sophisticated, offering both efficiency and solar systems. The challenge is to continue providing relevant and reliable information in a transformed industry and a revolutionized media landscape.

  6. Estimating the service life of thermal power equipment in accordance with the new national standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubov, A. A.

    2011-11-01

    A methodical approach for estimating the service life of thermal power equipment at thermal power stations in accordance with recommendations of the modern national standards is presented. The approach is intended for specialists of power stations, joint generating companies, territorial generating companies, expert organizations, etc. Experience gained with implementing the described methodical approach is considered taking estimation of the service life of steam pipeline bends as an example.

  7. Residual fatigue life of metallic materials with a long service life

    SciTech Connect

    Koupak, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of residual life is discussed as most widely used in assessing the additional resource of materials of power station structural elements after they have exceeded their calculated life. No methods have been developed which provide a highly reliable solution of numerical problems involved in determining the residual life of materials damaged in operation of steam-piping straight sections or their bends. Stuctural state of a material can not be predicted in time. The possibility of the use of the equation of linear summation for the evaluation of residual life is considered and presented.

  8. 7 CFR 625.8 - Compensation for easements and 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compensation for easements and 30-year contracts. 625.8 Section 625.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL... § 625.8 Compensation for easements and 30-year contracts. (a) Determination of easement payment...

  9. Assessment of Service Life for Regenerative ECLSS Resin Beds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cloud, Dale L.; Keilich, Maria C.; Polis, Peter C.; Yanczura, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) manage and process water at various levels of cleanliness for multiple purposes. The effluent of theWPA and the influent of the OGA require water at very high levels of purity. The bulk of the water purification that occurs in both systems is performed by consumable activated carbon and ion exchange resin beds. Replacement beds must be available on orbit in order to continue the ISS critical processes of water purification and oxygen generation. Various hurdles exist in order to ensure viable spare resin beds. These include the characteristics of resin beds such as: storage environment, shelf life requirements, microbial growth, and variations in the levels and species of contaminants the beds are required to remove. Careful consideration has been given to match water models, bed capacities and spares traffic models to ensure that spares are always viable. The results of these studies and considerations, in particular, how shelf life requirements affect resin bed life management, are documented in this paper.

  10. Music Service Teachers' Life Histories in the United Kingdom with Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David

    2005-01-01

    Music service teachers' biographies and occupational stages are discussed in this article. The life histories of 28 instrumental and vocal teachers, aged between 22 and 60 years, are explored. These individuals work for a Local Education Authority music service in the United Kingdom. Their occupation entails travelling between various state…

  11. Measuring the Effect of Tourism Services on Travelers' Quality of Life: Further Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Janet D.; Sirgy, M. Joseph; Uysal, Muzaffer

    2004-01-01

    lication and extension study provided additional validational support of the original tourism services satisfaction measure in relation to QOL-related measures.Neal, Sirgy and Uysal (1999) developed a model and a measure to capture the effect of tourism services on travelers' quality of life (QOL). They hypothesized that travelers' overall life…

  12. Measuring Service-Mindedness and Its Relationship with Spirituality and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pashak, Travis J.; Laughter, Tim C.

    2012-01-01

    A self-report measure of service-mindedness was designed in order to fill in a gap in the literature and evaluate a potential link between spirituality and satisfaction with life. A sample of 133 undergraduate students at a Catholic university in the Mid-west completed the Service-Mindedness Scale (SMS), along with the Spiritual Involvement and…

  13. Bring Learning to Life: What Is Service-Learning? A Guide for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Cathryn Berger

    2007-01-01

    Parental involvement is one of the most important factors in student success. This brochure, a companion piece to the Learn and Serve America video "Bring Learning to Life," provides information on the definition and benefits of service-learning as well as practical steps that parents can take to ensure service-learning is a part of their…

  14. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.730 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus... apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by the Commandant for the particular brand... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST...

  15. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.730 Servicing of...

  16. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.730 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus... apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by the Commandant for the particular brand... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST...

  17. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.730 Servicing of...

  18. Service Learning in Life-Span Developmental Psychology: Higher Exam Scores and Increased Empathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, Brenda L.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes research conducted to evaluate the impact of service learning on exam scores and emotional empathy in a life-span development course. Service learning was 1 of 3 project options offered in the course; others included an interview project and a research paper. With the exception of the first exam, scores were significantly…

  19. Leatherback nests increasing significantly in Florida, USA; trends assessed over 30 years using multilevel modeling.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kelly; Sims, Michelle; Meylan, Anne; Witherington, Blair; Brost, Beth; Crowder, Larry B

    2011-01-01

    Understanding population status for endangered species is critical to developing and evaluating recovery plans mandated by the Endangered Species Act. For sea turtles, changes in abundance are difficult to detect because most life stages occur in the water. Currently, nest counts are the most reliable way of assessing trends. We determined the rate of growth for leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) nest numbers in Florida (USA) using a multilevel Poisson regression. We modeled nest counts from 68 beaches over 30 years and, using beach-level covariates (including latitude), we allowed for partial pooling of information between neighboring beaches. This modeling approach is ideal for nest count data because it recognizes the hierarchical structure of the data while incorporating variables related to survey effort. Nesting has increased at all 68 beaches in Florida, with trends ranging from 3.1% to 16.3% per year. Overall, across the state, the number of nests has been increasing by 10.2% per year since 1979. Despite being a small population (probably < 1000 individuals), this nesting population may help achieve objectives in the federal recovery plan. This exponential growth rate mirrors trends observed for other Atlantic populations and may be driven partially by improved protection of nesting beaches. However, nesting is increasing even where beach protection has not been enhanced. Climate variability and associated marine food web dynamics, which could enhance productivity and reduce predators, may be driving this trend. PMID:21516903

  20. An Energy Based Fatigue Life Prediction Framework for In-Service Structural Components

    SciTech Connect

    H. Ozaltun; M. H.H. Shen; T. George; C. Cross

    2011-06-01

    An energy based fatigue life prediction framework has been developed for calculation of remaining fatigue life of in service gas turbine materials. The purpose of the life prediction framework is to account aging effect caused by cyclic loadings on fatigue strength of gas turbine engines structural components which are usually designed for very long life. Previous studies indicate the total strain energy dissipated during a monotonic fracture process and a cyclic process is a material property that can be determined by measuring the area underneath the monotonic true stress-strain curve and the sum of the area within each hysteresis loop in the cyclic process, respectively. The energy-based fatigue life prediction framework consists of the following entities: (1) development of a testing procedure to achieve plastic energy dissipation per life cycle and (2) incorporation of an energy-based fatigue life calculation scheme to determine the remaining fatigue life of in-service gas turbine materials. The accuracy of the remaining fatigue life prediction method was verified by comparison between model approximation and experimental results of Aluminum 6061-T6. The comparison shows promising agreement, thus validating the capability of the framework to produce accurate fatigue life prediction.

  1. James F. Crow: His Life in Public Service

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamson, Seymour

    2012-01-01

    The readers of this journal may well be aware of Professor Crow’s scientific achievements and his role as the editor of Perspectives. In addition, for many thousands of students at the University of Wisconsin over many generations, James F. Crow was one of the most memorable teachers at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. What is less known is his major role in public service where he served as chair of many important committees for the National Academy of Sciences, the National Institutes of Health, the National Institutes of Justice as well as various international programs. In all of these efforts, Professor Crow has left a lasting impact. PMID:22219505

  2. A Mobile Service Robot for Life Science Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulenburg, Erik; Elkmann, Norbert; Fritzsche, Markus; Teutsch, Christian

    In this paper we presents a project that is developing a mobile service robot to assist users in biological and pharmaceutical laboratories by executing routine jobs such as filling and transporting microplates. A preliminary overview of the design of the mobile platform with a robotic arm is provided. Safety aspects are one focus of the project since the robot and humans will share a common environment. Hence, several safety sensors such as laser scanners, thermographie components and artificial skin are employed. These are described along with the approaches to object recognition.

  3. A glimpse into 30 years of struggle against prostitution by the women's liberation movement in Norway.

    PubMed

    Strøm, Agnete

    2009-11-01

    The Women's Front of Norway has worked against prostitution for 30 years. In 2008 a law criminalizing the purchase of a sexual act was passed in Norway. This article describes the struggle and the main actors in lobbying for the law. In the 1980s, we raised awareness of prostitution and trafficking in women in a study of the pornography industry, and targeted sex tourist agencies organizing trips to the Philippines and Thailand. In the 1990s, our members in trade unions got their unions to take a stand against prostitution and against legalizing prostitution as "work". In 2006, the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions Congress supported a law criminalizing the buyer of a sexual act; this had a strong impact on the centre-left coalition Government. We invited leaders of the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women to Norway to meet parliamentarians and trade unionists, and kept up the pressure. From the start, the focus was on ensuring that the situation for women in prostitution was ameliorated. Our demands have been for better social services and job training. Street prostitution, especially in Oslo, has been curbed, and a growth in the indoor market has not been reported. Our next task is participating in the awareness campaign "Buying Sex is not a Sport" in connection with the Soccer World Cup, South Africa, 2010. PMID:19962635

  4. Integrating mental health services into primary HIV care for women: the Whole Life project.

    PubMed Central

    Dodds, Sally; Nuehring, Elane M.; Blaney, Nancy T.; Blakley, Theresa; Lizzotte, Jean-Marie; Lopez, Myriam; Potter, JoNell E.; O'Sullivan, Mary J.

    2004-01-01

    The high rate of mental health problems in HIV-infected women jeopardizes the health of this vulnerable population, and constitutes a mandate for integrating mental health services into HIV primary care. The Whole Life project-a collaboration of the departments of Psychiatry and Obstetrics/Gynecology at the University of Miami School of Medicine-successfully integrated mental health services into primary HIV care for women. This article describes the conceptual framework of the integration, implementation strategies, effects of the service integration, and lessons learned. Funded by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) as a Special Program of National Significance (SPNS), Whole Life efforts have been sustained beyond the demonstration funding period as a result of the changes brought about in organizational structures, service delivery, and the providers' conceptualization of health for HIV-infected women. PMID:15147649

  5. Service Life Extension of the Propulsion System of Long-Term Manned Orbital Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamath, Ulhas; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Spencer, Victor

    2014-01-01

    One of the critical non-replaceable systems of a long-term manned orbital station is the propulsion system. Since the propulsion system operates beginning with the launch of station elements into orbit, its service life determines the service life of the station overall. Weighing almost a million pounds, the International Space Station (ISS) is about four times as large as the Russian space station Mir and about five times as large as the U.S. Skylab. Constructed over a span of more than a decade with the help of over 100 space flights, elements and modules of the ISS provide more research space than any spacecraft ever built. Originally envisaged for a service life of fifteen years, this Earth orbiting laboratory has been in orbit since 1998. Some elements that have been launched later in the assembly sequence were not yet built when the first elements were placed in orbit. Hence, some of the early modules that were launched at the inception of the program were already nearing the end of their design life when the ISS was finally ready and operational. To maximize the return on global investments on ISS, it is essential for the valuable research on ISS to continue as long as the station can be sustained safely in orbit. This paper describes the work performed to extend the service life of the ISS propulsion system. A system comprises of many components with varying failure rates. Reliability of a system is the probability that it will perform its intended function under encountered operating conditions, for a specified period of time. As we are interested in finding out how reliable a system would be in the future, reliability expressed as a function of time provides valuable insight. In a hypothetical bathtub shaped failure rate curve, the failure rate, defined as the number of failures per unit time that a currently healthy component will suffer in a given future time interval, decreases during infant-mortality period, stays nearly constant during the service

  6. Service Life Extension of the Propulsion System of Long-Term Manned Orbital Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamath, Ulhas; Kuznetsov, Sergei; Shaevich, Sergey; Spencer, Victor

    2014-01-01

    One of the critical non-replaceable systems of a long-term manned orbital station is the propulsion system. Since the propulsion system operates beginning with the launch of station elements into orbit, its service life determines the service life of the station overall. Weighing almost a million pounds, the International Space Station (ISS) is about four times as large as the Russian space station Mir and about five times as large as the U.S. Skylab. Constructed over a span of more than a decade with the help of over 100 space flights, elements and modules of the ISS provide more research space than any spacecraft ever built. Originally envisaged for a service life of fifteen years, this Earth orbiting laboratory has been in orbit since 1998. Some elements that have been launched later in the assembly sequence were not yet built when the first elements were placed in orbit. Hence, some of the early modules that were launched at the inception of the program were already nearing the end of their design life when the ISS was finally ready and operational. To maximize the return on global investments on ISS, it is essential for the valuable research on ISS to continue as long as the station can be sustained safely in orbit. This paper describes the work performed to extend the service life of the ISS propulsion system. A system comprises of many components with varying failure rates. Reliability of a system is the probability that it will perform its intended function under encountered operating conditions, for a specified period of time. As we are interested in finding out how reliable a system would be in the future, reliability expressed as a function of time provides valuable insight. In a hypothetical bathtub shaped failure rate curve, the failure rate, defined as the number of failures per unit time that a currently healthy component will suffer in a given future time interval, decreases during infant-mortality period, stays nearly constant during the service

  7. Commemorating 30 Years of Service to the People of Appalachia. Special Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1995

    1995-01-01

    The Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) is a regional economic development agency representing a unique partnership of federal, state, and local governments. Established by an act of Congress in 1965, the Commission is composed of the governors of the 13 Appalachian states and a federal co-chairperson. Grassroots participation is provided by…

  8. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-08-24

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program, defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program, has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment placed in service have a working life in excess of this forecasted time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer and published literature. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, and the manufacturer's stated shelf life. This evaluation examines the manufacturer's certification of shelf life, the manufacturer's certifications of chemical compatibility with waste, and published literature on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials to evaluate transfer line service life.

  9. Accounting for ecosystem services in life cycle assessment, Part I: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Singh, Shweta; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2010-04-01

    If life cycle oriented methods are to encourage sustainable development, they must account for the role of ecosystem goods and services, since these form the basis of planetary activities and human well-being. This article reviews methods that are relevant to accounting for the role of nature and that could be integrated into life cycle oriented approaches. These include methods developed by ecologists for quantifying ecosystem services, by ecological economists for monetary valuation, and life cycle methods such as conventional life cycle assessment, thermodynamic methods for resource accounting such as exergy and emergy analysis, variations of the ecological footprint approach, and human appropriation of net primary productivity. Each approach has its strengths: economic methods are able to quantify the value of cultural services; LCA considers emissions and assesses their impact; emergy accounts for supporting services in terms of cumulative exergy; and ecological footprint is intuitively appealing and considers biocapacity. However, no method is able to consider all the ecosystem services, often due to the desire to aggregate all resources in terms of a single unit. This review shows that comprehensive accounting for ecosystem services in LCA requires greater integration among existing methods, hierarchical schemes for interpreting results via multiple levels of aggregation, and greater understanding of the role of ecosystems in supporting human activities. These present many research opportunities that must be addressed to meet the challenges of sustainability. PMID:20178382

  10. Secure Grid Services for Cooperative Work in Medicine and Life Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisbecker, Anette; Falkner, Jürgen

    MediGRID provides a grid infrastructure to solve challenging problems in medical and life sciences by enhancing the productivity and by enabling locationindependent, interdisciplinary collaboration. The usage of grid technology has enabled the development of new application and services for research in medical and life sciences. In order to enlarge the range of services and to get a broader range of users sustainable business models are needed. In Services@MediGRID methods for monitoring, accounting, and billing which fulfilled the high security demands within medicine and life sciences will be developed. Also different requirements of academic and industrial grid customers are considered in order to establish the sustainable business models for grid computing.

  11. Estimation of service life of grease in large size roller bearings{copyright}

    SciTech Connect

    Komatsuzaki, S.; Uematsu, T.

    1994-01-01

    In grease lubrication of bearings, it is very important to estimate the life of their greases as accurately as possible in order to avoid bearing seizure, or determine the appropriate time to replace the grease. Once seizure occurs, exchanging damaged large bearings is especially costly and time consuming. An investigation was made to find a time- and labor-saving, economical method of estimating the service life of greases based on their various properties. The service life of greases in large size roller bearings was estimated from their softening stability against thermal oxidative deterioration, and also from the results of the accelerated life tests with a reduced amount of lubricating grease. The estimation was verified by running a large size roller bearing with an inner diameter of 100 mm with a practical amount (250g) of grease until seizure occurred. 3 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. An Application of USLE and SEDD Models to Estimate the Remaining Service Life of Kartalkaya Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanyas, H.

    2013-12-01

    The water requirement of today's world is such a hot topic that countries all over the world are severely searching for different alternatives to keep pace with increasing water demand. However, when the increasing population and water demand are considered, management of existing water resources is arguably more important than searching for additional resources. The construction and utilization of engineering structures (e.g., dams) is often used in water resource management, however their service life are often not considered or properly planned in advance. As a consequence, because of these unplanned applications, the maximum potential water supply cannot be reached in watersheds, in other words, water sources are wasted. This research demonstrates that it is possible to forecast the service life of a dam more properly and also identifies some precautions regarding the potential sources that might cause the shortened service life. Kartalkaya Dam located in Turkey has been operating since 1972, was constructed with the aims of irrigation and flood prevention and is near the end of its service life. At this point, the first objective of this study was conducted, which determines the remaining service life of the dam with reference to the amount of material transported through the corresponding catchment area and the amount accumulated in the reservoir. This was accomplished using the Universal Soil Loss Equation simulated in ArcGIS. The amount of eroded material per year for each 25x25 m cell of study area was determined and as a consequence, the areas which are more prone to be eroded were defined. The ongoing second stage of the study, applies the sediment delivery distributed (SEDD) model and calculates the amount of material deposited during the operation period of the dam and is used to forecast the remaining service life of the Kartalkaya Dam.

  13. Perception of service satisfaction and quality of life of patients living with schizophrenia in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Afe, Taiwo Opekitan; Bello-Mojeed, Mashudat; Ogunsemi, Olawale

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess service-satisfaction and quality of life among patients with schizophrenia in a tertiary psychiatric healthcare facility in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 101 (out of 120) patients diagnosed with schizophrenia attending the outpatient clinic of the Federal Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnosis (SCID), Charleston Psychiatric Out-patient Scale (CPOSS), and the World-Health Organisation Quality of Life –Bref scale (WHOQOL-BREF) was used in assessing diagnosis, patient satisfaction and subjective quality of life respectively. Results: The ages of the patient ranged from 19-81. Males (49.5%) and females (50.5%) had almost equal distribution. Mean duration of attendance was 8.7years ± 8.50. Service satisfaction ranged between 25-60 on the CPOSS. Areas that had higher mean scores on CPOSS were with items (1) Helpfulness of the records clerk (3.70±1.1), (7) Helpfulness of services received (3.69±1.0). Subjective quality of life was high (3.65±1.8), satisfaction with health was also high (3.40±1.1). Service satisfaction correlated with Quality of life at P < 0.00. PMID:27114651

  14. [Quality of life in cryolite production workers depending on length of service].

    PubMed

    Kuz'min, S V; Khasanova, G N; Oranskiĭ, I E; Roslaia, N A

    2012-01-01

    Federal budgetary establishment of a science "the Ekaterinburg medical centre of science of preventive maintenance and health protection of workers industrial plants". Findings are that adaptation level and life quality parameters progressively decrease with longer length of service. The most unfavorable parameters are seen in cryolite production workers with length of service over 20 years and in age group of 45-55 years. Conclusion is that treatment and prevention are necessary. PMID:22997753

  15. Congenital lobar emphysema: 30-year case series in two university hospitals*

    PubMed Central

    Cataneo, Daniele Cristina; Rodrigues, Olavo Ribeiro; Hasimoto, Erica Nishida; Schmidt, Aurelino Fernandes; Cataneo, Antonio José Maria

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the cases of patients with congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) submitted to surgical treatment at two university hospitals over a 30-year period. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of children with CLE undergoing surgical treatment between 1979 and 2009 at the Botucatu School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas or the Mogi das Cruzes University Hospital. We analyzed data regarding symptoms, physical examination, radiographic findings, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and postoperative follow-up. RESULTS: During the period studied, 20 children with CLE underwent surgery. The mean age at the time of surgery was 6.9 months (range, 9 days to 4 years). All of the cases presented with symptoms at birth or during the first months of life. In all cases, chest X-rays were useful in defining the diagnosis. In cases of moderate respiratory distress, chest CT facilitated the diagnosis. One patient with severe respiratory distress was misdiagnosed with hypertensive pneumothorax and underwent chest tube drainage. Only patients with moderate respiratory distress were submitted to bronchoscopy, which revealed no tracheobronchial abnormalities. The surgical approach was lateral muscle-sparing thoracotomy. The left upper and middle lobes were the most often affected, followed by the right upper lobe. Lobectomy was performed in 18 cases, whereas bilobectomy was performed in 2 (together with bronchogenic cyst resection in 1 of those). No postoperative complications were observed. Postoperative follow-up time was at least 24 months (mean, 60 months), and no late complications were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Although CLE is an uncommon, still neglected disease of uncertain etiology, the radiological diagnosis is easily made and surgical treatment is effective. PMID:24068262

  16. Studying the possibility of extending the service life of VPT-50-4 turbines after long-term operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, S. N.; Sudakov, A. V.

    2012-03-01

    We describe the stages of works on examining the technical state and extending the service life of the main elements of steam turbines. As an example we analyze unique experience gained from activities performed from 1993 to 2010 for examining the technical state and determining the remaining service life of VPT-50-4 turbines operating under the same conditions at the same thermal power station with a view to extend their service life.

  17. Experiences of drug use and ageing: health, quality of life, relationship and service implications

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Brenda; Beynon, Caryl; Pickering, Lucy; Duffy, Paul

    2010-01-01

    roe b., beynon c., pickering l. & duffy p. (2010)Experiences of drug use and ageing: health, quality of life, relationship and service implications. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(9), 1968–1979. Aim This paper is a report of an exploration of older people’s experiences of substance use in the context of ageing, and its impact on health, quality of life, relationships and service use. Background Use of illicit drugs by older people is a neglected policy, research and service provision and is generally perceived as a lifestyle of younger populations. Method A convenience sample of 11 people aged 49–61 years (mean 57 years) in contact with voluntary sector drug treatment services participated in qualitative semi-structured tape-recorded interviews and thematic content analysis was performed. The data were collected in 2008. Findings Drug use can have negative impacts on health status, quality of life, family relationships and social networks that accrue with age. Participants were identified as early or later onset users of drugs due to the impact of life events and relationships. A range of substances had been used currently and throughout their lives, with no single gateway drug identified as a prelude to personal drug careers. Life review and reflection were common, in keeping with ageing populations, along with regret of ever having started to use drugs. Living alone and their accommodation made them more susceptible to social isolation, and they reported experiences of death and dying of their contemporaries and family members earlier than usual in the life course. Conclusion Older people who continue to use drugs and require the support of services for treatment and care are an important emerging population and their specific needs should recognized. PMID:20626477

  18. 30 years of upper air soundings on board of R/V POLARSTERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driemel, Amelie; Loose, Bernd; Grobe, Hannes; Sieger, Rainer; König-Langlo, Gert

    2016-06-01

    The research vessel and supply icebreaker POLARSTERN is the flagship of the Alfred-Wegener-Institut in Bremerhaven (Germany) and one of the infrastructural pillars of German Antarctic research. Since its commissioning in 1982, POLARSTERN has conducted 30 campaigns to Antarctica (157 legs, mostly austral summer), and 29 to the Arctic (94 legs, northern summer). Usually, POLARSTERN is more than 300 days per year in operation and crosses the Atlantic Ocean in a meridional section twice a year. The first radiosonde on POLARSTERN was released on the 29 December 1982, 2 days after POLARSTERN started on its maiden voyage to the Antarctic. And these daily soundings have continued up to the present. Due to the fact that POLARSTERN has reliably and regularly been providing upper air observations from data sparse regions (oceans and polar regions), the radiosonde data are of special value for researchers and weather forecast services alike. In the course of 30 years (29 December 1982 to 25 November 2012) a total of 12 378 radiosonde balloons were started on POLARSTERN. All radiosonde data can now be found at König-Langlo (2015, doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.810000). Each data set contains the directly measured parameters air temperature, relative humidity and air pressure, and the derived altitude, wind direction and wind speed. 432 data sets additionally contain ozone measurements.Although more sophisticated techniques (meteorological satellites, aircraft observation, remote-sensing systems, etc.) have nowadays become increasingly important, the high vertical resolution and quality of radiosonde data remains paramount for weather forecasts and modelling approaches.

  19. A 30-year history of earthquake crisis communication in California and lessons for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, L.

    2015-12-01

    The first statement from the US Geological Survey to the California Office of Emergency Services quantifying the probability of a possible future earthquake was made in October 1985 about the probability (approximately 5%) that a M4.7 earthquake located directly beneath the Coronado Bay Bridge in San Diego would be a foreshock to a larger earthquake. In the next 30 years, publication of aftershock advisories have become routine and formal statements about the probability of a larger event have been developed in collaboration with the California Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (CEPEC) and sent to CalOES more than a dozen times. Most of these were subsequently released to the public. These communications have spanned a variety of approaches, with and without quantification of the probabilities, and using different ways to express the spatial extent and the magnitude distribution of possible future events. The USGS is re-examining its approach to aftershock probability statements and to operational earthquake forecasting with the goal of creating pre-vetted automated statements that can be released quickly after significant earthquakes. All of the previous formal advisories were written during the earthquake crisis. The time to create and release a statement became shorter with experience from the first public advisory (to the 1988 Lake Elsman earthquake) that was released 18 hours after the triggering event, but was never completed in less than 2 hours. As was done for the Parkfield experiment, the process will be reviewed by CEPEC and NEPEC (National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council) so the statements can be sent to the public automatically. This talk will review the advisories, the variations in wording and the public response and compare this with social science research about successful crisis communication, to create recommendations for future advisories

  20. Fatigue life prediction under service load considering strengthening effect of loads below fatigue limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lihui; Zheng, Songlin; Feng, Jinzhi

    2014-11-01

    Lightweight design requires an accurate life prediction for structures and components under service loading histories. However, predicted life with the existing methods seems too conservative in some cases, leading to a heavy structure. Because these methods are established on the basis that load cycles would only cause fatigue damage, ignore the strengthening effect of loads. Based on Palmgren-Miner Rule (PMR), this paper introduces a new method for fatigue life prediction under service loadings by taking into account the strengthening effect of loads below the fatigue limit. In this method, the service loadings are classified into three categories: damaging load, strengthening load and none-effect load, and the process for fatigue life prediction is divided into two stages: stage I and stage II, according to the best strengthening number of cycles. During stage I, fatigue damage is calculated considering both the strengthening and damaging effect of load cycles. While during stage II, only the damaging effect is considered. To validate this method, fatigue lives of automobile half shaft and torsion beam rear axle are calculated based on the new method and traditional methods, such as PMR and Modified Miner Rule (MMR), and fatigue tests of the two components are conducted under service loading histories. The tests results show that the percentage errors of the predicted life with the new method to mean life of tests for the two components are -3.78% and -1.76% separately, much lesser than that with PMR and MMR. By considering the strengthening effect of loads below the fatigue limit, the new method can significantly improve the accuracy for fatigue life prediction. Thus lightweight design can be fully realized in the design stage.

  1. Fatigue life prediction under service load considering strengthening effect of loads below fatigue limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lihui; Zheng, Songlin; Feng, Jinzhi

    2014-09-01

    Lightweight design requires an accurate life prediction for structures and components under service loading histories. However, predicted life with the existing methods seems too conservative in some cases, leading to a heavy structure. Because these methods are established on the basis that load cycles would only cause fatigue damage, ignore the strengthening effect of loads. Based on Palmgren-Miner Rule (PMR), this paper introduces a new method for fatigue life prediction under service loadings by taking into account the strengthening effect of loads below the fatigue limit. In this method, the service loadings are classified into three categories: damaging load, strengthening load and none-effect load, and the process for fatigue life prediction is divided into two stages: stage I and stage II, according to the best strengthening number of cycles. During stage I, fatigue damage is calculated considering both the strengthening and damaging effect of load cycles. While during stage II, only the damaging effect is considered. To validate this method, fatigue lives of automobile half shaft and torsion beam rear axle are calculated based on the new method and traditional methods, such as PMR and Modified Miner Rule (MMR), and fatigue tests of the two components are conducted under service loading histories. The tests results show that the percentage errors of the predicted life with the new method to mean life of tests for the two components are -3.78% and -1.76% separately, much lesser than that with PMR and MMR. By considering the strengthening effect of loads below the fatigue limit, the new method can significantly improve the accuracy for fatigue life prediction. Thus lightweight design can be fully realized in the design stage.

  2. Method and apparatus to predict the remaining service life of an operating system

    DOEpatents

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Terrones, Kristine M.; Maynard, Melody A.; Pawlowski, Ronald A. , Ferryman; Thomas A.; Skorpik, James R.; Wilson, Bary W.

    2008-11-25

    A method and computer-based apparatus for monitoring the degradation of, predicting the remaining service life of, and/or planning maintenance for, an operating system are disclosed. Diagnostic information on degradation of the operating system is obtained through measurement of one or more performance characteristics by one or more sensors onboard and/or proximate the operating system. Though not required, it is preferred that the sensor data are validated to improve the accuracy and reliability of the service life predictions. The condition or degree of degradation of the operating system is presented to a user by way of one or more calculated, numeric degradation figures of merit that are trended against one or more independent variables using one or more mathematical techniques. Furthermore, more than one trendline and uncertainty interval may be generated for a given degradation figure of merit/independent variable data set. The trendline(s) and uncertainty interval(s) are subsequently compared to one or more degradation figure of merit thresholds to predict the remaining service life of the operating system. The present invention enables multiple mathematical approaches in determining which trendline(s) to use to provide the best estimate of the remaining service life.

  3. Using the International Classification of Functioning to Conceptualize Quality of Life among Rehabilitation Services Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Allison R.; Leahy, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers and policy makers have proposed that quality of life (QOL) is an important and useful way to measure the impact of services, although practical application of QOL in rehabilitation has been limited. In this study, a comprehensive framework (the International Classification of Functioning [ICF]) is used to compare the relationship…

  4. Human Services and Community Life in Rural New York State: An Action Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Legislative Commission on Rural Resources, Albany.

    Participants in a symposium concerned with issues affecting rural New York State identified strengths and weaknesses and suggested policy in relation to three broad goals in the area of human services and community life: (1) increase community awareness of problems affecting rural localities, including the causes and effects of crime, violence,…

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life of Rural Clients Seeking Telepsychology Services

    PubMed Central

    Tarlow, Kevin R.; McCord, Carly E.; Elliott, Timothy R.; Brossart, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    Sixty million US residents live in rural areas, but health policies and interventions developed from an urban mindset often fail to address the significant barriers to health experienced by these local communities. Telepsychology, or psychological services delivered by distance via technology, is an emerging treatment modality with special implications for underserved rural areas. This study found that a sample of rural residents seeking telepsychology services (n = 94) had low health-related quality of life (HRQOL), often due to cooccurring physical and mental health diagnoses including high rates of depression. However, a brief telepsychology treatment delivered to rural clients (n = 40) was associated with an improvement in mental health-related quality of life (d = 0.70, P < .001). These results indicate that despite the complex health needs of these underserved communities, telepsychology interventions may help offset the disparities in health service access in rural areas. PMID:25505906

  6. A perspective on 30 years of progress in ambient noise: Source mechanisms and the characteristics of the sound field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cato, Douglas H.

    2012-11-01

    The last 30 years has seen substantial progress in ocean ambient noise research, particularly in understanding the mechanisms of sound generation by the sources of ambient noise, the way in which the noise field is affected by sound propagation, and improvements in quantifying the relationship between noise and environmental parameters. This has led to significant improvements in noise prediction. Activity was probably strongest in the 1980s and 1990s, as evident, for example, in the Sea Surface Sound conferences and their published proceedings (four over 10 years). Although much of the application has been to sonar, there has also been interest in using ambient noise to measure properties of the environment and in its significance to marine life. There have been significant changes in the ambient noise itself over the last 30 years. The contribution from human activities appears to have increased, particularly that due to increases in shipping numbers. Biological noise has also increased with the significant increases in populations of some whale species following the cessation of broad scale whaling in the 1960s and early 1970s. Concern about the effects of noise on marine animals as well as the way they exploit the noise has led to renewed interest in ambient noise.

  7. Collaborative Science Learning in Three-Dimensional Immersive Virtual Worlds: Pre-Service Teachers' Experiences in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussli, Natalie; Oh, Kevin; McCandless, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to help pre-service teachers experience and evaluate the potential of Second Life, a three-dimensional immersive virtual environment, for potential integration into their future teaching. By completing collaborative assignments in Second Life, nineteen pre-service general education teachers explored an…

  8. How will Climate Change Affect Agriculture over the Next 10-30 Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture is dependent upon the climate resources of temperature, sunlight, precipitation, and carbon dioxide. Efficient production depends upon optimum conditions of temperature and water supply and changes in these climatic variables will affect plant and animal systems over the next 10- 30 year...

  9. Recovering from 30 Years of War: Refugee Women and Children in Angola.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, New York, NY.

    After 30 years of war, Angola faces the challenge of creating a civil society. This report presents key findings of a visit to Angola, December 1-13, 1996, by the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. The report describes conditions facing women and children affected by war in Angola, addresses the return process of refugees from…

  10. Physical Performance of Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A 30-Year Follow up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahtinen, Ulla; Rintala, Pauli; Malin, Antero

    2007-01-01

    Physical performance of Finnish adolescents (33 females, 44 males) with moderate intellectual disability (ID) was studied over a 30-year period. This study is an extension of Lahtinen's previous work on documenting the performance of individuals with intellectual disabilities over time. This study consisted of analyzing data from a total of four…

  11. Planting Misinformation in the Human Mind: A 30-Year Investigation of the Malleability of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2005-01-01

    The misinformation effect refers to the impairment in memory for the past that arises after exposure to misleading information. The phenomenon has been investigated for at least 30 years, as investigators have addressed a number of issues. These include the conditions under which people are especially susceptible to the negative impact of…

  12. Leadership and Change in Schools: Personal Reflections over the Last 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seashore, Karen R.

    2009-01-01

    The two fields of leadership studies and school change have increasingly converged over the last 30 years. This paper reviews the origins of the intersection, and the development of research themes in three areas: The role of leaders in shaping and using organizational culture, the agency of teachers in the change process, and the importance of…

  13. Educational Co-operation in Asia and the Pacific: 30 Years of NIER's Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Ryo, Ed.; Numano, Taro, Ed.; Nagata, Yoshiyuki, Ed.

    The history of the regional cooperation program of the National Institute for Educational Research (NIER) is recorded in this document. Specifically, the report outlines the past 30 years of the program in Asia and the Pacific. Throughout those years, 93 seminars, workshops, and symposia have been organized. In addition, information about the…

  14. Studies Using Single-Subject Designs in Sport Psychology: 30 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, G. L.; Thompson, K.; Regehr, K.

    2004-01-01

    A prominent feature of behavior-analytic research has been the use of single-subject designs. We examined sport psychology journals and behavioral journals published during the past 30 years, and located 40 studies using single-subject designs to assess interventions for enhancing the performance of athletes and coaches. In this paper, we…

  15. Great Expectations: Creative Achievements of the Sociometric Stars in a 30-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrance, E. Paul

    2004-01-01

    The creative achievements and characteristics of a group of ten high school students identified as the most creative by their high school peers were compared to those of ten participants from the same group who had the greatest number of publicly recognized creative achievements approximately 30 years later (Sociometric Stars vs. Beyonders).…

  16. Philosophic Thinking in Social Work: An Analysis of 30 Years of "Social Work" Editorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Brawley, Emilia E.; Zorita, Paz M-B

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at 30 years of editorial perspectives and trends in social work as a profession through the analysis of editorials from the journal "Social Work." It identifies the wax and wane of philosophic (intellectual or scholarly) questions in social work thinking in the past three decades. It defines what philosophic thinking…

  17. Factors in African Americans Pursuing Higher Education after Age 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Davetta A.

    2011-01-01

    Many African Americans are leaving high school prior to graduation and are entering college for the first time beyond the age of 30 years, a phenomenon that has an effect on school systems, the community, and society as a whole. The research problem addressed was the need to understand the experience of an increasing number of African Americans…

  18. Challenges Facing Rural Community Colleges: Issues and Problems Today and over the Past 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Kevin; Williams, Mitchell R.; Karvonen, Meagan

    2006-01-01

    For over 30 years, researchers and practitioners have identified challenges unique to small, rural community colleges. The purpose of this study was to examine the distinctive problems facing rural community colleges today and the challenges those institutions must address to fulfill their mission in rural America. There are 5 current challenges…

  19. "Fear of Success" Revisited: A Replication of Matina Horner's Study 30 Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Jennifer

    This study updated and extended the classic "fear of success" study conducted by Matina Horner more than 30 years ago. Horner (1970) asked college students to respond to a scenario in which "Anne" or "John" is at the top of her/his medical school class. Based on the negative responses of students to "Anne," Horner concluded that women have a…

  20. 7 CFR 1467.8 - Compensation for easements and 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compensation for easements and 30-year contracts. 1467.8 Section 1467.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS...

  1. 7 CFR 1467.11 - Easement and 30-year contract participation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Easement and 30-year contract participation requirements. 1467.11 Section 1467.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS...

  2. Bullying in Childhood, Externalizing Behaviors, and Adult Offending: Evidence from a 30-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the developmental processes linking childhood bullying to criminal offending in adulthood, using data from a 30-year longitudinal study. The linkages between bullying in childhood and three criminal offending outcomes in adulthood were estimated both before and after control for a range of confounding factors. A series of…

  3. Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm found after mitral valve replacement performed 30 years earlier.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Elena; Gato, Manuel; Ruiz, José Ramón

    2010-03-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle (LV) is a rare cardiac disease that occurs after myocardial infarction or cardiac surgery. Because patients frequently present with nonspecific symptoms, a high index of suspicion is needed to make the diagnosis. This report describes an unusual case demonstrating a large LV pseudoaneurysm after mitral valve replacement performed 30 years earlier. PMID:20197588

  4. Is 30 Years of Age Over-the-Hill for Outdoor Professionals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Liz

    2012-01-01

    The author is now 30 years old. For more than a decade, she has been paid to facilitate an array of outdoor-based programming with varying groups of participants. With such breadth of experience, she frequently feels like she is a valuable asset to the organizations for which she works. However, at recent staff training and trip preparation days,…

  5. Life in acute mental health settings: experiences and perceptions of service users and nurses.

    PubMed

    Rose, D; Evans, J; Laker, C; Wykes, T

    2015-02-01

    Background. Acute psychiatric provision in the UK today as well as globally has many critics including service users and nurses. Method. Four focus groups, each meeting twice, were held separately for service users and nurses. The analysis was not purely inductive but driven by concerns with the social position of marginalised groups - both patients and staff. Results. The main themes were nurse/patient interaction and coercion. Service users and nurses conceptualised these differently. Service users found nurses inaccessible and uncaring, whereas nurses also felt powerless because their working life was dominated by administration. Nurses saw coercive situations as a reasonable response to factors 'internal' to the patient whereas for service users they were driven to extreme behaviour by the environment of the ward and coercive interventions were unnecessary and heavy handed. Conclusion. This study sheds new light on living and working in acute mental health settings today by comparing the perceptions of service users and nurses and deploying service user and nurse researchers. The intention is to promote better practice by providing a window on the perceptions of both groups. PMID:24330951

  6. A Comparison of Quality of Life Outcomes for People with Intellectual Disabilities in Supported Employment, Day Services and Employment Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Stephen; Brown, Tony; Akandi, Rachel; Rapley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Background: Policy objectives for people with intellectual disabilities include day service modernization and the promotion of paid employment and quality of life. Quality of life is under represented as an outcome measure in vocational research. This research compares subjective and objective quality of life, and quality of work environment for…

  7. A Dialogue of Life: Integrating Service Learning in a Community-Immersion Model of Preservice Science-Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handa, Vicente; Tippins, Deborah; Thomson, Norman; Bilbao, Purita; Morano, Lourdes; Hallar, Brittan; Miller, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    Dubbed a "dialogue of life," community immersion in preservice science-teacher education aims at providing a true-to-life and empowering opportunity for prospective science teachers (both elementary and secondary) to become active participants in community life through field and service-learning experiences. It consists of a three-unit course with…

  8. International Space Station Bacteria Filter Element Post-Flight Testing and Service Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.; von Jouanne, R. G.; Turner, E. H.

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station uses high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters to remove particulate matter from the cabin atmosphere. Known as Bacteria Filter Elements (BFEs), there are 13 elements deployed on board the ISS's U.S. Segment. The pre-flight service life prediction of 1 year for the BFEs is based upon performance engineering analysis of data collected during developmental testing that used a synthetic dust challenge. While this challenge is considered reasonable and conservative from a design perspective, an understanding of the actual filter loading is required to best manage the critical ISS Program resources. Thus testing was conducted on BFEs returned from the ISS to refine the service life prediction. Results from this testing and implications to ISS resource management are discussed. Recommendations for realizing significant savings to the ISS Program are presented.

  9. The Videofil probe, a novel instrument to extend the coke oven service life

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillet, J.P.; Isler, D.

    1997-12-31

    To prolong the service life of coke oven batteries, the Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau developed the Videofil probe, a novel instrument to conduct diagnoses and to help repair operations of coke ovens. The Videofil probe is a flexible non-water-cooled endoscope which is used to locate flue wall damage and estimate its importance, to define the oven zones to repair and guide the repair work and to control the quality of the repair work and its durability.

  10. Managing the equipment service life in rendering engineering support to NPP operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryasnyy, S. I.

    2015-05-01

    Apart from subjecting metal to nondestructive testing and determining its actual state, which are the traditional methods used for managing the service life of NPP equipment during its operation, other approaches closely linked with rendering engineering support to NPP operation have emerged in recent decades, which, however, have been covered in publications to a lesser extent. Service life management matters occupy the central place in the structure of engineering support measures. Application of the concept of repairing NPP equipment based on assessing its technical state and the risk of its failure makes it possible to achieve significantly smaller costs for maintenance and repairs and produce a larger amount of electricity due to shorter planned outages. Decreasing the occurrence probability of a process-related abnormality through its prediction is a further development of techniques for monitoring the technical state of equipment and systems. The proposed and implemented procedure for predicting the occurrence of process-related deviations from normal NPP operation opens the possibility to record in the online mode the trends in changes of process parameters that are likely to lead to malfunctions in equipment operation and to reduce the probability of power unit unloading when an abnormal technical state of equipment occurs and develops by recording changes in the state at an early stage and taking timely corrective measures. The article presents the structure of interconnections between the objectives and conditions of adjustment and commissioning tests, in which the management of equipment service life (saving and optimizing the service life) occupies the central place. Special attention is paid to differences in resource saving and optimization measures.

  11. A method for predicting service life of zinc rich primers on carbon steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppesch, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    The service life of zinc rich primers on carbon steel can be estimated by immersing a primer coated glass slide into an aqueous copper sulfate solution and measuring the amount of zinc that reacts with the copper in 15 minutes. This zinc availability test was used to evaluate eleven primers currently available for which marine beach exposure data was available from previous programs. Results were evaluated and a correlation between zinc availability and ASTM rust grade was shown.

  12. SMART-OLEV—An orbital life extension vehicle for servicing commercial spacecrafts in GEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Clemens; Sjöberg, Fredrik; Delcura, Juan Manuel; Eilertsen, Baard

    2008-07-01

    Orbital Satellite Services Limited (OSSL) is a satellite servicing company that is developing an orbit life extension vehicle (OLEV) to extend the operational lifetime of geostationary satellites. The industrial consortium of SSC (Sweden), Kayser-Threde (Germany) and Sener (Spain) is in charge to develop and industrialize the space and ground segment. It is a fully commercial program with support of several space agencies during the development phase. The business plan is based on life extension for high value commercial satellites while also providing the satellite operators with various fleet management services such as graveyard burns, slot transfers and on orbit protection against replacement satellite or launch failures. The OLEV spacecraft will be able to dock with a geostationary satellite and uses an electrical propulsion system to extend its life by taking over the attitude control and station keeping functions. The OLEV system is building on the SMART-1 platform developed by Swedish Space Corporation. It was developed for ESA as a technology test-bed to demonstrate the use of electrical propulsion for interplanetary orbit transfer manoeuvres. The concept is called SMART-OLEV and takes advantage of the low cost, low mass SMART-1 platform by a maximum use of recurrent platform technology.

  13. Analysis and modeling of hot extrusion die for its service life enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, Syed Sohail

    Aluminum extrusion finds extensive application in the construction, automobile and aerospace industries. High pressures, elevated temperatures, complex and intricate section geometries lead to repeated mechanical and thermal stresses in the die and affiliated tooling. Product rework and rejects can be traced back to various defects spread over the die life cycle: die design, die manufacture and heat treatment, process parameters, inprocess die maintenance/correction and, billet type and quality. Therefore, improved and efficient service life of die and related tooling used in the extrusion press is one the most important factors in maximizing productivity and minimizing cost for ensuring the economical efficiency of an aluminum extrusion plant. How often a die has to be scrapped and replaced with a new one directly contributes to the commercial viability of producing a certain profile. The focus of the current work is on three distinct yet inter-related studies pertaining to the improvement of aluminum extrusion die. Study-A (Die Failure Analysis) is an investigation of various modes and critical failure types based on industrial data (Chapter-2 ), examination of failed dies and finite element simulation for identification of critical process parameters and design features in die fatigue-life (Chapter-3). In Study-B (Die Surface Hardening Treatment), two-stage controlled gas nitriding process for H13 steel is evaluated, both experimentally and numerically, in terms of nitrided case morphology and properties (Chapter-4) followed by experimental and numerical investigation of the effects of repeated nitriding (Chapter-5), pre-nitriding surface preparation (Chapter-6) and die profile geometry (Chapter-7) on nitriding performance in regard to die service life. In Study-C (Effect of Billet Quality on Die Life), the effect of billet quality and related influencing extrusion parameters on the die service life is investigated based on industrial data and some regression

  14. Software and information life cycle (SILC) for the Integrated Information Services Organization

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, D.; Cassidy, A.; Cuyler, D.; Eaton, S.; Joyce, S.; Kephart, E.; Thurston, I.; Schofield, J.; Knirk, D.

    1995-12-01

    This document describes the processes to be used for creating corporate information systems within the scope of the Integrated Information Services (IIS) Center. Issue B describes all phases of the life cycle, with strong emphasis on the interweaving of the Analysis and Design phases. This Issue B supersedes Issue A, which concentrated on the Analysis and Implementation phases within the context of the entire life cycle. Appendix A includes a full set of examples of the deliverables, excerpted from the Network Database. Subsequent issues will further develop these life cycle processes as we move toward enterprise-level management of information assets, including information meta-models and an integrated corporate information model. The phases described here, when combined with a specifications repository, will provide the basis for future reusable components and improve traceability of information system specifications to enterprise business rules.

  15. Protection of Military Personnel Against Vector-Borne Diseases: A Review of Collaborative Work of the Australian and US Military Over the Last 30 Years.

    PubMed

    Frances, Stephen P; Edstein, Michael D; Debboun, Mustapha; Shanks, G Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Australian and US military medical services have collaborated since World War II to minimize vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, and scrub typhus. In this review, collaboration over the last 30 years is discussed. The collaborative projects and exchange scientist programs have resulted in mutually beneficial outcomes in the fields of drug development and personal protection measures against vector-borne diseases. PMID:27613205

  16. Associations of Quality of Life with Service Satisfaction in Psychotic Patients: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Petkari, Eleni; Pietschnig, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QoL) has gained increasing attention as a desired outcome of psychosocial treatments targeting psychotic patients. Yet, the relationship between the patients’ satisfaction with services and QoL has not been clearly established, perhaps due to the multidimensionality of the QoL concept and the variability in its assessment. Aim This is the first systematic meta-analysis of all available evidence assessing the relationship between QoL and service satisfaction. Methods: In all, 19 studies reporting data of 21 independent samples (N = 5,337) were included in the present meta-analysis. In moderator analyses, effects of age, sex, diagnoses (schizophrenia vs. other psychoses), treatment context (inpatients vs. outpatients), study design (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal), and QoL domain (subjective vs. health-related) were examined. Results Analyses revealed a highly significant medium-sized effect (r = .30, p < .001) for the associations of QoL and service satisfaction. Effect sizes were significantly stronger for subjective than health-related quality of life (r = .35 vs. r = .14, respectively). Moreover, associations with subjective QoL remained largely robust when accounting for moderating variables, although there was a trend of stronger associations for outpatients compared to inpatients. In contrast, effect sizes for health-related QoL were small and only observable for samples with longitudinal designs. Conclusion Associations between QoL and service satisfaction appear to be robust but are differentiated in regard to QoL domain. Our findings suggest that agents responsible for service design and implementation need to take the patients’ perception of the service adequacy for achieving QoL enhancement into account. PMID:26275139

  17. Revisiting 30 years of biofunctionalization and surface chemistry of inorganic nanoparticles for nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Conde, João; Dias, Jorge T.; Grazú, Valeria; Moros, Maria; Baptista, Pedro V.; de la Fuente, Jesus M.

    2014-01-01

    In the last 30 years we have assisted to a massive advance of nanomaterials in material science. Nanomaterials and structures, in addition to their small size, have properties that differ from those of larger bulk materials, making them ideal for a host of novel applications. The spread of nanotechnology in the last years has been due to the improvement of synthesis and characterization methods on the nanoscale, a field rich in new physical phenomena and synthetic opportunities. In fact, the development of functional nanoparticles has progressed exponentially over the past two decades. This work aims to extensively review 30 years of different strategies of surface modification and functionalization of noble metal (gold) nanoparticles, magnetic nanocrystals and semiconductor nanoparticles, such as quantum dots. The aim of this review is not only to provide in-depth insights into the different biofunctionalization and characterization methods, but also to give an overview of possibilities and limitations of the available nanoparticles. PMID:25077142

  18. Forecasting California's earthquakes: What can we expect in the next 30 years?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, Edward H.; Milner, Kevin R.; The 2007 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities

    2008-01-01

    In a new comprehensive study, scientists have determined that the chance of having one or more magnitude 6.7 or larger earthquakes in the California area over the next 30 years is greater than 99%. Such quakes can be deadly, as shown by the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta and the 1994 magnitude 6.7 Northridge earthquakes. The likelihood of at least one even more powerful quake of magnitude 7.5 or greater in the next 30 years is 46%?such a quake is most likely to occur in the southern half of the State. Building codes, earthquake insurance, and emergency planning will be affected by these new results, which highlight the urgency to prepare now for the powerful quakes that are inevitable in California?s future.

  19. Revisiting 30 years of biofunctionalization and surface chemistry of inorganic nanoparticles for nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Conde, João; Dias, Jorge T; Grazú, Valeria; Moros, Maria; Baptista, Pedro V; de la Fuente, Jesus M

    2014-01-01

    In the last 30 years we have assisted to a massive advance of nanomaterials in material science. Nanomaterials and structures, in addition to their small size, have properties that differ from those of larger bulk materials, making them ideal for a host of novel applications. The spread of nanotechnology in the last years has been due to the improvement of synthesis and characterization methods on the nanoscale, a field rich in new physical phenomena and synthetic opportunities. In fact, the development of functional nanoparticles has progressed exponentially over the past two decades. This work aims to extensively review 30 years of different strategies of surface modification and functionalization of noble metal (gold) nanoparticles, magnetic nanocrystals and semiconductor nanoparticles, such as quantum dots. The aim of this review is not only to provide in-depth insights into the different biofunctionalization and characterization methods, but also to give an overview of possibilities and limitations of the available nanoparticles. PMID:25077142

  20. Trends in global monsoon area and precipitation over the past 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pang-chi; Li, Tim; Wang, Bin

    2011-04-01

    The analysis of the GPCP and CMAP datasets during the past 30 years (1979-2008) indicates that there are consistent increasing trends in both the global monsoon area (GMA) and the global monsoon total precipitation (GMP). This positive monsoon rainfall trend differs from previous studies that assumed a fixed global monsoon domain. Due to the increasing trends in both the GMA and GMP, a global monsoon intensity (GMI) index, which measures the global monsoon precipitation amount per unit area, is introduced. The GMI measures the strength of the global monsoon. Our calculations with both the GPCP and CMAP datasets show a consistent downward trend in the GMI over the past 30 years. This decreasing trend is primarily attributed to a greater percentage increase in the GMA than in the GMP. A further diagnosis reveals that the decrease of the GMI is primarily attributed to the land monsoon in the GPCP, but to the oceanic monsoon in the CMAP.

  1. Stem Cell Therapy for the Treatment of Hip Osteonecrosis: A 30-Year Review of Progress

    PubMed Central

    Trousselier, Matthieu; Roubineau, François; Bouthors, Charlie; Chevallier, Nathalie; Rouard, Helene; Flouzat-Lachaniette, Charles-Henri

    2016-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is caused by a multitude of etiologic factors and is associated with collapse with a risk of hip arthroplasty in younger populations. A focus on early disease management with the use of stem cells was proposed as early as 1985 by the senior author (PH). We undertook a systematic review of the medical literature to examine the progress in cell therapy during the last 30 years for the treatment of early stage osteonecrosis. PMID:26929793

  2. The Right Gastroepiploic Artery Graft for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A 30-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Suma, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Throughout its 30-year history, the right gastroepiploic artery (GEA) has been useful for in situ grafts in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The early graft patency rate is high, and the late patency rate has improved by using the skeletonized GEA graft and proper target selection, which involves having a target coronary artery with a tight >90% stenosis. Total arterial revascularization with the internal thoracic artery and GEA grafts is an option for achieving better outcomes from CABG procedures. PMID:27525230

  3. Studies using single-subject designs in sport psychology: 30 years of research

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Garry L.; Thompson, Kendra; Regehr, Kaleigh

    2004-01-01

    A prominent feature of behavior-analytic research has been the use of single-subject designs. We examined sport psychology journals and behavioral journals published during the past 30 years, and located 40 studies using single-subject designs to assess interventions for enhancing the performance of athletes and coaches. In this paper, we summarize that body of research, discuss its strengths and limitations, and identify areas for future research. PMID:22478434

  4. A new model of Tidal EOP variations from VLBI data spanning 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gipson, John M.; Ray, Richard D.

    2009-04-01

    We report on a new solution for tidal EOP variations derived from VLBI data. This solution uses approximately 6.5 million VLBI delay measurements spanning almost 30 years, and is the most precise VLBI solution to date. We compare this solution to earlier VLBI solutions, solutions from other techniques, and theoretical predictions. We give theoretical and empirical estimates of the error of the estimates. We also compare the predictions from the VLBI tidal solution with hourly VLBI and GPS measurements of EOP.

  5. Validation of a high-resolution precipitation database (CHIRPS) over Cyprus for a 30-year period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsanos, Dimitrios; Retalis, Adrianos; Michaelides, Silas

    2016-03-01

    A study for a 30-year period (1981-2010) for a new precipitation database is performed over the island of Cyprus. Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS) is a more than 30-year quasi-global rainfall dataset, spanning 50°S-50°N (and all longitudes). Starting in 1981 to near-present, CHIRPS incorporates 0.05° resolution satellite imagery with in situ station data to create gridded rainfall time series. In this study, CHIRPS database is firstly compared to other precipitation databases over the Mediterranean basin. In the following, this study focuses over Cyprus, where a dense and reliable network of rain gauges is available. CHIRPS data are compared for the first time with in situ measurements in this area, for the aforementioned 30-year period. Monthly and annual comparisons are presented for each of the 0.05 × 0.05 degree cells overlaying the island of Cyprus. Results showed good correlation between CHIRPS values and recorded precipitation, although an overestimation of the in situ rainfall data has been noted during the last decade.

  6. Integrating the life course into MCH service delivery: from theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Brady, Carol; Johnson, Faye

    2014-02-01

    To describe the efforts of a community-based maternal and child health coalition to integrate the life course into its planning and programs, as well as implementation challenges and results of these activities. Jacksonville-Duval County has historically had infant mortality rates that are significantly higher than state and national rates, particularly among its African American population. In an effort to address this disparity, the Northeast Florida Healthy Start Coalition embraced the life course approach as a model. This model was adopted as a framework for (1) community needs assessment and planning; (2) delivery of direct services, including case management, education and support in the Magnolia Project, its federal Healthy Start program; (3) development of community collaborations, education and awareness; and, (4) advocacy and grass roots leadership development. Implementation experience as well as challenges in transforming traditional approaches to delivering maternal and child health services are described. Operationalizing the life course approach required the Coalition to think differently about risks, levels of intervention and the way services are organized and delivered. The organization set the stage by using the life course as a framework for its required local planning and needs assessments. Based on these assessments, the content of case management and other key services provided by our federal Healthy Start program was modified to address not only health behaviors but also underlying social determinants and community factors. Individual interventions were augmented with group activities to build interdependence among participants, increasing social capital. More meaningful inter-agency collaboration that moved beyond the usual referral relationships were developed to better address participants' needs. And finally, strategies to cultivate participant advocacy and community leadership skills, were implemented to promote social change at the

  7. Advanced medical life support procedures in vitally compromised children by a helicopter emergency medical service

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To determine the advanced life support procedures provided by an Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) for vitally compromised children. Incidence and success rate of several procedures were studied, with a distinction made between procedures restricted to the HEMS-physician and procedures for which the HEMS is more experienced than the EMS. Methods Prospective study of a consecutive group of children examined and treated by the HEMS of the eastern region of the Netherlands. Data regarding type of emergency, physiological parameters, NACA scores, treatment, and 24-hour survival were collected and subsequently analysed. Results Of the 558 children examined and treated by the HEMS on scene, 79% had a NACA score of IV-VII. 65% of the children had one or more advanced life support procedures restricted to the HEMS and 78% of the children had one or more procedures for which the HEMS is more experienced than the EMS. The HEMS intubated 38% of all children, and 23% of the children intubated and ventilated by the EMS needed emergency correction because of potentially lethal complications. The HEMS provided the greater part of intraosseous access, as the EMS paramedics almost exclusively reserved this procedure for children in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The EMS provided pain management only to children older than four years of age, but a larger group was in need of analgesia upon arrival of the HEMS, and was subsequently treated by the HEMS. Conclusions The Helicopter Emergency Medical Service of the eastern region of the Netherlands brings essential medical expertise in the field not provided by the emergency medical service. The Emergency Medical Service does not provide a significant quantity of procedures obviously needed by the paediatric patient. PMID:20211021

  8. 30 years later: Social Representations about AIDS and sexual practices of rural towns residents.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Francisca Marina de Souza Freire; Santos, José Anderson Galdino; Loredanna, Stedile; Araújo, Eunice; Saldanha, Ana Alayde Werba; Silva, Josevânia da

    2016-06-01

    In the 30 years of the AIDS pandemic in Brazil, it is recognized the HIV virus internalization of the phenomenon as a challenge to care and current health policies. In this sense, it aimed to verify sex practices and social representations that rural towns residents have about the disease. Attended by 789 people, men and women, between 18 and 90 years old, residents in 41 towns with fewer than 11,000 inhabitants in the state of Paraiba / Brazil. Data were collected by a questionnaire and the free association of words test. The results showed low concern about disease, perception of invulnerability to HIV infection and not using condoms during sexual intercourse, and confidence in the major reason related partner. Also showed endure derogatory and stereotypical representations, revealing that still persist in rural areas, beliefs and representations concerning the beginning of the epidemic. From these findings, it is possible to point out deficiencies in the care provided by the health services in these localities, which may result in increased vulnerability of this population to diseases, so there is the need to intensify information campaigns and intervention. The results reveal the existence of three different types of modes of learning health literacy skills in informal context: : i) learning that takes place in action, in achieving daily tasks; ii) learning processes that result from problem solving; iii) learning that occurs in an unplanned manner, resulting from accidental circumstances and, in some cases, devoid of intentionality. Nos 30 anos da pandemia da Aids no Brasil, reconhece-se o fenômeno da interiorização do vírus HIV como um desafio ao cuidado e às politicas de saúde atuais. Neste sentido, objetivou-se conhecer práticas sexuais e as representações sociais que residentes de cidades rurais têm acerca da doença. Participaram 789 pessoas, homens e mulheres, entre 18 e 90 anos de idade, residentes em 41 cidades com menos de 11.000 habitantes

  9. Predicting the service life of platinized titanium anodes in hypochlorite production from natural waters

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailova, L.A.; Khodkevich, S.D.; Yakimenko, L.M.; Rabinovich, A.B.

    1987-07-01

    Radiotracer measurements were used to study the rates of anodic dissolution of the platinum coatings as functions of the three major electrolysis parameters: the current density, electrolyte composition, and temperature. A mathematical expression was obtained from which one can calculate for any specific set of electrolysis conditions the wear of the platinum coating and the amount of platinum that must be plated in order to obtain the required service life of the electrolyzer in the production of active-chlorine solutions from natural waters.

  10. Linking Land Surface Phenology and Growth Limiting Factor Shifts over the Past 30 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garonna, I.; Schenkel, D.; de Jong, R.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The study of global vegetation dynamics contributes to a better understanding of global change drivers and how these affect ecosystems and ecological diversity. Land-surface phenology (LSP) is a key response and feedback of vegetation to the climate system, and hence a parameter that needs to be accurately represented in terrestrial biosphere models [1]. However, the effects of climatic changes on LSP depend on the relative importance of climatic constraints in specific regions - which are not well understood at global scale. In this study, we analyzed a Phenology Reanalysis dataset [2] to evaluate shifts in three climatic drivers of phenology at global scale and over the last 30 years (1982-2012): incoming radiation, evaporative demand and minimum temperature. As a first step, we compared LAI as modeled from these three factors (LAIre) to remotely sensed observations of LSP (LAI3g, [3]) over the same time period. As a second step, we examined temporal trends in the climatic constraints at Start- and End- of the Growing Season. There was good agreement between phenology metrics as derived form LAI3g and LAIre over the last 30 years - thus providing confidence in the climatic constraints underlying the modeled data. Our analysis reveals inter-annual variation in the relative importance of the three climatic factors in limiting vegetation growth at Start- and End- of the Growing Season over the last 30 years. High northern latitudes, as well as northern Europe and central Asia, appear to have undergone significant changes in dominance between the three controls. We also find that evaporative demand has become increasingly limiting for growth in many parts of the world, in particular in South America and eastern Asia. [1] Richardson, A.D. et al. Global Change Biology 18, 566-584 (2012). [2] Stöckli, R. et al. J. Geophys. Res 116, G03020 (2011). [3] Zhu, Z. et al. Remote Sensing 5, 927-948 (2013).

  11. Translating Quality of Life into Service Action: Use of Personal Outcome Measures in the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Bob; Farrell, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    A growing consensus exists regarding Quality of Life measures and their use to support person-centred planning and organisational development. A survey designed to assess current Quality of Life of 256 adults with intellectual disabilities was conducted across a range of 22 service providers in the Republic of Ireland using Personal Outcome…

  12. Solvent/detergent-treated plasma: a tale of 30 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Liumbruno, Giancarlo Maria; Marano, Giuseppe; Grazzini, Gioia; Capuzzo, Enrico; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    Solvent/detergent-treated plasma was licensed >30 years ago. It has several specific characteristics, the most important being the standardized content of clotting factors, the lack of antibodies implicated in transfusion-related acute lung injury pathogenesis and the very high level of safety against transfusion-related viral infections. Since 1992, many clinical studies have confirmed its safety and efficacy in a wide range of congenital and acquired bleeding disorders. After a brief analysis of the pharmaceutical characteristics of solvent/detergent plasma, this review will focus on the clinical experience with this virus-inactivated plasma. PMID:25695198

  13. Changes in Tropical Cyclone Intensity Over the Past 30 Years: A Global and Dynamic Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Liguang; Wang, Bin; Braun, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    The hurricane season of 2005 was the busiest on record and Hurricane Katrina (2005) is believed to be the costliest hurricane in U. S. history. There are growing concerns regarding whether this increased tropical cyclone activity is a result of global warming, as suggested by Emanuel(2005) and Webster et al. (2005), or just a natural oscillation (Goldenberg et al. 2001). This study examines the changes in tropical cyclone intensity to see what were really responsible for the changes in tropical cyclone activity over the past 30 years. Since the tropical sea surface temperature (SST) warming also leads to the response of atmospheric circulation, which is not solely determined by the local SST warming, this study suggests that it is better to take the tropical cyclone activities in the North Atlantic (NA), western North Pacific (WNP) and eastern North Pacific (ENP) basins as a whole when searching for the influence of the global-scale SST warming on tropical cyclone intensity. Over the past 30 years, as the tropical SST increased by about 0.5 C, the linear trends indicate 6%, 16% and 15% increases in the overall average intensity and lifetime and the annual frequency. Our analysis shows that the increased annual destructiveness of tropical cyclones reported by Emanuel(2005) resulted mainly from the increases in the average lifetime and annual frequency in the NA basin and from the increases in the average intensity and lifetime in the WNP basin, while the annual destructiveness in the ENP basin generally decreased over the past 30 years. The changes in the proportion of intense tropical cyclones reported by Webster et a1 (2005) were due mainly to the fact that increasing tropical cyclones took the tracks that favor for the development of intense tropical cyclones in the NA and WNP basins over the past 30 years. The dynamic influence associated with the tropical SST warming can lead to the impact of global warming on tropical cyclone intensity that may be very

  14. Arctic Climate Change Analysed By Two 30-year Scenario Regional Climate Model Runs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiilsholm, S.; Christensen, J. H.

    High-resolution climate change simulations for an area covering the entire Arctic have been conducted with the regional climate model (RCM) HIRHAM. The emission sce- narios used were the IPCC SRES1 marker scenarios A2 and B2. Three 30-year time slice experiments were conducted with HIRHAM for periods representing present-day (1961-1990) and the future (2071-2100) in the two scenarios. Changes of the climate between these two periods will be presented with special emphasize on the climate of Greenland.

  15. A 30 year High -Spatial Resolution Cloud Climatology from NOAA's PATMOS-x Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidinger, A. K.; Walther, A.; Foster, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Pathfinder Atmospheres Extended (PATMOS-x) project at NOAA has recently developed a new higher spatial resolution data set derived from over 30 years of data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The PATMOS-x data is now online and has been submitted into the GEWEX cloud climatology assessment library of cloud climate data sets. This data also benefits from a recent recalibration of the solar reflectance channels. This work will present our latest analysis and provide our insights into the strengths and limitations of this new data. Comparisons with GEWEX data sets and to the recently generated AVHRR cloud climatology from EUMETSAT will be shown.

  16. The biochemistry and nutrition group: 30 years of research in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Levy Benshimol, A

    1996-12-01

    The most relevant results of 30 years of research from the Group of Biochemistry and Nutrition are presented. Research was focused mainly around the identification and detection of the heatlabile toxic factors present in legume seeds of human consumption, namely protease inhibitors and lectins with special emphasis on their isolation, molecular characterization, mechanistic and nutritional relevance of both protein groups. The antinutritional effect of the polyphenols, thermolabile compounds present in colored seeds, has also been studied as well as the impact of seed complex carbohydrates on the digestive process. PMID:9137631

  17. End-of-Life Decision Making for Nursing Home Residents with Dementia: A Survey of Nursing Home Social Services Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey, Debra

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to describe nursing home social services staff roles and perceptions related to end-of-life medical decision making for nursing home residents in endstage dementia. Using a self-designed questionnaire, 138 nursing home social services staff from across New York State answered questions about advance directives,…

  18. Life-Course Timing and Sequencing of Marriage and Military Service and Their Effects on Marital Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Call, Vaughn R. A.; Teachman, Jay D.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the life-course sequencing hypothesis that marriage before military service has a greater disruptive effect on marital stability than marriage during or after military service. Used event-history data from a 13-year panel study of 2,857 white males from Washington State high schools in 1966. Compares Vietnam combat veterans (n=610),…

  19. Leveraging Available Data to Support Extension of Transportation Packages Service Life

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Daugherty, W.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.; Stefek, T.

    2012-06-12

    Data obtained from testing shipping package materials have been leveraged to support extending the service life of select shipping packages while in nuclear materials transportation. Increasingly, nuclear material inventories are being transferred to an interim storage location where they will reside for extended periods of time. Use of a shipping package to store nuclear materials in an interim storage location has become more attractive for a variety of reasons. Shipping packages are robust and have a qualified pedigree for their performance in normal operation and accident conditions within the approved shipment period and storing nuclear material within a shipping package results in reduced operations for the storage facility. However, the shipping package materials of construction must maintain a level of integrity as specified by the safety basis of the storage facility through the duration of the storage period, which is typically well beyond the one year transportation window. Test programs have been established to obtain aging data on materials of construction that are the most sensitive/susceptible to aging in certain shipping package designs. The collective data are being used to support extending the service life of shipping packages in both transportation and storage.

  20. Life of refractories in service in a furnace for melting in a molten bath

    SciTech Connect

    Slovikovskii, V.V.; Birkle, G.V.B.; Eroshkina, V.I.; Nechistykh, G.A.; Tarasov, A.V.; Yakushev, V.K.

    1986-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of the development of a lining wearing uniformly in service, providing a long service life, and promoting the occurrence of autogeneous processes. The lining design developed is proposed for use in the furnaces for melting in a molten bath at a copper melting plant. The refractories investigated were MP dense periclase, MPM fused periclase-based magnesite, KhM chrome-magnesite, PKhS periclase-chromite roof, PShS periclase-spinellide, PKhPP fused periclase-chromite-base periclase-chromite, KhPT heat resistant chromite-periclase, VG high alumina, and ShM chamotte. The properties of the refractories are presented. It was established that the periclase-chromite refractories produced from fused material show the greatest life in the lining of furnaces for melting in a molten bath. A method of production of fused chromite-periclase was developed and a designed combined lining of a furnace with the use of highly resistanct refractories was presented.

  1. Chlorinated, brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in African Penguin eggs: 30 years since the previous assessment.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Govender, Danny; Underhill, Les; Polder, Anuschka

    2015-05-01

    The African Penguin population has drastically declined over the last 100 years. Changes in food availability due to over-fishing and other oceanographic changes seem to be major causes. However, it has also been 30 years since organic pollutants as a potential factor have been assessed. We analysed penguin eggs collected in 2011 and 2012 from two breeding colonies 640 km apart: Robben Island near Cape Town on the Atlantic Ocean coast, and Bird Island near Port Elizabeth on the Indian Ocean coast of South Africa. We quantified organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Compared to 30 years ago, concentrations of ΣDDT have remained about the same or slightly lower, while ΣPCBs declined almost four-fold. The use of DDT in malaria control is unlikely to have contributed. PFCs were detected in all eggs. Indications (non-significant) of eggshell thinning associated with ΣDDT and ΣPCB was found. It seems therefore that the concentrations of measured organic pollutants the African Penguin eggs are not contributing directly to its current demise, but concerns remain about thinner shells and desiccation. Effects of combinations of compounds and newer compounds cannot be excluded, as well as more subtle effects on reproduction, development, and behaviour. PMID:25613517

  2. History of echocardiography in the Netherlands: 30 years of education and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Kamp, O.

    2008-01-01

    The development of ultrasound has created great opportunities for diagnostic cardiac imaging. For more than 30 years, echocardiography has been the most important and cost-effective diagnostic imaging modality in clinical cardiology. Many developments originated in the Netherlands, including the very first practical real-time crosssectional imaging of the moving heart with a linear array. Milestones include the first portable echo apparatus, early versions of echo catheters and transoesophageal echocardiography probes as well as many clinical ‘firsts’ with reference to the more than 100 Dutch dissertations related to echocardiography. The future of echocardiography promises to be as productive and exciting as it has been in the previous three decades, including threedimensional echocardiography, myocardial perfusion echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging and speckle tracking. New potential therapeutic applications are upcoming. In this article, the advances of echocardiography in the Netherlands are described, in the past and during 30 years of education, as was recently presented by three Dutch pioneers during the ‘Echomiddagen 2006-2007’ organised by the CVOI. (Neth Heart J 2008;16:16-20.18317539) PMID:18317539

  3. Technical Note: 30 years of HIRS data of upper tropospheric humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierens, K.; Eleftheratos, K.; Shi, L.

    2014-07-01

    We use 30 years of intercalibrated HIRS (High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder) data to produce a 30-year data set of upper tropospheric humidity with respect to ice (UTHi). Since the required brightness temperatures (channels 12 and 6, T12 and T6) are intercalibrated to different versions of the HIRS sensors (HIRS/2 and HIRS/4) it is necessary to convert the channel 6 brightness temperatures which are intercalibrated to HIRS/4 into equivalent brightness temperatures intercalibrated to HIRS/2, which is achieved using a linear regression. Using the new regression coefficients we produce daily files of UTHi, T12 and T6, for each NOAA satellite and METOP-A (Meteorological Operational Satellite Programme), which carry the HIRS instrument. From this we calculate daily and monthly means in 2.5° × 2.5° resolution for the northern midlatitude zone 30-60° N. As a first application we calculate decadal means of UTHi and the brightness temperatures for the two decades 1980-1989 and 2000-2009. We find that the humidity mainly increased from the 1980s to the 2000s and that this increase is highly statistically significant in large regions of the considered midlatitude belt. The main reason for this result and its statistical significance is the corresponding increase of the T12 variance. Changes of the mean brightness temperatures are less significant.

  4. Technical Note: 30 years of HIRS data of upper tropospheric humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierens, K.; Eleftheratos, K.; Shi, L.

    2014-03-01

    We use 30 years of intercalibrated HIRS data to produce a 30 year data set of upper tropospheric humidity with respect to ice (UTHi). Since the required brightness temperatures (channels 12 and 6, T12 and T6) are intercalibrated to different versions of the HIRS sensors (HIRS/2 and HIRS/4) it is necessary to convert the channel 6 brightness temperatures which are intercalibrated to HIRS/4 into equivalent brightness temperatures intercalibrated to HIRS/2, which is achieved using a linear regression. Using the new regression coefficients we produce daily files of UTHi, T12 and T6, for each NOAA satellite and METOP-A, which carry the HIRS instrument. From this we calculate daily and monthly means in 2.5° × 2.5° resolution for the northern mid-latitude zone 30 to 60° N. As a first application we calculate decadal means of UTHi and the brightness temperatures for the two decades 1980-1989 and 2000-2009. We find that the humidity mainly increased from the 1980s to the 2000s and that this increase is highly statistically significant in large regions of the considered mid-latitude belt. The main reason for this result and its statistical significance is the corresponding increase of the T12 variance. Changes of the mean brightness temperatures are less significant.

  5. 30-Year Satellite Record Reveals Contrasting Arctic and Antarctic Decadal Sea Ice Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Parkinson, C. L.; Vinnikov, K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    A 30-year satellite record of sea ice extents derived mostly from satellite microwave radiometer observations reveals that the Arctic sea ice extent decreased by 0.30+0.03 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per 10 yr from 1972 through 2002, but by 0.36 plus or minus 0.05 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per 10yr from 1979 through 2002, indicating an acceleration of 20% in the rate of decrease. In contrast, the Antarctic sea ice extent decreased dramatically over the period 1973-1977, then gradually increased. Over the full 30-year period, the Antarctic ice extent decreased by 0.15 plus or minus 0.08 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per 10 yr. The trend reversal is attributed to a large positive anomaly in Antarctic sea ice extent in the early 1970's, an anomaly that apparently began in the late 1960's, as observed in early visible and infrared satellite images.

  6. Trends in maternal deaths from epilepsy in the United Kingdom: a 30-year retrospective review

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Objective Neurological diseases remain the second most common cause of maternal mortality from indirect causes, according to the last United Kingdom confidential enquiry into maternal death. The maternal mortality rate from epilepsy is reported as 0.61 per 100,000 maternities. The aim of this study was to analyse the trends and causes of maternal death from epilepsy in the UK over the last 30 years. Information on sub-standard care associated with fatalities was also consolidated to inform guidance and clinical care by obstetricians and physicians caring for pregnant women with epilepsy. Study design A retrospective review of 10 triennial confidential enquiry into maternal death reports (1979–2008) was performed, encompassing 21,514,457 maternities. Late and coincidental deaths were not included in the analyses. Results Between 1979 and 2008, there were 92 maternal deaths from epilepsy. The proportion of total maternal deaths from epilepsy over 30 years is 3.7% (95% CI 3.0–4.5), which showed an increasing trend. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy remains the single greatest cause of maternal death from epilepsy followed by aspiration of gastric contents during seizures and drowning during bathing. Conclusion All women with epilepsy should be looked after by specialist combined obstetric and medical or neurological teams in pregnancy to improve maternal and fetal outcomes.

  7. What Can We Learn About Glaciers and Ice Sheets From 30 Years of Landsat Imagery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, A. S.; Scambos, T.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Moholdt, G.; Nilsson, J.

    2015-12-01

    Glacier and ice sheets are known to be rapidly changing and currently account for two thirds of observed sea level rise. Attributing the causes of the rapid decline in land ice requires separation of mass change processes, i.e. accumulation of precipitation, meltwater runoff, and solid ice discharge. Here we examine a 30 year record of Landsat imagery to determine trends in glacier velocity at a global scale in an attempt to identify anomalies in glacier flow that are contributing to changes in land ice mass. The Landsat archive represents a treasure trove of information with hundreds of thousands of images acquired over glaciers and ice sheets during the past 30 years. Gleaning useful and consistent surface displacement information from a multiple sensor archive that is heavily contaminated by cloud, saturated images, poorly resolved sensor geometry, and data gaps has proved challenging. Temporal stacking of displacement fields (Dehecq et al., 2015) and correcting for unresolved topography (Roseanau et al., 2012) have been shown to greatly improve derived velocities. Here we present results from a global processing of the complete Landsat archive for information on glacier surface displacements. We highlight patterns of coherent regional change as well as well as rapid basin-scale changes in glacier flow.

  8. Lessons from 30 years' data of Korean end-stage renal disease registry, 1985-2015.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dong-Chan; Yun, Sung Ro; Lee, Seoung Woo; Han, Sang Woong; Kim, Won; Park, Jongha; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2015-09-01

    The Korean Society of Nephrology (KSN) launched a nationwide official survey program about dialysis therapy in 1985. Nowadays, the accumulated data for 30 years by this "Insan Prof. Min Memorial end-stage renal disease (ESRD) Registry" program have been providing the essential information for dialysis clinical practice, academic nephrology research, and health management policy. We reviewed 30 years of data to identify important changes and implications for the future improvement of dialysis therapy in Korea. Hemodialysis patients, especially diabetics and elderly patients have increased in number very rapidly during recent years in Korea. The Korean prevalence rate of ESRD patients was about 70% of the United States and about 50% of Japan according to the international comparisons in the annual data report of United States Renal Data System. The blood pressure control, anemia control, and dialysis adequacy have continuously improved year by year. The importance of calcium and phosphorus control has also been increasing because of the increase in long-term dialysis patients. In addition, chronic dialysis complications should be closely monitored and dialysis modifications, such as hemodiafiltration therapy, might be considered. Because of the increase of private clinics and nursing hospitals in dialysis practice, the role of dialysis specialists and continuing education are thought to be essential. For strict cost-effective dialysis control of increasing elderly, diabetic, and long-term dialysis patients, the KSN ESRD patient registration should be run by the KSN and health ministry in cooperation, in which the dialysis fee reimbursement should be accompanied. PMID:26484037

  9. Stain and dye stability over a 30-year period: a comparison of certified dye powders by the Biological Stain Commission.

    PubMed

    Penney, D P; Frank, M; Fagan, C; Willis, C

    2009-02-01

    The Biological Stain Commission (BSC) Assay Laboratory has received numerous inquiries during the past several years regarding the long-term stability of stain and dye powders, particularly since packaging requirements call for expiration dates on reagents. We have conducted a study to examine the long-term stability of selected dye powders. We used the standard procedures of the BSC for testing biological stains for certification to give an indication of the long-term chemical stability as well as staining performance of the dye powders. An earlier study by Emmel and Stotz examined the stability of various dye powders after a five-year storage period. The present study is a follow-up project covering the same dyes after storage for 30 years. The dye samples chosen for the study are the same samples used in the five-year storage period study and give comparative results for all three time periods. The results of this study affirm the generally held speculation that dye powders are stable for many years and thus have a substantial shelf-life. PMID:19096966

  10. 30-year changes in the nitrogen inputs to the Yangtze River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qinxue; Koshikawa, Hiroshi; Liu, Chen; Otsubo, Kuninori

    2014-11-01

    To understand both spatial and temporal changes in nitrogen inputs to the Yangtze River Basin (YRB), we collected decadal statistical data for 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010 at the county level and the annual statistical data for the period 1980-2010 at the provincial level of China. Based on these datasets, we estimated the nitrogen inputs, including the atmospheric deposition, synthetic N fertilizer, biological N fixation and recycling reactive N inputs, such as N from human waste and animal excrement, crop residue recycled as manure, and N emission from burning crop residue. The results showed that, geographically, the variation of the total amount of N input during the last 30 years (δN = N2010 - N1980) has increased about 0-50 kg ha-1 over most of the area of the YRB. Moreover, it has increased dramatically by about 50-300 kg ha-1 in the Sichuan Basin, the Han River Basin, the Poyang and Dongting lake basins, and the Yangtze Delta as well. Temporally, the total amount of N inputs to the whole YRB was approximately 16.4 Tg N in 2010, which was a 2.0-fold increase over 1980. It increased dramatically in the 1990s and then stabilized at a high level in the 2000s. The major N inputs were human and animal wastes as well as synthetic fertilizers, but they varied regionally. Animal waste was the major input to the water source regions, and its contribution percentage gradually decreased from upper to lower reaches. In contrast, the contribution of N fertilizer increased from upper to lower reaches, and became the major input to the middle and lower reaches. The total N inputs changed slightly in the upper reaches, but increased largely in the middle reaches in the last 30 years. However, in the lower reaches, it had increased remarkably before 2000, and then tended to decrease in the last decade. Finally, the atmospheric N deposition over the basin increased continuously in the last 30 years.

  11. Epidemiological aspects of beryllium-induced nonmalignant lung disease: a 30-year update

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenbud, M.; Lisson, J.

    1983-03-01

    The unusual epidemiology of beryllium disease observed in the early studies of beryllium disease led in 1951 to the hypothesis that the chronic form of the disease is the result of an acquired sensitization to beryllium or its compounds. After 30 years, the role of sensitization has been confirmed in a number of laboratory and clinical studies. The unusual epidemiological features first summarized by Sterner and Eisenbud continue to be evident. The early studies also led to formulation of standards that have resulted in effective control of both the acute and chronic pulmonary forms of beryllium disease. No case of acute chemical pneumonitis has been reported among beryllium workers in about 15 years, and the number of chronic cases has diminished greatly despite a marked increase in the use of beryllium.

  12. Analysis of 30 Years Sea Surface Elevation (sse) Data Obtained From A Global Ocean Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, M.

    In this presentation the sea surface elevation (SSE) as obtained from a global OGCM will be analysed. The model used is the Hamburg LSG model with a 2 degree hori- zontal resolution, 23 layers in the vertical and a 10 day timestep. The model has a free surface and includes the thermo- and halosteric effects. It is integrated for 50 years forced by monthly NCEP reanalyzes data (1950-1999). The last 30 years of model output are analyzed on regional to global scale to judge the role of the different contributions to the interannual sea level variations as there are: horizontal redistribution of volume (mass), surface freshwater flux (precipitaion- evaporation) and steric effects. On the global scale the surface freshwater flux can clearly be identified as the main contributor, while on regional to local scale it is the steric effect.

  13. 30-Year Satellite Record Reveals Accelerated Arctic Sea Ice Loss, Antarctic Sea Ice Trend Reversal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.; Parkinson, C. L.; Vinnikov, K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Arctic sea ice extent decreased by 0.30 plus or minus 0.03 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per decade from 1972 through 2002, but decreased by 0.36 plus or minus 0.05 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per decade from 1979 through 2002, indicating an acceleration of 20% in the rate of decrease. In contrast to the Arctic, the Antarctic sea ice extent decreased dramatically over the period 1973-1977, then gradually increased, with an overall 30-year trend of -0.15 plus or minus 0.08 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per 10yr. The trend reversal is attributed to a large positive anomaly in Antarctic sea ice extent observed in the early 1970's.

  14. Cockroach allergy and asthma in a 30-year-old man.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, G T; Gold, D R

    1999-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has implicated allergens derived from cockroaches as an important environmental factor that may aggravate asthma in sensitized persons. We present the case of a 30-year-old man with asthma and a cockroach allergy. Allergy skin testing confirmed hypersensitivity to cockroach extract, and a home visit revealed visual evidence of infestation and the presence of Bla g 1 German cockroach allergen in vacuumed dust. As is typical of patients with a cockroach allergy and asthma, multiple factors in addition to cockroach allergen appeared to aggravate the patient's asthma. A multimodality therapeutic regimen, which included medications as well as cleaning of the home, integrated pest management, and professional application of chemical controls, resulted in substantial clinical improvement. The pathophysiology, epidemiology, and clinical features of cockroach-allergic asthma are reviewed, and an approach to diagnosis and management is suggested. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10064555

  15. From Cloning Neural Development Genes to Functional Studies in Mice, 30 Years of Advancements.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Alexandra L

    2016-01-01

    The invention of new mouse molecular genetics techniques, initiated in the 1980s, has repeatedly expanded our ability to tackle exciting developmental biology problems. The brain is the most complex organ, and as such the more sophisticated the molecular genetics technique, the more impact they have on uncovering new insights into how our brain functions. I provide a general time line for the introduction of new techniques over the past 30 years and give examples of new discoveries in the neural development field that emanated from them. I include a look to what the future holds and argue that we are at the dawn of a very exciting age for young scientists interested in studying how the nervous system is constructed and functions with such precision. PMID:26970637

  16. Adult neurobehavioral outcome of hyperbilirubinemia in full term neonates-a 30 year prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hokkanen, Laura; Launes, Jyrki; Michelsson, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Background. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (HB) may cause severe neurological damage, but serious consequences are effectively controlled by phototherapy and blood exchange transfusion. HB is still a serious health problem in economically compromised parts of the world. The long term outcome has been regarded favorable based on epidemiological data, but has not been confirmed in prospective follow-up studies extending to adulthood. Methods. We studied the long term consequences of HB in a prospective birth cohort of 128 HB cases and 82 controls. The cases are part of a neonatal at-risk cohort (n = 1196) that has been followed up to 30 years of age. HB cases were newborns ≥ 2500 g birth weight and ≥ 37 weeks of gestation who had bilirubin concentrations > 340 µmol/l or required blood exchange transfusion. Subjects with HB were divided into subgroups based on the presence (affected HB) or absence (unaffected HB) of diagnosed neurobehavioral disorders in childhood, and compared with healthy controls. Subjects were seen at discharge, 5, 9 and 16 years of life and parent's and teacher's assessments were recorded. At 30 years they filled a questionnaire about academic and occupational achievement, life satisfaction, somatic and psychiatric symptoms including a ADHD self-rating score. Cognitive functioning was tested using ITPA, WISC, and reading and writing tests at 9 years of life. Results. Compared to controls, the odds for a child with HB having neurobehavioral symptoms at 9 years was elevated (OR = 4.68). Forty-five per cent of the HB group were affected by cognitive abnormalities in childhood and continued to experience problems in adulthood. This was apparent in academic achievement (p < 0.0001) and the ability to complete secondary (p < 0.0001) and tertiary (p < 0.004) education. Also, the subgroup of affected HB reported persisting cognitive complaints e.g., problems with reading, writing and mathematics. Childhood symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity (p < 0

  17. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Aquatic Vegetation in Taihu Lake over the Past 30 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dehua; Lv, Meiting; Jiang, Hao; Cai, Ying; Xu, Delin; An, Shuqing

    2013-01-01

    It is often difficult to track the spatio-temporal variability of vegetation distribution in lakes because of the technological limitations associated with mapping using traditional field surveys as well as the lack of a unified field survey protocol. Using a series of Landsat remote sensing images (i.e. MSS, TM and ETM+), we mapped the composition and distribution area of emergent, floating-leaf and submerged macrophytes in Taihu Lake, China, at approximate five-year intervals over the past 30 years in order to quantify the spatio-temporal dynamics of the aquatic vegetation. Our results indicated that the total area of aquatic vegetation increased from 187.5 km2 in 1981 to 485.0 km2 in 2005 and then suddenly decreased to 341.3 km2 in 2010. Similarly, submerged vegetation increased from 127.0 km2 in 1981 to 366.5 km2 in 2005, and then decreased to 163.3 km2. Floating-leaf vegetation increased continuously through the study period in both area occupied (12.9 km2 in 1981 to 146.2 km2 in 2010) and percentage of the total vegetation (6.88% in 1981 to 42.8% in 2010). In terms of spatial distribution, the aquatic vegetation in Taihu Lake has spread gradually from the East Bay to the surrounding areas. The proportion of vegetation in the East Bay relative to that in the entire lake has decreased continuously from 62.3% in 1981, to 31.1% in 2005 and then to 21.8% in 2010. Our findings have suggested that drastic changes have taken place over the past 30 years in the spatial pattern of aquatic vegetation as well as both its relative composition and the amount of area it occupies. PMID:23823189

  18. Isotretinoin: dose, duration and relapse. What does 30 years of usage tell us?

    PubMed

    Rademaker, Marius

    2013-08-01

    With 30 years of clinical use, it is appropriate to review the use of isotretinoin. We now understand that retinoids influence cellular growth, differentiation, morphogenesis and apoptosis, inhibit tumour promotion and malignant cell growth, exert immuno-modulatory actions and alter cellular cohesiveness. This has expanded the indications of isotretinoin from just acne and rosacea to a wide range of inflammatory and malignant skin disorders. While the standard dose of 0.5 to 1 mg/kg per day for 4 months to a cumulative dose of 120-140 mg/kg per day has served us well in the management of acne vulgaris, there is emerging evidence that much lower dosages (as low as 5 mg/day) are just as effective but have significantly fewer adverse effects. Relapse of acne vulgaris continues to be a problem but we are beginning to recognise that this is related less to the cumulative dose and more to the length of sebaceous gland suppression. Other factors important for relapse include a macrocomedonal pattern of acne, smoking and age, both younger (under 14 years) and older (over 25 years). After 30 years of use, we now understand why isotretinoin is such an effective drug. Not only does it clear acne in almost all patients, long-term remission can be achieved in 70-80% of patients with a single course. Important changes in the use of isotretinoin include using a lower daily dose for a longer period of time. New indications continue to emerge, particularly as a potential treatment for both intrinsic and extrinsic (photo) aging. Teratogenicity however, remains a very significant concern. PMID:23013115

  19. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Aquatic Vegetation in Taihu Lake over the Past 30 Years.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dehua; Lv, Meiting; Jiang, Hao; Cai, Ying; Xu, Delin; An, Shuqing

    2013-01-01

    It is often difficult to track the spatio-temporal variability of vegetation distribution in lakes because of the technological limitations associated with mapping using traditional field surveys as well as the lack of a unified field survey protocol. Using a series of Landsat remote sensing images (i.e. MSS, TM and ETM+), we mapped the composition and distribution area of emergent, floating-leaf and submerged macrophytes in Taihu Lake, China, at approximate five-year intervals over the past 30 years in order to quantify the spatio-temporal dynamics of the aquatic vegetation. Our results indicated that the total area of aquatic vegetation increased from 187.5 km(2) in 1981 to 485.0 km(2) in 2005 and then suddenly decreased to 341.3 km(2) in 2010. Similarly, submerged vegetation increased from 127.0 km(2) in 1981 to 366.5 km(2) in 2005, and then decreased to 163.3 km(2). Floating-leaf vegetation increased continuously through the study period in both area occupied (12.9 km(2) in 1981 to 146.2 km(2) in 2010) and percentage of the total vegetation (6.88% in 1981 to 42.8% in 2010). In terms of spatial distribution, the aquatic vegetation in Taihu Lake has spread gradually from the East Bay to the surrounding areas. The proportion of vegetation in the East Bay relative to that in the entire lake has decreased continuously from 62.3% in 1981, to 31.1% in 2005 and then to 21.8% in 2010. Our findings have suggested that drastic changes have taken place over the past 30 years in the spatial pattern of aquatic vegetation as well as both its relative composition and the amount of area it occupies. PMID:23823189

  20. Modeling Saturn's Giant Storms: Water, Ammonia, and the 30-Year Periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2013-10-01

    A giant planet-encircling storm occured on Saturn at the end of year 2010. The storm produced lightning at a rate greater than 10 SEDs per second. It wrapped around the planet, with a wake depleted in ammonia, and after 6 months it died. These kinds of storms are rare and episodic. They happen every 20-30 years. In this study, we discuss the role of moist convection on the development of the storm and explain the observed post-storm ammonia depletion. The study is composed of two parts. First, thermodynamcis on Saturn indicates that strong convection is prohibited by the waterloading-effect when the troposphere is warm. After 20-30 years, the troposphere has cooled below a critical value so that deep convection develops at the base of the water cloud. The deep water mixing ratio is best estimated as 1.2% relative to H2 so as to match the cooling time. Second, strong convection can produce a warm convective column that overshoots into the stratosphere. We solve the cylindrically symmetric hydrostatic primitive equations to investigate the large scale response of the ambient flow to the geostrophically unbalanced column. We find that during the subsequent large scale adjustment, ammonia vapor condenses and precipitates out of the troposphere, causing high residual brightness temperatures as observed by Cassini/RADAR (Janssen et al., 2013; Laraia et al., 2013). Further, for a deep water mixing ratio of 1.2%, we find that the ammonia vapor is depeleted down to 5 bar, that the speed of remaining anticyclonic vortex is about 30 m/s, and the residual large scale warming is about 10 K. These values are consistent with observation within the measurement uncertainties.

  1. Thermocouple protection systems for longer service life in slagging gasifier environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Chinn, Richard E.; Iverson, Larissa A.; Bennett, James P.; Dogan, Cynthia P.

    2003-01-01

    To ensure reliable and efficient operation, gasifier operators would like to be able to continuously monitor system temperature. In many slagging gasifiers, temperature measurement is accomplished by several thermocouples embedded at various locations in the gasifier wall. Unfortunately, these thermocouple devices are very susceptible to early failure, either as the result of mechanical stresses or exposure to the harsh slagging environment, making long-term continuous temperature monitoring difficult. At the Albany Research Center, we are developing strategies to improve the ceramic protection assembly that is used to shield the thermocouple wires from direct exposure to the gasifier atmosphere. In this talk we will describe this multi-component ceramic protection system and present test results, which indicate that, the protection system should provide longer device service life in slagging gasifier environments.

  2. Prediction of Service Life of Cordierite-Mullite Refractory Materials by Non-Destructive Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccaccini, D. N.; Kamseu, Elie; Volkov-Husoviæ, T. D.; Cannio, M.; Romagnoli, M.; Veronesi, P.; Dlouhy, I.; Boccaccini, A. R.; Leonelli, C.

    2008-02-01

    Ultrasonic pulse velocity testing was used to perform non-destructive quality control of refractory plates used as substrates in fast firing of porcelain whitewares. The measurement of the ultrasonic velocity was used to asses the presence of internal voids or cracks originated from the manufacturing procedure. Image analysis was used to predict thermal stability of the refractory materials. Two cordierite-mullite compositions were investigated that are characterized by different microstructure morphologies and crack propagation behaviour. A brief discussion about the correlation between microstructure, crack propagation behaviour and thermal shock resistance is presented. Moreover, empirical models were developed to predict the service life of refractory plates from measured values of ultrasonic velocities in plates in the as-received state.

  3. Prediction of Service Life of Cordierite-Mullite Refractory Materials by Non-Destructive Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Boccaccini, D. N.; Kamseu, Elie; Cannio, M.; Romagnoli, M.; Veronesi, P.; Leonelli, C.; Volkov-Husoviae, T. D.; Dlouhy, I.; Boccaccini, A. R.

    2008-02-15

    Ultrasonic pulse velocity testing was used to perform non-destructive quality control of refractory plates used as substrates in fast firing of porcelain whitewares. The measurement of the ultrasonic velocity was used to asses the presence of internal voids or cracks originated from the manufacturing procedure. Image analysis was used to predict thermal stability of the refractory materials. Two cordierite-mullite compositions were investigated that are characterized by different microstructure morphologies and crack propagation behaviour. A brief discussion about the correlation between microstructure, crack propagation behaviour and thermal shock resistance is presented. Moreover, empirical models were developed to predict the service life of refractory plates from measured values of ultrasonic velocities in plates in the as-received state.

  4. LEVERAGING AGING MATERIALS DATA TO SUPPORT EXTENSION OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPPING PACKAGES SERVICE LIFE

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.; Bellamy, S.; Daugherty, W.; Sindelar, R.; Skidmore, E.

    2013-08-18

    Nuclear material inventories are increasingly being transferred to interim storage locations where they may reside for extended periods of time. Use of a shipping package to store nuclear materials after the transfer has become more common for a variety of reasons. Shipping packages are robust and have a qualified pedigree for performance in normal operation and accident conditions but are only certified over an approved transportation window. The continued use of shipping packages to contain nuclear material during interim storage will result in reduced overall costs and reduced exposure to workers. However, the shipping package materials of construction must maintain integrity as specified by the safety basis of the storage facility throughout the storage period, which is typically well beyond the certified transportation window. In many ways, the certification processes required for interim storage of nuclear materials in shipping packages is similar to life extension programs required for dry cask storage systems for commercial nuclear fuels. The storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry cask storage systems is federally-regulated, and over 1500 individual dry casks have been in successful service up to 20 years in the US. The uncertainty in final disposition will likely require extended storage of this fuel well beyond initial license periods and perhaps multiple re-licenses may be needed. Thus, both the shipping packages and the dry cask storage systems require materials integrity assessments and assurance of continued satisfactory materials performance over times not considered in the original evaluation processes. Test programs for the shipping packages have been established to obtain aging data on materials of construction to demonstrate continued system integrity. The collective data may be coupled with similar data for the dry cask storage systems and used to support extending the service life of shipping packages in both transportation and storage.

  5. Life Estimation and Creep Damage Quantification of Service Exposed Reformer Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, A.; Roy, N.; Roy, B. N.; Ray, A. K.

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with evaluation of creep damage of ~11 years service exposed primary hydrogen reformer tube made of HP-40 grade of steel in a petrochemical industry, which has been carried out in terms of Kachanav's continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model (K-model) and Bogdanoff model (B-model) based on Markov process. Residual life of the tubes was estimated based on hot tensile, conventional creep deformation under identical test conditions, optical microscopy and fractography. Accumulation of damage due to creep has been quantified through microstructural studies. The as received tubes did not reveal any degradation in the material like creep cavitation or voids, but there was indeed loss of tensile strength from room temperature to 870°C for the bottom portion of the tube due to ageing and overheating. Scatter in creep deformation behaviour of the material is probably due to variation in mode of fracture and scatter in voids. From statistical point of view, Weibull distribution pattern for analysing probability of rupture due to void area shifts with increase in true strain towards the higher population of void. The estimation of mean time to reach a specific damage state from K- model and B-model is in close agreement with that of experimental data and can describe the sudden changes of the creep damage in the tertiary region as well. A remnant life of >10 years is estimated at the operating stress-temperature conditions of the top as well as bottom portion of the tube.

  6. 7 CFR 625.8 - Compensation for easements and 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... easement payment will be made based on final determination of acreage. (f) Ecosystem Services Credits for... RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM... is the landowner's responsibility to discuss those matters with the Internal Revenue Service....

  7. Cargo Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Environmental Control and Life Support Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duchesne, Stephanie; Thacker, Karen; Williams, Dave

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station s (ISS) largest crew and cargo resupply vehicle, the Space Shuttle, retired in 2011. To help augment ISS resupply and return capability, NASA announced a project to promote the development of Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) for the ISS in January of 2006. By December of 2008, NASA entered into space act agreements with SpaceX and Orbital Sciences Corporation for COTS development and ISS Commercial Resupply Services (CRS). The intent of CRS is to fly multiple resupply missions each year to ISS with SpaceX s Dragon vehicle providing resupply and return capabilities and Orbital Science Corporation s Cygnus vehicle providing resupply capability to ISS. The ISS program launched an integration effort to ensure that these new commercial vehicles met the requirements of the ISS vehicle and ISS program needs. The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) requirements cover basic cargo vehicle needs including maintaining atmosphere, providing atmosphere circulation, and fire detection and suppression. The ISS-COTS integration effort brought unique challenges combining NASA s established processes and design knowledge with the commercial companies new initiatives and limited experience with human space flight. This paper will discuss the ISS ECLS COTS integration effort including challenges, successes, and lessons learned.

  8. Commercial Orbital Transportation Cargo Services Environmental Control and Life Support Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duchesne, Stephanie; Williams, Dave; Orozco, Nicole; Philistine, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station s (ISS) largest crew and cargo resupply vehicle, the Space Shuttle, will retire in 2011. To help augment ISS resupply and return capability, NASA announced a project to promote the development of Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) for the ISS in January of 2006. By December of 2008, NASA entered into space act agreements with SpaceX and Orbital Sciences Corporation for COTS development and ISS Commercial Resupply Services (CRS). The intent of CRS is to fly multiple resupply missions each year to ISS with SpaceX s Dragon vehicle providing resupply and return capabilities and Orbital Science Corporation s Cygnus vehicle providing resupply capability to ISS. The ISS program launched an integration effort to ensure that these new commercial vehicles met the requirements of the ISS vehicle and ISS program needs. The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) requirements cover basic cargo vehicle needs including maintaining atmosphere, providing atmosphere circulation, and fire detection and suppression. The ISS-COTS integration effort brought unique challenges combining NASA s established processes and design knowledge with the commercial companies new initiatives and limited experience with human space flight. This paper will discuss the ISS ECLS COTS integration effort including challenges, successes, and lessons learned.

  9. Fee-for-service cancer rehabilitation programs improve health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Kirkham, A.A.; Neil-Sztramko, S.E.; Morgan, J.; Hodson, S.; Weller, S.; McRae, T.; Campbell, K.L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rigorously applied exercise interventions undertaken in a research setting result in improved health-related quality of life (hrqol) in cancer survivors, but research to demonstrate effective translation of that research to practice is needed. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of fee-for-service cancer rehabilitation programs in the community on hrqol and on self-reported physical activity and its correlates. Methods After enrolment and 17 ± 4 weeks later, new clients (n = 48) to two fee-for-service cancer rehabilitation programs completed the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (rand-36: rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, U.S.A.), the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, and questions about physical activity correlates. Normal fee-for-service operations were maintained, including a fitness assessment and individualized exercise programs supervised in a group or one-on-one setting, with no minimum attendance required. Fees were associated with the assessment and with each exercise session. Results Of the 48 participants, 36 (75%) completed both questionnaires. Improvements in the physical functioning, role physical, pain, and energy/fatigue scales on the rand-36 exceeded minimally important differences and were of a magnitude similar to improvements reported in structured, rigorously applied, and free research interventions. Self-reported levels of vigorous-intensity (p = 0.021), but not moderate-intensity (p = 0.831) physical activity increased. The number of perceived barriers to exercise (p = 0.035) and the prevalence of fatigue as a barrier (p = 0.003) decreased. Exercise self-efficacy improved only in participants who attended 11 or more sessions (p = 0.002). Exercise enjoyment did not change (p = 0.629). Conclusions Enrolment in fee-for-service cancer rehabilitation programs results in meaningful improvements in hrqol comparable to those reported by research interventions, among other benefits. The fee-for-service

  10. A service life extension (SLEP) approach to operating aging aircraft beyond their original design lives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentz, Alan Carter

    With today's uncertain funding climate (including sequestration and continuing budget resolutions), decision makers face severe budgetary challenges to maintain dominance through all aspects of the Department of Defense (DoD). To meet war-fighting capabilities, the DoD continues to extend aircraft programs beyond their design service lives by up to ten years, and occasionally much more. The budget requires a new approach to traditional extension strategies (i.e., reuse, reset, and reclamation) for structural hardware. While extending service life without careful controls can present a safety concern, future operations planning does not consider how much risk is present when operating within sound structural principles. Traditional structural hardware extension methods drive increased costs. Decision makers often overlook the inherent damage tolerance and fatigue capability of structural components and rely on simple time- and flight-based cycle accumulation when determining aircraft retirement lives. This study demonstrates that decision makers should consider risk in addition to the current extension strategies. Through an evaluation of eight military aircraft programs and the application and simulation of F-18 turbine engine usage data, this dissertation shows that insight into actual aircraft mission data, consideration of fatigue capability, and service extension length are key factors to consider. Aircraft structural components, as well as many critical safety components and system designs, have a predefined level of conservatism and inherent damage tolerance. The methods applied in this study would apply to extensions of other critical structures such as bridges. Understanding how much damage tolerance is built into the design compared to the original design usage requirements presents the opportunity to manage systems based on risk. The study presents the sensitivity of these factors and recommends avenues for further research.

  11. Criteria for use of blue "Star of Life" for emergency medical services. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Notice.

    PubMed

    1994-08-11

    This notice amends NHTSA's guidelines for the authorized use of the blue "Star of Life" symbols for emergency medical services. Comments received in response to an earlier notice suggested uses for this symbol that were not considered when these guidelines were first developed. These amendments are intended to provide additional flexibility to the States within the purposes for which the blue Star of Life was originally registered as a certification mark. PMID:10136913

  12. National Library of Medicine Celebrates 30 Years of Progress and Charts the Future | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Celebrates 30 Years of Progress and Charts the Future Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents The ... years, and help chart its course for the future. They were drawn to "The National Library of ...

  13. Apparatus for determining past-service conditions and remaining life of thermal barrier coatings and components having such coatings

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Alok Mani; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Comanzo, Holly Ann; Devitt, John William; Ruud, James Anthony; Brewer, Luke Nathaniel

    2004-05-04

    An apparatus for determining past-service conditions and/or remaining useful life of a component of a combustion engine and/or a thermal barrier coating ("TBC") of the component comprises a radiation source that provides the exciting radiation to the TBC to excite a photoluminescent ("PL") material contained therein, a radiation detector for detecting radiation emitted by the PL material, and means for relating a characteristic of an emission spectrum of the PL material to the amount of a crystalline phase in the TBC, thereby inferring the past-service conditions or the remaining useful life of the component or the TBC.

  14. A 35-40% Likelihood of a Highly Damaging Tokyo Earthquake in Next 30 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R. S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Bozkurt, S. B.

    2005-12-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105,000 lives. Reoccurrence of any of these shocks today would cost about one trillion dollars, of which perhaps 10% is insured. Fueled by Tokyo's rich data trove but hindered by its complexity, we carried out a new hazard assessment. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved in uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M~8 shocks in the past 7,000 years), historical shaking (10,000 intensity observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300,000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and the world's best geodetic array (150 GPS vectors spanning the past 10 years). We propose that a dislodged block of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath Tokyo, and controls much of Tokyo's seismic behavior for M≤7.5 shocks, including the damaging 1855 M~7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of frequency-magnitude curves, earthquakes similar to the Ansei-Edo event should be quite frequent (25-35% likelihood in an average 30-yr period), and so such events dominate the combined probabilities. In contrast, our renewal model for the great 1703 and 1923 type plate boundary shocks yields a ~1% probability for the next 30 yr, with a time-averaged 30-yr probability of ~8%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama for the next 30 years is 25%-40%, but how can it be validated? The long historical record in Kanto affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner, based almost exclusively on intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates for the spatial distribution of shaking, even for sites with few observations. The resulting probability of severe shaking over an average 30-yr period is ~35% in the Tokyo, Kawasaki

  15. European environmental research infrastructures are going for common 30 years strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, Ari; Konjin, Jacco; Pursula, Antti

    2014-05-01

    capital development concentrates on improving the capacities to measure, observe, preserve and compute. This requires staff, technologies, sensors, satellites, floats, software to integrate and to do analysis and modeling, including data storage, computing platforms and networks. The cultural capital development addresses issues such as open access to data, rules, licenses, citation agreements, IPR agreements, technologies for machine-machine interaction, workflows, metadata, and RI community on the policy level. Human capital actions are based on anticipated need of specialists, including data scientists and 'generalists' that oversee more than just their own discipline. Developing these, as interrelated services, should help the scientific community to enter innovative and large projects contributing to a 'Standard Model of the Planet'. To achieve the overall goal, ENVRI will publish a set of action items that contains intermediate aims, bigger and smaller steps to work towards the development of the 'Standard Model of the Planet' approach. This timeline of actions can used as reference and 'common denominator' in defining new projects and research programs. Either within the various environmental scientific disciplines or when cooperating among these disciplines or even when outreaching towards other disciplines like social sciences, physics/chemistry, medical/life sciences etc.

  16. Parental Stress, Socioeconomic Status, Satisfaction with Services, and Family Quality of Life among Parents of Children Receiving Special Education Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, Heather F.

    2011-01-01

    Family quality of life (FQOL) refers to the degree to which families of individuals with disabilities are able to meet their basic needs, enjoy time together, and pursue leisure interests and activities (Park et al., 2003). Researchers have identified barriers that families of individuals with disabilities encounter as they pursue a life of…

  17. Treatment performances of French constructed wetlands: results from a database collected over the last 30 years.

    PubMed

    Morvannou, A; Forquet, N; Michel, S; Troesch, S; Molle, P

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 3,500 constructed wetlands (CWs) provide raw wastewater treatment in France for small communities (<5,000 people equivalent). Built during the past 30 years, most consist of two vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) in series (stages). Many configurations exist, with systems associated with horizontal flow filters or waste stabilization ponds, vertical flow with recirculation, partially saturated systems, etc. A database analyzed 10 years earlier on the classical French system summarized the global performances data. This paper provides a similar analysis of performance data from 415 full-scale two-stage VFCWs from an improved database expanded by monitoring data available from Irstea and the French technical department. Trends presented in the first study are confirmed, exhibiting high chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal rates (87%, 93% and 84%, respectively). Typical concentrations at the second-stage outlet are 74 mgCOD L(-1), 17 mgTSS L(-1) and 11 mgTKN L(-1). Pollutant removal performances are summarized in relation to the loads applied at the first treatment stage. While COD and TSS removal rates remain stable over the range of applied loads, the spreading of TKN removal rates increases as applied loads increase. PMID:25945849

  18. Age of stratospheric air unchanged within uncertainties over the past 30years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Möbius, T.; Bönisch, H.; Schmidt, U.; Heinz, R.; Levin, I.; Atlas, E.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Sugawara, S.; Moore, F.; Hurst, D.; Elkins, J.; Schauffler, S.; Andrews, A.; Boering, K.

    2009-01-01

    The rising abundances of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is associated with an increase in radiative forcing that leads to warming of the troposphere, the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, and cooling of the stratosphere above. A secondary effect of increasing levels of greenhouse gases is a possible change in the stratospheric circulation, which could significantly affect chlorofluorocarbon lifetimes, ozone levels and the climate system more generally. Model simulations have shown that the mean age of stratospheric air is a good indicator of the strength of the residual circulation, and that this mean age is expected to decrease with rising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Here we use balloon-borne measurements of stratospheric trace gases over the past 30years to derive the mean age of air from sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and CO2 mixing ratios. In contrast to the models, these observations do not show a decrease in mean age with time. If models are to make valid predictions of future stratospheric ozone levels, and of the coupling between ozone and climate change, a correct description of stratospheric transport and possible changes in the transport pathways are necessary.

  19. Is SfM photogrammetry really the tool we've waited 30 years for?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Jim; Micheletti, Natan; Lane, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    SFM photogrammetry has evolved rapidly in the last few years, to the point where it is beginning to surpass terrestrial laser scanning for capturing 3-D models of natural surfaces. The ability to generate high resolution digital terrain models using just a consumer grade digital camera, or even a smart phone, is an important advance. The fact that this can be achieved at a range of scales and resolutions and from a variety of platforms, whilst using software which is freely available, appears almost incredible. This invited presentation seeks to place SfM photogrammetry in its proper historical context, by demonstrating just how rapidly techniques have evolved over the last 30 years. However, it is important to look forward and help ensure that future use is effective, even if spatial measurement expertise is limited. Consequently, the presentation will also demonstrate just how well-established lessons learnt in the past continue to remain important, particularly if accurate spatial data is desired. The application of SfM to a range of case studies will help to demonstrate the importance of scene geometry and accurate camera calibration and modelling. In addition, the establishment of external control remains critical for determining true change and the provision of independent checkpoints provides important verification of accuracies actually achieved. Recognition of these traditional photogrammetric principles and well-established practices should help ensure that expectations are both realistic and can be fulfilled, even for a new generation of non-expert users.

  20. Medical thoracoscopy: Analysis on diagnostic yield through 30 years of experience

    PubMed Central

    Valsecchi, Alberto; Arondi, Sabrina; Marchetti, Giampietro

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medical thoracoscopy (MT) or pleuroscopy is a procedure performed to diagnose and treat malignant and benign pleural diseases. Totally 2752 pleuroscopies executed in 1984–2013 in our center were considered in this study. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed. Observational time was divided into six series of 5 years. We calculated MT diagnostic yield and analyzed trends of main diseases diagnosed along the time. RESULTS: Along the 30 years population became progressively older. Number of pleuroscopies firstly increased, then stabilized and decreased in the last 5 years. The overall diagnostic yield of MT was 71%, increasing from 57% to 79%. The diagnostic yield was significantly higher in the presence of monolateral pleural effusion. Cancer represented more than half of diagnosis; tuberculosis was the most common nonneoplastic disease. The frequency of all cancers, mesothelioma, and lung cancer increased through the time; tuberculosis first decreased and then increased. All specimens resulted appropriate during the last 25 years. CONCLUSION: MT has a great diagnostic yield that can be improved by practice, permitting to achieve a specific histological diagnosis in about 80% of patients. Our experience demonstrates that the accurate selection of the patients undergoing to MT is very important to reach these results. PMID:27512506

  1. Reversible cardiomyopathy after radiofrequency ablation of 30-year persistent atrial tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Shiga, Tsuyoshi; Arai, Kotaro; Shoda, Morio

    2013-01-01

    Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy (TIC) is a reversible form of the left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction and is believed to be a relatively acute process. We report a TIC case with a 30-year history of long-lasting persistent atrial tachycardia involving a 44-year-old man previously diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy and a low LV ejection fraction (LVEF) of 20%. ECG revealed atrial tachycardia at 110–120 bpm. He was hospitalised with a worsening heart failure. His clinical status was New York Heart Association functional class III, and echocardiography revealed LV dilation and an LVEF of 9%. A two-dimensional speckle-tracking strain measurement revealed LV mechanical dyssynchrony. He underwent radiofrequency ablation for atrial tachycardia. After restoring sinus rhythm, his cardiac symptoms improved immediately. The LV mechanical dyssynchrony decreased a week after ablation, without changes in the LV dilation or LVEF. Thereafter, the LV dilation and systolic function gradually improved, and atrial tachycardia and heart failure remained absent. PMID:24326427

  2. Modeling Saturn's Giant Storms: Water, Ammonia, and the 30-Year Periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    A giant planet-encircling storm occurred on Saturn on Dec. 5th, 2010 at planetographic latitude 37.7oN. It produced intense lightning, created enormous cloud disturbances and wrapped around the planet in 6 months. Six such storms, called Great White Spots, have erupted since 1876. They have alternated between mid-latitudes and the equator at intervals ranging from 20 to 30 years. The reason for the intermittent explosion is hitherto unclear and there are no similar storms on brother Jupiter. Here we describe the water-loading-mechanism, which could suppress moist convection for decades due to the larger molecular weight of water in a hydrogen-helium atmosphere. We show that this mechanism requires the deep water vapor mixing ratio to be greater than 1.0%. Observations imply that Saturn's atmosphere is more enriched in water than Jupiter, which could explain why Saturn has such storms and Jupiter does not. We further use a two-dimensional axisymmetric dynamic model and a top-cooling convective adjustment scheme to connect our theory to observation. We show that for a deep water mixing ratio of 1.1%, the ammonia vapor is depleted down to 6 bars, the tropospheric warming is about 6 K, and the interval between two consecutive storms at one place is about 70 years. These values are confirmed by both ground-based and spacecraft observations.

  3. 30 Years on Selected Issues in the Prevention of HIV among Persons Who Inject Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Des Jarlais, D. C.; Pinkerton, S.; Hagan, H.; Guardino, V.; Feelemyer, J.; Cooper, H.; Hatzatkis, A.; Uuskula, A.

    2013-01-01

    After 30 years of extensive research on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among persons who inject drugs (PWID), we now have a good understanding of the critical issues involved. Following the discovery of HIV in 1981, epidemics among PWID were noted in many countries, and consensus recommendations for interventions for reducing injection related HIV transmission have been developed. While high-income countries have continued to develop and implement new Harm Reduction programs, most low-/middle-income countries have implemented Harm Reduction at very low levels. Modeling of combined prevention programming including needle exchange (NSP) and antiretroviral therapy (ARV) suggests that NSP be given the highest priority. Future HIV prevention programming should continue to provide Harm Reduction programs for PWID coupled with interventions aimed at reducing sexual transmission. As HIV continues to spread in low- and middle-income countries, it is important to achieve and maintain high coverage of Harm Reduction programs in these locations. As PWID almost always experience multiple health problems, it will be important to address these multiple problems within a comprehensive approach grounded in a human rights perspective. PMID:23840957

  4. Busulfan-melphalan in high-risk neuroblastoma: the 30-year experience of a single institution.

    PubMed

    Proust-Houdemont, S; Pasqualini, C; Blanchard, P; Dufour, C; Benhamou, E; Goma, G; Semeraro, M; Raquin, M-A; Hartmann, O; Valteau-Couanet, D

    2016-08-01

    High-dose chemotherapy (HDC) was investigated in high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NBL) to reduce the risk of relapse. We report the results of the 30-year experience of a cohort of patients with HR-NBL treated with high-dose (HD) busulfan (Bu)-containing regimens. From 1980 to 2009, 215 patients aged >1 year with stage 4 NBL were treated with HD Bu-containing regimens at Gustave Roussy. These data were prospectively recorded in the Pediatric Transplantation Database. The median age at diagnosis was 40 months (12-218 months). All patients had a stage 4 neuroblastoma. NMYC amplification was displayed in 24% of the tumors. The hematopoietic support consisted of bone marrow or PBSCs in 46% and 49% of patients, respectively. The 5-year event-free survival and overall survival rates of the whole cohort were 35.1% and 40%, respectively. Age at diagnosis, bone marrow involvement and tumor response after induction chemotherapy were significant prognostic factors. Toxicity was manageable and decreased over time, owing to both PBSC administration and better supportive care. Based on this experience, HD Bu-melphalan (Mel) has been implemented in Europe and compared with Carboplatin-Etoposide-Mel in the European SIOP Neuroblastoma (SIOPEN)/HR-NBL randomized protocol. It has now become the standard HDC in the SIOPEN HR strategy. PMID:27042850

  5. The virtual brain: 30 years of video-game play and cognitive abilities

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Andrew J.; Patston, Lucy L. M.; Tippett, Lynette J.

    2013-01-01

    Forty years have passed since video-games were first made widely available to the public and subsequently playing games has become a favorite past-time for many. Players continuously engage with dynamic visual displays with success contingent on the time-pressured deployment, and flexible allocation, of attention as well as precise bimanual movements. Evidence to date suggests that both brief and extensive exposure to video-game play can result in a broad range of enhancements to various cognitive faculties that generalize beyond the original context. Despite promise, video-game research is host to a number of methodological issues that require addressing before progress can be made in this area. Here an effort is made to consolidate the past 30 years of literature examining the effects of video-game play on cognitive faculties and, more recently, neural systems. Future work is required to identify the mechanism that allows the act of video-game play to generate such a broad range of generalized enhancements. PMID:24062712

  6. The SLC28 (CNT) and SLC29 (ENT) nucleoside transporter families: a 30-year collaborative odyssey.

    PubMed

    Young, James D

    2016-06-15

    Specialized nucleoside transporter (NT) proteins are required for passage of nucleosides and hydrophilic nucleoside analogues across biological membranes. Physiologic nucleosides serve as central salvage metabolites in nucleotide biosynthesis, and nucleoside analogues are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cancer and antiviral diseases. The nucleoside adenosine modulates numerous cellular events via purino-receptor cell signalling pathways. Human NTs are divided into two structurally unrelated protein families: the SLC28 concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) family and the SLC29 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family. Human CNTs are inwardly directed Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transporters found predominantly in intestinal and renal epithelial and other specialized cell types. Human ENTs mediate bidirectional fluxes of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides down their concentration gradients and are ubiquitously found in most, possibly all, cell types. Both protein families are evolutionarily old: CNTs are present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes; ENTs are widely distributed in mammalian, lower vertebrate and other eukaryote species. This mini-review describes a 30-year collaboration with Professor Stephen Baldwin to identify and understand the structures and functions of these physiologically and clinically important transport proteins. PMID:27284054

  7. Planting misinformation in the human mind: a 30-year investigation of the malleability of memory.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2005-01-01

    The misinformation effect refers to the impairment in memory for the past that arises after exposure to misleading information. The phenomenon has been investigated for at least 30 years, as investigators have addressed a number of issues. These include the conditions under which people are especially susceptible to the negative impact of misinformation, and conversely when are they resistant. Warnings about the potential for misinformation sometimes work to inhibit its damaging effects, but only under limited circumstances. The misinformation effect has been observed in a variety of human and nonhuman species. And some groups of individuals are more susceptible than others. At a more theoretical level, investigators have explored the fate of the original memory traces after exposure to misinformation appears to have made them inaccessible. This review of the field ends with a brief discussion of the newer work involving misinformation that has explored the processes by which people come to believe falsely that they experienced rich complex events that never, in fact, occurred. PMID:16027179

  8. "Evolving nanoparticle gene delivery vectors for the liver: What has been learned in 30 years".

    PubMed

    Crowley, Samuel T; Rice, Kevin G

    2015-12-10

    Nonviral gene delivery to the liver has been under evolution for nearly 30years. Early demonstrations established relatively simple nonviral vectors could mediate gene expression in HepG2 cells which understandably led to speculation that these same vectors would be immediately successful at transfecting primary hepatocytes in vivo. However, it was soon recognized that the properties of a nonviral vector resulting in efficient transfection in vitro were uncorrelated with those needed to achieve efficient nonviral transfection in vivo. The discovery of major barriers to liver gene transfer has set the field on a course to design biocompatible vectors that demonstrate increased DNA stability in the circulation with correlating expression in liver. The improved understanding of what limits nonviral vector gene transfer efficiency in vivo has resulted in more sophisticated, low molecular weight vectors that allow systematic optimization of nanoparticle size, charge and ligand presentation. While the field has evolved DNA nanoparticles that are stable in the circulation, target hepatocytes, and deliver DNA to the cytosol, breaching the nucleus remains the last major barrier to a fully successful nonviral gene transfer system for the liver. The lessons learned along the way are fundamentally important to the design of all systemically delivered nanoparticle nonviral gene delivery systems. PMID:26439664

  9. Surveillance of Infectious Diseases by the Sentinel Laboratory Network in Belgium: 30 Years of Continuous Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Muyldermans, Gaëtan; Ducoffre, Geneviève; Leroy, Mathias; Dupont, Yves; Quolin, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In 1983 the sentinel laboratory network was established because of the need to describe the epidemiological evolution of infectious diseases. During the study period of 30 years (1983–2013), microbiology laboratories reported on weekly basis the laboratory diagnosed cases for a selection of infectious diseases. This resulted in a large longitudinal laboratory based database allowing to provide trends over time and distribution by person and place. During this period, adaptations to data collection were made due to changes in diagnostic methods and public health priorities, introduction and application of digital revolution, and multiple reorganizations of the laboratories. Since the surveillance network is dynamic, it necessitates a continuous evaluation to ensure that, over time, it continues to be representative of the general epidemiological trends in the country. Secondly the aim is to examine the robustness and stability of this surveillance system. Here we demonstrated that the flexibility of the data collection methodology by the sentinel laboratory network is unique and that adaptations do not affect the capacity of the system to follow trends. Therefore, the surveillance by this network is representative of the current epidemiological situation in Belgium. To our knowledge, no such surveillance network with such a long-term follow-up and demonstrated stability for multiple infectious diseases in the general population was earlier described. Furthermore, expected trends due to the implementation of vaccination or other events were accurately detected. The collected data obtained from this network allows interesting comparisons with other national and international information sources. PMID:27571203

  10. Chiropractic management of a 30-year-old patient with Parsonage-Turner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this case report is to describe the chiropractic management of a patient presenting with right arm paralysis and a diagnosis of Parsonage-Turner syndrome. Clinical Features After receiving nerve entrapment release surgery, a 30-year-old man presented with a right arm contracture, atrophy, and weakness with general paralysis of the forearm and index finger of 6 weeks' duration. Intervention and Outcome The patient was provided chiropractic care that included high-velocity/low-amplitude spinal manipulation based upon applied kinesiology manual muscle testing, soft tissue trigger point therapy, exercises, and stretches. The patient demonstrated improvement in range of motion after the first treatment session. By the eighth treatment, he was able to fully straighten his arm. Three years later, the patient reported that he was able to do mountain climbing and that his arm was fully functional and pain-free. Conclusion For this patient, chiropractic care seemed to be successful in relieving his right arm paralysis and restoring normal arm movement. PMID:22654689

  11. Roadmap for Loess/Paleosol Magnetism After 30 Years of Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagroix, F.; Taylor, S. N.; Guyodo, Y. J. B.; Till, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last 30 years, loess and paleosol deposits have provided the scientific community a unique opportunity to study past climate and environmental change of the continents. Fluctuating magnetic susceptibility of glacial loess and interglacial soil deposits in China, and a few places elsewhere, have been correlated with the marine isotope stages and ice core records, illustrating the loess-climate connection. Furthermore, the logarithm of the magnetic susceptibility and other ferrimagnetism dependant concentration parameters in modern topsoil are found to be linearly related to modern rainfall records. But, the transfer function is site specific. Others have suggested that the relationship is more universal if precipitation and evapotranspiration are considered together. This said, major roadblocks remain for loess/paleosol magnetism to reach its full potential as a quantitative tool in climate and environmental studies. Reaching this full potential is impaired primarily because of the difficulty in identifying iron oxides and oxyhydroxides other than magnetite or maghemite in natural samples and (semi-)quantifying their concentration and grain size. This talk will present results obtained recently through research targeting loess and paleosol magnetism emphasising the need to further consider the following scientific questions. Which environmental and climate variables cause the change in magnetism in soils? How does magnetism evolve with time, quantitatively, when soils are buried under newly deposited loess and become paleosols? Can we overcome the imprecision of paleomagnetic dating inherent to our poor understanding of the magnetization acquisition process in loess and soils?

  12. Seasonal spatial heterogeneity of warming rates on the Tibetan Plateau over the past 30 years

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jianping; Li, Lun; Fang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Based on temperature data from 79 meteorological stations, we estimate the warming rate by season on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) during 1984–2013. The warming rate was spatially heterogeneous across seasons over the past 30 years. The northern TP (NTP) experienced more warming than the southern TP (STP) (divided near 33°N) in all seasons. The greatest north-south difference in warming was 0.70 ± 0.11 °C for summer (June-August), while the smallest difference was 0.27 ± 0.14 °C for the cold season (November-April). Such seasonal and spatial heterogeneity in the warming rate is consistent with the seasonal precipitation patterns of the NTP and the STP. One possible cause for this phenomenon is that more precipitation occurs in the STP than in the NTP (especially for summer), accompanied by more low cloud cover, which may have slowed the warming rate. Our results imply that dry regions on the TP will possibly experience greater temperature increase than wet regions under future global warming, and this will be more prominent in summer. PMID:26114895

  13. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: Past and Present—88 Surgeries in 30 Years at Chang Gung

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Frank; Nai-Jen Chang, Tommy; Chuieng-Yi Lu, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a highly controversial clinical entity. There is much debate on its terminology, existence, diagnosis, and treatment. The purpose of this study was to describe our opinions about these controversial topics of TOS and the treatment of TOS over the past 30 years. Methods: From 1985 to 2014, a total of 80 patients underwent decompressive surgery for TOS. Eight patients requested a second surgery on the contralateral limb. They all had at least 1-year follow-up. Preoperative evaluation included provocative tests, plain X-ray, magnetic resonance angiography/computed tomography angiography, and electromyography. Surgical intervention for each patient involved a supraclavicular approach and near-total resection of the anterior scalene muscle and the first rib and of any cervical rib if it was present. Rib resection was performed with the use of Kerrison bone punch forceps. The operative time was typically 2 hours. Results: Major postoperative complications were rare. Nearly all patients (98%) experienced significant symptom relief, with improvement in soreness and tightness of the shoulder, neck, and arm immediately on the first postoperative day or within a few weeks thereafter. There were no cases with symptoms recurring. Conclusions: It is evident that decompressive surgery through a supraclavicular approach for TOS not only is an effective and safe procedure but also provides a diagnosis of the cause of TOS. For a patient who meets the criteria for surgical indication, decompressive surgery usually results in resolution of symptoms and no recurrence. PMID:27482476

  14. Modeling and risk assessment of a 30-Year-old subsurface radioactive-liquid drain field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Lon A.; Pohl, Phillip I.

    1997-11-01

    The contamination from a 30-year-old radioactive liquid drain field was assessed for movement in the subsurface and potential risks to humans. This assessment included determining field concentrations of cesium 137 (137Cs) and other inorganic contaminants and modeling of the flow and transport of the liquid waste that was sent to the drain field. The field investigation detected no contamination deeper than 15 feet (4.6 m) from the bottom of the drain field. Prediction of the water content of the vadose zone showed no saturated conditions for times greater than 10 years after the known infiltration. Sensitivity analysis of the modeling parameters showed the equilibrium sorption coefficient to be the most important factor in predicting the contaminant plumes. Calibration of modeling results with field data gave a 137Cs sorption coefficient that is within the range of values found in the literature. The risk assessment for the site showed that the contamination poses no significant risk to human health.

  15. Interannual variability of the Indonesian Throughflow transport: A revisit based on 30 year expendable bathythermograph data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qin-Yan; Feng, Ming; Wang, Dongxiao; Wijffels, Susan

    2015-12-01

    Based on 30 year repeated expendable bathythermograph (XBT) deployments between Fremantle, Western Australia, and the Sunda Strait, Indonesia, from 1984 to 2013, interannual variability of geostrophic transport of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) and its relationships with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) are investigated. The IOD induced coastal Kelvin waves propagate along the Sumatra-Java coast of Indonesia, and ENSO induced coastal Kelvin waves propagate along the northwest coast of Australia, both influencing interannual variations of the ITF transport. The ITF geostrophic transport is stronger during La Niña phase and weaker during El Niño phase, with the Niño3.4 index leading the ITF variability by 7 months. The Indian Ocean wind variability associated with the IOD to a certain extent offset the Pacific ENSO influences on the ITF geostrophic transport during the developing and mature phases of El Niño and La Niña, due to the covarying IOD variability with ENSO. The ITF geostrophic transport experiences a strengthening trend of about 1 Sv every 10 years over the study period, which is mostly due to a response to the strengthening of the trade winds in the Pacific during the climate change hiatus period. Decadal variations of the temperature-salinity relationships need to be considered when estimating the geostrophic transport of the ITF using XBT data.

  16. Surveillance of Infectious Diseases by the Sentinel Laboratory Network in Belgium: 30 Years of Continuous Improvement.

    PubMed

    Muyldermans, Gaëtan; Ducoffre, Geneviève; Leroy, Mathias; Dupont, Yves; Quolin, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In 1983 the sentinel laboratory network was established because of the need to describe the epidemiological evolution of infectious diseases. During the study period of 30 years (1983-2013), microbiology laboratories reported on weekly basis the laboratory diagnosed cases for a selection of infectious diseases. This resulted in a large longitudinal laboratory based database allowing to provide trends over time and distribution by person and place. During this period, adaptations to data collection were made due to changes in diagnostic methods and public health priorities, introduction and application of digital revolution, and multiple reorganizations of the laboratories. Since the surveillance network is dynamic, it necessitates a continuous evaluation to ensure that, over time, it continues to be representative of the general epidemiological trends in the country. Secondly the aim is to examine the robustness and stability of this surveillance system. Here we demonstrated that the flexibility of the data collection methodology by the sentinel laboratory network is unique and that adaptations do not affect the capacity of the system to follow trends. Therefore, the surveillance by this network is representative of the current epidemiological situation in Belgium. To our knowledge, no such surveillance network with such a long-term follow-up and demonstrated stability for multiple infectious diseases in the general population was earlier described. Furthermore, expected trends due to the implementation of vaccination or other events were accurately detected. The collected data obtained from this network allows interesting comparisons with other national and international information sources. PMID:27571203

  17. Measuring currents in submarine canyons: technological and scientific progress in the past 30 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The development and application of acoustic and optical technologies and of accurate positioning systems in the past 30 years have opened new frontiers in the submarine canyon research communities. This paper reviews several key advancements in both technology and science in the field of currents in submarine canyons since the1979 publication of Currents in Submarine Canyons and Other Sea Valleys by Francis Shepard and colleagues. Precise placements of high-resolution, high-frequency instruments have not only allowed researchers to collect new data that are essential for advancing and generalizing theories governing the canyon currents, but have also revealed new natural phenomena that challenge the understandings of the theorists and experimenters in their predictions of submarine canyon flow fields. Baroclinic motions at tidal frequencies, found to be intensified both up canyon and toward the canyon floor, dominate the flow field and control the sediment transport processes in submarine canyons. Turbidity currents are found to frequently occur in active submarine canyons such as Monterey Canyon. These turbidity currents have maximum speeds of nearly 200 cm/s, much smaller than the speeds of turbidity currents in geological time, but still very destructive. In addition to traditional Eulerian measurements, Lagrangian flow data are essential in quantifying water and sediment transport in submarine canyons. A concerted experiment with multiple monitoring stations along the canyon axis and on nearby shelves is required to characterize the storm-trigger mechanism for turbidity currents.

  18. Aetiology of maxillofacial fractures: a review of published studies during the last 30 years.

    PubMed

    Boffano, Paolo; Kommers, Sofie C; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2014-12-01

    The epidemiology of facial trauma may vary widely across countries (and even within the same country), and is dependent on several cultural and socioeconomic factors. We know of few reviews of published reports that have considered the sex distribution and aetiology of maxillofacial trauma throughout the world. The aim of this review was to discuss these aspects as they have been presented in papers published during the last 30 years. We made a systematic review of papers about the epidemiology of maxillofacial trauma that were published between January 1980 and December 2013 and identified 69 studies from Africa (n=9), North America and Brazil (n=6), Asia (n=36), Europe (n=16), and Oceania (n=2). In all the studies men outnumbered women, the ratio usually being more than 2:1. In American, African, and Asian studies road traffic crashes were the predominant cause. In European studies the aetiology varied, with assaults and road traffic crashes being the most important factors. In Oceania assaults were the most important. A comparison of the incidence of maxillofacial trauma of different countries together with a knowledge of different laws (seat belts for drivers, helmets for motocyclists, speed limits, and protection worn during sports and at work) is crucial to allow for improvement in several countries. To our knowledge this paper is the first attempt to study and compare the aetiologies of maxillofacial trauma. PMID:25218316

  19. Evaluating health services: the importance of patients' preferences and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Yin, D; Forman, H P; Langlotz, C P

    1995-12-01

    With limited resources available, we all would like to allocate health care dollars to do the most good. Clinical research tells us what outcomes to expect (in many cases) from the introduction of a health care program, a test, or a therapy. Even primitive cost analysis can assess the cost of such programs. The ability to place a value on health states is vital when assessing how patient outcomes influence the relative cost-effectiveness of medical procedures, therapies, and programs. Without a means to measure the value of a particular health state, one is left to compare apples with oranges and oranges with vacuum cleaners. In fact, comparisons of fruit and home appliances is relatively easy, because one can readily apply monetary values to apples, oranges, and vacuum cleaners and compare dollar amounts. How can one do the same for the outcomes of medical procedures and diagnostic tests? This is the challenge for health services and outcomes researchers throughout the world and, more urgently, the focus of policy makers, governments, and health insurers. The purpose of this paper is to describe quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), a method that has successfully measured the outcomes of disparate health programs. We will introduce the QALY method, summarize the various methods of measuring and classifying health states, describe three methods that have been used to measure patients' preferences (utilities) for health states, and discuss the limitations of utility assessment and some controversies that result from the measurement and use of utilities and concerning health-related quality of life. Readers who are interested in general topics of radiology technology assessment and cost-effectiveness analysis should consult other review articles [1-4]. PMID:7484556

  20. Internet Service Cognition and Use, and Their Promotion of Quality of Life in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Te-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    The "e-Taiwan Program" implemented by Taiwan government is aimed at showing the e-advantage in people's life and bring about essential benefits. This research follows the e-Life indicators of the Quality of Life measurement system developed by "e-Taiwan Program", which including four major dimensions of e-Daily Life, e-Business, e-Government,…

  1. Investigating the Relationship between Pre-Service Teachers' Scientific Literacy, Environmental Literacy and Life-Long Learning Tendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saribas, D.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between pre-service teachers' scientific literacy (SL) and their environmental literacy (EL). It also seeks significant differences in SL at different levels of a tendency towards life-long learning (LLT). With the world facing critical environmental problems, an interdisciplinary approach to teaching…

  2. Health Care Service Needs and Correlates of Quality of Life: A Case Study of Elderly Chinese Immigrants in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Henry P. H.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the health care service needs and the major correlates of quality of life among 127 community-dwelling elderly Chinese immigrants in a western Canadian city. Participants were interviewed in their homes by trained, bilingual interviewers employing a structured questionnaire that covered a wide range of topics including health…

  3. Base materials and technologies to maintain long service life and efficiency of thermionic converters and thermionic fuel elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, Yury V.; Yastrebkov, Anotoly A.; Gontar, Alexander S.; Lapochkin, Nikolay V.; Belousenko, Alexander P.; Tsetskhladze, David L.

    2001-02-01

    It became possible to produce thermionic converters and thermionic fuel elements having a long-term service life and high efficiency only after developing new materials and processes of their production and treatment. This report present the characteristic of the level (achieved at present) of the base materials and technologies used in the State RI of SIA ``Lutch'' when producing TIC and TFE. .

  4. Long-term Outcomes of Military Service in Aging and the Life Course: A Positive Re-envisioning.

    PubMed

    Spiro, Avron; Settersten, Richard A; Aldwin, Carolyn M

    2016-02-01

    Most research on military service focuses on its short-term negative consequences, especially the mental and physical injuries of those deployed in warzones. However, studies of long-term outcomes reveal surprisingly positive effects of military service--both those early in adulthood that grow over time and others that can emerge later in life. These multidomain effects have been found in veterans of World War II and the Korean War and are now being seen in veterans of the Vietnam War. Although some are directly attributable to public policies such as the GI Bill, which facilitate educational and economic gains, there are personal developmental gains as well, including autonomy, emotional maturity and resilience, mastery, and leadership skills, that lead to better health and well-being in later life. These long-term effects vary across persons, change over time within persons, and often reflect processes of cumulative advantage and disadvantage. We propose a life-span model of the effects of military service that provides a perspective for probing both long-term positive and negative outcomes for aging veterans. We further explicate the model by focusing on both sociocultural dynamics and individual processes. We identify public-use data that can be examined to evaluate this model, and offer a set of questions that can be used to assess military service. Finally, we outline an agenda for dedicated inquiry into such effects and consider policy implications for the health and well-being of aging veterans in later life. PMID:26655859

  5. Evaluation of a passive optical based end of service life indicator (ESLI) for organic vapor respirator cartridges

    PubMed Central

    Checky, Melissa; Frankel, Kevin; Goddard, Denise; Johnson, Erik; Thomas, J. Christopher; Zelinsky, Maria; Javner, Cassidy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A passive visual end of service life indicator (ESLI) for certain organic vapors has been attached to the inside wall of an organic vapor respirator cartridge. The opposite side of the ESLI touches activated carbon inside the cartridge. During use, organic vapors moving through the cartridge adsorb into both the carbon and the ESLI. The cartridge body is clear so that when vapor concentrations meet a certain threshold, the user may observe the progressive development of an indicator bar down the side of the ESLI. The cartridge is deemed ready to change when any part of the indicator bar touches a marked end line. The performance of the ESLI was observed when the cartridge was tested against a variety of organic vapors, exposure concentrations above the minimum indication level, humidities, temperatures, flow rates, and mixtures. In all cases, the ESLI indicated end of service life with more than 10% cartridge service life remaining (which is a NIOSH test criteria). The results were also compared to mathematical predictions of cartridge service life. PMID:26418577

  6. Eighteen- to 30-year-olds more likely to link to hepatitis C virus care: an opportunity to decrease transmission.

    PubMed

    Young, K L; Huang, W; Horsburgh, C R; Linas, B P; Assoumou, S A

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection incidence among 18- to 30-year-olds is increasing and guidelines recommend treatment of active injection drug users to limit transmission. We aimed to : measure linkage to HCV care among 18- to 30-year-olds and identify factors associated with linkage; compare linkage among 18- to 30-year-olds to that of patients >30 years. We used the electronic medical record at an urban safety net hospital to create a retrospective cohort with reactive HCV antibody between 2005 and 2010. We report seroprevalence and demographics of seropositive patients, and used multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with linkage to HCV care. We defined linkage as having evidence of HCV RNA testing after reactive antibody. Thirty two thousand four hundred and eighteen individuals were tested, including 8873 between 18 and 30 years. The seropositivity rate among those ages 18-30 was 10%. In multivariate analysis, among those 18-30, diagnosis location (Outpatient vs Inpatient/ED) (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.28-2.49) and number of visits after diagnosis (OR 5.30, 95% CI 3.91-7.19) were associated with higher odds of linking to care. When we compared linkage in patients ages 18-30 to that among those older than 30, patients in the 18-30 years age group were more likely to link to HCV care than those in the older cohort even when controlling for gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, birthplace, diagnosis location and duration of follow-up. Eighteen- to 30-year-olds are more likely to link to HCV care than their older counterparts. During the interferon-free treatment era, there is an opportunity to prevent further HCV transmission in this population. PMID:26572798

  7. Changes in physical fitness and nutritional status of schoolchildren in a period of 30 years (1980-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze and compare the changes in physical fitness according to the nutritional status and gender of schoolchildren during a period of 30 years (1980-2010). Methods: Four cross-sectional evaluations were performed every 10 years in a period of 30 years from 1978 to 1980 (baseline), 1988-1990 (10 years), 1998-2000 (20 years) and 2008-2010 (30 years). The sample consisted of 1291 schoolchildren (188 in baseline, 307 in 10 years; 375 in 20 years; 421 in 30 years) of 10 and 11 years old. The variables assessed were: body weight (kg), height (cm), upper limb strength (ULS; kg), lower limb strength (LLS; cm), agility (seconds) and velocity (seconds). Schoolchildren were classified as normal weight and overweight according to World Health Organization reference of body mass index for age and gender. Comparisons among periods applied ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test, with a significance level set at of p<0.01. Variation between baseline and 30 years was assessed by the percentage delta. Seven different percentile values were presented for each variable. Results: In eutrophic boys and girls, mean values of ULS (−16.7%; −3.2%), agility (−1.5%; −1.6%) decreased significantly after 30 years (p<0.001). In the overweight boys and girls, only the average ULS (−15.5%; −12.5%) decreased significantly over time (p<0.001). After 30 years, the ULS percentile changed in boys. Conclusions: The decline in physical fitness was greater in schoolchildren with normal weight than in those with overweight. PMID:26298653

  8. Contrasting population trends of piscivorous seabirds in the Pribilof Islands: A 30-year perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrd, G.V.; Schmutz, J.A.; Renner, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Pribilof Islands provide nesting habitat for one of the largest concentrations of piscivorous seabirds in the North Pacific region. Pribilof breeding populations of black-legged and red-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla and Rissa brevirostris), and common and thick-billed murres (Uria aalge and Uria lomvia) are supported by a highly productive marine food web. Productivity and temperature in this area are influenced by winter sea ice that frequently reaches its maximum extent near the Pribilofs. Although St. George and St. Paul islands, the two largest of the Pribilof group, are situated only 60 km apart, St. George is within 25 km of the shelf break, but St. Paul is approximately 90 km away. In contrast, the local contribution of sea ice-edge productivity in the spring is frequently closer to St. Paul than to St. George. Central place foraging piscivorous seabirds nesting at St. Paul and St. George are likely differentially affected by the relative contributions of the shelf break and ice-edge environments based on juxtaposition. Within the past decade or so, sea ice in the Bering Sea has failed to reach the vicinity of the Pribilofs in some years, and predictions of warming in the future suggest the possibility that direct effects of the ice on the immediate Pribilof environment will be reduced. To evaluate the response of kittiwakes and murres on the two islands to conditions in their foraging environments, we examined population trends over the past 30 years based on data from the seabird monitoring program conducted by the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge and others. Spatial differences in trends have been more consistent than differences among species, with populations at St. Paul having more enduring declines than those at St. George. At St. George, black-legged kittiwakes and common murres have remained stable. Red-legged kittiwakes and thick-billed murres both declined, but began to rebound in the late 1980s, such that in 2005 population

  9. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above.

    PubMed

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥ 30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30-65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected more ≥ CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥ CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results (positive test results without ≥ CIN3) varied between 3.3% with cytology and 14.9% with cobas. All HPV assays led to significantly more false-positive tests, whereas compared to HC2 cobas and CLART were associated with a significantly higher and APTIMA with a significantly lower proportion. Detection of CIN1 was particularly increased for the three DNA assays. With APTIMA combined with cytological triage, about 20% more women were referred for colposcopy than with cytology screening. With the three DNA assays, the increase was ≥ 50%. The number of women with repeated testing was twice as high with APTIMA and almost five times as high with cobas compared to cytology. To our knowledge, Horizon was the only study set in routine practice that compared more than two HPV assays in the same women while also ascertaining the histological status of women with normal cytology/HPV-positive test results. HPV-based screening of Danish women aged 30-65 detected more high-grade CIN but decreased the screening specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:26789267

  10. [Dynamics of major forest vegetations in Tiantong National Forest Park during the last 30 years].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang-Yang; Guo, Chun-Zi; Ni, Jian

    2014-06-01

    The study of vegetation succession and development is not only one of the hot spots of modern ecology, but also a key issue of the sustainable development of human society, especially under the circumstances of climate change and anthropogenic disturbance. A comparison of forest communities in the Tiantong National Forest Park (TNFP) in Zhejiang Province, eastern China from 1982 to 2012 was performed. Six forests in the park were investigated, including the typical evergreen broadleaved forest (EBLF, three sub-associations), evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest (EDBLMF), evergreen conifer forest (ECF) and bamboo forest (BF). Data from two field investigations in 1982 and 2012, respectively, were used to analyze the changes of species composition, community structure and species diversity during the past 30 years. The spatial pattern and community structure of the forest vegetation in the TNFP did not obviously change. The spatial distribution of plant communities did not significantly shifted. The proportion of young trees and individuals in small diameters increased. The regeneration status of communities was healthy and the natural regeneration ability of communities was enhanced. The species diversity of the TNFP forests showed an increasing trend in the tree layer and a decreasing trend in the shrub and herb layers. Meanwhile, the evergreen component increased. Along with the changed climate, forest vegetation in the TNFP was developing towards the forward succession. Species diversity, especially the trees, increased with the increase of temperature. This demonstrated that, on one hand, forest vegetation in Tiantong had been well protected; on the other hand, there was a potential positive relationship between the EBLF succession and climate change. PMID:25223006

  11. Mortality after exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Dibenzofurans: 30 years after the “Yucheng Accident”

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-Chieh; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Chen, Pau-Chung; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon; Rogan, Walter J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 1979, approximately 2,000 people in central Taiwan were accidentally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans due to ingestion of contaminated cooking oil. This event was called Yucheng, “oil-syndrome” in Chinese. We followed the exposed persons and compared their cause-specific mortality with that of neighborhood referents 30 years after the accident. METHODS We obtained age- and gender-matched referents from the 1979 neighborhoods of the exposed people. Cause-specific mortality was compared between exposed subjects (N=1803) and their neighborhood referents (N=5170) using standardized mortality ratios (SMR). Total person-years for the Yucheng subjects and neighborhood referents were 48,751 and 141,774, respectively. RESULTS The SMR for all causes (SMR=1.2, 95% CI: 1.1–1.3), diseases of the circulatory system (SMR=1.3, 95% CI: 1.0–1.6), and diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (SMR=6.4, 95% CI: 2.8–12.7) were elevated in Yucheng subjects. Among Yucheng males, the SMRs for diseases of the digestive system (SMR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.2–2.8), malignant neoplasm of stomach (SMR=3.5, 95% CI: 1.5–7.0), and malignant neoplasm of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue (SMR=3.0, 95% CI: 1.1–6.6) were increased. The SMR for total neoplasms was increased (SMR=1.3, 95% CI: 0.9–1.7). CONCLUSION We conclude that exposure to PCBs/PCDFs at levels that produced symptoms in many affects mortality patterns 3 decades after exposure. PMID:23026800

  12. High methane emissions dominate annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2015-02-01

    Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration is scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated bog sites 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 ± 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 ± 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of the three greenhouse gases, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22 up to 51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), while highest rates were found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in water table, we conclude that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of this grass species and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, the mixed soil material can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not limited to a short-term period.

  13. 30-year International Pediatric Craniofacial Surgery Partnership: Evolution from the “Third World” Forward

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jordan W.; Skirpan, Jan; Stanek, Beata; Kowalczyk, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Background: Craniofacial diseases constitute an important component of the surgical disease burden in low- and middle-income countries. The consideration to introduce craniofacial surgery into such settings poses different questions, risks, and challenges compared with cleft or other forms of plastic surgery. We report the evolution, innovations, and challenges of a 30-year international craniofacial surgery partnership. Methods: We retrospectively report a partnership between surgeons at the Uniwersytecki Szpital Dzieciecy in Krakow, Poland, and a North American craniofacial surgeon. We studied patient conditions, treatment patterns, and associated complications, as well as program advancements and limitations as perceived by surgeons, patient families, and hospital administrators. Results: Since partnership inception in 1986, the complexity of cases performed increased gradually, with the first intracranial case performed in 1995. In the most recent 10-year period (2006–2015), 85 patients have been evaluated, with most common diagnoses of Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, and single-suture craniosynostosis. In the same period, 55 major surgical procedures have been undertaken, with LeFort III midface distraction, posterior vault distraction, and frontoorbital advancement performed most frequently. Key innovations have been the employment of craniofacial distraction osteogenesis, the use of Internet communication and digital photography, and increased understanding of how craniofacial morphology may improve in the absence of surgical intervention. Ongoing challenges include prohibitive training pathways for pediatric plastic surgeons, difficulty in coordinating care with surgeons in other institutions, and limited medical and material resources. Conclusion: Safe craniofacial surgery can be introduced and sustained in a resource-limited setting through an international partnership. PMID:27200233

  14. Improving the service life of the 100-meter Green Bank Telescope azimuth track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symmes, Arthur; Anderson, Robert; Egan, Dennis

    2008-07-01

    The NRAO Green Bank Telescope (GBT), located in Green Bank, West Virginia, is supported by 16 steel wheels which rest upon a composite steel and concrete Azimuth Track, 210 feet (64 meters) in diameter. From the start of observing in February 2001, the Azimuth Track design presented an operational problem for NRAO. By the spring of 2001, slippage of the top plate on the base plate was causing hold-down bolt failures. In July 2002, wear between the top and base plates (fretting) had become evident around the entire track circumference. NRAO engineers took immediate action to reduce both the track slippage and wear problems. But in January 2003, cracks were discovered in two adjacent top plates; by 2006 the top plates were cracking at a rate of almost one a month - an alarming rate given the design service life of 20 years. This paper will summarize the engineering analysis efforts that were subsequently conducted to assess the root cause of the GBT track degradation problem. We will also discuss a trial modification section that was installed in June 2004. Finally, we will discuss the design solution that was developed to remedy the track performance problem.

  15. Assessment of Life Cycle Impacts on Ecosystem Services: Promise, Problems, and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Othoniel, Benoit; Rugani, Benedetto; Heijungs, Reinout; Benetto, Enrico; Withagen, Cees

    2016-02-01

    The analysis of ecosystem services (ES) is becoming a key-factor to implement policies on sustainable technologies. Accordingly, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods are more and more oriented toward the development of harmonized characterization models to address impacts on ES. However, such efforts are relatively recent and have not reached full consensus yet. We investigate here on the transdisciplinary pillars related to the modeling of LCIA on ES by conducting a critical review and comparison of the state-of-the-art in both LCIA and ES domains. We observe that current LCIA practices to assess impacts on "ES provision" suffer from incompleteness in modeling the cause-effect chains; the multifunctionality of ecosystems is omitted; and the "flow" nature of ES is not considered. Furthermore, ES modeling in LCIA is limited by its static calculation framework, and the valuation of ES also experiences some limitations. The conceptualization of land use (changes) as the main impact driver on ES, and the corresponding approaches to retrieve characterization factors, eventually embody several methodological shortcomings, such as the lack of time-dependency and interrelationships between elements in the cause-effect chains. We conclude that future LCIA modeling of ES could benefit from the harmonization with existing integrated multiscale dynamic integrated approaches. PMID:26717294

  16. Calculating CO2 uptake for existing concrete structures during and after service life.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Ronny; Fridh, Katja; Stripple, Håkan; Häglund, Martin

    2013-10-15

    This paper presents a model that can calculate the uptake of CO2 in all existing concrete structures, including its uptake after service life. This is important for the calculation of the total CO2 uptake in the society and its time dependence. The model uses the well-documented cement use and knowledge of how the investments are distributed throughout the building sector to estimate the stock of concrete applications in a country. The depth of carbonation of these applications is estimated using two models, one theoretical and one based on field measurements. The maximum theoretical uptake potential is defined as the amount of CO2 that is emitted during calcination at the production of Portland cement, but the model can also, with some adjustments, be used for the other cement types. The model has been applied on data from Sweden and the results show a CO2 uptake in 2011 in all existing structures of about 300,000 tonnes, which corresponds to about 17% of the total emissions (calcination and fuel) from the production of new cement for use in Sweden in the same year. The study also shows that in the years 2030 and 2050, an increase in the uptake in crushed concrete, from 12,000 tonnes today to 200,000 and 500,000 tonnes of CO2, respectively, could be possible if the waste handling is redesigned. PMID:24007514

  17. High-power rhodamine 6G laser with an extended service life

    SciTech Connect

    Knyazev, B.A.; Lebedev, S.V.; Fokin, E.P.

    1983-02-01

    A laser was constructed in which rhodamine G dissolved in isopropyl alcohol was used as the active medium. It was pumped by a coaxial flashlamp and the output energy of the laser was up to 8 J. An investigation was made of the photochemical stability of rhodamine G solutions as a function of the spectral composition of the pump radiation. Optimal selection of the solvent and of a filter through which the pump radiation was passed, and the use of previously tested components ensured that the service life was superior to that of similar lasers; practically no maintenance was needed during operation. The operating characteristics of the laser and the dynamics of their changes over a period of three years of its use in applications were recorded. When the output energy was approx.5 J per pulse, the laser could emit 1.5 x 10/sup 3/ pulses without dismantling and replacement of the active medium and this represented an integrated irradiance of the active medium in excess of 2 kJ/cm/sup 3/.

  18. Integrated earth system dynamic modeling for life cycle impact assessment of ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Arbault, Damien; Rivière, Mylène; Rugani, Benedetto; Benetto, Enrico; Tiruta-Barna, Ligia

    2014-02-15

    Despite the increasing awareness of our dependence on Ecosystem Services (ES), Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) does not explicitly and fully assess the damages caused by human activities on ES generation. Recent improvements in LCIA focus on specific cause-effect chains, mainly related to land use changes, leading to Characterization Factors (CFs) at the midpoint assessment level. However, despite the complexity and temporal dynamics of ES, current LCIA approaches consider the environmental mechanisms underneath ES to be independent from each other and devoid of dynamic character, leading to constant CFs whose representativeness is debatable. This paper takes a step forward and is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of using an integrated earth system dynamic modeling perspective to retrieve time- and scenario-dependent CFs that consider the complex interlinkages between natural processes delivering ES. The GUMBO (Global Unified Metamodel of the Biosphere) model is used to quantify changes in ES production in physical terms - leading to midpoint CFs - and changes in human welfare indicators, which are considered here as endpoint CFs. The interpretation of the obtained results highlights the key methodological challenges to be solved to consider this approach as a robust alternative to the mainstream rationale currently adopted in LCIA. Further research should focus on increasing the granularity of environmental interventions in the modeling tools to match current standards in LCA and on adapting the conceptual approach to a spatially-explicit integrated model. PMID:24291626

  19. Evaluating the demographic buffering hypothesis with vital rates estimated for Weddell seals from 30years of mark-recapture data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rotella, J.J.; Link, W.A.; Chambert, T.; Stauffer, G.E.; Garrott, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    1.Life-history theory predicts that those vital rates that make larger contributions to population growth rate ought to be more strongly buffered against environmental variability than are those that are less important. Despite the importance of the theory for predicting demographic responses to changes in the environment, it is not yet known how pervasive demographic buffering is in animal populations because the validity of most existing studies has been called into question because of methodological deficiencies. 2.We tested for demographic buffering in the southern-most breeding mammal population in the world using data collected from 5558 known-age female Weddell seals over 30years. We first estimated all vital rates simultaneously with mark-recapture analysis and then estimated process variance and covariance in those rates using a hierarchical Bayesian approach. We next calculated the population growth rate's sensitivity to changes in each of the vital rates and tested for evidence of demographic buffering by comparing properly scaled values of sensitivity and process variance in vital rates. 3.We found evidence of positive process covariance between vital rates, which indicates that all vital rates are affected in the same direction by changes in annual environment. Despite the positive correlations, we found strong evidence that demographic buffering occurred through reductions in variation in the vital rates to which population growth rate was most sensitive. Process variation in vital rates was inversely related to sensitivity measures such that variation was greatest in breeding probabilities, intermediate for survival rates of young animals and lowest for survival rates of older animals. 4.Our work contributes to a small but growing set of studies that have used rigorous methods on long-term, detailed data to investigate demographic responses to environmental variation. The information from these studies improves our understanding of life

  20. Teachers of Life--Learners for Life: Faculty Stories in Service Learning from Miami-Dade Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miami-Dade Community Coll., FL.

    This publication contains faculty stories about experiences with service learning from Miami-Dade Community College. The stories are first-hand accounts of real learning and how lives change because of that experience. The stories come from teachers who see themselves as facilitators of a student's own active learning; who look for and commend…

  1. Social media: the key to health information access for 18- to 30-year-old college students.

    PubMed

    Prybutok, Gayle; Ryan, Sherry

    2015-04-01

    This work examines where 18- to 30-year-old college students seek health information on the Internet and how they determine site and message credibility. Using a qualitative methodology, five focus groups were conducted with 18- to 30-year-old college students, and transcripts were analyzed with MaxQDA text analysis software. The study revealed that 18- to 30-year-old college students have Internet health information source preferences, reasons for seeking health information on the Internet, and message design factors that improve their perception of site and message credibility. We conclude that the Internet and social media show great promise as effective health communication channels for 18- to 30-year-old college students and confirm that preferred Internet/social media sites can be utilized by health educators to present important risk management/disease prevention information to 18- to 30-year-old college students. In addition, message design factors can lend credibility to both sites and the health information delivered there. PMID:25887107

  2. Distant outcomes of the Chiari osteotomy 30 years follow up evaluation.

    PubMed

    Piontek, Tomasz; Szulc, Andrzej; Głowacki, Maciej; Strzyzewski, Wojciech

    2006-02-28

    Background. The aim of my paper was to assess distant treatment results of patients who were treated because of hip displasia and the Chiari osteotomy was performed on those patients. Material and methods. I evaluated treatment outcomes of 27 patients who were treated at Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Clinic of Orthopedics, in 1965-1990. The Chiari osteotomy was performed on all patients for hip decenteration or hip subluxation after developmental displasia. 34 hips were evaluated (20 female and 7 male). The average age of patients was 13 years in the moment of the operation. The follow up examination was conducted 10-36 years after the Chiari osteotomy Results. After many years (30 years after the operation on the average), 37% of patients could fit into groups of very good and good results. I could assess the hips before the operation using only parameters marked on anteroposterior films. The radiographs of the hips showed displasia characterized by shallowness and steepness of the acetabulum, an increased apparent neck-corpus angle, low submersion of the femoral head in the acetabulum, and insufficient coverage of the femoral head by the acetabulum. On the radiographs taken one year after the operation I observed very good coverage of the femoral head proved by higher values (above quota) of the Wiberg angle, the Sharp angle, the Heyman and Herndon acetabulum-head indicator. I defined also a course of the osteotomy drafting an osteotomy angle, setting a degree of bone fragments displacement (medialisation), and a height of the osteotomy. Conclusions. 1. The Chiari osteotomy as a hip saving operation allows patients to function in satisfactory clinical conditions for many years. 2. When conducted correctly, the Chiari osteotomy considerably improves femoral head coverage not only in the frontal plane but also in the transverse plane. 3. Too wide osteotomy angle, more than 20 degrees , further than 50% displacement of a distal bone fragment and too low

  3. Editorial: Our top 10 developments in stem cell biology over the last 30 years.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Lyle; Lako, Majlinda; Buckley, Noel; Lappin, Terry R J; Murphy, Martin J; Nolta, Jan A; Pittenger, Mark; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    To celebrate 30 years of peer-reviewed publication of cutting edge stem cell research in Stem Cells, the first journal devoted to this promising field, we pause to review how far we have come in the three-decade lifetime of the Journal. To do this, we will present our views of the 10 most significant developments that have advanced stem cell biology where it is today. With the increasing rate of new data, it is natural that the bulk of these developments would have occurred in recent years, but we must not think that stem cell biology is a young science. The idea of a stem cell has actually been around for quite a long time having appeared in the scientific literature as early as 1868 with Haeckels' concept of a stamzelle as an uncommitted or undifferentiated cell responsible for producing many types of new cells to repair the body [Naturliche Schopfungsgeschichte, 1868; Berlin: Georg Reimer] but it took many years to obtain hard evidence in support of this theory. Not until the work of James Till and Ernest McCulloch in the 1960s did we have proof of the existence of stem cells and until the derivation of embryonal carcinoma cells in the 1960s-1970s and the first embryonic stem cell in 1981, such adult or tissue-specific stem cells were the only known class. The first issue of Stem Cells was published in 1981; no small wonder that most of its papers were devoted to hematopoietic progenitors. More recently, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been developed, and this is proving to be a fertile area of investigation as shown by the volume of publications appearing not only in Stem Cells but also in other journals over the last 5 years. The reader will note that many of the articles in this special issue are concerned with iPSC; however, this reflects the current surge of interest in the topic rather than any deliberate attempt to ignore other areas of stem cell investigation. PMID:22162299

  4. Eco-region dependent lengthening of vegetation period over the past 30 years in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garonna, I.; De Jong, R.; De Wit, A.; Mücher, C. A.; Schmid, B.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Land Surface Phenology (LSP) is the most direct representation of intra-annual dynamics of vegetated land surfaces as observed from satellite observations. As such, LSP plays a key role in understanding the terrestrial carbon budget, as well as the response of terrestrial ecosystems to environmental change. Various studies have highlighted significant increases in vegetation activity over time (i.e. greening) over Europe in recent decades (e.g. Stöckli and Vidale, 2004), associated both with climatic changes and with large-scale human interventions including land-use change (de Jong et al., 2013). In this study, we characterize LSP changes in Europe's eco-regions for the last 30 years. We used the latest version of the 8-km Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index dataset (third generation, or NDVI-3g) to retrieve LSP metrics for Europe for the last three decades (1982-2011). Each year of NDVI data was processed using the Harmonic Analysis of Time Series (HANTS) algorithm, producing smooth NDVI annual profiles on a pixel-by-pixel basis. In order to derive LSP metrics for each year, namely Start, End and Length of Growing Season, we selected the Midpoint-pixel local threshold method, based on the White et al. (2009) inter-comparison. A landscape-based stratification, using the European Landscape Classification (LANMAP) (Mücher et al., 2010) allowed us to examine LSP characteristics and trends for the different European eco-regions. We demonstrate significant shifts in LSP metrics over the study period, with a general lengthening of the growing season in Europe of approximately 0.4 days year-1. LSP trends varied significantly between eco-regions, and we discuss potential reasons for these spatially diverse trends. de Jong, R., et al. (2013), Spatial relationship between climatologies and changes in global vegetation activity, Global Change Biology, 19(6), 1953-1964. Mücher, C. A., J. A. Klijn, D. M. Wascher, and

  5. Parkinson's disease progression at 30 years: a study of subthalamic deep brain-stimulated patients.

    PubMed

    Merola, Aristide; Zibetti, Maurizio; Angrisano, Serena; Rizzi, Laura; Ricchi, Valeria; Artusi, Carlo A; Lanotte, Michele; Rizzone, Mario G; Lopiano, Leonardo

    2011-07-01

    Clinical findings in Parkinson's disease suggest that most patients progressively develop disabling non-levodopa-responsive symptoms during the course of the disease. Nevertheless, several heterogeneous factors, such as clinical phenotype, age at onset and genetic aspects may influence the long-term clinical picture. In order to investigate the main features of long-term Parkinson's disease progression, we studied a cohort of 19 subjects treated with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation after >20 years of disease, reporting clinical and neuropsychological data up to a mean of 30 years from disease onset. This group of patients was characterized by an early onset of disease, with a mean age of 38.63 years at Parkinson's disease onset, which was significantly lower than in the other long-term subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation follow-up cohorts reported in the literature. All subjects were regularly evaluated by a complete Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, a battery of neuropsychological tests and a clinical interview, intended to assess the rate of non-levodopa-responsive symptom progression. Clinical data were available for all patients at presurgical baseline and at 1, 3 and 5 years from the subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation surgical procedure, while follow-up data after >7 years were additionally reported in a subgroup of 14 patients. The clinical and neuropsychological performance progressively worsened during the course of follow-up; 64% of patients gradually developed falls, 86% dysphagia, 57% urinary incontinence and 43% dementia. A progressive worsening of motor symptoms was observed both in 'medication-ON' condition and in 'stimulation-ON' condition, with a parallel reduction in the synergistic effect of 'medication-ON/stimulation-ON' condition. Neuropsychological data also showed a gradual decline in the performances of all main cognitive domains, with an initial involvement of executive functions, followed by the impairment

  6. High methane emissions dominated annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2015-07-01

    Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus potentially implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration are scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated sites of a bog ecosystem 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 ± 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 ± 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of CO2, CH4 and N2O, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22-51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), with highest rates found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in the water table, we assume that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of purple moor grass and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, mixed soil material due to peat extraction and refilling can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not inevitably limited to a short-term period.

  7. Contextual learning and context effects during infancy: 30 years of controversial research revisited.

    PubMed

    Revillo, D A; Cotella, E; Paglini, M G; Arias, C

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 30years a considerable number of reports have explored learning about context during infancy in both humans and rats. This research was stimulated by two different theoretical frameworks. The first, known as the neuromaturational model, postulates that learning and behavior are context-independent during early ontogeny, a hypothesis based on the idea that contextual learning is dependent on the hippocampal function, and that this brain structure does not reach full maturity until late in infancy. The second theoretical framework views infants not as immature organisms, but rather as perfectly matured ones, given that their behavioral and cognitive capacities allow them to adapt appropriately to the demands of their specific environment in accordance with their maturational level. This model predicts significant ontogenetic variations in learning and memory due to developmental differences in what is perceived and attended to during learning episodes, which can result in ontogenetic differences in contextual learning depending on the specific demands of the task. The present manuscript reviews those studies that have examined potential developmental differences in contextual learning and context effects in rats. The reviewed results show that, during infancy, context can exert a similar influence over learning and memory as that described for the adult rat. Moreover, in some cases, contextual learning and context effects were greater in infants than in adults. In contrast, under other experimental conditions, no evidence of contextual learning or context effects was observed. We analyzed the procedural factors of these studies with the aim of detecting those that favor or impede contextual learning during infancy, and we discussed whether existing empirical evidence supports the claim that the functionality of the hippocampus is a limiting factor for this type of learning during infancy. Finally, conclusions from human research into contextual learning

  8. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above

    PubMed Central

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30–65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected more ≥CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results (positive test results without ≥CIN3) varied between 3.3% with cytology and 14.9% with cobas. All HPV assays led to significantly more false-positive tests, whereas compared to HC2 cobas and CLART were associated with a significantly higher and APTIMA with a significantly lower proportion. Detection of CIN1 was particularly increased for the three DNA assays. With APTIMA combined with cytological triage, about 20% more women were referred for colposcopy than with cytology screening. With the three DNA assays, the increase was ≥50%. The number of women with repeated testing was twice as high with APTIMA and almost five times as high with cobas compared to cytology. To our knowledge, Horizon was the only study set in routine practice that compared more than two HPV assays in the same women while also ascertaining the histological status of women with normal cytology/HPV-positive test results. HPV-based screening of Danish women aged 30–65 detected more high-grade CIN but decreased the screening specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:26789267

  9. Quality of Life, Health Status, and Health Service Utilization Related to a New Measure of Health Literacy FLIGHT/VIDAS

    PubMed Central

    Ownby, Raymond L; Acevedo, Amarilis; Jacobs, Robin J.; Caballero, Joshua; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna

    2014-01-01

    Objective Researchers have identified significant limitations in some currently-used measures of health literacy. The purpose of this paper is to present data on the relation of health-related quality of life, health status, and health service utilization to performance on a new measure of health literacy in a nonpatient population. Methods The new measure was administered to 475 English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling volunteers along with existing measures of health literacy and assessments of health-related quality of life, health status, and healthcare service utilization. Relations among measures were assessed via correlations and health status and utilization was tested across levels of health literacy using ANCOVA models. Results The new health literacy measure is significantly related to existing measures of health literacy as well as to participants’ health-related quality of life. Persons with lower levels of health literacy reported more health conditions, more frequent physical symptoms, and greater healthcare service utilization. Conclusion The new measure of health literacy is valid and shows relations to measures of conceptually-related constructs such as quality of life and health behaviors. Practice Implications: FLIGHT/VIDAS may be useful to researchers and clinicians interested in a computer administered and scored measure of health literacy. PMID:24856447

  10. The concept of extending the service life of the VVER-440-based power units at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmolov, V. G.; Povarov, V. P.; Vitkovskii, S. L.; Berkovich, V. Ya.; Chetverikov, A. E.; Mozul', I. A.; Semchenkov, Yu. M.; Suslov, A. I.

    2014-02-01

    Basic statements of the Concept of Extending the Service Life of the VVER-440-Based Power Units at the Novovoronezh NPP beyond 45 years are considered. This topic is raised in connection with the fact that that in December 2016 and in December 2017 the extended service lives of Units 3 and 4 at this NPP will expire. The adopted concept of repeatedly extending the service life of the Novovoronezh NPP Unit 4 implies fitting the power unit with additional reactor core cooling systems with a view to extend the (ultimate) design-basis accidents (which have hitherto been adopted to be a loss of coolant accident involving a leak of reactor coolant through a break with a nominal diameter of 100 mm) to a reactor coolant leak equivalent to rupture of the main reactor coolant pipeline. The modified Unit 4 will also use the safety systems of Unit 3 that is going to be decommissioned. Preliminary calculated assessments of the new design-basis accident scenario involving rupture of the reactor coolant pipeline in Unit 4 fitted with a new configuration of safety systems confirmed the correctness of the adopted concept of repeatedly extending the service life of Unit 4.

  11. 38 CFR 8.0 - Definitions of terms used in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service Life Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service Life Insurance. 8.0 Section 8.0 Pensions... § 8.0 Definitions of terms used in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service Life..., by rating an applicant's mortality risk. (c) What does the term “organic loss of speech” mean?...

  12. 38 CFR 8.0 - Definitions of terms used in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service Life Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service Life Insurance. 8.0 Section 8.0 Pensions... § 8.0 Definitions of terms used in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service Life..., by rating an applicant's mortality risk. (c) What does the term “organic loss of speech” mean?...

  13. 38 CFR 8.0 - Definitions of terms used in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service Life Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service Life Insurance. 8.0 Section 8.0 Pensions... § 8.0 Definitions of terms used in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service Life..., by rating an applicant's mortality risk. (c) What does the term “organic loss of speech” mean?...

  14. 38 CFR 8.0 - Definitions of terms used in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service Life Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service Life Insurance. 8.0 Section 8.0 Pensions... § 8.0 Definitions of terms used in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service Life..., by rating an applicant's mortality risk. (c) What does the term “organic loss of speech” mean?...

  15. 38 CFR 8.0 - Definitions of terms used in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service Life Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service Life Insurance. 8.0 Section 8.0 Pensions... § 8.0 Definitions of terms used in connection with title 38 CFR, part 8, National Service Life..., through the normal organs of speech if the loss is caused by physical changes in such organs. The...

  16. Spatial structure of 60- and 30-year variations of the geomagnetic field according to data of analytical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalugin, V. I.; Rotanova, N. M.; Golovkov, V. P.

    1984-10-01

    The distribution of the amplitudes and phases of 60-year variations of the geomagnetic field on the earth's surface is obtained on the basis of analytical models. It is shown that the characteristic features or foci of these variations have different configurations and a dissimilar intensity. A global map of the spatial distribution of 30-year variations is also obtained; and a comparison of maps of the 60- and 30-year variations shows that, although the structure of the latter variations is more complex, the characteristic foci of both types of variations are manifested in the same regions.

  17. Ultrasonic assessment of service life of concrete structures subject to reinforcing steel corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udegbunam, Ogechukwu Christian

    were then used to determine the service life of the structure.

  18. Escalation of Oncologic Services at the End of Life Among Patients With Gynecologic Cancer at an Urban, Public Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Eijean; Rogers, Anna; Ji, Lingyun; Sposto, Richard; Church, Terry; Roman, Lynda; Tripathy, Debu; Lin, Yvonne G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Use of oncology-related services is increasingly scrutinized, yet precisely which services are actually rendered to patients, particularly at the end of life, is unknown. This study characterizes the end-of-life use of medical services by patients with gynecologic cancer at a safety-net hospital. Methods: Oncologic history and metrics of medical use (eg, hospitalizations, chemotherapy infusions, procedures) for patients with gynecologic oncology who died between December 2006 and February 2012 were evaluated. Mixed-effect regression models were used to test time effects and construct usage summaries. Results: Among 116 subjects, cervical cancer accounted for the most deaths (42%). The median age at diagnosis was 55 years; 63% were Hispanic, and 65% had advanced disease. Only 34% died in hospice care. The median times from do not resuscitate/do not intubate documentation and from last therapeutic intervention to death were 9 days and 55 days, respectively. Significant time effects for all services (eg, hospitalizations, diagnostics, procedures, treatments, clinic appointments) were detected during the patient's final year (P < .001), with the most dramatic changes occurring during the last 2 months. Patients with longer duration of continuity of care used significantly fewer resources toward the end of life. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report enumerating medical services obtained by patients with gynecologic cancer in a large, public hospital during the end of life. Marked changes in interventions in the patient's final 2 months highlight the need for cost-effective, evidence-based metrics for delivering cancer care. Our data emphasize continuity of care as a significant determinant of oncologic resource use during this critical period. PMID:25604595

  19. Landslide risk impact management and web services for improving resilience: the LIFE+IMAGINE project approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congi, Maria Pia; Campo, Valentina; Cipolloni, Carlo; Delmonaco, Giuseppe; Guerrieri, Luca; Iadanza, Carla; Spizzichino, Daniele; Trigila, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    The increasing damage caused by natural disasters in the last decades points out the need for interoperable added-value services to support environmental safety and human protection, by reducing vulnerability of exposed elements as well as improving the resilience of the involved communities. For this reason, to provide access to harmonized and customized data is only one of several steps towards delivering adequate support to risk assessment, reduction and management. Scope of the present work is to illustrate a methodology under development for analysis of potential impacts in areas prone to landslide hazard in the framework of the EC project LIFE+IMAGINE. The project aims to implement an infrastructure based on web services for environmental analysis, that integrates in its own architecture specifications and results from INSPIRE, SEIS and GMES. Existing web services will be customized during the project to provide functionalities for supporting the environmental integrated management. The implemented infrastructure will be applied to landslide risk scenarios, to be developed in selected pilot areas, aiming at: i) application of standard procedures to implement a landslide risk analysis; ii) definition of a procedure for assessment of potential environmental impacts, based on a set of indicators to estimate the different exposed elements with their specific vulnerability in the pilot area. More in detail, the landslide pilot will be aimed at providing a landslide risk scenario through the implementation and analysis of: 1) a landslide inventory from available historical databases and maps; 2) landslide susceptibility and hazard maps; 3) assessment of exposure and vulnerability on selected typologies of elements at risk; 4) implementation of a landslide risk scenario for different sets of exposed elements (e.g. population, road network, residential area, cultural heritage). The pilot will be implemented in Liguria, Italy, in two different catchment areas located

  20. Determining pump wear and remaining life from electric submersible pump test curves. [Wear and service life estimation of oil well pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Divine, D.L.; Lannom, R.W.; Johnson, R.A. )

    1993-08-01

    The remaining useful life of an electric submersible pump (ESP) is an important economic consideration in deciding whether the used pump should be returned to service without repair. This paper presents quantitative and qualitative techniques to determine the type and amount of wear that a pump has experienced from analysis of pump test data. This paper discusses methods of categorizing used pumps, depending on the wear and associated performance deterioration. This work also describes failure modes, pump reliability, and the concept of pump (product) infant mortality. The authors show that a used pump can be more reliable and have a longer run life than a new or rebuilt pump. They use test data, tear-down analysis, and a case history to develop these concepts.

  1. Converging Streams: The Power of Collaboration among Service Groups. Linking Learning with Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Sam F., Jr.

    This booklet discusses the collective power of collaboration among the three agencies that compose the Corporation for National Service (AmeriCorps, Learn and Serve America, and the National Senior Service Corps) and introduces the reader to a process of collaboration intended to strengthen existing services and to create new and higher-quality…

  2. Space Flight Applications of Optical Fiber; 30 Years of Space Flight Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.

    2010-01-01

    For over thirty years NASA has had success with space flight missions that utilize optical fiber component technology. One of the early environmental characterization experiments that included optical fiber was launched as the Long Duration Exposure Facility in 1978. Since then, multiple missions have launched with optical fiber components that functioned as expected, without failure throughout the mission life. The use of optical fiber in NASA space flight communications links and exploration and science instrumentation is reviewed.

  3. Terrestrial cosmogenic 3He: where are we 30 years after its discovery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blard, Pierre-Henri; Pik, Raphaël; Farley, Kenneth A.; Lavé, Jérôme; Marrocchi, Yves

    2016-04-01

    It is now 30 years since cosmogenic 3He has been detected for the first time in a terrestrial sample (Kurz, 1986). 3He is now a widely used geochemical tool in many fields of Earth sciences: volcanology, tectonics, paleoclimatology. 3He has the advantage to have a high "production rate" to "detection limit" ratio, allowing surfaces as young as hundred of years to be dated. Although its nuclear stability implies several limitations, it moreover represents a useful alternative to 10Be in mafic environments. This contribution is a review of the progresses that have been accomplished since this discovery, and discuss strategies to improve both the accuracy and the precision of this geochronometer. 1) Measurement of cosmogenic 3He Correction of magmatic 3He. To estimate the non-cosmogenic magmatic 3He, Kurz (1986) invented a two steps method involving crushing of phenocrysts (to analyze the isotopic ratio of the magmatic component), followed by a subsequent melting of the sample, to extract the remaining components, including the cosmogenic 3He: 3Hec = 3Hemelt ‑4Hemelt x (3He/4He)magmatic (1) Several studies suggested that the preliminary crushing may induce a loss of cosmogenic 3He (Hilton et al., 1993; Yokochi et al., 2005; Blard et al., 2006), implying an underestimate of the cosmogenic 3He measurement. However, subsequent work did not replicate these observations (Blard et al., 2008; Goerhing et al., 2010), suggesting an influence of the used apparatus. An isochron method (by directly melting several phenocrysts aliquots) is an alternative to avoid the preliminary crushing step (Blard and Pik, 2008). Atmospheric contamination. Protin et al. (in press) provides robust evidences for a large and irreversible contamination of atmospheric helium on silicate surfaces. This unexpected behavior may reconcile the contrasted observations about the amplitude of crushing loss. This undesirable atmospheric contamination is negligible if grain fractions smaller than 150 mm are

  4. On-orbit spacecraft/stage servicing during STS life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive and repesentative set of shuttle payloads was identified for shuttle and space station servicing missions. The classes of servicing functions were determined and the general servicing support required for the set of referenced spacecraft was allocated. A candidtate strawman space station was depicted from a synthesis of space station concepts derived from NASA space station architecture studies done by eight contractors. The shuttle servicing hardware and kits were identified and their applicability in transitioning servicing capability to the space station was evaluated.

  5. Effects of Heat Treatments on the On-Line Service Life of a Press Die Manufactured by W-Edm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kye-Kwang; Lee, Yong-Shin

    Effects of heat treatments on the on-line service life of a press die manufactured by W-EDM are studied. In this work, four manufacturing processes for a press die are considered: (1) milling and then grinding, (2) wire-cut electric discharge machining (W-EDM), (3) low temperature heat treatment after W-EDM, and (4) high temperature heat treatment after W-EDM. On-line punching experiments for an automobile part of BL646-chain are performed. The amount of wear of the die and punch, roll-over and burnish depth in the punched chain are measured every 1,000 strokes. Overall productivities are carefully compared. Finally, it is concluded that heat treatment after W-EDM for a press die can enhance its on-line service life. Especially, high temperature heat treatment after W-EDM is very attractive as a fast and cheap manufacturing method for a press die.

  6. Using Conference Submission Data to Uncover Broad Trends in Language Teaching: A Case Study of One Conference over 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Submissions to conferences can provide rich material for analysing characteristics and trends within a conference's history and that of similar conferences, as well as the associated field at large. The present study uses data gathered over 30 years from a language teachers' conference in Japan (JALT National) to expound upon patterns related to…

  7. Longitudinal Pathways between Maternal Mental Health in Infancy and Offspring Romantic Relationships in Adulthood: A 30-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal pathways between maternal mental health in infancy and offspring romantic relationship outcomes in adulthood were examined using a 30-year prospective longitudinal study of 196 mothers and their children. Structural equation modeling revealed that maternal mental health at 30 months was related to offspring relationship status and…

  8. HIV Genome-Wide Protein Associations: a Review of 30 Years of Research.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangdi; De Clercq, Erik

    2016-09-01

    The HIV genome encodes a small number of viral proteins (i.e., 16), invariably establishing cooperative associations among HIV proteins and between HIV and host proteins, to invade host cells and hijack their internal machineries. As a known example, the HIV envelope glycoprotein GP120 is closely associated with GP41 for viral entry. From a genome-wide perspective, a hypothesis can be worked out to determine whether 16 HIV proteins could develop 120 possible pairwise associations either by physical interactions or by functional associations mediated via HIV or host molecules. Here, we present the first systematic review of experimental evidence on HIV genome-wide protein associations using a large body of publications accumulated over the past 3 decades. Of 120 possible pairwise associations between 16 HIV proteins, at least 34 physical interactions and 17 functional associations have been identified. To achieve efficient viral replication and infection, HIV protein associations play essential roles (e.g., cleavage, inhibition, and activation) during the HIV life cycle. In either a dispensable or an indispensable manner, each HIV protein collaborates with another viral protein to accomplish specific activities that precisely take place at the proper stages of the HIV life cycle. In addition, HIV genome-wide protein associations have an impact on anti-HIV inhibitors due to the extensive cross talk between drug-inhibited proteins and other HIV proteins. Overall, this study presents for the first time a comprehensive overview of HIV genome-wide protein associations, highlighting meticulous collaborations between all viral proteins during the HIV life cycle. PMID:27357278

  9. Periodontitis among adults aged ≥30 years - United States, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Thornton-Evans, Gina; Eke, Pau; Wei, Liang; Palmer, Astrid; Moeti, Refilwe; Hutchins, Sonja; Borrell, Luisa N

    2013-11-22

    Periodontal disease, or gum disease, is a chronic infection of the hard and soft tissue supporting the teeth and is a leading cause of tooth loss in older adults. Tooth loss impairs dental function and quality of life in older adults. The chronic infections associated with periodontitis can increase the risk for aspiration pneumonia in older adults and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation that impairs general health. The severity of periodontal disease can be categorized as mild, moderate, or severe on the basis of multiple measurements of periodontal pocket depth, attachment loss, and gingival inflammation around teeth. PMID:24264502

  10. First Medicare Demonstration of Concurrent Provision of Curative and Hospice Services for End-of-Life Care.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Krista L; Connor, Stephen R

    2016-08-01

    Hospice developed in the United States in the 1970s as a way to address unmet needs for end-of-life care: support for pain and symptom management provided in the location and manner that the patient and family prefer. In Europe and Australia, hospice is available from the time of diagnosis of an advanced life-limiting illness onward, but in the United States, the Medicare hospice benefit restricts eligibility for these services to patients who no longer receive curative treatment. We provide background and analysis of the first Medicare hospice demonstration in 35 years that will test the concurrent provision of curative and hospice services for terminally ill individuals with a life expectancy of six months or less. This demonstration is a harbinger of potential policy changes to hospice and palliative care in the United States that could reduce barriers to end-of-life care that aligns with patient and family preferences as the demand for care increases with an aging population. PMID:27310352

  11. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Project Qualification Propellant Throughput Milestone: Performance, Erosion, and Thruster Service Life Prediction After 450 kg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) program is tasked with significantly improving and extending the capabilities of current state-of-the-art NSTAR thruster. The service life capability of the NEXT ion thruster is being assessed by thruster wear test and life-modeling of critical thruster components, such as the ion optics and cathodes. The NEXT Long-Duration Test (LDT) was initiated to validate and qualify the NEXT thruster propellant throughput capability. The NEXT thruster completed the primary goal of the LDT; namely to demonstrate the project qualification throughput of 450 kg by the end of calendar year 2009. The NEXT LDT has demonstrated 28,500 hr of operation and processed 466 kg of xenon throughput--more than double the throughput demonstrated by the NSTAR flight-spare. Thruster performance changes have been consistent with a priori predictions. Thruster erosion has been minimal and consistent with the thruster service life assessment, which predicts the first failure mode at greater than 750 kg throughput. The life-limiting failure mode for NEXT is predicted to be loss of structural integrity of the accelerator grid due to erosion by charge-exchange ions.

  12. Averaged 30 year climate change projections mask opportunities for species establishment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serra-Diaz, Josep M.; Franklin, Janet; Sweet, Lynn C.; McCullough, Ian M.; Syphard, Alexandra D.; Regan, Helen M.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.; Dingman, John; Moritz, Max A.; Redmond, Kelly T.; Hannah, Lee; Davis, Frank W.

    2016-01-01

    Survival of early life stages is key for population expansion into new locations and for persistence of current populations (Grubb 1977, Harper 1977). Relative to adults, these early life stages are very sensitive to climate fl uctuations (Ropert-Coudert et al. 2015), which often drive episodic or ‘event-limited’ regeneration (e.g. pulses) in long-lived plant species (Jackson et al. 2009). Th us, it is diffi cult to mechanistically associate 30-yr climate norms to dynamic processes involved in species range shifts (e.g. seedling survival). What are the consequences of temporal aggregation for estimating areas of potential establishment? We modeled seedling survival for three widespread tree species in California, USA ( Quercus douglasii, Q. kelloggii , Pinus sabiniana ) by coupling a large-scale, multi-year common garden experiment to high-resolution downscaled grids of climatic water defi cit and air temperature (Flint and Flint 2012, Supplementary material Appendix 1). We projected seedling survival for nine climate change projections in two mountain landscapes spanning wide elevation and moisture gradients. We compared areas with windows of opportunity for seedling survival – defi ned as three consecutive years of seedling survival in our species, a period selected based on studies of tree niche ontogeny (Supplementary material Appendix 1) – to areas of 30-yr averaged estimates of seedling survival. We found that temporal aggregation greatly underestimated the potential for species establishment (e.g. seedling survival) under climate change scenarios.

  13. Quality of Life as Context for Planning and Evaluation of Services for People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Ruth E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews definitions of quality of life; explores the subjective nature of life quality for people with disabilities; relates the concept to cultural norms and universal human values and needs; explores the optimal theory of personal well-being; and surveys the source and use of research and implications for planning and evaluating…

  14. Duty and Service: Life and Career of a Tamil Teacher of English in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the life and career of a Tamil teacher of English working in the government education system in northern Sri Lanka. Based on data gathered in an extended life history interview, the article explores the teacher's own experiences of schooling, his reasons for entering teaching as a profession, his professional training, and…

  15. Life Enhancement Counseling: A Psychosocial Model of Services for Cuban Elders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapocznik, Jose; And Others

    The Life Enhancement Counseling Model was developed specifically for the treatment of the problems of meaninglessness and purposelessness among depressed Cuban elders. The model is based on psychosocial development and ecological theoretical orientations. A life review approach is used to help the depressed individuals complete unfinished business…

  16. Life events, mental health functioning and the use of health care services by the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Blazer, D

    1980-01-01

    The association of life events and mental health impairment was studied in a community-based population of the elderly (n = 986). A crude estimate of the relative risk for mental health impairment given life events larger than or equal to 150 (as measured by the Schedule of Recent Events) was 2.14. A relative risk of 1.73 (p < .01) was estimated when a binary regression procedure was used, controlling for physical health, economic status, social support, and age. Increased life events were associated with health seeking behavior, even when physical and mental health functioning were controlled. The associations between increased life events and both mental health functioning and health seeking behavior were small, suggesting that life events, as measured by the Schedule of Recent Events may not be important risk factors for elderly living in the community. PMID:7425190

  17. The Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study: reflections on a 30-year experience.

    PubMed

    Kune, Gabriel A

    This article reflects on 30 years of conducting the Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study, a comprehensive, population-based investigation of colorectal cancer (CRC). The study had an incidence arm, a case-control arm and a survival arm, and contributed considerable knowledge about CRC risk, aetiology, prevention and screening. The incidence arm: confirmed high rates of CRC in Australia and the prevalent view that rates rise in first-generation immigrants from countries with low rates of CRC; and enabled the first report of high rates of colon cancer among Australian Jewish people and the first report of high rectal cancer rates anywhere. The case-control arm elicited: the contribution of family history, antecedent colorectal polypectomy and multiple antecedent stressful life events to CRC risk; the risk of rectal cancer in habitual beer drinkers; the first dietary risk score (emphasising the importance of a diet pursued over adult life that is high in foods of plant origin and fish, and low in fat and red meat); and the highly protective effect of regular aspirin use (stimulating much research globally, with the possibility of aspirin becoming an important preventive agent). The survival arm: found an adjusted CRC-specific 5-year survival rate of 42% among patients with CRC and 85% among matched control subjects; confirmed cancer stage as the most important single determinant of survival; and found that the survival rate among people with the earliest stage of CRC was only marginally lower than that of matched community control subjects, underlining the importance of early detection. PMID:21143050

  18. Protecting our life support systems: US federal research and policy on ecosystem services

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, a broad range of federal entities are conducting research related to ecosystem services, and government agencies at all levels are increasingly interested in measuring the outcomes of proposed policy options in terms of ecosystem service benefits. However, ...

  19. Digging for Buried Treasure. Finding Funding for the Future in Service Learning. Linking Learning with Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Vickie J.

    This booklet, which is addressed to individuals interested in funding service learning programs, examines possible sources of funding for service learning and shares grant-writing tips from experienced educators and grant writers. The booklet begins with a map of the 13 steps in the grant process. The administrator's role in grant seeking is…

  20. Take a Class Outdoors. A Guidebook for Environmental Service Learning. Linking Learning with Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, Linda; Mauney, Tammy; Falkner, Rebekah

    This guidebook focuses on the addition of environmental service learning in elementary, middle, or high school. Sections 1 and 2 describe an administrator's view of the success of service learning in her middle school and a student's opinion of her encounters with Mississippi's natural resources. Section 3 provides a rationale for environmental…

  1. Counseling and Connecting with the Military Undergraduate: The Intersection of Military Service and University Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonar, Ted C.; Domenici, Paula L.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of military undergraduates at universities are National Guard and Reserve personnel and prior-service military veterans, all difficult to identify on campus. These students face unique cultural challenges. Though the academic literature primarily addresses disability services and administrative programs often focus on "wounded…

  2. Industries in space to benefit mankind: A view over the next 30 years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    New products, services, and energy sources are available to man through the exploitation of the useful attributes of space and space shuttle operations. Benefits include: (1) industrial fuel conservation through the use of electronic teleconferencing, high temperature turbines, and the space processing of materials; (2) improved health care through the use of biotelemetry, teleoperators, and weightless hospitals; (3) more efficient communication systems such as portable telephones, individual warning devices, and direct satellite broadcasting for educational purposes; (4) more abundant crop growth and controlled climate modification by the use of space-based reflectors to direct the light of the sun and moon to specific areas on earth; (5) solar energy utilization; and (6) reduction in radiation hazards through the use of space-based nuclear fusion reactors.

  3. Adventures in Citizen Science: Lessons learned engaging volunteer water quality monitors for over 30 years.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloss, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The New Hampshire Lakes Lay Monitoring Program was originally designed by faculty at the University of New Hampshire in 1979 to provide the capacity to better monitor for long-term lake water quality changes and trends. As participants became educated, empowered and engaged the program soon evolved to also become a participatory research enterprise. This resulted in not only providing useful information for informed local stewardship and protection at the local level but also for state and region-wide decision-making, state and federal assessments/reporting and advancing our understanding of lake and watershed science. Our successes and failures have been more dependent on understanding the particular human dimensions that influence our volunteers and less to do with the typical project management, quality assurance, and communication concerns we typically deal with in professional based research efforts. Our participants are extremely diverse in terms of their life experiences, interests and motivations so the key to long-term commitment and high quality participation is understanding the difference between a citizen monitor and your archetypical research technician or student. This presentation will highlight some important lessons learned on how to involve various types of volunteers from school groups to retirees, as well as particular approaches and concerns regarding program management, retention, quality control and communications.

  4. Effect of Coal Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel System Performance and Service Life

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Gopala N.; Jayaweera, Palitha; Perez, Jordi; Hornbostel, M.; Albritton, John R.; Gupta, Raghubir P.

    2007-10-31

    samples suffered less than 1% in when exposed to contaminants such as HCl(g), Hg(g), and Zn(g), and SbO(g) at levels of 8 ppm and above. AsH3 vapor at 0.5 ppm did not affect the electrical performance of an SOFC sample even after 1000 h at 750°C. In Phase II of the program, long-term tests will be performed with multiple contaminants at a temperature range of 750° to 850°C. These tests will be at contaminant levels typical of coal-derived gas streams that have undergone gas cleanup using Selexol technology. The chemical nature of the contaminant species will be identified at the operating temperature of SOFC and compare them with thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. The results of the testing will be used to recommend the sensitivity limits for SOFC operation and to assess the reduction in the service life of the SOFC for trace level contaminants.

  5. "It Gave Me My Life Back": An Evaluation of a Specialist Legal Domestic Abuse Service.

    PubMed

    Lea, Susan J; Callaghan, Lynne

    2016-05-01

    Community-based advocacy services are important in enabling victims to escape domestic abuse and rebuild their lives. This study evaluated a domestic abuse service. Two phases of research were conducted following case-file analysis (n= 86): surveys (n= 22) and interviews (n= 12) with victims, and interviews with key individuals (n= 12) based in related statutory and community organizations. The findings revealed the holistic model of legal, practical, mental health-related, and advocacy components resulted in a range of benefits to victims and enhanced interagency partnership working. Core elements of a successful needs-led, victim-centered service could be distilled. PMID:26490507

  6. The Chinese community patient’s life satisfaction, assessment of community medical service, and trust in community health delivery system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the Chinese government put a lot of effort into promoting the community patient’s life satisfaction, there still lacked the holistic and systematic approaches to promote the community patient’s life satisfaction in various regions of China. On the basis of the literature, it was found that both the community patient’s assessment of community medical service and trust in community health delivery system were important considerations when the community patient comprehensively evaluated community medical service to generate life satisfaction. So this study was set up to test whether and to what extent the community patient’s assessments of various major aspects of community medical service/various major aspects of the community patient’s trust in community health delivery system influenced life satisfaction in whole China/in various regions of China. Methods In order to explore the situation of China’s community health delivery system before 2009 and provide a reference for China’s community health delivery system reform, the data that could comprehensively and accurately reflect the community patient’s life satisfaction, assessment of community medical service, and trust in community health delivery system in various regions of China was needed, so this study collaborated with the National Bureau of Statistics of China to carry out a large-scale 2008 national community resident household survey (N = 3,306) for the first time in China. And the specified ordered probit models were established to analyze the dataset from this household survey. Results Among major aspects of community medical service, the medical cost (particularly in developed regions), the doctor-patient communication (particularly in developed regions), the medical facility and hospital environment (particularly in developed regions), and the medical treatment process (particularly in underdeveloped regions) were all key considerations (p<0.05 for t statistics) in

  7. Attrition in a 30-year follow-up of a perinatal birth risk cohort: factors change with age

    PubMed Central

    Hokkanen, Laura; Laasonen, Marja; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Virta, Maarit; Lipsanen, Jari; Tienari, Pentti J.; Michelsson, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Background. Attrition is a major cause of potential bias in longitudinal studies and clinical trials. Attrition rate above 20% raises concern of the reliability of the results. Few studies have looked at the factors behind attrition in follow-ups spanning decades. Methods. We analyzed attrition and associated factors of a 30-year follow-up cohort of subjects who were born with perinatal risks for neurodevelopmental disorders. Attrition rates were calculated at different stages of follow-up and differences between responders and non-responders were tested. To find combinations of variables influencing attrition and investigate their relative importance at birth, 5, 9, 16 and 30 years of follow-up we used the random forest classification. Results. Initial loss of potential participants was 13%. Attrition was 16% at five, 24% at nine, 35% at 16 and 46% at 30 years. The only group difference that emerged between responders and non-responders was in socioeconomic status (SES). The variables identified by random forest classification analysis were classified into Birth related, Development related and SES related. Variables from all these categories contributed to attrition, but SES related variables were less important than birth and development associated variables. Classification accuracy ranged between 0.74 and 0.96 depending on age. Discussion. Lower SES is linked to attrition in many studies. Our results point to the importance of the growth and development related factors in a longitudinal study. Parents’ decisions to participate depend on the characteristics of the child. The same association was also seen when the child, now grown up, decided to participate at 30 years. In addition, birth related medical variables are associated with the attrition still at the age of 30. Our results using a data mining approach suggest that attrition in longitudinal studies is influenced by complex interactions of a multitude of variables, which are not necessarily evident

  8. Composing a Research Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran-Smith, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    In this article about her early career development and the experiences that shaped her life as a scholar and researcher, the author describes the work lives of university-based teacher educators and what it means to compose a research life in this field. This article draws on the author's 30 years as a university-based teacher educator. In it, she…

  9. Factors influencing the end of the service life of protective gloves used in car repair shops: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Emilia, Irzmańska; Agnieszka, Stefko; Katarzyna, Dyńska-Kukulska

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an end-of-service-life study on 2 kinds of protective gloves designed for workplaces in which workers are exposed to mineral oils and mechanical factors. The authors developed their own end-of-service-life study method that takes into account factors occurring during real-life use of protective gloves. The examined gloves were subjected to mechanical, chemical, and physical factors. The objective of the study was to compare the protective in new gloves subjected to a laboratory simulation test and in gloves used at workplaces in car repair shops. A further goal was to design a glove assessment procedure that would ensure comprehensive analysis of the actual level of performance provided by gloves exposed to selected chemical and mechanical factors as well as subjected to the influence of temperature and humidity, mechanical damage, and chemical degradation of material. The results lead to the conclusion that simultaneous exposure of protective gloves to mechanical, chemical, and physical factors significantly decreases their performance levels. Furthermore, similar performance levels were obtained for gloves subjected to laboratory simulation tests and for those used in the workplace. PMID:24965322

  10. Protecting Our Life Support Systems: An Inventory of US Federal Research on Ecosystem Services

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, a broad range of federal resource management and environmental agencies are conducting research related to ecosystem services, and government agencies at all levels are increasingly interested in measuring the outcomes of proposed decision and policy options...

  11. A resolution honoring the life and service of the late Staff Sergeant Robert Henry Anderson.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. McCain, John [R-AZ

    2014-11-18

    11/18/2014 Referred to the Committee on Armed Services. (text of measure as introduced: CR S6097) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Association between breastfeeding and intelligence, educational attainment, and income at 30 years of age: a prospective birth cohort study from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; de Mola, Christian Loret; Quevedo, Luciana; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Gigante, Denise P; Gonçalves, Helen; Barros, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Breastfeeding has clear short-term benefits, but its long-term consequences on human capital are yet to be established. We aimed to assess whether breastfeeding duration was associated with intelligence quotient (IQ), years of schooling, and income at the age of 30 years, in a setting where no strong social patterning of breastfeeding exists. Methods A prospective, population-based birth cohort study of neonates was launched in 1982 in Pelotas, Brazil. Information about breastfeeding was recorded in early childhood. At 30 years of age, we studied the IQ (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd version), educational attainment, and income of the participants. For the analyses, we used multiple linear regression with adjustment for ten confounding variables and the G-formula. Findings From June 4, 2012, to Feb 28, 2013, of the 5914 neonates enrolled, information about IQ and breastfeeding duration was available for 3493 participants. In the crude and adjusted analyses, the durations of total breastfeeding and predominant breastfeeding (breastfeeding as the main form of nutrition with some other foods) were positively associated with IQ, educational attainment, and income. We identified dose-response associations with breastfeeding duration for IQ and educational attainment. In the confounder-adjusted analysis, participants who were breastfed for 12 months or more had higher IQ scores (difference of 3·76 points, 95% CI 2·20–5·33), more years of education (0·91 years, 0·42–1·40), and higher monthly incomes (341·0 Brazilian reals, 93·8–588·3) than did those who were breastfed for less than 1 month. The results of our mediation analysis suggested that IQ was responsible for 72% of the effect on income. Interpretation Breastfeeding is associated with improved performance in intelligence tests 30 years later, and might have an important effect in real life, by increasing educational attainment and income in adulthood. Funding Wellcome Trust

  13. Familial factors in early deaths: twins followed 30 years to ages 51-61 in 1978.

    PubMed

    Hrubec, Z; Neel, J V

    1981-01-01

    Subjects in the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Twin Registry of 31,848 male twin veterans were followed for mortality from 1 January 1946, or from the date of entry into military service if that was later, to 31 December 1978. During this time 3,573 deaths occurred among them, 837 due to trauma and 2,712 due to disease. Mortality from all causes for the entire follow-up period was 10.2% among 11,350 monozygotic (MZ) twins and 11.4% among 14,450 dizygotic (DZ) twins. Mortality of veterans is known to be favorable compared to U.S. males. Among U.S. males of the same ages as the two respective twin zygosity groups, a mortality of 13.9% would have been expected during this time period. Observed mortality from trauma was 2.3% for MZ twins and 2.5% for DZ twins, with 3.0% expected in either group. Observed mortality from all disease was 7.9% for MZ twins and 8.8% for DZ twins, with 10.9% expected in either group. For total mortality, the case twin concordance rates, based on individual deaths, were 28.2% among MZ twins and 17.7% among DZ twins. For trauma, respectively by zygosity, these concordance rates were 6.9% and 3.9%. In this sample, familial factors appear to be of little consequence in trauma deaths. For all disease the concordance rates were 30.1% and 17.4%. Estimating heritability of liability to death from disease, as proposed by Edwards (1969), provides values of h2 = r = 0.51 for MZ twins, h2 = 2r = 0.48 for DZ twins, and h2 = 2(rMZ-rDZ) = 0.54 using data for the two zygosity groups combined. PMID:10819020

  14. Towards virtual knowledge broker services for semantic integration of life science literature and data sources.

    PubMed

    Harrow, Ian; Filsell, Wendy; Woollard, Peter; Dix, Ian; Braxenthaler, Michael; Gedye, Richard; Hoole, David; Kidd, Richard; Wilson, Jabe; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2013-05-01

    Research in the life sciences requires ready access to primary data, derived information and relevant knowledge from a multitude of sources. Integration and interoperability of such resources are crucial for sharing content across research domains relevant to the life sciences. In this article we present a perspective review of data integration with emphasis on a semantics driven approach to data integration that pushes content into a shared infrastructure, reduces data redundancy and clarifies any inconsistencies. This enables much improved access to life science data from numerous primary sources. The Semantic Enrichment of the Scientific Literature (SESL) pilot project demonstrates feasibility for using already available open semantic web standards and technologies to integrate public and proprietary data resources, which span structured and unstructured content. This has been accomplished through a precompetitive consortium, which provides a cost effective approach for numerous stakeholders to work together to solve common problems. PMID:23247259

  15. Pressing problems of managing the service life of tube bundles used in steam generators at nuclear power stations equipped with VVER reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trunov, N. B.; Popadchuk, V. S.; Davidenko, S. E.; Zhukov, R. Yu.

    2010-05-01

    Optimal approaches for monitoring the state and blanking of the tube bundles of horizontal tube generators are considered, and pressing problems associated with managing their service life are discussed.

  16. Prevalence and clinical presentation of headache in a National Neurofibromatosis 1 Service and impact on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Shazia K; Leschziner, Guy D; Ferner, Rosalie E

    2015-10-01

    In our clinical practice, we noticed a high frequency of headaches amongst NF1 patients. We sought to characterize the phenotype and prevalence of headache in our cohort of NF1 patients attending the London NF clinic and to determine the impact on quality of life. Participants over the age of 16 fulfilling diagnostic criteria for NF1 from the general NF1 outpatient clinics at Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and the nationally commissioned Complex NF1 service were asked to fill in a questionnaire during the clinic consultation. Data were recorded regarding the headache frequency, intensity, duration, and phenotype, and a validated quality of life questionnaire, HIT-6 was also completed by the participant. IHS (International Headache Society) criteria were used to diagnose migraine. One hundred fifteen patients (48 males, 67 females) completed the questionnaire. The age range of participants was 16-67 with a mean age of 36 years. Twenty-five reported no headaches. Seventy-five (65%) fulfilled IHS diagnostic criteria for migraine (15 with aura). The mean HIT-6 score was 56 (out of a maximum 78) implying a significant effect on quality of life. Migraine is common in our NF1 population and has a significant impact on quality of life. Patients may not volunteer information regarding headache and this should be actively sought during consultations and the headache phenotype should be carefully characterized. PMID:26044068

  17. Increases in hepatitis C virus infection related to injection drug use among persons aged ≤30 years - Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia, 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    Zibbell, Jon E; Iqbal, Kashif; Patel, Rajiv C; Suryaprasad, Anil; Sanders, Kathy J; Moore-Moravian, Loretta; Serrecchia, Jamie; Blankenship, Steven; Ward, John W; Holtzman, Deborah

    2015-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common blood-borne infection in the United States, with approximately three million persons living with current infection. Percutaneous exposure to contaminated blood is the most efficient mode of transmission, and in the United States, injection drug use (IDU) is the primary risk factor for infection. State surveillance reports from the period 2006-2012 reveal a nationwide increase in reported cases of acute HCV infection, with the largest increases occurring east of the Mississippi River, particularly among states in central Appalachia. Demographic and behavioral data accompanying these reports show young persons (aged ≤30 years) from nonurban areas contributed to the majority of cases, with about 73% citing IDU as a principal risk factor. To better understand the increase in acute cases of HCV infection and its correlation to IDU, CDC examined surveillance data for acute case reports in conjunction with analyzing drug treatment admissions data from the Treatment Episode Data Set-Admissions (TEDS-A) among persons aged ≤30 years in four states (Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia) for the period 2006-2012. During this period, significant increases in cases of acute HCV infection were found among persons in both urban and nonurban areas, with a substantially higher incidence observed each year among persons residing in nonurban areas. During the same period, the proportion of treatment admissions for opioid dependency increased 21.1% in the four states, with a significant increase in the proportion of persons admitted who identified injecting as their main route of drug administration (an increase of 12.6%). Taken together, these increases indicate a geographic intersection among opioid abuse, drug injecting, and HCV infection in central Appalachia and underscore the need for integrated health services in substance abuse treatment settings to prevent HCV infection and ensure that those who are infected

  18. Integrating Speech-Language Pathology Services in Palliative End-of-Life Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollens, Robin D.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical speech-language pathologists (SLPs) may receive referrals to consult with teams serving patients who have a severe and/or terminal disease. Palliative care focuses on the prevention or relief of suffering to maximize quality of life for these patients and their families. This article describes how the role of the SLP in palliative care…

  19. Art Therapy Services to Support Veterans' Transition to Civilian Life: The Studio and the Gallery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLucia, Jennifer Marie

    2016-01-01

    Beyond having knowledge of the treatment of combat-related trauma, art therapists need to understand veterans' experiences of transition from military to civilian life in order to offer effective interventions. This article reviews the literature on veteran transition and the challenges common to transition difficulty and describes two major…

  20. Techniques for Developing Health Quality of Life Scales for Point of Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young-Sun; Douglas, Jeffrey; Chewning, Betty

    2007-01-01

    Clinical and health policy research frequently involves health status measurement using generic or disease specific instruments. These instruments are generally developed to arrive at several scales, each measuring a distinct domain of health quality of life (HQOL). Clinical settings are starting to explore how to integrate patient perspectives of…

  1. A novel test method to determine the filter material service life of decentralized systems treating runoff from traffic areas.

    PubMed

    Huber, Maximilian; Welker, Antje; Dierschke, Martina; Drewes, Jörg E; Helmreich, Brigitte

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the development and application of technical decentralized filter systems for the treatment of runoff from traffic areas. However, there are still many uncertainties regarding the service life and the performance of filter materials that are employed in decentralized treatment systems. These filter media are designed to prevent the transport of pollutants into the environment. A novel pilot-scale test method was developed to determine - within a few days - the service lives and long-term removal efficiencies for dissolved heavy metals in stormwater treatment systems. The proposed method consists of several steps including preloading the filter media in a pilot-scale model with copper and zinc by a load of n-1 years of the estimated service life (n). Subsequently, three representative rain events are simulated to evaluate the long-term performance by dissolved copper and zinc during the last year of application. The presented results, which verified the applicability of this method, were obtained for three filter channel systems and six filter shaft systems. The performance of the evaluated systems varied largely for both tested heavy metals and during all three simulated rain events. A validation of the pilot-scale assessment method with field measurements was also performed for two systems. Findings of this study suggest that this novel method does provide a standardized and accurate estimation of service intervals of decentralized treatment systems employing various filter materials. The method also provides regulatory authorities, designers, and operators with an objective basis for performance assessment and supports stormwater managers to make decisions for the installation of such decentralized treatment systems. PMID:27179341

  2. Deconstructing the surrogate species concept: a life history approach to the protection of ecosystem services

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of the surrogate species concept is widespread in environmental risk assessment and in particular the protection of species that provide ecosystem services, yet there are no standard protocols in place for the choice of surrogates. Surrogates are often chosen on the basis of convenience or ...

  3. Public Special Services Provided to People with Intellectual Disabilities in Sweden: A Life-Span Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umb-Carlsson, Oie

    2008-01-01

    This study describes public special services, support, and health care provided to an administratively defined county sample of people with intellectual disabilities from early childhood to adult age. Comparisons were made on the variables year of birth, sex, and assessed level of intellectual disabilities in 1974. Information was obtained from…

  4. Hooking Out-of-School Youth through Service Learning. Linking Learning with Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Kathryn Gibson

    This booklet explains how service learning can be used to encourage out-of-school youth to return to an education program. The booklet begins with a discussion of the term "out-of-school youth" that includes the early warning signals indicating a potential for dropping out of school and circumstances and characteristics of potential school…

  5. Deconstructing the surrogate species concept:a life history approach to the protection of ecosystem services.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of the surrogate species concept is widespread in environmental risk assessment and in particular the protection of species that provide ecosystem services, yet there are no standard protocols in place for the choice of surrogates. Surrogates are often chosen on the basis of convenience or v...

  6. Job and Life Stress and Strain Outcomes among Service and Clerical Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dytell, Rita Scher

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has ranked 130 jobs in terms of the level of stress they engender. According to this ranking, clerical and service workers are in occupations which engender very high levels of stress. This study examined the relative contribution of a variety of occupational and nonoccupational sources of…

  7. Behavioral Health and Adjustment to College Life for Student Service Members/Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, Lawrence; Braue, Lawrence A.; Stire, Sheryl; Gum, Amber M.; Cross, Brittany L.; Brown, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Increasing numbers of student service members/veterans (SSM/Vs) are enrolling in college. However, little is known about how their previous military experience affects their adjustment to this new role. The present study tested the hypothesis that SSM/Vs who report adjustment problems in college have a higher incidence of posttraumatic…

  8. Water for Life: The Impact of the Privatization of Water Services on Child Mortality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galiani, Sebastian; Gertler, Paul; Schargrodsky, Ernesto

    2005-01-01

    While most countries are committed to increasing access to safe water and thereby reducing child mortality, there is little consensus on how to actually improve water services. One important proposal under discussion is whether to privatize water provision. In the 1990s Argentina embarked on one of the largest privatization campaigns in the world,…

  9. Beyond Economics: Using Social Class Life-Based Literary Narratives with Pre-Service and Practicing Social Studies and English Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Bruce; Howard, Adam

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we propose that one way of engaging pre-service and practicing high school Social Studies and English teachers in critical conversations about social class is through the use of life-based literary narratives. By expanding upon Phillion and He's (2004) work around the pedagogical and curricular potential of using life-based…

  10. ICT services for prolonging independent living of the elderly with cognitive impairments - IN LIFE concept.

    PubMed

    Panou, Maria; Cabrera, Maria F; Bekiaris, Evangelos; Touliou, Katerina

    2015-01-01

    Older people with cognitive impairment need support in their everyday living. IN LIFE an EC co-funded project aims to organize large-scale and multi-country pilot applications, by providing interoperable, open, personalised and seamless ICT solutions that support older persons in all key home activities, communication, health maintenance, travel, mobility and socialisation tasks, with novel, scalable and viable business models. PMID:26294544

  11. A study comparing changes in loading conditions of an extended service life system using aluminum 2024-T351

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beal, Roger Zack

    The current fiscally austere environment prevalent in the military and industry is driving extreme measures to save money. In the United States Air Force, this has driven enormous efforts to trim sustainment spending on extended life aircraft. The challenge to the aerospace engineer is to ensure flight safety in the midst of this economic pressure. One method of cutting costs is to increase the time an aircraft is in service by delaying the point when the aircraft is taken out of service for depot maintenance. To ensure flight safety, in depth fatigue and fracture analysis needs to be accomplished to assess increasing the inspection interval. The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of Aluminum 2024-T351 alloy, a common material used in tension dominated aerospace applications, to two different loading spectra---one that is aggressive and the other that is benign. This was accomplished by conducting five different combinations of the two spectra, developing computer simulations using the AFGROW software and comparing with the measured data. The results showed that the material demonstrated significantly different behavior between the two spectra. These results provide a valuable tool for the aerospace engineer for fatigue life prediction and inspection interval evaluation.

  12. Perspectives of adults with cochlear implants on current CI services and daily life.

    PubMed

    Ng, Zheng Yen; Lamb, Brian; Harrigan, Suzanne; Archbold, Sue; Athalye, Sheetal; Allen, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports on a survey and interviews carried out with adults who have gone through the cochlear implantation pathway. It explores their experiences of current services, the assessment process for implantation, and the impact on their daily lives, including views and experiences on communication, independence and confidence. It also explores, in today's financially challenging climate, their awareness of current funding issues and the value of their implant to them. PMID:27099120

  13. Statistical estimation of extreme ocean waves over the eastern Canadian shelf from 30-year numerical wave simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lanli; Sheng, Jinyu

    2015-11-01

    Reliable estimation of extreme ocean surface gravity waves is important for many scientific and practical issues. In this study, WAVEWATCHIII is used to simulate wave conditions over the eastern Canadian shelf (ECS) for the 30-year period, 1979-2008. The wave model is forced by the 6-hourly winds and ice cover taken from the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR). A parametric vortex is inserted into the CFSR winds to better represent surface winds associated with tropical storms or hurricanes. The model performance in simulating the bulk significant wave height is assessed by comparing model results with wave observations at 12 buoy stations over the ECS. The peaks-over-threshold method is used to estimate the extreme significant wave heights from 30-year wave simulations. The estimated extreme waves with the 50-year return period over the ECS feature large wave heights of more than 12 m in the offshore deep waters and about 8-12 m over the open shelf waters of the ECS. By comparison, the 50-year extreme waves are moderate and 7 m or less in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and inner Gulf of Maine.

  14. What We Write about When We Write About AAC: The Past 30 Years of Research and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, David; Light, Janice

    2015-01-01

    For the past 30 years, the Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) journal has both documented and instigated change in the field of AAC. We reviewed the papers published in the AAC journal from 1985-2014 in order to identify trends in research and publication activities. Intervention research made up the largest proportion of the four types of research (i.e., intervention, descriptive, experimental, and instrument and measurement development) reported in the journal. Intervention research has most commonly focused on the individual with complex communication needs, and most frequently on younger individuals (aged 17 and younger) with developmental disabilities. While much has been learned in the past 30 years, there continues to be a need for high quality research in a large number of areas. There is a special need for reports of interventions with older individuals with complex communication needs as a result of acquired disabilities, and for information on effective interventions for the communication partners of persons with complex communication needs. PMID:26490318

  15. Trends in blunt abdominal trauma among hospital in-patients. Developments in a Swedish rural district over 30 years.

    PubMed

    Bergqvist, D; Hedelin, H

    1979-01-01

    To analyse changes in background factors, injury pattern, and prognosis regarding blunt abdominal trauma in Sweden, the 30-year postwar (1946--75) development was investigated in a rural district. 396 patients were treated, showing a great increase during the last 5 years. The highest frequency was seen in patients aged 11--30 years. Abdominal trauma occurred most commonly during July and August. The growing aetiological importance of road accidents is shown. Equestrian accidents were common early in the period and again towards the end. The incidence of cerebrally confused patients increased. The organs most commonly traumatized were kidney, liver, and spleen. The frequency of multiple intra-abdominal injuries and also associated extra-abdominal injuries increased with time. There was a tendency towards shorter hospital stays. Mortality rates did not change during the period, even though injuries have become increasingly severe (judged by the Injury Severity Score). It is concluded that the improved care of patients compensated precisely for the increased severity of injuries, as reflected in mortality. PMID:432565

  16. Association between Birth Interval and Cardiovascular Outcomes at 30 Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Devakumar, D.; Hallal, P. C.; Horta, B. L.; Barros, F. C.; Wells, J. C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth interval is an important and potentially modifiable factor that is associated with child health. Whether an association exists with longer-term outcomes in adults is less well known. Methods Using the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, the association of birth interval with markers of cardiovascular health at 30 years of age was examined. Multivariable linear regression was used with birth interval as a continuous variable and categorical variable, and effect modification by gender was explored. Results Birth interval and cardiovascular data were present for 2,239 individuals. With birth interval as a continuous variable, no association was found but stratification by gender tended to show stronger associations for girls. When compared to birth intervals of <18 months, as binary variable, longer intervals were associated with increases in height (1.6 cm; 95% CI: 0.5, 2.8) and lean mass (1.7 kg; 95% CI: 0.2, 3.2). No difference was seen with other cardiovascular outcomes. Conclusions An association was generally not found between birth interval and cardiovascular outcomes at 30 years of age, though some evidence existed for differences between males and females and for an association with height and lean mass for birth intervals of 18 months and longer. PMID:26890250

  17. Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Home Guard Soldiers During Military Service and Civilian Life.

    PubMed

    Aandstad, Anders; Hageberg, Rune; Holme, Ingar M; Anderssen, Sigmund A

    2016-07-01

    Soldiers are encouraged to be physically active, and thereby maintain or increase their fitness level to meet job-related physical demands. However, studies on objectively measured physical activity (PA) in soldiers are scarce, particular for reserve soldiers. Hence, the aim of this study was to present PA data on Norwegian Home Guard (HG) soldiers. A total of 411 HG soldiers produced acceptable PA measurements (SenseWear Armband Pro2) during civilian life, of which 299 soldiers also produced acceptable data during HG military training. Reference data on total energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents, steps per day, and minutes of PA in three different metabolic equivalent categories are presented. The HG soldiers produced more minutes of moderate PA during HG military training compared to civilian life, but less vigorous and very vigorous PA. Furthermore, HG soldiers were more physically active during civilian week days compared to weekend days. The presented reference data can be used for comparisons against other groups of soldiers. Our data indicate that aerobic demands during HG military training were not very high. Promoting PA and exercise could still be important to ensure HG soldiers are physically prepared for more unforeseen job tasks. PMID:27391624

  18. Models for estimation of service life of concrete barriers in low-level radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, J.C.; Plansky, L.E.; Smith, R.W. )

    1990-09-01

    Concrete barriers will be used as intimate parts of systems for isolation of low level radioactive wastes subsequent to disposal. This work reviews mathematical models for estimating the degradation rate of concrete in typical service environments. The models considered cover sulfate attack, reinforcement corrosion, calcium hydroxide leaching, carbonation, freeze/thaw, and cracking. Additionally, fluid flow, mass transport, and geochemical properties of concrete are briefly reviewed. Example calculations included illustrate the types of predictions expected of the models. 79 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Experiences concerning the service life of rubber linings applied in flue gas desulfurization plants

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, W.

    1999-11-01

    Since the beginning of the eighties scrubbers and other components in European FGD plants have been protected against corrosion using rubber lining. Extensive experience is available based on service lives of rubber lining of more than 15 years. The paper will consider the various rubber types and curing systems used. While the USA and Japan had already begun retrofitting their existing coal-fired power stations with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plants in the seventies, Germany followed suit in the eighties as a result of the decree issued for large-scale firing plants. Concurrent with this development retrofitting has also been enhanced in other European countries like Austria and the Netherlands, later followed by Denmark, Finland and England. After the collapse of the Eastern Bloc retrofitting work has been implemented in Eastern Germany, Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Today FGD plants are being put into operation in Spain, Italy, Turkey and Greece or are on the verge of being put into service. More than 150 plants of this kind are operated by using the wet-scrubbing process with limestone or calcium hydroxide suspensions.

  20. Investigation and Rehabilitation to Extend Service Life of DSS-13 Antenna Concrete Foundation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riewe, A. A., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation to establish the cause and, devise a repair technique to maintain the serviceability of the DSS-13 26 meter antenna is described. Core samples are obtained from the concrete and various laboratory tests conducted. In-place nondestructive type tests are also performed. The tests established that the concrete is deteriorating because of alkali aggregate reactivity. This is a phenomenon wherein certain siliceous constituents present in some aggregates react with alkalies in the portland cement to produce a silica gel which, in turn, imbibes water, swells, and cracks the concrete. The scheme consists of a supplemental steel frame friction pile anchored grade beam encircling the existing foundation. This system provides adequate bracing against base shear and overturning due to seismic loading. Larger cracks are sealed using a pressure injected two-component epoxy.

  1. A Qualitative Study of Service Provision for Alcohol Related Health Issues in Mid to Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Haighton, Catherine; Wilson, Graeme; Ling, Jonathan; McCabe, Karen; Crosland, Ann; Kaner, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Aims Epidemiological surveys over the last 20 years show a steady increase in the amount of alcohol consumed by older age groups. Physiological changes and an increased likelihood of health problems and medication use make older people more likely than younger age groups to suffer negative consequences of alcohol consumption, often at lower levels. However, health services targeting excessive drinking tend to be aimed at younger age groups. The aim of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of experiences of, and attitudes towards, support for alcohol related health issues in people aged 50 and over. Methods Qualitative interviews (n = 24, 12 male/12 female, ages 51–90 years) and focus groups (n = 27, 6 male/21 female, ages 50–95 years) were carried out with a purposive sample of participants who consumed alcohol or had been dependent. Findings Participants’ alcohol misuse was often covert, isolated and carefully regulated. Participants tended to look first to their General Practitioner for help with alcohol. Detoxification courses had been found effective for dependent participants but only in the short term; rehabilitation facilities were appreciated but seen as difficult to access. Activities, informal groups and drop-in centres were endorsed. It was seen as difficult to secure treatment for alcohol and mental health problems together. Barriers to seeking help included functioning at a high level, concern about losing positive aspects of drinking, perceived stigma, service orientation to younger people, and fatalistic attitudes to help-seeking. Facilitators included concern about risk of fatal illness or pressure from significant people. Conclusion Primary care professionals need training on improving the detection and treatment of alcohol problems among older people. There is also a compelling need to ensure that aftercare is in place to prevent relapse. Strong preferences were expressed for support to be provided by those who had experienced

  2. In your 20s it's quantity, in your 30s it's quality: the prognostic value of social activity across 30 years of adulthood.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Cheryl L; Reis, Harry T; Duberstein, Paul R

    2015-03-01

    Social connection, a leading factor in the promotion of health, well-being, and longevity, requires social knowledge and the capacity to cultivate intimacy. Life span development theorists have speculated that social information-seeking goals, emphasized at the beginning of early adulthood, give way to emotional closeness goals in later stages of early adulthood. Drawing on developmental theory (Baltes & Carstensen, 2003; Baltes, 1997), this 30-year prospective study assessed social activity at age 20 and age 30 with experience sampling methods, and psychosocial outcomes (social integration, friendship quality, loneliness, depression, and psychological well-being) at age 50. Results supported the hypothesis that the quantity (but not the quality) of social interactions at age 20, and the quality (but not the quantity) of social interactions at age 30 predict midlife psychosocial outcomes. Longitudinal structural models revealed that age-20 interaction quantity had a direct, unmediated effect on age-50 social and psychological outcomes. The effects of age-20 interaction quality on midlife outcomes, on the other hand, were mediated by age-30 interaction quality. Our findings are consistent with the idea that selection and optimization serve important functions in early adulthood, and that engaging in developmentally appropriate social activity contributes to psychosocial adjustment in the decades that follow. PMID:25774426

  3. Comparison of temperature, precipitation and snow characteristics in two 30-year periods 1951-1980 and 1981-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasko, Pavel; Švec, Marek; Šťastný, Pavel; Kajaba, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Differences in some characteristics of temperature, precipitation totals and snow cover, for two 30-year periods 1951-1980 and 1981-2010 were examined at selected meteorological stations located in different regions of Slovakia. Stations represent lowland regions (up to 300 meters), mid-altitude regions (300 to 800 meters) and high altitude mountain regions (above 1000 m). The analysis of highest maximum air temperature for individual days showed higher values of maxima for 1981 - 2010 period primarily during the summer months. The differences between corresponding values of two periods were relatively often higher at some stations during the winter months, but unlike the periods in summer months they were more regional in nature. The comparison of long-term average of daily air temperature for two 30-years periods showed increase in 1981 - 2010 period. The most significant change occurred mainly in January, July and August. Warming was not significant in September - December period. The annual regime of mean monthly precipitation amount was different in both 30-years periods in the most of the selected stations with noticeable increase in the average monthly sum in May and decline in June in 1981 - 2010 period. The only exception is the station Košice airport, where on the contrary the increase in June was registered in the 1981-2010 period. Increase of precipitation in May in the second thirty year period was probably caused by a higher number of storms in the spring months as a result of faster warming of the earth's surface and occurrence of more frequent convective precipitation. Average number of days with a snow cover in the period 1981-2010 compared with the period 1951-1980 is significantly lower in January at meteorological stations lying at lower altitudes. This is due to the higher air temperature and a higher amount of mixed and liquid precipitation during this month. In February, small increase in the average number of days with a total snow cover

  4. Cloud-Based Service Information System for Evaluating Quality of Life after Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Hao-Yun; Wu, Wen-Hsiung; Liang, Tyng-Yeu; Lee, King-The; Hou, Ming-Feng; Shi, Hon-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although recent studies have improved understanding of quality of life (QOL) outcomes of breast conserving surgery, few have used longitudinal data for more than two time points, and few have examined predictors of QOL over two years. Additionally, the longitudinal data analyses in such studies rarely apply the appropriate statistical methodology to control for censoring and inter-correlations arising from repeated measures obtained from the same patient pool. This study evaluated an internet-based system for measuring longitudinal changes in QOL and developed a cloud-based system for managing patients after breast conserving surgery. Methods This prospective study analyzed 657 breast cancer patients treated at three tertiary academic hospitals. Related hospital personnel such as surgeons and other healthcare professionals were also interviewed to determine the requirements for an effective cloud-based system for surveying QOL in breast cancer patients. All patients completed the SF-36, Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) and its supplementary breast cancer measure (QLQ-BR23) at baseline, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years postoperatively. The 95% confidence intervals for differences in responsiveness estimates were derived by bootstrap estimation. Scores derived by these instruments were interpreted by generalized estimating equation before and after surgery. Results All breast cancer surgery patients had significantly improved QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 subscale scores throughout the 2-year follow-up period (p<0.05). During the study period, QOL generally had a negative association with advanced age, high Charlson comorbidity index score, tumor stage III or IV, previous chemotherapy, and long post-operative LOS. Conversely, QOL was positively associated with previous radiotherapy and hormone therapy. Additionally, patients with high scores for preoperative QOL tended to have high scores for QLQ-C30, QLQ-BR23 and SF-36 subscales. Based on the results of

  5. Towards Practical Carbonation Prediction and Modelling for Service Life Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekolu, O. S.

    2015-11-01

    Amongst the scientific community, the interest in durability of concrete structures has been high for quite a long time of over 40 years. Of the various causes of degradation of concrete structures, corrosion is the most widespread durability problem and carbonation is one of the two causes of steel reinforcement corrosion. While much scientific understanding has been gained from the numerous carbonation studies undertaken over the past years, it is still presently not possible to accurately predict carbonation and apply it in design of structures. This underscores the complex nature of the mechanisms as influenced by several interactive factors. Based on critical literature and some experience of the author, it is found that there still exist major challenges in establishing a mathematical constitutive relation for realistic carbonation prediction. While most current models employ permeability /diffusion as the main model property, analysis shows that the most practical material property would be compressive strength, which has a low coefficient of variation of 20% compared to 30 to 50% for permeability. This important characteristic of compressive strength, combined with its merit of simplicity and data availability at all stages of a structure's life, promote its potential use in modelling over permeability. By using compressive strength in carbonation prediction, the need for accelerated testing and permeability measurement can be avoided. This paper attempts to examine the issues associated with carbonation prediction, which could underlie the current lack of a sound established prediction method. Suggestions are then made for possible employment of different or alternative approaches.

  6. Ciguatera Incidence in the US Virgin Islands Has Not Increased over a 30-Year Time Period Despite Rising Seawater Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Radke, Elizabeth G.; Grattan, Lynn M.; Cook, Robert L.; Smith, Tyler B.; Anderson, Donald M.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most common marine food poisoning worldwide. It has been hypothesized that increasing seawater temperature will result in increasing ciguatera incidence. In St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, we performed an island-wide telephone survey (N = 807) and a medical record review of diagnosed ciguatera cases at the emergency department of the sole hospital and compared these data with comparable data sources collected in 1980. Annual incidence from both recent data sources remained high (12 per 1,000 among adults in the telephone survey). However, the combined data sources suggest that incidence has declined by 20% or more or remained stable over 30 years, whereas seawater temperatures were increasing. Illness was associated with lower education levels, higher levels of fish consumption, and having previous episodes of ciguatera; population shifts from 1980 to 2010 in these factors could explain an incidence decline of approximately 3 per 1,000, obscuring effects from rising seawater temperature. PMID:23400575

  7. Unilateral Optic Neuritis: A Rare Complication after Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination in a 30-Year-Old Woman.

    PubMed

    De Giacinto, Chiara; Guaglione, Elvira; Leon, Pia E; D'Aloisio, Rossella; Vattovani, Odilla; Ravalico, Giuseppe; Tognetto, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of unilateral optic neuritis following Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccination. Methods. A 30-year-old female developed unilateral optic neuritis five days after a Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) booster vaccination. The patient displayed unilateral involvement, with severe visual loss. However, visual acuity improved significantly after four days of intravenous steroid therapy with 500 mg/day of methylprednisolone. Conclusions. Optic neuritis is one of the rare complications associated with the mumps, measles, and rubella vaccine. It may be a toxic reaction to the nonviral component of the vaccine, but the exact etiology is unknown. Postvaccination neuritis is generally bilateral and usually affects children. In adults, unilateral optic neuritis is usually correlated with multiple sclerosis (MS). PMID:27195163

  8. Factors controlling peat chemistry and vegetation composition in Sudbury peatlands after 30 years of pollution emission reductions.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Sophie E; Watmough, Shaun A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this research was to assess factors controlling peat and plant chemistry, and vegetation composition in 18 peatlands surrounding Sudbury after more than 30 years of large (>95%) pollution emission reductions. Sites closer to the main Copper Cliff smelter had more humified peat and the surface horizons were greatly enriched in copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni). Copper and Ni concentrations in peat were significantly correlated with that in the plant tissue of Chamaedaphne calyculata. The pH of peat was the strongest determining factor for species richness, diversity, and community composition, although percent vascular plant cover was strongly negatively correlated with surface Cu and Ni concentrations in peat. Sphagnum frequency was also negatively related to peat Cu and Ni concentrations indicating sites close to Copper Cliff smelter remain adversely impacted by industrial activities. PMID:26160672

  9. Unilateral Optic Neuritis: A Rare Complication after Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination in a 30-Year-Old Woman

    PubMed Central

    De Giacinto, Chiara; Guaglione, Elvira; Leon, Pia E.; D'Aloisio, Rossella; Vattovani, Odilla; Ravalico, Giuseppe; Tognetto, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of unilateral optic neuritis following Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccination. Methods. A 30-year-old female developed unilateral optic neuritis five days after a Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) booster vaccination. The patient displayed unilateral involvement, with severe visual loss. However, visual acuity improved significantly after four days of intravenous steroid therapy with 500 mg/day of methylprednisolone. Conclusions. Optic neuritis is one of the rare complications associated with the mumps, measles, and rubella vaccine. It may be a toxic reaction to the nonviral component of the vaccine, but the exact etiology is unknown. Postvaccination neuritis is generally bilateral and usually affects children. In adults, unilateral optic neuritis is usually correlated with multiple sclerosis (MS). PMID:27195163

  10. Complementary-relationship-based 30 year normals (1981-2010) of monthly latent heat fluxes across the contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    2015-11-01

    Thirty year normal (1981-2010) monthly latent heat fluxes (ET) over the conterminous United States were estimated by a modified Advection-Aridity model from North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) radiation and wind as well as Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) air and dew-point temperature data. Mean annual ET values were calibrated with PRISM precipitation (P) and validated against United States Geological Survey runoff (Q) data. At the six-digit Hydrologic Unit Code level (sample size of 334) the estimated 30 year normal runoff (P - ET) had a bias of 18 mm yr-1, a root-mean-square error of 96 mm yr-1, and a linear correlation coefficient value of 0.95, making the estimates on par with the latest Land Surface Model results but without the need for soil and vegetation information or any soil moisture budgeting.

  11. Evolution of induction chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer over the last 30 years: A surgical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, Elizabeth; Rivera, Caroline; Mordant, Pierre; Gibault, Laure; Dujon, Antoine; Foucault, Christophe; Le Pimpec-Barthes, Françoise; Riquet, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background Induction chemotherapy (ICT) is supposed to reduce the risk of micrometastatic progression and improve resectability of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, best indications for ICT strategy remain unclear in published meta-analyses. Based on this observation, an evaluation of daily practice is of importance. Therefore, we reviewed indications and efficacy time trends in our 30-year series. Methods A database including all patients with NSCLC who underwent surgical resection in two French centers from 1980 to 2009 (n = 5563) was prospectively set and retrospectively reviewed. The indications, clinical and pathologic response rates, and overall survival of ICT patients (n = 732) were analyzed during three successive time-periods: P1 from 1980 to 1989, P2 from 1990 to 1999, and P3 from 2000 to 2009. Results The proportion of patients who benefited from ICT increased over time, from 2.8% (n = 35) in P1 to 12.5% (n = 274) in P2, and 20.2% (n = 423) in P3. Indications evolved over time with more N2 patients (n = 211; 49.8%) and less initially unresectable patients (n = 72; 17%) in P3. The clinical response rate between P1 and P2 increased. Five and 10-year survival rates of ICT patients were 35.2% and 21.5%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, time-period, age, type of resection, histology, and pathologic response to chemotherapy were significant prognostic factors. Conclusions Our report on the off-trial use of induction therapy during the last 30 years demonstrates an increased use of ICT, a progressive focus on N2 disease, and improved response rates. PMID:26557911

  12. Semantic-JSON: a lightweight web service interface for Semantic Web contents integrating multiple life science databases.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Norio; Ishii, Manabu; Takahashi, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Matsushima, Akihiro; Toyoda, Tetsuro

    2011-07-01

    Global cloud frameworks for bioinformatics research databases become huge and heterogeneous; solutions face various diametric challenges comprising cross-integration, retrieval, security and openness. To address this, as of March 2011 organizations including RIKEN published 192 mammalian, plant and protein life sciences databases having 8.2 million data records, integrated as Linked Open or Private Data (LOD/LPD) using SciNetS.org, the Scientists' Networking System. The huge quantity of linked data this database integration framework covers is based on the Semantic Web, where researchers collaborate by managing metadata across public and private databases in a secured data space. This outstripped the data query capacity of existing interface tools like SPARQL. Actual research also requires specialized tools for data analysis using raw original data. To solve these challenges, in December 2009 we developed the lightweight Semantic-JSON interface to access each fragment of linked and raw life sciences data securely under the control of programming languages popularly used by bioinformaticians such as Perl and Ruby. Researchers successfully used the interface across 28 million semantic relationships for biological applications including genome design, sequence processing, inference over phenotype databases, full-text search indexing and human-readable contents like ontology and LOD tree viewers. Semantic-JSON services of SciNetS.org are provided at http://semanticjson.org. PMID:21632604

  13. Dental pain, use of dental services and oral health-related quality of life in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalheiro, Charles Henrique; Abegg, Claides; Fontanive, Victor Nascimento; Davoglio, Rosane Silvia

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the relationship between dental pain and the reason for using dental services and oral health quality of life in people aged 50 to 74 years in southern Brazil. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted with 720 individuals aged 50 to 74 years, living in three health districts in the city of Porto Alegre. Dental impacts on daily life and sociodemographic data were assessed using structured interviews. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performance - OIDP instrument was used to measure oral impacts. The information was analyzed by Poisson regression with robust variance adjustment, taking into account cluster sampling. Dental pain was present in 32.5% of those reporting an oral impact on their daily activities. Dental pain most frequently affected talking (37.6%), cleaning teeth and gums (37.0%) and enjoying the companionship of people (36.5%). After adjustments to the multivariate analysis, the reason for dental visits due to dental pain was found to have a high impact on daily activities [RP 1.68 (1.11 - 2.54]. PMID:27556550

  14. Semantic-JSON: a lightweight web service interface for Semantic Web contents integrating multiple life science databases

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Norio; Ishii, Manabu; Takahashi, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Matsushima, Akihiro; Toyoda, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Global cloud frameworks for bioinformatics research databases become huge and heterogeneous; solutions face various diametric challenges comprising cross-integration, retrieval, security and openness. To address this, as of March 2011 organizations including RIKEN published 192 mammalian, plant and protein life sciences databases having 8.2 million data records, integrated as Linked Open or Private Data (LOD/LPD) using SciNetS.org, the Scientists' Networking System. The huge quantity of linked data this database integration framework covers is based on the Semantic Web, where researchers collaborate by managing metadata across public and private databases in a secured data space. This outstripped the data query capacity of existing interface tools like SPARQL. Actual research also requires specialized tools for data analysis using raw original data. To solve these challenges, in December 2009 we developed the lightweight Semantic-JSON interface to access each fragment of linked and raw life sciences data securely under the control of programming languages popularly used by bioinformaticians such as Perl and Ruby. Researchers successfully used the interface across 28 million semantic relationships for biological applications including genome design, sequence processing, inference over phenotype databases, full-text search indexing and human-readable contents like ontology and LOD tree viewers. Semantic-JSON services of SciNetS.org are provided at http://semanticjson.org. PMID:21632604

  15. Reversing land degradation in the densely populated and semi-arid highlands of Tigray (Northern Ethiopia) - evidence from photomonitoring with 30 years interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyssen, J.; Munro, R. N.; Poesen, J.; Deckers, J.; Haile, M.; Grove, A. D.

    2007-12-01

    Studies on the impact of environmental rehabilitation in semi-arid areas are often limited in scale, and do typically not include detailed bio-physical components (Rohde and Hilhorst, 2001). As a first in its kind, the present study makes a multi-scale assessment over a time span of 30 years of environmental rehabilitation in one of the world's most degraded areas: the Tigray highlands in Northern Ethiopia, where population has more than doubled over that period. Using methods related to geomorphology, hydrology, soil science and multi-temporal photomonitoring (Nyssen et al., 2007), we show that in Tigray, soil erosion rates have decreased, infiltration and spring discharge are enhanced, vegetation cover has increased and crop production improved compared to the prevailing situation a few decades ago. These impacts are quantified and substantiated by a comparison of current landscapes to the past situation by means of a comprehensive database of 30-year old photographs of representative landscapes covering the major agro-ecological zones of the region. This resilience will be discussed in the light of the socio-economic context in which it has taken place. Finally, the positive changes in ecosystem service supply that result from changing land cover and management are an issue of global concern. Our research demonstrates that the way is open to develop down-to-the-ground environmental indicators to gauge 'Millennium Ecosystem Assessment' type approaches (Carpenter et al., 2006). Carpenter, S.R., DeFries, R., Dietz, T., Mooney, H.A., Polasky, S., Reid, W.V., Scholes, R.J., 2006. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: research needs. Science 314: 257-258. Nyssen, J., Poesen, J., Descheemaeker, K., Nigussie Haregeweyn, Mitiku Haile, Moeyersons, J., Govers, G., Munro, R.N., Deckers, J., 2007. Reversing land degradation in marginal semi-arid areas: the case of Northern Ethiopia. Ecosystems, submitted. Rohde, R., Hilhorst, T., 2001. A profile of environmental change in the

  16. My father's life.

    PubMed Central

    Porth, R

    1995-01-01

    Medicine has many unsung heroes, and among them are physicians who spend their careers providing medical care in remote areas. In this article, Ronald Porth remembers the life of his father, Dr. Frank Porth, who for more than 30 years provided medical care on native reserves and in rural parts of the Prairies. Images p638-a p639-a PMID:7641162

  17. Health-Related Quality of Life: Expanding a Conceptual Framework to Include Older Adults Who Receive Long-Term Services and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubritsky, Cynthia; Abbott, Katherine M.; Hirschman, Karen B.; Bowles, Kathryn H.; Foust, Janice B.; Naylor, Mary D.

    2013-01-01

    For older adults receiving long-term services and supports (LTSS), health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has emerged as a critical construct to examine because of its focus on components of well-being, which are affected by progressive changes in health status, health care, and social support. HRQoL is a health-focused quality of life (QOL)…

  18. Substantiation of recommendations for ensuring the design service life of heat-transfer tubes used in a PGV-1000MKP steam generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popadchuk, V. S.; Trunov, N. B.; Brykov, S. I.; Zhukov, R. Yu.; Tupikov, R. A.; Seleznev, A. V.; Popkov, R. I.; Metal'Nikov, M. S.; Styazhkin, P. S.; Karzov, G. P.; Suvorov, S. A.

    2011-03-01

    We present the results obtained from tests and studies carried out on the model of tube bundles for a PGV-1000 horizontal steam generator that were conducted for experimentally substantiating the design service life of a steam generator tube bundle intended for use at new nuclear power stations equipped with a PGV-1000MKP steam generator. Measures taken to minimize the incipience and development of local corrosion damage to the heat-transfer tubes and ensure their design service life are substantiated and confirmed.

  19. Little evidence for an epidemic of myopia in Australian primary school children over the last 30 years

    PubMed Central

    Junghans, Barbara M; Crewther, Sheila G

    2005-01-01

    Background Recently reported prevalences of myopia in primary school children vary greatly in different regions of the world. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of refractive errors in an unselected urban population of young primary school children in eastern Sydney, Australia, between 1998 and 2004, for comparison with our previously published data gathered using the same protocols and other Australian studies over the last 30 years. Methods Right eye refractive data from non-cycloplegic retinoscopy was analysed for 1,936 children aged 4 to 12 years who underwent a full eye examination whilst on a vision science excursion to the Vision Education Centre Clinic at the University of New South Wales. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalents equal to or less than -0.50 D, and hyperopia as spherical equivalents greater than +0.50 D. Results The mean spherical equivalent decreased significantly (p < 0.0001) with age from +0.73 ± 0.1D (SE) at age 4 to +0.21 ± 0.11D at age 12 years. The proportion of children across all ages with myopia of -0.50D or more was 8.4%, ranging from 2.3% of 4 year olds to 14.7% of 12 year olds. Hyperopia greater than +0.50D was present in 38.4%. A 3-way ANOVA for cohort, age and gender of both the current and our previous data showed a significant main effect for age (p < 0.0001) but not for cohort (p = 0.134) or gender (p = 0.61). Conclusions Comparison of our new data with our early 1990s data and that from studies of over 8,000 Australian non-clinical rural and urban children in the 1970's and 1980's provided no evidence for the rapidly increasing prevalence of myopia described elsewhere in the world. In fact, the prevalence of myopia in Australian children continues to be significantly lower than that reported in Asia and North America despite changing demographics. This raises the issue of whether these results are a reflection of Australia's stable educational system and lifestyle over the last 30 years. PMID:15705207

  20. Evolution of the Urban Heat Island of the city of Bologna (Italy) in the last 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Francesca; Gaspari, Nicola; Piana, Stefano; Rossi Pisa, Paola

    2010-05-01

    The Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon is the air temperature difference between the urban area and the surrounding agricultural area of a city, due to the anthropic activities and different surfaces typical of the town. This phenomenon has been documented for many cities with different population, topography and climate (Chandler, 1962 and Oke, 1982 among the first), and has been quantified in many areas (see as an example for Italy Agnese et al, 2008). Many causes contribute to the UHI, such as different heat capacities of vegetated surfaces as compared to buildings and paving materials; different absorption due to canopy geometry; anthropogenic heat sources and so on. (for example see Camilloni and Barros, 1997) What is not so easy to find in literature is the study of the evolution of this phenomenon with time. UHI could be improved by changes in the town behaviour (increase in car traffic or winter-heating/summer-cooling), reduced by the enlargement of the suburb area, arriving to include the rural meteorological stations, or mitigated by the general growth of air temperature due to global warming. In this work, results from the analysis of two 30 years time series air temperature data are presented. The first data set comes from an agrometeorological station sited in the Botanical garden of the University of Bologna, in the centre of the town (44° 30' 05"N, 11° 21' 18" E). The second agrometeorological station is sited in the experimental farm of the University of Bologna in Cadriano (44° 33' 03" N, 11° 24' 36" E), 9 km from the first and outside of the town boundaries. Both data series range from 1978 to 2007 and are measured by mechanical thermoigrometers. Detailed information about instruments and data treatment are available in Matzneller et al. (2009). Results show an increasing trend in both stations for air maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures, more evident in the rural data. The mean UHI is of about 1.3 ± 0.7 °C as an average on the 30

  1. Proximity to Food Establishments and Body Mass Index in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort Over 30 Years

    PubMed Central

    Block, Jason P.; Christakis, Nicholas A.; O’Malley, A. James; Subramanian, S. V.

    2011-01-01

    Existing evidence linking residential proximity to food establishments with body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) has been inconclusive. In this study, the authors assessed the relation between BMI and proximity to food establishments over a 30-year period among 3,113 subjects in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort living in 4 Massachusetts towns during 1971–2001. The authors used novel data that included repeated measures of BMI and accounted for residential mobility and the appearance and disappearance of food establishments. They calculated proximity to food establishments as the driving distance between each subject’s residence and nearby food establishments, divided into 6 categories. The authors used cross-classified linear mixed models to account for time-varying attributes of individuals and residential neighborhoods. Each 1-km increase in distance to the closest fast-food restaurant was associated with a 0.11-unit decrease in BMI (95% credible interval: −0.20, −0.04). In sex-stratified analyses, this association was present only for women. Other aspects of the food environment were either inconsistently associated or not at all associated with BMI. Contrary to much prior research, the authors did not find a consistent relation between access to fast-food restaurants and individual BMI, necessitating a reevaluation of policy discussions on the anticipated impact of the food environment on weight gain. PMID:21965186

  2. Committed retreat of Smith, Pope, and Kohler Glaciers over the next 30 years inferred by transient model calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, D. N.; Heimbach, P.; Joughin, I.; Smith, B.

    2015-12-01

    A glacial flow model of Smith, Pope and Kohler Glaciers is calibrated by means of control methods against time varying, annually resolved observations of ice height and velocities, covering the period 2002 to 2011. The inversion - termed "transient calibration" - produces an optimal set of time-mean, spatially varying parameters together with a time-evolving state that accounts for the transient nature of observations and the model dynamics. Serving as an optimal initial condition, the estimated state for 2011 is used, with no additional forcing, for predicting grounded ice volume loss and grounding line retreat over the ensuing 30 years. The transiently calibrated model predicts a near-steady loss of grounded ice volume of approximately 21 km3 a-1 over this period, as well as loss of 33 km2 a-1 grounded area. We contrast this prediction with one obtained following a commonly used "snapshot" or steady-state inversion, which does not consider time dependence and assumes all observations to be contemporaneous. Transient calibration is shown to achieve a better fit with observations of thinning and grounding line retreat histories, and yields a quantitatively different projection with respect to ice volume loss and ungrounding. Sensitivity studies suggest large near-future levels of unforced, i.e., committed sea level contribution from these ice streams under reasonable assumptions regarding uncertainties of the unknown parameters.

  3. Treated versus non-treated subjects with depression from a 30-year cohort study: prevalence and clinical covariates.

    PubMed

    Hengartner, Michael P; Angst, Felix; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Rössler, Wulf; Angst, Jules

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine prevalence rates of several components of depression (unipolar and bipolar major, minor, recurrent brief depression, and dysthymia) and to identify covariates of treatment. We analysed a representative population-based, long-term prospective cohort study from age 20 to 50. Across the seven semi-structured interviews, generalized estimating equations examined the associations between diagnoses and treatment status during the course. The results show that the mean annual treatment rate across 30 years in persons with MDE was 39.2%. The weighted treatment prevalence for any depressive disorder was 23.4% (15.7% for MDE, 4.3% for minor depressive disorders and 3.4% for non-diagnosed subjects). Persons were more likely to seek treatment as they grew older. Women with MDE had triple the treatment prevalence of men (23.8 vs. 7.4%). Variables of distress/suffering under depression (OR 1.36-1.52) and the number of diagnostic depressive symptoms (OR 1.47) were statistically significant predictors of treatment, as were episode duration (OR 2.21) and various variables assessing impairment due to depression (OR 4.65-8.02). In conclusion, only a minority of persons with depressive disorders seek professional treatment in the year of disorder onset. Women and subjects suffering from high levels of depressive symptoms, frequent episodes, long episode duration and consecutive high distress and impairment were more likely to seek treatment. PMID:26499773

  4. Large Salt Dust Storms Follow a 30-Year Rainfall Cycle in the Mar Chiquita Lake (Córdoba, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Ariel F.

    2016-01-01

    Starting in 2006, a new source of intense salt dust storms developed in Mar Chiquita (Córdoba, Argentina), the largest saline lake in South America. Storms originate from vast mudflats left by a 30-year expansion-retreat cycle of the lake due to changes in the regional rainfall regime. The annual frequency of salt dust storms correlated with the size of the salt mudflats. Events were restricted to the coldest months, and reached up to 800 km from the source. Occurrence of dust storms was associated with specific surface colors and textures easily identifiable in satellite images. High-emission surfaces were characterized by the presence of sodium sulfate hydrous/anhydrous crystals (mirabilite and thenardite), and a superficial and variable water table, which may result in the periodic development of a characteristic “fluffy” surface derived from salt precipitation-dissolution processes. HYSPLIT model simulation estimates a deposition maximum near the sources (of about 2.5 kg/ha/yr), and a decreasing trend from the emission area outwards, except for the relative secondary maximum modeled over the mountain ranges in southern Bolivia and northern Argentina due to an orographic effect. The 2009 total deposition of salt dust generated in Mar Chiquita was estimated at 6.5 million tons. PMID:27258088

  5. Changes in the management and survival rates of patients with oral cancer: a 30-year single-institution study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the management and 5-year survival rates of patients with oral cancer in our department over a 30-year period. Materials and Methods We investigated the patient distributions, treatment methods, method of neck dissection according to cancer stage, and 5-year survival rates for 700 oral cancer patients over the periods of 1982–1996 (256 patients), 1999–2006 (248 patients), and 2007–2011 (196 patients). Results Stage IV patients were the largest group in all of the time periods evaluated. Although surgery and radiotherapy were the most common methods in all periods (over 50%), the prevalence of patients who underwent concomitant chemoradiotherapy increased from 7.0% to 16.2%. The use of radical neck dissection decreased from 43.0% to 5.3%, while conservative surgical methods increased from 24.1% to 76.3%. Lastly, the overall 5-year survival rate increased from 31.6% to 63.5% during the study period. Conclusion Although the 5-year survival rate reached the same level as that of other developed countries during the course of our study, most patients continue to come to the hospital with stage IV disease. In order to increase the 5-year survival rate of oral carcinoma, it may be necessary to improve public education and social efforts relevant to early diagnosis. PMID:26904492

  6. Coral reef crisis in deep and shallow reefs: 30 years of constancy and change in reefs of Curacao and Bonaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Rolf P. M.; Nieuwland, Gerard; Meesters, Erik H.

    2005-11-01

    Coral reefs are thought to be in worldwide decline but available data are practically limited to reefs shallower than 25 m. Zooxanthellate coral communities in deep reefs (30-40 m) are relatively unstudied. Our question is: what is happening in deep reefs in terms of coral cover and coral mortality? We compare changes in species composition, coral mortality, and coral cover at Caribbean (Curacao and Bonaire) deep (30-40 m) and shallow reefs (10-20 m) using long-term (1973-2002) data from permanent photo quadrats. About 20 zooxanthellate coral species are common in the deep-reef communities, dominated by Agaricia sp., with coral cover up to 60%. In contrast with shallow reefs, there is no decrease in coral cover or number of coral colonies in deep reefs over the last 30 years. In deep reefs, non-agaricid species are decreasing but agaricid domination will be interrupted by natural catastrophic mortality such as deep coral bleaching and storms. Temperature is a vastly fluctuating variable in the deep-reef environment with extremely low temperatures possibly related to deep-reef bleaching.

  7. A 30-year follow-up of the effects of child abuse and neglect on obesity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Tyrone; Widom, Cathy S

    2009-10-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been implicated as a risk factor for adult obesity. We describe the first prospective assessment of adult obesity in individuals with documented histories of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect and a matched comparison group in a 30-year follow-up. Using a prospective cohort design, children with court substantiated cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11 years) from a Midwest county during 1967-1971 (n=410) were matched with children without histories of abuse or neglect on age, sex, race/ethnicity and approximate family social class (n=303) and followed up and assessed at mean age 41. Outcome measures include BMI and obesity assessed in 2003-2004 as part of a medical status examination and interview. Childhood physical abuse predicted significantly higher BMI scores in adulthood (beta=0.14, P<0.05), even controlling for demographic characteristics, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption (beta=0.16, P<0.01). Childhood sexual abuse (beta=0.07, not significant) and neglect (beta=0.02, not significant) were not significant predictors of adult BMI scores. These results demonstrate the long-term impact of childhood physical abuse on weight into adulthood and suggest that physically abused children may be at risk for other adverse health outcomes associated with increased weight. Health professionals need to understand this risk for physically abused children and researchers should identify and evaluate strategies for effective interventions. PMID:19478789

  8. Recovery and reproduction of an Antarctic tardigrade retrieved from a moss sample frozen for over 30 years.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Megumu; Imura, Satoshi; Kanda, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Long-term survival has been one of the most studied of the extraordinary physiological characteristics of cryptobiosis in micrometazoans such as nematodes, tardigrades and rotifers. In the available studies of long-term survival of micrometazoans, instances of survival have been the primary observation, and recovery conditions of animals or subsequent reproduction are generally not reported. We therefore documented recovery conditions and reproduction immediately following revival of tardigrades retrieved from a frozen moss sample collected in Antarctica in 1983 and stored at -20 °C for 30.5 years. We recorded recovery of two individuals and development of a separate egg of the Antarctic tardigrade, Acutuncus antarcticus, providing the longest records of survival for tardigrades as animals or eggs. One of the two resuscitated individuals and the hatchling successfully reproduced repeatedly after their recovery from long-term cryptobiosis. This considerable extension of the known length of long-term survival of tardigrades recorded in our study is interpreted as being associated with the minimum oxidative damage likely to have resulted from storage under stable frozen conditions. The long recovery times of the revived tardigrades observed is suggestive of the requirement for repair of damage accrued over 30 years of cryptobiosis. Further more detailed studies will improve understanding of mechanisms and conditions underlying the long-term survival of cryptobiotic organisms. PMID:26724522

  9. Organizing Principles of Human Cortical Development--Thickness and Area from 4 to 30 Years: Insights from Comparative Primate Neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Amlien, Inge K; Fjell, Anders M; Tamnes, Christian K; Grydeland, Håkon; Krogsrud, Stine K; Chaplin, Tristan A; Rosa, Marcello G P; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2016-01-01

    The human cerebral cortex undergoes a protracted, regionally heterogeneous development well into young adulthood. Cortical areas that expand the most during human development correspond to those that differ most markedly when the brains of macaque monkeys and humans are compared. However, it remains unclear to what extent this relationship derives from allometric scaling laws that apply to primate brains in general, or represents unique evolutionary adaptations. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the relationship only applies to surface area (SA), or also holds for cortical thickness (CT). In 331 participants aged 4 to 30, we calculated age functions of SA and CT, and examined the correspondence of human cortical development with macaque to human expansion, and with expansion across nonhuman primates. CT followed a linear negative age function from 4 to 30 years, while SA showed positive age functions until 12 years with little further development. Differential cortical expansion across primates was related to regional maturation of SA and CT, with age trajectories differing between high- and low-expanding cortical regions. This relationship adhered to allometric scaling laws rather than representing uniquely macaque-human differences: regional correspondence with human development was as large for expansion across nonhuman primates as between humans and macaque. PMID:25246511

  10. Oral carcinoma after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation – a new classification based on a literature review over 30 years

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Astrid LD; Grätz, Klaus W

    2009-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have a higher risk of developing secondary solid tumors, in particular squamous cell carcinoma, because of several risk factors, including full-body irradiation (TBI), chemotherapy, and chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD). Based on the review presented here, a classification of oral changes is suggested in order to provide a tool to detect high-risk patients. Methods and Results The literature over the last 30 years was reviewed for development of malignoma of the oral cavity after HSCT. Overall, 64 cases were found. In 16 out of 30 cases, the tongue was the primary location, followed by the salivary gland (10 out of 30); 56.4% appeared in a latency time of 5 to 9 years after HSCT. In 76.6%, GVHD was noticed before the occurrence of oral malignancy. Premalignant changes of the oral mucosa were mucositis, xerostomia, and lichenoid changes, developing into erosive form. Conclusion All physicians involved in the treatment of post-HSCT patients should be aware of the increased risk, even after 5 years from the development of oral malignancy, in particular when oral graft versus host changes are visible. In order to develop evidence based management, screening and offer adequate therapy as early as possible in this patient group, multicenter studies, involving oncologists and head and neck surgeons, should be established. PMID:19624855

  11. Sensitivity of a 30 year model climatology of Middle and Central America to resolution and atmosphere-ocean coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintanar, A. I.; Sein, D.; Martinez Lopez, B.

    2013-05-01

    A 30 year climatology experiment has been completed with a regional coupled atmosphere-ocean model (REMO) over a vast region that covers latitude-wise the Middle and Central Americas up to Western Europe. The control simulation uses a horizontal resolution of 1 degree and REMO was forced at its lateral walls with ERA data for the period 1979-2010. The ocean model was initialized using previously integrated solutions from an atmospherically forced only ocean simulation. In order to gauge the impact that the atmosphere-ocean coupling had, an identical experiment was performed with prescribed SST for the same period. A couple of identical experiments but with a resolution of 1/2 degree were also performed to investigate the effect of horizontal spatial resolution. It is seen that model climatology is increasingly closer to observed precipitation climatology (compared to CRU data for that period) as the model goes from a SST-forced condition to one of full coupling and from coarser resolution to increasing resolution as well. Of note, is the significantly better representation of the ITZC annual latitudinal excursion over the Eastern Pacific Ocean corresponding to the onset of monsoon precipitation season over western Mexico.

  12. Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average Daily Minimum Temperature, 1971-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents thecatchment-average for the 30-year (1971-2000) average daily minimum temperature in Celsius multiplied by 100 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data were the United States Average Monthly or Annual Minimum Temperature, 1971 - 2000 raster data set produced by the PRISM Group at Oregon State University. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  13. Organic Contaminants in Chinese Sewage Sludge: A Meta-Analysis of the Literature of the Past 30 Years.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Venkatesan, Arjun K; Ni, Yi-Lin; Steele, Joshua C; Wu, Ling-Ling; Bignert, Anders; Bergman, Åke; Halden, Rolf U

    2016-06-01

    The production of sewage sludge is increasing in China but with unsafe disposal practices, causing potential risk to human health and the environment. Using literature from the past 30 years (N = 159), we conducted a meta-analysis of organic contaminants (OCs) in Chinese sludge. Most data were available from developed and populated regions, and no data were found for Tibet. Since 1987, 35 classes of chemicals consisting of 749 individual compounds and 1 mixture have been analyzed, in which antibiotics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were the most targeted analytes. For 13 classes of principal OCs (defined as chemicals detected in over five studies) in sludge, the median (expressed in nanograms per gram dry weight) was the highest for phthalate esters (27 900), followed by alkylphenol polyethoxylates (12 000), synthetic musks (5800), antibiotics (4240), PAHs (3490), ultraviolet stabilizers (670), bisphenol analogs (160), organochlorine pesticides (110), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (100), pharmaceuticals (84), hormones (69), perfluorinated compounds (21), and polychlorinated biphenyls (15). Concentrations of PAHs in sludges collected between 1998 and 2012 showed a decreasing trend. Study findings suggest the need for a Chinese national sewage sludge survey to identify and regulate toxic OCs, ideally employing both targeted as well as nontargeted screening approaches. PMID:27144960

  14. Large Salt Dust Storms Follow a 30-Year Rainfall Cycle in the Mar Chiquita Lake (Córdoba, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Bucher, Enrique H; Stein, Ariel F

    2016-01-01

    Starting in 2006, a new source of intense salt dust storms developed in Mar Chiquita (Córdoba, Argentina), the largest saline lake in South America. Storms originate from vast mudflats left by a 30-year expansion-retreat cycle of the lake due to changes in the regional rainfall regime. The annual frequency of salt dust storms correlated with the size of the salt mudflats. Events were restricted to the coldest months, and reached up to 800 km from the source. Occurrence of dust storms was associated with specific surface colors and textures easily identifiable in satellite images. High-emission surfaces were characterized by the presence of sodium sulfate hydrous/anhydrous crystals (mirabilite and thenardite), and a superficial and variable water table, which may result in the periodic development of a characteristic "fluffy" surface derived from salt precipitation-dissolution processes. HYSPLIT model simulation estimates a deposition maximum near the sources (of about 2.5 kg/ha/yr), and a decreasing trend from the emission area outwards, except for the relative secondary maximum modeled over the mountain ranges in southern Bolivia and northern Argentina due to an orographic effect. The 2009 total deposition of salt dust generated in Mar Chiquita was estimated at 6.5 million tons. PMID:27258088

  15. Secular trend in the maturation of permanent teeth in a sample of Turkish children over the past 30 years.

    PubMed

    Kaygisiz, Emine; Uzuner, Fatma Deniz; Yeniay, Altug; Darendeliler, Nilufer

    2016-02-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the influence of secular trends on dental maturation among Turkish children over the past 30 years. Orthopantomograms of 757 (385 boys, 372 girls) Turkish children born in the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s were evaluated. Three groups were formed based on decade with five subgroups by age from 9 to 13 years old for each gender. The number of samples in each age group and gender were matched. The mandibular left seven permanent teeth were evaluated based on formation stage to determine the overall dental maturity score. The groups were compared based on decade and gender. The Bonferroni-corrected Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for statistical evaluation. Among 11-, 12-, and 13-year-olds born in the 2000s, girls exhibited significantly more mature dentition than did boys (p<0.01, p<0.05, and p<0.05, respectively). Twelve-year-old girls born in the 1990s and 2000s exhibited significantly more mature dentition than did girls born in the 1980s (p<0.01). Girls generally exhibited more mature dentition than boys. No significant positive secular trends in dental maturity were observed from the 1980s through the 2000s. Dental maturation among Turkish children was not affected by a secular trend. PMID:26773225

  16. Changes in the area of inland lakes in arid regions of central Asia during the past 30 years.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jie; Chen, Xi; Li, Junli; Yang, Liao; Fang, Hui

    2011-07-01

    Inland lakes are major surface water resource in arid regions of Central Asia. The area changes in these lakes have been proved to be the results of regional climate changes and recent human activities. This study aimed at investigating the area variations of the nine major lakes in Central Asia over the last 30 years. Firstly, multi-temporal Landsat imagery in 1975, 1990, 1999, and 2007 were used to delineate lake extents automatically based on Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) threshold segmentation, then lake area variations were detailed in three decades and the mechanism of these changes was analyzed with meteorological data and hydrological data. The results indicated that the total surface areas of these nine lakes had decreased from 91,402.06 km(2) to 46,049.23 km(2) during 1975-2007, accounting for 49.62% of their original area of 1975. Tail-end lakes in flat areas had shrunk dramatically as they were induced by both climate changes and human impacts, while alpine lakes remained relatively stable due to the small precipitation variations. With different water usage of river outlets, the variations of open lakes were more flexible than those of other two types. According to comprehensive analyses, different types of inland lakes presented different trends of area changes under the background of global warming effects in Central Asia, which showed that the increased human activities had broken the balance of water cycles in this region. PMID:20830516

  17. Service Life Assessment of Historical Building Envelopes Constructed Using Different Types of Sandstone: A Computational Analysis Based on Experimental Input Data

    PubMed Central

    Kočí, Václav; Maděra, Jiří; Fořt, Jan; Žumár, Jaromír; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Černý, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Service life assessment of three historical building envelopes constructed using different types of sandstone is presented. At first, experimental measurements of material parameters of sandstones are performed to provide the necessary input data for a subsequent computational analysis. In the second step, the moisture and temperature fields across the studied envelopes are calculated for a representative period of time. The computations are performed using dynamic climatic data as the boundary conditions on the exterior side of building envelope. The climatic data for three characteristic localities are experimentally determined by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and contain hourly values of temperature, relative humidity, rainfalls, wind velocity and direction, and sun radiation. Using the measured durability properties of the analyzed sandstones and the calculated numbers of freeze/thaw cycles under different climatic conditions, the service life of the investigated building envelopes is assessed. The obtained results show that the climatic conditions can play a very significant role in the service life assessment of historical buildings, even in the conditions of such a small country as the Czech Republic. In addition, the investigations reveal the importance of the material characteristics of sandstones, in particular the hygric properties, on their service life in a structure. PMID:25114972

  18. Quality of Life for Individuals with Hearing Impairment Who Have Not Consulted for Services and Their Significant Others: Same- and Different-Sex Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Rebecca J.; Atcherson, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess perceptions of quality of life for individuals with hearing impairment who have not consulted for services and their significant others who are in same-sex relationships vs. those who are in different-sex relationships. Data were collected on a total of 20 older couples: 10 in same-sex…

  19. Service life assessment of historical building envelopes constructed using different types of sandstone: a computational analysis based on experimental input data.

    PubMed

    Kočí, Václav; Maděra, Jiří; Fořt, Jan; Žumár, Jaromír; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Černý, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Service life assessment of three historical building envelopes constructed using different types of sandstone is presented. At first, experimental measurements of material parameters of sandstones are performed to provide the necessary input data for a subsequent computational analysis. In the second step, the moisture and temperature fields across the studied envelopes are calculated for a representative period of time. The computations are performed using dynamic climatic data as the boundary conditions on the exterior side of building envelope. The climatic data for three characteristic localities are experimentally determined by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and contain hourly values of temperature, relative humidity, rainfalls, wind velocity and direction, and sun radiation. Using the measured durability properties of the analyzed sandstones and the calculated numbers of freeze/thaw cycles under different climatic conditions, the service life of the investigated building envelopes is assessed. The obtained results show that the climatic conditions can play a very significant role in the service life assessment of historical buildings, even in the conditions of such a small country as the Czech Republic. In addition, the investigations reveal the importance of the material characteristics of sandstones, in particular the hygric properties, on their service life in a structure. PMID:25114972

  20. Preferences for Expansion of Public Services in Eight Northwest Wisconsin Counties. Report No. 2 of a Series on Quality of Life and Development in Northwestern Wisconsin, January 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Virginia

    As part of a study of the quality of life in northwestern Wisconsin, 1974 sample populations (N=150 residents per county) from each of 5 Wisconsin counties (Bayfield, Douglas, Price, Taylor, and Washburn) were presented with a list of public service programs and asked if they should be "expanded", "kept the same", or "cut back". Percentages on…

  1. Service Utilization, Perceived Changes of Self, and Life Satisfaction among Women Who Experienced Intimate Partner Abuse: The Mediation Effect of Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Li-yu

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the growth experiences of women abused by their intimate partner, specifically focusing on the associations between social services and empowerment, perceived changes of self, and life satisfaction. The potential effects of demographic variables, social support, coping, and experience of partner abuse were also explored. A…

  2. Service-Learning in Afterschool: Helping Students Grow and Communities Prosper. MetLife Foundation Afterschool Alert. Issue Brief No. 52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Afterschool Alliance, in partnership with MetLife Foundation, is proud to present the third in a series of four issue briefs examining critical issues facing middle school youth and the vital role afterschool programs play in addressing these issues. This brief focuses on service-learning opportunities for middle schoolers. Pairing service…

  3. Estimating the remaining service life of pipeline bend metal with microdamage based on the results from long-term strength tests of solid and notched samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladshtein, V. I.

    2012-04-01

    The longevity of solid (smooth) and notched samples made of Grade 12Kh1MF steel is considered. A combined calculation and experimental dependence for determining the effect of stresses and temperature on the remaining service life of metal damaged by single pores and chains of pores is presented.

  4. Meeting a Growing Demand: Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service's Early Childhood Educator Online Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Demand for professional development training in the early childhood field has grown substantially in recent years. To meet the demand, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service's Family Development and Resource Management unit developed the Early Childhood Educator Online Training Program, a professional development system that currently…

  5. Life, Learning, and Community: Concepts and Models for Service-Learning in Biology. AAHE's Series on Service-Learning in the Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, David C., Ed.; Ostroff, Joel H., Ed.

    This volume is the 18th in a series of monographs on service learning and the academic disciplines. The articles in this volume provide an array of service learning courses in biology that demonstrate active student participation in thoughtfully organized service experiences that meet real community needs and are integrated with the students'…

  6. Giving Youth the Power and the Money. A Guide to Establishing Youth Service Learning Councils. Linking Learning with Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follman, Joe

    This booklet is a guide to establishing youth service learning councils. The booklet begins with a discussion of what youth service learning councils are and why they are a good idea. The following aspects of initiating the process of forming a youth service learning council are explained: facilitating a youth service learning council; identifying…

  7. Parent material and vegetation influence soil microbial community structure following 30-years of rock weathering and pedogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yarwood, Stephanie; Wick, Abbey; Williams, Mark; Daniels, W Lee

    2015-02-01

    The process of pedogenesis and the development of biological communities during primary succession begin on recently exposed mineral surfaces. Following 30 years of surface exposure of reclaimed surface mining sites (Appalachian Mountains, USA), it was hypothesized that microbial communities would differ between sandstone and siltstone parent materials and to a lesser extent between vegetation types. Microbial community composition was examined by targeting bacterial and archaeal (16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)) and fungal (internal transcribed spacer (ITS)) genes and analyzed using Illumina sequencing. Microbial community composition significantly differed between parent materials and between plots established with tall fescue grass or pitch x loblolly pine vegetation types, suggesting that both factors are important in shaping community assembly during early pedogenesis. At the phylum level, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria differed in relative abundance between sandstone and siltstone. The amount of the heavy fraction carbon (C) was significantly different between sandstone (2.0 mg g(-1)) and siltstone (5.2 mg g(-1)) and correlated with microbial community composition. Soil nitrogen (N) cycling was examined by determining gene copy numbers of ureC, archaeal amoA, and bacterial amoA. Gene quantities tended to be higher in siltstone compared to sandstone but did not differ by vegetation type. This was consistent with differences in extractable ammonium (NH4 (+)) concentrations between sandstone and siltstone (16.4 vs 8.5 μg NH4 (+)-N g(-1) soil), suggesting that nitrification rates may be higher in siltstone. Parent material and early vegetation are important determinants of early microbial community assembly and could be drivers for the trajectory of ecosystem development over longer time scales. PMID:25370885

  8. Motives for and barriers to physical activity in twin pairs discordant for leisure time physical activity for 30 years.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, S; Leskinen, T; Morris, T; Alen, M; Kaprio, J; Liukkonen, J; Kujala, U

    2012-02-01

    Long-term persistent physical activity is important in the prevention of chronic diseases, but a large number of people do not participate in physical activity to obtain health benefits. The purpose of this study was to examine the motives and perceived barriers to long-term engagement in leisure time physical activity. Same-sex twin pairs (N=16, mean age 60) discordant for physical activity over 30 years were identified from the Finnish Twin Cohort. We evaluated participants' physical activity motivation with the 73-item Recreational Exercise Motivation Measure and assessed barriers to physical activity with a 25-item questionnaire. The characteristics of physical activity motivation and perceived barriers between the active and inactive co-twins were analysed using paired tests. Motives related to the sub-dimensions of enjoyment and physical fitness and psychological state were the most important reasons for participation in physical activity among all the twin individuals analysed. The sub-dimensions mastery (p=0.018, Cohen's d=0.76), physical fitness (p=0.029, Cohen's d=0.69), and psychological state (p=0.039, Cohen's d=0.65) differed significantly between active and inactive co-twins. More than half of the participants reported no reasons for not being physically active. If reasons existed, participation in physical activity was deterred mostly by pain and various health problems. This study found no differences in perceived barriers between active and inactive co-twins. We conclude from our results that the main factors promoting persistent leisure time physical activity were participants' wish to improve or maintain their physical skills or techniques, a feeling that exercise would improve their mental and physical health and that they found the activity enjoyable. This study helps us understand the importance of the role of motives and the minor role of perceived barriers for engagement in persistent physical activity. PMID:22318531

  9. High-resolution simulation of Hydroclimatic conditions for the conterminous U.S. over the past 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Fan, Y.; Weaver, C. P.

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater and surface water is a single resource and should be treated as such in large-scale water cycle models, including those designed to be linked with atmospheric and climate system models. Such integrated modeling systems are the appropriate framework for understanding changes in terrestrial hydrological and biogeochemical processes under climate and anthropogenic influence. To test one component of such a system, and in particular to shed light on the influence of groundwater on regional- and continental-scale surface water dynamics, we analyze a 30-year (1980-2009) simulation over the conterminous United States, at 5-km spatial and 1-hour temporal resolution, using a coupled surface-ground water model, LEAF-Hydro-Flood forced by surface meteorological fields from the North American Regional Reanalysis. LEAF-Hydro-Flood mechanistically links all the hydrologic stores and fluxes within and across the earth surface: atmospheric forcing, soil moisture, groundwater, stream, floodplain, non-inundated wetlands, and sea level. We present a continental-scale water budget closure analysis that includes groundwater recharge, groundwater evaporation, stream-groundwater interaction (for both losing and gaining streams), groundwater-fed wetlands, and direct submarine groundwater discharge. We also present detailed hydrologic analyses for extreme years (1988 and 1993 in the Midwest) to investigate the interplay between these pools and fluxes. As part of both the water budget closure and detailed analyses, we provide model-observation comparisons for streamflow, groundwater, soil moisture, and wetlands. Finally, we comment on future challenges in representing the most important modes of groundwater-surface water interaction in large-scale water cycle models and the further coupling of such models with full dynamic atmospheric and climate system processes.

  10. 30 years of change in understory plant communities along the Tanana River, Alaska: Revisiting the concept of turning points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, T. N.; Lloyd, A. H.; Ruess, R. W.; Viereck, L. A.; Charlton, B. A.

    2008-12-01

    In interior Alaska, the most productive forests occur along the floodplain of the glacially fed Tanana River. The Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (BCEF) is located approximately 20 km southwest of Fairbanks, Alaska and was established in 1963 to include representative floodplain forests along the Tanana River. Both the sequence and the mechanisms of succession have been relatively well studied along the Tanana River, where biological and physical "turning points" are hypothesized to be the main proponents of plant community succession. However, prior research has concentrated almost exclusively on four dominant woody taxa: willows, thin-leaf alder, balsam poplar, and white spruce. Comparatively little is known about successional changes in the understory taxa, including shrubs, herbaceous vascular plants, and nonvascular mosses and lichens. Long-term monitoring in BCEF not only provides a unique opportunity to investigate the relationships between vegetation and climate over a 30-year period, but also increases our knowledge and understanding about floodplain successional dynamics. Here, we analyze vegetation and climate data collected since 1977 located in the BCEF at the Bonanza Creek Long-Term Ecological Research (BNZ- LTER) site in order to address the following questions: 1) Are there identifiable understory turning points that mirror the overstory changes in succession? 2) Have changes in climate been manifested in unexpected understory vegetation changes? When examining understory vegetation, we found that the sites established in the 1970s rarely follow the traditional succesional paradigm. In addition, we found changes in functional abundance and diversity in late succesional stands that could indicate vegetation patterns related to associated changes in climate.

  11. The Impact of the Evolving Satellite Data Record on Reanalysis Water and Energy Fluxes During the Past 30 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Miller, T. L.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Chen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Retrospective analyses (reanalyses) use a fixed assimilation model to take diverse observations and synthesize consistent, time-dependent fields of state variables and fluxes (e.g. temperature, moisture, momentum, turbulent and radiative fluxes). Because they offer data sets of these quantities at regular space / time intervals, atmospheric reanalyses have become a mainstay of the climate community for diagnostic purposes and for driving offline ocean and land models. Of course, one weakness of these data sets is the susceptibility of the flux products to uncertainties because of shortcomings in parameterized model physics. Another issue, perhaps less appreciated, is the fact that the discreet changes in the evolving observational system, particularly from satellite sensors, may also introduce artifacts in the time series of quantities. In this paper we examine the ability of the NASA MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications) and other recent reanalyses to determine variability in the climate system over the satellite record ( the last 30 years). In particular we highlight the effect on reanalyses of discontinuities at the junctures of the onset of passive microwave imaging (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) in late 1987 as well as improved sounding and imaging with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit, AMSU-A, in 1998. We examine these data sets from two perspectives. The first is the ability to capture modes of variability that have coherent spatial structure (e.g. ENSO events and near-decadal coupling to SST changes) and how these modes are contained within trends in near global averages of key quantities. Secondly, we consider diagnostics that measure the consistency in energetic scaling in the hydrologic cycle, particularly the fractional changes in column-integrated water vapor versus precipitation as they are coupled to radiative flux constraints. These results will be discussed in the context of implications for science

  12. Carbon Sources and Sinks of North America as Affected by Major Drought Events During the Past 30 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekonnen, Z. A.; Grant, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    The North American (NA) terrestrial biosphere has been a long-term carbon sink but impacts of climate extremes such as drought on ecosystem carbon exchange remained largely uncertain. Here, changes in biospheric carbon fluxes with recent climate change and impacts of the major droughts of the past 30 years on continental carbon cycle across NA were studied using a comprehensive mathematical process model, ecosys. In test of these model responses at continental scale, the spatial anomalies from long-term (1980 - 2010) means in modeled leaf area indices (LAI), fully prognostic in the model, during major drought events in 1988 and 2002 agreed well with those in AVHRR NDVI (geographically weighted regression, R2 = 0.84 in 1988, 0.71 in 2002). NA modeled net ecosystem productivity (NEP) declined by 92% (0.50 Pg C yr-1) and 90% (0.49 Pg C yr-1) from the long-term mean (+0.54 Pg C yr-1), in 1988 and 2002 respectively. These significant drops in NEP offset 28% of the long-term carbon gains from the long-term mean over the last three decades. Although, the long-term average modeled terrestrial carbon sink was estimated to offset ~30% of the fossil fuel emissions of NA, only 0.03 and 3.2% were offset in 1988 and 2002 leaving almost all fossil fuel emissions to the atmosphere. These major drought events that may be associated to frequent occurrences of El Niño-Southern Oscillation, controlled much of the continental scale interannual variability and mainly occurred in parts of the Great Plains, southwest US and northern Mexico. Although stronger carbon sinks were modeled in northern ecosystems as a result of greater gross primary productivity with longer growing season, projected increases in frequency and intensity of drought could enhance carbon release hence may reduce net carbon sink of the continent.

  13. Iron status in 268 Danish women aged 18-30 years: influence of menstruation, contraceptive method, and iron supplementation.

    PubMed

    Milman, N; Clausen, J; Byg, K E

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of menstruation, method of contraception, and iron supplementation on iron status in young Danish women, and to assess whether iron deficiency could be predicted from the pattern of menstruation. Iron status was examined by measuring serum (S-) ferritin and hemoglobin (Hb) in 268 randomly selected, healthy, menstruating, nonpregnant Danish women aged 18-30 years. Iron deficiency (S-ferritin <16 microg/l) was observed in 9.7%, of the women, iron deficiency anemia (S-ferritin < 13 microg/l and Hb < 121 g/l) in 2.2%. Iron supplementation, predominantly as vitamin-mineral tablets containing 14-20 mg of ferrous iron was used by 35.1%. The median serum ferritin was similar in non-iron users and in iron users, whereas the prevalence of iron deficiency was 12.6% in nonusers vs. 4.3% in users, the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia 3.4% in nonusers vs. 0%, in users (p=0.17) In non-iron-supplemented women, S-ferritin levels were inversely correlated with the duration of menstrual bleeding (rs= -0.25, p<0.001) and with the women's assessment of the intensity of menstrual bleeding (r(s)= -0.27, p<0.001), whereas no such correlations were found in iron-supplemented women. The results demonstrate that even moderate daily doses of ferrous iron can influence iron status in women with small iron stores. Women using hormonal contraceptives had menstrual bleeding of significantly shorter duration than those using intrauterine devices (IUD) or other methods. There was a high prevalence of small and absent body iron stores in young women, suggesting that preventive measures should be focused on those women whose menstruation lasts 5 days or longer, who have menstrual bleeding of strong intensity, who use an IUD without gestagen, and who are blood donors. PMID:9760147

  14. Overall decrease in the susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis to antimicrobials over the past 30 years in France.

    PubMed

    Gautier-Bouchardon, Anne V; Ferré, Séverine; Le Grand, Dominique; Paoli, Agnès; Gay, Emilie; Poumarat, François

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma (M.) bovis is frequently implicated in respiratory diseases of young cattle worldwide. Today, to combat M. bovis in Europe, only antimicrobial therapy is available, but often fails, leading to important economical losses. The antimicrobial susceptibility of M. bovis is not covered by antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks. The objectives of this study were to identify resistances that were acquired over the last 30 years in France and to determine their prevalence within contemporary strains. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values of 12 antimicrobials, considered active on M. bovis, were compared, using an agar dilution method, between 27 and 46 M. bovis isolates respectively obtained in 1978-1979 and in 2010-2012 from 73 distinct respiratory disease outbreaks in young cattle all over France. For eight antimicrobials, resistances were proven to be acquired over the period and expressed by all contemporary strains. The increase of the MIC value that inhibited 50% of the isolates (MIC50) was: i) substantial for tylosin, tilmicosin, tulathromycin and spectinomycin, from 2 to >64, 2 to >128, 16 to 128 and 4 to >64 µg/mL, respectively, ii) moderate for enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, marbofloxacin and oxytetracycline, from 0.25 to 0.5, 0.25 to 0.5, 0.5 to 1, 32 to >32 µg/mL, respectively. No differences were observed for gamithromycin, tildipirosin, florfenicol and valnemulin with MIC50 of 128, 128, 8, <0.03 µg/mL, respectively. If referring to breakpoint MIC values published for respiratory bovine pathogens, all contemporary isolates would be intermediate in vivo for fluoroquinolones and resistant to macrolides, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin and florfenicol. PMID:24503775

  15. Overall Decrease in the Susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis to Antimicrobials over the Past 30 Years in France

    PubMed Central

    Gautier-Bouchardon, Anne V.; Ferré, Séverine; Le Grand, Dominique; Paoli, Agnès; Gay, Emilie; Poumarat, François

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma (M.) bovis is frequently implicated in respiratory diseases of young cattle worldwide. Today, to combat M. bovis in Europe, only antimicrobial therapy is available, but often fails, leading to important economical losses. The antimicrobial susceptibility of M. bovis is not covered by antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks. The objectives of this study were to identify resistances that were acquired over the last 30 years in France and to determine their prevalence within comtemporary strains. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values of 12 antimicrobials, considered active on M. bovis, were compared, using an agar dilution method, between 27 and 46 M. bovis isolates respectively obtained in 1978–1979 and in 2010–2012 from 73 distinct respiratory disease outbreaks in young cattle all over France. For eight antimicrobials, resistances were proven to be acquired over the period and expressed by all contemporary strains. The increase of the MIC value that inhibited 50% of the isolates (MIC50) was: i) substantial for tylosin, tilmicosin, tulathromycin and spectinomycin, from 2 to >64, 2 to >128, 16 to 128 and 4 to >64 µg/mL, respectively, ii) moderate for enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, marbofloxacin and oxytetracycline, from 0.25 to 0.5, 0.25 to 0.5, 0.5 to 1, 32 to >32 µg/mL, respectively. No differences were observed for gamithromycin, tildipirosin, florfenicol and valnemulin with MIC50 of 128, 128, 8, <0.03 µg/mL, respectively. If referring to breakpoint MIC values published for respiratory bovine pathogens, all contemporary isolates would be intermediate in vivo for fluoroquinolones and resistant to macrolides, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin and florfenicol. PMID:24503775

  16. The use of desmopressin in von Willebrand disease: the experience of the first 30 years (1977-2007).

    PubMed

    Federici, A B

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the treatment for von Willebrand disease (VWD) is to correct the dual defect of haemostasis, i.e. the abnormal platelet adhesion as a result of reduced and/or dysfunctional von Willebrand factor (VWF) and the abnormal coagulation expressed by low levels of factor VIII (FVIII). Correction of both deficiencies can be achieved by administering the synthetic peptide desmopressin (DDAVP) or, in cases unresponsive to this agent, the plasma concentrates containing VWF and FVIII (VWF/FVIII). DDAVP is the treatment of choice for type 1 VWD because it can induce release of normal VWF from cellular compartments, but the drug can be clinically useful also in other VWD types, including acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS). A test dose of DDAVP at the time of diagnosis is recommended to establish the individual patterns of biological response and to predict clinical efficacy during bleeding and surgery. DDAVP is not effective in VWD type 3 and in severe forms of VWD 1 and 2. It can induce transient thrombocytopenia in patients with VWD type 2B. The results of several retrospective studies on the use of DDAVP in VWD management have been reported by many authors in different countries for the last 30 years. However, despite the widespread use of DDAVP in the treatment of VWD, there are only a few prospective clinical trials in a large number of cases on DDAVP efficacy and safety aimed at determining benefits and limits of this therapeutic approach. An investigator-driven observational prospective study on clinical efficacy of DDAVP in 200 patients with VWD types 1 and 2 has been recently organized: the effectiveness and safety of DDAVP will be evaluated prospectively for 24 months during bleeding episodes and minor or major surgeries in the VWD patients who were exposed to an infusion trial at enrollment. PMID:18173689

  17. The effect of supplementary calcium on blood pressure in healthy adult women aged 18-30 years in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Entezari, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality in developed countries and has an increasing trend in developing countries. There are some evidences that calcium supplementation may decrease blood pressure and consequently cardiovascular disease, but they are not conclusive and there is no agreement in this respect. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of supplementary calcium on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in healthy adult women aged 18–30 years. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five normotensive volunteers were randomly divided into two groups, the treatment group received 1000 mg/day calcium (four doses of 625 mg calcium carbonate) for 1 month and the control group received placebo (dextrose). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was determined before and after intervention in supine position after 10 min of rest. Results: The mean daily calcium intake from food was 773.9 mg in treatment and 721 mg in control group (no significant difference) but in both the groups dietary calcium intake was less than the recommended dietary allowance: After calcium supplementation, the mean change of systolic blood pressure was not significant in the two groups, but diastolic blood pressure reduced in treatment group and increased in control group (−4.9 vs 2.6 mmHg) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These results suggest that, calcium supplementation does not have any effect on systolic blood pressure of our volunteers but can decrease diastolic blood pressure significantly and therefore it seems that calcium supplementation may be useful for people with increased diastolic blood pressure, especially for those who receive less calcium than recommended dietary allowance. PMID:26430694

  18. The macroeconomic environment and sexual and reproductive health: a review of trends over the last 30 years.

    PubMed

    Fonn, Sharon; Sundari Ravindran, T K

    2011-11-01

    The social services provided in any country are determined by resource allocation. How money is spent, the way in which programmes are organised, and the services that are prioritised can have important implications for health, including the sexual and reproductive health of men and women. Choices in how resources are allocated are influenced by a number of factors. Covering the years from the late 1970s to the current time, this article reviews the contexts that have influenced the provision of sexual and reproductive health services and provides examples of instances where decisions about resource allocation are not evidence-based. The role of donors in determining how services are provided and their lack of accountability is discussed. We conclude that sexual and reproductive health and rights activists need to engage with and take into account the macroeconomic environment in their efforts to improve sexual and reproductive health outcomes. PMID:22118138

  19. Geriatric infrastructure, BRAC, and ecosystem service markets? End-of-life decisions for dams, roads, and offshore platforms (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, M. W.

    2010-12-01

    US infrastructure expanded dramatically in the mid-20th century, and now includes more than 79,000 dams, 15,000 miles of levees, 3.7 million miles of roads, 600,000 miles of sewer pipe, 500,000 onshore oil wells, and over 4,000 offshore oil platforms. Many structures have been in place for 50 years or more, and an increasing portion of national infrastructure is approaching or exceeding its originally intended design life. Bringing national infrastructure to acceptable levels would cost nearly 10% of the US annual GDP. Decommissioning infrastructure can decrease public spending and increase public safety while facilitating economic expansion and ecological restoration. While most infrastructure remains critical to the national economy, a substantial amount is obsolete or declining in importance. Over 11,000 dams are abandoned, and of nearly 400,000 miles of road on its lands, the U.S. Forest Service considers one-fourth non-essential and often non-functional. Removing obsolete infrastructure allows greater focus and funding on maintaining or improving infrastructure most critical to society. Moreover, a concerted program of infrastructure decommissioning promises significant long-term cost savings, and is a necessary step before more substantial, systematic changes are possible, like those needed to address the new energy sources and shifting climate. One key challenge for infrastructure reform is how to prioritize and implement such a widespread and politically-charged series of decisions. Two approaches are proposed for different scales. For small, private infrastructure, emerging state and federal ecosystem service markets can provide an economic impetus to push infrastructure removal. Ecosystem market mechanisms may also be most effective at identifying those projects with the greatest ecological bang for the buck. Examples where this approach has proved successful include dam removal for stream mitigation under the Clean Water Act, and levee decommissioning on

  20. Ambient Heat and Sudden Infant Death: A Case-Crossover Study Spanning 30 Years in Montreal, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, William D.; Smargiassi, Audrey; Kosatsky, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Background Climate change may lead to more severe and extreme heat waves in the future, but its potential impact on sudden infant death—a leading cause of infant mortality—is unclear. Objectives We sought to determine whether risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is elevated during hot weather. Methods We undertook a case-crossover analysis of all sudden infant deaths during warm periods in metropolitan Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from 1981 through 2010. Our analysis included a total of 196 certified cases of SIDS, including 89 deaths at 1–2 months of age, and 94 at 3–12 months. We estimated associations between maximum outdoor temperatures and SIDS by comparing outdoor temperatures on the day of or day before a SIDS event with temperatures on control days during the same month, using cubic splines to model temperature and adjusting for relative humidity. Results Maximum daily temperatures of ≥ 29°C on the same day were associated with 2.78 times greater odds of sudden infant death relative to 20°C (95% CI: 1.64, 4.70). The likelihood of sudden death increased steadily with higher temperature. Associations were stronger for infants 3–12 months of age than for infants 1–2 months of age, with odds ratios of 3.90 (95% CI: 1.87, 8.13) and 1.73 (95% CI: 0.80, 3.73), respectively, for 29°C compared with 20°C on the day of the event. Conclusions High ambient temperature may be a novel risk factor for SIDS, especially at ≥ 3 months of age. Climate change and the higher temperatures that result may account for a potentially greater proportion of sudden infant deaths in the future. Citation Auger N, Fraser WD, Smargiassi A, Kosatsky T. 2015. Ambient heat and sudden infant death: a case-crossover study spanning 30 years in Montreal, Canada. Environ Health Perspect 123:712–716; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307960 PMID:25748025

  1. The impact of economic austerity and prosperity events on suicide in Greece: a 30-year interrupted time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C; Kastanaki, Anastasia E; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Tzougas, John; Kranioti, Elena F; Theodorakis, Pavlos N; Carr, Brendan G; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To complete a 30-year interrupted time-series analysis of the impact of austerity-related and prosperity-related events on the occurrence of suicide across Greece. Setting Greece from 1 January 1983 to 31 December 2012. Participants A total of 11 505 suicides, 9079 by men and 2426 by women, occurring in Greece over the study period. Primary and secondary outcomes National data from the Hellenic Statistical Authority assembled as 360 monthly counts of: all suicides, male suicides, female suicides and all suicides plus potentially misclassified suicides. Results In 30 years, the highest months of suicide in Greece occurred in 2012. The passage of new austerity measures in June 2011 marked the beginning of significant, abrupt and sustained increases in total suicides (+35.7%, p<0.001) and male suicides (+18.5%, p<0.01). Sensitivity analyses that figured in undercounting of suicides also found a significant, abrupt and sustained increase in June 2011 (+20.5%, p<0.001). Suicides by men in Greece also underwent a significant, abrupt and sustained increase in October 2008 when the Greek recession began (+13.1%, p<0.01), and an abrupt but temporary increase in April 2012 following a public suicide committed in response to austerity conditions (+29.7%, p<0.05). Suicides by women in Greece also underwent an abrupt and sustained increase in May 2011 following austerity-related events (+35.8%, p<0.05). One prosperity-related event, the January 2002 launch of the Euro in Greece, marked an abrupt but temporary decrease in male suicides (−27.1%, p<0.05). Conclusions This is the first multidecade, national analysis of suicide in Greece using monthly data. Select austerity-related events in Greece corresponded to statistically significant increases for suicides overall, as well as for suicides among men and women. The consideration of future austerity measures should give greater weight to the unintended mental health consequences that may follow and the public

  2. Climatic effects of 30 years of landscape change over the Greater Phoenix, Arizona, region: 1. Surface energy budget changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Georgescu, M.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Weaver, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is part 1 of a two-part study that evaluates the climatic effects of recent landscape change for one of the nation's most rapidly expanding metropolitan complexes, the Greater Phoenix, Arizona, region. The region's landscape evolution over an approximate 30-year period since the early 1970s is documented on the basis of analyses of Landsat images and land use/land cover (LULC) data sets derived from aerial photography (1973) and Landsat (1992 and 2001). High-resolution, Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), simulations (2-km grid spacing) are used in conjunction with consistently defined land cover data sets and associated biophysical parameters for the circa 1973, circa 1992, and circa 2001 time periods to quantify the impacts of intensive land use changes on the July surface temperatures and the surface radiation and energy budgets for the Greater Phoenix region. The main findings are as follows: since the early 1970s the region's landscape has been altered by a significant increase in urban/suburban land area, primarily at the expense of decreasing plots of irrigated agriculture and secondarily by the conversion of seminatural shrubland. Mean regional temperatures for the circa 2001 landscape were 0.12??C warmer than the circa 1973 landscape, with maximum temperature differences, located over regions of greatest urbanization, in excess of 1??C. The significant reduction in irrigated agriculture, for the circa 2001 relative to the circa 1973 landscape, resulted in dew point temperature decreases in excess of 1??C. The effect of distinct land use conversion themes (e.g., conversion from irrigated agriculture to urban land) was also examined to evaluate how the most important conversion themes have each contributed to the region's changing climate. The two urbanization themes studied (from an initial landscape of irrigated agriculture and seminatural shrubland) have the greatest positive effect on near-surface temperature, increasing maximum daily

  3. A 30-Year Multi-Sensor Vegetation Index and Land Surface Phenology Data Record: Methods Challenges and Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didan, K.; Barreto-munoz, A.; Miura, T.; Tsend-Ayush, J.

    2013-12-01

    30 years of Earth surface observation. Now in its third generation (V3) this record is capable of supporting environmental, resources management and climate studies as well provide for the parameterization of various ecosystem and climate models. All data are public and are available via a highly interactive online tool, the VIP Data Explorer (vip.arizona.edu/viplab_data_explorer.php) and concurrently via the LP-DAAC.

  4. 'Why does it happen like this?' Consulting with users and providers prior to an evaluation of services for children with life limiting conditions and their families.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Anne; Brown, Erica; Coad, Jane; Staniszewska, Sophie; Hacking, Suzanne; Chesworth, Brigit; Chambers, Lizzie

    2015-09-01

    Children with life limiting conditions and their families have complex needs. Evaluations must consider their views and perspectives to ensure care is relevant, appropriate and acceptable. We consulted with children, young people, their parents and local professionals to gain a more informed picture of issues affecting them prior to preparing a bid to evaluate services in the area. Multiple methods included focus groups, face-to-face and telephone interviews and participatory activities. Recordings and products from activities were analysed for content to identify areas of relevance and concern. An overarching theme from parents was 'Why does it happen like this?' Services did not seem designed to meet their needs. Whilst children and young people expressed ideas related to quality of environment, services and social life, professionals focused on ways of meeting the families' needs. The theme that linked families' concerns with those of professionals was 'assessing individual needs'. Two questions to be addressed by the evaluation are (1) to what extent are services designed to meet the needs of children and families and (2) to what extent are children, young people and their families consulted about what they need? Consultations with families and service providers encouraged us to continue their involvement as partners in the evaluation. PMID:24270996

  5. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland) and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study. Methods A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present. Results Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66°N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60°N) where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the respondents, the abundance

  6. A Fresh Look at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and Energy Use of Buildings Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tianzhen; Chang, Wen-Kuei; Lin, Hung-Wen

    2013-05-01

    Buildings consume more than one third of the world?s total primary energy. Weather plays a unique and significant role as it directly affects the thermal loads and thus energy performance of buildings. The traditional simulated energy performance using Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) weather data represents the building performance for a typical year, but not necessarily the average or typical long-term performance as buildings with different energy systems and designs respond differently to weather changes. Furthermore, the single-year TMY simulations do not provide a range of results that capture yearly variations due to changing weather, which is important for building energy management, and for performing risk assessments of energy efficiency investments. This paper employs large-scale building simulation (a total of 3162 runs) to study the weather impact on peak electricity demand and energy use with the 30-year (1980 to 2009) Actual Meteorological Year (AMY) weather data for three types of office buildings at two design efficiency levels, across all 17 ASHRAE climate zones. The simulated results using the AMY data are compared to those from the TMY3 data to determine and analyze the differences. Besides further demonstration, as done by other studies, that actual weather has a significant impact on both the peak electricity demand and energy use of buildings, the main findings from the current study include: 1) annual weather variation has a greater impact on the peak electricity demand than it does on energy use in buildings; 2) the simulated energy use using the TMY3 weather data is not necessarily representative of the average energy use over a long period, and the TMY3 results can be significantly higher or lower than those from the AMY data; 3) the weather impact is greater for buildings in colder climates than warmer climates; 4) the weather impact on the medium-sized office building was the greatest, followed by the large office and then the small

  7. Durability assessment results suggest a serviceable life of two, rather than three, years for the current long-lasting insecticidal (mosquito) net (LLIN) intervention in Benin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background LLIN distribution, every three years, is a key intervention of Benin’s malaria control strategy. However, data from the field indicate that LLIN lifespan appears to vary based on both intrinsic (to the LLIN) and extrinsic factors. Methods We monitored two indicators of LLIN durability, survivorship and integrity, to validate the three-year-serviceable-life assumption. Interviews with net owners were used to identify factors associated with loss of integrity. Results Observed survivorship, after 18 months, was significantly less (p<0.0001) than predicted, based on the assumption that nets last three years. Instead, it was closer to predicted survivorship based on a two-year LLIN serviceable life assumption (p=0.03). Furthermore, the integrity of nearly one third of ‘surviving’ nets was so degraded that they were in need of replacement. Five factors: washing frequency, proximity to water for washing, location of kitchen, type of cooking fuel, and low net maintenance were associated with loss of fabric integrity. Conclusion A two-year serviceable life for the current LLIN intervention in Benin would be a more realistic program assumption. PMID:24507444

  8. Service utilization, perceived changes of self, and life satisfaction among women who experienced intimate partner abuse: the mediation effect of empowerment.

    PubMed

    Song, Li-Yu

    2012-04-01

    This study explored the growth experiences of women abused by their intimate partner, specifically focusing on the associations between social services and empowerment, perceived changes of self, and life satisfaction. The potential effects of demographic variables, social support, coping, and experience of partner abuse were also explored. A survey study was conducted through the collaboration of social workers in the Centers of Prevention and Intervention for Domestic Violence and private sectors in Taiwan. Through contact by their social workers, 191 participants completed the questionnaires. The results revealed that the participants had growth mainly in their psychological and interpersonal domains. The independent variables in the regression model explained 45.3% (adjusted) variance in perceived changes of self. In addition to empowerment and negative impact of violence, intensity of contact and professional relationship were two important service variables that directly and significantly correlated with perceived changes of self. A significant amount of variance (adjusted R² = .556) in life satisfaction could be explained by the independent variables. Social support and empowerment directly correlated with life satisfaction. The findings also supported the mediation effect of empowerment. Seven variables (e.g., social support, coping method, and professional relationship) indirectly associated with perceived changes of self and life satisfaction through empowerment. PMID:22203616

  9. Prevalence of blindness and low vision of people over 30 years in the Wenchi district, Ghana, in relation to eye care programmes.

    PubMed Central

    Moll, A C; van der Linden, A J; Hogeweg, M; Schader, W E; Hermans, J; de Keizer, R J

    1994-01-01

    A population based survey on the prevalence of major blinding disorders was conducted in the Wenchi district in central Ghana between March and May 1991. In 10 villages, 1425 people of 30 years and older were screened, using the WHO eye examination record. The prevalence of bilateral blindness above 30 years proved to be 1.7% (best acuity < 3/60): the prevalence of low vision above 30 years was 2.0% (best visual acuity 6/18 to 3/60). The causes of blindness were determined as cataract (62.5%), onchocerciasis (12.5%), corneal opacity (non-trachomatous) (8.2%), refraction anomalies (4.2%), phthisis bulbi (4.2%), optic atrophy (4.2%), and vascular retinopathy (4.2%). In the Wenchi district, 1.0% of the population over the age of 30 years was found to need a cataract extraction because of blindness of both eyes. Another potential 1.0% needs a cataract extraction because of low vision. A minor second study (n = 149) was undertaken in the same district, but in a village in an area near the Black Volta river in which onchocerciasis is endemic. The prevalence of blindness (8.1%) and low vision (3.4%) caused by onchocerciasis and cataract both proved to be higher. The survey provided the basis for a preventive and curative eye care programme. PMID:8199113

  10. Prevalence of blindness and low vision of people over 30 years in the Wenchi district, Ghana, in relation to eye care programmes.

    PubMed

    Moll, A C; van der Linden, A J; Hogeweg, M; Schader, W E; Hermans, J; de Keizer, R J

    1994-04-01

    A population based survey on the prevalence of major blinding disorders was conducted in the Wenchi district in central Ghana between March and May 1991. In 10 villages, 1425 people of 30 years and older were screened, using the WHO eye examination record. The prevalence of bilateral blindness above 30 years proved to be 1.7% (best acuity < 3/60): the prevalence of low vision above 30 years was 2.0% (best visual acuity 6/18 to 3/60). The causes of blindness were determined as cataract (62.5%), onchocerciasis (12.5%), corneal opacity (non-trachomatous) (8.2%), refraction anomalies (4.2%), phthisis bulbi (4.2%), optic atrophy (4.2%), and vascular retinopathy (4.2%). In the Wenchi district, 1.0% of the population over the age of 30 years was found to need a cataract extraction because of blindness of both eyes. Another potential 1.0% needs a cataract extraction because of low vision. A minor second study (n = 149) was undertaken in the same district, but in a village in an area near the Black Volta river in which onchocerciasis is endemic. The prevalence of blindness (8.1%) and low vision (3.4%) caused by onchocerciasis and cataract both proved to be higher. The survey provided the basis for a preventive and curative eye care programme. PMID:8199113

  11. Predicting Family Poverty and Other Disadvantaged Conditions for Child Rearing from Childhood Aggression and Social Withdrawal: A 30-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serbin, Lisa A.; Temcheff, Caroline E.; Cooperman, Jessica M.; Stack, Dale M.; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E.

    2011-01-01

    This 30-year longitudinal study examined pathways from problematic childhood behavior patterns to future disadvantaged conditions for family environment and child rearing in adulthood. Participants were mothers (n = 328) and fathers (n = 222) with lower income backgrounds participating in the ongoing Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project. Structural…

  12. Self-Stigma and Quality of Life among People with Mental Illness Who Receive Compulsory Community Treatment Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, James

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between self-stigma and quality of life over a one year time period for 71 people with mental illness who were receiving compulsory community mental health treatment. It was hypothesized that, over time, self-stigma would have the direct effect of eroding quality of life among people with…

  13. The relationship of life stressors, mood disorder, and health care utilization in primary care patients referred for integrated behavioral health services.

    PubMed

    Sadock, Elizabeth; Auerbach, Stephen M; Rybarczyk, Bruce; Aggarwal, Arpita; Lanoye, Autumn

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to stressful life events, mood disorder, and health care utilization were evaluated in 102 low-income, primarily minority patients receiving behavioral health and medical services at a safety-net primary care clinic. Exposure to major stressors was far higher in this sample than in the general population, with older patients having lower stress scores. Proportions of patients who met the criteria for clinical depression and anxiety were higher than in normative samples of primary care patients. Stress exposure was higher in the patients who met the criterion for clinical anxiety but was unrelated to clinical depression. Contrary to expectation, anxiety, depression, or stress exposure was not related to service utilization. Latter findings are discussed in terms of the influence of the provision of behavioral health services, the highly skewed distribution of major stressor scores, and the likely greater influence of individual differences in minor stressor exposure on utilization in this population. PMID:25265268

  14. Biologic score and mortality based on a 30-year mortality follow-up: radiation effects research foundation adult health study.

    PubMed

    Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Yamada, Michiko; Sasaki, Hideo; Fujita, Shoichiro

    2009-08-01

    This study aimed to test whether scored biologic functions can predict individual life expectancies and to investigate the disease-related and time-related differences in evaluated associations. A biologic score was defined as the first principal component score of the five physiological tests. Study participants were 4,871 people aged 35-74 years at baseline examination in 1970-1972 and followed until the end of 1999. We evaluated the prognostic value of the biologic score by Cox proportional hazard analysis. In all age and sex groups, increasing trends of mortality for all diseases by increment of biologic score were observed after adjustment for potential risk factors. The validity of the biologic score was significant throughout the entire study period. Each disease except cancer showed a significant association with biologic score at baseline examination. In conclusion, the biologic score is a valid predictor of life span in this large-scale prospective study of middle-aged and elderly Japanese. PMID:19435953

  15. Health Care for the Homeless: What We Have Learned in the Past 30 Years and What’s Next

    PubMed Central

    Zerger, Suzanne; Wolfe, Phyllis B.

    2013-01-01

    In the 1980s, the combined effects of deinstitutionalization from state mental hospitals and the economic recession increased the number and transformed the demographic profile of people experiencing homelessness in the United States. Specialized health care for the homeless (HCH) services were developed when it became clear that the mainstream health care system could not sufficiently address their health needs. The HCH program has grown consistently during that period; currently, 208 HCH sites are operating, and the program has become embedded in the federal health care system. We reflect on lessons learned from the HCH model and its applicability to the changing landscape of US health care. PMID:24148056

  16. Developing Leadership in Faculty and Students: The Power of Service Learning in Teacher Education. Linking Learning with Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.; Winecoff, H. Larry; Rowls, Michael; Kemper, Richard; Freeman, Nancy K.; Mason, Janet; Janes, David; Creech, Nena

    This guidebook provides information on necessary elements for quality service learning and teacher education (SLATE), emphasizing the nurturing of leadership skills in preservice and inservice teachers. Chapter 1, "Leadership and Service Learning: Interactive Processes that Enhance Teacher Development," describes shared leadership, presents eight…

  17. Can comprehensive specialised end-of-life care be provided at home? Lessons from a study of an innovative consultant-led community service in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Noble, B; King, N; Woolmore, A; Hughes, P; Winslow, M; Melvin, J; Brooks, J; Bravington, A; Ingleton, C; Bath, PA

    2015-01-01

    The Midhurst Macmillan Specialist Palliative Care Service (MMSPCS) is a UK, medical consultant-led, multidisciplinary team aiming to provide round-the-clock advice and care, including specialist interventions, in the home, community hospitals and care homes. Of 389 referrals in 2010/11, about 85% were for cancer, from a population of about 155 000. Using a mixed method approach, the evaluation comprised: a retrospective analysis of secondary-care use in the last year of life; financial evaluation of the MMSPCS using an Activity Based Costing approach; qualitative interviews with patients, carers, health and social care staff and MMSPCS staff and volunteers; a postal survey of General Practices; and a postal survey of bereaved caregivers using the MMSPCS. The mean cost is about 3000 GBP (3461 EUR) per patient with mean cost of interventions for cancer patients in the last year of life 1900 GBP (2192 EUR). Post-referral, overall costs to the system are similar for MMSPCS and hospice-led models; however, earlier referral avoided around 20% of total costs in the last year of life. Patients and carers reported positive experiences of support, linked to the flexible way the service worked. Seventy-one per cent of patients died at home. This model may have application elsewhere. PMID:24735122

  18. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Service Members: Life After Don't Ask, Don't Tell.

    PubMed

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Castro, Carl Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual service members can serve openly in the military with the repeal of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy. The fate of transgender service members remains uncertain as the policy preventing them from serving in the military remains under review. The health care needs of these populations remain for the most part unknown, with total acceptance and integration in the military yet to be achieved. In this paper, we review the literature on the health care needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) service members, relying heavily on what is known about LGBT civilian and veteran populations. Significant research gaps about the health care needs of LGBT service members are identified, along with recommendations for closing those gaps. In addition, recommendations for improving LGBT acceptance and integration within the military are provided. PMID:27086317

  19. Plant science in forest canopies--the first 30 years of advances and challenges (1980-2010).

    PubMed

    Lowman, Margaret D; Schowalter, Timothy D

    2012-04-01

    As an emerging subdiscipline of forest biology, canopy science has undergone a transition from observational, 'oh-wow' exploration to a more hypothesis-driven, experimental arena for rigorous field biology. Although efforts to explore forest canopies have occurred for a century, the new tools to access the treetops during the past 30 yr facilitated not only widespread exploration but also new discoveries about the complexity and global effects of this so-called 'eighth continent of the planet'. The forest canopy is the engine that fixes solar energy in carbohydrates to power interactions among forest components that, in turn, affect regional and global climate, biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem services. Climate change, biodiversity conservation, fresh water conservation, ecosystem productivity, and carbon sequestration represent important components of forest research that benefit from access to the canopy for rigorous study. Although some canopy variables can be observed or measured from the ground, vertical and horizontal variation in environmental conditions and processes within the canopy that determine canopy-atmosphere and canopy-forest floor interactions are best measured within the canopy. Canopy science has matured into a cutting-edge subset of forest research, and the treetops also serve as social and economic drivers for sustainable communities, fostering science education and ecotourism. This interdisciplinary context of forest canopy science has inspired innovative new approaches to environmental stewardship, involving diverse stakeholders. PMID:22348430

  20. Software and Information Life Cycle (SILC) for the Integrated Information Services Organization. Analysis and implementation phase adaptations of the Sandia software guidelines: Issue A, April 18, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, D.; Cassidy, A.; Cuyler, D.

    1995-07-01

    This document describes the processes to be used for creating corporate information systems within the scope of the Integrated information Services (IIS) Center. This issue A describes the Analysis and Implementation phases within the context of the entire life cycle. Appendix A includes a full set of examples of the analysis set deliverables. Subsequent issues will describe the other life cycle processes as we move toward enterprise-level management of information assets, including information meta-models and an integrated corporate information model. The analysis phase as described here, when combined with a specifications repository, will provide the basis for future reusable components and improve traceability of information system specifications to enterprise business rules.

  1. 'Silent voices' in health services research: ethnicity and socioeconomic variation in participation in studies of quality of life in childhood visual disability.

    PubMed

    Tadic, Valerie; Hamblion, Esther Louise; Keeley, Sarah; Cumberland, Phillippa; Lewando Hundt, Gillian; Rahi, Jugnoo Sangeeta

    2010-04-01

    Purpose. To investigate patterns of participation of visually impaired (VI) children and their families in health services research. Methods. The authors compared clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of children and their families who participated with those who did not participate in two studies of quality of life (QoL) of VI children. In Study 1, the authors interviewed VI children and adolescents, aged 10 to 15 years, about their vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) as the first phase of a program to develop a VRQoL instrument for this population. One hundred seven children with visual impairment (visual acuity in the better eye LogMar worse than 0.51) were invited to participate in the interviews. Study 2 investigated health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of VI children using an existing generic instrument, administered in a postal survey. 151 VI children and adolescents, aged 2 to 16 years, with hereditary retinal disorders were invited to participate in the survey. Results. The overall participation level was below 50%. In both studies, participants from white ethnic and more affluent socioeconomic backgrounds were overrepresented. Participation did not vary by age, sex, or clinical characteristics. Conclusions. The authors suggest that there are barriers to participation in child- and family-centered research on childhood visual disability for children from socioeconomically deprived or ethnic minority groups. They urge assessment and reporting of participation patterns in further health services research on childhood visual disability. Failure to recognize that there are "silent voices" is likely to have important implications for equitable and appropriate service planning and provision for VI children. PMID:19933181

  2. Re-imagining long-term services and supports: towards livable environments, service capacity, and enhanced community integration, choice, and quality of life for seniors.

    PubMed

    Kane, Rosalie A; Cutler, Lois J

    2015-04-01

    In the half century since enactment of the 1965 Great Society programs, accomplishments were gradually made to improve access to and quality of long-term services and supports (LTSS), including: mitigation of financial and care abuses in nursing facilities (NFs); substantial rebalancing of LTSS towards consumer-preferred home-and-community-based services (HCBS); increasing flexible consumer-centered HCBS including payment to family caregivers; and more assisted-living and housing options for seniors with heavy care needs. A unified planning and advocacy agenda across age and disability type and greater consumer transparency fueled progress. Nonetheless, LTSS is a broken system; persistent problems interfere with substantial and necessary change. These include; over-emphasis on safety for LTSS consumers; inattention to physical environments in all settings; regulatory and professional rigidity; and poor communication and information. Our recommendations are aimed at builders and designers, LTSS professionals, regulators, and educators/trainers; the last may be crucial in forging new consensus and over-coming entrenched beliefs. Policy recommendations include relatively narrow steps-for example, requiring single occupancy in all NFs and assisted living settings financed with public dollars-to broad reworking of the prerequisites for livable age-friendly (and dementia-friendly) communities and for a capable, flexible LTSS workforce. PMID:26035605

  3. Second Life to Support Multicultural Literacy: Pre- and In-Service Teachers' Perceptions and Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldosemani, Tahani Ibrahim; Shepherd, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine preservice teachers' attitudes using Second Life for multicultural literacy and to explore effective strategies to implement this technology in teacher preparation programs. Participants included thirty-six preserve teachers from early childhood, elementary, and secondary education programs.…

  4. Challenges in access to health services and its impact on quality of life: a randomised population-based survey within Turkish speaking immigrants in London

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and aim There are a significant number of Turkish speaking immigrants living in London. Their special health issues including women's health, mental health, and alcohol and smoking habits has been assessed. The aim of this study was to explore the ongoing challenges in access to health care services and its impact on Quality of Life of immigrants. Material and methods This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted between March and August 2010 with Turkish immigrants (n = 416) living in London. Of these, 308 (74%) were Turkish and 108 (26%) were Turkish Cypriots. All healthy or unhealthy adults of 17-65 years of age were enrolled. A structured questionnaire with 44 items in five subcategories and 26-items WHOQOL BREF were used. Results Mean duration of stay for Turkish Cypriots (26.9 ± 13.9 years) was significantly longer than Turkish immigrants (13.3 ± 7.5) (p < 0.001). Turkish immigrants (n = 108, 36.5%) need interpretation more often when using health services than Turkish Cypriots (n = 16, 15%) (p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses suggested significant effects of older age, non-homeownership, low socioeconomic class, poor access to health services, being ill, poor community integration and being obese on physical well-being and also significant effects of low income and poor community integration on perceived overall Quality of Life (WHOQOL) of the participants. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate how the health and well-being of members of the Turkish speaking community living in London are affected by social aspects of their lives. Providing culturally competent care and interpretation services and advocacy may improve the accessibility of the health care. PMID:22280521

  5. 4.4 Development of a 30-Year Soil Moisture Climatology for Situational Awareness and Public Health Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; White, Kristopher D.; Bell, Jesse E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provided a brief background on the work being done at NASA SPoRT and the CDC to create a soil moisture climatology over the CONUS at high spatial resolution, and to provide a valuable source of soil moisture information to the CDC for monitoring conditions that could favor the development of Valley Fever. The soil moisture climatology has multi-faceted applications for both the NOAA/NWS situational awareness in the areas of drought and flooding, and for the Public Health community. SPoRT plans to increase its interaction with the drought monitoring and Public Health communities by enhancing this testbed soil moisture anomaly product. This soil moisture climatology run will also serve as a foundation for upgrading the real-time (currently southeastern CONUS) SPoRT-LIS to a full CONUS domain based on LIS version 7 and incorporating real-time GVF data from the Suomi-NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (Vargas et al. 2013) into LIS-Noah. The upgraded SPoRT-LIS run will serve as a testbed proof-of-concept of a higher-resolution NLDAS-2 modeling member. The climatology run will be extended to near real-time using the NLDAS-2 meteorological forcing from 2011 to present. The fixed 1981-2010 climatology shall provide the soil moisture "normals" for the production of real-time soil moisture anomalies. SPoRT also envisions a web-mapping type of service in which an end-user could put in a request for either an historical or real-time soil moisture anomaly graph for a specified county (as exemplified by Figure 2) and/or for local and regional maps of soil moisture proxy percentiles. Finally, SPoRT seeks to assimilate satellite soil moisture data from the current Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS; Blankenship et al. 2014) and the recently-launched NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP; Entekhabi et al. 2010) missions, using the EnKF capability within LIS. The 9-km combined active radar and passive microwave retrieval product from SMAP (Das et al. 2011

  6. Pre-Hypertension among Young Adults (20–30 Years) in Coastal Villages of Udupi District in Southern India: An Alarming Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Veena G.; Kulkarni, Muralidhar M.; Kamath, Asha; Shivalli, Siddharudha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction According to Joint National Committee-7 (JNC-7) guidelines, a systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 120 to 139 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 80 to 89 mm Hg is considered as pre-hypertension. Existing evidence suggest that the cardiovascular morbidities are increasing among pre-hypertensive individuals compared to normal. Objective To assess the magnitude and factors associated with pre-hypertension among young adults (20–30 years) in coastal villages of Udupi Taluk (an area of land with a city or town that serves as its administrative centre and usually a number of villages), Udupi District, Karnataka state, India. Design Community based cross sectional study Setting 6 (out of total 14) coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India. Sample 1,152 young adults (age group: 20–30 years) selected by stratified random sampling in 6 coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India Method A semi structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the details on socio-demographic variables, dietary habits, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of hypertension and stress levels. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were recorded according to standard protocols. Serum cholesterol was measured in a sub sample of the study population. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify the independent correlates of pre-hypertension among young adults (20–30 years). Main Outcome Measures Prevalence, Odds ratio (OR) and adjusted (adj) OR for pre-hypertension among young adults (20–30 years). Results The prevalence of pre-hypertension in the study population was 45.2% (95%CI: 42.4–48). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age group of 25–30 years (adj OR: 4.25, 95% CI: 2.99–6.05), white collared (adj OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.08–4.85) and skilled occupation (adj OR: 3.24, 95% CI: 1.64–6.42), students (adj OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.22–4.95), using refined cooking oil

  7. Adult Day Care: Its Impact on the Utilization of Other Health Care Services and on Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Blandford, Audrey

    The Adult Day Care Program (ADC) in the Province of Manitoba is a health and social service program providing socialization and recreation in a supportive environment to those who, without this intervention, might deteriorate in physical or mental health function. To examine the impact of adult day care on the utilization of other health care…

  8. An analysis of structural relationship among achievement motive on social participation, purpose in life, and role expectations among community dwelling elderly attending day services

    PubMed Central

    Kyougoku, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Background. Achievement motive is defined as the intention to achieve one’s goals. Achievement motive is assumed to promote clients to choices and actions toward their valuable goal, so it is an important consideration in rehabilitation. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the structural relationship among achievement motive on purpose in life, social participation, and role expectation of community-dwelling elderly people. Methods. Participants were community-dwelling elderly people in day-service centers. A total of 281 participants (male: 127, female: 154) answered the self-administered questionnaire in cross-sectional research. The questionnaire was comprised of demographic data and scales that evaluated achievement motive, social participation, purpose in life, and role expectation. We studied the structural relationship established by our hypothesized model via a structural equation modeling approach. Results. We checked the standardized path coefficients and the modification indices; the modified model’s statistics were a good fit: CFI = 0.984, TLI = 0.983, RMSEA = 0.050, 90% CI [0.044–0.055]. Achievement motive had a significantly direct effect on purpose in life (direct effect = 0.445, p value < 0.001), a significantly indirect effect on purpose in life via social participation or role expectation (indirect effect = 0.170, p value < 0.001) and a total effect on purpose in life (total effect = 0.615). Discussion. This result suggests that enhancing the intention to achieve one’s goals enables participants to feel a spirit of challenge with a purpose and a sense of fulfillment in their daily lives. PMID:26835188

  9. An analysis of structural relationship among achievement motive on social participation, purpose in life, and role expectations among community dwelling elderly attending day services.

    PubMed

    Sano, Nobuyuki; Kyougoku, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Background. Achievement motive is defined as the intention to achieve one's goals. Achievement motive is assumed to promote clients to choices and actions toward their valuable goal, so it is an important consideration in rehabilitation. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the structural relationship among achievement motive on purpose in life, social participation, and role expectation of community-dwelling elderly people. Methods. Participants were community-dwelling elderly people in day-service centers. A total of 281 participants (male: 127, female: 154) answered the self-administered questionnaire in cross-sectional research. The questionnaire was comprised of demographic data and scales that evaluated achievement motive, social participation, purpose in life, and role expectation. We studied the structural relationship established by our hypothesized model via a structural equation modeling approach. Results. We checked the standardized path coefficients and the modification indices; the modified model's statistics were a good fit: CFI = 0.984, TLI = 0.983, RMSEA = 0.050, 90% CI [0.044-0.055]. Achievement motive had a significantly direct effect on purpose in life (direct effect = 0.445, p value < 0.001), a significantly indirect effect on purpose in life via social participation or role expectation (indirect effect = 0.170, p value < 0.001) and a total effect on purpose in life (total effect = 0.615). Discussion. This result suggests that enhancing the intention to achieve one's goals enables participants to feel a spirit of challenge with a purpose and a sense of fulfillment in their daily lives. PMID:26835188

  10. The Effect of Ultrasonic Peening on Service Life of the Butt-Welded High-Temperature Steel Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daavari, Morteza; Vanini, Seyed Ali Sadough

    2015-09-01

    Residual stresses introduced by manufacturing processes such as casting, forming, machining, and welding have harmful effects on the mechanical behavior of the structures. In addition to the residual stresses, weld toe stress concentration can play a determining effect. There are several methods to improve the mechanical properties such as fatigue behavior of the welded structures. In this paper, the effects of ultrasonic peening on the fatigue life of the high-temperature seamless steel pipes, used in the petrochemical environment, have been investigated. These welded pipes are fatigued due to thermal and mechanical loads caused by the cycle of cooling, heating, and internal pressure fluctuations. Residual stress measurements, weld geometry estimation, electrochemical evaluations, and metallography investigations were done as supplementary examinations. Results showed that application of ultrasonic impact treatment has led to increased fatigue life, fatigue strength, and corrosion resistance of A106-B welded steel pipes in petrochemical corrosive environment.

  11. Development of an Accelerated Test Design for Predicting the Service Life of the Solar Array at Mead, Nebraska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaines, G. B.; Thomas, R. E.; Noel, G. T.; Shilliday, T. S.; Wood, V. E.; Carmichael, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    An accelerated life test is described which was developed to predict the life of the 25 kW photovoltaic array installed near Mead, Nebraska. A quantitative model for accelerating testing using multiple environmental stresses was used to develop the test design. The model accounts for the effects of thermal stress by a relation of the Arrhenius form. This relation was then corrected for the effects of nonthermal environmental stresses, such as relative humidity, atmospheric pollutants, and ultraviolet radiation. The correction factors for the nonthermal stresses included temperature-dependent exponents to account for the effects of interactions between thermal and nonthermal stresses on the rate of degradation of power output. The test conditions, measurements, and data analyses for the accelerated tests are presented. Constant-temperature, cyclic-temperature, and UV types of tests are specified, incorporating selected levels of relative humidity and chemical contamination and an imposed forward-bias current and static electric field.

  12. Trends analyses of 30 years of ambient 8 hour ozone and precursor monitoring data in the South Central U.S.: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sather, Mark E; Cavender, Kevin

    2016-07-13

    In the last 30 years ambient ozone concentrations have notably decreased in the South Central U.S. Yet, current ambient ozone concentrations measured over the past three years 2013-2015 in this area of the U.S. are not meeting the U.S. 2015 8 hour ozone standard of 70 parts per billion (ppb). This paper provides an update on long-term trends analyses of ambient 8 hour ozone and ozone precursor monitoring data collected over the past 30 years (1986-2015) in four South Central U.S. cities, following up on two previously published reviews of 20 and 25 year trends for these cities. All four cities have benefitted from national ozone precursor controls put in place during the 1990s and 2000s involving cleaner vehicles (vehicle fleet turnover/replacement over time), cleaner fuels, cleaner gasoline and diesel engines, and improved inspection/maintenance programs for existing vehicles. Additional ozone precursor emission controls specific to each city are detailed in this paper. The controls have resulted in impressive ambient ozone and ambient ozone precursor concentration reductions in the four South Central U.S. cities over the past 30 years, including 31-70% ambient nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentration declines from historical peaks to the present, 43-72% volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration declines from historical peaks to the present, a related 45-76% VOC reactivity decline for a subset of VOC species from historical peaks to the present, and an 18-38 ppb reduction in city 8 hour ozone design value concentrations. A new challenge for each of the four South Central U.S. cities will be meeting the U.S. 2015 8 hour ozone standard of 70 ppb. PMID:27282109

  13. Quality of Life of Graduate Students: Importance of and Satisfaction from Life Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Raymond C.; Carter, Frances J.

    Data from two studies of 30 year olds were compared on the importance ascribed to and satisfaction derived from 15 life components. The relative frequency with which Carter's (1983) research population of graduate students indicated that life components were important or were sources of satisfaction were compared through critical ratios with…

  14. Silicone Granuloma in the Buttocks Incidentally Detected by 18F-FDG PET/CT 30 Years After Free Liquid Silicone Injections.

    PubMed

    Ohnona, Jessica; Durand, Pauline; Amegnizin, Jean-Louis; Kerrou, Khaldoun

    2016-06-01

    A 59-year-old transexual (male to female) patient presented with a squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. She underwent an F-FDG PET/CT for initial staging. The examination showed high F-FDG uptake of the primary lesion and a homolateral lymphadenopathy. Incidental heterogeneous uptake of round hyperdense lesions in the gluteal muscles and subcutaneous fat was visualized. The medical history revealed secondly that the patient had had free liquid silicone injections 30 years before the examination. Although the injection of free silicone is not practised since the 1980s, this incidental finding should prompt to check the patient's medical history over several decades. PMID:26975013

  15. Inflationary cosmology: First 30+ years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Katsuhiko; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2015-08-01

    Starting with an account of historical developments in Japan and Russia, we review inflationary cosmology and its basic predictions in a pedagogical manner. We also introduce the generalized G-inflation model, in terms of which all the known single-field inflation models may be described. This formalism allows us to analyze and compare the many inflationary models that have been proposed simultaneously and within a common framework. Finally, current observational constraints on inflation are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the sensitivity of the inferred constraints to the choice of datasets used.

  16. [Pediatric aids, 30 years later].

    PubMed

    Blanche, S; Dollfus, C; Faye, A; Rouzioux, C; Mandelbrot, L; Tubiana, R; Warszawski, J

    2013-08-01

    Thirty years after the first descriptions of AIDS in children in May 1983, the risk of viral transmission from mother to child has been reduced to almost zero and the disease in infected children has become an asymptomatic condition, stable in the long-term, thanks to antiretroviral drugs. Unbelievable though it may have seemed until the mid-1990s, children infected during the perinatal period are now growing up to be adults in a chronic, stable, asymptomatic medical condition with often satisfactory personal, family, and social lives. The French perinatal epidemiological cohort, which was set up in 1984 and has included more than 18,000 mother-child pairs to date, traces the steps in this extraordinary revolution in the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection in children. PMID:23850051

  17. 30 years of cosmic fullerenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berné, O.; Montillaud, J.; Mulas, G.; Joblin, C.

    2015-12-01

    In 1985, ``During experiments aimed at understanding the mechanisms by which long-chain carbon molecules are formed in interstellar space and circumstellar shells'', Harry Kroto and his collaborators serendipitously discovered a new form of carbon: fullerenes. The most emblematic fullerene (i.e. C_{60} ``buckminsterfullerene''), contains exactly 60 carbon atoms organized in a cage-like structure similar to a soccer ball. Since their discovery impacted the field of nanotechnologies, Kroto and colleagues received the Nobel prize in 1996. The cage-like structure, common to all fullerene molecules, gives them unique properties, in particular an extraordinary stability. For this reason and since they were discovered in experiments aimed to reproduce conditions in space, fullerenes were sought after by astronomers for over two decades, and it is only recently that they have been firmly identified by spectroscopy, in evolved stars and in the interstellar medium. This identification offered the opportunity to study the molecular physics of fullerenes in the unique physical conditions provided by space, and to make the link with other large carbonaceous molecules thought to be present in space : polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  18. 30 Years of Wahba's Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses a problem proposed by Grace Wahba: Find the orthogonal matrix A with determinant +1 that minimizes the loss function L(A) is identical with the 1/2(summation from i( a(sub i) * absolute value of (b(sub i)- Ar(sub i))squared). where {b(sub i)} is a set of unit vectors measured in a spacecraft's body frame, {r(sub i)} e the corresponding unit vectors in a reference frame and {a(sub i) are non-negative weights). The orthogonal Procrustes problem is to find the orthogonal matrix A that is closest to B in the sense of the Fobenius norm, so that Wahba's Problem is equivalent to the orthogonal Procrustes problem with the provision that the determinant of A must be +1. The article reviews various solutions to this problem and the implementations of the various solutions.

  19. Some principles of service life calculation of reinforcements and in situ corrosion monitoring by sensors in the radioactive waste containers of El Cabril disposal (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, C.; Martínez, I.; Castellote, M.; Zuloaga, P.

    2006-11-01

    Reinforced concrete is the most usual material used in engineered barriers in low-level nuclear waste disposal facilities. The record of modern concrete is no longer than about 100 years. During this time, it has been noticed that the material gives a good performance in many environments, however several chemical aggressive species in water, soil or the atmosphere may react with the cement mineralogical phases and perturb its integrity. El Cabril repository has a design life objective of longer than 300 years and therefore, these structures should maintain their main characteristics during this target service life. The potential aggressive conditions that the cement-based materials can suffer have been identified to be: carbonation, water permeation (leaching) and reinforcement corrosion. More unlikely may be the biological attack. Chlorides are not in the environment but they are inside the drums as part of analytical wastes. Vaults and containers are made of a very similar concrete composition while the mortar is specifically designed to be pumpable, with low hydration heat, low shrinkage and of low permeability. In this paper results of concrete characteristics are given as well as the monitoring of the behaviour of reinforcement corrosion parameters from 1995 on the same environmental conditions of the actual waste. This monitoring has been made in a buried structure with embedded sensors. The effect of temperature is commented.

  20. 30-Year Trends in Stroke Rates and Outcome in Auckland, New Zealand (1981-2012): A Multi-Ethnic Population-Based Series of Studies

    PubMed Central

    Feigin, Valery L.; Krishnamurthi, Rita V.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; McPherson, Kathryn M.; Barber, P. Alan; Parag, Varsha; Arroll, Bruce; Bennett, Derrick A.; Tobias, Martin; Jones, Amy; Witt, Emma; Brown, Paul; Abbott, Max; Bhattacharjee, Rohit; Rush, Elaine; Suh, Flora Minsun; Theadom, Alice; Rathnasabapathy, Yogini; Te Ao, Braden; Parmar, Priya G.; Anderson, Craig; Bonita, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background Insufficient data exist on population-based trends in morbidity and mortality to determine the success of prevention strategies and improvements in health care delivery in stroke. The aim of this study was to determine trends in incidence and outcome (1-year mortality, 28-day case-fatality) in relation to management and risk factors for stroke in the multi-ethnic population of Auckland, New Zealand (NZ) over 30-years. Methods Four stroke incidence population-based register studies were undertaken in adult residents (aged ≥15 years) of Auckland NZ in 1981–1982, 1991–1992, 2002–2003 and 2011–2012. All used standard World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria and multiple overlapping sources of case-ascertainment for hospitalised and non-hospitalised, fatal and non-fatal, new stroke events. Ethnicity was consistently self-identified into four major groups. Crude and age-adjusted (WHO world population standard) annual incidence and mortality with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated per 100,000 people, assuming a Poisson distribution. Results 5400 new stroke patients were registered in four 12 month recruitment phases over the 30-year study period; 79% were NZ/European, 6% Māori, 8% Pacific people, and 7% were of Asian or other origin. Overall stroke incidence and 1-year mortality decreased by 23% (95% CI 5%-31%) and 62% (95% CI 36%-86%), respectively, from 1981 to 2012. Whilst stroke incidence and mortality declined across all groups in NZ from 1991, Māori and Pacific groups had the slowest rate of decline and continue to experience stroke at a significantly younger age (mean ages 60 and 62 years, respectively) compared with NZ/Europeans (mean age 75 years). There was also a decline in 28-day stroke case fatality (overall by 14%, 95% CI 11%-17%) across all ethnic groups from 1981 to 2012. However, there were significant increases in the frequencies of pre-morbid hypertension, myocardial infarction, and diabetes

  1. Increasing runoff and sediment load from the Greenland ice sheet at kangerlussuaq (Sonder Stromfjord) in a 30-year perspective, 1979-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard; Liston, Glen; Hasholt, Bent; Steffen, Konrad; Van Den Broeke, Michiel; Mcgrath, Daniel; Yde, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    This observation and modeling study provides insights into runoff and sediment load exiting the Watson River drainage basin, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland during a 30 year period (1978/79-2007/08) when the climate experienced increasing temperatures and precipitation. The 30-year simulations quantify the terrestrial freshwater and sediment output from part of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and the land between the GrIS and the ocean, in the context of global warming and increasing GrIS surface melt. We used a snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel) to simulate the winter accumulation and summer ablation processes, including runoff and surface mass balance (SMB), of the Greenland ice sheet. Observed sediment concentrations were related to observed runoff, producing a sediment-load time series. To a large extent, the SMB fluctuations could be explained by changes in net precipitation (precipitation minus evaporation and sublimation), with 8 out of 30 years having negative SMB, mainly because of relatively low annual net precipitation. The overall trend in net precipitation and runoff increased significantly, while 5MB increased insignificantly throughout the simulation period, leading to enhanced precipitation of 0.59 km{sup 3} w.eq. (or 60%), runoff of 0.43 km{sup 3} w.eq (or 54%), and SMB of 0.16 km3 w.eq. (or 86%). Runoff rose on average from 0.80 km{sup 3} w.eq. in 1978/79 to 1.23 km{sup 3} w.eq. in 2007/08. The percentage of catchment oudet runoff explained by runoff from the GrIS decreased on average {approx} 10%, indicating that catchment runoff throughout the simulation period was influenced more by precipitation and snowmelt events, and less by runoff from the GrIS. Average variations in the increasing Kangerlussuaq runoff from 1978/79 through 2007/08 seem to follow the overall variations in satellite-derived GrIS surface melt, where 64% of the variations in simulated runoff were explained by regional melt conditions on the GrIS. Throughout the simulation

  2. What Are Physicians' Reasons for Not Referring People with Life-Limiting Illnesses to Specialist Palliative Care Services? A Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Beernaert, Kim; Deliens, Luc; Pardon, Koen; Van den Block, Lieve; Devroey, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Background Many people who might benefit from specialist palliative care services are not using them. Aim We examined the use of these services and the reasons for not using them in a population in potential need of palliative care. Methods We conducted a population-based survey regarding end-of-life care among physicians certifying a large representative sample (n = 6188) of deaths in Flanders, Belgium. Results Palliative care services were not used in 79% of cases of people with organ failure, 64% of dementia and 44% of cancer. The most frequently indicated reasons were that 1) existing care already sufficiently addressed palliative and supportive needs (56%), 2) palliative care was not deemed meaningful (26%) and 3) there was insufficient time to initiate palliative care (24%). The reasons differed according to patient characteristics: in people with dementia the consideration of palliative care as not meaningful was more likely to be a reason for not using it; in older people their care needs already being sufficiently addressed was more likely to be a reason. For those patients who were referred the timing of referral varied from a median of six days before death (organ failure) to 16 days (cancer). Conclusions Specialist palliative care is not initiated in almost half of the people for whom it could be beneficial, most frequently because physicians deem regular caregivers to be sufficiently skilled in addressing palliative care needs. This would imply that the safeguarding of palliative care skills in this regular ‘general’ care is an essential health policy priority. PMID:26356477

  3. Spontaneous, Postpartum Coronary Artery Dissection and Cardiogenic Shock with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Assisted Recovery in a 30-Year-Old Patient

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Ricardo A.; Cubillo, Efrain I.; Chapital, Alyssa B.

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery dissection is an infrequent cause of acute coronary syndrome in the general population. There is, however, a greater incidence of spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) in young women, especially in the peripartum period. However, the majority of cases have favorable outcomes with medical management or percutaneous coronary intervention; coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and transplantation are utilized in severe cases. This case is a one of a 30-year-old postpartum female with multivessel SCAD requiring CABG with subsequent biventricular failure and inability to wean from bypass. We believe this is the first reported case in which venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) was used in the management of biventricular heart failure in a postpartum patient with SCAD. PMID:27127660

  4. The role of the cemented all-polyethylene tibial component in total knee replacement: a 30-year patient follow-up and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Blumenfeld, Thomas J; Scott, Richard D

    2010-12-01

    Use of an all-polyethylene tibial component in primary total knee arthroplasty remains an attractive option considering the reported durability of the construct, the lowered cost compared to modular metal-backed tibia, and the elimination of backside wear. The two major intra-operative disadvantages include the inability to alter the tibial component thickness after permanent implant placement and the inability to use varus-valgus constrained designs. The long-term disadvantage is the inability to perform a modular insert exchange should this be required. We report the 30-year outcome of a single patient using the duopatellar total knee replacement system. Based on a critical review of the literature we would recommend use in patients 80 years of age or older, consideration in patients 75 to 79 years, and possibly in younger yet less active patients. These three groups would be the least likely to require a modular tibial liner exchange in their lifetime. PMID:20060725

  5. [The influence of procaine electrophoresis and mesotherapy on the indices of body components and biochemical characteristics in the subjects above 30 years of age].

    PubMed

    Turova, E A; Konchugova, T V; Balaban, E I; Fadeeva, N I; Golovach, A V; Teniaeva, E A

    2013-01-01

    This study has demonstrated the effectiveness of a 2% procaine solution given with a view to improving metabolic parameters of aging, such as the body weight and composition along with the lipid profile in the patients varying in age from 30 years to 75 years. The study involved 95 patients treated with a 2% procaine solution that was administered by different methods (electrophoresis and mesotherapy) into several points of the collar region and upper back. The control group was comprised of the patients who received placebo by means of galvanization and mesotherapy. The results of the study indicate that the introduction of a 2% procaine solution in the treatment of metabolic disorders effectively improves selected metabolic characteristics of ageing and thereby helps to reduce the biological age in comparison with the control patients treated with placebo. PMID:23718080

  6. End of Life: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Mary Ann; Shadden, Barbara B.

    2012-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) provide services to patients confronting the end of life (EOL) in a variety of settings. Instead of targeting improvement of health or sustaining life, EOL services focus primarily on quality of life. Although SLPs may not consider themselves core members of the health care team providing EOL services, the…

  7. Flood Dynamics in the Sacramento Valley over the Last 30 Years: When and Where Were the Rest Stops for Shorebirds during Spring Migration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer-Smith, D.; Swenson, J. J.; Reiter, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland dependent migratory shorebirds continue to suffer population declines, largely due to loss of habitat. A better understanding of the variability of flooded resting and feeding sites is needed over the large areas traveled by these birds, particularly in inland areas subject to cyclical droughts. We analyzed habitat availability patterns in the Sacramento Valley, an internationally important shorebird stopover site, using low cloud cover scenes during spring migration (February - June) from the 30-year Landsat Climate Data Record. We found that a simple band 5 threshold efficiently delineated open water over the past thirty years of surface reflectance data (Landsat 4-8). A random forest model for flooded and non-flooded regions (AUC = 0.9997444) and ROC optimization were used to determine the best threshold for the analysis. Using the time series of classifications, we assessed historical flooded habitat availability within each two week period during spring over the past 30 years. Flood irrigated agriculture on private lands represents the largest potential habitat area and consistently provides habitat at the early and late stages of migration. Rice alone represents five times the area of herbaceous wetlands and has a comparable probability of inundation as this wetland type in early spring (0.3). Flood extent is most restricted during the peak of spring migration when birds most need the habitat, which is limited primarily to federal and state managed lands (average 0.78 probability of inundation). The timing of drying and reflooding in agricultural fields could strongly influence habitat availability in the valley during the spring.

  8. Social Mobility and Mental Disorders at 30 Years of Age in Participants of the 1982 Cohort, Pelotas, Rio Grande Do Sul – RS

    PubMed Central

    de Quadros, Lenice de Castro Muniz; Quevedo, Luciana de Avila; Motta, Janaína Vieira dos Santos; Carraro, André; Ribeiro, Felipe Garcia; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between mental disorders at 30 years of age and social mobility by formally testing three hypotheses: Risk Accumulation; Critical Period; and Social Mobility. The study was performed using data from the 30-year follow-up of the Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, conducted in 1982, and data from previous follow-ups. The tool used to evaluate mental health was the Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20). For the statistical analysis, the chi-square test with the Yates correction was used to estimate the prevalence of mental disorder, and the Poisson regression with robust variance was used to formally test the hypotheses according to the Risk Accumulation, Critical Period and Social Mobility Models. The analyses were stratified by gender. The prevalence of Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) was 24.3% (95% CI 22.9–25.7) when the whole sample was considered. The highest prevalence, 27.1% (95% CI 25.1–29.2), was found in women, and the difference between genders was significant (p < 0.001). CMDs were more frequent in participants who remained “poor” in the three follow-ups. In both men and women, the best fit was obtained with the Risk Accumulation Model, with p = 0.6348 and p = 0.2105, respectively. The results indicate the need to rethink public income maintenance policies. Finally, we suggest further studies to investigate the role of different public policies in decreasing the prevalence of mental disorders and thus contribute proposals of new policies that may contribute to the prevention of these disorders. PMID:26448480

  9. Phenotypic and functional modulation of 20-30 year old dermal fibroblasts by mid- and late-gestational keratinocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Dianbao; Wang, Xiliang; Zhao, Feng; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Rui; Lin, Xuewen; Shi, Ping; Pang, Xining

    2015-08-01

    Fetal wound healing occurs rapidly and without scar formation early in gestation, but the mechanisms underlying this scarless healing are poorly understood. This study explores the phenotypic and functional modulation of 20-30 year old dermal fibroblasts by mid- and late-gestational keratinocytes (KCs) in vitro. Human KCs of different gestational ages were isolated, characterized, and co-cultured with human 20-30 year old fibroblasts. Gene expression and protein levels of TGF-β family members, precollagen, collagen, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) were measured in the fibroblasts. Mid-gestational KCs promoted faster proliferation and migration of fibroblasts than late-gestational KCs. Additionally, significant differences in gene expression and protein levels of some markers were observed in fibroblasts co-cultured with mid- or late-gestational KCs. Fibroblasts co-cultured with mid-gestational KCs for 48 h exhibited downregulated gene expression of precollagen 1, collagen 1, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3, while precollagen 3, collagen 3, TGF-β3, and MMP-1, -2, -3, -9 and -14 were upregulated. In contrast, late-gestational KCs exhibited downregulated TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 levels, while collagen 1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, and MMP-2, -3, -9 and -14 were upregulated. Moreover, statistically significant differences in expression levels of precollagen 1, precollagen 3, collagen 1, TGF-β1, -β2, and -β3, MMP-1, -3 and MMP-14, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were found between fibroblasts co-cultured with mid- and late-gestational KCs. Furthermore, cytokine levels of IL-1a and HB-EGF were found to be statistically different between conditioned medium from mid- and late-gestational KCs. Therefore, the gestational age of KCs appears to have an important effect on scarless wound healing in the human fetus. PMID:25599870

  10. Impact of advanced cardiac life support‐skilled paramedics on survival from out‐of‐hospital cardiac arrest in a statewide emergency medical service

    PubMed Central

    Woodall, John; McCarthy, Molly; Johnston, Trisha; Tippett, Vivienne

    2007-01-01

    Background Prehospital research has found little evidence in support of advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) for out‐of‐hospital cardiac arrest. However, these studies generally examine city‐based emergency medical services (EMS) systems. The training and experience of ACLS‐skilled paramedics differs internationally, and this may also contribute to negative findings. Additionally, the frequency of negative outcome in out‐of‐hospital cardiac arrest suggests that it is difficult to establish sufficient numbers to detect an effect. Purpose To examine the effect of ACLS on cardiac arrest in Queensland, Australia. Queensland has a population of 3.8 million and an area of over 1.7 million km2, and is served by a statewide EMS system, which deploys resources using a two‐tier model. Advanced treatments such as intubation and cardioactive drug administration are provided by extensively trained intensive care paramedics. Methods An observational, retrospective design was used to examine all cases of cardiac arrest attended by the Queensland Ambulance Service from January 2000 to December 2002. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of the presence of an intensive care paramedic on survival to hospital discharge, adjusting for age, sex, initial rhythm, the presence of a witness and bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Results The presence of an intensive care paramedic had a significant effect on survival (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.99). Conclusions Highly trained ACLS‐skilled paramedics provide added survival benefit in EMS systems not optimised for early defibrillation. The reasons for this benefit are multifactorial, but may be the result of greater skill level and more informed use of the full range of prehospital interventions. PMID:17251628

  11. An Assessment of the INM RAS Coupled Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Model. The Results of the AOMIP 30-year Coordinated Spin-Up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovlev, N.

    2003-04-01

    run-off, precipitation, cloudiness, humidity and ocean temperature and salinity at open boundaries. The first stage of the AOMIP is the 30-year Coordinated Spin-up 1948-1977. The results on the 30-year spin-up of the Arctic Ocean climate system are presented and compared with observations. The spatial distribution and temporal variability of ocean temperature and salinity, sea level and ice characteristics are investigated with the special focus on the Atlantic water pathways and Arctic Ocean freshwater content. The limits and utility of the coarse resolution models in Arctic modeling are also discussed.

  12. Development of China Hydrogeology Exploring Techniques in 30 Years --Comparison of Handbook of Hydrogeology of 1st and 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Handbook of Hydrogeology (2nd edition) is supported by one program from China Geological Survey (CGS): Research of Technical Methods of Hydrogeological Survey and Revision of Handbook of Hydrogeology. It is a reference book for those who are engaged in hydrogeological survey and research in China and covers fundamental principles, theories, survey and exploring techniques, and traditional experiences and achievements in hydrogeology. By comparing the 1st (1978) and 2nd (2012) edition of Handbook of Hydrogeology (in Chinese), this paper analyses the development of China hydrogeological survey and exploring techniques in last 30 years, especially the great change and progress in survey techniques of hydro-remote sensing and hydro-geophysical prospecting. In the first edition of Handbook of Hydrogeology, hydro-remote sensing was only mentioned as an interpretation of aerial pictures in a hydrogeological way, but had not yet formed an independent system and discipline. In the second edition, hydro-remote sensing is an important and independent chapter as one of the hydrogeological techniques. In it, various survey techniques of hydro-remote sensing and types and features of remote sensing data are classified. General systems of interpretation marks of remote sensing images are established, including marks of landform and Quaternary sediment, bedrock, structure types, water yield property, environmental elements of hydrogeology, aquifer group and so on. Systematic workflow is constructed, esp. in remote sensing images mapping and interpreting techniques. GPS and GIS are integrated into remote sensing. Remote sensing exploring instruments and interpreting softwares are also introduced and classified. Although hydro-geophysical prospecting, in the first edition of Handbook of Hydrogeology, was one independent chapter, there were only 10 exploring techniques. Equipments and instruments were simple and lagged in comparison to those in the second edition. The precision and

  13. An Assessment of Actual and Potential Building Climate Zone Change and Variability From the Last 30 Years Through 2100 Using NASA's MERRA and CMIP5 Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Chandler, William S.; Hoell, James M.; Westberg, David; Zhang, Taiping

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the US, residential and commercial building infrastructure combined consumes about 40% of total energy usage and emits about 39% of total CO2 emission (DOE/EIA "Annual Energy Outlook 2013"). Building codes, as used by local and state enforcement entities are typically tied to the dominant climate within an enforcement jurisdiction classified according to various climate zones. These climate zones are based upon a 30-year average of local surface observations and are developed by DOE and ASHRAE. Establishing the current variability and potential changes to future building climate zones is very important for increasing the energy efficiency of buildings and reducing energy costs and emissions in the future. Objectives: This paper demonstrates the usefulness of using NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) atmospheric data assimilation to derive the DOE/ASHRAE building climate zone maps and then using MERRA to define the last 30 years of variability in climate zones for the Continental US. An atmospheric assimilation is a global atmospheric model optimized to satellite, atmospheric and surface in situ measurements. Using MERRA as a baseline, we then evaluate the latest Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP) climate model Version 5 runs to assess potential variability in future climate zones under various assumptions. Methods: We derive DOE/ASHRAE building climate zones using surface and temperature data products from MERRA. We assess these zones using the uncertainties derived by comparison to surface measurements. Using statistical tests, we evaluate variability of the climate zones in time and assess areas in the continental US for statistically significant trends by region. CMIP 5 produced a data base of over two dozen detailed climate model runs under various greenhouse gas forcing assumptions. We evaluate the variation in building climate zones for 3 different decades using an ensemble and quartile

  14. A sociodental approach to assessing children's oral health needs: integrating an oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measure into oral health service planning.

    PubMed Central

    Gherunpong, Sudaduang; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We adopted a sociodental approach to assess the real dental needs of Thai primary school children, and integrated an oral health-related quality of life measure (OHRQoL) into oral health service planning. We then compared the results of this sociodental assessment with standard estimates of a child's oral health needs. METHODS: We developed a new model of sociodental needs assessment and used it to assess the level of impact that various oral health conditions have on the everyday lives of school children. We then carried out a cross-sectional study of all grade-6 children (11-12 years old) in Suphan-buri Province, Thailand. We examined the sample (n = 1034) to assess the children's oral health and then we interviewed each child individually to assess what impact any dental conditions he or she may have on their quality of life. This assessment was done using an OHRQoL indicator, the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances index (child-OIDP). We integrated the results obtained using this indicator with those estimates obtained using more traditional, standard clinical methods, in order to generate a clearer picture of exactly which non-progressive dental conditions really needed treatment. These results take into account the impact those conditions have on the overall well-being of children and their ability to function normally and unimpeded. We were then able to prioritize their dental needs according to the severity of disruption caused in their daily lives. FINDINGS: Using standard or "normative" estimates of dental health care needs, the children's need was 98.8%. This level of need decreased signifi cantly to 39.5% when adopting the sociodental approach (P <0.001). Overall, per 100 children with a standard or normative need for dental treatment, only 40 had a sociodental need for treatment when taking into account the impact their condition has on their everyday lives. Children thus identifi ed as requiring treatment were further categorized

  15. Preferences for Expansion of Public Services in Five West Central Wisconsin Counties. Report No. 8 of a Series on Quality of Life and Development in Northwestern Wisconsin, February 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Virginia

    As part of a study of the quality of life in northwestern Wisconsin, 1974 sample populations (N=150 residents per county) from each of 4 west central counties (Dunn, Clark, Eau Claire, and Polk) were presented with a list of public service programs and asked if they should be "expanded", "kept the same", or "cut back". Percentages on comparable…

  16. Integrating Science Content and Pedagogy in the Earth, Life, and Physical Sciences: A K-8 Pre-Service Teacher Preparation Continuum at the University of Delaware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, J.; Allen, D.; Donham, R.; Fifield, S.; Ford, D.; Shipman, H.; Dagher, Z.

    2007-12-01

    University of Delaware faculty in the geological sciences, biological sciences, and the physics and astronomy departments have partnered with faculty and researchers from the school of education to form a continuum for K- 8 pre-service teacher preparation in science. The goal of the continuum is to develop integrated understandings of content and pedagogy so that these future teachers can effectively use inquiry-based approaches in teaching science in their classrooms. Throughout the continuum where earth science content appears an earth system science approach, with emphasis on inquiry-based activities, is employed. The continuum for K-8 pre-service teachers includes a gateway content course in the earth, life, or physical sciences taken during the freshman year followed by integrated science content and methods courses taken during the sophomore year. These integrated courses, called the Science Semester, were designed and implemented with funding from the National Science Foundation. During the Science Semester, traditional content and pedagogy subject matter boundaries are crossed to stress shared themes that teachers must understand to teach standards-based science. Students work collaboratively on multidisciplinary problem-based learning (PBL) activities that place science concepts in authentic contexts and build learning skills. They also critically explore the theory and practice of elementary science teaching, drawing on their shared experiences of inquiry learning during the Science Semester. The PBL activities that are the hallmark of the Science Semester provide the backdrop through which fundamental earth system interactions can be studied. For example in a PBL investigation that focuses on kids, cancer, and the environment, the hydrologic cycle with emphasis on surface runoff and ground water contamination is studied. Those students seeking secondary certification in science will enroll, as a bridge toward their student teaching experience, in an

  17. The Effect of Carbon Layer Variations in Carbon/Porous Silicon Composite Rugate Filters for End-of-Service-Life Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gofus, John Stephen, III

    Carbon/porous silicon composite rugate filters, for use as end-of service-life indicators in gas mask filters, are more capable of increased sensitivity to volatile organic chemical vapors than porous silicon sensors alone. Compositional variations of the carbon layer within these composite materials have not been well studied. At low carbon content, the carbonized surface will not effectively mimic the active carbon used in gas mask filters. At high carbon content, there is increased noise and a broader, less intense rugate stop band, reducing the signal to noise level of the sensor response. The focus of this thesis is the optimization of the carbon layer in the carbon/porous silicon composite rugate filters. To accomplish this, porous silicon rugate filters were etched and then carbonized using varying concentrations of the poly(furfuryl alcohol) precursor. Variations in the carbon layer were then analyzed via spectral analysis, elemental analysis, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. At concentrations greater than 50% furfuryl alcohol there is minimal difference observed in the carbon layer on the porous silicon surface. Samples were also shown to have a minimal increase in sensitivity at concentrations greater than 50% furfuryl alcohol, and an increased signal-to-noise with increased furfuryl alcohol concentration. It is shown that the optimal carbon layer for volatile organic vapor sensing is achieved by using a furfuryl alcohol concentration of 50% furfuryl alcohol (in ethanol) during carbon layer synthesis.

  18. Climate change in the next 30 years: What can a convection-permitting model tell us that we did not already know?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosser, G.; Khodayar, S.; Berg, P.

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the climate change in the next 30 years over a complex terrain in southwestern Germany, simulations performed with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM at convection-permitting resolution are compared to simulations at 7 km resolution with parameterised convection. An earlier study has shown the main benefits of convection-permitting resolution in the hourly statistics and the diurnal cycle of precipitation intensities. Here, we investigate whether the improved simulation of precipitation in the convection-permitting model is affecting future climate projections in summer. Overall, the future scenario (ECHAM5 with A1B forcing) brings weak changes in mean precipitation, but stronger hourly intensities in the morning and less frequent but more intense daily precipitation. The two model simulations produce similar changes in climate, despite differences in their physical characteristics linked to the formation of convective precipitation. A significant increase in the morning precipitation probably due to large-scale forced convection is found when considering only the most extreme events (above 50 mm/day). In this case, even the diurnal cycles of precipitation and convection-related indices are similar between resolutions, leading to the conclusion that the 7 km model sufficiently resolves the most extreme convective events. In this region and time periods, the 7 km resolution is deemed sufficient for most assessments of near future precipitation change. However, conclusions could be dependent on the characteristics of the region of investigation.

  19. Dietary exposure to metals and other elements in the 2006 UK Total Diet Study and some trends over the last 30 years.

    PubMed

    Rose, M; Baxter, M; Brereton, N; Baskaran, C

    2010-10-01

    Concentrations of 24 elements including metals in the 2006 UK Total Diet Study (TDS) were measured and dietary exposures estimated. Composite samples for the 20 TDS food groups (bread, fish, fruit, etc.) were collected from 24 UK towns and analysed for their levels of aluminium, antimony, arsenic, barium, bismuth, cadmium, chromium, copper, germanium, indium, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, palladium, platinum, rhodium, ruthenium, selenium, strontium, thallium, tin, and zinc. Concentrations of each of the elements in the food groups were lower than or similar to those reported in the previous TDS survey, conducted in 2000, with the exception of aluminium, barium, and manganese. Dietary exposures to the 24 elements were estimated for UK consumers and compared with previous estimates made over the last 30 years in order to examine any trends in exposure to these elements in the typical UK diet. Population exposures to the elements have generally declined over time, and exposures to most of these elements remain at low levels. The independent UK Government scientific Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment (COT) commented on the estimated dietary exposures, taking into account their previous evaluations (in 2003 and 2008), and identified no major concerns for the health of consumers, but did advise that there was a need for more information on aluminium and barium, and also commented that dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic and to lead should continue to be reduced. PMID:20628929

  20. Dengue virus 4 (DENV-4) re-emerges after 30 years in Brazil: cocirculation of DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4 in Bahia.

    PubMed

    Campos, Gubio Soares; Pinho, Aryane Cruz Oliveira; Brandão, Claudio Jose de Freitas; Bandeira, Antonio Carlos; Sardi, Silvia Ines

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a mosquito-borne viral disease of great concern in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. One important cause of the increase in DF is rapid development and urbanization has led to proliferation of the Aedes aegypti mosquito, the vector responsible for transmission of the illness. Surveillance of dengue virus (DENV) infection in Brazil shows the predominance of DENV-1, DENV-2, and DENV-3 until 2010. This study reports the reappearance of DENV-4 in Brazil for the first time in 30 years. Serum samples were collected from individuals (n = 214) exhibiting fever and muscular pain in Bahia, Brazil, during 2011-2012. These samples were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)/nested PCR, which revealed that 82% of samples were positive for DENV-4; most were older age groups and exhibited a serological pattern consistent with a primary infection. The cocirculation of multiple DENV serotypes within the same city places the population at risk for a fatal form of the disease. Therefore, with the increasing incidence of severe DF cases, early diagnosis will be a priority for public health efforts in Brazil. PMID:25420650

  1. Finger Fractures as an Early Manifestation of Primary Hyperparathyroidism Among Young Patients: A Case Report of a 30-Year-Old Male With Recurrent Osteoporotic Fractures.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Akihiko; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Yamagishi, Eiki; Sato, Shunsuke; Tsukada, Manabu; Sawano, Toyoaki; Leppold, Claire; Tsuda, Kenji; Asakura, Takanori; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Kami, Masahiro; Ohira, Hiromichi

    2016-05-01

    Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures represent a substantial health burden, and predominantly affect the elderly. Younger generations may also develop these conditions because of various predisposing conditions, including primary hyperparathyroidism. However, little information is available regarding early skeletal manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism.A 30-year-old Japanese male presented with pain in his left wrist, and was diagnosed with a distal radius fracture. During surgery, we noticed decreased bone strength of the fracture site. Further investigation found osteoporosis and primary hyperparathyroidism owing to a solitary parathyroid adenoma, which was resected without significant complications. History revealed that the patient suffered a metacarpal bone fracture of his right fifth bone 6 months earlier. Although serial x-rays at that time had shown rapidly developed cortical bone erosion around the fractured finger, the possibility of primary hyperparathyroidism was overlooked because of poor awareness of the condition, leading to a 6-month delay in the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism.Clinicians should be aware that finger fractures may be an early skeletal manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism that can help achieve a prompt diagnosis of the condition, especially when they occur in young adults in the absence of major trauma. PMID:27196476

  2. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average Daily Minimum Temperature, 1971-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents thecatchment-average for the 30-year (1971-2000) average daily minimum temperature in Celsius multiplied by 100 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data were the United States Average Monthly or Annual Minimum Temperature, 1971 - 2000 raster data set produced by the PRISM Group at Oregon State University. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  3. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average Annual Precipitation, 1971-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the 30-year (1971-2000) average annual precipitation in millimeters multiplied by 100 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data were the United States Average Monthly or Annual Minimum Precipitation, 1971 - 2000 raster data set produced by the PRISM Group at Oregon State University. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; J.W. Brakebill, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2008). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  4. Incidence, management, and outcome of high-grade transformation of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: long-term outcomes from a 30-year experience.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Toby A; Gatter, Kevin; Collins, Graham P; Hall, Georgina W; Watson, Caroline; Hatton, Chris S R

    2015-06-01

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare form of Hodgkin lymphoma that typically presents as early stage, indolent disease in young adult males. The relationship between NLPHL and DLBCL is incompletely understood, and there remains a paucity of data with regard the incidence and management of high-grade transformation. We report the largest study to date describing the incidence, management and long-term outcome of 26 cases of high-grade transformation of NLPHL over a 30-year period. We report a transformation incidence of 17.0%. Bone marrow, splenic, and liver infiltration with DLBCL was frequent. Patients with an aa-IPI 2-3 have poorer OS and PFS (P = 0.034 and P = 0.009, respectively). Although the approach to treatment was somewhat variable, typically young, otherwise fit patients received anthracycline-based induction, platinum-based consolidation with stem cell harvesting, followed by autologous SCT with BEAM conditioning. Long-term (5 year) PFS was over 60% with this approach, and comparable to our de novo DLBCL historical age and time period-matched cohort largely treated with CHOP-like chemotherapy alone. The transformation rate of 17.0% highlights the importance of accurate initial diagnosis, long-term follow-up, and re-biopsy at relapse. PMID:25715900

  5. In Your 20s it’s Quantity, in Your 30s it’s Quality: The Prognostic Value of Social Activity Across 30 Years of Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, Cheryl L.; Reis, Harry T.; Duberstein, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Social connection, a leading factor in the promotion of health, well-being, and longevity, requires social knowledge and the capacity to cultivate intimacy. Lifespan development theorists have speculated that social information-seeking goals, emphasized at the beginning of early adulthood, give way to emotional closeness goals in later stages of early adulthood. Drawing on developmental theory (Baltes, 1997; Baltes & Carstensen, 2003), this 30-year prospective study assessed social activity at age-20 and age-30 with experience sampling methods, and psychosocial outcomes (social integration, friendship quality, loneliness, depression, and psychological well-being) at age-50. Results supported the hypothesis that the quantity (but not the quality) of social interactions at age-20, and the quality (but not the quantity) of social interactions at age-30 predict midlife psychosocial outcomes. Longitudinal structural models revealed that age-20 interaction quantity had a direct, unmediated effect on age-50 social and psychological outcomes. The effects of age-20 interaction quality on midlife outcomes, on the other hand, were mediated by age-30 interaction quality. Our findings are consistent with the idea that selection and optimization serve important functions in early adulthood, and that engaging in developmentally appropriate social activity contributes to psychosocial adjustment in the decades that follow. PMID:25774426

  6. Predicting use of case management support services for adolescents and adults living in community following brain injury: A longitudinal Canadian database study with implications for life care planning

    PubMed Central

    Baptiste, B.; Dawson, D.R.; Streiner, D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with case management (CM) service use in people with traumatic brain injury (TBI), using a published model for service use. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort, with nested case-control design. Correlational and logistic regression analyses of questionnaires from a longitudinal community data base. STUDY SAMPLE: Questionnaires of 203 users of CM services and 273 non-users, complete for all outcome and predictor variables. Individuals with TBI, 15 years of age and older. Out of a dataset of 1,960 questionnaires, 476 met the inclusion criteria. METHODOLOGY: Eight predictor variables and one outcome variable (use or non-use of the service). Predictor variables considered the framework of the Behaviour Model of Health Service Use (BMHSU); specifically, pre-disposing, need and enabling factor groups as these relate to health service use and access. RESULTS: Analyses revealed significant differences between users and non-users of CM services. In particular, users were significantly younger than non-users as the older the person the less likely to use the service. Also, users had less education and more severe activity limitations and lower community integration. Persons living alone are less likely to use case management. Funding groups also significantly impact users. CONCLUSIONS: This study advances an empirical understanding of equity of access to health services usage in the practice of CM for persons living with TBI as a fairly new area of research, and considers direct relevance to Life Care Planning (LCP). Many life care planers are CM and the genesis of LCP is CM. The findings relate to health service use and access, rather than health outcomes. These findings may assist with development of a modified model for prediction of use to advance future cost of care predictions. PMID:26409333

  7. Chemiluminescent prediction of service life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassell, J. A.; Mendenhall, G. D.; Nathan, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Technique can be used to predict polymer degradation under actual expected-use conditions, without imposing artificial conditions. Smooth or linear correlations are obtained between chemiluminescence and physical properties of purified polymer gums.

  8. A 30-year-old female Behçet’s disease patient with recurrent pleural and pericardial effusion and elevated adenosine deaminase levels: case report

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Jung, Jung Im; Lee, Kyo-Young; Kim, Tae-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Behçet’s disease is a systemic disease which may involve various organs. We describe a case of a patient diagnosed as pleuropericardial involvement of Behçet’s disease. A 30-year-old woman visited our clinic presented with left pleuritic chest pain for s days. She had been diagnosed as Behçet’s disease and admitted to our clinic due to pericardial and pleural effusion repeatedly in past two years. In the previous studies, effusion analysis revealed to be lympho-dominant exudate with high adenosine deaminase level. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for mycobacterial tuberculosis (M.TB) were negative in the pericardial tissue, and pathologic finding showed mild endothelitis with micro-thrombi formation in the lumen. The patient had been treated with antituberculous medication for a year. In the current admission, chest computed tomography (CT) again showed left pleural effusion without other significant lesion. Pleural fluid analysis was similar with the previous study. Video-assisted thoracoscopic pleural biopsy was performed to obtain the definite diagnosis. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis as pleuropericardial involvement of Behçet’s disease, and we treated the patient with oral steroid in the out-patient department. Pleuropericardial involvement of Behçet’s disease may mimic TB pleurisy or pericarditis due to high adenosine deaminase (ADA) level in effusion analysis. Clinicians should keep in mind that Behçet’s disease may manifest as pleural or pericardial effusion, and pathologic confirmation could be helpful for the definite diagnosis. PMID:27499994

  9. The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and 30-Year Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows on Wind Power in the Pacific Northwest

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Benjamin D.; Kohfeld, Karen E.; Bailey, Joseph; Cooper, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    In hydroelectric dominated systems, the value and benefits of energy are higher during extended dry periods and lower during extended or extreme wet periods. By accounting for regional and temporal differences in the relationship between wind speed and reservoir inflow behavior during wind farm site selection, the benefits of energy diversification can be maximized. The goal of this work was to help maximize the value of wind power by quantifying the long-term (30-year) relationships between wind speed and streamflow behavior, using British Columbia (BC) and the Pacific Northwest (PNW) as a case study. Clean energy and self-sufficiency policies in British BC make the benefits of increased generation during low streamflow periods particularly large. Wind density (WD) estimates from a height of 10m (North American Regional Reanalysis, NARR) were correlated with cumulative usable inflows (CUI) for BC (collected from BC Hydro) for 1979–2010. The strongest WD-CUI correlations were found along the US coast (r ~0.55), whereas generally weaker correlations were found in northern regions, with negative correlations (r ~ -0.25) along BC’s North Coast. Furthermore, during the lowest inflow years, WD anomalies increased by up to 40% above average values for the North Coast. Seasonally, high flows during the spring freshet were coincident with widespread negative WD anomalies, with a similar but opposite pattern for low inflow winter months. These poorly or negatively correlated sites could have a moderating influence on climate related variability in provincial electricity supply, by producing greater than average generation in low inflow years and reduced generation in wet years. Wind speed and WD trends were also analyzed for all NARR grid locations, which showed statistically significant positive trends for most of the PNW and the largest increases along the Pacific Coast. PMID:26271035

  10. The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and 30-Year Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows on Wind Power in the Pacific Northwest.

    PubMed

    Cross, Benjamin D; Kohfeld, Karen E; Bailey, Joseph; Cooper, Andrew B

    2015-01-01

    In hydroelectric dominated systems, the value and benefits of energy are higher during extended dry periods and lower during extended or extreme wet periods. By accounting for regional and temporal differences in the relationship between wind speed and reservoir inflow behavior during wind farm site selection, the benefits of energy diversification can be maximized. The goal of this work was to help maximize the value of wind power by quantifying the long-term (30-year) relationships between wind speed and streamflow behavior, using British Columbia (BC) and the Pacific Northwest (PNW) as a case study. Clean energy and self-sufficiency policies in British BC make the benefits of increased generation during low streamflow periods particularly large. Wind density (WD) estimates from a height of 10m (North American Regional Reanalysis, NARR) were correlated with cumulative usable inflows (CUI) for BC (collected from BC Hydro) for 1979-2010. The strongest WD-CUI correlations were found along the US coast (r ~0.55), whereas generally weaker correlations were found in northern regions, with negative correlations (r ~ -0.25) along BC's North Coast. Furthermore, during the lowest inflow years, WD anomalies increased by up to 40% above average values for the North Coast. Seasonally, high flows during the spring freshet were coincident with widespread negative WD anomalies, with a similar but opposite pattern for low inflow winter months. These poorly or negatively correlated sites could have a moderating influence on climate related variability in provincial electricity supply, by producing greater than average generation in low inflow years and reduced generation in wet years. Wind speed and WD trends were also analyzed for all NARR grid locations, which showed statistically significant positive trends for most of the PNW and the largest increases along the Pacific Coast. PMID:26271035

  11. Measurement and Classification of Long-Term Seasonal Trends: Procedures and Results using a 30-Year Monthly Series of Global NDVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastman, R.

    2014-12-01

    With the advent of long image time series as a part of the emerging earth observing system, it is now possible to examine the geographic distribution of trends in seasonal change. However, image time series of earth phenomena exhibit many forms of variability that detract from the signal of interest including cloud contamination, path radiance and short term inter- and intra-annual variability. To accommodate this, a special procedure called Seasonal Trend Analysis (STA) was developed that uses a combination of harmonic analysis and robust statistical trend measurement to reduce the effects of noise and short-term variability. A Contextual Mann-Kendall test is then used to test the trends associated with each of five harmonic shape parameters developed by STA. A three-class categorization of significance then leads to 243 possible classes of seasonal trend. In a study of a 30-year series of global monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index imagery (GIMMS NDVI3g, 1982-2011), it was found that over half (56.30%) of vegetated land surfaces exhibited significant trends in seasonality. Further, almost half (46.10%) of these significant trends belonged to just three classes of seasonal trends. Class 1 consisted of areas that experienced a uniform increase in NDVI throughout the year, and was primarily associated with forest biomes. Class 2 was predominantly associated with grassland and shrubland biomes and exhibited increases in the amplitude of the annual seasonal signal without a net annual change. Class 3 exhibited increases in the annual summer peak in NDVI and was found primarily in the Taiga and Tundra biomes. While no single attribution could be established for each of these classes, they point to a widespread greening of vegetated surfaces associated with climate-related ameliorations of growing conditions.

  12. Interannual control of plankton communities by deep winter mixing and prey/predator interactions in the NW Mediterranean: Results from a 30-year 3D modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, P. A.; Ulses, C.; Estournel, C.; Stemmann, L.; Somot, S.; Diaz, F.

    2014-05-01

    A realistic modeling approach is designed to address the role of winter mixing on the interannual variability of plankton dynamics in the north-western (NW) Mediterranean basin. For the first time, a high-resolution coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model (Eco3m-S) covering a 30-year period (1976-2005) is validated on available in situ and satellite data for the NW Mediterranean. In this region, cold, dry winds in winter often lead to deep convection and strong upwelling of nutrients into the euphotic layer. High nutrient contents at the end of winter then support the development of a strong spring bloom of phytoplankton. Model results indicate that annual primary production is not affected by winter mixing due to seasonal balance (minimum in winter and maximum in spring). However, the total annual water column-integrated phytoplankton biomass appears to be favored by winter mixing because zooplankton grazing activity is low in winter and early spring. This reduced grazing is explained here by the rarefaction of prey due to both light limitation and the effect of mixing-induced dilution on prey/predator interactions. A negative impact of winter mixing on winter zooplankton biomass is generally simulated except for mesozooplankton. This difference is assumed to stem from the lower parameterized mortality, top trophic position and detritivorous diet of mesozooplankton in the model. Moreover, model suggests that the variability of annual mesozooplankton biomass is principally modulated by the effects of winter mixing on winter biomass. Thus, interannual variability of winter nutrient contents in the euphotic layer, resulting from winter mixing, would control spring primary production and thus annual mesozooplankton biomass. Our results show a bottom-up control of mesozooplankton communities, as observed at a coastal location of the Ligurian Sea.

  13. What is driving changes in long-range transport of dust from Africa to the Americas? A 30 year synthesis of the GEOS-Chem model and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, D. A.; Heald, C. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Sahara and Sahelian regions produce approximately half of the world's dust emissions, resulting in significant radiative effects, air quality issues and mineral deposition, not only in Africa, but across the Atlantic and in the Americas. Determining how these impacts may change in the future requires a thorough understanding of the processes controlling emission, transport and deposition of dust. Long-term records of dust concentration measured in the Caribbean have, until the nineties, correlated with Sahelian precipitation and climatic indicators, potentially providing ways to predict changes in dust. However, this relationship is no longer clear and there are significant changes in the seasonality of dust transported to the Americas currently with no obvious explanation. We use the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model with NASA GMAO meteorological re-analyses (MERRA) to simulate the 30 year period 1979 - 2008. A synthesis of observations from multiple satellite and surface-based platforms is used to evaluate the model, primarily in terms of its ability to simulate the long-range transport of mineral dust from Africa. We then investigate what drives the changes in long-range transport of African dust to the Americas over diurnal to decadal timescales. This enables understanding of the relative importance of the individual processes controlling these changes, and the sensitivity of air quality and dust deposition downwind. This work aims to determine 1) how sensitive air quality and dust deposition in the Americas is to changes in African dust emissions, 2) the role of meteorological variables affecting the inter-annual variability of dust emission and deposition, and 3) the impact that land use changes and desertification in the Sahel may have in terms of the influence on dust transported to the Americas.

  14. Genetic testing of leiomyoma tissue in women younger than 30 years old might provide an effective screening approach for the hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer syndrome (HLRCC).

    PubMed

    Martínek, Petr; Grossmann, Petr; Hes, Ondřej; Bouda, Jiří; Eret, Viktor; Frizzell, Norma; Gill, Anthony J; Ondič, Ondrej

    2015-08-01

    We have studied the viability of targeted molecular screening for the identification of female patients with hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) syndrome. Affected patients harbor a germ-line heterozygous mutation of the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. Clinically, some patients present with aggressive renal cell carcinoma. Concerning women, in almost all cases, this is preceded by symptomatic uterine leiomyoma. We aimed to identify women operated on for symptomatic leiomyoma by the age of 30. Archived paraffin-embedded leiomyoma tissue was tested for the FH gene mutation in 14 cases. Two patients with multiple leiomyomas and with the confirmed germ-line mutations c.1433_1434dupAAA, p.(Lys477dup) and c.953A>T, p.(His318Leu) were identified and enrolled in a surveillance program. Statistically significant correlation between the presence of multiple uterine leiomyomas (more than seven in our experience) and the FH gene mutation was found. The immunohistochemical expression pattern, of simultaneous FH absence and S-(2-succino)cysteine (2SC) positivity, correlated with the results of the molecular genetic study in only one case. The histomorphologically simultaneous detection of enlarged nucleoli with a clear halo of leiomyocyte nuclei, their fibrillary cytoplasm, the presence of eosinophilic globules, and staghorn vessels proved to be only a partially sensitive indicator of HLRCC-associated leiomyoma and fully correlated with immunohistochemistry and molecular genetic study only in one case. Molecular genetic testing is presently the only reliable diagnostic tool able to identify HLRCC patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the presence of multiple leiomyomas in women with the FH gene mutation who are younger than 30 years old should be confirmed in larger scale studies. The applied targeted molecular screening protocol proved to be effective, resulting in identification of two positive patients out of fourteen tested individuals. PMID:25985877

  15. Global and diffuse solar irradiance modelling over north-western Europe using MAR regional climate model : validation and construction of a 30-year climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumet, Julien; Doutreloup, Sébastien; Fettweis, Xavier; Erpicum, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Solar irradiance modelling is crucial for solar resource management, photovoltaic production forecasting and for a better integration of solar energy in the electrical grid network. For those reasons, an adapted version of the Modèle Atmospheric Regional (MAR) is being developed at the Laboratory of Climatology of the University of Liège in order to provide high quality modelling of solar radiation, wind and temperature over north-western Europe. In this new model version, the radiation scheme has been calibrated using solar irradiance in-situ measurements and CORINE Land Cover data have been assimilated in order to improve the modelling of 10 m wind speed and near-surface temperature. In this study, MAR is forced at its boundary by ERA-40 reanalysis and its horizontal resolution is 10 kilometres. Diffuse radiation is estimated using global radiation from MAR outputs and a calibrated version of Ruiz-Arias et al., (2010) sigmoid model. This study proposes to evaluate the method performance for global and diffuse radiation modelling at both the hourly and daily time scale using data from the European Solar Radiation Atlas database for the weather stations of Uccle (Belgium) and Braunschweig (Germany). After that, a 30-year climatology of global and diffuse irradiance for the 1981-2010 period over western Europe is built. The created data set is then analysed in order to highlight possible regional or seasonal trends. The validity of the results is then evaluated after comparison with trends found in in-situ data or from different studies from the literature.

  16. Tillage and crop residue management methods had minor effects on the stock and stabilization of topsoil carbon in a 30-year field experiment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pooja; Heikkinen, Jaakko; Ketoja, Elise; Nuutinen, Visa; Palojärvi, Ansa; Sheehy, Jatta; Esala, Martti; Mitra, Sudip; Alakukku, Laura; Regina, Kristiina

    2015-06-15

    We studied the effects of tillage and straw management on soil aggregation and soil carbon sequestration in a 30-year split-plot experiment on clay soil in southern Finland. The experimental plots were under conventional or reduced tillage with straw retained, removed or burnt. Wet sieving was done to study organic carbon and soil composition divided in four fractions: 1) large macroaggregates, 2) small macroaggregates, 3) microaggregates and 4) silt and clay. To further estimate the stability of carbon in the soil, coarse particulate organic matter, microaggregates and silt and clay were isolated from the macroaggregates. Total carbon stock in the topsoil (equivalent to 200 kg m(-2)) was slightly lower under reduced tillage (5.0 kg m(-2)) than under conventional tillage (5.2 kg m(-2)). Reduced tillage changed the soil composition by increasing the percentage of macroaggregates and decreasing the percentage of microaggregates. There was no evidence of differences in the composition of the macroaggregates or carbon content in the macroaggregate-occluded fractions. However, due to the higher total amount of macroaggregates in the soil, more carbon was bound to the macroaggregate-occluded microaggregates in reduced tillage. Compared with plowed soil, the density of deep burrowing earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) was considerably higher under reduced tillage and positively associated with the percentage of large macroaggregates. The total amount of microbial biomass carbon did not differ between the treatments. Straw management did not have discernible effects either on soil aggregation or soil carbon stock. We conclude that although reduced tillage can improve clay soil structure, generally the chances to increase topsoil carbon sequestration by reduced tillage or straw management practices appear limited in cereal monoculture systems of the boreal region. This may be related to the already high C content of soils, the precipitation level favoring decomposition and

  17. Are female monarch butterflies declining in eastern North America? Evidence of a 30-year change in sex ratios at Mexican overwintering sites.

    PubMed

    Davis, Andrew K; Rendón-Salinas, Eduardo

    2010-02-23

    Every autumn the entire eastern North American population of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergoes a spectacular migration to overwintering sites in the mountains of central Mexico, where they form massive clusters and can number in the millions. Since their discovery, these sites have been extensively studied, and in many of these studies, monarchs were captured and sexes recorded. In a recent effort to compile the sex ratio data from these published records, a surprising trend was found, which appears to show a gradual decline in proportion of females over time. Sex ratio data from 14 collections of monarchs, all spanning 30 years and totaling 69 113 individuals, showed a significant negative correlation between proportion of females and year (r = -0.69, p = 0.007). Between 1976 and 1985, 53 per cent of overwintering monarchs were female, whereas in the last decade, 43 per cent were female. The relationship was significant with and without weighting the analyses by sampling effort. Moreover, analysis of a recent three-year dataset of sex ratios revealed no variation among nine separate colonies, so differences in sampling location did not influence the trend. Additional evidence from autumn migration collections appears to confirm that proportions of females are declining, and also suggests the sex ratio is shifting on breeding grounds. While breeding monarchs face a number of threats, one possibility is an increase in prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, which recent evidence shows affects females more so than males. Further study will be needed to determine the exact cause of this trend, but for now it should be monitored closely. PMID:19776062

  18. Reconstructing the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident 30 years after. A unique database of air concentration and deposition measurements over Europe.

    PubMed

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Hamburger, Thomas; Talerko, Nikolai; Zibtsev, Sergey; Bondar, Yuri; Stohl, Andreas; Balkanski, Yves; Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2016-09-01

    30 years after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident, its radioactive releases still remain of great interest mainly due to the long half-lives of many radionuclides emitted. Observations from the terrestrial environment, which hosts radionuclides for many years after initial deposition, are important for health and environmental assessments. Furthermore, such measurements are the basis for validation of atmospheric transport models and can be used for constraining the still not accurately known source terms. However, although the "Atlas of cesium deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl accident" (hereafter referred to as "Atlas") has been published since 1998, less than 1% of the direct observations of (137)Cs deposition has been made publicly available. The remaining ones are neither accessible nor traceable to specific data providers and a large fraction of these data might have been lost entirely. The present paper is an effort to rescue some of the data collected over the years following the CNPP accident and make them publicly available. The database includes surface air activity concentrations and deposition observations for (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs measured and provided by Former Soviet Union authorities the years that followed the accident. Using the same interpolation tool as the official authorities, we have reconstructed a deposition map of (137)Cs based on about 3% of the data used to create the Atlas map. The reconstructed deposition map is very similar to the official one, but it has the advantage that it is based exclusively on documented data sources, which are all made available within this publication. In contrast to the official map, our deposition map is therefore reproducible and all underlying data can be used also for other purposes. The efficacy of the database was proved using simulated activity concentrations and deposition of (137)Cs from a Langrangian and a Euleurian transport model. PMID:27376994

  19. Serious Illness, Injury, and Death in Child Protection and Preparation for End-of-Life Situations among Child Welfare Services Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csikai, Ellen L.; Herrin, Charlotte; Tang, Maggie; Church, Wesley T., II

    2008-01-01

    A mailed survey of child welfare workers in one southern state assessed various aspects of encounters with end-of-life situations in practice. Findings revealed that child deaths, children with life-threatening or life-limiting illnesses, and parental deaths were most commonly encountered and that coworkers were relied on for support. Many had no…

  20. Influence of float and charge voltage adjustment on the service life of AGM VRLA batteries depending on the conditions of use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muneret, X.; Gobé, V.; Lemoine, C.

    Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries with absorptive glass mat (AGM) separators have been in use for over 20 years in different standby applications. These applications are increasingly varied, especially regarding environmental conditions. Standby batteries are not only for use in applications where conditions are strictly defined and controlled (air conditioning) and it is therefore necessary to review and clarify the key parameters for the use of VRLA batteries with respect to the optimum conditions. Several series of chemical and electrochemical reactions occur in VRLA batteries particularly when in a charge or float charge condition. These reactions give specific properties such as minimal water loss (low maintenance) but also create specific precautions for use. VRLA battery functioning is limited by four main phenomena that are positive grid corrosion, irreversible active mass sulfation, active mass degradation by cycling and dry-out by loss of water. Positive grid corrosion is the usual failure mode in float operation or due to persistent overcharge. Irreversible active mass sulfation occurs due to lack of charge. In cycling, dependent upon the frequency and depth of discharge, the active mass undergoes numerous structural changes that cause degradation. These four limiting phenomena define a framework inside which several parameters determine the service life of VRLA batteries. These parameters are commissioning, temperature, and frequency and depth of discharge. Commissioning is necessary to equalise and fully charge the cells before use. Temperature, and temperature dispersion, is the main factor determining the rate of corrosion. The frequency and depth of discharge determine how the active mass is utilised. This paper, by considering these parameters both qualitatively and quantitatively, attempts to indicate how and why to adjust the charge and float voltages to optimise the use of AGM VRLA batteries according to the environmental conditions.