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Sample records for 30-year time interval

  1. Association between Birth Interval and Cardiovascular Outcomes at 30 Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Devakumar, D.; Hallal, P. C.; Horta, B. L.; Barros, F. C.; Wells, J. C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth interval is an important and potentially modifiable factor that is associated with child health. Whether an association exists with longer-term outcomes in adults is less well known. Methods Using the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, the association of birth interval with markers of cardiovascular health at 30 years of age was examined. Multivariable linear regression was used with birth interval as a continuous variable and categorical variable, and effect modification by gender was explored. Results Birth interval and cardiovascular data were present for 2,239 individuals. With birth interval as a continuous variable, no association was found but stratification by gender tended to show stronger associations for girls. When compared to birth intervals of <18 months, as binary variable, longer intervals were associated with increases in height (1.6 cm; 95% CI: 0.5, 2.8) and lean mass (1.7 kg; 95% CI: 0.2, 3.2). No difference was seen with other cardiovascular outcomes. Conclusions An association was generally not found between birth interval and cardiovascular outcomes at 30 years of age, though some evidence existed for differences between males and females and for an association with height and lean mass for birth intervals of 18 months and longer. PMID:26890250

  2. VARIABLE TIME-INTERVAL GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gross, J.E.

    1959-10-31

    This patent relates to a pulse generator and more particularly to a time interval generator wherein the time interval between pulses is precisely determined. The variable time generator comprises two oscillators with one having a variable frequency output and the other a fixed frequency output. A frequency divider is connected to the variable oscillator for dividing its frequency by a selected factor and a counter is used for counting the periods of the fixed oscillator occurring during a cycle of the divided frequency of the variable oscillator. This defines the period of the variable oscillator in terms of that of the fixed oscillator. A circuit is provided for selecting as a time interval a predetermined number of periods of the variable oscillator. The output of the generator consists of a first pulse produced by a trigger circuit at the start of the time interval and a second pulse marking the end of the time interval produced by the same trigger circuit.

  3. TIME-INTERVAL MEASURING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Gross, J.E.

    1958-04-15

    An electronic device for measuring the time interval between two control pulses is presented. The device incorporates part of a previous approach for time measurement, in that pulses from a constant-frequency oscillator are counted during the interval between the control pulses. To reduce the possible error in counting caused by the operation of the counter gating circuit at various points in the pulse cycle, the described device provides means for successively delaying the pulses for a fraction of the pulse period so that a final delay of one period is obtained and means for counting the pulses before and after each stage of delay during the time interval whereby a plurality of totals is obtained which may be averaged and multplied by the pulse period to obtain an accurate time- Interval measurement.

  4. High resolution time interval meter

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  5. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

  6. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, K.J.

    1994-07-26

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

  7. Reversing land degradation in the densely populated and semi-arid highlands of Tigray (Northern Ethiopia) - evidence from photomonitoring with 30 years interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyssen, J.; Munro, R. N.; Poesen, J.; Deckers, J.; Haile, M.; Grove, A. D.

    2007-12-01

    Studies on the impact of environmental rehabilitation in semi-arid areas are often limited in scale, and do typically not include detailed bio-physical components (Rohde and Hilhorst, 2001). As a first in its kind, the present study makes a multi-scale assessment over a time span of 30 years of environmental rehabilitation in one of the world's most degraded areas: the Tigray highlands in Northern Ethiopia, where population has more than doubled over that period. Using methods related to geomorphology, hydrology, soil science and multi-temporal photomonitoring (Nyssen et al., 2007), we show that in Tigray, soil erosion rates have decreased, infiltration and spring discharge are enhanced, vegetation cover has increased and crop production improved compared to the prevailing situation a few decades ago. These impacts are quantified and substantiated by a comparison of current landscapes to the past situation by means of a comprehensive database of 30-year old photographs of representative landscapes covering the major agro-ecological zones of the region. This resilience will be discussed in the light of the socio-economic context in which it has taken place. Finally, the positive changes in ecosystem service supply that result from changing land cover and management are an issue of global concern. Our research demonstrates that the way is open to develop down-to-the-ground environmental indicators to gauge 'Millennium Ecosystem Assessment' type approaches (Carpenter et al., 2006). Carpenter, S.R., DeFries, R., Dietz, T., Mooney, H.A., Polasky, S., Reid, W.V., Scholes, R.J., 2006. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: research needs. Science 314: 257-258. Nyssen, J., Poesen, J., Descheemaeker, K., Nigussie Haregeweyn, Mitiku Haile, Moeyersons, J., Govers, G., Munro, R.N., Deckers, J., 2007. Reversing land degradation in marginal semi-arid areas: the case of Northern Ethiopia. Ecosystems, submitted. Rohde, R., Hilhorst, T., 2001. A profile of environmental change in the

  8. Motives for and barriers to physical activity in twin pairs discordant for leisure time physical activity for 30 years.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, S; Leskinen, T; Morris, T; Alen, M; Kaprio, J; Liukkonen, J; Kujala, U

    2012-02-01

    Long-term persistent physical activity is important in the prevention of chronic diseases, but a large number of people do not participate in physical activity to obtain health benefits. The purpose of this study was to examine the motives and perceived barriers to long-term engagement in leisure time physical activity. Same-sex twin pairs (N=16, mean age 60) discordant for physical activity over 30 years were identified from the Finnish Twin Cohort. We evaluated participants' physical activity motivation with the 73-item Recreational Exercise Motivation Measure and assessed barriers to physical activity with a 25-item questionnaire. The characteristics of physical activity motivation and perceived barriers between the active and inactive co-twins were analysed using paired tests. Motives related to the sub-dimensions of enjoyment and physical fitness and psychological state were the most important reasons for participation in physical activity among all the twin individuals analysed. The sub-dimensions mastery (p=0.018, Cohen's d=0.76), physical fitness (p=0.029, Cohen's d=0.69), and psychological state (p=0.039, Cohen's d=0.65) differed significantly between active and inactive co-twins. More than half of the participants reported no reasons for not being physically active. If reasons existed, participation in physical activity was deterred mostly by pain and various health problems. This study found no differences in perceived barriers between active and inactive co-twins. We conclude from our results that the main factors promoting persistent leisure time physical activity were participants' wish to improve or maintain their physical skills or techniques, a feeling that exercise would improve their mental and physical health and that they found the activity enjoyable. This study helps us understand the importance of the role of motives and the minor role of perceived barriers for engagement in persistent physical activity. PMID:22318531

  9. The impact of economic austerity and prosperity events on suicide in Greece: a 30-year interrupted time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C; Kastanaki, Anastasia E; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Tzougas, John; Kranioti, Elena F; Theodorakis, Pavlos N; Carr, Brendan G; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To complete a 30-year interrupted time-series analysis of the impact of austerity-related and prosperity-related events on the occurrence of suicide across Greece. Setting Greece from 1 January 1983 to 31 December 2012. Participants A total of 11 505 suicides, 9079 by men and 2426 by women, occurring in Greece over the study period. Primary and secondary outcomes National data from the Hellenic Statistical Authority assembled as 360 monthly counts of: all suicides, male suicides, female suicides and all suicides plus potentially misclassified suicides. Results In 30 years, the highest months of suicide in Greece occurred in 2012. The passage of new austerity measures in June 2011 marked the beginning of significant, abrupt and sustained increases in total suicides (+35.7%, p<0.001) and male suicides (+18.5%, p<0.01). Sensitivity analyses that figured in undercounting of suicides also found a significant, abrupt and sustained increase in June 2011 (+20.5%, p<0.001). Suicides by men in Greece also underwent a significant, abrupt and sustained increase in October 2008 when the Greek recession began (+13.1%, p<0.01), and an abrupt but temporary increase in April 2012 following a public suicide committed in response to austerity conditions (+29.7%, p<0.05). Suicides by women in Greece also underwent an abrupt and sustained increase in May 2011 following austerity-related events (+35.8%, p<0.05). One prosperity-related event, the January 2002 launch of the Euro in Greece, marked an abrupt but temporary decrease in male suicides (−27.1%, p<0.05). Conclusions This is the first multidecade, national analysis of suicide in Greece using monthly data. Select austerity-related events in Greece corresponded to statistically significant increases for suicides overall, as well as for suicides among men and women. The consideration of future austerity measures should give greater weight to the unintended mental health consequences that may follow and the public

  10. Estimating the magnitude of annual peak discharges with recurrence intervals between 1.1 and 3.0 years for rural, unregulated streams in West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Atkins, John T.; Newell, Dawn A.

    2002-01-01

    Multiple and simple least-squares regression models for the log10-transformed 1.5- and 2-year recurrence intervals of peak discharges with independent variables describing the basin characteristics (log10-transformed and untransformed) for 236 streamflow-gaging stations were evaluated, and the regression residuals were plotted as areal distributions that defined three regions in West Virginia designated as East, North, and South. Regional equations for the 1.1-, 1.2-, 1.3-, 1.4-, 1.5-, 1.6-, 1.7-, 1.8-, 1.9-, 2.0-, 2.5-, and 3-year recurrence intervals of peak discharges were determined by generalized least-squares regression. Log10-transformed drainage area was the most significant independent variable for all regions. Equations developed in this study are applicable only to rural, unregulated streams within the boundaries of West Virginia. The accuracies of estimating equations are quantified by measuring the average prediction error (from 27.4 to 52.4 percent) and equivalent years of record (from 1.1 to 3.4 years).

  11. Intact Interval Timing in Circadian CLOCK Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Cordes, Sara; Gallistel, C. R.

    2008-01-01

    While progress has been made in determining the molecular basis for the circadian clock, the mechanism by which mammalian brains time intervals measured in seconds to minutes remains a mystery. An obvious question is whether the interval timing mechanism shares molecular machinery with the circadian timing mechanism. In the current study, we trained circadian CLOCK +/− and −/− mutant male mice in a peak-interval procedure with 10 and 20-s criteria. The mutant mice were more active than their wild-type littermates, but there were no reliable deficits in the accuracy or precision of their timing as compared with wild-type littermates. This suggests that expression of the CLOCK protein is not necessary for normal interval timing. PMID:18602902

  12. Ciguatera Incidence in the US Virgin Islands Has Not Increased over a 30-Year Time Period Despite Rising Seawater Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Radke, Elizabeth G.; Grattan, Lynn M.; Cook, Robert L.; Smith, Tyler B.; Anderson, Donald M.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most common marine food poisoning worldwide. It has been hypothesized that increasing seawater temperature will result in increasing ciguatera incidence. In St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, we performed an island-wide telephone survey (N = 807) and a medical record review of diagnosed ciguatera cases at the emergency department of the sole hospital and compared these data with comparable data sources collected in 1980. Annual incidence from both recent data sources remained high (12 per 1,000 among adults in the telephone survey). However, the combined data sources suggest that incidence has declined by 20% or more or remained stable over 30 years, whereas seawater temperatures were increasing. Illness was associated with lower education levels, higher levels of fish consumption, and having previous episodes of ciguatera; population shifts from 1980 to 2010 in these factors could explain an incidence decline of approximately 3 per 1,000, obscuring effects from rising seawater temperature. PMID:23400575

  13. Systolic Time Intervals and New Measurement Methods.

    PubMed

    Tavakolian, Kouhyar

    2016-06-01

    Systolic time intervals have been used to detect and quantify the directional changes of left ventricular function. New methods of recording these cardiac timings, which are less cumbersome, have been recently developed and this has created a renewed interest and novel applications for these cardiac timings. This manuscript reviews these new methods and addresses the potential for the application of these cardiac timings for the diagnosis and prognosis of different cardiac diseases. PMID:27048269

  14. Sunspot Time Series: Passive and Active Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zięba, S.; Nieckarz, Z.

    2014-07-01

    Solar activity slowly and irregularly decreases from the first spotless day (FSD) in the declining phase of the old sunspot cycle and systematically, but also in an irregular way, increases to the new cycle maximum after the last spotless day (LSD). The time interval between the first and the last spotless day can be called the passive interval (PI), while the time interval from the last spotless day to the first one after the new cycle maximum is the related active interval (AI). Minima of solar cycles are inside PIs, while maxima are inside AIs. In this article, we study the properties of passive and active intervals to determine the relation between them. We have found that some properties of PIs, and related AIs, differ significantly between two group of solar cycles; this has allowed us to classify Cycles 8 - 15 as passive cycles, and Cycles 17 - 23 as active ones. We conclude that the solar activity in the PI declining phase (a descending phase of the previous cycle) determines the strength of the approaching maximum in the case of active cycles, while the activity of the PI rising phase (a phase of the ongoing cycle early growth) determines the strength of passive cycles. This can have implications for solar dynamo models. Our approach indicates the important role of solar activity during the declining and the rising phases of the solar-cycle minimum.

  15. Precise time and time interval data handling and reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    In the past year, the increase in Precise Time And Time Interval data to be reduced to the U.S. Naval Observatory Master Clock and the requirement for its quick dissemination has necessitated development of more efficient methods of data handling and reduction. An outline of the data involved and of the Time Service computerization of these functions is presented.

  16. Working memory for time intervals in auditory rhythmic sequences

    PubMed Central

    Teki, Sundeep; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    The brain can hold information about multiple objects in working memory. It is not known, however, whether intervals of time can be stored in memory as distinct items. Here, we developed a novel paradigm to examine temporal memory where listeners were required to reproduce the duration of a single probed interval from a sequence of intervals. We demonstrate that memory performance significantly varies as a function of temporal structure (better memory in regular vs. irregular sequences), interval size (better memory for sub- vs. supra-second intervals), and memory load (poor memory for higher load). In contrast memory performance is invariant to attentional cueing. Our data represent the first systematic investigation of temporal memory in sequences that goes beyond previous work based on single intervals. The results support the emerging hypothesis that time intervals are allocated a working memory resource that varies with the amount of other temporal information in a sequence. PMID:25477849

  17. Introduction to the neurobiology of interval timing.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Hugo; de Lafuente, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Time is a fundamental variable that organisms must quantify in order to survive. In humans, for example, the gradual development of the sense of duration and rhythm is an essential skill in many facets of social behavior such as speaking, dancing to-, listening to- or playing music, performing a wide variety of sports, and driving a car (Merchant H, Harrington DL, Meck WH. Annu Rev Neurosci. 36:313-36, 2013). During the last 10 years there has been a rapid growth of research on the neural underpinnings of timing in the subsecond and suprasecond scales, using a variety of methodological approaches in the human being, as well as in varied animal and theoretical models. In this introductory chapter we attempt to give a conceptual framework that defines time processing as a family of different phenomena. The brain circuits and neural underpinnings of temporal quantification seem to largely depend on its time scale and the sensorimotor nature of specific behaviors. Therefore, we describe the main time scales and their associated behaviors and show how the perception and execution of timing events in the subsecond and second scales may depend on similar or different neural mechanisms. PMID:25358702

  18. Precise time and time interval applications to electric power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    There are many applications of precise time and time interval (frequency) in operating modern electric power systems. Many generators and customer loads are operated in parallel. The reliable transfer of electrical power to the consumer partly depends on measuring power system frequency consistently in many locations. The internal oscillators in the widely dispersed frequency measuring units must be syntonized. Elaborate protection and control systems guard the high voltage equipment from short and open circuits. For the highest reliability of electric service, engineers need to study all control system operations. Precise timekeeping networks aid in the analysis of power system operations by synchronizing the clocks on recording instruments. Utility engineers want to reproduce events that caused loss of service to customers. Precise timekeeping networks can synchronize protective relay test-sets. For dependable electrical service, all generators and large motors must remain close to speed synchronism. The stable response of a power system to perturbations is critical to continuity of electrical service. Research shows that measurement of the power system state vector can aid in the monitoring and control of system stability. If power system operators know that a lightning storm is approaching a critical transmission line or transformer, they can modify operating strategies. Knowledge of the location of a short circuit fault can speed the re-energizing of a transmission line. One fault location technique requires clocks synchronized to one microsecond. Current research seeks to find out if one microsecond timekeeping can aid and improve power system control and operation.

  19. Interval timing in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Higa, J J; Simm, L A

    2004-11-30

    The present study evaluated the temporal performance of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) given short-term exposure to four fixed interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement, FI 30, 60, 120, and 240 s, during which a reinforcer (mirror image) was given for the first response (swimming through a hoop) after the interval requirement had elapsed. Response levels were generally low early in an interval and increased as the interval elapsed; wait times and break points in an interval increased with increases in the FI requirement. The results were similar to that obtained with other species and different types of responses and reinforcers, and demonstrate that the procedure is a feasible method for studying interval timing in fish. PMID:15518999

  20. Atomic temporal interval relations in branching time: calculation and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anger, Frank D.; Ladkin, Peter B.; Rodriguez, Rita V.

    1991-03-01

    A practical method of reasoning about intervals in a branching-time model which is dense, unbounded, future-branching, without rejoining branches is presented. The discussion is based on heuristic constraint- propagation techniques using the relation algebra of binary temporal relations among the intervals over the branching-time model. This technique has been applied with success to models of intervals over linear time by Allen and others, and is of cubic-time complexity. To extend it to branding-time models, it is necessary to calculate compositions of the relations; thus, the table of compositions for the 'atomic' relations is computed, enabling the rapid determination of the composition of arbitrary relations, expressed as disjunctions or unions of the atomic relations.

  1. Unwinding the Molecular Basis of Interval and Circadian Timing

    PubMed Central

    Agostino, Patricia V.; Golombek, Diego A.; Meck, Warren H.

    2011-01-01

    Neural timing mechanisms range from the millisecond to diurnal, and possibly annual, frequencies. Two of the main processes under study are the interval timer (seconds-to-minute range) and the circadian clock. The molecular basis of these two mechanisms is the subject of intense research, as well as their possible relationship. This article summarizes data from studies investigating a possible interaction between interval and circadian timing and reviews the molecular basis of both mechanisms, including the discussion of the contribution from studies of genetically modified animal models. While there is currently no common neurochemical substrate for timing mechanisms in the brain, circadian modulation of interval timing suggests an interaction of different frequencies in cerebral temporal processes. PMID:22022309

  2. A model of interval timing by neural integration

    PubMed Central

    Simen, Patrick; Balci, Fuat; deSouza, Laura; Cohen, Jonathan D.; Holmes, Philip

    2011-01-01

    We show that simple assumptions about neural processing lead to a model of interval timing as a temporal integration process, in which a noisy firing-rate representation of time rises linearly on average toward a response threshold over the course of an interval. Our assumptions include: that neural spike trains are approximately independent Poisson processes; that correlations among them can be largely cancelled by balancing excitation and inhibition; that neural populations can act as integrators; and that the objective of timed behavior is maximal accuracy and minimal variance. The model accounts for a variety of physiological and behavioral findings in rodents, monkeys and humans, including ramping firing rates between the onset of reward-predicting cues and the receipt of delayed rewards, and universally scale-invariant response time distributions in interval timing tasks. It furthermore makes specific, well-supported predictions about the skewness of these distributions, a feature of timing data that is usually ignored. The model also incorporates a rapid (potentially one-shot) duration-learning procedure. Human behavioral data support the learning rule’s predictions regarding learning speed in sequences of timed responses. These results suggest that simple, integration-based models should play as prominent a role in interval timing theory as they do in theories of perceptual decision making, and that a common neural mechanism may underlie both types of behavior. PMID:21697374

  3. Motor and Executive Control in Repetitive Timing of Brief Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Linus; Ullen, Fredrik; Madison, Guy

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the causal role of executive control functions in the production of brief time intervals by means of a concurrent task paradigm. To isolate the influence of executive functions on timing from motor coordination effects, we dissociated executive load from the number of effectors used in the dual task situation. In 3 experiments,…

  4. Specifying real-time systems with interval logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1988-01-01

    Pure temporal logic makes no reference to time. An interval temporal logic and an extension to that logic which includes real time constraints are described. The application of this logic by giving a specification for the well-known lift (elevator) example is demonstrated. It is shown how interval logic can be extended to include a notion of process. How the specification language and verification environment of EHDM could be enhanced to support this logic is described. A specification of the alternating bit protocol in this extended version of the specification language of EHDM is given.

  5. Systolic time interval data acquisition system. Specialized cardiovascular studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    The development of a data acquisition system for noninvasive measurement of systolic time intervals is described. R-R interval from the ECG determines instantaneous heart rate prior to the beat to be measured. Total electromechanical systole (Q-S2) is measured from the onset of the ECG Q-wave to the onset of the second heart sound (S2). Ejection time (ET or LVET) is measured from the onset of carotid upstroke to the incisure. Pre-ejection period (PEP) is computed by subtracting ET from Q-S2. PEP/ET ratio is computed directly.

  6. Time Interval Errors of a Flicker-noise Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Time interval error (TIE) is the error of a clock at time t after it is synchronized and syntonized at time zero. Previous simulations of Flicker FM noise yielded a mean-square TIE proportional to sq t. It is shown that the order of growth is actually sq t log t. The earlier sq t result is explained and a modified version of the Barnes-Jarvis simulation algorithm is given.

  7. Department of Defense Precise Time and Time Interval program improvement plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowser, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The United States Naval Observatory is responsible for ensuring uniformity in precise time and time interval operations including measurements, the establishment of overall DOD requirements for time and time interval, and the accomplishment of objectives requiring precise time and time interval with minimum cost. An overview of the objectives, the approach to the problem, the schedule, and a status report, including significant findings relative to organizational relationships, current directives, principal PTTI users, and future requirements as currently identified by the users are presented.

  8. The Behavioral Economics of Choice and Interval Timing

    PubMed Central

    Jozefowiez, J.; Staddon, J. E. R.; Cerutti, D. T.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a simple behavioral economic model (BEM) describing how reinforcement and interval timing interact. The model assumes a Weber-law-compliant logarithmic representation of time. Associated with each represented time value are the payoffs that have been obtained for each possible response. At a given real time, the response with the highest payoff is emitted. The model accounts for a wide range of data from procedures such as simple bisection, metacognition in animals, economic effects in free-operant psychophysical procedures and paradoxical choice in double-bisection procedures. Although it assumes logarithmic time representation, it can also account for data from the time-left procedure usually cited in support of linear time representation. It encounters some difficulties in complex free-operant choice procedures, such as concurrent mixed fixed-interval schedules as well as some of the data on double bisection, that may involve additional processes. Overall, BEM provides a theoretical framework for understanding how reinforcement and interval timing work together to determine choice between temporally differentiated reinforcers. PMID:19618985

  9. Versatile all-digital time interval measuring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyhlidal, David; Cech, Miroslav

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes a design and performance of a versatile all-digital time interval measuring system. The measurement method is based on an interpolation principle. In this principle the time interval is first roughly digitized by a coarse counter driven by a high stability reference clock and the fractions between the clock periods are measured by two Time-to-Digital Converter chips TDC-GPX manufactured by Acam messelectronic. Control circuits allow programmable customization of the system to satisfy many applications such as laser range finding, event counting, or time-of-flight measurements in various physics experiments. The system has two reference clocks inputs and two independent channels for measuring start and stop events. Only one 40 MHz reference is required for the measurement. The second reference can be, for example, 1 PPS (Pulse per Second) signal from a GPS (Global Positioning System) to time tag events. Time intervals are measured using the highest resolution mode of the TDC-GPX chips. The resolution of each chip is software programmable and is PLL (Phase Locked Loop) stabilized against temperature and voltage variations. The system can achieve a timing resolution better than 15 ps rms with up to 90 kHz repetition rate. The time interval measurement range is from 0 ps up to 1 second. The power consumption of the whole system is 18 W including an embedded computer board and an LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen. The embedded computer controls the whole system, collects and evaluates measurement data and with the display provides a user interface. The system is implemented using commercially available components.

  10. Evaluation of forest recovery over time and space using permanent plots monitored over 30 years in a Jamaican montane rain forest.

    PubMed

    Chai, Shauna-Lee; Healey, John R; Tanner, Edmund V J

    2012-01-01

    Conservation of tropical forest biodiversity increasingly depends on its recovery following severe human disturbance. Our ability to measure recovery using current similarity indices suffers from two limitations: different sized individuals are treated as equal, and the indices are proportionate (a community with twice the individuals of every species as compared with the reference community would be assessed as identical). We define an alternative recovery index for trees - the Tanner index, as the mean of the quantitative Bray-Curtis similarity indices of species composition for stem density and for basal area. We used the new index to compare the original (pre-gap) and post-gap composition of five experimental gap plots (each 90-100 m(2)) and four control plots over 24-35 years in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica. After 24-35 years, these small gaps surrounded by undisturbed forest had recovered 68% of the sum of per species stem density and 29% of the sum of per species basal area, a recovery index of 47%. Four endemic species were especially reduced in density and basal area. With the incorporation of basal area and stem density, our index reduces over-estimations of forest recovery obtained using existing similarity indices (by 24%-41%), and thus yields more accurate estimates of forest conservation status. Finally, our study indicates that the two kinds of comparisons: 1) over time between pre-gap and post-gap composition and 2) over space between gap plots and spatial controls (space-for-time substitution) yield broadly similar results, which supports the value of using space-for-time substitutions in studying forest recovery, at least in this tropical montane forest. PMID:23155417

  11. Evaluation of Forest Recovery over Time and Space Using Permanent Plots Monitored over 30 Years in a Jamaican Montane Rain Forest

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Shauna-Lee; Healey, John R.; Tanner, Edmund V. J.

    2012-01-01

    Conservation of tropical forest biodiversity increasingly depends on its recovery following severe human disturbance. Our ability to measure recovery using current similarity indices suffers from two limitations: different sized individuals are treated as equal, and the indices are proportionate (a community with twice the individuals of every species as compared with the reference community would be assessed as identical). We define an alternative recovery index for trees – the Tanner index, as the mean of the quantitative Bray-Curtis similarity indices of species composition for stem density and for basal area. We used the new index to compare the original (pre-gap) and post-gap composition of five experimental gap plots (each 90–100 m2) and four control plots over 24–35 years in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica. After 24–35 years, these small gaps surrounded by undisturbed forest had recovered 68% of the sum of per species stem density and 29% of the sum of per species basal area, a recovery index of 47%. Four endemic species were especially reduced in density and basal area. With the incorporation of basal area and stem density, our index reduces over-estimations of forest recovery obtained using existing similarity indices (by 24%–41%), and thus yields more accurate estimates of forest conservation status. Finally, our study indicates that the two kinds of comparisons: 1) over time between pre-gap and post-gap composition and 2) over space between gap plots and spatial controls (space-for-time substitution) yield broadly similar results, which supports the value of using space-for-time substitutions in studying forest recovery, at least in this tropical montane forest. PMID:23155417

  12. Systolic time intervals after a seven-day orbital flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groza, P.; Vrâncianu, R.; Lazǎr, M.; Baevski, R. M.; Funtova, V. L.

    Heart rate, systolic time intervals (pre-ejection period, left ventricular ejection time), ejection fraction, stroke volume and QT interval of two cosmonauts (Leonid Popov - L.P. and Dumitru Prunariu - D.P.) were studied before, during, and after an ergometric bicycle exercise test performed before and after the seven-day Soviet-Romanian orbital flight on the Soyuz 40 - Salyut 6 Complex in May 1981. For this purpose one precordial electrocardiogram (ecg) and the ear photodensitogram (den) were recorded stimulaneously. The method used permitted recording even during exercise, Ecg and den signals were stored on magnetic tape, processed in an analogue device and in a digital computer. The data obtained after landing suggest a slight cardiac deconditioning in L.P., demonstrated especially by augmentation of the pre-ejection period, which was unchanged in D.P. corresponding to a sympathoadrenergic hypertonia. The seven-day orbital flight has not produced important cardiovascular changes.

  13. Total ozone change estimations for different time intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fioletov, Vitali E.

    1994-01-01

    To investigate total ozone behavior in different time intervals for the 40 deg - 52 deg N and 53 deg - 64 deg N latitudinal bands sliding 11 year linear trends with the first interval from 1959 to 1969 and the final one from 1980 to 1990 were computed. The most recent 11-year trends are negative and have larger absolute values than in the past. The trend values in the period from 1980 to 1990 in the 53 deg - 64 deg N band are minus 4.3 percent (winter), minus 3.2 percent (summer), and minus 3.8 percent (annual) per decade, and in the 40 deg - 52 deg N band they are minus 5.9 percent (winter), minus 2.7 percent (summer), and minus 3.6 percent (annual) per decade.

  14. Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Application and Planning Meeting. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wardrip, S. C. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Thirty eight papers are presented addressing various aspects of precise time and time interval applications. Areas discussed include: past accomplishments; state of the art systems; new and useful applications, procedures, and techniques; and fruitful directions for research efforts.

  15. Central tendency effects in time interval reproduction in autism

    PubMed Central

    Karaminis, Themelis; Cicchini, Guido Marco; Neil, Louise; Cappagli, Giulia; Aagten-Murphy, David; Burr, David; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Central tendency, the tendency of judgements of quantities (lengths, durations etc.) to gravitate towards their mean, is one of the most robust perceptual effects. A Bayesian account has recently suggested that central tendency reflects the integration of noisy sensory estimates with prior knowledge representations of a mean stimulus, serving to improve performance. The process is flexible, so prior knowledge is weighted more heavily when sensory estimates are imprecise, requiring more integration to reduce noise. In this study we measure central tendency in autism to evaluate a recent theoretical hypothesis suggesting that autistic perception relies less on prior knowledge representations than typical perception. If true, autistic children should show reduced central tendency than theoretically predicted from their temporal resolution. We tested autistic and age- and ability-matched typical children in two child-friendly tasks: (1) a time interval reproduction task, measuring central tendency in the temporal domain; and (2) a time discrimination task, assessing temporal resolution. Central tendency reduced with age in typical development, while temporal resolution improved. Autistic children performed far worse in temporal discrimination than the matched controls. Computational simulations suggested that central tendency was much less in autistic children than predicted by theoretical modelling, given their poor temporal resolution. PMID:27349722

  16. Central tendency effects in time interval reproduction in autism.

    PubMed

    Karaminis, Themelis; Cicchini, Guido Marco; Neil, Louise; Cappagli, Giulia; Aagten-Murphy, David; Burr, David; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Central tendency, the tendency of judgements of quantities (lengths, durations etc.) to gravitate towards their mean, is one of the most robust perceptual effects. A Bayesian account has recently suggested that central tendency reflects the integration of noisy sensory estimates with prior knowledge representations of a mean stimulus, serving to improve performance. The process is flexible, so prior knowledge is weighted more heavily when sensory estimates are imprecise, requiring more integration to reduce noise. In this study we measure central tendency in autism to evaluate a recent theoretical hypothesis suggesting that autistic perception relies less on prior knowledge representations than typical perception. If true, autistic children should show reduced central tendency than theoretically predicted from their temporal resolution. We tested autistic and age- and ability-matched typical children in two child-friendly tasks: (1) a time interval reproduction task, measuring central tendency in the temporal domain; and (2) a time discrimination task, assessing temporal resolution. Central tendency reduced with age in typical development, while temporal resolution improved. Autistic children performed far worse in temporal discrimination than the matched controls. Computational simulations suggested that central tendency was much less in autistic children than predicted by theoretical modelling, given their poor temporal resolution. PMID:27349722

  17. Optical timing receiver for the NASA laser ranging system. Part 2: High precision time interval digitizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leskovar, B.; Turko, B.

    1977-01-01

    The development of a high precision time interval digitizer is described. The time digitizer is a 10 psec resolution stop watch covering a range of up to 340 msec. The measured time interval is determined as a separation between leading edges of a pair of pulses applied externally to the start input and the stop input of the digitizer. Employing an interpolation techniques and a 50 MHz high precision master oscillator, the equivalent of a 100 GHz clock frequency standard is achieved. Absolute accuracy and stability of the digitizer are determined by the external 50 MHz master oscillator, which serves as a standard time marker. The start and stop pulses are fast 1 nsec rise time signals, according to the Nuclear Instrument means of tunnel diode discriminators. Firing level of the discriminator define start and stop points between which the time interval is digitized.

  18. Proceedings of the Fourth Precise Time and Time Interval Planning Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acrivos, H. N. (Compiler); Wardrip, S. C. (Compiler)

    1972-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on Precise Time and Time Interval Planning are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) satellite timing techniques, precision frequency sources, and very long baseline interferometry, (2) frequency stabilities and communications, and (3) very low frequency and ultrahigh frequency propagation and use. Emphasis is placed on the accuracy of time discrimination obtained with time measuring equipment and specific applications of time measurement to military operations and civilian research projects.

  19. On selection of the optimal data time interval for real-time hydrological forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Han, D.

    2013-09-01

    With the advancement in modern telemetry and communication technologies, hydrological data can be collected with an increasingly higher sampling rate. An important issue deserving attention from the hydrological community is which suitable time interval of the model input data should be chosen in hydrological forecasting. Such a problem has long been recognised in the control engineering community but is a largely ignored topic in operational applications of hydrological forecasting. In this study, the intrinsic properties of rainfall-runoff data with different time intervals are first investigated from the perspectives of the sampling theorem and the information loss using the discrete wavelet transform tool. It is found that rainfall signals with very high sampling rates may not always improve the accuracy of rainfall-runoff modelling due to the catchment low-pass-filtering effect. To further investigate the impact of a data time interval in real-time forecasting, a real-time forecasting system is constructed by incorporating the probability distributed model (PDM) with a real-time updating scheme, the autoregressive moving-average (ARMA) model. Case studies are then carried out on four UK catchments with different concentration times for real-time flow forecasting using data with different time intervals of 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min. A positive relation is found between the forecast lead time and the optimal choice of the data time interval, which is also highly dependent on the catchment concentration time. Finally, based on the conclusions from the case studies, a hypothetical pattern is proposed in three-dimensional coordinates to describe the general impact of the data time interval and to provide implications of the selection of the optimal time interval in real-time hydrological forecasting. Although nowadays most operational hydrological systems still have low data sampling rates (daily or hourly), the future is that higher sampling rates will become

  20. 1995 Solid Waste 30-year volume summary

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, O.J.; DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), provides a description of the annual low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed solid waste (TRU-TRUM) volumes expected to be managed by Hanford`s Solid Waste Central Waste Complex (CWC) over the next 30 years. The waste generation sources and waste categories are also described. This document is intended to be used as a reference for short- and long-term planning of the Hanford treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) activities over the next several decades. By estimating the waste volumes that will be generated in the future, facility planners can determine the timing of key waste management activities, evaluate alternative treatment strategies, and plan storage and disposal capacities. In addition, this document can be used by other waste sites and the general public to gain a better understanding of the types and volumes of waste that will be managed at Hanford.

  1. Assessment of histological changes in antemortem gingival tissues fixed at various time intervals: A method of estimation of postmortem interval

    PubMed Central

    Mahalakshmi, V.; Gururaj, N.; Sathya, R.; Sabarinath, T. R.; Sivapathasundharam, B.; Kalaiselvan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Conventional methods to estimate the time of death are adequate, but a histological method is yet unavailable to assess postmortem interval (PMI). The autolytic changes that occur in an unfixed antemortem gingival tissue which reflects histologically at an early stage are similar to changes that occur in postmortem tissue. These histological changes can be used and applied in a postmortem tissue as a method to assess PMI. Aims: The aim of the study is to assess the histological changes in a gingival tissue left unfixed for various time intervals and to correlate the findings with duration. Materials and Methods: Sixty gingival tissues obtained from patients following therapeutic extractions, impactions, gingivectomy and crown lengthening procedures were used. Each tissue obtained was divided into two pieces and labeled as “A”, the control group and “ B” the study group. Tissues labeled “A” were fixed in 10% formalin immediately and tissues labeled“B” were placed in closed containers and fixed after 15, 30, 45 min, 1, 2, and 4 h time interval. Of the sixty tissues in the study group “ B”, ten tissues were used for each time interval under investigation. All the fixed tissues were processed, stained, assessed, and analyzed statistically using Pearson correlation and regression analysis. Results: Histological changes appear at 15 min in an unfixed antemortem tissue. At 2 h interval, all layers with few cells in basal cell layer are involved. At 4 h interval, loss of stratification and complete homogenization of cells in the superficial layers with prominent changes in basal layer is evident. There was a positive correlation (<1.0) between the time interval and the appearance of the histological changes. Conclusion: Histological changes such as complete homogenization of cells in superficial layers and loss of epithelial architecture at 4 h in unfixed antemortem tissue may be used as a criterion to estimate PMI, after further studies

  2. The 26th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, Richard (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This document is a compilation of technical papers presented at the 26th Annual PTTI Applications and Planning Meeting. Papers are in the following categories: (1) Recent developments in rubidium, cesium, and hydrogen-based frequency standards, and in cryogenic and trapped-ion technology; (2) International and transnational applications of Precise Time and Time Interval technology with emphasis on satellite laser tracking, GLONASS timing, intercomparison of national time scales and international telecommunications; (3) Applications of Precise Time and Time Interval technology to the telecommunications, power distribution, platform positioning, and geophysical survey industries; (4) Applications of PTTI technology to evolving military communications and navigation systems; and (5) Dissemination of precise time and frequency by means of GPS, GLONASS, MILSTAR, LORAN, and synchronous communications satellites.

  3. Time and memory: towards a pacemaker-free theory of interval timing.

    PubMed Central

    Staddon, J E; Higa, J J

    1999-01-01

    A popular view of interval timing in animals is that it is driven by a discrete pacemaker-accumulator mechanism that yields a linear scale for encoded time. But these mechanisms are fundamentally at odds with the Weber law property of interval timing, and experiments that support linear encoded time can be interpreted in other ways. We argue that the dominant pacemaker-accumulator theory, scalar expectancy theory (SET), fails to explain some basic properties of operant behavior on interval-timing procedures and can only accommodate a number of discrepancies by modifications and elaborations that raise questions about the entire theory. We propose an alternative that is based on principles of memory dynamics derived from the multiple-time-scale (MTS) model of habituation. The MTS timing model can account for data from a wide variety of time-related experiments: proportional and Weber law temporal discrimination, transient as well as persistent effects of reinforcement omission and reinforcement magnitude, bisection, the discrimination of relative as well as absolute duration, and the choose-short effect and its analogue in number-discrimination experiments. Resemblances between timing and counting are an automatic consequence of the model. We also argue that the transient and persistent effects of drugs on time estimates can be interpreted as well within MTS theory as in SET. Recent real-time physiological data conform in surprising detail to the assumptions of the MTS habituation model. Comparisons between the two views suggest a number of novel experiments. PMID:10220931

  4. 30 years of squeezed light generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Ulrik L.; Gehring, Tobias; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2016-05-01

    Squeezed light generation has come of age. Significant advances on squeezed light generation have been made over the last 30 years—from the initial, conceptual experiment in 1985 till today’s top-tuned, application-oriented setups. Here we review the main experimental platforms for generating quadrature squeezed light that have been investigated in the last 30 years.

  5. Lessons from 30 Years of Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, David C.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation takes a brief historical look at flight software over the past 30 years, extracts lessons learned and shows how many of the lessons learned are embodied in the Flight Software product line called the core Flight System (cFS). It also captures the lessons learned from developing and applying the cFS.

  6. Interresponse Time Structures in Variable-Ratio and Variable-Interval Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Matthew T.; Hill, Jade; Palya, William L.

    2008-01-01

    The interresponse-time structures of pigeon key pecking were examined under variable-ratio, variable-interval, and variable-interval plus linear feedback schedules. Whereas the variable-ratio and variable-interval plus linear feedback schedules generally resulted in a distinct group of short interresponse times and a broad distribution of longer…

  7. The 25th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, Richard L. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Papers in the following categories are presented: recent developments in rubidium, cesium, and hydrogen-based frequency standards, and in cryogenic and trapped-ion technology; international and transnational applications of precise time and time interval (PTTI) technology with emphasis on satellite laser tracking networks, GLONASS timing, intercomparison of national time scales and international telecommunication; applications of PTTI technology to the telecommunications, power distribution, platform positioning, and geophysical survey industries; application of PTTI technology to evolving military communications and navigation systems; and dissemination of precise time and frequency by means of GPS, GLONASS, MILSTAR, LORAN, and synchronous communications satellites.

  8. The 22nd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, Richard L. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Papers presented at the 22nd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: Rb, Cs, and H-based frequency standards and cryogenic and trapped-ion technology; satellite laser tracking networks, GLONASS timing, intercomparison of national time scales and international telecommunications; telecommunications, power distribution, platform positioning, and geophysical survey industries; military communications and navigation systems; and dissemination of precise time and frequency by means of GPS, GLONASS, MILSTAR, LORAN, and synchronous communication satellites.

  9. The 22nd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Sydnor, R.L.

    1990-05-01

    Papers presented at the 22nd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: Rb, Cs, and H-based frequency standards and cryogenic and trapped-ion technology; satellite laser tracking networks, GLONASS timing, intercomparison of national time scales and international telecommunications; telecommunications, power distribution, platform positioning, and geophysical survey industries; military communications and navigation systems; and dissemination of precise time and frequency by means of GPS, GLONASS, MIL<550>STAR, LORAN, and synchronous communication satellites.

  10. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wardrip, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    Proceedings of an annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting are summarized. A transparent view of the state-of-the-art, an opportunity to express needs, a view of important future trends, and a review of relevant past accomplishments were considered for PTTI managers, systems engineers, and program planner. Specific aims were: to provide PTTI users with new and useful applications, procedures, and techniques; to allow the PTTI researcher to better assess fruitful directions for research efforts.

  11. Relationship between the Initial Systolic Time Interval and RR-interval during an exercise stimulus measured with Impedance Cardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekstra, Femke; Habers, Esther; Janssen, Thomas W. J.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Meijer, Jan H.

    2010-04-01

    The Initial Systolic Time Interval (ISTI), obtained from the electrocardiogram and impedance cardiogram, is considered to be a measure for the time delay between the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and reflects an active period of the heart cycle. The relationship between ISTI and the total heart cycle (RR-interval) was studied in three groups of young, healthy volunteers: low, moderately and highly trained subjects. The three groups were exposed to an exercise stimulus on a cycle ergometer with an increasing work load to increase the heart rate. ISTI was decreased with decreasing RR-interval. However, the relative proportion of ISTI, ISTI/RR, was found to increase with decreasing RR-interval. This relationship was found to be inversely proportional. The rate of this increase in ISTI/RR was significantly higher in highly trained subjects. Also, over the whole range of heart rates ISTI was longer in these subjects. It is concluded that ISTI can be used to evaluate cardiac performance during physical exercise non-invasively and in an extramural setting.

  12. Proceedings of the 7th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Proceedings contain the papers presented at the Seventh Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting and the edited record of the discussion period following each paper. This meeting provided a forum to promote more effective, efficient, economical and skillful applications of PTTI technology to the many problem areas to which PTTI offers solutions. Specifically the purpose of the meeting is to: disseminate, coordinate, and exchange practical information associated with precise time and frequency; acquaint systems engineers, technicians and managers with precise time and frequency technology and its applications; and review present and future requirements for PTTI.

  13. Effects of a reduced time-out interval on compliance with the time-out instruction.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Jeanne M; Vollmer, Timothy R; Yakich, Theresa M; Van Camp, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Time-out is a negative punishment procedure that parents and teachers commonly use to reduce problem behavior; however, specific time-out parameters have not been evaluated adequately. One parameter that has received relatively little attention in the literature is the mode of administration (verbal or physical) of time-out. In this study, we evaluated a procedure designed to reduce problem behavior and increase compliance with the verbal instruction to go to time-out. Specifically, we reduced the time-out interval contingent on compliance with the time-out instruction. Six preschool-aged boys participated in the study. Time-out effectively reduced the problem behavior of all 6 participants, and the procedure to increase compliance with the time-out instruction was effective for 4 of 6 participants. PMID:24114153

  14. Solid waste 30-year volume summary

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, O.J.; Armacost, L.L.; DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J.; Williams, N.C.

    1994-06-01

    A 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes to be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site is described in this report. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU/TRUM) waste that will require treatment, storage, and disposal at Hanford`s Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during the 30-year period from FY 1994 through FY 2023. The data used to complete this document were collected from onsite and offsite waste generators who currently, or are planning to, ship solid wastes to the Hanford Site. An analysis of the data suggests that over 300,000 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste will be managed at Hanford`s SWOC over the next 30 years. An extensive effort was made this year to collect this information. The 1993 solid waste forecast was used as a starting point, which identified approximately 100,000 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste to be sent to the SWOC. After analyzing the forecast waste volume, it was determined that additional waste was expected from the tank waste remediation system (TWRS), onsite decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities, and onsite remedial action (RA) activities. Data presented in this report establish a starting point for solid waste management planning. It is recognized that forecast estimates will vary (typically increasing) as facility planning and missions continue to change and become better defined, but the information presented still provides useful insight into Hanford`s future solid waste management requirements.

  15. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Sydnor, R.L.

    1992-07-01

    A compilation of technical papers, from the 23rd annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting, is presented. Papers were given in the following categories: (1) developments in rubidium, cesium, and hydrogen-based frequency standards, and in cryogenic and trapped-ion technology; (2) international and transnational applications of PTTI technology with emphasis on satellite laser tracking networks, GLONASS timing, comparison of national time scales and international communications; (3) applications of PTTI technology to the telecommunications, power distribution, platform positioning, and geophysical survey industries; (4) applications of PTTI technology to evolving military communications and navigation systems; and (5) dissemination of precise time and frequency by means of GPS, GLONASS, MILSTAR, Loran, and synchronous communications satellites.

  16. Proceedings of the 30th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breakiron, Lee A. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This document is a compilation of technical papers presented at the 30th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting held 1-3 December 1998 at the Hyatt Regency Hotel at Reston Town Center, Reston, Virginia. Papers are in the following categories: 1) Recent developments in rubidium, cesium, and hydrogen-based atomic frequency standards, and in trapped-ion and space clock technology; 2) National and international applications of PTTI technology with emphasis on GPS and GLONASS timing, atomic time scales, and telecommunications; 3) Applications of PTTI technology to evolving military navigation and communication systems; geodesy; aviation; and pulsars; and 4) Dissemination of precise time and frequency by means of GPS, geosynchronous communication satellites, computer networks, WAAS, and LORAN.

  17. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, Richard L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    A compilation of technical papers, from the 23rd annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting, is presented. Papers were given in the following categories: (1) developments in rubidium, cesium, and hydrogen-based frequency standards, and in cryogenic and trapped-ion technology; (2) international and transnational applications of PTTI technology with emphasis on satellite laser tracking networks, GLONASS timing, comparison of national time scales and international communications; (3) applications of PTTI technology to the telecommunications, power distribution, platform positioning, and geophysical survey industries; (4) applications of PTTI technology to evolving military communications and navigation systems; and (5) dissemination of precise time and frequency by means of GPS, GLONASS, MILSTAR, Loran, and synchronous communications satellites.

  18. The 24th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    A compilation of technical papers presented at the 24th Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting held in Dec. 1992 is presented. Papers are in the following categories: recent developments in rubidium, cesium, and hydrogen-based frequency standards, and in cryogenic and trapped-ion technology; international and transnational applications of PTTI technology with emphasis on satellite laser tracking networks, GLONASS timing, intercomparison of national time scales, and international telecommunications; applications of PTTI technology to the telecommunications, power distribution, and platform positioning, and geophysical survey industries; applications of PTTI technology to evolving military communications and navigation systems; and dissemination of precise time and frequency by means of GPS, GLONASS, MILSTAR, Loran, and synchronous communications satellites.

  19. 27th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, Richard L. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This document is a compilation of technical papers presented at the 27th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting, held November 29 - December 1, 1995 at San Diego, CA. Papers are in the following categories: Recent developments in rubidium, cesium, and hydrogen-based frequency standards; and in cryogenic and trapped-ion technology; International and transnational applications of PTTI technology with emphasis on satellite laser tracking, GLONASS timing, intercomparison of national time scales and international telecommunications; Applications of PTTI technology to the telecommunications, power distribution, platform positioning, and geophysical survey industries; Applications of PTTI technology to evolving military communications and navigation systems; and Dissemination of precise time and frequency by means of Global Positioning System (GPS), Global Satellite Navigation System (GLONASS), MILSTAR, LORAN, and synchronous communications satellites.

  20. A 30-Year Global Wave Hindcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrant, Tom; Hemer, Mark; Trenham, Claire; Greenslade, Diana

    2013-04-01

    Many Pacific Islands are vulnerable to impacts of waves through coastal inundation, coastal and beach erosion, wave driven lagoon circulation, disturbances to reef habitats etc. On steep continental shelves like Pacific island coral atolls, surface waves are the dominant contributor to coastal sea-level extremes via wave set-up. A recent review of the availability of modelled and observed wave data in the Pacific region noted the need for a high-quality multi-decadal wave climate data set. The absence of high temporal resolution spectral wave data was noted, with existing hindcast products assessed as being of inadequate spatial and temporal resolution in general. Wave hindcast resolution has historically been limited by the resolution of available winds. The recently completed National Centers for Environmental Prediction's (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) surface winds now provide a consistent product at 0.3°, hourly resolution over the past 30 years, providing a valuable source of forcing for wave hindcasting. As part of the Pacific-Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Program (PACCSAP), work is being carried out examining recent, existing and projected future ocean wave conditions with a focus on the Pacific region. As part of this work, a 30-year (1979-2009) global wave hindcast has been produced, using CFSR wind forcing. Details of this hindcast will be presented including an assessment of the quality of the data set using in-situ buoy and satellite altimeter data.

  1. Brain Bases of Working Memory for Time Intervals in Rhythmic Sequences.

    PubMed

    Teki, Sundeep; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    Perception of auditory time intervals is critical for accurate comprehension of natural sounds like speech and music. However, the neural substrates and mechanisms underlying the representation of time intervals in working memory are poorly understood. In this study, we investigate the brain bases of working memory for time intervals in rhythmic sequences using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We used a novel behavioral paradigm to investigate time-interval representation in working memory as a function of the temporal jitter and memory load of the sequences containing those time intervals. Human participants were presented with a sequence of intervals and required to reproduce the duration of a particular probed interval. We found that perceptual timing areas including the cerebellum and the striatum were more or less active as a function of increasing and decreasing jitter of the intervals held in working memory respectively whilst the activity of the inferior parietal cortex is modulated as a function of memory load. Additionally, we also analyzed structural correlations between gray and white matter density and behavior and found significant correlations in the cerebellum and the striatum, mirroring the functional results. Our data demonstrate neural substrates of working memory for time intervals and suggest that the cerebellum and the striatum represent core areas for representing temporal information in working memory. PMID:27313506

  2. Brain Bases of Working Memory for Time Intervals in Rhythmic Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Teki, Sundeep; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Perception of auditory time intervals is critical for accurate comprehension of natural sounds like speech and music. However, the neural substrates and mechanisms underlying the representation of time intervals in working memory are poorly understood. In this study, we investigate the brain bases of working memory for time intervals in rhythmic sequences using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We used a novel behavioral paradigm to investigate time-interval representation in working memory as a function of the temporal jitter and memory load of the sequences containing those time intervals. Human participants were presented with a sequence of intervals and required to reproduce the duration of a particular probed interval. We found that perceptual timing areas including the cerebellum and the striatum were more or less active as a function of increasing and decreasing jitter of the intervals held in working memory respectively whilst the activity of the inferior parietal cortex is modulated as a function of memory load. Additionally, we also analyzed structural correlations between gray and white matter density and behavior and found significant correlations in the cerebellum and the striatum, mirroring the functional results. Our data demonstrate neural substrates of working memory for time intervals and suggest that the cerebellum and the striatum represent core areas for representing temporal information in working memory. PMID:27313506

  3. Revisiting the Effect of Nicotine on Interval Timing

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Carter W.; Watterson, Elizabeth; Garcia, Raul; Mazur, Gabriel J.; Brackney, Ryan J.; Sanabria, Federico

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for nicotine-induced acceleration of the internal clock when timing in the seconds-to-minutes timescale, and proposes an alternative explanation to this evidence: that nicotine reduces the threshold for responses that result in more reinforcement. These two hypotheses were tested in male Wistar rats using a novel timing task. In this task, rats were trained to seek food at one location after 8 s since trial onset and at a different location after 16 s. Some rats received the same reward at both times (group SAME); some received a larger reward at 16 s (group DIFF). Steady baseline performance was followed by 3 days of subcutaneous nicotine administration (0.3 mg/kg), baseline recovery, and an antagonist challenge (mecamylamine, 1.0 mg/kg). Nicotine induced a larger, immediate reduction in latencies to switch (LTS) in group DIFF than in group SAME. This effect was sustained throughout nicotine administration. Mecamylamine administration and discontinuation of nicotine rapidly recovered baseline performance. These results support a response-threshold account of nicotinic disruption of timing performance, possibly mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. A detailed analysis of the distribution of LTSs suggests that anomalous effects of nicotine on LTS dispersion may be due to loss of temporal control of behavior. PMID:25637907

  4. Improvements in Interval Time Tracking and Effects on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Keith, Timothy Z.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effect of improvements in timing/rhythmicity on students' reading achievement. 86 participants completed pre- and post-test measures of reading achievement (i.e., Woodcock-Johnson III, Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, Test of Word Reading Efficiency, and Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency). Students in the…

  5. Accuracy in Recalling Interest Inventory Information at Three Time Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jane L.; Gore, Paul A., Jr.; Leuwerke, Wade; D'Achiardi, Catalina; Edwards, Jorie Hitch; Edwards, Jared

    2006-01-01

    Rates of accurate recall of the Strong Interest Inventory (SII; L. W. Harmon, J. C. Hansen, F. H. Borgen, & A. L. Hammer, 1994) profile information varied with the amount of time elapsed since the interpretation, the type of SII scale, and whether immediate recall was elicited, but rates did not vary with the strategy used to provide the…

  6. Improved confidence intervals when the sample is counted an integer times longer than the blank.

    PubMed

    Potter, William Edward; Strzelczyk, Jadwiga Jodi

    2011-05-01

    Past computer solutions for confidence intervals in paired counting are extended to the case where the ratio of the sample count time to the blank count time is taken to be an integer, IRR. Previously, confidence intervals have been named Neyman-Pearson confidence intervals; more correctly they should have been named Neyman confidence intervals or simply confidence intervals. The technique utilized mimics a technique used by Pearson and Hartley to tabulate confidence intervals for the expected value of the discrete Poisson and Binomial distributions. The blank count and the contribution of the sample to the gross count are assumed to be Poisson distributed. The expected value of the blank count, in the sample count time, is assumed known. The net count, OC, is taken to be the gross count minus the product of IRR with the blank count. The probability density function (PDF) for the net count can be determined in a straightforward manner. PMID:21451310

  7. Time-Interval Measurement of Stuttering: Systematic Replication of Ingham, Cordes, and Gow (1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Roger J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This replication study of time-interval judgments of stuttering found higher interjudge agreement than previously reported for event-based analyses of stuttering judgments or time-interval analyses of event judgments. Judges with high intrajudge agreement levels also showed higher interjudge agreement levels than did judges with low intrajudge…

  8. Cognitive Systems Engineering: The Next 30 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is part of panel discussion on Cognitive Systems Engineering. The purpose of this panel is to discuss the challenges and future directions of Cognitive Systems Engineering for the next 30 years. I intended to present the work we have been doing with the Aviation Safety program and Space Human Factors Engineering project on Work Domain Analysis and some areas of Research Focus. Specifically, I intend to focus on the shift on the need to understand and model attention in mixed-initiative systems, the need for methods which can generate results to be used in trade-off decisions, and the need to account for a range of human behavior in the design.

  9. Proceedings of the 8th Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Proceedings contain the papers presented at the Eight Annual Precise Time and Tme Interval PTTI Applications and Planning Meeting. The edited record of the discussions following the papers and the panel discussions are also included. This meeting provided a forum for the exchange of information on precise time and frequency technology among members of the scientific community and persons with program applications. The 282 registered attendees came from various U.S. Government agencies, private industry, universities and a number of foreign countries were represented. In this meeting, papers were presented that emphasized: (1) definitions and international regulations of precise time sources and users, (2) the scientific foundations of Hydrogen Maser standards, the current developments in this field and the application experience, and (3) how to measure the stability performance properties of precise standards. As in the previous meetings, update and new papers were presented on system applications with past, present and future requirements identified.

  10. Representation of interval timing by temporally scalable firing patterns in rat prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min; Zhang, Si-yu; Dan, Yang; Poo, Mu-ming

    2014-01-01

    Perception of time interval on the order of seconds is an essential component of cognition, but the underlying neural mechanism remains largely unknown. In rats trained to estimate time intervals, we found that many neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) exhibited sustained spiking activity with diverse temporal profiles of firing-rate modulation during the time-estimation period. Interestingly, in tasks involving different intervals, each neuron exhibited firing-rate modulation with the same profile that was temporally scaled by a factor linearly proportional to the instructed intervals. The behavioral variability across trials within each task also correlated with the intertrial variability of the temporal scaling factor. Local cooling of the medial PFC, which affects neural circuit dynamics, significantly delayed behavioral responses. Thus, PFC neuronal activity contributes to time perception, and temporally scalable firing-rate modulation may reflect a general mechanism for neural representation of interval timing. PMID:24367075

  11. Representation of interval timing by temporally scalable firing patterns in rat prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Zhang, Si-yu; Dan, Yang; Poo, Mu-ming

    2014-01-01

    Perception of time interval on the order of seconds is an essential component of cognition, but the underlying neural mechanism remains largely unknown. In rats trained to estimate time intervals, we found that many neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) exhibited sustained spiking activity with diverse temporal profiles of firing-rate modulation during the time-estimation period. Interestingly, in tasks involving different intervals, each neuron exhibited firing-rate modulation with the same profile that was temporally scaled by a factor linearly proportional to the instructed intervals. The behavioral variability across trials within each task also correlated with the intertrial variability of the temporal scaling factor. Local cooling of the medial PFC, which affects neural circuit dynamics, significantly delayed behavioral responses. Thus, PFC neuronal activity contributes to time perception, and temporally scalable firing-rate modulation may reflect a general mechanism for neural representation of interval timing. PMID:24367075

  12. 7 CFR 625.12 - 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 30-year contracts. 625.12 Section 625.12 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.12 30-year contracts. (a) To enroll land in HFRP through the 30-year contract option, a landowner will sign a 30-year contract with NRCS....

  13. Dichotomy in perceptual learning of interval timing: calibration of mean accuracy and precision differ in specificity and time course.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Hansem; Lee, Sang-Hun

    2013-01-01

    Our brain is inexorably confronted with a dynamic environment in which it has to fine-tune spatiotemporal representations of incoming sensory stimuli and commit to a decision accordingly. Among those representations needing constant calibration is interval timing, which plays a pivotal role in various cognitive and motor tasks. To investigate how perceived time interval is adjusted by experience, we conducted a human psychophysical experiment using an implicit interval-timing task in which observers responded to an invisible bar drifting at a constant speed. We tracked daily changes in distributions of response times for a range of physical time intervals over multiple days of training with two major types of timing performance, mean accuracy and precision. We found a decoupled dynamics of mean accuracy and precision in terms of their time course and specificity of perceptual learning. Mean accuracy showed feedback-driven instantaneous calibration evidenced by a partial transfer around the time interval trained with feedback, while timing precision exhibited a long-term slow improvement with no evident specificity. We found that a Bayesian observer model, in which a subjective time interval is determined jointly by a prior and likelihood function for timing, captures the dissociative temporal dynamics of the two types of timing measures simultaneously. Finally, the model suggested that the width of the prior, not the likelihoods, gradually shrinks over sessions, substantiating the important role of prior knowledge in perceptual learning of interval timing. PMID:23076112

  14. Algorithmic recognition of anomalous time intervals in sea-level observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getmanov, V. G.; Gvishiani, A. D.; Kamaev, D. A.; Kornilov, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    The problem of the algorithmic recognition of anomalous time intervals in the time series of the sea-level observations conducted by the Russian Tsunami Warning Survey (RTWS) is considered. The normal and anomalous sea-level observations are described. The polyharmonic models describing the sea-level fluctuations on the short time intervals are constructed, and sea-level forecasting based on these models is suggested. The algorithm for the recognition of anomalous time intervals is developed and its work is tested on the real RTWS data.

  15. Auditory Time-Interval Perception as Causal Inference on Sound Sources

    PubMed Central

    Sawai, Ken-ichi; Sato, Yoshiyuki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Perception of a temporal pattern in a sub-second time scale is fundamental to conversation, music perception, and other kinds of sound communication. However, its mechanism is not fully understood. A simple example is hearing three successive sounds with short time intervals. The following misperception of the latter interval is known: underestimation of the latter interval when the former is a little shorter or much longer than the latter, and overestimation of the latter when the former is a little longer or much shorter than the latter. Although this misperception of auditory time intervals for simple stimuli might be a cue to understanding the mechanism of time-interval perception, there exists no model that comprehensively explains it. Considering a previous experiment demonstrating that illusory perception does not occur for stimulus sounds with different frequencies, it might be plausible to think that the underlying mechanism of time-interval perception involves a causal inference on sound sources: herein, different frequencies provide cues for different causes. We construct a Bayesian observer model of this time-interval perception. We introduce a probabilistic variable representing the causality of sounds in the model. As prior knowledge, the observer assumes that a single sound source produces periodic and short time intervals, which is consistent with several previous works. We conducted numerical simulations and confirmed that our model can reproduce the misperception of auditory time intervals. A similar phenomenon has also been reported in visual and tactile modalities, though the time ranges for these are wider. This suggests the existence of a common mechanism for temporal pattern perception over modalities. This is because these different properties can be interpreted as a difference in time resolutions, given that the time resolutions for vision and touch are lower than those for audition. PMID:23226136

  16. Time dependent modeling at Mt. Etna volcano: an application to the 2005-2013 time interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannavo', Flavio; McCaffrey, Robert; Palano, Mimmo

    2015-04-01

    Following the 2004-05 eruption, Mt. Etna activity has been characterized by the occurrence of a number of eruptive episodes (2006, 2008 and 2012) and more than 35 paroxysmal events (mainly during the 2011-2012 time interval). In addition, continuous downslope motion of its eastern flank has affected the volcano. This seaward motion has been characterized by some episodic phases combined with the occurrence of multiple slow slip events (SSEs). In order to obtain a comprehensive view of the time evolution of these observed features and thus provide new insight into the ground deformation pattern of Mt. Etna, here we use time-dependent modeling of the three-component daily time series of all GNSS continuous stations installed on the volcanic edifice. All GNSS data spanning the 2005-2013 time interval were processed using the GAMIT/GLOBK software (Herring et al. 2010) following the strategy described in Gonzalez and Palano (2014). Estimated GNSS daily time series were referred to the "Etn@ref" reference frame (a local reference frame computed to isolate the Mt. Etna volcanic deformation from the background tectonic pattern; Palano et al. 2010). Using these daily time series as input we performed a time-dependent, non-linear inversion using the TDEFNODE code (McCaffrey, 2009). We used TDEFNODE to invert the time series to model simultaneously the steady tectonic kinematics plus the transient volcanic and tectonic sources, thus obtaining a realistic model of the complex area. Preliminary results allow us to track, over the considered time interval, the volume changes associated to the activity of a magmatic reservoir located at a depth of about 5 km b.s.l. beneath the upper western flank of the volcano, as well as the location and associated magnitude of four SSEs below the eastern flank. In addition, we attempted a preliminary subdivision of the southern and eastern flanks of Mt. Etna into four tectonic blocks which provide a reasonable representation of the observed

  17. Test anxiety inventory: 30 years later.

    PubMed

    Szafranski, Derek D; Barrera, Terri L; Norton, Peter J

    2012-11-01

    Research suggests that test anxiety is associated with a number of maladaptive factors. The majority of test anxiety research includes the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) as a primary outcome variable. However, the TAI was normed on college undergraduates in 1980. The academic landscape has altered in a variety of ways in the past 30 years, which may result in out-of-date norms. This study examined changes in TAI scores in college undergraduates (n =437) as well as convergent validity with measures of trait anxiety and academic performance. Results indicated increases in TAI scores for females while holding constant for males. Additionally, females and males displayed positive correlations between the TAI and state-trait anxiety inventory, while only females displayed a significant negative correlation between the TAI and grade point average. Data provide evidence of changes in TAI scores. As a result, researchers should be careful when drawing conclusions based on original TAI norms, especially in the case of female undergraduates. PMID:22380930

  18. Chronic Treatment with Haloperidol Induces Deficits in Working Memory and Feedback Effects of Interval Timing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, C.; Meck, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    Normal participants (n=5) having no experience with antipsychotic drugs and medicated participants (n=5) with clinical experience with chronic low doses of haloperidol (3-10mg/day for 2-4 months) in the treatment of neuroses were evaluated for the effects of inter-trial interval (ITI) feedback on a discrete-trials peak-interval timing procedure.…

  19. Interval timing behavior in Pallas's long-tongued bat (Glossophaga soricina).

    PubMed

    Toelch, Ulf; Winter, York

    2013-11-01

    Timing behavior in animals and its underlying mechanisms have been investigated extensively in the peak procedure, a variant of fixed interval procedures. In such experiments, individuals typically start responding with high frequency after an initial inactive time interval and continue their responses after peak time if rewards are omitted. This begs the so far unexplored question as to how timing behavior is influenced when such continuous responses are suppressed. Here, we present results from a nectar-feeding bat species, Glossophaga soricina, that was tested in a modified version of the peak procedure at three fixed time intervals (5 s, 11 s, 20 s). In contrast to standard peak procedures we imposed metabolic costs on individual responses which effectively suppressed trains of rapid responses during trials. Under this manipulation, bats' aggregated responses showed clear peaks around the peak time in the 5-s and 11-s schedules. Bats' responses in the 20-s schedule, however, did not peak around the fixed interval time. Crucially, an analysis of time intervals between successive revisits in all schedules revealed that bats revisited feeders at accurately timed intervals in all three conditions. The individual within trial behavioral responses showed clear oscillatory patterns throughout nonrewarded trials. These findings follow predictions from mechanistic timing models, like the striatal beat frequency model, and are discussed with regard to these models. PMID:23875922

  20. Timing Rhythms: Perceived Duration Increases with a Predictable Temporal Structure of Short Interval Fillers

    PubMed Central

    Horr, Ninja K.; Di Luca, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the temporal structure of an interval can lead to remarkable differences in perceived duration. For example, it has previously been shown that isochronous intervals, that is, intervals filled with temporally regular stimuli, are perceived to last longer than intervals left empty or filled with randomly timed stimuli. Characterizing the extent of such distortions is crucial to understanding how duration perception works. One account to explain effects of temporal structure is a non-linear accumulator-counter mechanism reset at the beginning of every subinterval. An alternative explanation based on entrainment to regular stimulation posits that the neural response to each filler stimulus in an isochronous sequence is amplified and a higher neural response may lead to an overestimation of duration. If entrainment is the key that generates response amplification and the distortions in perceived duration, then any form of predictability in the temporal structure of interval fillers should lead to the perception of an interval that lasts longer than a randomly filled one. The present experiments confirm that intervals filled with fully predictable rhythmically grouped stimuli lead to longer perceived duration than anisochronous intervals. No general over- or underestimation is registered for rhythmically grouped compared to isochronous intervals. However, we find that the number of stimuli in each group composing the rhythm also influences perceived duration. Implications of these findings for a non-linear clock model as well as a neural response magnitude account of perceived duration are discussed. PMID:26474047

  1. Monitoring molecular interactions using photon arrival-time interval distribution analysis

    DOEpatents

    Laurence, Ted A.; Weiss, Shimon

    2009-10-06

    A method for analyzing/monitoring the properties of species that are labeled with fluorophores. A detector is used to detect photons emitted from species that are labeled with one or more fluorophores and located in a confocal detection volume. The arrival time of each of the photons is determined. The interval of time between various photon pairs is then determined to provide photon pair intervals. The number of photons that have arrival times within the photon pair intervals is also determined. The photon pair intervals are then used in combination with the corresponding counts of intervening photons to analyze properties and interactions of the molecules including brightness, concentration, coincidence and transit time. The method can be used for analyzing single photon streams and multiple photon streams.

  2. Characterization of cardiac time intervals in healthy bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) by using an electronic stethoscope.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Haroon; Salciccioli, Louis; Pushilin, Sergei; Kumar, Paraag; Carter, John; Kuo, John; Novotney, Carol; Lazar, Jason M

    2011-03-01

    Nonhuman primates are used frequently in cardiovascular research. Cardiac time intervals derived by phonocardiography have long been used to assess left ventricular function. Electronic stethoscopes are simple low-cost systems that display heart sound signals. We assessed the use of an electronic stethoscope to measure cardiac time intervals in 48 healthy bonnet macaques (age, 8±5 y) based on recorded heart sounds. Technically adequate recordings were obtained from all animals and required 1.5±1.3 min. The following cardiac time intervals were determined by simultaneously recording acoustic and single-lead electrocardiographic data: electromechanical activation time (QS1), electromechanical systole (QS2), the time interval between the first and second heart sounds (S1S2), and the time interval between the second and first sounds (S2S1). QS2 was correlated with heart rate, mean arterial pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and left ventricular ejection time determined by using echocardiography. S1S2 correlated with heart rate, mean arterial pressure, diastolic blood pressure, left ventricular ejection time, and age. S2S1 correlated with heart rate, mean arterial pressure, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, and left ventricular ejection time. QS1 did not correlate with any anthropometric or echocardiographic parameter. The relation S1S2/S2S1 correlated with systolic blood pressure. On multivariate analyses, heart rate was the only independent predictor of QS2, S1S2, and S2S1. In conclusion, determination of cardiac time intervals is feasible and reproducible by using an electrical stethoscope in nonhuman primates. Heart rate is a major determinant of QS2, S1S2, and S2S1 but not QS1; regression equations for reference values for cardiac time intervals in bonnet macaques are provided. PMID:21439218

  3. Involvement of dopamine signaling in the circadian modulation of interval timing.

    PubMed

    Bussi, Ivana L; Levín, Gloria; Golombek, Diego A; Agostino, Patricia V

    2014-07-01

    Duration discrimination within the seconds-to-minutes range, known as interval timing, involves the interaction of cortico-striatal circuits via dopaminergic-glutamatergic pathways. Besides interval timing, most (if not all) organisms exhibit circadian rhythms in physiological, metabolic and behavioral functions with periods close to 24 h. We have previously reported that both circadian disruption and desynchronization impaired interval timing in mice. In this work we studied the involvement of dopamine (DA) signaling in the interaction between circadian and interval timing. We report that daily injections of levodopa improved timing performance in the peak-interval procedure in C57BL/6 mice with circadian disruptions, suggesting that a daily increase of DA is necessary for an accurate performance in the timing task. Moreover, striatal DA levels measured by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography indicated a daily rhythm under light/dark conditions. This daily variation was affected by inducing circadian disruption under constant light (LL). We also demonstrated a daily oscillation in tyrosine hydroxylase levels, DA turnover (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/DA levels), and both mRNA and protein levels of the circadian component Period2 (Per2) in the striatum and substantia nigra, two brain areas relevant for interval timing. None of these oscillations persisted under LL conditions. We suggest that the lack of DA rhythmicity in the striatum under LL - probably regulated by Per2 - could be responsible for impaired performance in the timing task. Our findings add further support to the notion that circadian and interval timing share some common processes, interacting at the level of the dopaminergic system. PMID:24689904

  4. Dissociations between interval timing and intertemporal choice following administration of fluoxetine, cocaine, or methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Heilbronner, Sarah R; Meck, Warren H

    2014-01-01

    The goal of our study was to characterize the relationship between intertemporal choice and interval timing, including determining how drugs that modulate brain serotonin and dopamine levels influence these two processes. In Experiment 1, rats were tested on a standard 40-s peak-interval procedure following administration of fluoxetine (3, 5, or 8 mg/kg) or vehicle to assess basic effects on interval timing. In Experiment 2, rats were tested in a novel behavioral paradigm intended to simultaneously examine interval timing and impulsivity. Rats performed a variant of the bi-peak procedure using 10-s and 40-s target durations with an additional "defection" lever that provided the possibility of a small, immediate reward. Timing functions remained relatively intact, and 'patience' across subjects correlated with peak times, indicating a negative relationship between 'patience' and clock speed. We next examined the effects of fluoxetine (5 mg/kg), cocaine (15 mg/kg), or methamphetamine (1 mg/kg) on task performance. Fluoxetine reduced impulsivity as measured by defection time without corresponding changes in clock speed. In contrast, cocaine and methamphetamine both increased impulsivity and clock speed. Thus, variations in timing may mediate intertemporal choice via dopaminergic inputs. However, a separate, serotonergic system can affect intertemporal choice without affecting interval timing directly. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Associative and Temporal Learning. PMID:24135569

  5. Systolic and diastolic time intervals in pulsus alternans - Significance of alternating isovolumic relaxation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spodick, D. H.; Quarry, V. M.; Khan, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    Systolic and diastolic time intervals in 14 cardiac patients with pulsus alternans revealed significant alternation of preinjection period (PEP), isovolumic contraction time (IVCT), left ventricular ejection time (LVET), ejection time index (ETI), PEP/LVET, and carotid dD/dt with better functional values in the strong beats. Cycle length, duration of electromechanical systole (EMS) and total diastole, i.e., isovolumic relaxation period (IRP) and diastolic filling period (DFP) occurred in 7 out of 8 patients. These diastolic intervals alternated reciprocally such that the IRP of the strong beats encroached upon the DFP of the next (weak) beats.

  6. Time intervals in the treatment of fractured femurs as indicators of the quality of trauma systems

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Iain; Marmor, Meir; Caldwell, Amber; Coughlin, Richard; Gosselin, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the use of time intervals in the treatment of fractured femurs as indicators of the quality of trauma systems. Methods Time intervals from injury to admission, admission to surgery and surgery to discharge for patients with isolated femur fractures in four low- and middle-income countries were compared with the corresponding values from one German hospital, an Israeli hospital and the National Trauma Data Bank of the United States of America by means of Student’s t-tests. The correlations between the time intervals recorded in a country and that country’s expenditure on health and gross domestic product (GDP) were also evaluated using Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient. Findings Relative to patients from high-income countries, those from low- and middle-income countries were significantly more likely to be male and to have been treated by open femoral nailing, and their intervals from injury to admission, admission to surgery and surgery to discharge were significantly longer. Strong negative correlations were detected between the interval from injury to admission and government expenditure on health, and between the interval from admission to surgery and the per capita values for total expenditure on health, government expenditure on health and GDP. Strong positive correlations were detected between the interval from surgery to discharge and general government expenditure on health. Conclusion The time intervals for the treatment of femur fractures are relatively long in low- and middle-income countries, can easily be measured, and are highly correlated with accessible and quantifiable country data on health and economics. PMID:24391299

  7. Estimation of the Optimal Statistical Quality Control Sampling Time Intervals Using a Residual Risk Measure

    PubMed Central

    Hatjimihail, Aristides T.

    2009-01-01

    Background An open problem in clinical chemistry is the estimation of the optimal sampling time intervals for the application of statistical quality control (QC) procedures that are based on the measurement of control materials. This is a probabilistic risk assessment problem that requires reliability analysis of the analytical system, and the estimation of the risk caused by the measurement error. Methodology/Principal Findings Assuming that the states of the analytical system are the reliability state, the maintenance state, the critical-failure modes and their combinations, we can define risk functions based on the mean time of the states, their measurement error and the medically acceptable measurement error. Consequently, a residual risk measure rr can be defined for each sampling time interval. The rr depends on the state probability vectors of the analytical system, the state transition probability matrices before and after each application of the QC procedure and the state mean time matrices. As optimal sampling time intervals can be defined those minimizing a QC related cost measure while the rr is acceptable. I developed an algorithm that estimates the rr for any QC sampling time interval of a QC procedure applied to analytical systems with an arbitrary number of critical-failure modes, assuming any failure time and measurement error probability density function for each mode. Furthermore, given the acceptable rr, it can estimate the optimal QC sampling time intervals. Conclusions/Significance It is possible to rationally estimate the optimal QC sampling time intervals of an analytical system to sustain an acceptable residual risk with the minimum QC related cost. For the optimization the reliability analysis of the analytical system and the risk analysis of the measurement error are needed. PMID:19513124

  8. An Integrated Theory of Prospective Time Interval Estimation: The Role of Cognition, Attention, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taatgen, Niels A.; van Rijn, Hedderik; Anderson, John

    2007-01-01

    A theory of prospective time perception is introduced and incorporated as a module in an integrated theory of cognition, thereby extending existing theories and allowing predictions about attention and learning. First, a time perception module is established by fitting existing datasets (interval estimation and bisection and impact of secondary…

  9. The Impact of Various Time Intervals on the Supragingival Plaque Dynamic Core Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Li; He, Zhi-yan; Zhu, Cai-lian; Ma, Rui; Huang, Zheng-wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the influence of various time intervals on the composition of the supragingival plaque microbiome, especially the dynamic core microbiome, and to find a suitable observation interval for further studies on oral microbiota. Methods and Materials Eight qualified volunteers whose respective age ranges from 25 to 28 years participated in the present study. The supragingival plaque was collected from the buccogingival surface of the maxillary first molar at eight time slots with different intervals (day 0, 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months). Bioinformatic analyses was performed based on 16S rDNA pyrosequencing (454 sequencing platform) targeting at the hypervariable V4–V5 region, in order to assess the diversity and variation of the supragingival plaque microbiome. Results A total of 359,565 qualified reads for 64 samples were generated for subsequent analyses, which represents 8,452 operational taxonomic units identified at 3% dissimilarity. The dynamic core microbiome detected in the current study included five phyla, 12 genera and 13 species. At the genus level, the relative abundance of bacterial communities under the “1 day,” “1 month,” and “3 months” intervals was clustered into sub-category. At the species level, the number of overlapping species remained stable between the “1 month” and “3 months” intervals, whereas the number of dynamic core species became stable within only 1 week. Conclusions This study emphasized the impact of different time intervals (days, weeks and months) on the composition, commonality and diversity of the supragingival microbiome. The analyses found that for various types of studies, the time interval of a month is more suitable for observing the general composition of the supragingival microbiome, and that a week is better for observing the dynamic core microbiome. PMID:25942317

  10. USSR national time unit keeping over long interval using an ensemble of H-masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshelyaevsky, N. B.; Pushkin, S. B.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S.S.R. State Time and Frequency Service (STFS) is discussed. The STFS is responsible for time and frequency measurement unification both in the field of atomic, TA(SU) and UTC(SU) and universal time UT1(SU) over the whole territory of the U.S.S.R. The U.S.S.R. national time unit keeping over long interval using an ensemble of H-masers is also discussed.

  11. Evaluating the Time Interval for Presenting the Signs of Hypocalcaemia after Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Otaghvar, Hamidreza Alizadeh; Shabestanipour, Ghazaal; Vahid, Parichehr Atef

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Thyroidectomy is one of the most prevalent treatments for thyroid malignancies. It has very low rate of complications except the hypocalcaemia. Only a small number of studies have evaluated the clinical signs of hypocalcaemia but no study have reported the time interval between the procedure and signs of hypocalcaemia. Aim The aim of this study was to determine that time interval in those patients. Materials and Methods Medical files of a group of patients who underwent thyroidectomy were reviewed. Demographic characteristics of the patients and the time interval to hypocalcaemia were recorded and analysed by SPSS software. p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results One hundred and eight patients, 65 women (60.2%) and 43 men (39.8%) with a mean age of 42.6+12.2 years were included. Perioral numbness was reported in 30 (27.8%) patients while 29 (26.8%) patients had lip numbness. Numbness in extremities and muscle spasm were found in 19 (17.6%) and 13 (12%) patients respectively. Seizure was reported in 3 (2.8%) patients. The Trousseau and Chvostek signs were found in 17 (15.7%) and 9 (8.3%) patients respectively. Only the Trousseau sign was different between the two surgical groups. The mean time interval was 41.25±11.5 hours postoperatively. However the time interval was shorter for the total thyroidectomy. Conclusion Physical examination is useful for diagnosing hypocalcaemia due to the presentation of sings during the first 48 hours of thyroidectomy. Total thyroidectomy is associated with shorter time interval. PMID:27134928

  12. Method and circuit for controlling the evolution time interval of a laser output pulse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a method and circuit for controlling the evolution time interval of a laser output pulse used for making precise spectral measurements. It comprises the means for pumping a laser medium in a resonator that includes a Q-switch and polarizer that act in combination to control the loss in the resonator. A photodiode senses the resulting fluorescence which is applied to a two level Q-switch and polarizer from high to intermediate to substantially zero loss states to control the evolution time interval of the resulting laser output pulse.

  13. Silviculture: the next 30 years the past 30 years. Part III. The South

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, S.G.; Burkhardt, E.C.; Kellison, R.C.; van Lear, D.H.

    1986-06-01

    This paper discussed the need for modern forestry management in the South. The author defined the South as Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia. Of the 10 billion cubic feet of softwood harvested in the US in 1976, 44% came from the South. In addition, half of the 4.2 billion cubic feet of hardwoods harvested in the US in 1976 came from the South. Less than half of the southern forests were cultivated by trained foresters. With real forest management, a real potential should exist for increased forest production. The author discussed the history of these forest lands and the need for better forest management over the next 30 years. 12 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  14. Selective activation of a putative reinforcement signal conditions cued interval timing in primary visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cheng-Hang; Coleman, Jason E.; Davoudi, Heydar; Zhang, Kechen; Hussain Shuler, Marshall G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary As a consequence of conditioning visual cues with delayed reward, cue-evoked neural activity that predicts the time of expected future reward emerges in the primary visual cortex (V1). We hypothesized that this reward timing activity is engendered by a reinforcement signal conveying reward acquisition to V1. In lieu of behavioral conditioning, we assessed in vivo whether selective activation of either basal forebrain (BF) or cholinergic innervation is sufficient to condition cued interval timing activity. Substituting for actual reward, optogenetic activation of BF or cholinergic input within V1 at fixed delays following visual stimulation entrains neural responses that mimic behaviorally-conditioned reward timing activity. Optogenetically-conditioned neural responses express cue-evoked temporal intervals that correspond to the conditioning intervals, are bidirectionally modifiable, display experience-dependent refinement, and exhibit a scale invariance to the encoded delay. Our results demonstrate that the activation of BF or cholinergic input within V1is sufficient to encode cued interval timing activity, and indicate that V1 itself is a substrate for associative learning that may inform the timing of visually-cued behaviors. PMID:26004763

  15. Apparatus for using a time interval counter to measure frequency stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, Charles A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the relative stability of two signals is disclosed comprising a means for mixing the two signals down to a beat note sine wave and for producing a beat note square wave whose upcrossings are the same as the sine wave. A source of reference frequency is supplied to a clock divider and interval counter to synchronize them and to generate a picket fence for providing a time reference grid of period shorter than the beat period. An interval counter is employed to make a preliminary measurement between successive upcrossings of the beat note square wave for providing an approximate time interval therebetween as a reference. The beat note square wave and the picket fence are then provided to the interval counter to provide an output consisting of the time difference between the upcrossing of each beat note square wave cycle and the next picket fence pulse such that the counter is ready for each upcrossing and dead time is avoided. A computer containing an algorithm for calculating the exact times of the beat note upcrossings then computes the upcrossing times.

  16. Opposite Distortions in Interval Timing Perception for Visual and Auditory Stimuli with Temporal Modulations

    PubMed Central

    Yuasa, Kenichi; Yotsumoto, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    When an object is presented visually and moves or flickers, the perception of its duration tends to be overestimated. Such an overestimation is called time dilation. Perceived time can also be distorted when a stimulus is presented aurally as an auditory flutter, but the mechanisms and their relationship to visual processing remains unclear. In the present study, we measured interval timing perception while modulating the temporal characteristics of visual and auditory stimuli, and investigated whether the interval times of visually and aurally presented objects shared a common mechanism. In these experiments, participants compared the durations of flickering or fluttering stimuli to standard stimuli, which were presented continuously. Perceived durations for auditory flutters were underestimated, while perceived durations of visual flickers were overestimated. When auditory flutters and visual flickers were presented simultaneously, these distortion effects were cancelled out. When auditory flutters were presented with a constantly presented visual stimulus, the interval timing perception of the visual stimulus was affected by the auditory flutters. These results indicate that interval timing perception is governed by independent mechanisms for visual and auditory processing, and that there are some interactions between the two processing systems. PMID:26292285

  17. Density-dependent state-space model for population-abundance data with unequal time intervals.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Brian; Ponciano, José Miguel

    2014-08-01

    The Gompertz state-space (GSS) model is a stochastic model for analyzing time-series observations of population abundances. The GSS model combines density dependence, environmental process noise, and observation error toward estimating quantities of interest in biological monitoring and population viability analysis. However, existing methods for estimating the model parameters apply only to population data with equal time intervals between observations. In the present paper, we extend the GSS model to data with unequal time intervals, by embedding it within a state-space version of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, a continuous-time model of an equilibrating stochastic system. Maximum likelihood and restricted maximum likelihood calculations for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck state-space model involve only numerical maximization of an explicit multivariate normal likelihood, and so the extension allows for easy bootstrapping, yielding confidence intervals for model parameters, statistical hypothesis testing of density dependence, and selection among sub-models using information criteria. Ecologists and managers previously drawn to models lacking density dependence or observation error because such models accommodated unequal time intervals (for example, due to missing data) now have an alternative analysis framework incorporating density dependence, process noise, and observation error. PMID:25230459

  18. Density dependent state space model for population abundance data with unequal time intervals

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Brian; Ponciano, José Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The Gompertz state-space (GSS) model is a stochastic model for analyzing time series observations of population abundances. The GSS model combines density dependence, environmental process noise, and observation error toward estimating quantities of interest in biological monitoring and population viability analysis. However, existing methods for estimating the model parameters apply only to population data with equal time intervals between observations. In the present paper, we extend the GSS model to data with unequal time intervals, by embedding it within a state-space version of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, a continuous-time model of an equilibrating stochastic system. Maximum likelihood and restricted maximum likelihood calculations for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck state-space model involve only numerical maximization of an explicit multivariate normal likelihood, and so the extension allows for easy bootstrapping, yielding confidence intervals for model parameters, statistical hypothesis testing of density dependence, and selection among sub-models using information criteria. Ecologists and managers previously drawn to models lacking density dependence or observation error because such models accommodated unequal time intervals (for example, due to missing data) now have an alternative analysis framework incorporating density dependence, process noise and observation error. PMID:25230459

  19. Internal Representations of Temporal Statistics and Feedback Calibrate Motor-Sensory Interval Timing

    PubMed Central

    Acerbi, Luigi; Wolpert, Daniel M.; Vijayakumar, Sethu

    2012-01-01

    Humans have been shown to adapt to the temporal statistics of timing tasks so as to optimize the accuracy of their responses, in agreement with the predictions of Bayesian integration. This suggests that they build an internal representation of both the experimentally imposed distribution of time intervals (the prior) and of the error (the loss function). The responses of a Bayesian ideal observer depend crucially on these internal representations, which have only been previously studied for simple distributions. To study the nature of these representations we asked subjects to reproduce time intervals drawn from underlying temporal distributions of varying complexity, from uniform to highly skewed or bimodal while also varying the error mapping that determined the performance feedback. Interval reproduction times were affected by both the distribution and feedback, in good agreement with a performance-optimizing Bayesian observer and actor model. Bayesian model comparison highlighted that subjects were integrating the provided feedback and represented the experimental distribution with a smoothed approximation. A nonparametric reconstruction of the subjective priors from the data shows that they are generally in agreement with the true distributions up to third-order moments, but with systematically heavier tails. In particular, higher-order statistical features (kurtosis, multimodality) seem much harder to acquire. Our findings suggest that humans have only minor constraints on learning lower-order statistical properties of unimodal (including peaked and skewed) distributions of time intervals under the guidance of corrective feedback, and that their behavior is well explained by Bayesian decision theory. PMID:23209386

  20. Nars: Over 30 Years of Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulssen, H.

    2014-12-01

    It is fair to say that modern seismology steadily evolved from a handful key initiatives and innovations dating back to the early 1980s. (1) The transition from non-mobile, narrow band sensors with analogue recording (pre-1980s) to portable, broadband sensors with digital recorders paved the way to flexible deployments, enabling various array and regional studies with the same instrumentation. Here I mention just two initiatives: NARS, which was the first digital, mobile network of broadband stations deployed in western Europe (1983-1987), and USarray (2003- ), which is the biggest program of recent times. Presently, innovative data acquisition systems for the oceans are underway and they will allow future imaging of the "inaccessible" parts of the Earth. (2) In the 1980s seismological data centers were set up to facilitate data archiving and distribution. Since then, open data exchange (not a matter of course) and easy data retrieval have become standard. The impact of this has been phenomenal: most observational studies efficiently retrieve data from these main seismological data centers and the archived seismograms are used for various types of studies, carried out by different persons and groups. (3) Seismic tomography changed the face of seismological research. From travel time to waveform tomography, from ray theory to finite frequency tomography: new and improved tomographic techniques greatly enhanced our images (and understanding) of the Earth's interior. (4) Many of these developments would not have been possible without young, motivated, seismologists that were educated and stimulated by insightful supervisors. One person has had a major impact on all these fields. NARS in the title stands for Nolet greatly Advanced Research in Seismology.

  1. Time Interval between Trauma and Arthroscopic Meniscal Repair Has No Influence on Clinical Survival.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, Robert J P; Thomassen, Bregje J W; Swen, Jan-Willem A; van Arkel, Ewoud R A

    2016-07-01

    Arthroscopic meniscal repair is the gold standard for longitudinal peripheral meniscal tears. The time interval between trauma and meniscal repair remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate failure rates and clinical outcome of arthroscopic meniscal repair in relation to chronicity of injury. A total of 238 meniscal repairs were performed in 234 patients. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) was reconstructed in almost all ACL-deficient knees (130 out of 133). Time interval between injury and repair was divided into acute (< 2 weeks), subacute (> 2 to < 12 weeks), and chronic (> 12 weeks). Patients completed postal questionnaires to evaluate clinical outcome and failure rates. Study instruments included Lysholm, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and Tegner scoring systems. At a median follow-up of 41 months (interquartile range [IQR], 34-53 months) 55 medial and 10 lateral meniscal repairs failed (overall failure rate, 27%). There was a significant higher failure rate for medial meniscal repair (p < 0.05) and ACL-deficient knees without ACL reconstruction. Functional outcome scores showed only significant differences on the KOOS subscale "function in daily living" (95% confidence interval, 1.05-15.27, p < 0.05). No significant difference was found for any interval between trauma and repair. The interval between trauma and arthroscopic meniscal repair has no influence on the failure rate. Differences in survival rate of meniscal repair are more dependent on location of the lesion and ACL status, rather than chronicity of injury. PMID:26516071

  2. A model of multisecond timing behaviour under peak-interval procedures.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takayuki; Sakata, Shogo

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the authors developed a fundamental theory of interval timing behaviour, inspired by the learning-to-time (LeT) model and the scalar expectancy theory (SET) model, and based on quantitative analyses of such timing behaviour. Our experiments used the peak-interval procedure with rats. The proposed model of timing behaviour comprises clocks, a regulator, a mixer, a response, and memory. Using our model, we calculated the basic clock speeds indicated by the subjects' behaviour under such peak procedures. In this model, the scalar property can be defined as a kind of transposition, which can then be measured quantitatively. The Akaike information criterion (AIC) values indicated that the current model fit the data slightly better than did the SET model. Our model may therefore provide a useful addition to SET for the analysis of timing behaviour. PMID:25539685

  3. A Comparison of Momentary Time Sampling and Partial-Interval Recording for Evaluating Functional Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meany-Daboul, Maeve G.; Roscoe, Eileen M.; Bourret, Jason C.; Ahearn, William H.

    2007-01-01

    In the current study, momentary time sampling (MTS) and partial-interval recording (PIR) were compared to continuous-duration recording of stereotypy and to the frequency of self-injury during a treatment analysis to determine whether the recording method affected data interpretation. Five previously conducted treatment analysis data sets were…

  4. New delay dependent stability criteria for recurrent neural networks with interval time-varying delay.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiongfen; Ren, Quanhong; Xie, Xuemei

    2014-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the delay dependent stability criteria for a class of static recurrent neural networks with interval time-varying delay. By choosing an appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and employing a delay partitioning method, the less conservative condition is obtained. Furthermore, the LMIs-based condition depend on the lower and upper bounds of time delay. Finally, a numerical example is also designated to verify the reduced conservatism of developed criteria. PMID:24908560

  5. 7 CFR 625.12 - 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 30-year contracts. 625.12 Section 625.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.12 30-year contracts. (a) To enroll land...

  6. Modeling circadian and sleep-homeostatic effects on short-term interval timing

    PubMed Central

    Späti, Jakub; Aritake, Sayaka; Meyer, Andrea H.; Kitamura, Shingo; Hida, Akiko; Higuchi, Shigekazu; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Mishima, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Short-term interval timing i.e., perception and action relating to durations in the seconds range, has been suggested to display time-of-day as well as wake dependent fluctuations due to circadian and sleep-homeostatic changes to the rate at which an underlying pacemaker emits pulses; pertinent human data being relatively sparse and lacking in consistency however, the phenomenon remains elusive and its mechanism poorly understood. To better characterize the putative circadian and sleep-homeostatic effects on interval timing and to assess the ability of a pacemaker-based mechanism to account for the data, we measured timing performance in eighteen young healthy male subjects across two epochs of sustained wakefulness of 38.67 h each, conducted prior to (under entrained conditions) and following (under free-running conditions) a 28 h sleep-wake schedule, using the methods of duration estimation and duration production on target intervals of 10 and 40 s. Our findings of opposing oscillatory time courses across both epochs of sustained wakefulness that combine with increasing and, respectively, decreasing, saturating exponential change for the tasks of estimation and production are consistent with the hypothesis that a pacemaker emitting pulses at a rate controlled by the circadian oscillator and increasing with time awake determines human short-term interval timing; the duration-specificity of this pattern is interpreted as reflecting challenges to maintaining stable attention to the task that progressively increase with stimulus magnitude and thereby moderate the effects of pacemaker-rate changes on overt behavior. PMID:25741253

  7. Efficiency of time-lapse intervals and simple baits for camera surveys of wild pigs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.L.; Holtfreter, R.W.; Ditchkoff, S.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Growing concerns surrounding established and expanding populations of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have created the need for rapid and accurate surveys of these populations. We conducted surveys of a portion of the wild pig population on Fort Benning, Georgia, to determine if a longer time-lapse interval than had been previously used in surveys of wild pigs would generate similar detection results. We concurrently examined whether use of soured corn at camera sites affected the time necessary for pigs to locate a new camera site or the time pigs remained at a site. Our results suggest that a 9-min time-lapse interval generated dependable detection results for pigs and that soured corn neither attracted pigs to a site any quicker than plain, dry, whole-kernel corn, nor held them at a site longer. Maximization of time-lapse interval should decrease data and processing loads, and use of a simple, available bait should decrease cost and effort associated with more complicated baits; combination of these concepts should increase efficiency of wild pig surveys. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  8. Discrete time interval measurement system: fundamentals, resolution and errors in the measurement of angular vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez de León, F. C.; Meroño Pérez, P. A.

    2010-07-01

    The traditional method for measuring the velocity and the angular vibration in the shaft of rotating machines using incremental encoders is based on counting the pulses at given time intervals. This method is generically called the time interval measurement system (TIMS). A variant of this method that we have developed in this work consists of measuring the corresponding time of each pulse from the encoder and sampling the signal by means of an A/D converter as if it were an analog signal, that is to say, in discrete time. For this reason, we have denominated this method as the discrete time interval measurement system (DTIMS). This measurement system provides a substantial improvement in the precision and frequency resolution compared with the traditional method of counting pulses. In addition, this method permits modification of the width of some pulses in order to obtain a mark-phase on every lap. This paper explains the theoretical fundamentals of the DTIMS and its application for measuring the angular vibrations of rotating machines. It also displays the required relationship between the sampling rate of the signal, the number of pulses of the encoder and the rotating velocity in order to obtain the required resolution and to delimit the methodological errors in the measurement.

  9. H∞ control problem for Hopfield neural networks with interval time-varying delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emharuethai, Chanikan

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we consider H∞ control problem for a class Hopfield neural networks with interval time-varying delay. The time delay is a continuous function belonging to a given interval, but not necessariry differentiable. The stabilizing controllers to be designed must satisfy some exponential stability constraints on the closed-loop poles. Based on the construction of improved Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals combined with Newton-Leibniz formula. H∞ controller is designed via memoryless state feedback control and new sufficient conditions for the existence of the H∞ state-feedback for the system are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained result.

  10. Proceedings of the 14th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications Planning Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wardrip, S. C. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Developments and applications in the field of frequency and time are addressed. Specific topics include rubidium frequency standards, future timing requirements, noise and atomic standards, hydrogen maser technology, synchronization, and quartz technology.

  11. Loran-C expansion: Impact on precise time/time interval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeber, J. F., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    On 16 May 1974, it was announced that Loran-C was chosen as the navigation system to serve the U. S. Coastal Confluence Zone. At the present time, reliable CONUS Loran-C groundwave timing coverage extends westward only about as far as Boulder, CO. The groundwave hyperbolic and timing coverage which will result from the planned CONUS expansion are illustrated. Time frames are provided. A status report on the planned reduction in Loran-C PTTI tolerances is presented.

  12. Adaptation to visual or auditory time intervals modulates the perception of visual apparent motion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huihui; Chen, Lihan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2012-01-01

    It is debated whether sub-second timing is subserved by a centralized mechanism or by the intrinsic properties of task-related neural activity in specific modalities (Ivry and Schlerf, 2008). By using a temporal adaptation task, we investigated whether adapting to different time intervals conveyed through stimuli in different modalities (i.e., frames of a visual Ternus display, visual blinking discs, or auditory beeps) would affect the subsequent implicit perception of visual timing, i.e., inter-stimulus interval (ISI) between two frames in a Ternus display. The Ternus display can induce two percepts of apparent motion (AM), depending on the ISI between the two frames: “element motion” for short ISIs, in which the endmost disc is seen as moving back and forth while the middle disc at the overlapping or central position remains stationary; “group motion” for longer ISIs, in which both discs appear to move in a manner of lateral displacement as a whole. In Experiment 1, participants adapted to either the typical “element motion” (ISI = 50 ms) or the typical “group motion” (ISI = 200 ms). In Experiments 2 and 3, participants adapted to a time interval of 50 or 200 ms through observing a series of two paired blinking discs at the center of the screen (Experiment 2) or hearing a sequence of two paired beeps (with pitch 1000 Hz). In Experiment 4, participants adapted to sequences of paired beeps with either low pitches (500 Hz) or high pitches (5000 Hz). After adaptation in each trial, participants were presented with a Ternus probe in which the ISI between the two frames was equal to the transitional threshold of the two types of motions, as determined by a pretest. Results showed that adapting to the short time interval in all the situations led to more reports of “group motion” in the subsequent Ternus probes; adapting to the long time interval, however, caused no aftereffect for visual adaptation but significantly more reports of group motion for

  13. Effects of a Reduced Time-Out Interval on Compliance with the Time-Out Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Jeanne M.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Yakich, Theresa M.; Van Camp, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Time-out is a negative punishment procedure that parents and teachers commonly use to reduce problem behavior; however, specific time-out parameters have not been evaluated adequately. One parameter that has received relatively little attention in the literature is the mode of administration (verbal or physical) of time-out. In this study, we…

  14. Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The effects of ionospheric and tropospheric propagation on time and frequency transfer, advances in the generation of precise time and frequency, time transfer techniques and filtering and modeling were among the topics emphasized. Rubidium and cesium frequency standard, crystal oscillators, masers, Kalman filters, and atomic clocks were discussed.

  15. The Initial Systolic Time Interval in patients with spinal cord injury measured with impedance cardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekstra, Femke; Martinsen, Ørjan G.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.; Meijer, Jan H.

    2012-12-01

    The Initial Systolic Time Interval (ISTI), obtained from the electrocardiogram and impedance cardiogram, is considered to be a measure for the time delay between the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart. This time delay is influenced by the sympathetic nerve system. Therefore, an observational study was performed in a group of patients (SCI) with spinal cord injuries. The relationship between the ISTI and the total heart cycle (RR-interval) was established by varying the RR-interval using an exercise stimulus to increase the heart rate. The slope of this relationship was observed to be significantly higher in the SCI-group as compared with a control group, although there was no difference in ISTI in the range of common heart rates during the test between the groups. This slope and the ISTI was observed to be significantly different in an acute patient having a recent spinal cord injury at a high level. Because of the variety in injury levels and incompleteness of the injuries further, more specific research is necessary to draw decisive conclusions with respect to the contribution of autonomic nervous control on the ISTI in SCI, although the present observations are notable.

  16. Time on timing: Dissociating premature responding from interval sensitivity in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Nombela, Cristina; Wolpe, Noham; Barker, Roger A.; Rowe, James B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Parkinson's disease (PD) can cause impulsivity with premature responses, but there are several potential mechanisms. We proposed a distinction between poor decision‐making and the distortion of temporal perception. Both effects may be present and interact, but with different clinical and pharmacological correlates. Objectives This study assessed premature responding during time perception in PD. Methods In this study, 18 PD patients and 19 age‐matched controls completed 2 temporal discrimination tasks (bisection and trisection) and a baseline reaction‐time task. Timing sensitivity and decision‐making processes were quantified by response and response time. An extended version of the modified difference model was used to examine the precision of time representation and the modulation of response time by stimulus ambiguity. Results In the bisection task, patients had a lower bisection point (P < .05) and reduced timing sensitivity when compared with controls (P < .001). In the trisection task, patients showed lower sensitivity in discriminating between short and medium standards (P < .05). The impairment in timing sensitivity correlated positively with patients' levodopa dose equivalent (P < .05). Critically, patients had disproportionately faster response times when compared with controls in more ambiguous conditions, and the degree of acceleration of response time increased with disease severity (P < .05). Computational modeling indicated that patients had poorer precision in time representation and stronger modulation of response time by task ambiguity, leading to smaller scaling of the decision latency (P < .05). Conclusions These findings suggest that timing deficits in PD cannot be solely attributed to perceptual distortions, but are also associated with impulsive decision strategies that bias patients toward premature responses. © 2016 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on

  17. Model for the respiratory modulation of the heart beat-to-beat time interval series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capurro, Alberto; Diambra, Luis; Malta, C. P.

    2005-09-01

    In this study we present a model for the respiratory modulation of the heart beat-to-beat interval series. The model consists of a set of differential equations used to simulate the membrane potential of a single rabbit sinoatrial node cell, excited with a periodic input signal with added correlated noise. This signal, which simulates the input from the autonomous nervous system to the sinoatrial node, was included in the pacemaker equations as a modulation of the iNaK current pump and the potassium current iK. We focus at modeling the heart beat-to-beat time interval series from normal subjects during meditation of the Kundalini Yoga and Chi techniques. The analysis of the experimental data indicates that while the embedding of pre-meditation and control cases have a roughly circular shape, it acquires a polygonal shape during meditation, triangular for the Kundalini Yoga data and quadrangular in the case of Chi data. The model was used to assess the waveshape of the respiratory signals needed to reproduce the trajectory of the experimental data in the phase space. The embedding of the Chi data could be reproduced using a periodic signal obtained by smoothing a square wave. In the case of Kundalini Yoga data, the embedding was reproduced with a periodic signal obtained by smoothing a triangular wave having a rising branch of longer duration than the decreasing branch. Our study provides an estimation of the respiratory signal using only the heart beat-to-beat time interval series.

  18. The time lag and interval of discharge with a spring actuated fuel injection pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Robertson; Gardiner, A W

    1923-01-01

    Discussed here is research on a spring activated fuel pump for solid or airless injection with small, high speed internal combustion engines. The pump characteristics under investigation were the interval of fuel injection in terms of degrees of crank travel and in absolute time, the lag between the time the injection pump plunger begins its stroke and the appearance of the jet at the orifice, and the manner in which the fuel spray builds up to a maximum when the fuel valve is opened, and then diminishes.

  19. Automatic identification of fetal breathing movements in fetal RR interval time series.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, Peter; Voss, Anna; Cysarz, Dirk; Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Grönemeyer, Dietrich

    2012-03-01

    Fetal breathing movements are associated with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). We present an algorithm which processes RR interval time series in the time and frequency domain, identifying spectral peaks with characteristics consistent with fetal RSA. Tested on 50 data sets from the second and third trimester, the algorithm had a sensitivity of 96.1%, false positive rate 35.7%, false negative rate 3.9%. The characteristics of automatically and visually identified episodes were very similar and corresponded the expected changes over gestation. The method is suited for easy and reliable identification of fetal breathing movements. PMID:21621759

  20. Time interval moderates the relationship between psyching-up and actual sprint performance.

    PubMed

    Hammoudi-Nassib, Sarra; Chtara, Moktar; Nassib, Sabri; Briki, Walid; Hammoudi-Riahi, Sabra; Tod, David; Chamari, Karim

    2014-11-01

    This study attempted to test whether the strongest effect of psyching-up (PU) strategy on actual sprint performance can be observed when the strategy is used immediately (or almost) before performance compared with when there is a delay between PU and performance. To do so, 16 male sprinters (age, 20.6 ± 1.3 years; body mass, 77.5 ± 7.1 kg; height, 180.8 ± 5.6 cm) were enrolled in a counterbalanced experimental design in which participants were randomly assigned to 10 sessions (2 [Experimental Condition: imagery vs. distraction] × 5 [Time Intervals: no interval, 1 minute, 2 minutes, 3 minutes, and 5 minutes]). Before performing the experimental tasks, participants rated: (a) the Hooper index, (b) their degree of self-confidence, and (c) after the completion of the experimental test; they rated their perceived effort. Findings showed that the imagery significantly improved sprint performance. Specifically, the imagery enhanced performance on the phase of acceleration (0-10 m) and on the overall sprint (0-30 m) when used immediately before performance and at 1- and 2-minute intervals but not for 3- and 5-minute intervals. These findings support the hypothesis that the potential effect of the PU strategy on performance vanishes over time. The pre-experimental task Hooper and self-efficacy indexes did not change across the 10 experimental sessions, reinforcing the view that the observed performance changes were directly caused by the experimental manipulation and not through any altered status of the athletes (self-efficacy, fatigue/recovery, and stress). The potential mechanisms underlying such a process and practical applications are discussed. PMID:25029002

  1. A BiCMOS time interval digitizer based on fully-differential, current-steering circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Loinaz, M.J.; Wooley, B.A. . Center for Integrated Systems)

    1994-06-01

    A time interval digitizer cell with a 0--16 ns input range and a nominal LSB width of 1.0 ns has been integrated in a 2-[mu]m BiCMOS technology. The circuit exhibits both integral and differential nonlinearity below 0.15 LSB and a timing error of 0.32 ns RMS. Logic gate propagation delays are used as time measurement units, and the nominal value of the delays is set by an on-chip phase-locked loop (PLL). Fully-differential, current-steering circuits with low voltage swings are used to implement the time interval digitizer so as to generate minimal switching noise. The cell is to be used in the monolithic, multi-channel realization of a high-sensitivity, mixed-signal data acquisition front-end. By virtue of the time digitization architecture used, the average power dissipation of the cell is only 19.8 mW, despite the use of circuits that dissipate static power, and the layout area is a compact 448 [mu]m x 634 [mu]m.

  2. Time and again: effects of repetition and retention interval on 2 year olds' event recall.

    PubMed

    Fivush, R; Hamond, N R

    1989-04-01

    How and what very young children remember is a central question for understanding the course of memory development. In this research, we examined the effects of two factors on 2-year-old children's ability to recall novel events: repetition of the experience and time since experience. Twenty 24-month-old and twenty 28-month-old children participated in unusual laboratory play events. Half of the children returned after a 2-week delay and again after a 3-month delay (repeated experience condition); the remaining children returned only after 3 months (single experience condition). Memory was assessed by asking children to reenact the events. Recall was generally accurate, and there were no significant effects of age. All children recalled more information about the activities associated with the event than about the objects. Surprisingly, children in the repeated experience condition recalled as much about the events at the 3-month retention interval as at the 2-week retention interval. Further, children in this condition recalled more information at the 3-month retention interval than children in the single experience condition, suggesting that reexperiencing an event may guard against long-term forgetting. PMID:2703807

  3. Effect of Variations in IRU Integration Time Interval On Accuracy of Aqua Attitude Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natanson, G. A.; Tracewell, Dave

    2003-01-01

    During Aqua launch support, attitude analysts noticed several anomalies in Onboard Computer (OBC) rates and in rates computed by the ground Attitude Determination System (ADS). These included: 1) periodic jumps in the OBC pitch rate every 2 minutes; 2) spikes in ADS pitch rate every 4 minutes; 3) close agreement between pitch rates computed by ADS and those derived from telemetered OBC quaternions (in contrast to the step-wise pattern observed for telemetered OBC rates); 4) spikes of +/- 10 milliseconds in telemetered IRU integration time every 4 minutes (despite the fact that telemetered time tags of any two sequential IRU measurements were always 1 second apart from each other). An analysis presented in the paper explains this anomalous behavior by a small average offset of about 0.5 +/- 0.05 microsec in the time interval between two sequential accumulated angle measurements. It is shown that errors in the estimated pitch angle due to neglecting the aforementioned variations in the integration time interval by the OBC is within +/- 2 arcseconds. Ground attitude solutions are found to be accurate enough to see the effect of the variations on the accuracy of the estimated pitch angle.

  4. Combination of equiprobable symbolization and time reversal asymmetry for heartbeat interval series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Fengzhen; Huang, Xiaolin; Chen, Ying; Huo, Chengyu; Liu, Hongxing; Ning, Xinbao

    2013-01-01

    Symbolic dynamics method and time reversal asymmetry analysis are both important approaches in the study of heartbeat interval series. However, there is limited research work reported on combining these two methods. We provide a method of time reversal asymmetry analysis which focuses on the differences between the forward and backward embedding “m words” after the operation of equiprobable symbolization. To investigate the total amplitude as well as the distribution features of the difference, four indices are proposed. Based on the application to simulation series, we found that these measures can successfully detect time reversal asymmetry in chaos series. With application to human heartbeat interval series (RR series), it is suggested that the distribution features of the forward-backward difference can sensitively capture the dynamical changes caused by diseases or aging. In particular, the index ED, which reflects the random degree of the forward-backward difference distribution, can significantly discriminate healthy subjects from diseased ones. We conclude that RR series from healthy subjects show more asymmetry in temporal structure on the original time scale from the perspective of equiprobable symbolization, whereas diseases account for loss of this asymmetry.

  5. The delayed reproduction of long time intervals defined by innocuous thermal sensation.

    PubMed

    Khoshnejad, Mina; Martinu, Kristina; Grondin, Simon; Rainville, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The presence of discrete events during an interval to be estimated generally causes a dilation of perceived duration (event-filling effect). Here, we investigated this phenomenon in the thermal modality using multi-seconds (19 s) innocuous cool stimuli that were either constant (continuous interval) or fluctuating to create three discrete sensory events (segmented interval). Moreover, we introduced a delay following stimulus offset, before the reproduction phase, to allow for a direct comparison with our recent study showing an underestimation of duration in a delayed reproduction task of heat pain sensations (Khoshnejad et al. in Pain 155:581-590, 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2013.12.015 ). The event-filling effect was tested by comparing the delayed reproduction of the segmented and the continuous stimuli in experimental conditions asking participants to (1) reproduce the dynamics of the sensation (i.e., changes in sensory intensity over time) or (2) reproduce only the interval duration (i.e., sensation onset-to-offset). A perceptual (control) condition required participants to report changes in sensation concurrently with the stimulus. Results of the dynamic task confirmed the underestimation of duration in the delayed reproduction task, but this effect was only found with the continuous and not with the segmented stimulus. This implies that the dilation of duration produced by segmentation might compensate for the underestimation of duration in this delayed reproduction task. However, this temporal dilation effect was only observed when participants were required to attend and reproduce the dynamics of sensation. These results suggest that the event-filling effect can be observed in the thermal sensory modality and that attention directed toward changes in sensory intensity might contribute to this effect. PMID:26724930

  6. The impact of different sampling rates and calculation time intervals on ROTI values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Knut Stanley

    2014-11-01

    The ROTI (Rate of TEC index) is a commonly used measure of ionospheric irregularities level. The algorithm to calculate ROTI is easily implemented, and is the same from paper to paper. However, the sample rate of the GNSS data used, and the time interval over which a value of ROTI is calculated, varies from paper to paper. When comparing ROTI values from different studies, this must be taken into account. This paper aims to show what these differences are, to increase the awareness of this issue. We have investigated the effect of different parameters for the calculation of ROTI values, using one year of data from 8 receivers at latitudes ranging from 59° N to 79° N. We have found that the ROTI values calculated using different parameter choices are strongly positively correlated. However, the ROTI values are quite different. The effect of a lower sample rate is to lower the ROTI value, due to the loss of high-frequency parts of the ROT spectrum, while the effect of a longer calculation time interval is to remove or reduce short-lived peaks due to the inherent smoothing effect. The ratio of ROTI values based on data of different sampling rate is examined in relation to the ROT power spectrum. Of relevance to statistical studies, we find that the median level of ROTI depends strongly on sample rate, strongly on latitude at auroral latitudes, and weakly on time interval. Thus, a baseline "quiet" or "noisy" level for one location or choice or parameters may not be valid for another location or choice of parameters.

  7. Dimensional regularization of the path integral in curved space on an infinite time interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastianelli, F.; Corradini, O.; van Nieuwenhuizen, P.

    2000-09-01

    We use dimensional regularization to evaluate quantum mechanical path integrals in arbitrary curved spaces on an infinite time interval. We perform 3-loop calculations in Riemann normal coordinates, and 2-loop calculations in general coordinates. It is shown that one only needs a covariant two-loop counterterm (VDR=ℏ2/8R) to obtain the same results as obtained earlier in other regularization schemes. It is also shown that the mass term needed in order to avoid infrared divergences explicitly breaks general covariance in the final result.

  8. [Fetal systolic time intervals in threatened premature labor and their relation to therapeutic efforts].

    PubMed

    Ruckhäberle, K E; Vogtmann, C; Forberg, J; Viehweg, B; Chaikha, S

    1989-01-01

    In a total of 113 single pregnancies we determined foetal systolic time intervals (pre-ejection period, left ventricular ejection time, a quotient of both) in order to investigate the impact of threatened premature labour and the different therapeutic regimen (betamimetics, maternal O2-inhalation, maternal transcutaneous dorsal nerve stimulation) on the myocardial performance capacity. Prolonged systolic time intervals (significant for pre-ejection period) in threatened premature labour (compared with control) supplement the concept of a chronic respiratory impairment of the foe-to-materno-placental relationships. Therapeutic prolongation of the pregnancy by betamimetics led to further impairment of the myocardial contractility while additional oxygen inhalation brought about a positive effect. As indicated by "no changes" after transcutaneous dorsal nerve stimulation, the decisive effect apparently seems not to be in the improvement of the uteroplacental perfusion but more on the direct influence of the raised O2-provision on the foetal myocardium. Non-demonstrable obvious relations to the cardiotocographic findings, such as to the postnatal evaluation criteria, speak against a serious threat to the foetus as the advantages of a reasonable prolongation of the gestational period by betamimetics preponderate. More than that the foetal myocardial impairments are to be favourably influenced by additional O2-therapy. PMID:2669398

  9. Comparative evaluation of nickel discharge from brackets in artificial saliva at different time intervals

    PubMed Central

    Jithesh, C.; Venkataramana, V.; Penumatsa, Narendravarma; Reddy, S. N.; Poornima, K. Y.; Rajasigamani, K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine and compare the potential difference of nickel release from three different orthodontic brackets, in different artificial pH, in different time intervals. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven samples of three different orthodontic brackets were selected and grouped as 1, 2, and 3. Each group was divided into three subgroups depending on the type of orthodontic brackets, salivary pH and the time interval. The Nickel release from each subgroup were analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer, Optima 2100 DV, USA) model. Quantitative analysis of nickel was performed three times, and the mean value was used as result. ANOVA (F-test) was used to test the significant difference among the groups at 0.05 level of significance (P < 0.05). The descriptive method of statistics was used to calculate the mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum. SPSS 18 software ((SPSS.Ltd, Quarry bay, Hong Kong, PASW-statistics 18) was used to analyze the study. Result: The analysis shows a significant difference between three groups. The study shows that the nickel releases from the recycled stainless steel brackets have the highest at all 4.2 pH except in 120 h. Conclusion: The study result shows that the nickel release from the recycled stainless steel brackets is highest. Metal slot ceramic bracket release significantly less nickel. So, recycled stainless steel brackets should not be used for nickel allergic patients. Metal slot ceramic brackets are advisable. PMID:26538924

  10. Assessing the Impact of Different Measurement Time Intervals on Observed Long-Term Wind Speed Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorin-Molina, C.; Vicente-Serrano, S. M.; McVicar, T.; Jerez, S.; Revuelto, J.; López Moreno, J. I.

    2014-12-01

    During the last two decades climate studies have reported a tendency toward a decline in measured near-surface wind speed in some regions of Europe, North America, Asia and Australia. This weakening in observed wind speed has been recently termed "global stilling", showing a worldwide average trend of -0.140 m s-1 dec-1 during last 50-years. The precise cause of the "global stilling" remains largely uncertain and has been hypothetically attributed to several factors, mainly related to: (i) an increasing surface roughness (i.e. forest growth, land use changes, and urbanization); (ii) a slowdown in large-scale atmospheric circulation; (iii) instrumental drifts and technological improvements, maintenance, and shifts in measurements sites and calibration issues; (iv) sunlight dimming due to air pollution; and (v) astronomical changes. This study proposed a novel investigation aimed at analyzing how different measurement time intervals used to calculate a wind speed series can affect the sign and magnitude of long-term wind speed trends. For instance, National Weather Services across the globe estimate daily average wind speed using different time intervals and formulae that may affect the trend results. Firstly, we carried out a comprehensive review of wind studies reporting the sign and magnitude of wind speed trend and the sampling intervals used. Secondly, we analyzed near-surface wind speed trends recorded at 59 land-based stations across Spain comparing monthly mean wind speed series obtained from: (a) daily mean wind speed data averaged from standard 10-min mean observations at 0000, 0700, 1300 and 1800 UTC; and (b) average wind speed of 24 hourly measurements (i.e., wind run measurements) from 0000 to 2400 UTC. Thirdly and finally, we quantified the impact of anemometer drift (i.e. bearing malfunction) by presenting preliminary results (1-year of paired measurements) from a comparison of one new anemometer sensor against one malfunctioned anenometer sensor due

  11. Time interval measurement device based on surface acoustic wave filter excitation, providing 1 ps precision and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panek, Petr; Prochazka, Ivan

    2007-09-01

    This article deals with the time interval measurement device, which is based on a surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter as a time interpolator. The operating principle is based on the fact that a transversal SAW filter excited by a short pulse can generate a finite signal with highly suppressed spectra outside a narrow frequency band. If the responses to two excitations are sampled at clock ticks, they can be precisely reconstructed from a finite number of samples and then compared so as to determine the time interval between the two excitations. We have designed and constructed a two-channel time interval measurement device which allows independent timing of two events and evaluation of the time interval between them. The device has been constructed using commercially available components. The experimental results proved the concept. We have assessed the single-shot time interval measurement precision of 1.3ps rms that corresponds to the time of arrival precision of 0.9ps rms in each channel. The temperature drift of the measured time interval on temperature is lower than 0.5ps/K, and the long term stability is better than ±0.2ps/h. These are to our knowledge the best values reported for the time interval measurement device. The results are in good agreement with the error budget based on the theoretical analysis.

  12. Time interval measurement device based on surface acoustic wave filter excitation, providing 1 ps precision and stability.

    PubMed

    Panek, Petr; Prochazka, Ivan

    2007-09-01

    This article deals with the time interval measurement device, which is based on a surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter as a time interpolator. The operating principle is based on the fact that a transversal SAW filter excited by a short pulse can generate a finite signal with highly suppressed spectra outside a narrow frequency band. If the responses to two excitations are sampled at clock ticks, they can be precisely reconstructed from a finite number of samples and then compared so as to determine the time interval between the two excitations. We have designed and constructed a two-channel time interval measurement device which allows independent timing of two events and evaluation of the time interval between them. The device has been constructed using commercially available components. The experimental results proved the concept. We have assessed the single-shot time interval measurement precision of 1.3 ps rms that corresponds to the time of arrival precision of 0.9 ps rms in each channel. The temperature drift of the measured time interval on temperature is lower than 0.5 ps/K, and the long term stability is better than +/-0.2 ps/h. These are to our knowledge the best values reported for the time interval measurement device. The results are in good agreement with the error budget based on the theoretical analysis. PMID:17902964

  13. Measurements of systolic time intervals using a transoesophageal pulsed echo-Doppler.

    PubMed

    Tournadre, J P; Muchada, R; Lansiaux, S; Chassard, D

    1999-10-01

    Measurement of systolic time intervals (STI), an index of left ventricular (LV) systolic function, is usually labour intensive and requires considerable expertise to perform accurately. We have evaluated the accuracy of an automated, continuous and non-invasive STI measurement technique using a descending aortic blood velocity Doppler signal obtained using a transoesophageal echo-Doppler system (TEDS) and an ECG signal. STI were measured in adult pigs using a transoesophageal probe (4 x 4 mm pulsed wave Doppler transducer, 5-MHz frequency and a 3 x 3 mm echo transducer, 10-MHz frequency) associated with an ECG recorder. Measurements were performed at baseline and after injection of esmolol and dobutamine. TEDS data were compared with those obtained by one-line recordings of the electrocardiogram and the central aortic arterial pressure wave. Similar mean values were observed for pre-ejection period (PEPI), LV ejection time (LVET) and PEP/LVET with the two methods. Agreement between the methods (Bland and Altman's test) was excellent with 95% confidence intervals for PEP, LVET and PEP/LVET of -7.17 to +1.37 ms, -12.64 to +0.24 ms and -0.033 to +0.028, respectively. We conclude that the combination of descending aorta blood velocity Doppler and ECG signal is an alternative technique for non-invasive and objective measurement of STI, allowing continuous monitoring of LV systolic function. PMID:10673883

  14. One-Year Real-Time Operational Prediction Intervals for Direct Normal Irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Y.; Carreira Pedro, H. T.; Coimbra, C. F.

    2015-12-01

    This work describes an algorithm to generate intra-hour prediction intervals (PIs) for the highly-variable direct normal irradiance, which is the energy source for the concentrated solar power technologies. The prediction intervals are generated using a Multi-layer Stochastic-Learning Model (MSLM), which is developed based on methods such as: sky imaging techniques, support vector machine and artificial neural network. The MSLM is trained using one year of co-located, high-quality irradiance and sky image recording in Folsom, California. In addition to being validated with historical data, the algorithm has been generating operational PI forecasts in real-time for that observatory since July 1st 2014. In the real-time scenario, without re-training or significant maintenance, the hybrid model consistently provides valid PI (PICP > 92%) and outperforms the reference persistence model (PICP ~ 85%) regardless of weather condition. This work has great impact in the field of solar energy to potentially facilitate the level of solar penetration in the grid with significantly reduced integration costs.

  15. Detection of abnormal item based on time intervals for recommender systems.

    PubMed

    Gao, Min; Yuan, Quan; Ling, Bin; Xiong, Qingyu

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of e-business, personalized recommendation has become core competence for enterprises to gain profits and improve customer satisfaction. Although collaborative filtering is the most successful approach for building a recommender system, it suffers from "shilling" attacks. In recent years, the research on shilling attacks has been greatly improved. However, the approaches suffer from serious problem in attack model dependency and high computational cost. To solve the problem, an approach for the detection of abnormal item is proposed in this paper. In the paper, two common features of all attack models are analyzed at first. A revised bottom-up discretized approach is then proposed based on time intervals and the features for the detection. The distributions of ratings in different time intervals are compared to detect anomaly based on the calculation of chi square distribution (χ(2)). We evaluated our approach on four types of items which are defined according to the life cycles of these items. The experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves a high detection rate with low computational cost when the number of attack profiles is more than 15. It improves the efficiency in shilling attacks detection by narrowing down the suspicious users. PMID:24693248

  16. Pre- and postflight systolic time intervals during LBNP: the second manned Skylab mission.

    PubMed

    Bergman, S A; Hoffler, G W; Johnson, R L; Wolthuis, R A

    1976-04-01

    After space flight of 59 d, Skylab 3 astronauts were stressed with lower body negative pressure (LBNP). During this stress procedure vectorcardiograms, pneumograms, phonocardiograms, and carotid pulse tracings were monitored and recorded onto analog tape. Accepted techniques were used to measure the intervals of systole. The postflight results were compared to multiple preflight tests and each of the three crewmen served as his own control. Immediately postflight, there were elevations in heart rate and blood pressure in response to a fixed level (-50 mm Hg) of LBNP. Total electromechanical systole, (Q-S2) I, was unchanged. Ejection time index (ETI) was depressed at rest and during stress, while pre-ejection period was elevated compared with preflight values. Systolic time intervals (STI) were within preflight limits after 1 month on earth in all crewmen. Resting STI returned sooner than did stressed STI. The magnitude and direction of STI in the postflight period were similar to those obtained from patients with moderate heart disease, although signs and symptoms were absent in the astronauts. However, the abnormality of the stressed STI persisted after both blood volume repletion and lowered afterload. These findings suggest a compromise in cardiac function, peripheral circulatory integrity, or both after exposure to long-duration space flight, and are consistent with findings reported after 3 weeks of absolute bedrest. PMID:1275822

  17. Detection of Abnormal Item Based on Time Intervals for Recommender Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Quan; Ling, Bin; Xiong, Qingyu

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of e-business, personalized recommendation has become core competence for enterprises to gain profits and improve customer satisfaction. Although collaborative filtering is the most successful approach for building a recommender system, it suffers from “shilling” attacks. In recent years, the research on shilling attacks has been greatly improved. However, the approaches suffer from serious problem in attack model dependency and high computational cost. To solve the problem, an approach for the detection of abnormal item is proposed in this paper. In the paper, two common features of all attack models are analyzed at first. A revised bottom-up discretized approach is then proposed based on time intervals and the features for the detection. The distributions of ratings in different time intervals are compared to detect anomaly based on the calculation of chi square distribution (χ2). We evaluated our approach on four types of items which are defined according to the life cycles of these items. The experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves a high detection rate with low computational cost when the number of attack profiles is more than 15. It improves the efficiency in shilling attacks detection by narrowing down the suspicious users. PMID:24693248

  18. Amphetamine affects the start of responding in the peak interval timing task.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kathleen M; Horvitz, Jon C; Balsam, Peter D

    2007-02-22

    In this paper we investigate how amphetamine affects performance in a PI task by comparing two analyses of responding during peak trials. After training on 24 s fixed interval (FI-24) with 96 s peak trials, rats were given amphetamine for 4 consecutive days at doses of .5 and 1.0 mg/kg. Responses during peak trials were fitted with a Gaussian distribution to estimate the expected time of reinforcement from the peak time. A single trials analysis was also performed to determine the start time and stop time of the transition into and out of a high rate of responding on each peak trial. Amphetamine significantly decreased peak times as measured with the Gaussian curve fitting. However, in the single trials analysis, animals initiated responding significantly earlier, but did not stop responding earlier. Thus, fitting a Gaussian to the average performance across trials sometimes provides a different characterization of the timing process than does analyzing the start and stop of responding on individual trials. In the current experiment, the latter approach provided a more precise characterization of the effects of amphetamine on response timing. PMID:17222991

  19. 30 years of finite-gap integration theory.

    PubMed

    Matveev, Vladimir B

    2008-03-28

    The method of finite-gap integration was created to solve the periodic KdV initial problem. Its development during last 30 years, combining the spectral theory of differential and difference operators with periodic coefficients, the algebraic geometry of compact Riemann surfaces and their Jacobians, the Riemann theta functions and inverse problems, had a strong impact on the evolution of modern mathematics and theoretical physics. This article explains some of the principal historical points in the creation of this method during the period 1973-1976, and briefly comments on its evolution during the last 30 years. PMID:17594966

  20. First passage time distribution of a modified fractional diffusion equation in the semi-infinite interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Gang; Chen, Bin; Zhao, Xinjun; Zhao, Fang; Wang, Quanmin

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the first passage time (FPT) distribution for accelerating subdiffusion governed by the modified fractional diffusion equation which has a secondary fractional time derivative acting on a diffusion operator. For the FPT problem subject to absorbing barrier condition, we obtain exact analytical expressions for the FPT distribution as well as its Laplace transform in the semi-infinite interval. Most of the results have been derived by using the Laplace transform, the Fourier Cosine transform, the Mellin transform and the properties of the Fox H-function. In contrast to the Laplace transform of the FPT distribution which can be expressed elegantly and neatly, the exact solution for the FPT distribution requires an infinite series of Fox H-functions instead of a single Fox H-function. Numerical result reveals that the crossover between the two distinct scaling regimes is apparent only when the discrepancy between the two diffusion exponents becomes more pronounced.

  1. Pigeons' wait-time responses to transitions in interfood-interval duration: Another look at cyclic schedule performance

    PubMed Central

    Higa, Jennifer J.; Thaw, Jean M.; Staddon, John E. R.

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments reveal that animals can rapidly learn about intervals of time. We studied the nature of this fast-acting process in two experiments. In Experiment 1 pigeons were exposed to a modified fixed-time schedule, in which the time between food rewards (interfood interval) changed at an unpredictable point in each session, either decreasing from 15 to 5 s (step-down) or increasing from 15 to 45 s (step-up). The birds were able to track under both conditions by producing postreinforcement wait times proportional to the preceding interfood-interval duration. However, the time course of responding differed: Tracking was apparently more gradual in the step-up condition. Experiment 2 studied the effect of having both kinds of transitions within the same session by exposing pigeons to a repeating (cyclic) sequence of the interfood-interval values used in Experiment 1. Pigeons detected changes in the input sequence of interfood intervals, but only for a few sessions—discrimination worsened with further training. The dynamic effects we observed do not support a linear waiting process of time discrimination, but instead point to a timing mechanism based on the frequency and recency of prior interfood intervals and not the preceding interfood interval alone. PMID:16812693

  2. Continuous-time interval model identification of blood glucose dynamics for type 1 diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchsteiger, Harald; Johansson, Rolf; Renard, Eric; del Re, Luigi

    2014-07-01

    While good physiological models of the glucose metabolism in type 1 diabetic patients are well known, their parameterisation is difficult. The high intra-patient variability observed is a further major obstacle. This holds for data-based models too, so that no good patient-specific models are available. Against this background, this paper proposes the use of interval models to cover the different metabolic conditions. The control-oriented models contain a carbohydrate and insulin sensitivity factor to be used for insulin bolus calculators directly. Available clinical measurements were sampled on an irregular schedule which prompts the use of continuous-time identification, also for the direct estimation of the clinically interpretable factors mentioned above. An identification method is derived and applied to real data from 28 diabetic patients. Model estimation was done on a clinical data-set, whereas validation results shown were done on an out-of-clinic, everyday life data-set. The results show that the interval model approach allows a much more regular estimation of the parameters and avoids physiologically incompatible parameter estimates.

  3. 30 years of change in water-limited ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horion, S.; Fensholt, R.; Verbesselt, J.; Tagesson, T.; Grogan, K.; Ehammer, A.; Tian, F.

    2014-12-01

    Water availability limits plant growth and production in most terrestrial ecosystems. However these ecosystems do not show the same sensitivity to changes in precipitation. Water-limited ecosystems are defined here as ecosystems where rainfall is the dominant climate constraint to plant growth. Drought-prone and often characterized by increasing human pressure on land and natural resources, these regions are amongst the most vulnerable on Earth. Despite the many years of research, a clear understanding of changes in vegetation dynamics and species distribution, as well as related drivers, has not been reached yet. In this research we take advantage of the 30years time span offered by the GIMMS FAPAR3g dataset to investigate abrupt and gradual changes in Rain-Use Efficiency (RUE). Using the piece-wise regression method implemented in BFAST (Breaks For Additive Season and Trend) and BFAST01, a change type classification scheme is produced for water-limited ecosystems. Compared to classical non-parametric trend analysis, this approach allows detecting trend shifts during the study period. This global scale analysis revealed that for more than 50% of the cases no significant changes in RUE were registered between 1982 and 2011. Whereas when significant changes were registered, monotonic increase was the predominant type of changes. Large patches of reversing trends were also observed, notably in Asia (China, Kazakhstan), in the Sahelian region (Sudan, Ethiopia, Senegal), and in South America (Peru and Argentina). Even though reversing trends appear to be more frequently observed in regions with high land cover change dynamics, a comprehensive attribution of drivers for all recorded changes is still under discussion. Indeed the co-occurrence of global drivers (such as change in climate and in extreme events) and local drivers (such as land-cover changes) makes it a very delicate task.

  4. Cumulative Instructional Time and Relative Effectiveness Conclusions: Extending Research on Response Intervals, Learning, and Measurement Scale.

    PubMed

    Black, Michelle P; Skinner, Christopher H; Forbes, Bethany E; McCurdy, Merilee; Coleman, Mari Beth; Davis, Kristie; Gettelfinger, Maripat

    2016-03-01

    Adapted alternating treatments designs were used to evaluate three computer-based flashcard reading interventions (1-s, 3-s, or 5-s response intervals) across two students with disabilities. When learning was plotted with cumulative instructional sessions on the horizontal axis, the session-series graphs suggest that the interventions were similarly effective. When the same data were plotted as a function of cumulative instructional seconds, time-series graphs suggest that the 1-s intervention caused the most rapid learning for one student. Discussion focuses on applied implications of comparative effectiveness studies and why measures of cumulative instructional time are needed to identify the most effective intervention(s).Comparative effectiveness studies may not identify the intervention which causes the most rapid learning.Session-series repeated measures are not the same as time-series repeated measures.Measuring the time students spend in each intervention (i.e., cumulative instructional seconds) allows practitioners to identify interventions that enhance learning most rapidly.Student time spent working under interventions is critical for drawing applied conclusions. PMID:27606240

  5. [Revista de Saúde Pública: 30 years of evolution].

    PubMed

    da Silva, L J

    1996-12-01

    Analysis of the main characteristics of the "Revista de Saúde Pública" during the 30 years of its existence. A parallel is traced with the evolution of brazilian public health. The dynamic aspect of the "Revista" is remembered as one of its main virtues. Its future in the constitution of the Mercosul regional block is discussed. PMID:9302818

  6. "JTPE": A 30-Year Retrospective of Published Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Jesse L.; Woods, Amelia M.; Daum, David N.; Ellison, Douglas; Trendowski, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    This case study presents an examination of 30 years of "Journal of Teaching in Physical Education" ("JTPE") research. The purpose of this study was to provide a retrospective view of "JTPE" and its contribution to the field of physical education. In this effort the current study employed citation analysis, co-author…

  7. Education and HIV/AIDS--30 Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggleton, Peter; Yankah, Ekua; Crewe, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Education has long been identified as having a key role to play in reducing HIV-related risk and vulnerability, and in mitigating the impact of the epidemic on affected individuals and communities. This article reflects on progress over a 30-year period with respect to older and more emergent forms of education concerning HIV and AIDS: treatment…

  8. Historical Lassa fever reports and 30-year clinical update.

    PubMed

    Macher, Abe M; Wolfe, Martin S

    2006-05-01

    Five cases of Lassa fever have been imported from West Africa to the United States since 1969. We report symptoms of the patient with the second imported case and the symptoms and long-term follow-up on the patient with the third case. Vertigo in this patient has persisted for 30 years. PMID:16704848

  9. Historical Lassa Fever Reports and 30-year Clinical Update

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Martin S.

    2006-01-01

    Five cases of Lassa fever have been imported from West Africa to the United States since 1969. We report symptoms of the patient with the second imported case and the symptoms and long-term follow-up on the patient with the third case. Vertigo in this patient has persisted for 30 years. PMID:16704848

  10. On the gap and time interval between the first two maxima of long continuous time random walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mounaix, Philippe; Schehr, Grégory; Majumdar, Satya N.

    2016-01-01

    We consider a one-dimensional continuous time random walk (CTRW) on a fixed time interval T where at each time step the walker waits a random time τ, before performing a jump drawn from a symmetric continuous probability distribution function (PDF) f(η ) , of Lévy index 0<μ ≤slant 2 . Our study includes the case where the waiting time PDF \\Psi(τ ) has a power law tail, \\Psi(τ )\\propto {τ-1-γ} , with 0<γ <1 , such that the average time between two consecutive jumps is infinite. The random motion is sub-diffusive if γ <μ /2 (and super-diffusive if γ >μ /2 ). We investigate the joint PDF of the gap g between the first two highest positions of the CTRW and the time t separating these two maxima. We show that this PDF reaches a stationary limiting joint distribution p(g, t) in the limit of long CTRW, T\\to ∞ . Our exact analytical results show a very rich behavior of this joint PDF in the (γ,μ ) plane, which we study in great detail. Our main results are verified by numerical simulations. This work provides a non trivial extension to CTRWs of the recent study in the discrete time setting by Majumdar et al (2014 J. Stat. Mech. P09013).

  11. Robust reliable guaranteed cost control of positive interval systems with multiple time delays and actuator failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ji-Shi; Wang, Yan-Wu; Xiao, Jiang-Wen; Chen, Yang

    2016-03-01

    This paper addresses the robust reliable guaranteed cost control problem of positive interval systems with multiple time delays and actuator failure for a given quadratic cost function. Through constructing a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, a sufficient condition for the existence of robust reliable guaranteed cost controllers is established such that the closed-loop system is positive and asymptotically stable, and the cost function is guaranteed to be no more than a certain upper bound. Based on the linear matrix inequality method, a criterion for the design of robust reliable guaranteed cost controllers is derived which can tolerate all admissible uncertainties as well as actuator failure. Moreover, a convex optimisation problem with linear matrix inequality constraints is formulated to design the optimal robust reliable guaranteed cost controller which minimises the upper bound of the closed-loop system cost. A numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  12. Variable interval time/temperature (VITT) defrost-control-system evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-12

    Two variable-interval-time/temperature (VITT) heat pump defrost control systems are analyzed to determine if systems manufactured by Honeywell and Ranco qualify for credit for heat pumps with demand defrost control. The operation of the systems is described. VITT controls are not demand defrost control systems but utilize demand defrost control as backup systems in most Ranco models and all Honeywell models. The evaluations and results, intended to provide DOE information in making its determinations regarding credits for the control systems are discussed. The evaluation methodology utilizes a modified version of the Heat Pump Seasonal Performance Model (HPSPM) and the important modifications are discussed in Appendix A. Appendix B contains a detailed listing and discussion of the HPSPM output. (MCW)

  13. A novel implementation of homodyne time interval analysis method for primary vibration calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiao; Zhou, Ling; Cai, Chenguang; Hu, Hongbo

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, the shortcomings and their causes of the conventional homodyne time interval analysis (TIA) method is described with respect to its software algorithm and hardware implementation, based on which a simplified TIA method is proposed with the help of virtual instrument technology. Equipped with an ordinary Michelson interferometer and dual channel synchronous data acquisition card, the primary vibration calibration system using the simplified method can perform measurements of complex sensitivity of accelerometers accurately, meeting the uncertainty requirements laid down in pertaining ISO standard. The validity and accuracy of the simplified TIA method is verified by simulation and comparison experiments with its performance analyzed. This simplified method is recommended to apply in national metrology institute of developing countries and industrial primary vibration calibration labs for its simplified algorithm and low requirements on hardware.

  14. A sediment budget for southern Lake Michigan: source and sink models for different time intervals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Foster, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    Two terms dominate the modern sediment-budget equation: (1) bluff erosion, which is an order of magnitude larger than either rivers or aerosols as a source, and (2) deposition in the deep basin, which is more than two orders of magnitude greater as a sink than suspended sediment transport out of the basin. The attempt to reconstruct sediment budgets for time intervals of 100, 5000, and 10 000 years leads to important insights about erosion and sedimentation processes. Bluff erosion is the dominant source of both sand and mud in the basin. The deep lake floor is the primary sink for mud, whereas both the deep lake and nearshore areas are important sinks for sand. -from Authors

  15. Optimal time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy in preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Tae Won; Kim, Jong Hoon . E-mail: jhkim2@amc.seoul.kr; Choi, Won Sik; Kim, Hee Cheol; Chang, Heung Moon; Ryu, Min Hee; Jang, Se Jin; Ahn, Seung Do; Lee, Sang-wook; Shin, Seong Soo; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: Capecitabine and its metabolites reach peak plasma concentrations 1 to 2 hours after a single oral administration, and concentrations rapidly decrease thereafter. We performed a retrospective analysis to find the optimal time interval between capecitabine administration and radiotherapy for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: The time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy was measured in patients who were treated with preoperative radiotherapy and concurrent capecitabine for rectal cancer. Patients were classified into the following groups. Group A1 included patients who took capecitabine 1 hour before radiotherapy, and Group B1 included all other patients. Group B1 was then subdivided into Group A2 (patients who took capecitabine 2 hours before radiotherapy) and Group B2. Group B2 was further divided into Group A3 and Group B3 with the same method. Total mesorectal excision was performed 6 weeks after completion of chemoradiation and the pathologic response was evaluated. Results: A total of 200 patients were enrolled in this study. Pathologic examination showed that Group A1 had higher rates of complete regression of primary tumors in the rectum (23.5% vs. 9.6%, p = 0.01), good response (44.7% vs. 25.2%, p = 0.006), and lower T stages (p = 0.021) compared with Group B1; however, Groups A2 and A3 did not show any improvement compared with Groups B2 and B3. Multivariate analysis showed that increases in primary tumors in the rectum and good response were only significant when capecitabine was administered 1 hour before radiotherapy. Conclusion: In preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer, the pathologic response could be improved by administering capecitabine 1 hour before radiotherapy.

  16. Protein supplementation during a short-interval prostaglandin-based protocol for timed AI in sheep.

    PubMed

    Fierro, S; Gil, J; Viñoles, C; Soca, F; Banchero, G; Olivera-Muzante, J

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this experiment was to improve the reproductive performance of a short-interval prostaglandin (PG)-based protocol for timed artificial insemination in sheep, using a short-term nutritional treatment. During the breeding season (March-April), 132 multiparous and 61 nulliparous Corriedale ewes grazing natural pastures (600 kg DM/ha, 8.5% CP), were allocated to two groups: 1, Control group (n=100) two injections of D-Cloprostenol (75 μg per dose, 7d apart: Synchrovine(®) protocol); and 2, Supplemented group (n=93) ewes in which stage of the oestrous cycle was synchronised with Synchrovine(®) protocol plus focus feeding of a protein supplement (33.8% CP) between PG doses (Day -7 to -2). Cervical AI was performed at fixed time (Day 0), 46 ± 1.0 h after the second PG injection using 150 million sperm per ewe. Ovulation rate (Day 10), pregnancy rate, prolificacy and fecundity at Day 69 were evaluated by ultrasonography. Ovulation rate at Day 10 (1.20 ± 0.05 vs. 1.22 ± 0.05), pregnancy (46 ± 0.05 vs. 56 ± 0.05), prolificacy (1.09 ± 0.04 vs. 1.06 ± 0.05), and fecundity (0.49 ± 0.06 vs. 0.59 ± 0.06) at Day 69, were similar between groups (P>0.05; Control and Supplemented group respectively). It is concluded that focus feeding for 6d with protein supplementation during a short-interval PG-based protocol (Synchrovine(®)) did not improve the reproductive outcome associated with this protocol. PMID:25129637

  17. Reasoning about real-time systems with temporal interval logic constraints on multi-state automata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabrielian, Armen

    1991-01-01

    Models of real-time systems using a single paradigm often turn out to be inadequate, whether the paradigm is based on states, rules, event sequences, or logic. A model-based approach to reasoning about real-time systems is presented in which a temporal interval logic called TIL is employed to define constraints on a new type of high level automata. The combination, called hierarchical multi-state (HMS) machines, can be used to model formally a real-time system, a dynamic set of requirements, the environment, heuristic knowledge about planning-related problem solving, and the computational states of the reasoning mechanism. In this framework, mathematical techniques were developed for: (1) proving the correctness of a representation; (2) planning of concurrent tasks to achieve goals; and (3) scheduling of plans to satisfy complex temporal constraints. HMS machines allow reasoning about a real-time system from a model of how truth arises instead of merely depending of what is true in a system.

  18. An Efficient Format for Nearly Constant-Time Access to Arbitrary Time Intervals in Large Trace Files

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chan, Anthony; Gropp, William; Lusk, Ewing

    2008-01-01

    A powerful method to aid in understanding the performance of parallel applications uses log or trace files containing time-stamped events and states (pairs of events). These trace files can be very large, often hundreds or even thousands of megabytes. Because of the cost of accessing and displaying such files, other methods are often used that reduce the size of the tracefiles at the cost of sacrificing detail or other information. This paper describes a hierarchical trace file format that provides for display of an arbitrary time window in a time independent of the total size of the file andmore » roughly proportional to the number of events within the time window. This format eliminates the need to sacrifice data to achieve a smaller trace file size (since storage is inexpensive, it is necessary only to make efficient use of bandwidth to that storage). The format can be used to organize a trace file or to create a separate file of annotations that may be used with conventional trace files. We present an analysis of the time to access all of the events relevant to an interval of time and we describe experiments demonstrating the performance of this file format.« less

  19. Initial Systolic Time Interval (ISTI) as a Predictor of Intradialytic Hypotension (IDH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biesheuvel, J. D.; Vervloet, M. G.; Verdaasdonk, R. M.; Meijer, J. H.

    2013-04-01

    In haemodialysis treatment the clearance and volume control by the kidneys of a patient are partially replaced by intermittent haemodialysis. Because this artificial process is performed on a limited time scale, unphysiological imbalances in the fluid compartments of the body occur, that can lead to intradialytic hypotensions (IDH). An IDH endangers the efficacy of the haemodialysis session and is associated with dismal clinical endpoints, including mortality. A diagnostic method that predicts the occurrence of these drops in blood pressure could facilitate timely measures for the prevention of IDH. The present study investigates whether the Initial Systolic Time Interval (ISTI) can provide such a diagnostic method. The ISTI is defined as the time difference between the R-peak in the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the C-wave in the impedance cardiogram (ICG) and is considered to be a non-invasive assessment of the time delay between the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart. This time delay has previously been found to depend on autonomic nervous function as well as preload of the heart. Therefore, it can be expected that ISTI may predict an imminent IDH caused by a low circulating blood volume. This ongoing observational clinical study investigates the relationship between changes in ISTI and subsequent drops in blood pressure during haemodialysis. A registration of a complicated dialysis showed a significant correlation between a drop in blood pressure, a decrease in relative blood volume and a substantial increase in ISTI. An uncomplicated dialysis, in which also a considerable amount of fluid was removed, showed no correlations. Both, blood pressure and ISTI remained stable. In conclusion, the preliminary results of the present study show a substantial response of ISTI to haemodynamic instability, indicating an application in optimization and individualisation of the dialysis process.

  20. Probability distributions for quantum stress tensors measured in a finite time interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fewster, Christopher J.; Ford, L. H.

    2015-11-01

    A meaningful probability distribution for measurements of a quantum stress tensor operator can only be obtained if the operator is averaged in time or in spacetime. This averaging can be regarded as a description of the measurement process. Realistic measurements can be expected to begin and end at finite times, which means that they are described by functions with compact support, which we will also take to be smooth. Here we study the probability distributions for stress tensor operators averaged with such functions of time, in the vacuum state of a massless free field. Our primary aim is to understand the asymptotic form of the distribution which describes the probability of large vacuum fluctuations. Our approach involves asymptotic estimates for the high moments of the distribution. These estimates in turn may be used to obtain estimates for the asymptotic form of the probability distribution. Our results show that averaging over a finite interval results in a probability distribution which falls more slowly than for the case of Lorentzian averaging, and both fall more slowly than exponentially. This indicates that vacuum fluctuations effects can dominate over thermal fluctuations in some circumstances.

  1. Individual Case Analysis of Postmortem Interval Time on Brain Tissue Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Chunyu; Hernandez, Damarys; Siedlak, Sandra L.; Rodgers, Mark S.; Achar, Rojan K.; Fahmy, Lara M.; Torres, Sandy L.; Petersen, Robert B.; Zhu, Xiongwei; Casadesus, Gemma; Lee, Hyoung-gon

    2016-01-01

    At autopsy, the time that has elapsed since the time of death is routinely documented and noted as the postmortem interval (PMI). The PMI of human tissue samples is a parameter often reported in research studies and comparable PMI is preferred when comparing different populations, i.e., disease versus control patients. In theory, a short PMI may alleviate non-experimental protein denaturation, enzyme activity, and other chemical changes such as the pH, which could affect protein and nucleic acid integrity. Previous studies have compared PMI en masse by looking at many different individual cases each with one unique PMI, which may be affected by individual variance. To overcome this obstacle, in this study human hippocampal segments from the same individuals were sampled at different time points after autopsy creating a series of PMIs for each case. Frozen and fixed tissue was then examined by Western blot, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry to evaluate the effect of extended PMI on proteins, nucleic acids, and tissue morphology. In our results, immunostaining profiles for most proteins remained unchanged even after PMI of over 50 h, yet by Western blot distinctive degradation patterns were observed in different protein species. Finally, RNA integrity was lower after extended PMI; however, RNA preservation was variable among cases suggesting antemortem factors may play a larger role than PMI in protein and nucleic acid integrity. PMID:26982086

  2. A new algorithm for segmentation of cardiac quiescent phases and cardiac time intervals using seismocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari Tadi, Mojtaba; Koivisto, Tero; Pänkäälä, Mikko; Paasio, Ari; Knuutila, Timo; Teräs, Mika; Hänninen, Pekka

    2015-03-01

    Systolic time intervals (STI) have significant diagnostic values for a clinical assessment of the left ventricle in adults. This study was conducted to explore the feasibility of using seismocardiography (SCG) to measure the systolic timings of the cardiac cycle accurately. An algorithm was developed for the automatic localization of the cardiac events (e.g. the opening and closing moments of the aortic and mitral valves). Synchronously acquired SCG and electrocardiography (ECG) enabled an accurate beat to beat estimation of the electromechanical systole (QS2), pre-ejection period (PEP) index and left ventricular ejection time (LVET) index. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated on a healthy test group with no evidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). STI values were corrected based on Weissler's regression method in order to assess the correlation between the heart rate and STIs. One can see from the results that STIs correlate poorly with the heart rate (HR) on this test group. An algorithm was developed to visualize the quiescent phases of the cardiac cycle. A color map displaying the magnitude of SCG accelerations for multiple heartbeats visualizes the average cardiac motions and thereby helps to identify quiescent phases. High correlation between the heart rate and the duration of the cardiac quiescent phases was observed.

  3. Individual Case Analysis of Postmortem Interval Time on Brain Tissue Preservation.

    PubMed

    Blair, Jeffrey A; Wang, Chunyu; Hernandez, Damarys; Siedlak, Sandra L; Rodgers, Mark S; Achar, Rojan K; Fahmy, Lara M; Torres, Sandy L; Petersen, Robert B; Zhu, Xiongwei; Casadesus, Gemma; Lee, Hyoung-Gon

    2016-01-01

    At autopsy, the time that has elapsed since the time of death is routinely documented and noted as the postmortem interval (PMI). The PMI of human tissue samples is a parameter often reported in research studies and comparable PMI is preferred when comparing different populations, i.e., disease versus control patients. In theory, a short PMI may alleviate non-experimental protein denaturation, enzyme activity, and other chemical changes such as the pH, which could affect protein and nucleic acid integrity. Previous studies have compared PMI en masse by looking at many different individual cases each with one unique PMI, which may be affected by individual variance. To overcome this obstacle, in this study human hippocampal segments from the same individuals were sampled at different time points after autopsy creating a series of PMIs for each case. Frozen and fixed tissue was then examined by Western blot, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry to evaluate the effect of extended PMI on proteins, nucleic acids, and tissue morphology. In our results, immunostaining profiles for most proteins remained unchanged even after PMI of over 50 h, yet by Western blot distinctive degradation patterns were observed in different protein species. Finally, RNA integrity was lower after extended PMI; however, RNA preservation was variable among cases suggesting antemortem factors may play a larger role than PMI in protein and nucleic acid integrity. PMID:26982086

  4. Brain response during the M170 time interval is sensitive to socially relevant information.

    PubMed

    Arviv, Oshrit; Goldstein, Abraham; Weeting, Janine C; Becker, Eni S; Lange, Wolf-Gero; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Deciphering the social meaning of facial displays is a highly complex neurological process. The M170, an event related field component of MEG recording, like its EEG counterpart N170, was repeatedly shown to be associated with structural encoding of faces. However, the scope of information encoded during the M170 time window is still being debated. We investigated the neuronal origin of facial processing of integrated social rank cues (SRCs) and emotional facial expressions (EFEs) during the M170 time interval. Participants viewed integrated facial displays of emotion (happy, angry, neutral) and SRCs (indicated by upward, downward, or straight head tilts). We found that the activity during the M170 time window is sensitive to both EFEs and SRCs. Specifically, highly prominent activation was observed in response to SRC connoting dominance as compared to submissive or egalitarian head cues. Interestingly, the processing of EFEs and SRCs appeared to rely on different circuitry. Our findings suggest that vertical head tilts are processed not only for their sheer structural variance, but as social information. Exploring the temporal unfolding and brain localization of non-verbal cues processing may assist in understanding the functioning of the social rank biobehavioral system. PMID:26423664

  5. Determination of short-term error caused by the reference clock in precision time-interval measurement and generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalisz, Jozef

    1988-06-01

    A simple analysis based on the randomized clock cycle T(o) yields a useful formula on its variance in terms of the Allan variance. The short-term uncertainty of the measured or generated time interval t is expressed by the standard deviation in an approximate form as a function of the Allen variance. The estimates obtained are useful for determining the measurement uncertainty of time intervals within the approximate range of 10 ms-100 s.

  6. Physical Performance of Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A 30-Year Follow up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahtinen, Ulla; Rintala, Pauli; Malin, Antero

    2007-01-01

    Physical performance of Finnish adolescents (33 females, 44 males) with moderate intellectual disability (ID) was studied over a 30-year period. This study is an extension of Lahtinen's previous work on documenting the performance of individuals with intellectual disabilities over time. This study consisted of analyzing data from a total of four…

  7. Factors in African Americans Pursuing Higher Education after Age 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Davetta A.

    2011-01-01

    Many African Americans are leaving high school prior to graduation and are entering college for the first time beyond the age of 30 years, a phenomenon that has an effect on school systems, the community, and society as a whole. The research problem addressed was the need to understand the experience of an increasing number of African Americans…

  8. Effects of variable sequences of food availability on interval time-place learning by pigeons.

    PubMed

    García-Gallardo, Daniel; Carpio, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    The effects of within session variability of the sequences of food availability in a 16 period Time Place Learning (TPL) task on the performance of pigeons were assessed. Two groups of birds were exposed to two conditions. For group 1 (N=3), the first condition consisted of a TPL task in which food could be obtained according to a Random Interval (RI) 25s schedule of reinforcement in one of four feeders, the correct feeder changed every 3min. The same sequence was repeated four times within every training session (Fixed Sequence). The second condition was exactly the same as the first one with the exception that the sequence in which the correct feeder changed was randomized, yielding a total of four randomized sequences of food availability each session (Variable Sequence). An Open Hopper Test (OHT) was conducted at the end of each condition. Birds in group 2 (N=3) experienced the same conditions but in the reverse order. Results showed high percent correct responses for both group of birds under both conditions. However, birds were able to time the availability period's duration only under the Fixed Sequence condition, as shown by anticipation, anticipation of depletion and persistence of visiting patterns on the OHT. The implications of these results to Gallistels (1990) tripartite time-place-event memory code model are discussed, pointing out that these results are in line with previous findings about the important role that spatial parameters of a TPL task can play, for accurate timing was precluded when a variable sequence was employed. PMID:27425658

  9. 1995 solid waste 30-year container volume summary

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, K.J.; DeForest, T.J.; Patridge, M.D.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes a 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes by container category. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU-TRUM) waste. These volumes and their associated container categories will be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site for storage, treatment, and disposal at Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during a 30-year period from FY 1995 through FY 2024. The data presented in this report establish a baseline for solid waste management both in the present and future. With knowledge of the volumes by container type, decisions on the facility handling and storage requirements can be adequately made. It is recognized that the forecast estimates will vary as facility planning and missions continue to change and become better defined; however, the data presented in this report still provide useful insight into Hanford`s future solid waste management requirements.

  10. The enduring legacy of Alma Ata: 30 years on.

    PubMed

    Exworthy, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The 1978 Alma Ata conference and declaration was a landmark in defining and providing a direction for primary healthcare. Despite the initial enthusiasm for Alma Ata, its impact appeared to have declined in the 1990s. However, in recent years, there has been a revitalisation of primary healthcare. This article reviews the Alma Ata conference and declaration, assesses its waxing and waning, and examines its recent revival. The paper draws conclusions about the relevance of Alma Ata, 30 years on. PMID:25949564

  11. Transient Unexplained Shock in 30-year-old Trauma Patient.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Farzad; Ebrahimi Bakhtavar, Hanieh; Shahsavari Nia, Kavous; Mohammadi, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Shock as an inadequate tissue perfusion is one of the frequent causes of death in trauma patients. In this context, there are various reasons for hemodynamic instability and shock including hypovolemic (hemorrhagic), obstructive (cardiac tamponade, tension pneumothorax), cardiogenic, neurogenic, and rarely septic. In the present report, a 30-year-old trauma patient with full clinical signs and symptoms of shock referred while had unknown origin; it was finally recognized as anaphylactic shock. PMID:26495357

  12. The enduring legacy of Alma Ata: 30 years on

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The 1978 Alma Ata conference and declaration was a landmark in defining and providing a direction for primary healthcare. Despite the initial enthusiasm for Alma Ata, its impact appeared to have declined in the 1990s. However, in recent years, there has been a revitalisation of primary healthcare. This article reviews the Alma Ata conference and declaration, assesses its waxing and waning, and examines its recent revival. The paper draws conclusions about the relevance of Alma Ata, 30 years on. PMID:25949564

  13. TORUS2015: The AGN unification scheme after 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, P.; Hoenig, S. F.

    2015-09-01

    The torus paradigm has proved to be remarkably successful at unifying the observed zoo of active galaxy (AGN) classes, despite having many manifest holes. The field is still data-driven with novel observational results at multiple wavelengths emerging rapidly. We are only now beginning to map out the structure of dusty gas feeding and obscuring AGN, and to model its evolution in galaxy growth. But these have also brought out several apparently contradictory results which must hold the key to future progress. As we celebrate 30 years of the paradigm, this is the perfect time to draw together our current knowledge and reassess the state of the field. This will be an international workshop at the University of Southampton, UK, with the objective of laying out the major challenges to the field and paving future research directions. Our hope is to facilitate plenty of informal discussions between multiwavelength observers and theorists, addressing some key issues: * What is the main driver in the unification scheme? What are the roles of orientation, mass accretion rate and feedback? * What is the nature and structure of gas and dust in the torus? Do we have a self-consistent picture across multiple wavelengths? * How critical is the role of the torus as an interface between small nuclear scales and large galactic scales? Does galaxy evolution necessarily require tori? * How close are we to self-consistently simulating nuclear activity including AGN feeding and nuclear star-formation? Workshop Rationale The three themes of accretion, orientation, and evolution will be covered through invited and solicited contributions. Different to other conferences, we are building each session around some key papers that have shaped the field or those with great future potential to do so. We specifically pit competing ideas against each other to help painting a realistic picture of the state-of-the-art. Each session will end with discussion rounds delving into important future

  14. Does the time interval after bleaching influence the adhesion of orthodontic brackets?

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Glaucia Cristina Rodrigues; de Miranda, Cyndi Albuquerque; Machado, Sissy Maria Mendes; Brandão, Gustavo Antonio Martins; de Almeida, Haroldo Amorim

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the null hypothesis that no difference exists between the effects of at-home bleaching and in-office bleaching on shear bond strength (SBS) with bracket bonding at 4 different time intervals after dental bleaching. Methods Ninety extracted human premolars were randomly divided into 9 groups (n = 10) according to the bleaching methods used (at-home bleaching and in-office bleaching) and the storage time in artificial saliva (30 min, 1 day, 2 weeks, and 3 weeks before bonding). The control group was stored in artificial saliva for 7 days. Brackets were bonded with the Transbond XT adhesive system, and SBS testing was performed. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was used to assess the amount of resin remaining on the enamel surfaces after debonding. The SBS data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey test. For the ARI, the Kruskal-Wallis test was performed. Significance for all statistical tests was predetermined to be p < 0.05. Results The SBS of the unbleached group was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of the bleached groups (except for the group bonded 30 min after at-home bleaching). Conclusions The null hypothesis was not totally rejected. All bleaching groups tested had decreased SBS of the brackets to the enamel, except for the group bonded 30 min after at-home bleaching. The SBS returned to values close to those of the unbleached enamel within 3 weeks following bleaching. PMID:24228239

  15. Distribution of Seismicity Before the Larger Earthquakes in Italy in the Time Interval 1994-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentili, S.

    2010-08-01

    The Region-Time-Length (RTL) algorithm has been applied to different instrumental catalogues to detect seismic quiescence before medium-to-large earthquakes in Italy in the last two decades. RTL performances are sensitive to the choice of spatial and temporal parameters. The method for automatic parameters selection developed by Chen and Wu has been applied to twelve Italian earthquakes with magnitude greater than 5. The limits of the method in constructing maps of seismic quiescence before the earthquake are demonstrated, and a simple improvement is proposed. Then a new technique, namely RTLsurv, is proposed for routine surveys of the Italian seismicity. RTLsurv has been applied to all the earthquakes with magnitude greater than 4 in the Italian area in the time interval 1994-2004; four different sub-areas have been identified, with different characteristics in the level of recorded seismicity. One subarea—Tyrrhenian Sea—was characterized by a too low level of recorded seismicity for the application of the method. In the other three subareas a seismic quiescence was detected before at least the 66% of the earthquakes with magnitude greater or equal to 4 and all the earthquakes with magnitude greater than 5.

  16. Salt marsh mapping based on a short-time interval NDVI time-series from HJ-1 CCD imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SUN, C.

    2015-12-01

    Salt marshes are regard as one of the most dynamic and valuable ecosystems in coastal zone. It is crucial to obtain accurate information on the species composition and spatial distribution of salt marshes in time since they are experiencing tremendous replacement and disappearance. However, discriminating various types of salt marshes is a rather difficult task because of the strong spectral similarities. In previous studies, salt marsh mappings were mainly focused on high-spatial and hyperspectral resolution imageries combined with auxiliary information but this method can hardly extend to a large region. With high temporal and moderate spatial resolutions, Chinese HJ-1 CCD imagery would not only allow monitoring phenological changes of salt marsh vegetation in short-time intervals, but also cover large areas of salt marshes. Taking the middle coast of Jiangsu (east China) as an example, our study first constructed a monthly NDVI time-series to classify various types of salt marshes. Then, we tested the idea of compressed time-series continuously to broaden the applicability and portability of this particular approach. The results showed that (1) the overall accuracy of salt marsh mapping based on the monthly NDVI time-series reached 90.3%, which increased approximately 16.0% in contrast with a single-phase classification strategy; (2) a compressed time-series, including NDVI from six key months (April, June to September, and November) demonstrated very little decline (2.3%) in overall accuracy but led to obvious improvements in unstable regions; (3) Spartina alterniflora identification could be achieved with only a scene NDVI image from November, which could provide an effective way to regularly monitor its distribution. Besides, by comparing the calibrated performance between HJ-1 CCD and other sensors (i.e., Landsat TM/ETM+, OLI), we certified the reliability of HJ-1 CCD imagery, which is expected to pave the way for laws expansibility from this imagery.

  17. Induction of mycobacterial proteins during phagocytosis and heat shock: a time interval analysis.

    PubMed

    Alavi, M R; Affronti, L F

    1994-05-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis survives macrophage bactericidal activities by mechanisms that may include induction of stress proteins. We sought to determine whether the synthesis of any mycobacterial proteins is increased during phagocytosis and whether any of these proteins are also up-regulated during heat shock. Protein synthesis by M. tuberculosis H37Ra during phagocytosis by the mouse macrophage cell line IC-21, and during heat shock at 45 and 48 degrees C, was monitored at various time intervals using 35S-labeled methionine/cysteine and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Our data suggest the existence of certain common elements in the stress response of mycobacteria to the three stress stimuli. This apparent similarity was best characterized by the up-regulation of a 25-kDa protein after exposure to each of the stress conditions. Furthermore, this 25-kDa protein and a 37-kDa protein that was also synthesized during phagocytosis appeared to be extracellular because they were preferentially solubilized when infected macrophages were lysed with 0.5% NP-40. PMID:8182341

  18. Cardiac systolic time intervals in fetal monkeys: pre-ejection period.

    PubMed

    Murata, Y; Martin, C B; Ikenoue, T; Petrie, R H

    1978-10-01

    The systolic time intervals of the fetal cardiac cycle were studied by means of simultaneous recordings of electrocardiogram (ECG) and ultrasound Doppler cardiogram (DCG) in chronic preparations of fetal rhesus monkeys. Recordings were made under physiologic conditions as well as during various experimental stresses. The pre-ejection period (PEP) showed no significant relationship with heart rate in the unstressed fetuses, but the acceleration of heart rate induced by epinephrine was accompanied by shortening of PEP. The PEP increased with advancing fetal age. The PEP was inversely correlated with left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and arterial pulse pressure, but showed a positive correlation with both systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure. The PEP also exhibited strong negative correlation with arterial blood pH. the prolongation was essentially the same whether acidosis was of respiratory or metabolic origin. The PEP increased slightly but significantly during nonacidemic hypoxemia; however, there was no correlation between Pao2 and PEP Epinephrine shortened the PEP significantly, whereas the effect of atropine was inconsistent. Alteration of the plasma glucose level by injection of insulin or glucose did not affect PEP. These findings demonstrate that the PEP may be a useful indicator of fetal cardiac performance, reflecting both myocardial contractility and the hemodynamic state of the cardiovascular system. PMID:30282

  19. Behavioral adaptation to fixed-interval and fixed-time food delivery in golden hamsters1

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Merrill C.; Shettleworth, Sara J.

    1977-01-01

    Food-deprived golden hamsters in a large enclosure received food every 30 sec contingent on lever pressing, or free while their behavior was continuously recorded in terms of an exhaustive classification of motor patterns. As with other species in other situations, behavior became organized into two main classes. One (terminal behaviors) increased in probability throughout interfood intervals; the other (interim behaviors) peaked earlier in interfood intervals. Which class an activity belonged to was independent of whether food was contingent on lever pressing. When food was omitted on some of the intervals (thwarting), the terminal activities began sooner in the next interval, and different interim activities changed in different ways. The interim activities did not appear to be schedule-induced in the usual sense. Rather, the hamsters left the area of the feeder when food was not due and engaged in activities they would normally perform in the experimental environment. PMID:16811980

  20. Corticostriatal Field Potentials Are Modulated at Delta and Theta Frequencies during Interval-Timing Task in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Emmons, Eric B.; Ruggiero, Rafael N.; Kelley, Ryan M.; Parker, Krystal L.; Narayanan, Nandakumar S.

    2016-01-01

    Organizing movements in time is a critical and highly conserved feature of mammalian behavior. Temporal control of action requires corticostriatal networks. We investigate these networks in rodents using a two-interval timing task while recording LFPs in medial frontal cortex (MFC) or dorsomedial striatum. Consistent with prior work, we found cue-triggered delta (1–4 Hz) and theta activity (4–8 Hz) primarily in rodent MFC. We observed delta activity across temporal intervals in MFC and dorsomedial striatum. Rewarded responses were associated with increased delta activity in MFC. Activity in theta bands in MFC and delta bands in the striatum was linked with the timing of responses. These data suggest both delta and theta activity in frontostriatal networks are modulated during interval timing and that activity in these bands may be involved in the temporal control of action. PMID:27092091

  1. CIRIL: more than 30 years of interdisciplinary research at GANIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domaracka, Alicja; Grygiel, Clara; Méry, Alain; Bouffard, Serge; Cassimi, Amine

    2015-07-01

    The CIRIL: 30 years of interdisciplinary research at GANIL meeting was held in Caen, France, in October 2013. The meeting provided an excellent opportunity to present the research performed with ion beams delivered by the GANIL facility (Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds, Caen, France). This proceedings volume comprises a series of reviews from different disciplines (physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, etc) of the results obtained with GANIL ion beams. Unfortunately, the issue is missing two major research domains concerning the induced damage in metals and insulators. Therefore, we refer the interested readers to the following publications: metals [1] and insulators [2].

  2. Enzymatic biofuel cells: 30 years of critical advancements.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Michelle; Abdellaoui, Sofiene; Minteer, Shelley D

    2016-02-15

    Enzymatic biofuel cells are bioelectronic devices that utilize oxidoreductase enzymes to catalyze the conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy. This review details the advancements in the field of enzymatic biofuel cells over the last 30 years. These advancements include strategies for improving operational stability and electrochemical performance, as well as device fabrication for a variety of applications, including implantable biofuel cells and self-powered sensors. It also discusses the current scientific and engineering challenges in the field that will need to be addressed in the future for commercial viability of the technology. PMID:26163747

  3. Plus or Minus 30 Years in the Language Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Newport, Elissa L.

    2010-01-01

    The language sciences – Linguistics, Psycholinguistics, and Computational Linguistics – have not been broadly represented at the Cognitive Science Society meetings of the past 30 years, but they are an important part of the heart of cognitive science. This article discusses several major themes that have dominated the controversies and consensus in the study of language and suggests the most pressing issues of the future. These themes include differences among the language science disciplines in their view of numbers and symbols and of modular and distributed cognition; and the need for an increasing prominence of questions concerning language and the brain. PMID:20730034

  4. Lethal pedestrian--passenger car collisions in Berlin. Changed injury patterns in two different time intervals.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Edwin; Tischer, Anja; Maxeiner, H

    2009-04-01

    To expand the passive safety of automobiles protecting traffic participants technological innovations were done in the last decades. Objective of our retrospective analysis was to examine if these technical modifications led to a clearly changed pattern of injuries of pedestrians whose death was caused by the accidents. Another reduction concerns the exclusion of injured car passengers--only pedestrians walking or standing at the moment of collision were included. We selected time intervals 1975-1985 and 1991-2004 (=years of construction of the involved passenger cars). The cars were classified depending on their frontal construction in types as presented by Schindler et al. [Schindler V, Kühn M, Weber S, Siegler H, Heinrich T. Verletzungsmechanismen und Wirkabschätzungen der Fahrzegfrontgestaltung bei Pkw-Fussgänger-Kollisionen. Abschlussbericht im Auftrag der Deutschen Versicherungswirtschaft e.V. TU-Berlin Fachgebiet Kraftfahrzeuge (GDV) 2004:36-40]. In both periods more than 90% of all cars were from the usual types small/medium/large class. Hundred and thirty-four autopsy records of such cases from Department of Forensic Medicine (Charité Berlin) data were analysed. The data included technical information of the accidents and vehicles and the external and internal injuries of the victims. The comparison of the two periods showed a decrease of serious head injuries and femoral fractures but an increase of chest-, abdominal and pelvic injuries. This situation could be explained by an increased occurrence of soft-face-constructions and changed front design of modern passenger cars, resulting in a favourable effects concerning head impact to the car during accident. Otherwise the same kinetic energy was transferred to the (complete) victim - but because of a displacement of main focus of impact the pattern of injuries modified (went distally). PMID:19261507

  5. An Assessment of Fixed Interval Timing in Free-Flying Honey Bees (Apis mellifera ligustica): An Analysis of Individual Performance

    PubMed Central

    Craig, David Philip Arthur; Varnon, Christopher A.; Sokolowski, Michel B. C.; Wells, Harrington; Abramson, Charles I.

    2014-01-01

    Interval timing is a key element of foraging theory, models of predator avoidance, and competitive interactions. Although interval timing is well documented in vertebrate species, it is virtually unstudied in invertebrates. In the present experiment, we used free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) as a model for timing behaviors. Subjects were trained to enter a hole in an automated artificial flower to receive a nectar reinforcer (i.e. reward). Responses were continuously reinforced prior to exposure to either a fixed interval (FI) 15-sec, FI 30-sec, FI 60-sec, or FI 120-sec reinforcement schedule. We measured response rate and post-reinforcement pause within each fixed interval trial between reinforcers. Honey bees responded at higher frequencies earlier in the fixed interval suggesting subject responding did not come under traditional forms of temporal control. Response rates were lower during FI conditions compared to performance on continuous reinforcement schedules, and responding was more resistant to extinction when previously reinforced on FI schedules. However, no “scalloped” or “break-and-run” patterns of group or individual responses reinforced on FI schedules were observed; no traditional evidence of temporal control was found. Finally, longer FI schedules eventually caused all subjects to cease returning to the operant chamber indicating subjects did not tolerate the longer FI schedules. PMID:24983960

  6. CONTINUOUS NONINVASIVE MONITORING OF LEFT VENTRICULAR FUNCTION DURING EXERCISE BY THORACIC IMPEDANCE CARDIOGRAPHY AUTOMATED DERIVATION OF SYSTOLIC TIME INTERVALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systolic time intervals (ST) obtained during exercise are useful as a method of estimating global left ventricular function. The conventional method, however, which requires a carotid pulse tracing as well as a phonocardiogram of high quality, is technically difficult under condi...

  7. A Comparison of Momentary Time Sampling and Partial-Interval Recording for Assessment of Effects of Social Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radley, Keith C.; O'Handley, Roderick D.; Labrot, Zachary C.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment in social skills training often utilizes procedures such as partial-interval recording (PIR) and momentary time sampling (MTS) to estimate changes in duration in social engagements due to intervention. Although previous research suggests PIR to be more inaccurate than MTS in estimating levels of behavior, treatment analysis decisions…

  8. Passivity and robust synchronisation of switched interval coupled neural networks with time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Cao, Jinde

    2016-09-01

    This paper is concerned with passivity and robust synchronisation of switched coupled neural networks with uncertain parameters. First, the mathematical model of switched coupled neural networks with interval uncertain parameters is established, which consists of L modes and switches from one mode to another according to the switching rule. Second, by employing passivity theory and linear matrix inequality techniques, delay-independent and delay-dependent conditions are derived to guarantee the passivity of switched interval coupled neural networks. Moreover, based on the proposed passivity results, global synchronisation criteria can be obtained for switched coupled neural networks with or without uncertain parameters. Finally, an illustrative example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  9. An experimental evaluation of electrical skin conductivity changes in postmortem interval and its assessment for time of death estimation.

    PubMed

    Cantürk, İsmail; Karabiber, Fethullah; Çelik, Safa; Şahin, M Feyzi; Yağmur, Fatih; Kara, Sadık

    2016-02-01

    In forensic medicine, estimation of the time of death (ToD) is one of the most important and challenging medico-legal problems. Despite the partial accomplishments in ToD estimations to date, the error margin of ToD estimation is still too large. In this study, electrical conductivity changes were experimentally investigated in the postmortem interval in human cases. Electrical conductivity measurements give some promising clues about the postmortem interval. A living human has a natural electrical conductivity; in the postmortem interval, intracellular fluids gradually leak out of cells. These leaked fluids combine with extra-cellular fluids in tissues and since both fluids are electrolytic, intracellular fluids help increase conductivity. Thus, the level of electrical conductivity is expected to increase with increased time after death. In this study, electrical conductivity tests were applied for six hours. The electrical conductivity of the cases exponentially increased during the tested time period, indicating a positive relationship between electrical conductivity and the postmortem interval. PMID:26751404

  10. Validation of a high-resolution precipitation database (CHIRPS) over Cyprus for a 30-year period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsanos, Dimitrios; Retalis, Adrianos; Michaelides, Silas

    2016-03-01

    A study for a 30-year period (1981-2010) for a new precipitation database is performed over the island of Cyprus. Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS) is a more than 30-year quasi-global rainfall dataset, spanning 50°S-50°N (and all longitudes). Starting in 1981 to near-present, CHIRPS incorporates 0.05° resolution satellite imagery with in situ station data to create gridded rainfall time series. In this study, CHIRPS database is firstly compared to other precipitation databases over the Mediterranean basin. In the following, this study focuses over Cyprus, where a dense and reliable network of rain gauges is available. CHIRPS data are compared for the first time with in situ measurements in this area, for the aforementioned 30-year period. Monthly and annual comparisons are presented for each of the 0.05 × 0.05 degree cells overlaying the island of Cyprus. Results showed good correlation between CHIRPS values and recorded precipitation, although an overestimation of the in situ rainfall data has been noted during the last decade.

  11. Time interval between successive trading in foreign currency market: from microscopic to macroscopic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Aki-Hiro

    2004-12-01

    Recently, it has been shown that inter-transaction interval (ITI) distribution of foreign currency rates has a fat tail. In order to understand the statistical property of the ITI dealer model with N interactive agents is proposed. From numerical simulations it is confirmed that the ITI distribution of the dealer model has a power law tail. The random multiplicative process (RMP) can be approximately derived from the ITI of the dealer model. Consequently, we conclude that the power law tail of the ITI distribution of the dealer model is a result of the RMP.

  12. 30-year PMC variability modeled by WACCM (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, D. R.; Merkel, A. W.

    2009-12-01

    It is clear from observational record that polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) exhibit long-term variability, and it is reasonable to assume that this variability is the result of changes in the background mesopause environment. Factors responsible for these changes include variations in solar irradiance over the 11-year sunspot cycle and trends in mesopause composition and temperature caused by increasing anthropogenic emissions in the troposphere. In this study we use the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), modified to include parameterized PMCs, to investigate this long-term variability. WACCM is driven with observed changes in the surface composition and solar spectral irradiance. Using multiple-linear regression analysis of WACCM PMC albedos, we calculate that in the northern hemisphere there was an increase of between 19% and 39% over the last 30 years, and that albedos can be reduced by up to 55% during solar maximum relative to solar minimum. Both responses increase with increasing latitude. In the southern hemisphere the solar response is similar to that in the northern hemisphere, but we find no long-term trend. Good agreement is found between WACCM and observations made by the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet instrument when PMC detection thresholds are accounted for. Finally, we examine the relative importance of composition versus temperature changes using a series of sensitivity experiments.

  13. Photosynthetic responses to 30 years of atmospheric change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunch, C. K.

    2009-12-01

    Plant physiological studies of responses to atmospheric CO2 concentration most frequently involve artificially increasing local CO2 concentration. However, CO2 levels in the atmosphere have already risen by more than 100 ppm over pre-industrial levels, and the response to that increase should also be considered. I measured changes in leaf-level photosynthesis over the most recent 50-60 ppm rise in atmospheric CO2, using photosynthetic studies from the late 1970s and early 1980s as a baseline. The study encompassed 17 plant species at three sites in California. The sites covered a rainfall range of 40 to 1000 mm year-1, and a mean annual temperature range of 12 to 24 oC. Species included annual forbs, perennial shrubs, and trees. Over the 30 years since the previous studies were carried out, leaf-level photosynthesis at ambient CO2 has risen by an average of 0.8 μmol m-2 s-1, a nonsignificant change. Stomatal conductance has declined, such that water use efficiency has increased by an average of 12.7%. The largest changes in photosynthetic characteristics were observed at the desert site.

  14. Acute exercise and oxidative stress: a 30 year history

    PubMed Central

    Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey; Bloomer, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    The topic of exercise-induced oxidative stress has received considerable attention in recent years, with close to 300 original investigations published since the early work of Dillard and colleagues in 1978. Single bouts of aerobic and anaerobic exercise can induce an acute state of oxidative stress. This is indicated by an increased presence of oxidized molecules in a variety of tissues. Exercise mode, intensity, and duration, as well as the subject population tested, all can impact the extent of oxidation. Moreover, the use of antioxidant supplements can impact the findings. Although a single bout of exercise often leads to an acute oxidative stress, in accordance with the principle of hormesis, such an increase appears necessary to allow for an up-regulation in endogenous antioxidant defenses. This review presents a comprehensive summary of original investigations focused on exercise-induced oxidative stress. This should provide the reader with a well-documented account of the research done within this area of science over the past 30 years. PMID:19144121

  15. Polyandry Depends on Postmating Time Interval in the Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Degner, Ethan C.; Harrington, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of the dengue and chikungunya viruses. After mating, male seminal fluid molecules cause females to become unreceptive to a subsequent mating. This response is often assumed to be immediate and complete, but a growing body of evidence suggests that some females do mate more than once. It is unknown how quickly a female becomes unreceptive to a second mating. Furthermore, the degree to which she remains monandrous after laying several batches of eggs has not been rigorously tested. Therefore, we assessed the rates of polyandry in two sets of experiments using wild-type males and those with fluorescent sperm. The first experiment tested the likelihood of polyandry after postmating intervals of various durations. Most females became refractory to a second mating within 2 hours after mating, and rates of polyandry ranged from 24% immediately after mating to 3% at 20 hours after mating. The second experiment tested whether females were polyandrous after cycles of blood meals and oviposition. No re-insemination was found after one, three, or five such cycles. This study is the first to demonstrate that polyandrous behavior depends on the postmating interval. Our results will inform future applications that depend on an accurate knowledge of Ae. aegypti mating behavior, including models of gene flow, investigations of molecules that drive female mating behavior, and control strategies that deploy genetically modified mosquitoes into the field. PMID:26880776

  16. Towards a bipolar layer-counted ice-core chronology for the 41-75 ka time interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Anders; Bigler, Matthias; Blunier, Thomas; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Fischer, Hubertus; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Rasmussen, Sune; Schwander, Jakob; Seierstad, Inger; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder; Vallelonga, Paul; Vinther, Bo; Wegner, Anna; Wilhelms, Frank; Winstrup, Mai

    2015-04-01

    Precise chronologies have been developed for Greenland and Antarctic ice cores based on counting of annual layers in high-resolution water isotope and impurity profiles. Antarctic ice cores are layer-counted back to 31 ka (WAIS Divide ice core) whereas Greenland ice cores are dated back to 60 ka (NGRIP ice core, GICC05 time scale). Beyond 60 ka, in Marine Isotope Stage 4 (MIS4), annual layers in Greenland are thin (less than 1 cm in NGRIP in the coldest periods) and annual layer counting is more uncertain. In the Antarctic EDML ice core annual layers are somewhat thicker over most of MIS4 although they are still marginal for counting. Greenland and Antarctic ice cores are tightly linked at the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion (41 ka) and at the Toba YTT eruption (74 ka) providing end constrains for the investigated time interval. In this work, annual layer counting has been performed in parallel in the NGRIP and EDML ice cores for the time interval 41-75 ka using high-resolution records of visual stratigraphy, dust concentrations, and continuous chemistry. For NGRIP the GICC05 time scale is adapted for the period 41-60 ka. The NGRIP and EDML ice cores are then synchronized by identifying series of bipolar volcanic eruptions in acidity records of electrolytic conductivity, sulfur concentrations, and electric measurements of the solid ice (ECM and DEP). The synchronization is constrained by the layer counting that provides interval durations between volcanic markers. In some periods, a pattern of several bipolar volcanic events provides robust synchronization, but there are longer intervals for which there are no synchronization due to the lack of unambiguous bipolar markers. Over periods of robust synchronization the North-South phasing of climate (water isotopes) and dust concentrations can be investigated at decadal precision. During MIS4 the resulting time scale shows a North-South phasing somewhat different from that of the modelled AICC2012 time scale.

  17. Modulation of photodynamic activity with Photofrin: effect of dose, time interval, fluence, and delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbo, Greta M.; Ballard, Jonathan R.; Harrison, Linda T.; Kik, Peter K.; Wieman, T. J.; Fingar, Victor H.

    2005-04-01

    A goal of our laboratory is to accurately define the parameters of light dose and drug dose that contribute to tissue destruction after Photodynamic therapy (PDT). Using Photofrin as sensitizer, we examined a range of drug doses, various intervals between injection and light treatment, and various fluence rates. The effect of Photofrin photosensitizer encapsulated in liposomal delivery vehicle was also studied. Three liposome delivery vehicles were chosen to deliver the photosensitizer in vivo: DPPC/cholesterol, DMPC/HPC and stealth liposomes. Tumor response and microvessel behaviour were examined in tumor and surrounding skin in a mouse model. Under these conditions, better selectivity of tissue damage was seen using some of the treatment. These data might be used to design better clinical protocols for patient care. In memory of Dr. Victor Fingar (Supported by R01 CA51771).

  18. Time dose relationships in endometrial adenocarcinoma: importance of the interval from external pelvic irradiation to surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.F.; Cox, J.D.; Chahbazian, C.M.; del Regato, J.A.

    1980-05-01

    One hundred twenty-one patients with adenocarcinoma of the endometrium received external pelvic irradiation (EPI) as a preoperative surgical adjuvant to total abdominal hysterectomy between March, 1951 and February, 1977. Either 400 KVP x-rays, Cobalt teletherapy or 25 MeV photons were used. In more than one third of the hysterectomy specimens, there was no histopathological evidence of residual cancer. Statistical analysis shows a significant reduction in the proportion of positive specimens as the interval to hysterectomy increased. The data support the concept that adenocarcinomas are not radioresistant but may be slow to regress following irradiation. Caution is advised against making decisions about therapy based on histopathological findings in patients who receive surgery immediately following short course or intracavitary preoperative irradiation.

  19. Drought Prediction in Iran during Next 30 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazanedari, L.; Zabol Abbasi, F.; Ghandhari, Sh.; Kouhi, M.; Malbousi, Sh.

    2009-09-01

    The effects of climate changes, especially due to increasing of greenhouse gasses, caused a lot of problems that affect different sections of society. One of the most important of these effects is the increasing of natural disasters such as flood, drought, tropical cyclones, raising sea level, dust storm, etc. Drought and flood are the most prevalent of these disasters in Iran. Because of the geographical location of Iran and the synoptic systems that affect this region, it is clear that dry is one of the characteristics of this region, and drought is one of the most important of natural disaster that affect this country. Drought affects the different sectors of society such as water resources, agriculture, industry, economy, health, etc therefore drought monitoring is necessary for planning in future. For this purpose, the climate data should be simulated for future period by using outputs of Atmospheric-Ocean General Circulation Model. In this paper precipitation data during 2010-2039 is simulated by downscaling via LARS-WG model. Then, drought situation is estimated according to DI and SPI, by using these data in Iran. The results of this study have showed that during next 30 years, drought conditions will be increase in Iran, and it confirms climate change event in this region. In addition, the most parts of Iran will experience severe and extreme drought in 2011, 2025, 2032, 2034, 2035, 2039, and among these years 2039 will have more critical drought situation. Keywords: Atmospheric General Circulation Models, Downscaling, LARS-WG, Drought, Decile Index, Standard Precipitation Index.

  20. 30 years of lymph node pathology: biomarkers and other advances.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Alan D

    2013-03-01

    Over the last 30 years there has been a massive change in both the clinical and pathologic aspects of malignant lymphomas. Pathologists are now able to evaluate cellular phenotypes and lineages of tumor cells using a wide variety of biomarkers and molecular techniques. The ability to identify tumor cell phenotypes has revolutionized the classification of lymphomas, leading to an internationally agreed system based on the reliable recognition of specific clinico-pathologic entities. The World Health Organization classification combines clinical features, histomorphology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular and genetic marker data to precisely categorize lymphomas. On the clinical front the increasing use of needle core biopsies has made it easier and quicker to obtain tissue samples, and the development of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography has revolutionized the assessment of patients both at presentation and after treatment. To improve overall outcomes for lymphoma patients there have been advances in the UK organization of cancer services. Cancer networks have been established, often with network multidisciplinary team meetings, and new diagnoses of lymphoma are reviewed on a network basis by pathologists specializing in the field. National and supranational quality control systems are in place for immunohistochemistry and for molecular techniques and multicenter clinical trials provide information about the efficacy of treatment regimens. The outcome of these advances is that a patient presenting in 2012 with suspected lymphoma can expect to be biopsied rapidly, to receive an accurate pathologic diagnosis by an expert hematopathologist, which will include prognostic marker information, and to have comprehensive disease assessment and discussion by a multidisciplinary team before embarking on the most appropriate treatment for his or her clinical situation. PMID:23417072

  1. Decadal trends of global precipitation in the recent 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaofan; Zhai, Guoqing

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the decadal trends of global precipitation are calculated and compared using the CMAP, GPCP and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis monthly precipitation data over the past 30 years from 1979 to 2008. The major results include the followings: (1) The decadal trend of annually and globally averaged precipitation depends on a decreasing trend for the CMAP data, a flat trend for GPCP data, and an increasing trend for the reanalysis data. (2) The analysis of horizontal distributions of differences in temporally averaged precipitation between the second (1993-2008) and the first (1979-1993) 15 years shows that the decreasing trend in the CMAP data is associated with the reduction in precipitation over the oceans. The further analysis of difference in zonally averaged precipitation rate reveals the increased precipitation rate in both the Tropics and mid-latitudes. The reduction in precipitation over the oceans is significantly weaker in the GPCP data than in the CMAP data, which shows the flat trend in the global GPCP data. The increasing trend of global precipitation average for the reanalysis data is associated with the increase in precipitation off the equator as well as in the mid-latitudes. (3) The further analysis of precipitation statistics reveals that the decreasing trend for the CMAP data is associated with the reduction in high precipitation. The flat trend for the global GPCP data corresponds to the offset between the decrease in low precipitation and the increase in high precipitation. The increasing trend for the reanalysis data is related to the increase in high precipitation.

  2. Delay-dependent passivity criteria for uncertain switched neural networks of neutral type with interval time-varying delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamani, G.; Balasubramaniam, P.

    2012-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the robust passivity analysis of uncertain switched neural networks of neutral type with interval time-varying delay. We first discuss the passivity conditions for the addressed model with norm bounded uncertainties and then extend this result to the case of interval uncertainties. For the neural networks under study, a generalized activation function is considered, where the traditional assumptions on the boundedness, monotonicity and differentiability of the activation functions are removed. Constructing a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional with triple integral terms and using a minimal number of free-weighting matrices, some passivity criteria are proposed in terms of linear matrix inequalities, which are dependent on the size of the time delay. Finally, some numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and merits of the developed techniques.

  3. Identifying new cannabis use with urine creatinine-normalized THCCOOH concentrations and time intervals between specimen collections.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael L; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2009-05-01

    A previously recommended method for detecting new cannabis use with creatinine-normalized 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) urine concentrations in periodically collected specimens for treatment, workplace and judicial drug testing applications is refined by considering the time interval between urine collections. All urine specimens were collected from six less-than-daily cannabis users who smoked placebo, 1.75%, and 3.55% THC cigarettes in randomized order, each separated by one week. Ratios (n = 24,322) were calculated by dividing each creatinine-normalized THCCOOH concentration (U2) by that of a previously collected specimen (U1). Maximum, 95% limit, and median U2/U1 ratios with 15 and 6 ng THCCOOH/mL cutoff concentrations, with and without new use between specimens, were calculated for each 24-h interval after smoking up to 168 h and are included in tables. These ratios decreased with increasing interval between collections providing improved decision values for determining new cannabis use. For example, with a 15 ng THCCOOH/mL cutoff concentration and no new use between specimens, the maximum, 95% limit, and median U2/U1 ratios were 3.05, 1.59, and 0.686, respectively, when the collection interval was

  4. Impact of heart disease and calibration interval on accuracy of pulse transit time-based blood pressure estimation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaorong; Zhang, Yuanting; Tsang, Hon Ki

    2016-02-01

    Continuous blood pressure (BP) measurement without a cuff is advantageous for the early detection and prevention of hypertension. The pulse transit time (PTT) method has proven to be promising for continuous cuffless BP measurement. However, the problem of accuracy is one of the most challenging aspects before the large-scale clinical application of this method. Since PTT-based BP estimation relies primarily on the relationship between PTT and BP under certain assumptions, estimation accuracy will be affected by cardiovascular disorders that impair this relationship and by the calibration frequency, which may violate these assumptions. This study sought to examine the impact of heart disease and the calibration interval on the accuracy of PTT-based BP estimation. The accuracy of a PTT-BP algorithm was investigated in 37 healthy subjects and 48 patients with heart disease at different calibration intervals, namely 15 min, 2 weeks, and 1 month after initial calibration. The results showed that the overall accuracy of systolic BP estimation was significantly lower in subjects with heart disease than in healthy subjects, but diastolic BP estimation was more accurate in patients than in healthy subjects. The accuracy of systolic and diastolic BP estimation becomes less reliable with longer calibration intervals. These findings demonstrate that both heart disease and the calibration interval can influence the accuracy of PTT-based BP estimation and should be taken into consideration to improve estimation accuracy. PMID:26767518

  5. High-intensity interval exercise induces 24-h energy expenditure similar to traditional endurance exercise despite reduced time commitment.

    PubMed

    Skelly, Lauren E; Andrews, Patricia C; Gillen, Jenna B; Martin, Brian J; Percival, Michael E; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-07-01

    Subjects performed high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous moderate-intensity training (END) to evaluate 24-h oxygen consumption. Oxygen consumption during HIIT was lower versus END; however, total oxygen consumption over 24 h was similar. These data demonstrate that HIIT and END induce similar 24-h energy expenditure, which may explain the comparable changes in body composition reported despite lower total training volume and time commitment. PMID:24773393

  6. Benzoylphenylurea residues in peppers and zucchinis grown in greenhouses: determination of decline times and pre-harvest intervals by modelling.

    PubMed

    López-López, Trinidad; Martínez-Vidal, José L; Gil-García, María D; Martínez-Galera, María; Rodríguez-Lallena, José A

    2004-02-01

    Residue levels and degradation rates of five benzoylphenylurea insecticides were studied in zucchinis and peppers grown in experimental greenhouses in Almería (Spain). Benzoylphenylurea residues were analyzed by HPLC using on-line post-elution photoirradiation with fluorescence detection. Mathematically defined decline curves were established by determining optimal relationships between benzoylphenylurea residues and time, using different models. The models that best fitted the experimental data were those of first-order for diflubenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron and flufenoxuron in zucchini and RF first-order models for the five insecticides in peppers and for lufenuron in zucchini. Half-life times for the residues on the two vegetables were estimated from the optimal models. In order to guarantee safe consumption of the two vegetables, we have estimated suitable pre-harvest intervals complying with the maximum residue levels established by the Spanish Government. In all cases, such pre-harvest intervals were shorter than those specified by the manufacturers of commercial formulates. Experimental data for the five insecticides in peppers and for lufenuron in zucchini were also fitted to a first-order model. Even though this function was legitimized statistically, estimations of decline times (T/2) and pre-harvest intervals were quite different from those provided by the optimal model. PMID:14971687

  7. Proximity to Food Establishments and Body Mass Index in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort Over 30 Years

    PubMed Central

    Block, Jason P.; Christakis, Nicholas A.; O’Malley, A. James; Subramanian, S. V.

    2011-01-01

    Existing evidence linking residential proximity to food establishments with body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) has been inconclusive. In this study, the authors assessed the relation between BMI and proximity to food establishments over a 30-year period among 3,113 subjects in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort living in 4 Massachusetts towns during 1971–2001. The authors used novel data that included repeated measures of BMI and accounted for residential mobility and the appearance and disappearance of food establishments. They calculated proximity to food establishments as the driving distance between each subject’s residence and nearby food establishments, divided into 6 categories. The authors used cross-classified linear mixed models to account for time-varying attributes of individuals and residential neighborhoods. Each 1-km increase in distance to the closest fast-food restaurant was associated with a 0.11-unit decrease in BMI (95% credible interval: −0.20, −0.04). In sex-stratified analyses, this association was present only for women. Other aspects of the food environment were either inconsistently associated or not at all associated with BMI. Contrary to much prior research, the authors did not find a consistent relation between access to fast-food restaurants and individual BMI, necessitating a reevaluation of policy discussions on the anticipated impact of the food environment on weight gain. PMID:21965186

  8. Recruiting Minority Geoscientists: A 30 Year Success Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpa, L.; Pavlis, T. L.; Hall, F.

    2003-12-01

    The University of New Orleans (UNO) is located in a city rich in diversity and industries that employ geoscientists. Thus, it is an ideal place to develop a strong diversity program in geology and geophysics. In 1974, Dr. Louis Fernandez received a grant from the NSF to formally develop a minority recruiting program. The focus of that initial program was a field trip for local minority high school students and that trip has gone continuously every year since then. It is still our best tool for recruiting outstanding minority students into our department. The initial NSF funding disappeared long ago and was replaced variously by support from private industry and creative use of departmental funds which kept the program alive through some lean funding years. As a result of this effort UNO has graduated more minority, particularly African-American, geoscientist than any other institution in the US for most of the past 30 years. The field trip is not the only reason for our success. Indeed, retaining and graduating students, regardless of their ethnicity, required a serious commitment to education on the part of our department. There are six universities in the city of New Orleans and several more within commuting distance from the city. Three of the six local universities are HBCU's with excellent reputations but, fortunately for us, no geoscience degree programs. There are several strong geoscience departments in the non-minority serving institutions in our area that attract many outstanding local students. To meet the competition, we have worked with local K-12 teachers, developed additional programs to interest local 7-12 students, and worked closely with our majors to keep them in the program and help them succeed once they are recruited. This has required a cohesive effort on the part of our faculty and students that is constantly changing to meet new demands as our department has expanded in size and developed its research activities sometimes at the expense of

  9. Paracrinicity: The Story of 30 Years of Cellular Pituitary Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Denef, C

    2008-01-01

    Living organisms represent, in essence, dynamic interactions of high complexity between membrane-separated compartments that cannot exist on their own, but reach behaviour in co-ordination. In multicellular organisms, there must be communication and co-ordination between individual cells and cell groups to achieve appropriate behaviour of the system. Depending on the mode of signal transportation and the target, intercellular communication is neuronal, hormonal, paracrine or juxtacrine. Cell signalling can also be self-targeting or autocrine. Although the notion of paracrine and autocrine signalling was already suggested more than 100 years ago, it is only during the last 30 years that these mechanisms have been characterised. In the anterior pituitary, paracrine communication and autocrine loops that operate during fetal and postnatal development in mammals and lower vertebrates have been shown in all hormonal cell types and in folliculo-stellate cells. More than 100 compounds have been identified that have, or may have, paracrine or autocrine actions. They include the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and γ-aminobutyric acid, peptides such as vasoactive intestinal peptide, galanin, endothelins, calcitonin, neuromedin B and melanocortins, growth factors of the epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, nerve growth factor and transforming growth factor-β families, cytokines, tissue factors such as annexin-1 and follistatin, hormones, nitric oxide, purines, retinoids and fatty acid derivatives. In addition, connective tissue cells, endothelial cells and vascular pericytes may influence paracrinicity by delivering growth factors, cytokines, heparan sulphate proteoglycans and proteases. Basement membranes may influence paracrine signalling through the binding of signalling molecules to heparan sulphate proteoglycans. Paracrine/autocrine actions are highly context-dependent. They are turned on/off when hormonal outputs need to be adapted to changing demands of

  10. Demarcation of diapause development by cold and its relation to time-interval activation of TIME-ATPase in eggs of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Ti, Xiaonan; Tuzuki, Nobuhiko; Tani, Naoki; Morigami, Etsuko; Isobe, Minoru; Kai, Hidenori

    2004-11-01

    We investigated the mode of action of winter cold in the termination of diapause by investigating Time-Interval-Measuring Enzyme (TIME). First, we determined the period of cold required for the completion of diapause development. Synchronously developing egg batches of a pure strain (C108 Bombyx mori silkworm) were used to minimize variations in hatching time. Hatching occurred with only 18 days chilling at 5 degrees C when the incubation at 25 degrees C after the chilling was elongated. The 18-day period was much shorter than we expected; diapause in B. mori is known to terminate completely with about 100 days of chilling. Even in such a short period of chilling, no sporadic hatching occurred. Moreover, we determined that a temperature-insensitive stage, which we called "Neboke", followed the short cold-requiring stage. Thus, the stage of diapause development was demarcated from other stages of diapause. While the length of diapause development was elongated when chilling was delayed after oviposition, the Neboke stage length was invariant. Cold evidently exerts its effect only on diapause development. When TIME was purified from eggs and chilled in test tubes, a transitory burst of its ATPase activity occurred at a time equivalent to shortly before the completion of diapause development; this was an interval-timer activation. The mechanism by which cold activates TIME to measure the time interval may help explain in biochemical terms the insect's adaptation to its seasonal environments. PMID:15607508

  11. Self-Produced Time Intervals Are Perceived as More Variable and/or Shorter Depending on Temporal Context in Subsecond and Suprasecond Ranges

    PubMed Central

    Mitani, Keita; Kashino, Makio

    2016-01-01

    The processing of time intervals is fundamental for sensorimotor and cognitive functions. Perceptual and motor timing are often performed concurrently (e.g., playing a musical instrument). Although previous studies have shown the influence of body movements on time perception, how we perceive self-produced time intervals has remained unclear. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the timing mechanisms are distinct for the sub- and suprasecond ranges. Here, we compared perceptual performances for self-produced and passively presented time intervals in random contexts (i.e., multiple target intervals presented in a session) across the sub- and suprasecond ranges (Experiment 1) and within the sub- (Experiment 2) and suprasecond (Experiment 3) ranges, and in a constant context (i.e., a single target interval presented in a session) in the sub- and suprasecond ranges (Experiment 4). We show that self-produced time intervals were perceived as shorter and more variable across the sub- and suprasecond ranges and within the suprasecond range but not within the subsecond range in a random context. In a constant context, the self-produced time intervals were perceived as more variable in the suprasecond range but not in the subsecond range. The impairing effects indicate that motor timing interferes with perceptual timing. The dependence of impairment on temporal contexts suggests multiple timing mechanisms for the subsecond and suprasecond ranges. In addition, violation of the scalar property (i.e., a constant variability to target interval ratio) was observed between the sub- and suprasecond ranges. The violation was clearer for motor timing than for perceptual timing. This suggests that the multiple timing mechanisms for the sub- and suprasecond ranges overlap more for perception than for motor. Moreover, the central tendency effect (i.e., where shorter base intervals are overestimated and longer base intervals are underestimated) disappeared with motor timing within the

  12. Self-Produced Time Intervals Are Perceived as More Variable and/or Shorter Depending on Temporal Context in Subsecond and Suprasecond Ranges.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Keita; Kashino, Makio

    2016-01-01

    The processing of time intervals is fundamental for sensorimotor and cognitive functions. Perceptual and motor timing are often performed concurrently (e.g., playing a musical instrument). Although previous studies have shown the influence of body movements on time perception, how we perceive self-produced time intervals has remained unclear. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the timing mechanisms are distinct for the sub- and suprasecond ranges. Here, we compared perceptual performances for self-produced and passively presented time intervals in random contexts (i.e., multiple target intervals presented in a session) across the sub- and suprasecond ranges (Experiment 1) and within the sub- (Experiment 2) and suprasecond (Experiment 3) ranges, and in a constant context (i.e., a single target interval presented in a session) in the sub- and suprasecond ranges (Experiment 4). We show that self-produced time intervals were perceived as shorter and more variable across the sub- and suprasecond ranges and within the suprasecond range but not within the subsecond range in a random context. In a constant context, the self-produced time intervals were perceived as more variable in the suprasecond range but not in the subsecond range. The impairing effects indicate that motor timing interferes with perceptual timing. The dependence of impairment on temporal contexts suggests multiple timing mechanisms for the subsecond and suprasecond ranges. In addition, violation of the scalar property (i.e., a constant variability to target interval ratio) was observed between the sub- and suprasecond ranges. The violation was clearer for motor timing than for perceptual timing. This suggests that the multiple timing mechanisms for the sub- and suprasecond ranges overlap more for perception than for motor. Moreover, the central tendency effect (i.e., where shorter base intervals are overestimated and longer base intervals are underestimated) disappeared with motor timing within the

  13. Changes in physical fitness and nutritional status of schoolchildren in a period of 30 years (1980-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze and compare the changes in physical fitness according to the nutritional status and gender of schoolchildren during a period of 30 years (1980-2010). Methods: Four cross-sectional evaluations were performed every 10 years in a period of 30 years from 1978 to 1980 (baseline), 1988-1990 (10 years), 1998-2000 (20 years) and 2008-2010 (30 years). The sample consisted of 1291 schoolchildren (188 in baseline, 307 in 10 years; 375 in 20 years; 421 in 30 years) of 10 and 11 years old. The variables assessed were: body weight (kg), height (cm), upper limb strength (ULS; kg), lower limb strength (LLS; cm), agility (seconds) and velocity (seconds). Schoolchildren were classified as normal weight and overweight according to World Health Organization reference of body mass index for age and gender. Comparisons among periods applied ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test, with a significance level set at of p<0.01. Variation between baseline and 30 years was assessed by the percentage delta. Seven different percentile values were presented for each variable. Results: In eutrophic boys and girls, mean values of ULS (−16.7%; −3.2%), agility (−1.5%; −1.6%) decreased significantly after 30 years (p<0.001). In the overweight boys and girls, only the average ULS (−15.5%; −12.5%) decreased significantly over time (p<0.001). After 30 years, the ULS percentile changed in boys. Conclusions: The decline in physical fitness was greater in schoolchildren with normal weight than in those with overweight. PMID:26298653

  14. Modeling Saturn's Giant Storms: Water, Ammonia, and the 30-Year Periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    A giant planet-encircling storm occurred on Saturn on Dec. 5th, 2010 at planetographic latitude 37.7oN. It produced intense lightning, created enormous cloud disturbances and wrapped around the planet in 6 months. Six such storms, called Great White Spots, have erupted since 1876. They have alternated between mid-latitudes and the equator at intervals ranging from 20 to 30 years. The reason for the intermittent explosion is hitherto unclear and there are no similar storms on brother Jupiter. Here we describe the water-loading-mechanism, which could suppress moist convection for decades due to the larger molecular weight of water in a hydrogen-helium atmosphere. We show that this mechanism requires the deep water vapor mixing ratio to be greater than 1.0%. Observations imply that Saturn's atmosphere is more enriched in water than Jupiter, which could explain why Saturn has such storms and Jupiter does not. We further use a two-dimensional axisymmetric dynamic model and a top-cooling convective adjustment scheme to connect our theory to observation. We show that for a deep water mixing ratio of 1.1%, the ammonia vapor is depleted down to 6 bars, the tropospheric warming is about 6 K, and the interval between two consecutive storms at one place is about 70 years. These values are confirmed by both ground-based and spacecraft observations.

  15. Effects of posture on exercise performance - Measurement by systolic time intervals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spodick, D. H.; Quarry-Pigott, V. M.

    1973-01-01

    Because posture significantly influences cardiac performance, the effects of moderate supine and upright ergometer exercise were compared on the basis of proportional (+37%) rate increments over resting control. Supine exercise produced significant decreases in left ventricular ejection time (LVET), pre-ejection period (PEP), and isovolumic contraction time (IVCT). Ejection time index (ETI) and corrected ejection time (LVETc) did not change significantly. Upright exercise produced greater decreases in PEP and LVET, but despite the rate increase there was no change in LVET, which resulted in sharp increases in ETI and LVETc. The discordant directional effects on LVET and its rate-correcting indices between the two postures were consistent with hemodynamic studies demonstrating lack of stroke volume change during supine exercise and increased stroke volume over control during light to moderate upright exercise.

  16. Arctic Climate Change Analysed By Two 30-year Scenario Regional Climate Model Runs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiilsholm, S.; Christensen, J. H.

    High-resolution climate change simulations for an area covering the entire Arctic have been conducted with the regional climate model (RCM) HIRHAM. The emission sce- narios used were the IPCC SRES1 marker scenarios A2 and B2. Three 30-year time slice experiments were conducted with HIRHAM for periods representing present-day (1961-1990) and the future (2071-2100) in the two scenarios. Changes of the climate between these two periods will be presented with special emphasize on the climate of Greenland.

  17. The Influence of Pretreatment Characteristics and Radiotherapy Parameters on Time Interval to Development of Radiation-Associated Meningioma

    SciTech Connect

    Paulino, Arnold C.; Ahmed, Irfan M.; Mai, Wei Y.; Teh, Bin S.

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To identify pretreatment characteristics and radiotherapy parameters which may influence time interval to development of radiation-associated meningioma (RAM). Methods and Materials: A Medline/PUBMED search of articles dealing with RAM yielded 66 studies between 1981 and 2006. Factors analyzed included patient age and gender, type of initial tumor treated, radiotherapy (RT) dose and volume, and time interval from RT to development of RAM. Results: A total of 143 patients with a median age at RT of 12 years form the basis of this report. The most common initial tumors or conditions treated with RT were medulloblastoma (n = 27), pituitary adenoma (n = 20), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 20), low-grade astrocytoma (n = 19), and tinea capitis (n = 14). In the 116 patients whose RT fields were known, 55 (47.4%) had a portion of the brain treated, whereas 32 (27.6%) and 29 (25.0%) had craniospinal and whole-brain fields. The median time from RT to develop a RAM or latent time (LT) was 19 years (range, 1-63 years). Male gender (p = 0.001), initial diagnosis of leukemia (p = 0.001), and use of whole brain or craniospinal field (p <= 0.0001) were associated with a shorter LT, whereas patients who received lower doses of RT had a longer LT (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The latent time to develop a RAM was related to gender, initial tumor type, radiotherapy volume, and radiotherapy dose.

  18. VALIDATION OF SPRING OPERATED PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE TIME TO FAILURE AND THE IMPORTANCE OF STATISTICALLY SUPPORTED MAINTENANCE INTERVALS

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, R; Stephen Harris, S

    2009-02-18

    The Savannah River Site operates a Relief Valve Repair Shop certified by the National Board of Pressure Vessel Inspectors to NB-23, The National Board Inspection Code. Local maintenance forces perform inspection, testing, and repair of approximately 1200 spring-operated relief valves (SORV) each year as the valves are cycled in from the field. The Site now has over 7000 certified test records in the Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS); a summary of that data is presented in this paper. In previous papers, several statistical techniques were used to investigate failure on demand and failure rates including a quantal response method for predicting the failure probability as a function of time in service. The non-conservative failure mode for SORV is commonly termed 'stuck shut'; industry defined as the valve opening at greater than or equal to 1.5 times the cold set pressure. Actual time to failure is typically not known, only that failure occurred some time since the last proof test (censored data). This paper attempts to validate the assumptions underlying the statistical lifetime prediction results using Monte Carlo simulation. It employs an aging model for lift pressure as a function of set pressure, valve manufacturer, and a time-related aging effect. This paper attempts to answer two questions: (1) what is the predicted failure rate over the chosen maintenance/ inspection interval; and do we understand aging sufficient enough to estimate risk when basing proof test intervals on proof test results?

  19. Natural Course of Chlamydia trachomatis Bacterial Load in the Time Interval between Screening and Treatment in Anogenital Samples

    PubMed Central

    Dirks, J. A. M. C.; van Liere, G. A. F. S.; Bogers, S.; Dukers-Muijrers, N. H. T. M.; Wolffs, P. F. G.; Hoebe, C. J. P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide, little is known about the natural course of the bacterial load during infection. We investigated the natural course of the bacterial load in the interval between screening and returning for treatment in genital and anorectal CT-infections. Materials & Methods CT-positive patients, visiting our STI-clinic in the Netherlands from June 2011–January 2014, provided a second urogenital and/or anorectal sample when returning for treatment (diagnostic sample = T1; treatment sample = T2). Patient-record provided data about the days between samples and the date of last unsafe sex. Included patients were ≥18 years old, HIV-negative and did not report antibiotic use in the study-interval. CT load was quantified using qPCR. CT load was log-transformed, and a CT load difference (Δ-CT load) of >1 log was deemed clinically relevant. Chi-square test compared load category distributions over time (decrease/equal/increase), between sample types. Results 274 patients provided 296 paired samples. Majority of samples had a stable CT load in the interval T1-T2 (66.3%, 73.1% and 48.6% for vaginal swabs, urine and anorectal swabs resp. p = 0.07). Load decreased in 17–41% of patients, while ±10% of patients showed an increase in CT load. No association between Δ-CT load and the interval T1-T2 was observed. Large variations can be seen in CT load at T1 and over time. Discussion The majority (±90%) of patients have a stable or decreasing CT load in the time interval between screening and returning for treatment. The number of days between sampling was not associated with change in CT load. In the first month after the last unsafe sex, only stable CT loads were seen. Our data seems to indicate that when most patients visit an STI-clinic, recommended 2 weeks after infection, the infection has already been established or is in its downward phase. PMID:26713628

  20. Persistent time intervals between features in solar flare hard X-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Upendra D.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Barat, C.; Hurley, K.; Niel, M.; Talon, R.; Vedrenne, G.

    Several solar hard X-ray events (greater than 100 keV) were observed simultaneously with identical instruments on the Venera 11, 12, 13, 14, and Prognoz spacecraft. High time resolution (= 2 ms) data were stored in memory when a trigger occurred. The observations of modulation are presented with a period of 1.6 s for the event on December 3, 1978. Evidence is also presented for fast time fluctuations from an event on November 6, 1979, observed from Venera 12 and another on September 6, 1981, observed from the Solar Maximum Mission. Power spectrum analysis, epoch folding, and Monte Carlo simulation were used to evaluate the statistical significance of persistent time delays between features. The results are discussed in light of the MHD model proposed by Zaitsev and Stepanov.

  1. Persistent time intervals between features in solar flare hard X-ray emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Upendra D.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Barat, C.; Hurley, K.; Niel, M.; Talon, R.; Vedrenne, G.

    1986-01-01

    Several solar hard X-ray events (greater than 100 keV) were observed simultaneously with identical instruments on the Venera 11, 12, 13, 14, and Prognoz spacecraft. High time resolution (= 2 ms) data were stored in memory when a trigger occurred. The observations of modulation are presented with a period of 1.6 s for the event on December 3, 1978. Evidence is also presented for fast time fluctuations from an event on November 6, 1979, observed from Venera 12 and another on September 6, 1981, observed from the Solar Maximum Mission. Power spectrum analysis, epoch folding, and Monte Carlo simulation were used to evaluate the statistical significance of persistent time delays between features. The results are discussed in light of the MHD model proposed by Zaitsev and Stepanov.

  2. A Further Assessment of Momentary Time-Sampling across Extended Interval Lengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvero, Alicia M.; Rappaport, Eva; Taylor, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study compared the estimation of momentary time-sampling (MTS) to actual safety performance of three ergonomic responses: back, shoulder, and feet. Actual safety performance was established for the five participants by measuring the target responses with a continuous procedure. MTS 90, 105, 120, 135, 150, 165, 180, 195, 210, 240, and…

  3. Effects of Improvements in Interval Timing on the Mathematics Achievement of Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Keith, Timothy Z.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the effect of improvements in timing/rhythmicity on mathematics achievement. A total of 86 participants attending 1st through 4th grades completed pre- and posttest measures of mathematics achievement from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Students in the experimental group participated in a 4-week intervention…

  4. Systolic time intervals as a measure of left ventricular function in viscose rayon workers exposed to carbon disulfide.

    PubMed

    Franco, G; Malamani, T

    1976-06-01

    In a group of viscose rayon workers exposed to carbon disulfide the systolic time intervals were calculated. They were determined from the simultaneous recording of an ECG, a phonocardiogram, and arterial pulse tracings. Results indicate a shortened left ventricular ejection time (lvet) and a prolonged isovolumetric contraction time (ICT), together with an increase in the ratio of ICT to LVET. These alterations, which occurred in the absence of any clinical signs or symptoms of heart disease, are interpreted as a consequence of an impaired left ventricular contractility, comparable to mild coronary dysfunction. Literature data support the hypothesis that the biochemical mechanisms involved in the effect of carbon disulfide on myocardial cells are (a) an interference with energy metabolism from the inadequate availability of thiamine and nicotinamide or a direct inhibition of cytochrome or (b) an interference with catecholamine metabolism and defective hormonal control of the energy utilization process. Impaired left ventricular function in rayon viscose workers exposed to carbon disulfide represents an early and highly sensitive sign of carbon disulfide intoxication, and the use of systolic time intervals as a noninvasive measure of myocardial performance may be a useful method for monitoring carbon disulfide exposed people. PMID:959790

  5. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Aquatic Vegetation in Taihu Lake over the Past 30 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dehua; Lv, Meiting; Jiang, Hao; Cai, Ying; Xu, Delin; An, Shuqing

    2013-01-01

    It is often difficult to track the spatio-temporal variability of vegetation distribution in lakes because of the technological limitations associated with mapping using traditional field surveys as well as the lack of a unified field survey protocol. Using a series of Landsat remote sensing images (i.e. MSS, TM and ETM+), we mapped the composition and distribution area of emergent, floating-leaf and submerged macrophytes in Taihu Lake, China, at approximate five-year intervals over the past 30 years in order to quantify the spatio-temporal dynamics of the aquatic vegetation. Our results indicated that the total area of aquatic vegetation increased from 187.5 km2 in 1981 to 485.0 km2 in 2005 and then suddenly decreased to 341.3 km2 in 2010. Similarly, submerged vegetation increased from 127.0 km2 in 1981 to 366.5 km2 in 2005, and then decreased to 163.3 km2. Floating-leaf vegetation increased continuously through the study period in both area occupied (12.9 km2 in 1981 to 146.2 km2 in 2010) and percentage of the total vegetation (6.88% in 1981 to 42.8% in 2010). In terms of spatial distribution, the aquatic vegetation in Taihu Lake has spread gradually from the East Bay to the surrounding areas. The proportion of vegetation in the East Bay relative to that in the entire lake has decreased continuously from 62.3% in 1981, to 31.1% in 2005 and then to 21.8% in 2010. Our findings have suggested that drastic changes have taken place over the past 30 years in the spatial pattern of aquatic vegetation as well as both its relative composition and the amount of area it occupies. PMID:23823189

  6. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Aquatic Vegetation in Taihu Lake over the Past 30 Years.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dehua; Lv, Meiting; Jiang, Hao; Cai, Ying; Xu, Delin; An, Shuqing

    2013-01-01

    It is often difficult to track the spatio-temporal variability of vegetation distribution in lakes because of the technological limitations associated with mapping using traditional field surveys as well as the lack of a unified field survey protocol. Using a series of Landsat remote sensing images (i.e. MSS, TM and ETM+), we mapped the composition and distribution area of emergent, floating-leaf and submerged macrophytes in Taihu Lake, China, at approximate five-year intervals over the past 30 years in order to quantify the spatio-temporal dynamics of the aquatic vegetation. Our results indicated that the total area of aquatic vegetation increased from 187.5 km(2) in 1981 to 485.0 km(2) in 2005 and then suddenly decreased to 341.3 km(2) in 2010. Similarly, submerged vegetation increased from 127.0 km(2) in 1981 to 366.5 km(2) in 2005, and then decreased to 163.3 km(2). Floating-leaf vegetation increased continuously through the study period in both area occupied (12.9 km(2) in 1981 to 146.2 km(2) in 2010) and percentage of the total vegetation (6.88% in 1981 to 42.8% in 2010). In terms of spatial distribution, the aquatic vegetation in Taihu Lake has spread gradually from the East Bay to the surrounding areas. The proportion of vegetation in the East Bay relative to that in the entire lake has decreased continuously from 62.3% in 1981, to 31.1% in 2005 and then to 21.8% in 2010. Our findings have suggested that drastic changes have taken place over the past 30 years in the spatial pattern of aquatic vegetation as well as both its relative composition and the amount of area it occupies. PMID:23823189

  7. Decision makers calibrate behavioral persistence on the basis of time-interval experience

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Joseph T.; Kable, Joseph W.

    2012-01-01

    A central question in intertemporal decision making is why people reverse their own past choices. Someone who initially prefers a long-run outcome might fail to maintain that preference for long enough to see the outcome realized. Such behavior is usually understood as reflecting preference instability or self-control failure. However, if a decision maker is unsure exactly how long an awaited outcome will be delayed, a reversal can constitute the rational, utility-maximizing course of action. In the present behavioral experiments, we placed participants in timing environments where persistence toward delayed rewards was either productive or counterproductive. Our results show that human decision makers are responsive to statistical timing cues, modulating their level of persistence according to the distribution of delay durations they encounter. We conclude that temporal expectations act as a powerful and adaptive influence on people’s tendency to sustain patient decisions. PMID:22533999

  8. Theory of the determination of systolic time intervals by impedance cardiography.

    PubMed

    Visser, K R; Mook, G A; van der Wall, E; Zijlstra, W G

    1993-08-01

    It is possible to accurately measure the left ventricular ejection time from the dZ/dt signal of impedance cardiography. The pre-ejection period can be measured from simultaneous recordings of ECG and dZ/dt. The thoracic admittance (reciprocal value of thoracic impedance) is the sum of a constant tissue admittance and a varying blood conductance Gb (reciprocal value of the blood resistance). dZ/dt represents the changes in Gb. The notches of the dZ/dt signal, corresponding to opening and closing of the aortic valve, are due to conductivity changes of blood caused by changes in orientation of erythrocytes; near zero-velocity the first derivative with respect to time of these conductivity changes approaches infinity. Therefore, these notches coincide with the actual opening and closing of the valve, although different vessels, including the aorta, contribute to dZ/dt. Comparison of ejection times, simultaneously measured by impedance cardiography and aortic pressure recording, showed excellent agreement for the whole range of measured heart rates (maximum heart rate = 140 beats min-1, n = 70, r = 0.986). PMID:8218623

  9. Estimating the Time Interval Between Exposure to the World Trade Center Disaster and Incident Diagnoses of Obstructive Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Michelle S.; Webber, Mayris P.; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Weakley, Jessica; Liu, Xiaoxue; Ye, Fen; Cohen, Hillel W.; Aldrich, Thomas K.; Kelly, Kerry J.; Nolan, Anna; Weiden, Michael D.; Prezant, David J.; Hall, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory disorders are associated with occupational and environmental exposures. The latency period between exposure and disease onset remains uncertain. The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster presents a unique opportunity to describe the latency period for obstructive airway disease (OAD) diagnoses. This prospective cohort study of New York City firefighters compared the timing and incidence of physician-diagnosed OAD relative to WTC exposure. Exposure was categorized by WTC arrival time as high (on the morning of September 11, 2001), moderate (after noon on September 11, 2001, or on September 12, 2001), or low (during September 13–24, 2001). We modeled relative rates and 95% confidence intervals of OAD incidence by exposure over the first 5 years after September 11, 2001, estimating the times of change in the relative rate with change point models. We observed a change point at 15 months after September 11, 2001. Before 15 months, the relative rate for the high- versus low-exposure group was 3.96 (95% confidence interval: 2.51, 6.26) and thereafter, it was 1.76 (95% confidence interval: 1.26, 2.46). Incident OAD was associated with WTC exposure for at least 5 years after September 11, 2001. There were higher rates of new-onset OAD among the high-exposure group during the first 15 months and, to a lesser extent, throughout follow-up. This difference in relative rate by exposure occurred despite full and free access to health care for all WTC-exposed firefighters, demonstrating the persistence of WTC-associated OAD risk. PMID:24980522

  10. Estimating the time interval between exposure to the World Trade Center disaster and incident diagnoses of obstructive airway disease.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Michelle S; Webber, Mayris P; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Weakley, Jessica; Liu, Xiaoxue; Ye, Fen; Cohen, Hillel W; Aldrich, Thomas K; Kelly, Kerry J; Nolan, Anna; Weiden, Michael D; Prezant, David J; Hall, Charles B

    2014-08-01

    Respiratory disorders are associated with occupational and environmental exposures. The latency period between exposure and disease onset remains uncertain. The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster presents a unique opportunity to describe the latency period for obstructive airway disease (OAD) diagnoses. This prospective cohort study of New York City firefighters compared the timing and incidence of physician-diagnosed OAD relative to WTC exposure. Exposure was categorized by WTC arrival time as high (on the morning of September 11, 2001), moderate (after noon on September 11, 2001, or on September 12, 2001), or low (during September 13-24, 2001). We modeled relative rates and 95% confidence intervals of OAD incidence by exposure over the first 5 years after September 11, 2001, estimating the times of change in the relative rate with change point models. We observed a change point at 15 months after September 11, 2001. Before 15 months, the relative rate for the high- versus low-exposure group was 3.96 (95% confidence interval: 2.51, 6.26) and thereafter, it was 1.76 (95% confidence interval: 1.26, 2.46). Incident OAD was associated with WTC exposure for at least 5 years after September 11, 2001. There were higher rates of new-onset OAD among the high-exposure group during the first 15 months and, to a lesser extent, throughout follow-up. This difference in relative rate by exposure occurred despite full and free access to health care for all WTC-exposed firefighters, demonstrating the persistence of WTC-associated OAD risk. PMID:24980522

  11. Systolic time intervals: a review of the method in the non-invasive investigation of cardiac function in health, disease and clinical pharmacology.

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, S.; Turner, P.

    1983-01-01

    Measurement of systolic time intervals is a valuable, non-invasive procedure to assess left ventricular performance, particularly when influenced by drugs. In this review, we discuss various factors affecting systolic time intervals, the therapeutic implications of the technique and its place among other non-invasive tests of cardiac function. PMID:6353394

  12. Rank-based inference for the accelerated failure time model in the presence of interval censored data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Mostafa; Ibrahim, Noor Akma; Bakar, Mohd. Rizam Abu; Arasan, Jayanthi

    2016-06-01

    Semiparametric analysis and rank-based inference for the accelerated failure time model are complicated in the presence of interval censored data. The main difficulty with the existing rank-based methods is that they involve estimating functions with the possibility of multiple roots. In this paper a class of asymptotically normal rank estimators is developed which can be aquired via linear programming for estimating the parameters of the model, and a two-step iterative algorithm is introduce for solving the estimating equations. The proposed inference procedures are assessed through a real example.

  13. Delay-dependent exponential stability for uncertain neutral stochastic neural networks with interval time-varying delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huabin; Zhao, Yang

    2015-10-01

    This paper is mainly concerned with the problem for the robustly exponential stability in mean square moment of uncertain neutral stochastic neural networks with interval time-varying delay. With an appropriate augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) formulated, the convex combination method is utilised to estimate the derivative of the LKF. Some new delay-dependent exponential stability criteria for such systems are obtained in terms of linear matrix inequalities, which involve fewer matrix variables and have less conservatism. Finally, two illustrative numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of our obtained results.

  14. Global robust dissipativity of interval recurrent neural networks with time-varying delay and discontinuous activations.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lian; Huang, Lihong; Guo, Zhenyuan

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the problems of robust dissipativity and robust exponential dissipativity are discussed for a class of recurrent neural networks with time-varying delay and discontinuous activations. We extend an invariance principle for the study of the dissipativity problem of delay systems to the discontinuous case. Based on the developed theory, some novel criteria for checking the global robust dissipativity and global robust exponential dissipativity of the addressed neural network model are established by constructing appropriate Lyapunov functionals and employing the theory of Filippov systems and matrix inequality techniques. The effectiveness of the theoretical results is shown by two examples with numerical simulations. PMID:27475061

  15. Global robust dissipativity of interval recurrent neural networks with time-varying delay and discontinuous activations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Lian; Huang, Lihong; Guo, Zhenyuan

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the problems of robust dissipativity and robust exponential dissipativity are discussed for a class of recurrent neural networks with time-varying delay and discontinuous activations. We extend an invariance principle for the study of the dissipativity problem of delay systems to the discontinuous case. Based on the developed theory, some novel criteria for checking the global robust dissipativity and global robust exponential dissipativity of the addressed neural network model are established by constructing appropriate Lyapunov functionals and employing the theory of Filippov systems and matrix inequality techniques. The effectiveness of the theoretical results is shown by two examples with numerical simulations.

  16. Infusion of D1 Dopamine Receptor Agonist into Medial Frontal Cortex Disrupts Neural Correlates of Interval Timing

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Krystal L.; Ruggiero, Rafael N.; Narayanan, Nandakumar S.

    2015-01-01

    Medial frontal cortical (MFC) dopamine is essential for the organization of behavior in time. Our prior work indicates that blocking D1 dopamine receptors (D1DR) attenuates temporal processing and low-frequency oscillations by MFC neuronal networks. Here we investigate the effects of focal infusion of the D1DR agonist SKF82958 into MFC during interval timing. MFC D1DR agonist infusion impaired interval timing performance without changing overall firing rates of MFC neurons. MFC ramping patterns of neuronal activity that reflect temporal processing were attenuated following infusion of MFC D1DR agonist. MFC D1DR agonist infusion also altered MFC field potentials by enhancing delta activity between 1 and 4 Hz and attenuating alpha activity between 8 and 15 Hz. These data support the idea that the influence of D1-dopamine signals on frontal neuronal activity adheres to a U-shaped curve, and that cognition requires optimal levels of dopamine in frontal cortex. PMID:26617499

  17. Online Doppler Effect Elimination Based on Unequal Time Interval Sampling for Wayside Acoustic Bearing Fault Detecting System

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Kesai; Lu, Siliang; Zhang, Shangbin; Zhang, Haibin; He, Qingbo; Kong, Fanrang

    2015-01-01

    The railway occupies a fairly important position in transportation due to its high speed and strong transportation capability. As a consequence, it is a key issue to guarantee continuous running and transportation safety of trains. Meanwhile, time consumption of the diagnosis procedure is of extreme importance for the detecting system. However, most of the current adopted techniques in the wayside acoustic defective bearing detector system (ADBD) are offline strategies, which means that the signal is analyzed after the sampling process. This would result in unavoidable time latency. Besides, the acquired acoustic signal would be corrupted by the Doppler effect because of high relative speed between the train and the data acquisition system (DAS). Thus, it is difficult to effectively diagnose the bearing defects immediately. In this paper, a new strategy called online Doppler effect elimination (ODEE) is proposed to remove the Doppler distortion online by the introduced unequal interval sampling scheme. The steps of proposed strategy are as follows: The essential parameters are acquired in advance. Then, the introduced unequal time interval sampling strategy is used to restore the Doppler distortion signal, and the amplitude of the signal is demodulated as well. Thus, the restored Doppler-free signal is obtained online. The proposed ODEE method has been employed in simulation analysis. Ultimately, the ODEE method is implemented in the embedded system for fault diagnosis of the train bearing. The results are in good accordance with the bearing defects, which verifies the good performance of the proposed strategy. PMID:26343657

  18. Online Doppler Effect Elimination Based on Unequal Time Interval Sampling for Wayside Acoustic Bearing Fault Detecting System.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Kesai; Lu, Siliang; Zhang, Shangbin; Zhang, Haibin; He, Qingbo; Kong, Fanrang

    2015-01-01

    The railway occupies a fairly important position in transportation due to its high speed and strong transportation capability. As a consequence, it is a key issue to guarantee continuous running and transportation safety of trains. Meanwhile, time consumption of the diagnosis procedure is of extreme importance for the detecting system. However, most of the current adopted techniques in the wayside acoustic defective bearing detector system (ADBD) are offline strategies, which means that the signal is analyzed after the sampling process. This would result in unavoidable time latency. Besides, the acquired acoustic signal would be corrupted by the Doppler effect because of high relative speed between the train and the data acquisition system (DAS). Thus, it is difficult to effectively diagnose the bearing defects immediately. In this paper, a new strategy called online Doppler effect elimination (ODEE) is proposed to remove the Doppler distortion online by the introduced unequal interval sampling scheme. The steps of proposed strategy are as follows: The essential parameters are acquired in advance. Then, the introduced unequal time interval sampling strategy is used to restore the Doppler distortion signal, and the amplitude of the signal is demodulated as well. Thus, the restored Doppler-free signal is obtained online. The proposed ODEE method has been employed in simulation analysis. Ultimately, the ODEE method is implemented in the embedded system for fault diagnosis of the train bearing. The results are in good accordance with the bearing defects, which verifies the good performance of the proposed strategy. PMID:26343657

  19. Linking Land Surface Phenology and Growth Limiting Factor Shifts over the Past 30 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garonna, I.; Schenkel, D.; de Jong, R.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The study of global vegetation dynamics contributes to a better understanding of global change drivers and how these affect ecosystems and ecological diversity. Land-surface phenology (LSP) is a key response and feedback of vegetation to the climate system, and hence a parameter that needs to be accurately represented in terrestrial biosphere models [1]. However, the effects of climatic changes on LSP depend on the relative importance of climatic constraints in specific regions - which are not well understood at global scale. In this study, we analyzed a Phenology Reanalysis dataset [2] to evaluate shifts in three climatic drivers of phenology at global scale and over the last 30 years (1982-2012): incoming radiation, evaporative demand and minimum temperature. As a first step, we compared LAI as modeled from these three factors (LAIre) to remotely sensed observations of LSP (LAI3g, [3]) over the same time period. As a second step, we examined temporal trends in the climatic constraints at Start- and End- of the Growing Season. There was good agreement between phenology metrics as derived form LAI3g and LAIre over the last 30 years - thus providing confidence in the climatic constraints underlying the modeled data. Our analysis reveals inter-annual variation in the relative importance of the three climatic factors in limiting vegetation growth at Start- and End- of the Growing Season over the last 30 years. High northern latitudes, as well as northern Europe and central Asia, appear to have undergone significant changes in dominance between the three controls. We also find that evaporative demand has become increasingly limiting for growth in many parts of the world, in particular in South America and eastern Asia. [1] Richardson, A.D. et al. Global Change Biology 18, 566-584 (2012). [2] Stöckli, R. et al. J. Geophys. Res 116, G03020 (2011). [3] Zhu, Z. et al. Remote Sensing 5, 927-948 (2013).

  20. The Impact of the Evolving Satellite Data Record on Reanalysis Water and Energy Fluxes During the Past 30 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Miller, T. L.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Chen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Retrospective analyses (reanalyses) use a fixed assimilation model to take diverse observations and synthesize consistent, time-dependent fields of state variables and fluxes (e.g. temperature, moisture, momentum, turbulent and radiative fluxes). Because they offer data sets of these quantities at regular space / time intervals, atmospheric reanalyses have become a mainstay of the climate community for diagnostic purposes and for driving offline ocean and land models. Of course, one weakness of these data sets is the susceptibility of the flux products to uncertainties because of shortcomings in parameterized model physics. Another issue, perhaps less appreciated, is the fact that the discreet changes in the evolving observational system, particularly from satellite sensors, may also introduce artifacts in the time series of quantities. In this paper we examine the ability of the NASA MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications) and other recent reanalyses to determine variability in the climate system over the satellite record ( the last 30 years). In particular we highlight the effect on reanalyses of discontinuities at the junctures of the onset of passive microwave imaging (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) in late 1987 as well as improved sounding and imaging with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit, AMSU-A, in 1998. We examine these data sets from two perspectives. The first is the ability to capture modes of variability that have coherent spatial structure (e.g. ENSO events and near-decadal coupling to SST changes) and how these modes are contained within trends in near global averages of key quantities. Secondly, we consider diagnostics that measure the consistency in energetic scaling in the hydrologic cycle, particularly the fractional changes in column-integrated water vapor versus precipitation as they are coupled to radiative flux constraints. These results will be discussed in the context of implications for science

  1. The duration of uncertain times: audiovisual information about intervals is integrated in a statistically optimal fashion.

    PubMed

    Hartcher-O'Brien, Jess; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Ernst, Marc O

    2014-01-01

    Often multisensory information is integrated in a statistically optimal fashion where each sensory source is weighted according to its precision. This integration scheme isstatistically optimal because it theoretically results in unbiased perceptual estimates with the highest precisionpossible.There is a current lack of consensus about how the nervous system processes multiple sensory cues to elapsed time.In order to shed light upon this, we adopt a computational approach to pinpoint the integration strategy underlying duration estimationof audio/visual stimuli. One of the assumptions of our computational approach is that the multisensory signals redundantly specify the same stimulus property. Our results clearly show that despite claims to the contrary, perceived duration is the result of an optimal weighting process, similar to that adopted for estimates of space. That is, participants weight the audio and visual information to arrive at the most precise, single duration estimate possible. The work also disentangles how different integration strategies - i.e. consideringthe time of onset/offset ofsignals - might alter the final estimate. As such we provide the first concrete evidence of an optimal integration strategy in human duration estimates. PMID:24594578

  2. Short time interval for condensation of high-temperature silicates in the solar accretion disk.

    PubMed

    Luu, Tu-Han; Young, Edward D; Gounelle, Matthieu; Chaussidon, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Chondritic meteorites are made of primitive components that record the first steps of formation of solids in our Solar System. Chondrules are the major component of chondrites, yet little is known about their formation mechanisms and history within the solar protoplanetary disk (SPD). We use the reconstructed concentrations of short-lived (26)Al in chondrules to constrain the timing of formation of their precursors in the SPD. High-precision bulk magnesium isotopic measurements of 14 chondrules from the Allende chondrite define a (26)Al isochron with (26)Al/(27)Al = 1.2(±0.2) × 10(-5) for this subset of Allende chondrules. This can be considered to be the minimum bulk chondrule (26)Al isochron because all chondrules analyzed so far with high precision (∼50 chondrules from CV and ordinary chondrites) have an inferred minimum bulk initial ((26)Al/(27)Al) ≥ 1.2 × 10(-5). In addition, mineral (26)Al isochrons determined on the same chondrules show that their formation (i.e., fusion of their precursors by energetic events) took place from 0 Myr to ∼2 Myr after the formation of their precursors, thus showing in some cases a clear decoupling in time between the two events. The finding of a minimum bulk chondrule (26)Al isochron is used to constrain the astrophysical settings for chondrule formation. Either the temperature of the condensation zone dropped below the condensation temperature of chondrule precursors at ∼1.5 My after the start of the Solar System or the transport of precursors from the condensation zone to potential storage sites stopped after 1.5 My, possibly due to a drop in the disk accretion rate. PMID:25605942

  3. Short time interval for condensation of high-temperature silicates in the solar accretion disk

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Tu-Han; Young, Edward D.; Gounelle, Matthieu; Chaussidon, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Chondritic meteorites are made of primitive components that record the first steps of formation of solids in our Solar System. Chondrules are the major component of chondrites, yet little is known about their formation mechanisms and history within the solar protoplanetary disk (SPD). We use the reconstructed concentrations of short-lived 26Al in chondrules to constrain the timing of formation of their precursors in the SPD. High-precision bulk magnesium isotopic measurements of 14 chondrules from the Allende chondrite define a 26Al isochron with 26Al/27Al = 1.2(±0.2) × 10−5 for this subset of Allende chondrules. This can be considered to be the minimum bulk chondrule 26Al isochron because all chondrules analyzed so far with high precision (∼50 chondrules from CV and ordinary chondrites) have an inferred minimum bulk initial (26Al/27Al) ≥ 1.2 × 10−5. In addition, mineral 26Al isochrons determined on the same chondrules show that their formation (i.e., fusion of their precursors by energetic events) took place from 0 Myr to ∼2 Myr after the formation of their precursors, thus showing in some cases a clear decoupling in time between the two events. The finding of a minimum bulk chondrule 26Al isochron is used to constrain the astrophysical settings for chondrule formation. Either the temperature of the condensation zone dropped below the condensation temperature of chondrule precursors at ∼1.5 My after the start of the Solar System or the transport of precursors from the condensation zone to potential storage sites stopped after 1.5 My, possibly due to a drop in the disk accretion rate. PMID:25605942

  4. Reference intervals for coagulation times using two point-of-care analysers in healthy pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Mentré, V; Bulliot, C; Linsart, A; Ronot, P

    2014-06-28

    The purpose of this study was to establish reference intervals for prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial prothrombin time (aPTT) in healthy rabbits using two different point-of-care analysers (Idexx Coag DX and MS Quick Vet Coag Combo). These intervals would be useful in the diagnosis of coagulopathies and in the determination of coagulation status in critical patients. We are unaware of reports of coagulation values in pet rabbits. Blood samples were analysed from 81 clinically healthy pet rabbits under three years of age (49 females and 32 males). The reference intervals were as follows (non-parametric method for the MS Quick Vet Coag Combo and Box-Cox Robust method for the Idexx Coag DX, p<0.05 limit for statistical significance): PT (MS Quick Vet Coag Combo)=N=33, 17.2-28.5; PT (Idexx Coag DX)=N=48, 10.0-14.8, aPTT (MS Quick Vet Coag Combo)=N=33, 103.2-159.2 and aPTT (Idexx Coag DX)=N=48, 104.2-159.1. PT was significantly longer using the MS Quick Vet Coag Combo. aPTT was significantly shorter with the MS Quick Vet Coag Combo. On each type of analyser, there was no significant difference between sexes and blood sampling sites. A significant difference was present for the use or not of anaesthesia with the MS Quick Vet Coag Combo analyser. This study on healthy pet rabbits will be useful in point-of-care diagnosis of coagulopathies. PMID:24722233

  5. Time-interval for integration of stabilizing haptic and visual information in subjects balancing under static and dynamic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Honeine, Jean-Louis; Schieppati, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining equilibrium is basically a sensorimotor integration task. The central nervous system (CNS) continually and selectively weights and rapidly integrates sensory inputs from multiple sources, and coordinates multiple outputs. The weighting process is based on the availability and accuracy of afferent signals at a given instant, on the time-period required to process each input, and possibly on the plasticity of the relevant pathways. The likelihood that sensory inflow changes while balancing under static or dynamic conditions is high, because subjects can pass from a dark to a well-lit environment or from a tactile-guided stabilization to loss of haptic inflow. This review article presents recent data on the temporal events accompanying sensory transition, on which basic information is fragmentary. The processing time from sensory shift to reaching a new steady state includes the time to (a) subtract or integrate sensory inputs; (b) move from allocentric to egocentric reference or vice versa; and (c) adjust the calibration of motor activity in time and amplitude to the new sensory set. We present examples of processes of integration of posture-stabilizing information, and of the respective sensorimotor time-intervals while allowing or occluding vision or adding or subtracting tactile information. These intervals are short, in the order of 1–2 s for different postural conditions, modalities and deliberate or passive shift. They are just longer for haptic than visual shift, just shorter on withdrawal than on addition of stabilizing input, and on deliberate than unexpected mode. The delays are the shortest (for haptic shift) in blind subjects. Since automatic balance stabilization may be vulnerable to sensory-integration delays and to interference from concurrent cognitive tasks in patients with sensorimotor problems, insight into the processing time for balance control represents a critical step in the design of new balance- and locomotion training devices

  6. Time-interval for integration of stabilizing haptic and visual information in subjects balancing under static and dynamic conditions.

    PubMed

    Honeine, Jean-Louis; Schieppati, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining equilibrium is basically a sensorimotor integration task. The central nervous system (CNS) continually and selectively weights and rapidly integrates sensory inputs from multiple sources, and coordinates multiple outputs. The weighting process is based on the availability and accuracy of afferent signals at a given instant, on the time-period required to process each input, and possibly on the plasticity of the relevant pathways. The likelihood that sensory inflow changes while balancing under static or dynamic conditions is high, because subjects can pass from a dark to a well-lit environment or from a tactile-guided stabilization to loss of haptic inflow. This review article presents recent data on the temporal events accompanying sensory transition, on which basic information is fragmentary. The processing time from sensory shift to reaching a new steady state includes the time to (a) subtract or integrate sensory inputs; (b) move from allocentric to egocentric reference or vice versa; and (c) adjust the calibration of motor activity in time and amplitude to the new sensory set. We present examples of processes of integration of posture-stabilizing information, and of the respective sensorimotor time-intervals while allowing or occluding vision or adding or subtracting tactile information. These intervals are short, in the order of 1-2 s for different postural conditions, modalities and deliberate or passive shift. They are just longer for haptic than visual shift, just shorter on withdrawal than on addition of stabilizing input, and on deliberate than unexpected mode. The delays are the shortest (for haptic shift) in blind subjects. Since automatic balance stabilization may be vulnerable to sensory-integration delays and to interference from concurrent cognitive tasks in patients with sensorimotor problems, insight into the processing time for balance control represents a critical step in the design of new balance- and locomotion training devices

  7. Precise time and Time Interval (PTTI) measurements from the navigation technology satellites and the GPS NAVSTAR-4 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buisson, J. A.; Mccaskill, T., B.; Oaks, O. J.; Jeffries, M. M.; Stebbins, S. B.

    1979-01-01

    A time domain estimate for the NAVSTAR-4 SV clock offset was obtained for each SV pass over the GPS monitor sites, using a smoothed reference ephemeris, with corrections for ionospheric delay, tropospheric delay, earth rotation and relativistic effects. Conversion from the time domain to the frequency domain was made using the two sample Allan Variance; sigma-tau plots used to identify the noise processes. Estimates of flicker and white frequency noise for the NAVSTAR-4 rubidium frequency standard were obtained. The contribution of the reference ground clocks and other error sources to the frequency stability estimates were also considered.

  8. Effect of sintering temperature and time intervals on morphological and hardness behaviour of Al-20 vol% Sn matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badarulzaman, N. A.; Karim, S. R.; Lajis, M. A.

    2015-05-01

    Aluminium (Al) alloys are widely used in various industries, such as automotive and aerospace. The production processes in these sectors create large amount of Al residues. In this paper, a new method of recycling Al chip is presented. Metal matrix composite (MMCs) of Al-20 vol% Sn was prepared by using solid state direct conversion method of recycled Al 6061 alloy. Constant pressure (10 ton) was used to implement the cold forging process. The differences of sintering temperature (200 °C, 250 °C, 300 °C and 350 °C) and time intervals (1h, 2h, 3h, 4h and 5h) were studied to obtain the optimum hardness, strength and surface integrity of Al-20 vol% Sn. The results showed that, hardness and strength of Al-20 vol% Sn was decreased by additional temperature and increase with time interval of sintering. Sintering temperature at 350 °C produces better morphology structure of Al-Sn composites.

  9. Blind synchronization of the OFDM signals in multipath channels on the basis of the time and frequency protection intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkov, G. N.; Gorokhov, K. V.; Kolobkov, A. V.

    2013-08-01

    New methods of symbol-timing and carrier-frequency blind synchronization of an OFDM-signal receiver are developed and studied. They generalize the well-known methods which use either the protection interval in time in the cyclic prefix form or the protection interval with respect to frequency in the form of virtual subcarriers, and are based on their joint application. To reduce the computational complexity, approximate algorithms which are based on the approximation of the optimal rules, but, according to the study results, have almost the same characteristics of parameter-estimation accuracy and the reception bit-error-rate performance are proposed. It is shown that in terms of the parameter-estimation accuracy and the reception bit-error-rate performance, the proposed methods are superior to the well-known methods of synchronization by the cyclic prefix and the virtual subcarriers in the two-path Rayleigh-fading channel. For incoherent systems with the differential phase shift keying variants, using such methods makes it possible to rule out the necessity of accurate synchronization and, due to insignificant redundancy of the system band and the cyclic prefix length, closely approach the reception bit-error-rate performance for perfect synchronization.

  10. A delay-dependent approach to robust control for neutral uncertain neural networks with mixed interval time-varying delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chien-Yu

    2011-04-01

    This paper considers the problem of delay-dependent global robust stabilization for discrete, distributed and neutral interval time-varying delayed neural networks described by nonlinear delay differential equations of the neutral type. The parameter uncertainties are norm bounded. The activation functions are assumed to be bounded and globally Lipschitz continuous. Using a Lyapunov functional approach and linear matrix inequality (LMI) techniques, the stability criteria for the uncertain neutral neural networks with interval time-varying delays are established in the form of LMIs, which can be readily verified using the standard numerical software. An important feature of the result reported is that all the stability conditions are dependent on the upper and lower bounds of the delays. Another feature of the results lies in that it involves fewer free weighting matrix strategy, and upper bounds of the inner product between two vectors are not introduced to reduce the conservatism of the criteria. Two illustrative examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and the reduced conservatism of the proposed method.

  11. High-intensity interval training (HIT) for effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise interventions.

    PubMed

    Weston, Matthew; Weston, Kathryn L; Prentis, James M; Snowden, Chris P

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of perioperative medicine is leading to greater diversity in development of pre-surgical interventions, implemented to reduce patient surgical risk and enhance post-surgical recovery. Of these interventions, the prescription of pre-operative exercise training is gathering momentum as a realistic means for enhancing patient surgical outcome. Indeed, the general benefits of exercise training have the potential to pre-operatively optimise several pre-surgical risks factors, including cardiorespiratory function, frailty and cognitive function. Any exercise programme incorporated into the pre-operative pathway of care needs to be effective and time efficient in that any fitness gains are achievable in the limited period between the decision for surgery and operation (e.g. 4 weeks). Fortunately, there is a large volume of research describing effective and time-efficient exercise training programmes within the discipline of sports science. Accordingly, the objective of our commentary is to synthesise contemporary exercise training research, both from non-clinical and clinical populations, with the overarching aim of informing the development of effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise training programmes. The development of such exercise training programmes requires the careful consideration of several key principles, namely frequency, intensity, time, type and progression of exercise. Therefore, in light of more recent evidence demonstrating the effectiveness and time efficiency of high-intensity interval training-which involves brief bouts of intense exercise interspersed with longer recovery periods-the principles of exercise training programme design will be discussed mainly in the context of such high-intensity interval training programmes. Other issues pertinent to the development, implementation and evaluation of pre-operative exercise training programmes, such as individual exercise prescription, training session monitoring and potential

  12. Joint timing and frequency synchronization based on weighted CAZAC sequences for reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM systems.

    PubMed

    Omomukuyo, Oluyemi; Chang, Deyuan; Zhu, Jingwen; Dobre, Octavia; Venkatesan, Ramachandran; Ngatched, Telex; Rumbolt, Chuck

    2015-03-01

    A novel joint symbol timing and carrier frequency offset (CFO) estimation algorithm is proposed for reduced-guard-interval coherent optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (RGI-CO-OFDM) systems. The proposed algorithm is based on a constant amplitude zero autocorrelation (CAZAC) sequence weighted by a pseudo-random noise (PN) sequence. The symbol timing is accomplished by using only one training symbol of two identical halves, with the weighting applied to the second half. The special structure of the training symbol is also utilized in estimating the CFO. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by means of numerical simulations in a 115.8-Gb/s 16-QAM RGI-CO-OFDM system. PMID:25836807

  13. History of echocardiography in the Netherlands: 30 years of education and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Kamp, O.

    2008-01-01

    The development of ultrasound has created great opportunities for diagnostic cardiac imaging. For more than 30 years, echocardiography has been the most important and cost-effective diagnostic imaging modality in clinical cardiology. Many developments originated in the Netherlands, including the very first practical real-time crosssectional imaging of the moving heart with a linear array. Milestones include the first portable echo apparatus, early versions of echo catheters and transoesophageal echocardiography probes as well as many clinical ‘firsts’ with reference to the more than 100 Dutch dissertations related to echocardiography. The future of echocardiography promises to be as productive and exciting as it has been in the previous three decades, including threedimensional echocardiography, myocardial perfusion echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging and speckle tracking. New potential therapeutic applications are upcoming. In this article, the advances of echocardiography in the Netherlands are described, in the past and during 30 years of education, as was recently presented by three Dutch pioneers during the ‘Echomiddagen 2006-2007’ organised by the CVOI. (Neth Heart J 2008;16:16-20.18317539) PMID:18317539

  14. Fourth-grade Children’s Dietary Recall Accuracy is Influenced by Retention Interval (Target Period and Interview Time)

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, James W.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Royer, Julie A.; Mackelprang, Alyssa J.; Smith, Albert F.

    2009-01-01

    Background For a 24-hour dietary recall, two possible target periods are the prior 24 hours (24 hours immediately preceding the interview time) and previous day (midnight to midnight of the day before the interview), and three possible interview times are morning, afternoon, and evening. Target period and interview time determine the retention interval (elapsed time between to-be-reported meals and the interview), which, along with intervening meals, can influence reporting accuracy. Objective The effects of target period and interview time on children’s accuracy for reporting school meals during 24-hour dietary recalls were investigated. Design and subjects/setting During the 2004–05, 2005–06, and 2006–07 school years in (city), (state), each of 374 randomly selected fourth-grade children (96% Black) was observed eating two consecutive school meals (breakfast, lunch) and interviewed to obtain a 24-hour dietary recall using one of six conditions defined by crossing two target periods with three interview times. Each condition had 62 or 64 children (half boys). Main outcome measures Accuracy for reporting school meals was quantified by calculating rates for omissions (food items observed eaten but unreported) and intrusions (food items reported eaten but unobserved); a measure of total inaccuracy combined errors for reporting food items and amounts. Statistical analyses performed For each accuracy measure, analysis of variance was conducted with target period, interview time, their interaction, sex, interviewer, and school year in the model. Results There was a target-period effect and a target-period by interview-time interaction on omission rates, intrusion rates, and total inaccuracy (six P values <0.004). For prior-24-hour recalls compared to previous-day recalls, and for prior-24-hour recalls in the afternoon and evening compared to previous-day recalls in the afternoon and evening, omission rates were better by one-third, intrusion rates were better by

  15. Priority effects of time of arrival of plant functional groups override sowing interval or density effects: a grassland experiment.

    PubMed

    von Gillhaussen, Philipp; Rascher, Uwe; Jablonowski, Nicolai D; Plückers, Christine; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Temperton, Vicky M

    2014-01-01

    Priority effects occur when species that arrive first in a habitat significantly affect the establishment, growth, or reproduction of species arriving later and thus affect functioning of communities. However, we know little about how the timing of arrival of functionally different species may alter structure and function during assembly. Even less is known about how plant density might interact with initial assembly. In a greenhouse experiment legumes, grasses or forbs were sown a number of weeks before the other two plant functional types were sown (PFT) in combination with a sowing density treatment. Legumes, grasses or non-legume forbs were sown first at three different density levels followed by sowing of the remaining PFTs after three or six-weeks. We found that the order of arrival of different plant functional types had a much stronger influence on aboveground productivity than sowing density or interval between the sowing events. The sowing of legumes before the other PFTs produced the highest aboveground biomass. The larger sowing interval led to higher asymmetric competition, with highest dominance of the PFT sown first. It seems that legumes were better able to get a head-start and be productive before the later groups arrived, but that their traits allowed for better subsequent establishment of non-legume PFTs. Our study indicates that the manipulation of the order of arrival can create priority effects which favour functional groups of plants differently and thus induce different assembly routes and affect community composition and functioning. PMID:24497995

  16. Eliminating livelock by assigning the same priority state to each message that is inputted into a flushable routing system during N time intervals

    DOEpatents

    Faber, Vance

    1994-01-01

    Livelock-free message routing is provided in a network of interconnected nodes that is flushable in time T. An input message processor generates sequences of at least N time intervals, each of duration T. An input register provides for receiving and holding each input message, where the message is assigned a priority state p during an nth one of the N time intervals. At each of the network nodes a message processor reads the assigned priority state and awards priority to messages with priority state (p-1) during an nth time interval and to messages with priority state p during an (n+1) th time interval. The messages that are awarded priority are output on an output path toward the addressed output message processor. Thus, no message remains in the network for a time longer than T.

  17. Eliminating livelock by assigning the same priority state to each message that is input into a flushable routing system during N time intervals

    DOEpatents

    Faber, V.

    1994-11-29

    Livelock-free message routing is provided in a network of interconnected nodes that is flushable in time T. An input message processor generates sequences of at least N time intervals, each of duration T. An input register provides for receiving and holding each input message, where the message is assigned a priority state p during an nth one of the N time intervals. At each of the network nodes a message processor reads the assigned priority state and awards priority to messages with priority state (p-1) during an nth time interval and to messages with priority state p during an (n+1) th time interval. The messages that are awarded priority are output on an output path toward the addressed output message processor. Thus, no message remains in the network for a time longer than T. 4 figures.

  18. Effect of palady and cup feeding on premature neonates’ weight gain and reaching full oral feeding time interval

    PubMed Central

    Marofi, Maryam; Abedini, Fatemeh; Mohammadizadeh, Majid; Talakoub, Sedigheh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Premature neonates’ feeding is of great importance due to its effective role in their growth. These neonates should reach an independent oral nutrition stage before being discharged from the Neonatal Intensive care Unit. Therefore, the researcher decided to conduct a study on the effect of palady and cup feeding on premature neonates’ weight gain and their reaching full oral feeding time interval. Materials and Methods: This is a clinical trial with a quantitative design conducted on 69 premature infants (gestational age between 29 and 32 weeks) who were assigned to cup (n = 34) and palady (n = 35) feeding groups through random allocation. The first feeding was administrated either by cup or palady method in each shift within seven sequential days (total of 21 cup and palady feedings). Then, the rest of feeding was administrated by gavage. Results: Mean hospitalization time (cup = 39.01 and palady = 30.4; P < 0.001) and mean time interval to reach full oral feeding (cup = 33.7 and palady = 24.1; P < 0.001) were significantly lower in palady group compared to cup group. Mean weight changes of neonates 7 weeks after the intervention compared to those in the beginning of the intervention were significantly more in palady group compared to the cup group (cup = 146.7 and palady = 198.8; P < 0.001). Conclusions: The neonates in palady group reached full oral feeding earlier than those of cup group. Subjects’ weight gain was also higher in palady group compared to the cup group. Premature neonates with over 30 weeks of gestational age and physiological stability can be fed by palady. PMID:27095996

  19. Unidata: 30 Years of FOSS for the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, E.; Ramamurthy, M. K.; Young, J. W.; Fisher, W. I.; Rew, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Unidata's core mission is to serve academic research and education communities by facilitating access and use of real-time weather data. To this end, Unidata develops, distributes, and supports several Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) packages. These packages are largely focused on data management, access, analysis and visualization. This presentation will discuss the lessons Unidata has gathered over thirty years of FOSS development, support, and community building. These lessons include what it takes to be a successful FOSS organization, how to adapt to changing "best practices" and the emergence of new FOSS tools and services, and techniques for dealing with software end-of-life. We will also discuss our approach when supporting a varied user community spanning end users and software developers. Strong user support has been an important key to Unidata's successful community building.

  20. Evolution of Land Surface Modeling over the Last 30 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. F.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2001-12-01

    John Schaake has been intimately involved in hydrological modeling and climate studies throughout his career, and initially proposed the Mississippi River basin as the first GEWEX continental scale basin. Land surface modeling has progressed to the point that coupled water-energy-vegetation macroscale models can run at high resolution at continental to global scales. This presentation will review this evolution of macroscale models and use recent results from the authors' Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale SVAT to revisit research quetions that John Schaake has investigated during his career. These results include a 17-year daily, 2-degree resolution global water balance simulation; a 50-year 3-hourly, 1/8-degree resolution U.S. LDAS-domain water-energy balance simulation; and real-time, hourly, 1/8-degree resolution U.S. LDAS-domain water-energy balance simulations.

  1. STICK: Spike Time Interval Computational Kernel, a Framework for General Purpose Computation Using Neurons, Precise Timing, Delays, and Synchrony.

    PubMed

    Lagorce, Xavier; Benosman, Ryad

    2015-11-01

    There has been significant research over the past two decades in developing new platforms for spiking neural computation. Current neural computers are primarily developed to mimic biology. They use neural networks, which can be trained to perform specific tasks to mainly solve pattern recognition problems. These machines can do more than simulate biology; they allow us to rethink our current paradigm of computation. The ultimate goal is to develop brain-inspired general purpose computation architectures that can breach the current bottleneck introduced by the von Neumann architecture. This work proposes a new framework for such a machine. We show that the use of neuron-like units with precise timing representation, synaptic diversity, and temporal delays allows us to set a complete, scalable compact computation framework. The framework provides both linear and nonlinear operations, allowing us to represent and solve any function. We show usability in solving real use cases from simple differential equations to sets of nonlinear differential equations leading to chaotic attractors. PMID:26378879

  2. Quantification of left to right shunt in atrial septal defect using systolic time intervals derived from pulsed Doppler velocimetry.

    PubMed Central

    Veyrat, C; Gourtchiglouian, C; Bas, S; Abitbol, G; Kalmanson, D

    1984-01-01

    Systolic time intervals derived from Doppler velocimetry measurements were used instead of direct pulmonary to systemic flow ratio measurements in adults with atrial septal defect to quantify left to right atrial shunts. Thirteen normal subjects and 25 patients with uncomplicated atrial septal defect confirmed by cardiac catheterisation were studied. The pulmonary to systemic flow ratio (Qp:Qs) expressing the shunt size was determined by the Fick method; in normal subjects the Qp:Qs ratio was assumed to be equal to 1.0. The pulsed Doppler analogue velocity recording of flow in the pulmonary artery and the ascending aorta was taken as indicating the ejection time of each ventricle and the Q wave of the electrocardiogram as indicating the onset of systole. From these measurements the ratios of the pre-ejection periods to the ejection times (haemodynamic ratio) were calculated for each ventricle and the ratios of each variable (pre-ejection period, ejection time, and haemodynamic ratio) were calculated for both ventricles. Significant differences were found between the normal subjects and the patients with atrial septal defect for all these ratios. When the Doppler findings and the Fick measurements of Qp:Qs were compared the best linear correlation coefficient was for the left to right haemodynamic ratio. It is concluded that the use of a ratio involving several variables, such as the pre-ejection period and the ejection time for both ventricles, improves the reliability of this method, which appears to be applicable in adults. Images PMID:6239641

  3. The SIMBAD Database: Lessons Learned from 30 years of Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, M.; Ochsenbein, F.; Bonnarel, F.; Lesteven, S.; Oberto, A.

    2006-07-01

    The CDS was established in 1972 with the aim of collecting, selecting, evaluating and distributing information to the world wide astronomical community. The Catalogue of Stellar Identification (CSI) database was created from the early years. Later renamed SIMBAD, it quickly reached half a million objects. This represented a technical challenge on mainframes having 28 Mbytes hard disks. SIMBAD is more than just a collection of catalogues: from the beginning, it has associated cross-identifications and bibliography to objects. The database content is built by an experienced team of librarians and scientists. The evolution of the database, from CSI to SIMBAD 4, is presented, in particular from a hardware and software point of view. The main constraints have been long term maintainability, performances and real time updating performed by a distributed team. The current SIMBAD version (3), which has been operational for 15 years, will soon be replaced by a new version, based on current technologies, in particular JAVA and open source Database System, VO-enabled, ready again for future evolutions.

  4. Four-dimensional noise reduction using the time series of medical computed tomography datasets with short interval times: a static-phantom study.

    PubMed

    Nishii, Tatsuya; Kono, Atsushi K; Tani, Wakiko; Suehiro, Erina; Negi, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Satoru; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds. This study examines the hypothesis that four-dimensional noise reduction (4DNR) with short interval times reduces noise in cardiac computed tomography (CCT) using "padding" phases. Furthermore, the capability of reducing the reduction dose in CCT using this post-processing technique was assessed. Methods. Using base and quarter radiation doses for CCT (456 and 114 mAs/rot with 120 kVp), a static phantom was scanned ten times with retrospective electrocardiogram gating, and 4DNR with short interval times (50 ms) was performed using a post-processing technique. Differences in the computed tomography (CT) attenuation, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and spatial resolution with modulation transfer function in each dose image obtained with and without 4DNR were assessed by conducting a Tukey-Kramer's test and non-inferiority test. Results. For the base dose, by using 4DNR, the CNR was improved from 1.18 ± 0.15 to 2.08 ± 0.20 (P = 0.001), while the CT attenuation and spatial resolution of the image of 4DNR did not were significantly inferior to those of reference image (P < 0.001). CNRs of the quarter-dose image in 4DNR also improved to 1.28 ± 0.11, and were not inferior to those of the non-4DNR images of the base dose (P < 0.001). Conclusions. 4DNR with short interval times significantly reduced noise. Furthermore, applying this method to CCT would have the potential of reducing the radiation dose by 75%, while maintaining a similar image noise level. PMID:26893966

  5. Four-dimensional noise reduction using the time series of medical computed tomography datasets with short interval times: a static-phantom study

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Atsushi K.; Tani, Wakiko; Suehiro, Erina; Negi, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Satoru; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds. This study examines the hypothesis that four-dimensional noise reduction (4DNR) with short interval times reduces noise in cardiac computed tomography (CCT) using “padding” phases. Furthermore, the capability of reducing the reduction dose in CCT using this post-processing technique was assessed. Methods. Using base and quarter radiation doses for CCT (456 and 114 mAs/rot with 120 kVp), a static phantom was scanned ten times with retrospective electrocardiogram gating, and 4DNR with short interval times (50 ms) was performed using a post-processing technique. Differences in the computed tomography (CT) attenuation, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and spatial resolution with modulation transfer function in each dose image obtained with and without 4DNR were assessed by conducting a Tukey–Kramer’s test and non-inferiority test. Results. For the base dose, by using 4DNR, the CNR was improved from 1.18 ± 0.15 to 2.08 ± 0.20 (P = 0.001), while the CT attenuation and spatial resolution of the image of 4DNR did not were significantly inferior to those of reference image (P < 0.001). CNRs of the quarter-dose image in 4DNR also improved to 1.28 ± 0.11, and were not inferior to those of the non-4DNR images of the base dose (P < 0.001). Conclusions. 4DNR with short interval times significantly reduced noise. Furthermore, applying this method to CCT would have the potential of reducing the radiation dose by 75%, while maintaining a similar image noise level. PMID:26893966

  6. Design, development, and fabrication of a electronic analog microminiaturized electronic analog signal to discrete time interval converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfeld, A. D.; Schuegraf, K. K.

    1973-01-01

    The microminiaturization of an electronic analog signal to discrete time interval converter is presented. Discrete components and integrated circuits comprising the converter were assembled on a thin-film ceramic substrate containing nichrome resistors with gold interconnections. The finished assembly is enclosed in a flat package measuring 3.30 by 4.57 centimeters. The module can be used whenever conversion of analog to digital signals is required, in particular for the purpose of regulation by means of pulse modulation. In conjunction with a precision voltage reference, the module was applied to control the duty cycle of a switching regulator within a temperature range of -55 C to +125 C, and an input voltage range of 10V to 35V. The output-voltage variation was less than + or - 300 parts per million, i.e., less than + or - 3mV for a 10V output.

  7. Real-time temperature control system based on the finite element method for liver radiofrequency ablation: effect of the time interval on control.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Yosuke; Watanabe, Hiroki; Yamazaki, Nozomu; Lu, XiaoWei; Kobayashi, Yo; Miyashita, Tomoyuki; Hashizume, Makoto; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2013-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation is increasingly being used to treat liver cancer because it is minimally invasive. However, it is difficult for operators to control the size of the coagulation zones precisely, because no method has been established to form an adequate and suitable ablation area. To overcome this limitation, we propose a new system that can control the coagulation zone size. The system operates as follows: 1) the liver temperature is estimated using a temperature-distribution simulator to reduce invasiveness; 2) the output power of the RF generator is controlled automatically according to the liver temperature. To use this system in real time, both the time taken to calculate the temperature in the simulation and the control accuracy are important. We therefore investigated the relationship between the time interval required to change the output voltage and temperature control stability in RF ablation. The results revealed that the proposed method can control the temperature at a point away from the electrode needle to obtain the desired ablation size. It was also shown to be necessary to reduce the time interval when small tumors are cauterized to avoid excessive treatment. In contrast, such high frequency feedback control is not required when large tumors are cauterized. PMID:24109706

  8. Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome: 30 Years of Study

    PubMed Central

    Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    for severe psychiatric illness is 25 times higher for people affected with velo-cardio-facial syndrome than the general population. Therefore, interest in understanding the nature of psychiatric illness in the syndrome remains strong. PMID:18636631

  9. 30 years of HIV: what have we learned?

    PubMed

    Gazzard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    I saw my first patient with severe immune deficiency in 1979 - a very low CD4 count had been noted, but it was not until the first reports of an epidemic occurred in 1981 that the correct diagnosis was made. Subsequently, I have seen more than 15,000 patients with HIV-related immune deficiency, and my life has changed from helping terminally ill patients to die with dignity, in the early part of the epidemic to now providing drugs for an eminently treatable condition - a true miracle. I have a number of observations about the epidemic. Firstly, the courage with which many young people faced death and disablement was truly awe inspiring, and was the chief reason many of the earlier doctors treating these patients stayed in the field. Secondly, the role of activists was overwhelmingly positive forcing the epidemic to the top of the scientific and political agenda and keeping it there. It is also important that activism helped move an ethical agenda reducing the stigma of HIV infection and producing a liberal legal framework which allowed testing and treatment to be acceptable. The right of the world population to health as espoused by Jonathan Mann and others is also crucial. Thirdly, the combination of academic research, activist pressure (and scientific input) and mammon in the form of the pharmaceutical industry acting in concert produced knowledge which led to effective treatment in a breathtakingly short time. Particular tribute in my mind needs to be paid to the pharmaceutical companies in this regard. I believe that the scientific achievements of HIV research illustrate two things. First, science builds from one generation to the next and most (but not all of us) need to be humble about our personal contribution. Second, HIV treatment illustrates the primacy of well conducted randomized control trials. While cohort studies can add to our detailed knowledge of the epidemic, randomised controlled trials remain the cornerstone of most major advances. Fourthly

  10. From Cloning Neural Development Genes to Functional Studies in Mice, 30 Years of Advancements.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Alexandra L

    2016-01-01

    The invention of new mouse molecular genetics techniques, initiated in the 1980s, has repeatedly expanded our ability to tackle exciting developmental biology problems. The brain is the most complex organ, and as such the more sophisticated the molecular genetics technique, the more impact they have on uncovering new insights into how our brain functions. I provide a general time line for the introduction of new techniques over the past 30 years and give examples of new discoveries in the neural development field that emanated from them. I include a look to what the future holds and argue that we are at the dawn of a very exciting age for young scientists interested in studying how the nervous system is constructed and functions with such precision. PMID:26970637

  11. Deficits in Interval Timing Measured by the Dual-Task Paradigm among Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Shoou-Lian; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Hsu, Wen-Yau; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Background: The underlying mechanism of time perception deficit in long time intervals in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is still unclear. This study used the time reproduction dual task to explore the role of the attentional resource in time perception deficits among children and adolescents with ADHD. Methods: Participants…

  12. 7 CFR 625.8 - Compensation for easements and 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compensation for easements and 30-year contracts. 625.8 Section 625.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL... § 625.8 Compensation for easements and 30-year contracts. (a) Determination of easement payment...

  13. Pigeons (Columba livia) associate time intervals with symbols in a touch screen task: evidence for ordinality but not summation.

    PubMed

    Olthof, Anneke; Santi, Angelo

    2007-02-01

    The present experiments examined whether pigeons can sum symbols that are associated with various temporal consequences in a touch screen apparatus. Pigeons were trained to discriminate between two visual symbols that were associated with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 s either of delay to 4 s of hopper access (delay group) or duration of hopper access (reward group). In Experiment 1, the pigeons in both groups learned to select the symbol associated with the more favorable outcome, and they successfully transferred this discrimination to novel symbol pairs. However, when tested with 2 pairs of symbols associated with different summed durations, they responded on the basis of a simple response rule rather than the sum of the symbol pair. In Experiment 2, the reward group was presented with four symbols at once and was allowed to successively choose one symbol at a time. All pigeons chose the symbols in order from largest to smallest. This indicates that pigeons formed an ordered representation of symbols associated with different time intervals, even though they did not sum the symbols. PMID:17324078

  14. Robust iterative learning protocols for finite-time consensus of multi-agent systems with interval uncertain topologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Deyuan; Jia, Yingmin; Du, Junping

    2015-04-01

    This paper is devoted to the robust finite-time output consensus problems of multi-agent systems under directed graphs, where all agents and their communication topologies are subject to interval uncertainties. Distributed protocols are constructed by using iterative learning control (ILC) algorithms, where information is exchanged only at the end of one iteration and learning is used to update the control inputs after each iteration. It is proved that under ILC-based protocols, the finite-time consensus can be achieved with an increasing number of iterations if the communication network of agents is guaranteed to have a spanning tree. Moreover, if the information of any desired terminal output is available to a portion (not necessarily all) of the agents, then the consensus output that all agents finally reach can be enabled to be the desired terminal output. It is also proved that for all ILC-based protocols, gain selections can be provided in terms of bound values, and consensus conditions can be developed associated with bound matrices. Simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results.

  15. Isotretinoin: dose, duration and relapse. What does 30 years of usage tell us?

    PubMed

    Rademaker, Marius

    2013-08-01

    With 30 years of clinical use, it is appropriate to review the use of isotretinoin. We now understand that retinoids influence cellular growth, differentiation, morphogenesis and apoptosis, inhibit tumour promotion and malignant cell growth, exert immuno-modulatory actions and alter cellular cohesiveness. This has expanded the indications of isotretinoin from just acne and rosacea to a wide range of inflammatory and malignant skin disorders. While the standard dose of 0.5 to 1 mg/kg per day for 4 months to a cumulative dose of 120-140 mg/kg per day has served us well in the management of acne vulgaris, there is emerging evidence that much lower dosages (as low as 5 mg/day) are just as effective but have significantly fewer adverse effects. Relapse of acne vulgaris continues to be a problem but we are beginning to recognise that this is related less to the cumulative dose and more to the length of sebaceous gland suppression. Other factors important for relapse include a macrocomedonal pattern of acne, smoking and age, both younger (under 14 years) and older (over 25 years). After 30 years of use, we now understand why isotretinoin is such an effective drug. Not only does it clear acne in almost all patients, long-term remission can be achieved in 70-80% of patients with a single course. Important changes in the use of isotretinoin include using a lower daily dose for a longer period of time. New indications continue to emerge, particularly as a potential treatment for both intrinsic and extrinsic (photo) aging. Teratogenicity however, remains a very significant concern. PMID:23013115

  16. Modeling Saturn's Giant Storms: Water, Ammonia, and the 30-Year Periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2013-10-01

    A giant planet-encircling storm occured on Saturn at the end of year 2010. The storm produced lightning at a rate greater than 10 SEDs per second. It wrapped around the planet, with a wake depleted in ammonia, and after 6 months it died. These kinds of storms are rare and episodic. They happen every 20-30 years. In this study, we discuss the role of moist convection on the development of the storm and explain the observed post-storm ammonia depletion. The study is composed of two parts. First, thermodynamcis on Saturn indicates that strong convection is prohibited by the waterloading-effect when the troposphere is warm. After 20-30 years, the troposphere has cooled below a critical value so that deep convection develops at the base of the water cloud. The deep water mixing ratio is best estimated as 1.2% relative to H2 so as to match the cooling time. Second, strong convection can produce a warm convective column that overshoots into the stratosphere. We solve the cylindrically symmetric hydrostatic primitive equations to investigate the large scale response of the ambient flow to the geostrophically unbalanced column. We find that during the subsequent large scale adjustment, ammonia vapor condenses and precipitates out of the troposphere, causing high residual brightness temperatures as observed by Cassini/RADAR (Janssen et al., 2013; Laraia et al., 2013). Further, for a deep water mixing ratio of 1.2%, we find that the ammonia vapor is depeleted down to 5 bar, that the speed of remaining anticyclonic vortex is about 30 m/s, and the residual large scale warming is about 10 K. These values are consistent with observation within the measurement uncertainties.

  17. A Prolonged Time Interval Between Trauma and Prophylactic Radiation Therapy Significantly Increases the Risk of Heterotopic Ossification

    SciTech Connect

    Mourad, Waleed F.; Packianathan, Satyaseelan; Shourbaji, Rania A.; Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew; Khan, Majid A.; Baird, Michael C.; Russell, George; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To ascertain whether the time from injury to prophylactic radiation therapy (RT) influences the rate of heterotopic ossification (HO) after operative treatment of displaced acetabular fractures. Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution, retrospective analysis of patients referred for RT for the prevention of HO. Between January 2000 and January 2009, 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures were treated surgically followed by RT for HO prevention. We analyzed the effect of time from injury on prevention of HO by RT. In all patients, 700 cGy was prescribed in a single fraction and delivered within 72 hours postsurgery. The patients were stratified into five groups according to time interval (in days) from the date of their accident to the date of RT: Groups A {<=}3, B {<=}7, C {<=}14, D {<=}21, and E >21days. Results: Of the 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures treated with RT, (18%) 106 patients developed HO within the irradiated field. The risk of HO after RT increased from 10% for RT delivered {<=}3 days to 92% for treatment delivered >21 days after the initial injury. Wilcoxon test showed a significant correlation between the risk of HO and the length of time from injury to RT (p < 0.0001). Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis showed no significant association between all other factors and the risk of HO (race, gender, cause and type of fracture, surgical approach, or the use of indomethacin). Conclusions: Our data suggest that there is higher incidence and risk of HO if prophylactic RT is significantly delayed after a displaced acetabular fracture. Thus, RT should be administered as early as clinically possible after the trauma. Patients undergoing RT >3 weeks from their displaced acetabular fracture should be informed of the higher risk (>90%) of developing HO despite prophylaxis.

  18. Effect of denture cleansers on surface hardness of resilient denture liners at various time intervals- an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Pahuja, Rasleen Kaur; Bansal, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was aimed to determine the effect of two chemically distinct denture cleansers and water on the surface hardness of acrylic and silicone based soft denture liners at various time intervals. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two commonly used commercial resilient liner material were selected based on their chemical composition (silicone- and acrylic-based soft liners) for this investigation. 120 cylindrical specimens were made of 15 mm × 10 mm dimensions (according to ASTM: D-2240-64T) in a custom made metal mold. All specimens were stored in artificial saliva throughout the study. Forty specimens were cleansed daily in 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution; forty were cleansed in sodium perborate and remaining forty specimens were daily rinsed in water. Testing was done at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months for surface hardness using a Shore A Durometer. A mean of 3 reading for each sample was subjected to one-way ANOVA, Post Hoc test and pair-t test for statistical analysis. P values of less than 0.05 were taken as statistically significant. RESULTS Surface hardness of all the samples was significantly higher after a period of 6 months irrespective of the cleansing treatment. Minor changes were observed between control, sodium hypochlorite and sodium perborate groups with time. Greater change was observed in surface hardness of acrylic-based soft denture liners as compared to silicone-based soft liners for all groups, as time progressed. CONCLUSION Silicone-based soft denture liners performed significantly better in all cleansing treatments than acrylic-based soft denture liners. PMID:24049568

  19. Bursts shape the NMDA-R mediated spike timing dependent plasticity curve: role of burst interspike interval and GABAergic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Cutsuridis, Vassilis

    2012-10-01

    Spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is a synaptic learning rule where the relative timing between the presynaptic and postsynaptic action potentials determines the sign and strength of synaptic plasticity. In its basic form STDP has an asymmetric form which incorporates both persistent increases and persistent decreases in synaptic strength. The basic form of STDP, however, is not a fixed property and depends on the dendritic location. An asymmetric curve is observed in the distal dendrites, whereas a symmetrical one is observed in the proximal ones. A recent computational study has shown that the transition from the asymmetry to symmetry is due to inhibition under certain conditions. Synapses have also been observed to be unreliable at generating plasticity when excitatory postsynaptic potentials and single spikes are paired at low frequencies. Bursts of spikes, however, are reliably signaled because transmitter release is facilitated. This article presents a two-compartment model of the CA1 pyramidal cell. The model is neurophysiologically plausible with its dynamics resulting from the interplay of many ionic and synaptic currents. Plasticity is measured by a deterministic Ca(2+) dynamics model which measures the instantaneous calcium level and its time course in the dendrite and change the strength of the synapse accordingly. The model is validated to match the asymmetrical form of STDP from the pairing of a presynaptic (dendritic) and postsynaptic (somatic) spikes as observed experimentally. With the parameter set unchanged the model investigates how pairing of bursts with single spikes and bursts in the presence or absence of inhibition shapes the STDP curve. The model predicts that inhibition strength and frequency are not the only factors of the asymmetry-to-symmetry switch of the STDP curve. Burst interspike interval is another factor. This study is an important first step towards understanding how STDP is affected under natural firing patterns in vivo

  20. Entropy, pattern entropy, and related methods for the analysis of data on the time intervals between heartbeats from 24-h electrocardiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żebrowski, J. J.; Popławska, W.; Baranowski, R.

    1994-11-01

    Sequences of the time intervals between heartbeats-medically termed RR intervals-extracted from 24-h electrocardiogram recordings are examined as three-dimensional return map images. The recordings were made in humans by means of the medically widely used portable electrocardiograph (Holter system). A time window measured in the number of heartbeats is used and different types of behavior are classified. Bifurcations between the types of dynamics of the heart are noted and a form of intermittency is found. An alternative quantitative measure-a form pattern entropy of the return map image-is defined that characterizes the dynamics of the RR interval sequence. It is shown that this is a measure of the degree of ordering of the RR interval sequence and as such it is a good novel medical diagnostic tool for analyzing heart rate variability which distinguishes between illness and health where other diagnostics fail.

  1. Interval Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    Regardless of the type of physical activity used, interval training is simply repeated periods of physical stress interspersed with recovery periods during which activity of a reduced intensity is performed. During the recovery periods, the individual usually keeps moving and does not completely recover before the next exercise interval (e.g.,…

  2. Time series and recurrence interval models to predict the vulnerability of streams to episodic acidification in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deviney, F.A., Jr.; Rice, K.C.; Hornberger, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Acid rain affects headwater streams by temporarily reducing the acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) of the water, a process termed episodic acidification. The increase in acidic components in stream water can have deleterious effects on the aquatic biota. Although acidic deposition is uniform across Shenandoah National Park (SNP) in north central Virginia, the stream water quality response during rain events varies substantially. This response is a function of the catchment's underlying geology and topography. Geologic and topographic data for SNP's 231 catchments are readily available; however, long-term measurements (tens of years) of ANC and accompanying discharge are not and would be prohibitively expensive to collect. Transfer function time series models were developed to predict hourly ANC from discharge for five SNP catchments with long-term water-quality and discharge records. Hourly ANC predictions over short time periods (??? 1 week) were averaged, and distributions of the recurrence intervals of annual water-year minimum ANC values were model-simulated for periods of 6, 24, 72, and 168 hours. The distributions were extrapolated to the rest of the SNP catchments on the basis of catchment geology and topography. On the basis of the models, large numbers of SNP streams have 6- to 168-hour periods of low-ANC values, which may stress resident fish populations. Smaller catchments are more vulnerable to episodic acidification than larger catchments underlain by the same bedrock. Catchments with similar topography and size are more vulnerable if underlain by less basaltic/carbonate bedrock. Many catchments are predicted to have successive years of low-ANC values potentially sufficient to extirpate some species. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Medical thoracoscopy: Analysis on diagnostic yield through 30 years of experience

    PubMed Central

    Valsecchi, Alberto; Arondi, Sabrina; Marchetti, Giampietro

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medical thoracoscopy (MT) or pleuroscopy is a procedure performed to diagnose and treat malignant and benign pleural diseases. Totally 2752 pleuroscopies executed in 1984–2013 in our center were considered in this study. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed. Observational time was divided into six series of 5 years. We calculated MT diagnostic yield and analyzed trends of main diseases diagnosed along the time. RESULTS: Along the 30 years population became progressively older. Number of pleuroscopies firstly increased, then stabilized and decreased in the last 5 years. The overall diagnostic yield of MT was 71%, increasing from 57% to 79%. The diagnostic yield was significantly higher in the presence of monolateral pleural effusion. Cancer represented more than half of diagnosis; tuberculosis was the most common nonneoplastic disease. The frequency of all cancers, mesothelioma, and lung cancer increased through the time; tuberculosis first decreased and then increased. All specimens resulted appropriate during the last 25 years. CONCLUSION: MT has a great diagnostic yield that can be improved by practice, permitting to achieve a specific histological diagnosis in about 80% of patients. Our experience demonstrates that the accurate selection of the patients undergoing to MT is very important to reach these results. PMID:27512506

  4. RISMA: A Rule-based Interval State Machine Algorithm for Alerts Generation, Performance Analysis and Monitoring Real-Time Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laban, Shaban; El-Desouky, Aly

    2013-04-01

    The monitoring of real-time systems is a challenging and complicated process. So, there is a continuous need to improve the monitoring process through the use of new intelligent techniques and algorithms for detecting exceptions, anomalous behaviours and generating the necessary alerts during the workflow monitoring of such systems. The interval-based or period-based theorems have been discussed, analysed, and used by many researches in Artificial Intelligence (AI), philosophy, and linguistics. As explained by Allen, there are 13 relations between any two intervals. Also, there have also been many studies of interval-based temporal reasoning and logics over the past decades. Interval-based theorems can be used for monitoring real-time interval-based data processing. However, increasing the number of processed intervals makes the implementation of such theorems a complex and time consuming process as the relationships between such intervals are increasing exponentially. To overcome the previous problem, this paper presents a Rule-based Interval State Machine Algorithm (RISMA) for processing, monitoring, and analysing the behaviour of interval-based data, received from real-time sensors. The proposed intelligent algorithm uses the Interval State Machine (ISM) approach to model any number of interval-based data into well-defined states as well as inferring them. An interval-based state transition model and methodology are presented to identify the relationships between the different states of the proposed algorithm. By using such model, the unlimited number of relationships between similar large numbers of intervals can be reduced to only 18 direct relationships using the proposed well-defined states. For testing the proposed algorithm, necessary inference rules and code have been designed and applied to the continuous data received in near real-time from the stations of International Monitoring System (IMS) by the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Preparatory

  5. The virtual brain: 30 years of video-game play and cognitive abilities

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Andrew J.; Patston, Lucy L. M.; Tippett, Lynette J.

    2013-01-01

    Forty years have passed since video-games were first made widely available to the public and subsequently playing games has become a favorite past-time for many. Players continuously engage with dynamic visual displays with success contingent on the time-pressured deployment, and flexible allocation, of attention as well as precise bimanual movements. Evidence to date suggests that both brief and extensive exposure to video-game play can result in a broad range of enhancements to various cognitive faculties that generalize beyond the original context. Despite promise, video-game research is host to a number of methodological issues that require addressing before progress can be made in this area. Here an effort is made to consolidate the past 30 years of literature examining the effects of video-game play on cognitive faculties and, more recently, neural systems. Future work is required to identify the mechanism that allows the act of video-game play to generate such a broad range of generalized enhancements. PMID:24062712

  6. Surveillance of Infectious Diseases by the Sentinel Laboratory Network in Belgium: 30 Years of Continuous Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Muyldermans, Gaëtan; Ducoffre, Geneviève; Leroy, Mathias; Dupont, Yves; Quolin, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In 1983 the sentinel laboratory network was established because of the need to describe the epidemiological evolution of infectious diseases. During the study period of 30 years (1983–2013), microbiology laboratories reported on weekly basis the laboratory diagnosed cases for a selection of infectious diseases. This resulted in a large longitudinal laboratory based database allowing to provide trends over time and distribution by person and place. During this period, adaptations to data collection were made due to changes in diagnostic methods and public health priorities, introduction and application of digital revolution, and multiple reorganizations of the laboratories. Since the surveillance network is dynamic, it necessitates a continuous evaluation to ensure that, over time, it continues to be representative of the general epidemiological trends in the country. Secondly the aim is to examine the robustness and stability of this surveillance system. Here we demonstrated that the flexibility of the data collection methodology by the sentinel laboratory network is unique and that adaptations do not affect the capacity of the system to follow trends. Therefore, the surveillance by this network is representative of the current epidemiological situation in Belgium. To our knowledge, no such surveillance network with such a long-term follow-up and demonstrated stability for multiple infectious diseases in the general population was earlier described. Furthermore, expected trends due to the implementation of vaccination or other events were accurately detected. The collected data obtained from this network allows interesting comparisons with other national and international information sources. PMID:27571203

  7. Surveillance of Infectious Diseases by the Sentinel Laboratory Network in Belgium: 30 Years of Continuous Improvement.

    PubMed

    Muyldermans, Gaëtan; Ducoffre, Geneviève; Leroy, Mathias; Dupont, Yves; Quolin, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In 1983 the sentinel laboratory network was established because of the need to describe the epidemiological evolution of infectious diseases. During the study period of 30 years (1983-2013), microbiology laboratories reported on weekly basis the laboratory diagnosed cases for a selection of infectious diseases. This resulted in a large longitudinal laboratory based database allowing to provide trends over time and distribution by person and place. During this period, adaptations to data collection were made due to changes in diagnostic methods and public health priorities, introduction and application of digital revolution, and multiple reorganizations of the laboratories. Since the surveillance network is dynamic, it necessitates a continuous evaluation to ensure that, over time, it continues to be representative of the general epidemiological trends in the country. Secondly the aim is to examine the robustness and stability of this surveillance system. Here we demonstrated that the flexibility of the data collection methodology by the sentinel laboratory network is unique and that adaptations do not affect the capacity of the system to follow trends. Therefore, the surveillance by this network is representative of the current epidemiological situation in Belgium. To our knowledge, no such surveillance network with such a long-term follow-up and demonstrated stability for multiple infectious diseases in the general population was earlier described. Furthermore, expected trends due to the implementation of vaccination or other events were accurately detected. The collected data obtained from this network allows interesting comparisons with other national and international information sources. PMID:27571203

  8. Classification mapping and species identification of salt marshes based on a short-time interval NDVI time-series from HJ-1 optical imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chao; Liu, Yongxue; Zhao, Saishuai; Zhou, Minxi; Yang, Yuhao; Li, Feixue

    2016-03-01

    Salt marshes are seen as the most dynamic and valuable ecosystems in coastal zones, and in these areas, it is crucial to obtain accurate remote sensing information on the spatial distributions of species over time. However, discriminating various types of salt marsh is rather difficult because of their strong spectral similarities. Previous salt marsh mapping studies have focused mainly on high spatial and spectral (i.e., hyperspectral) resolution images combined with auxiliary information; however, the results are often limited to small regions. With a high temporal and moderate spatial resolution, the Chinese HuanJing-1 (HJ-1) satellite optical imagery can be used not only to monitor phenological changes of salt marsh vegetation over short-time intervals, but also to obtain coverage of large areas. Here, we apply HJ-1 satellite imagery to the middle coast of Jiangsu in east China to monitor changes in saltmarsh vegetation cover. First, we constructed a monthly NDVI time-series to classify various types of salt marsh and then we tested the possibility of using compressed time-series continuously, to broaden the applicability of this particular approach. Our principal findings are as follows: (1) the overall accuracy of salt marsh mapping based on the monthly NDVI time-series was 90.3%, which was ∼16.0% higher than the single-phase classification strategy; (2) a compressed time-series, including NDVI from six key months (April, June-September, and November), demonstrated very little reduction (2.3%) in overall accuracy but led to obvious improvements in unstable regions; and (3) a simple rule for Spartina alterniflora identification was established using a scene solely from November, which may provide an effective way for regularly monitoring its distribution.

  9. Long-interval facilitation and inhibition are differentially affected by conditioning stimulus intensity over different time courses.

    PubMed

    Vallence, Ann-Maree; Schneider, Luke A; Pitcher, Julia B; Ridding, Michael C

    2014-06-01

    Intracortical facilitatory and inhibitory processes in the primary motor cortex (M1) play an important role in both the preparation and execution of motor tasks. Here we aimed to (1) confirm the existence of, and further characterise, intracortical facilitation at long conditioning-test stimulus intervals at subthreshold conditioning stimulus (CS) intensities and (2) identify the threshold for long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) at different inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs). To examine facilitation, stimulus-response curves at ISIs of 100 and 150 ms were obtained using a range of subthreshold CS intensities. LICI stimulus-response curves were also obtained using varying CS intensities at ISIs of 100 (LICI100) and 150 ms (LICI150). Facilitation of the conditioned MEP was observed at subthreshold CS intensities at an ISI of 100 ms. LICI100 was observed at a lower CS intensity than LICI150. First, we provide evidence of a long-interval facilitation and provide some evidence consistent with a cortical origin of this facilitation. Second, the lower threshold for evoking LICI100 than LICI150 suggests an intensity-duration effect whereby a more intense CS results in longer duration LICI. Investigation of the interaction between LICI and long-interval facilitation might help to elucidate the functional importance of these processes. PMID:24704380

  10. Note: Simple calibration of the counting-rate dependence of the timing shift of single photon avalanche diodes by photon interval analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Otosu, Takuhiro; Ishii, Kunihiko; Tahara, Tahei

    2013-03-15

    The counting-rate dependence of the temporal response of single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) is a critical issue for the accurate determination of the fluorescence lifetime. In this study, the response of SPADs was examined with analyzing the time interval of the detected photons. The results clearly show that the shift of the detection timing causes the counting-rate dependence of the temporal response, and this timing shift is solely determined by the time interval from the preceding photon. We demonstrate that this timing instability is readily calibrated by utilizing the macrotime data taken with the time-tag mode that is implemented in the time-correlated single photon counting modules.

  11. A 35-40% Likelihood of a Highly Damaging Tokyo Earthquake in Next 30 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R. S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Bozkurt, S. B.

    2005-12-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105,000 lives. Reoccurrence of any of these shocks today would cost about one trillion dollars, of which perhaps 10% is insured. Fueled by Tokyo's rich data trove but hindered by its complexity, we carried out a new hazard assessment. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved in uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M~8 shocks in the past 7,000 years), historical shaking (10,000 intensity observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300,000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and the world's best geodetic array (150 GPS vectors spanning the past 10 years). We propose that a dislodged block of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath Tokyo, and controls much of Tokyo's seismic behavior for M≤7.5 shocks, including the damaging 1855 M~7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of frequency-magnitude curves, earthquakes similar to the Ansei-Edo event should be quite frequent (25-35% likelihood in an average 30-yr period), and so such events dominate the combined probabilities. In contrast, our renewal model for the great 1703 and 1923 type plate boundary shocks yields a ~1% probability for the next 30 yr, with a time-averaged 30-yr probability of ~8%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama for the next 30 years is 25%-40%, but how can it be validated? The long historical record in Kanto affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner, based almost exclusively on intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates for the spatial distribution of shaking, even for sites with few observations. The resulting probability of severe shaking over an average 30-yr period is ~35% in the Tokyo, Kawasaki

  12. Age of stratospheric air unchanged within uncertainties over the past 30years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Möbius, T.; Bönisch, H.; Schmidt, U.; Heinz, R.; Levin, I.; Atlas, E.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Sugawara, S.; Moore, F.; Hurst, D.; Elkins, J.; Schauffler, S.; Andrews, A.; Boering, K.

    2009-01-01

    The rising abundances of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is associated with an increase in radiative forcing that leads to warming of the troposphere, the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, and cooling of the stratosphere above. A secondary effect of increasing levels of greenhouse gases is a possible change in the stratospheric circulation, which could significantly affect chlorofluorocarbon lifetimes, ozone levels and the climate system more generally. Model simulations have shown that the mean age of stratospheric air is a good indicator of the strength of the residual circulation, and that this mean age is expected to decrease with rising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Here we use balloon-borne measurements of stratospheric trace gases over the past 30years to derive the mean age of air from sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and CO2 mixing ratios. In contrast to the models, these observations do not show a decrease in mean age with time. If models are to make valid predictions of future stratospheric ozone levels, and of the coupling between ozone and climate change, a correct description of stratospheric transport and possible changes in the transport pathways are necessary.

  13. Busulfan-melphalan in high-risk neuroblastoma: the 30-year experience of a single institution.

    PubMed

    Proust-Houdemont, S; Pasqualini, C; Blanchard, P; Dufour, C; Benhamou, E; Goma, G; Semeraro, M; Raquin, M-A; Hartmann, O; Valteau-Couanet, D

    2016-08-01

    High-dose chemotherapy (HDC) was investigated in high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NBL) to reduce the risk of relapse. We report the results of the 30-year experience of a cohort of patients with HR-NBL treated with high-dose (HD) busulfan (Bu)-containing regimens. From 1980 to 2009, 215 patients aged >1 year with stage 4 NBL were treated with HD Bu-containing regimens at Gustave Roussy. These data were prospectively recorded in the Pediatric Transplantation Database. The median age at diagnosis was 40 months (12-218 months). All patients had a stage 4 neuroblastoma. NMYC amplification was displayed in 24% of the tumors. The hematopoietic support consisted of bone marrow or PBSCs in 46% and 49% of patients, respectively. The 5-year event-free survival and overall survival rates of the whole cohort were 35.1% and 40%, respectively. Age at diagnosis, bone marrow involvement and tumor response after induction chemotherapy were significant prognostic factors. Toxicity was manageable and decreased over time, owing to both PBSC administration and better supportive care. Based on this experience, HD Bu-melphalan (Mel) has been implemented in Europe and compared with Carboplatin-Etoposide-Mel in the European SIOP Neuroblastoma (SIOPEN)/HR-NBL randomized protocol. It has now become the standard HDC in the SIOPEN HR strategy. PMID:27042850

  14. Roadmap for Loess/Paleosol Magnetism After 30 Years of Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagroix, F.; Taylor, S. N.; Guyodo, Y. J. B.; Till, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last 30 years, loess and paleosol deposits have provided the scientific community a unique opportunity to study past climate and environmental change of the continents. Fluctuating magnetic susceptibility of glacial loess and interglacial soil deposits in China, and a few places elsewhere, have been correlated with the marine isotope stages and ice core records, illustrating the loess-climate connection. Furthermore, the logarithm of the magnetic susceptibility and other ferrimagnetism dependant concentration parameters in modern topsoil are found to be linearly related to modern rainfall records. But, the transfer function is site specific. Others have suggested that the relationship is more universal if precipitation and evapotranspiration are considered together. This said, major roadblocks remain for loess/paleosol magnetism to reach its full potential as a quantitative tool in climate and environmental studies. Reaching this full potential is impaired primarily because of the difficulty in identifying iron oxides and oxyhydroxides other than magnetite or maghemite in natural samples and (semi-)quantifying their concentration and grain size. This talk will present results obtained recently through research targeting loess and paleosol magnetism emphasising the need to further consider the following scientific questions. Which environmental and climate variables cause the change in magnetism in soils? How does magnetism evolve with time, quantitatively, when soils are buried under newly deposited loess and become paleosols? Can we overcome the imprecision of paleomagnetic dating inherent to our poor understanding of the magnetization acquisition process in loess and soils?

  15. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: Past and Present—88 Surgeries in 30 Years at Chang Gung

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Frank; Nai-Jen Chang, Tommy; Chuieng-Yi Lu, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a highly controversial clinical entity. There is much debate on its terminology, existence, diagnosis, and treatment. The purpose of this study was to describe our opinions about these controversial topics of TOS and the treatment of TOS over the past 30 years. Methods: From 1985 to 2014, a total of 80 patients underwent decompressive surgery for TOS. Eight patients requested a second surgery on the contralateral limb. They all had at least 1-year follow-up. Preoperative evaluation included provocative tests, plain X-ray, magnetic resonance angiography/computed tomography angiography, and electromyography. Surgical intervention for each patient involved a supraclavicular approach and near-total resection of the anterior scalene muscle and the first rib and of any cervical rib if it was present. Rib resection was performed with the use of Kerrison bone punch forceps. The operative time was typically 2 hours. Results: Major postoperative complications were rare. Nearly all patients (98%) experienced significant symptom relief, with improvement in soreness and tightness of the shoulder, neck, and arm immediately on the first postoperative day or within a few weeks thereafter. There were no cases with symptoms recurring. Conclusions: It is evident that decompressive surgery through a supraclavicular approach for TOS not only is an effective and safe procedure but also provides a diagnosis of the cause of TOS. For a patient who meets the criteria for surgical indication, decompressive surgery usually results in resolution of symptoms and no recurrence. PMID:27482476

  16. Modeling and risk assessment of a 30-Year-old subsurface radioactive-liquid drain field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Lon A.; Pohl, Phillip I.

    1997-11-01

    The contamination from a 30-year-old radioactive liquid drain field was assessed for movement in the subsurface and potential risks to humans. This assessment included determining field concentrations of cesium 137 (137Cs) and other inorganic contaminants and modeling of the flow and transport of the liquid waste that was sent to the drain field. The field investigation detected no contamination deeper than 15 feet (4.6 m) from the bottom of the drain field. Prediction of the water content of the vadose zone showed no saturated conditions for times greater than 10 years after the known infiltration. Sensitivity analysis of the modeling parameters showed the equilibrium sorption coefficient to be the most important factor in predicting the contaminant plumes. Calibration of modeling results with field data gave a 137Cs sorption coefficient that is within the range of values found in the literature. The risk assessment for the site showed that the contamination poses no significant risk to human health.

  17. Measuring currents in submarine canyons: technological and scientific progress in the past 30 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The development and application of acoustic and optical technologies and of accurate positioning systems in the past 30 years have opened new frontiers in the submarine canyon research communities. This paper reviews several key advancements in both technology and science in the field of currents in submarine canyons since the1979 publication of Currents in Submarine Canyons and Other Sea Valleys by Francis Shepard and colleagues. Precise placements of high-resolution, high-frequency instruments have not only allowed researchers to collect new data that are essential for advancing and generalizing theories governing the canyon currents, but have also revealed new natural phenomena that challenge the understandings of the theorists and experimenters in their predictions of submarine canyon flow fields. Baroclinic motions at tidal frequencies, found to be intensified both up canyon and toward the canyon floor, dominate the flow field and control the sediment transport processes in submarine canyons. Turbidity currents are found to frequently occur in active submarine canyons such as Monterey Canyon. These turbidity currents have maximum speeds of nearly 200 cm/s, much smaller than the speeds of turbidity currents in geological time, but still very destructive. In addition to traditional Eulerian measurements, Lagrangian flow data are essential in quantifying water and sediment transport in submarine canyons. A concerted experiment with multiple monitoring stations along the canyon axis and on nearby shelves is required to characterize the storm-trigger mechanism for turbidity currents.

  18. To study the flow property of seven commercially available zinc oxide eugenol impression material at various time intervals after mixing.

    PubMed

    Katna, Vishal; Suresh, S; Vivek, Sharma; Meenakshi, Khandelwal; Ankita, Gaur

    2014-12-01

    Aims and objective of the study was to evaluate the flow property of seven commercially available zinc oxide eugenol impression materials at various time intervals, after mixing 49 samples (seven groups) were fabricated for flow property of the material. The sample were fabricated as equal length of base and accelerator paste of the test materials was taken on the glass slab and mixed with a rigid stainless steel spatula as per manufacturers recommendation till the homogenous mix was obtained. The mix material was loaded in glass syringe and 0.5 ml material was injected on a cellophane sheet placed on marked glass plate. A cellophane sheet and glass plate 70 and 500 g weight was carefully placed on freshly dispensed zinc oxide eugenol impression paste sequentially. The diameter of the mix was noted after 30 s and 1 min of load application and also after the final set of material. The diameter gives the flow of material. The samples were stored at the room temperature. The data of the flow property was analyzed with analysis of variance, Post hoc test and t test. The flow of the zinc oxide eugenol impression paste after 30 s, 1 min and final set of load application for Group A to Group G was noted. Maximum flow was seen for Group G zinc oxide eugenol impression material followed by Group F, D, E, B, C and A in descending order respectively after 30 s, where as the flow property changed after 1 min in the sequence of maximum for Group G followed by Group E, D, B, A, C, and F. Lastly after final set of the impression material the flow maximum for Group G followed by Group E, D, C, F, A and B in descending order. Based on statistical analysis of the results and within in the limitations of this in-vitro study, the following conclusions were drawn that; the flow of zinc oxide eugenol impression material after 30 s, 1 min and that after the final set was maximum for P.S.P. (Group G) and the flow for PYREX (Group A) was minimum. PMID:25489163

  19. A 30-years Review on Pharmacokinetics of Antibiotics: Is the Right Time for Pharmacogenetics?

    PubMed Central

    Baietto, Lorena; Corcione, Silvia; Pacini, Giovanni; Di Perri, Giovanni; D’Avolio#†, Antonio; Giuseppe De Rosa†, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Drug bioavailability may vary greatly amongst individuals, affecting both efficacy and toxicity: in humans, genetic variations account for a relevant proportion of such variability. In the last decade the use of pharmacogenetics in clinical practice, as a tool to individualize treatment, has shown a different degree of diffusion in various clinical fields. In the field of infectious diseases, several studies identified a great number of associations between host genetic polymor-phisms and responses to antiretroviral therapy. For example, in patients treated with abacavir the screening for HLA-B*5701 before starting treatment is routine clinical practice and standard of care for all patients; efavirenz plasma levels are influenced by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) CYP2B6-516G> T (rs3745274). Regarding antibiotics, many studies investigated drug transporters involved in antibiotic bioavailability, especially for fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, and antituberculars. To date, few data are available about pharmacogenetics of recently developed antibiotics such as tigecycline, daptomycin or linezolid. Considering the effect of SNPs in gene coding for proteins involved in antibiotics bioavailability, few data have been published. Increasing knowledge in the field of antibiotic pharmacogenetics could be useful to explain the high drug inter-patients variability and to individualize therapy. In this paper we reported an overview of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenetics of antibiotics to underline the importance of an integrated approach in choosing the right dosage in clinical practice. PMID:24909419

  20. Administration of the Phosphodiesterase Type 4 Inhibitor Rolipram into the Amygdala at a Specific Time Interval after Learning Increases Recognition Memory Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werenicz, Aline; Christoff, Raissa R.; Blank, Martina; Jobim, Paulo F. C.; Pedroso, Thiago R.; Reolon, Gustavo K.; Schroder, Nadja; Roesler, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Here we show that administration of the phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) inhibitor rolipram into the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) at a specific time interval after training enhances memory consolidation and induces memory persistence for novel object recognition (NOR) in rats. Intra-BLA infusion of rolipram immediately, 1.5 h, or 6 h…

  1. Measurement of Trained Speech Patterns in Stuttering: Interjudge and Intrajudge Agreement of Experts by Means of Modified Time-Interval Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpermann, Anke; Huber, Walter; Natke, Ulrich; Willmes, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Improved fluency after stuttering therapy is usually measured by the percentage of stuttered syllables. However, outcome studies rarely evaluate the use of trained speech patterns that speakers use to manage stuttering. This study investigated whether the modified time interval analysis can distinguish between trained speech patterns, fluent…

  2. Individualized treatment with infliximab therapy in children with Crohn’s disease support shorter time intervals between infusions

    PubMed Central

    Sommar, M.; Eksborg, S.; Hildebrand, H.; Grahnquist, L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To study the effect of an individualized treatment approach with regard to dosage intervals between infliximab infusions on the clinical outcome of pediatric Crohn’s disease (CD). Patients and methods A retrospective analysis of medical records of all pediatric patients with CD who had been treated with infliximab between 1999 and 2007 in two Swedish counties, where an individualized treatment approach had been applied. Results Twenty-nine patients were included in the study. The number of infusions varied from 2 to 47 (median: 8). Nineteen patients received more than 5 infusions and 13 patients received more than 10 infusions. Most of the patients did not stay in remission when the dosage interval was 8 weeks or longer. Conclusions An individualized treatment approach, based on the physician’s desire to treat, resulted in shorter dosage intervals than 8 weeks between infliximab infusions in a majority of pediatric patients with CD. The retrospective design of the study must be taken into account when interpreting the results.

  3. Congenital lobar emphysema: 30-year case series in two university hospitals*

    PubMed Central

    Cataneo, Daniele Cristina; Rodrigues, Olavo Ribeiro; Hasimoto, Erica Nishida; Schmidt, Aurelino Fernandes; Cataneo, Antonio José Maria

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the cases of patients with congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) submitted to surgical treatment at two university hospitals over a 30-year period. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of children with CLE undergoing surgical treatment between 1979 and 2009 at the Botucatu School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas or the Mogi das Cruzes University Hospital. We analyzed data regarding symptoms, physical examination, radiographic findings, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and postoperative follow-up. RESULTS: During the period studied, 20 children with CLE underwent surgery. The mean age at the time of surgery was 6.9 months (range, 9 days to 4 years). All of the cases presented with symptoms at birth or during the first months of life. In all cases, chest X-rays were useful in defining the diagnosis. In cases of moderate respiratory distress, chest CT facilitated the diagnosis. One patient with severe respiratory distress was misdiagnosed with hypertensive pneumothorax and underwent chest tube drainage. Only patients with moderate respiratory distress were submitted to bronchoscopy, which revealed no tracheobronchial abnormalities. The surgical approach was lateral muscle-sparing thoracotomy. The left upper and middle lobes were the most often affected, followed by the right upper lobe. Lobectomy was performed in 18 cases, whereas bilobectomy was performed in 2 (together with bronchogenic cyst resection in 1 of those). No postoperative complications were observed. Postoperative follow-up time was at least 24 months (mean, 60 months), and no late complications were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Although CLE is an uncommon, still neglected disease of uncertain etiology, the radiological diagnosis is easily made and surgical treatment is effective. PMID:24068262

  4. High methane emissions dominate annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2015-02-01

    Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration is scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated bog sites 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 ± 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 ± 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of the three greenhouse gases, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22 up to 51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), while highest rates were found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in water table, we conclude that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of this grass species and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, the mixed soil material can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not limited to a short-term period.

  5. A 30-year history of earthquake crisis communication in California and lessons for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, L.

    2015-12-01

    The first statement from the US Geological Survey to the California Office of Emergency Services quantifying the probability of a possible future earthquake was made in October 1985 about the probability (approximately 5%) that a M4.7 earthquake located directly beneath the Coronado Bay Bridge in San Diego would be a foreshock to a larger earthquake. In the next 30 years, publication of aftershock advisories have become routine and formal statements about the probability of a larger event have been developed in collaboration with the California Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (CEPEC) and sent to CalOES more than a dozen times. Most of these were subsequently released to the public. These communications have spanned a variety of approaches, with and without quantification of the probabilities, and using different ways to express the spatial extent and the magnitude distribution of possible future events. The USGS is re-examining its approach to aftershock probability statements and to operational earthquake forecasting with the goal of creating pre-vetted automated statements that can be released quickly after significant earthquakes. All of the previous formal advisories were written during the earthquake crisis. The time to create and release a statement became shorter with experience from the first public advisory (to the 1988 Lake Elsman earthquake) that was released 18 hours after the triggering event, but was never completed in less than 2 hours. As was done for the Parkfield experiment, the process will be reviewed by CEPEC and NEPEC (National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council) so the statements can be sent to the public automatically. This talk will review the advisories, the variations in wording and the public response and compare this with social science research about successful crisis communication, to create recommendations for future advisories

  6. Interbirth intervals

    PubMed Central

    Haig, David

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: Interbirth intervals (IBIs) mediate a trade-off between child number and child survival. Life history theory predicts that the evolutionarily optimal IBI differs for different individuals whose fitness is affected by how closely a mother spaces her children. The objective of the article is to clarify these conflicts and explore their implications for public health. Methodology: Simple models of inclusive fitness and kin conflict address the evolution of human birth-spacing. Results: Genes of infants generally favor longer intervals than genes of mothers, and infant genes of paternal origin generally favor longer IBIs than genes of maternal origin. Conclusions and implications: The colonization of maternal bodies by offspring cells (fetal microchimerism) raises the possibility that cells of older offspring could extend IBIs by interfering with the implantation of subsequent embryos. PMID:24480612

  7. Defibrillation time intervals and outcomes of cardiac arrest in hospital: retrospective cohort study from Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation registry

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenhui; Chan, Paul S; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Grunwald, Gary K; Self, Alyssa; Sasson, Comilla; Varosy, Paul D; Anderson, Monique L; Schneider, Preston M; Ho, P Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe temporal trends in the time interval between first and second attempts at defibrillation and the association between this time interval and outcomes in patients with persistent ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) arrest in hospital. Design Retrospective cohort study Setting 172 hospitals in the United States participating in the Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation registry, 2004-12. Participants Adults who received a second defibrillation attempt for persistent VT/VF arrest within three minutes of a first attempt. Interventions Second defibrillation attempts categorized as early (time interval of up to and including one minute between first and second defibrillation attempts) or deferred (time interval of more than one minute between first and second defibrillation attempts). Main outcome measure Survival to hospital discharge. Results Among 2733 patients with persistent VT/VF after the first defibrillation attempt, 1121 (41%) received a deferred second attempt. Deferred second defibrillation for persistent VT/VF increased from 26% in 2004 to 57% in 2012 (P<0.001 for trend). Compared with early second defibrillation, unadjusted patient outcomes were significantly worse with deferred second defibrillation (57.4% v 62.5% for return of spontaneous circulation, 38.4% v 43.6% for survival to 24 hours, and 24.7% v 30.8% for survival to hospital discharge; P<0.01 for all comparisons). After risk adjustment, deferred second defibrillation was not associated with survival to hospital discharge (propensity weighting adjusted risk ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.01; P=0.08; hierarchical regression adjusted 0.92, 0.83 to 1.02; P=0.1). Conclusions Since 2004, the use of deferred second defibrillation for persistent VT/VF in hospital has doubled. Deferred second defibrillation was not associated with improved survival. PMID:27052620

  8. Evaluation of the Effects of Light Intensity and Time Interval After the Start of Scotophase on the Female Flight Propensity of Asian Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Shi, Juan; Keena, Melody

    2016-04-01

    Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), females are capable of flight, but little is known about what causes the variation in flight propensity that has been observed. The female flight propensity and capability of Asian gypsy moth from seven geographic populations (three from China, two from Russia, one from Japan, and one from Korea) were compared under all combinations of three light intensities (0.05, 0.10, and 0.40 lux) and during three time intervals after the start of scotophase. A total of 567 females were flight tested. Female flight propensity, time to initiate walking, fanning, and flying, and duration of fanning differed significantly among geographic populations. Females were less likely to voluntarily fly during the 0-1-h time interval after the start of scotophase than during the later time intervals (1-2 and 2-3 h), suggesting that the light intensity cue has to occur at the correct time after the expected start of scotophase for flight initiation. Light intensity did not significantly affect the proportion of females that voluntarily flew, but did impact the timing of the walking and fanning preflight behaviors. The interaction between light intensity and time interval after the start of scotophase had a significant effect on the proportion of females that fanned. The proportion of females with sustained flight capability varied among the populations evaluated. These results may aid in determining the risk of Asian gypsy moth dispersal, but further work is needed to assess other factors that play a role in flight propensity. PMID:26748672

  9. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above.

    PubMed

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥ 30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30-65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected more ≥ CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥ CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results (positive test results without ≥ CIN3) varied between 3.3% with cytology and 14.9% with cobas. All HPV assays led to significantly more false-positive tests, whereas compared to HC2 cobas and CLART were associated with a significantly higher and APTIMA with a significantly lower proportion. Detection of CIN1 was particularly increased for the three DNA assays. With APTIMA combined with cytological triage, about 20% more women were referred for colposcopy than with cytology screening. With the three DNA assays, the increase was ≥ 50%. The number of women with repeated testing was twice as high with APTIMA and almost five times as high with cobas compared to cytology. To our knowledge, Horizon was the only study set in routine practice that compared more than two HPV assays in the same women while also ascertaining the histological status of women with normal cytology/HPV-positive test results. HPV-based screening of Danish women aged 30-65 detected more high-grade CIN but decreased the screening specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:26789267

  10. Low-jitter wide-range integrated time interval/delay generator based on combination of period counting and capacitor charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepacki, K.; Pawłowski, M.; Szplet, R.

    2015-02-01

    We present the design, operation, and test results of a new time interval/delay generator that provides the resolution of 0.3 ps, jitter below 10 ps (rms), and wide delay range of 10 s. The wide range has been achieved by counting periods of a reference clock while the high resolution and low jitter have been obtained through the two-time use of inner interpolation. This interpolation, based on charging of a single capacitor, provides both the precise external trigger synchronization and accurate generation of residual time interval. A combination of both processes virtually eliminates triggering indeterminacy. The jitter between the trigger and output is below 1 ps, which ensures a high performance delay. The generator is integrated in a single application specific integrated circuit chip using a standard cost-effective 0.35 μm CMOS process.

  11. How will Climate Change Affect Agriculture over the Next 10-30 Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture is dependent upon the climate resources of temperature, sunlight, precipitation, and carbon dioxide. Efficient production depends upon optimum conditions of temperature and water supply and changes in these climatic variables will affect plant and animal systems over the next 10- 30 year...

  12. 30 years of preserving clonal genetic resources in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For more than 30 years, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) has preserved clonal plant genetic resources of horticultural crops in field gene banks. Facilities in Hilo, Hawaii; Mayaguez, Puerto Rico; Miami, Florida; and...

  13. Recovering from 30 Years of War: Refugee Women and Children in Angola.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, New York, NY.

    After 30 years of war, Angola faces the challenge of creating a civil society. This report presents key findings of a visit to Angola, December 1-13, 1996, by the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. The report describes conditions facing women and children affected by war in Angola, addresses the return process of refugees from…

  14. Planting Misinformation in the Human Mind: A 30-Year Investigation of the Malleability of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2005-01-01

    The misinformation effect refers to the impairment in memory for the past that arises after exposure to misleading information. The phenomenon has been investigated for at least 30 years, as investigators have addressed a number of issues. These include the conditions under which people are especially susceptible to the negative impact of…

  15. Leadership and Change in Schools: Personal Reflections over the Last 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seashore, Karen R.

    2009-01-01

    The two fields of leadership studies and school change have increasingly converged over the last 30 years. This paper reviews the origins of the intersection, and the development of research themes in three areas: The role of leaders in shaping and using organizational culture, the agency of teachers in the change process, and the importance of…

  16. Educational Co-operation in Asia and the Pacific: 30 Years of NIER's Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Ryo, Ed.; Numano, Taro, Ed.; Nagata, Yoshiyuki, Ed.

    The history of the regional cooperation program of the National Institute for Educational Research (NIER) is recorded in this document. Specifically, the report outlines the past 30 years of the program in Asia and the Pacific. Throughout those years, 93 seminars, workshops, and symposia have been organized. In addition, information about the…

  17. Studies Using Single-Subject Designs in Sport Psychology: 30 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, G. L.; Thompson, K.; Regehr, K.

    2004-01-01

    A prominent feature of behavior-analytic research has been the use of single-subject designs. We examined sport psychology journals and behavioral journals published during the past 30 years, and located 40 studies using single-subject designs to assess interventions for enhancing the performance of athletes and coaches. In this paper, we…

  18. Great Expectations: Creative Achievements of the Sociometric Stars in a 30-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrance, E. Paul

    2004-01-01

    The creative achievements and characteristics of a group of ten high school students identified as the most creative by their high school peers were compared to those of ten participants from the same group who had the greatest number of publicly recognized creative achievements approximately 30 years later (Sociometric Stars vs. Beyonders).…

  19. Philosophic Thinking in Social Work: An Analysis of 30 Years of "Social Work" Editorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Brawley, Emilia E.; Zorita, Paz M-B

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at 30 years of editorial perspectives and trends in social work as a profession through the analysis of editorials from the journal "Social Work." It identifies the wax and wane of philosophic (intellectual or scholarly) questions in social work thinking in the past three decades. It defines what philosophic thinking…

  20. Challenges Facing Rural Community Colleges: Issues and Problems Today and over the Past 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Kevin; Williams, Mitchell R.; Karvonen, Meagan

    2006-01-01

    For over 30 years, researchers and practitioners have identified challenges unique to small, rural community colleges. The purpose of this study was to examine the distinctive problems facing rural community colleges today and the challenges those institutions must address to fulfill their mission in rural America. There are 5 current challenges…

  1. "Fear of Success" Revisited: A Replication of Matina Horner's Study 30 Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Jennifer

    This study updated and extended the classic "fear of success" study conducted by Matina Horner more than 30 years ago. Horner (1970) asked college students to respond to a scenario in which "Anne" or "John" is at the top of her/his medical school class. Based on the negative responses of students to "Anne," Horner concluded that women have a…

  2. 7 CFR 1467.8 - Compensation for easements and 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compensation for easements and 30-year contracts. 1467.8 Section 1467.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS...

  3. 7 CFR 1467.11 - Easement and 30-year contract participation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Easement and 30-year contract participation requirements. 1467.11 Section 1467.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS...

  4. Bullying in Childhood, Externalizing Behaviors, and Adult Offending: Evidence from a 30-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the developmental processes linking childhood bullying to criminal offending in adulthood, using data from a 30-year longitudinal study. The linkages between bullying in childhood and three criminal offending outcomes in adulthood were estimated both before and after control for a range of confounding factors. A series of…

  5. Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm found after mitral valve replacement performed 30 years earlier.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Elena; Gato, Manuel; Ruiz, José Ramón

    2010-03-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle (LV) is a rare cardiac disease that occurs after myocardial infarction or cardiac surgery. Because patients frequently present with nonspecific symptoms, a high index of suspicion is needed to make the diagnosis. This report describes an unusual case demonstrating a large LV pseudoaneurysm after mitral valve replacement performed 30 years earlier. PMID:20197588

  6. Is 30 Years of Age Over-the-Hill for Outdoor Professionals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Liz

    2012-01-01

    The author is now 30 years old. For more than a decade, she has been paid to facilitate an array of outdoor-based programming with varying groups of participants. With such breadth of experience, she frequently feels like she is a valuable asset to the organizations for which she works. However, at recent staff training and trip preparation days,…

  7. Contrasting population trends of piscivorous seabirds in the Pribilof Islands: A 30-year perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrd, G.V.; Schmutz, J.A.; Renner, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    numbers for all four species at St. George were approximately equivalent to those observed in 1976. In contrast, at St. Paul Island, all four species have declined for most of this 30-year time series, with only black-legged kittiwakes showing increases in the past decade but still remaining far below 1976 numbers. Interestingly, rates of productivity for kittiwakes and for murres were similar between the two islands, suggesting similar responses to summer conditions and implicating differential mortality of post-fledging juveniles or adults from the two islands (i.e., if summer food stress was insufficient to cause differences in productivity, but sufficient to cause physiological consequences that reduced survival. Another possibility is immigration from St. Paul to St. George, probably by juveniles. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. MK-801 and memantine act differently on short-term memory tested with different time-intervals in the Morris water maze test.

    PubMed

    Duda, Weronika; Wesierska, Malgorzata; Ostaszewski, Pawel; Vales, Karel; Nekovarova, Tereza; Stuchlik, Ales

    2016-09-15

    N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a crucial role in spatial memory formation. In neuropharmacological studies their functioning strongly depends on testing conditions and the dosage of NMDAR antagonists. The aim of this study was to assess the immediate effects of NMDAR block by (+)MK-801 or memantine on short-term allothetic memory. Memory was tested in a working memory version of the Morris water maze test. In our version of the test, rats underwent one day of training with 8 trials, and then three experimental days when rats were injected intraperitoneally with low- 5 (MeL), high - 20 (MeH) mg/kg memantine, 0.1mg/kg MK-801 or 1ml/kg saline (SAL) 30min before testing, for three consecutive days. On each experimental day there was just one acquisition and one test trial, with an inter-trial interval of 5 or 15min. During training the hidden platform was relocated after each trial and during the experiment after each day. The follow-up effect was assessed on day 9. Intact rats improved their spatial memory across the one training day. With a 5min interval MeH rats had longer latency then all rats during retrieval. With a 15min interval the MeH rats presented worse working memory measured as retrieval minus acquisition trial for path than SAL and MeL and for latency than MeL rats. MK-801 rats had longer latency than SAL during retrieval. Thus, the high dose of memantine, contrary to low dose of MK-801 disrupts short-term memory independent on the time interval between acquisition and retrieval. This shows that short-term memory tested in a working memory version of water maze is sensitive to several parameters: i.e., NMDA receptor antagonist type, dosage and the time interval between learning and testing. PMID:27180167

  9. Stability criteria for T-S fuzzy systems with interval time-varying delays and nonlinear perturbations based on geometric progression delay partitioning method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Zhong, Shouming; Li, Min; Liu, Xingwen; Adu-Gyamfi, Fehrs

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a novel delay partitioning method is proposed by introducing the theory of geometric progression for the stability analysis of T-S fuzzy systems with interval time-varying delays and nonlinear perturbations. Based on the common ratio α, the delay interval is unequally separated into multiple subintervals. A newly modified Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) is established which includes triple-integral terms and augmented factors with respect to the length of every related proportional subintervals. In addition, a recently developed free-matrix-based integral inequality is employed to avoid the overabundance of the enlargement when dealing with the derivative of the LKF. This innovative development can dramatically enhance the efficiency of obtaining the maximum upper bound of the time delay. Finally, much less conservative stability criteria are presented. Numerical examples are conducted to demonstrate the significant improvements of this proposed approach. PMID:27138648

  10. Distant outcomes of the Chiari osteotomy 30 years follow up evaluation.

    PubMed

    Piontek, Tomasz; Szulc, Andrzej; Głowacki, Maciej; Strzyzewski, Wojciech

    2006-02-28

    Background. The aim of my paper was to assess distant treatment results of patients who were treated because of hip displasia and the Chiari osteotomy was performed on those patients. Material and methods. I evaluated treatment outcomes of 27 patients who were treated at Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Clinic of Orthopedics, in 1965-1990. The Chiari osteotomy was performed on all patients for hip decenteration or hip subluxation after developmental displasia. 34 hips were evaluated (20 female and 7 male). The average age of patients was 13 years in the moment of the operation. The follow up examination was conducted 10-36 years after the Chiari osteotomy Results. After many years (30 years after the operation on the average), 37% of patients could fit into groups of very good and good results. I could assess the hips before the operation using only parameters marked on anteroposterior films. The radiographs of the hips showed displasia characterized by shallowness and steepness of the acetabulum, an increased apparent neck-corpus angle, low submersion of the femoral head in the acetabulum, and insufficient coverage of the femoral head by the acetabulum. On the radiographs taken one year after the operation I observed very good coverage of the femoral head proved by higher values (above quota) of the Wiberg angle, the Sharp angle, the Heyman and Herndon acetabulum-head indicator. I defined also a course of the osteotomy drafting an osteotomy angle, setting a degree of bone fragments displacement (medialisation), and a height of the osteotomy. Conclusions. 1. The Chiari osteotomy as a hip saving operation allows patients to function in satisfactory clinical conditions for many years. 2. When conducted correctly, the Chiari osteotomy considerably improves femoral head coverage not only in the frontal plane but also in the transverse plane. 3. Too wide osteotomy angle, more than 20 degrees , further than 50% displacement of a distal bone fragment and too low

  11. Eco-region dependent lengthening of vegetation period over the past 30 years in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garonna, I.; De Jong, R.; De Wit, A.; Mücher, C. A.; Schmid, B.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Land Surface Phenology (LSP) is the most direct representation of intra-annual dynamics of vegetated land surfaces as observed from satellite observations. As such, LSP plays a key role in understanding the terrestrial carbon budget, as well as the response of terrestrial ecosystems to environmental change. Various studies have highlighted significant increases in vegetation activity over time (i.e. greening) over Europe in recent decades (e.g. Stöckli and Vidale, 2004), associated both with climatic changes and with large-scale human interventions including land-use change (de Jong et al., 2013). In this study, we characterize LSP changes in Europe's eco-regions for the last 30 years. We used the latest version of the 8-km Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index dataset (third generation, or NDVI-3g) to retrieve LSP metrics for Europe for the last three decades (1982-2011). Each year of NDVI data was processed using the Harmonic Analysis of Time Series (HANTS) algorithm, producing smooth NDVI annual profiles on a pixel-by-pixel basis. In order to derive LSP metrics for each year, namely Start, End and Length of Growing Season, we selected the Midpoint-pixel local threshold method, based on the White et al. (2009) inter-comparison. A landscape-based stratification, using the European Landscape Classification (LANMAP) (Mücher et al., 2010) allowed us to examine LSP characteristics and trends for the different European eco-regions. We demonstrate significant shifts in LSP metrics over the study period, with a general lengthening of the growing season in Europe of approximately 0.4 days year-1. LSP trends varied significantly between eco-regions, and we discuss potential reasons for these spatially diverse trends. de Jong, R., et al. (2013), Spatial relationship between climatologies and changes in global vegetation activity, Global Change Biology, 19(6), 1953-1964. Mücher, C. A., J. A. Klijn, D. M. Wascher, and

  12. High methane emissions dominated annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2015-07-01

    Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus potentially implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration are scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated sites of a bog ecosystem 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 ± 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 ± 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of CO2, CH4 and N2O, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22-51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), with highest rates found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in the water table, we assume that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of purple moor grass and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, mixed soil material due to peat extraction and refilling can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not inevitably limited to a short-term period.

  13. Evaluation of colour stability of provisional restorative materials exposed to different mouth rinses at varying time intervals: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Prasad, D Krishna; Alva, Harshitha; Shetty, Manoj

    2014-03-01

    The most important factor affecting esthetics is colour. Whether a definitive prosthesis or a provisional restoration, maintenance of esthetics is of prime concern along with restoration of function. Colour stability of provisional prosthesis is affected by various factors and various studies are documented in the literature on this. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the colour stability of provisional restorative materials exposed to different mouth rinses at varying time intervals. 120 discs, each of self cure tooth moulding material, Protemp 4 and Revotek LC were prepared and immersed in two mouth rinses, hexidine and periogard and evaluated for their colour stability after 1 week, 1 and 3 months. The data obtained was statistically analysed using ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc analysis. The results indicate that there is a significant difference in the colour variation of various materials in two different mouth rinses at different time intervals. Revotek LC was found to be the most colour stable material and periogard had the least staining potential at varying time intervals. PMID:24605003

  14. Recovery from exercise at varying work loads - Time course of responses of heart rate and systolic intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nandi, P. S.; Spodick, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    The time course of the recovery period was characterized by noninvasive measurements after 4 minute bicycle exercise at 3 separate work loads in volunteers with normal peak responses. Most responses started immediately to return toward resting control values. Left ventricular ejection time and stroke volume change are discussed. Changes in pre-ejection period were determined by changes in isovolume contraction time, and factors affecting the degree and rate of return are considered. The rates of change in the ejection time index and in the ratio pre-ejection period/left ventricular ejection time were virtually independent of load throughout most of recovery.

  15. The relationship between adjunctive drinking, blood ethanol concentration and plasma corticosterone across fixed-time intervals of food delivery in two inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Matthew M.; Steele, Andrea M.; McCracken, Aubrey D.; Finn, Deborah A.; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Schedules of intermittent food delivery induce excessive fluid intake, termed schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP), and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation is important for the expression and maintenance of this adjunctive behavior. Previous work has focused of examining the relationship between water intake and plasma corticosterone (CORT) in rats at a single or a limited range of fixed time (FT) intervals. However, little remains known regarding SIP and the corresponding stress response 1) across the bitonic function that epitomizes adjunctive behavior, 2) when ethanol is the available fluid, and 3) when a species other than rat or multiple strains are studied. Here we report the findings from ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J (B6) and non-preferring DBA/2J (D2) mice serially exposed to progressively larger FT intervals (0 → 60 min) and given access to either water or a 5% v/v ethanol solution. Following 2 weeks of experience with each schedule, blood samples were collected at the conclusion of the last 60-min session to evaluate CORT and the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) achieved. While both strains exhibited a bitonic function of ethanol intake and BEC that peaked at or near a 5-min interval, only D2 mice showed a similar response with water. In contrast, CORT levels rose monotonically with incremental increases in the FT interval regardless of the strain examined or fluid type offered, indicating that glucocorticoid release likely reflects the aversive aspects of increasing intervals between reinforcement rather than engagement in adjunctive behavior. These findings also caution against the use of a single intensity stressor to evaluate the relationship between stress and ethanol intake, as the magnitude of stress appears to affect ethanol consumption in a non-linear fashion. PMID:23827168

  16. Revisiting 30 years of biofunctionalization and surface chemistry of inorganic nanoparticles for nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Conde, João; Dias, Jorge T.; Grazú, Valeria; Moros, Maria; Baptista, Pedro V.; de la Fuente, Jesus M.

    2014-01-01

    In the last 30 years we have assisted to a massive advance of nanomaterials in material science. Nanomaterials and structures, in addition to their small size, have properties that differ from those of larger bulk materials, making them ideal for a host of novel applications. The spread of nanotechnology in the last years has been due to the improvement of synthesis and characterization methods on the nanoscale, a field rich in new physical phenomena and synthetic opportunities. In fact, the development of functional nanoparticles has progressed exponentially over the past two decades. This work aims to extensively review 30 years of different strategies of surface modification and functionalization of noble metal (gold) nanoparticles, magnetic nanocrystals and semiconductor nanoparticles, such as quantum dots. The aim of this review is not only to provide in-depth insights into the different biofunctionalization and characterization methods, but also to give an overview of possibilities and limitations of the available nanoparticles. PMID:25077142

  17. Forecasting California's earthquakes: What can we expect in the next 30 years?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, Edward H.; Milner, Kevin R.; The 2007 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities

    2008-01-01

    In a new comprehensive study, scientists have determined that the chance of having one or more magnitude 6.7 or larger earthquakes in the California area over the next 30 years is greater than 99%. Such quakes can be deadly, as shown by the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta and the 1994 magnitude 6.7 Northridge earthquakes. The likelihood of at least one even more powerful quake of magnitude 7.5 or greater in the next 30 years is 46%?such a quake is most likely to occur in the southern half of the State. Building codes, earthquake insurance, and emergency planning will be affected by these new results, which highlight the urgency to prepare now for the powerful quakes that are inevitable in California?s future.

  18. Revisiting 30 years of biofunctionalization and surface chemistry of inorganic nanoparticles for nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Conde, João; Dias, Jorge T; Grazú, Valeria; Moros, Maria; Baptista, Pedro V; de la Fuente, Jesus M

    2014-01-01

    In the last 30 years we have assisted to a massive advance of nanomaterials in material science. Nanomaterials and structures, in addition to their small size, have properties that differ from those of larger bulk materials, making them ideal for a host of novel applications. The spread of nanotechnology in the last years has been due to the improvement of synthesis and characterization methods on the nanoscale, a field rich in new physical phenomena and synthetic opportunities. In fact, the development of functional nanoparticles has progressed exponentially over the past two decades. This work aims to extensively review 30 years of different strategies of surface modification and functionalization of noble metal (gold) nanoparticles, magnetic nanocrystals and semiconductor nanoparticles, such as quantum dots. The aim of this review is not only to provide in-depth insights into the different biofunctionalization and characterization methods, but also to give an overview of possibilities and limitations of the available nanoparticles. PMID:25077142

  19. Trends in global monsoon area and precipitation over the past 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pang-chi; Li, Tim; Wang, Bin

    2011-04-01

    The analysis of the GPCP and CMAP datasets during the past 30 years (1979-2008) indicates that there are consistent increasing trends in both the global monsoon area (GMA) and the global monsoon total precipitation (GMP). This positive monsoon rainfall trend differs from previous studies that assumed a fixed global monsoon domain. Due to the increasing trends in both the GMA and GMP, a global monsoon intensity (GMI) index, which measures the global monsoon precipitation amount per unit area, is introduced. The GMI measures the strength of the global monsoon. Our calculations with both the GPCP and CMAP datasets show a consistent downward trend in the GMI over the past 30 years. This decreasing trend is primarily attributed to a greater percentage increase in the GMA than in the GMP. A further diagnosis reveals that the decrease of the GMI is primarily attributed to the land monsoon in the GPCP, but to the oceanic monsoon in the CMAP.

  20. Generalized additive models with interval-censored data and time-varying covariates: application to human immunodeficiency virus infection in hemophiliacs.

    PubMed

    Bacchetti, Peter; Quale, Christopher

    2002-06-01

    We describe a method for extending smooth nonparametric modeling methods to time-to-event data where the event may be known only to lie within a window of time. Maximum penalized likelihood is used to fit a discrete proportional hazards model that also models the baseline hazard, and left-truncation and time-varying covariates are accommodated. The implementation follows generalized additive modeling conventions, allowing both parametric and smooth terms and specifying the amount of smoothness in terms of the effective degrees of freedom. We illustrate the method on a well-known interval-censored data set on time of human immunodeficiency virus infection in a multicenter study of hemophiliacs. The ability to examine time-varying covariates, not available with previous methods, allows detection and modeling of nonproportional hazards and use of a time-varying covariate that fits the data better and is more plausible than a fixed alternative. PMID:12071419

  1. Stem Cell Therapy for the Treatment of Hip Osteonecrosis: A 30-Year Review of Progress

    PubMed Central

    Trousselier, Matthieu; Roubineau, François; Bouthors, Charlie; Chevallier, Nathalie; Rouard, Helene; Flouzat-Lachaniette, Charles-Henri

    2016-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is caused by a multitude of etiologic factors and is associated with collapse with a risk of hip arthroplasty in younger populations. A focus on early disease management with the use of stem cells was proposed as early as 1985 by the senior author (PH). We undertook a systematic review of the medical literature to examine the progress in cell therapy during the last 30 years for the treatment of early stage osteonecrosis. PMID:26929793

  2. The Right Gastroepiploic Artery Graft for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A 30-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Suma, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Throughout its 30-year history, the right gastroepiploic artery (GEA) has been useful for in situ grafts in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The early graft patency rate is high, and the late patency rate has improved by using the skeletonized GEA graft and proper target selection, which involves having a target coronary artery with a tight >90% stenosis. Total arterial revascularization with the internal thoracic artery and GEA grafts is an option for achieving better outcomes from CABG procedures. PMID:27525230

  3. Studies using single-subject designs in sport psychology: 30 years of research

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Garry L.; Thompson, Kendra; Regehr, Kaleigh

    2004-01-01

    A prominent feature of behavior-analytic research has been the use of single-subject designs. We examined sport psychology journals and behavioral journals published during the past 30 years, and located 40 studies using single-subject designs to assess interventions for enhancing the performance of athletes and coaches. In this paper, we summarize that body of research, discuss its strengths and limitations, and identify areas for future research. PMID:22478434

  4. A new model of Tidal EOP variations from VLBI data spanning 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gipson, John M.; Ray, Richard D.

    2009-04-01

    We report on a new solution for tidal EOP variations derived from VLBI data. This solution uses approximately 6.5 million VLBI delay measurements spanning almost 30 years, and is the most precise VLBI solution to date. We compare this solution to earlier VLBI solutions, solutions from other techniques, and theoretical predictions. We give theoretical and empirical estimates of the error of the estimates. We also compare the predictions from the VLBI tidal solution with hourly VLBI and GPS measurements of EOP.

  5. Cardiac Time Intervals by Tissue Doppler Imaging M-Mode: Normal Values and Association with Established Echocardiographic and Invasive Measures of Systolic and Diastolic Function

    PubMed Central

    Mogelvang, Rasmus; de Knegt, Martina Chantal; Olsen, Flemming Javier; Galatius, Søren; Jensen, Jan Skov

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To define normal values of the cardiac time intervals obtained by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) M-mode through the mitral valve (MV). Furthermore, to evaluate the association of the myocardial performance index (MPI) obtained by TDI M-mode (MPITDI) and the conventional method of obtaining MPI (MPIConv), with established echocardiographic and invasive measures of systolic and diastolic function. Methods In a large community based population study (n = 974), where all are free of any cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors, cardiac time intervals, including isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT), isovolumic contraction time (IVCT), and ejection time (ET) were obtained by TDI M-mode through the MV. IVCT/ET, IVRT/ET and the MPI ((IVRT+IVCT)/ET) were calculated. We also included a validation population (n = 44) of patients who underwent left heart catheterization and had the MPITDI and MPIConv measured. Results IVRT, IVRT/ET and MPI all increased significantly with increasing age in both genders (p<0.001 for all). IVCT, ET, IVRT/ET, and MPI differed significantly between males and females, displaying that women, in general exhibit better cardiac function. MPITDI was significantly associated with invasive (dP/dt max) and echocardiographic measures of systolic (LVEF, global longitudinal strain and global strainrate s) and diastolic function (e’, global strainrate e)(p<0.05 for all), whereas MPIConv was significantly associated with LVEF, e’ and global strainrate e (p<0.05 for all). Conclusion Normal values of cardiac time intervals differed between genders and deteriorated with increasing age. The MPITDI (but not MPIConv) is associated with most invasive and established echocardiographic measures of systolic and diastolic function. PMID:27093636

  6. Wait Times Experienced by Lung Cancer Patients in the BC Southern Interior to Obtain Oncologic Care: Exploration of the Intervals from First Abnormal Imaging to Oncologic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Rezwan; Boyce, Andrew; Halperin, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is associated with rapid disease progression, which can significantly progress over a duration of four to eight weeks. This study examines the time interval lung cancer patients from the interior of British Columbia (BC) experience while undergoing diagnostic evaluation, biopsy, staging, and preparation for treatment. Methods: A chart review of lung cancer patients (n=231) referred to the BC Cancer Agency Centre for the Southern Interior between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011 was performed. Time zero was defined as the date of the first abnormal chest imaging. Time intervals, expressed as median averages, to specialist consult, biopsy, oncologic referral, initial oncology consultation, and commencement of oncologic treatment were obtained. Results: The median time interval from first abnormal chest imaging to a specialist consultation was 18 days (interquartile range, IQR, 7-36). An additional nine days elapsed prior to biopsy in the form of bronchoscopy, CT-guided biopsy, or sputum cytology (median; IQR, 3-21); if lobectomy was required, 18 days elapsed (median; IQR, 9-28). Eight days were required for pathologic diagnosis and subsequent referral to the cancer centre (median; IQR, 3-16.5). Once referral was received, 10 days elapsed prior to consultation with either a medical or radiation oncologist (median, IQR 5-18). Finally, eight days was required for initiation of radiation and/or chemotherapy (median; IQR, 1-15). The median wait time from detection of lung cancer on imaging to oncologic treatment in the form of radiation and/or chemotherapy was 65.5 days (IQR, 41.5-104.3).  Interpretation: Patients in the BC Southern Interior experience considerable delays in accessing lung cancer care. During this time, the disease has the potential to significantly progress and it is possible that a subset of patients may lose their opportunity for curative intent treatment. PMID:26543688

  7. Editorial: Our top 10 developments in stem cell biology over the last 30 years.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Lyle; Lako, Majlinda; Buckley, Noel; Lappin, Terry R J; Murphy, Martin J; Nolta, Jan A; Pittenger, Mark; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    To celebrate 30 years of peer-reviewed publication of cutting edge stem cell research in Stem Cells, the first journal devoted to this promising field, we pause to review how far we have come in the three-decade lifetime of the Journal. To do this, we will present our views of the 10 most significant developments that have advanced stem cell biology where it is today. With the increasing rate of new data, it is natural that the bulk of these developments would have occurred in recent years, but we must not think that stem cell biology is a young science. The idea of a stem cell has actually been around for quite a long time having appeared in the scientific literature as early as 1868 with Haeckels' concept of a stamzelle as an uncommitted or undifferentiated cell responsible for producing many types of new cells to repair the body [Naturliche Schopfungsgeschichte, 1868; Berlin: Georg Reimer] but it took many years to obtain hard evidence in support of this theory. Not until the work of James Till and Ernest McCulloch in the 1960s did we have proof of the existence of stem cells and until the derivation of embryonal carcinoma cells in the 1960s-1970s and the first embryonic stem cell in 1981, such adult or tissue-specific stem cells were the only known class. The first issue of Stem Cells was published in 1981; no small wonder that most of its papers were devoted to hematopoietic progenitors. More recently, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been developed, and this is proving to be a fertile area of investigation as shown by the volume of publications appearing not only in Stem Cells but also in other journals over the last 5 years. The reader will note that many of the articles in this special issue are concerned with iPSC; however, this reflects the current surge of interest in the topic rather than any deliberate attempt to ignore other areas of stem cell investigation. PMID:22162299

  8. Parkinson's disease progression at 30 years: a study of subthalamic deep brain-stimulated patients.

    PubMed

    Merola, Aristide; Zibetti, Maurizio; Angrisano, Serena; Rizzi, Laura; Ricchi, Valeria; Artusi, Carlo A; Lanotte, Michele; Rizzone, Mario G; Lopiano, Leonardo

    2011-07-01

    Clinical findings in Parkinson's disease suggest that most patients progressively develop disabling non-levodopa-responsive symptoms during the course of the disease. Nevertheless, several heterogeneous factors, such as clinical phenotype, age at onset and genetic aspects may influence the long-term clinical picture. In order to investigate the main features of long-term Parkinson's disease progression, we studied a cohort of 19 subjects treated with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation after >20 years of disease, reporting clinical and neuropsychological data up to a mean of 30 years from disease onset. This group of patients was characterized by an early onset of disease, with a mean age of 38.63 years at Parkinson's disease onset, which was significantly lower than in the other long-term subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation follow-up cohorts reported in the literature. All subjects were regularly evaluated by a complete Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, a battery of neuropsychological tests and a clinical interview, intended to assess the rate of non-levodopa-responsive symptom progression. Clinical data were available for all patients at presurgical baseline and at 1, 3 and 5 years from the subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation surgical procedure, while follow-up data after >7 years were additionally reported in a subgroup of 14 patients. The clinical and neuropsychological performance progressively worsened during the course of follow-up; 64% of patients gradually developed falls, 86% dysphagia, 57% urinary incontinence and 43% dementia. A progressive worsening of motor symptoms was observed both in 'medication-ON' condition and in 'stimulation-ON' condition, with a parallel reduction in the synergistic effect of 'medication-ON/stimulation-ON' condition. Neuropsychological data also showed a gradual decline in the performances of all main cognitive domains, with an initial involvement of executive functions, followed by the impairment

  9. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above

    PubMed Central

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30–65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected more ≥CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results (positive test results without ≥CIN3) varied between 3.3% with cytology and 14.9% with cobas. All HPV assays led to significantly more false-positive tests, whereas compared to HC2 cobas and CLART were associated with a significantly higher and APTIMA with a significantly lower proportion. Detection of CIN1 was particularly increased for the three DNA assays. With APTIMA combined with cytological triage, about 20% more women were referred for colposcopy than with cytology screening. With the three DNA assays, the increase was ≥50%. The number of women with repeated testing was twice as high with APTIMA and almost five times as high with cobas compared to cytology. To our knowledge, Horizon was the only study set in routine practice that compared more than two HPV assays in the same women while also ascertaining the histological status of women with normal cytology/HPV-positive test results. HPV-based screening of Danish women aged 30–65 detected more high-grade CIN but decreased the screening specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:26789267

  10. Distortion of time interval reproduction in an epileptic patient with a focal lesion in the right anterior insular/inferior frontal cortices.

    PubMed

    Monfort, Vincent; Pfeuty, Micha; Klein, Madelyne; Collé, Steffie; Brissart, Hélène; Jonas, Jacques; Maillard, Louis

    2014-11-01

    This case report on an epileptic patient suffering from a focal lesion at the junction of the right anterior insular cortex (AIC) and the adjacent inferior frontal cortex (IFC) provides the first evidence that damage to this brain region impairs temporal performance in a visual time reproduction task in which participants had to reproduce the presentation duration (3, 5 and 7s) of emotionally-neutral and -negative pictures. Strikingly, as compared to a group of healthy subjects, the AIC/IFC case considerably overestimated reproduction times despite normal variability. The effect was obtained in all duration and emotion conditions. Such a distortion in time reproduction was not observed in four other epileptic patients without insular or inferior frontal damage. Importantly, the absolute extent of temporal over-reproduction increased in proportion to the magnitude of the target durations, which concurs with the scalar property of interval timing, and points to an impairment of time-specific rather than of non temporal (such as motor) mechanisms. Our data suggest that the disability in temporal reproduction of the AIC/IFC case would result from a distorted memory representation of the encoded duration, occurring during the process of storage and/or of recovery from memory and leading to a deviation of the temporal judgment during the reproduction task. These findings support the recent proposal that the anterior insular/inferior frontal cortices would be involved in time interval representation. PMID:25223467

  11. Trends in blunt abdominal trauma among hospital in-patients. Developments in a Swedish rural district over 30 years.

    PubMed

    Bergqvist, D; Hedelin, H

    1979-01-01

    To analyse changes in background factors, injury pattern, and prognosis regarding blunt abdominal trauma in Sweden, the 30-year postwar (1946--75) development was investigated in a rural district. 396 patients were treated, showing a great increase during the last 5 years. The highest frequency was seen in patients aged 11--30 years. Abdominal trauma occurred most commonly during July and August. The growing aetiological importance of road accidents is shown. Equestrian accidents were common early in the period and again towards the end. The incidence of cerebrally confused patients increased. The organs most commonly traumatized were kidney, liver, and spleen. The frequency of multiple intra-abdominal injuries and also associated extra-abdominal injuries increased with time. There was a tendency towards shorter hospital stays. Mortality rates did not change during the period, even though injuries have become increasingly severe (judged by the Injury Severity Score). It is concluded that the improved care of patients compensated precisely for the increased severity of injuries, as reflected in mortality. PMID:432565

  12. A Conversation with the Richmonds on Their 30 Years of Service with the American Board of Cardiovascular Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, David A.; Mongero, Linda B.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: David A. PalmerLinda B. MongeroBeth A. Richmond, PhD, and Mark G. Richmond, EdD, Co-Executive Directors serving for the ABCP, have assumed this role for the past 30 years. Their experience working with a variety of perfusionists in the field influenced the profession and some of the professionals we view as perfusion leaders. Anyone with time working as a clinical perfusionist acknowledges the role they have had establishing the certification process and influencing perfusion education. The goal of this article is simply to highlight the Board’s history through the words of both Co-Directors. Our profession, young in years, has a unique history. The names have not been changed and many of the stories have yet to be told. During the winter of 2009, we sat down with Beth and Mark Richmond to talk about their experience working with different Boards over the past 30 years. The following article is their story in their words. PMID:19806795

  13. Delay-dependent stability and stabilization criteria for T-S fuzzy singular systems with interval time-varying delay by improved delay partitioning approach.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chao; Wang, Fuli; He, Xiqin

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the stability analysis and fuzzy stabilizing controller design for a class of Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy singular systems with interval time-varying delay and linear fractional uncertainties. By decomposing the delay interval into two unequal subintervals and seeking a appropriate ρ, a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional is constructed to develop the improved delay-dependent stability criteria, which ensures the considered system to be regular, impulse-free and stable. Furthermore, the desired fuzzy controller gains are also presented by solving a set of strict linear matrix inequalities. Compared with some existing results, the obtained ones give the result with less conservatism. Finally, some examples are given to show the improvement and the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:27066363

  14. Tracking time interval changes of pulmonary nodules on follow-up 3D CT images via image-based risk score of lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Ohmatsu, H.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.; Moriyama, N.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we present a computer-aided follow-up (CAF) scheme to support physicians to track interval changes of pulmonary nodules on three dimensional (3D) CT images and to decide the treatment strategies without making any under or over treatment. Our scheme involves analyzing CT histograms to evaluate the volumetric distribution of CT values within pulmonary nodules. A variational Bayesian mixture modeling framework translates the image-derived features into an image-based risk score for predicting the patient recurrence-free survival. Through applying our scheme to follow-up 3D CT images of pulmonary nodules, we demonstrate the potential usefulness of the CAF scheme which can provide the trajectories that can characterize time interval changes of pulmonary nodules.

  15. Time Interval From Breast-Conserving Surgery to Breast Irradiation in Early Stage Node-Negative Breast Cancer: 17-Year Follow-Up Results and Patterns of Recurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Vujovic, Olga; Yu, Edward; Cherian, Anil; Dar, A. Rashid; Stitt, Larry; Perera, Francisco

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: A retrospectivechart review was conducted to determine whether the time interval from breast-conserving surgery to breast irradiation (surgery-radiation therapy interval) in early stage node-negative breast cancer had any detrimental effects on recurrence rates. Methods and Materials: There were 566 patients with T1 to T3, N0 breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and breast irradiation and without adjuvant systemic treatment between 1985 and 1992. The surgery-to-radiation therapy intervals used for analysis were 0 to 8 weeks (201 patients), >8 to 12 weeks (233 patients), >12 to 16 weeks (91 patients), and >16 weeks (41 patients). Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to local recurrence, disease-free survival, distant disease-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival rates were calculated. Results: Median follow-up was 17.4 years. Patients in all 4 time intervals were similar in terms of characteristics and pathologic features. There were no statistically significant differences among the 4 time groups in local recurrence (P=.67) or disease-free survival (P=.82). The local recurrence rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 4.9%, 11.5%, and 15.0%, respectively. The distant disease relapse rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 10.6%, 15.4%, and 18.5%, respectively. The disease-free failure rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 20%, 32.3%, and 39.8%, respectively. Cause-specific survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 92%, 84.6%, and 79.8%, respectively. The overall survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 89.3%, 79.2%, and 66.9%, respectively. Conclusions: Surgery-radiation therapy intervals up to 16 weeks from breast-conserving surgery are not associated with any increased risk of recurrence in early stage node-negative breast cancer. There is a steady local recurrence rate of 1% per year with adjuvant radiation alone.

  16. Evolution of induction chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer over the last 30 years: A surgical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, Elizabeth; Rivera, Caroline; Mordant, Pierre; Gibault, Laure; Dujon, Antoine; Foucault, Christophe; Le Pimpec-Barthes, Françoise; Riquet, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background Induction chemotherapy (ICT) is supposed to reduce the risk of micrometastatic progression and improve resectability of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, best indications for ICT strategy remain unclear in published meta-analyses. Based on this observation, an evaluation of daily practice is of importance. Therefore, we reviewed indications and efficacy time trends in our 30-year series. Methods A database including all patients with NSCLC who underwent surgical resection in two French centers from 1980 to 2009 (n = 5563) was prospectively set and retrospectively reviewed. The indications, clinical and pathologic response rates, and overall survival of ICT patients (n = 732) were analyzed during three successive time-periods: P1 from 1980 to 1989, P2 from 1990 to 1999, and P3 from 2000 to 2009. Results The proportion of patients who benefited from ICT increased over time, from 2.8% (n = 35) in P1 to 12.5% (n = 274) in P2, and 20.2% (n = 423) in P3. Indications evolved over time with more N2 patients (n = 211; 49.8%) and less initially unresectable patients (n = 72; 17%) in P3. The clinical response rate between P1 and P2 increased. Five and 10-year survival rates of ICT patients were 35.2% and 21.5%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, time-period, age, type of resection, histology, and pathologic response to chemotherapy were significant prognostic factors. Conclusions Our report on the off-trial use of induction therapy during the last 30 years demonstrates an increased use of ICT, a progressive focus on N2 disease, and improved response rates. PMID:26557911

  17. Proper Interval Vertex Deletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanger, Yngve

    Deleting a minimum number of vertices from a graph to obtain a proper interval graph is an NP-complete problem. At WG 2010 van Bevern et al. gave an O((14k + 14) k + 1 kn 6) time algorithm by combining iterative compression, branching, and a greedy algorithm. We show that there exists a simple greedy O(n + m) time algorithm that solves the Proper Interval Vertex Deletion problem on \\{claw,net,allowbreak tent,allowbreak C_4,C_5,C_6\\}-free graphs. Combining this with branching on the forbidden structures claw,net,tent,allowbreak C_4,C_5, and C 6 enables us to get an O(kn 6 6 k ) time algorithm for Proper Interval Vertex Deletion, where k is the number of deleted vertices.

  18. [Effect of ergonovine and the cold stress test on time intervals of left ventricular systole and their significance for the diagnosis of coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Gawor, Z; Markiewicz, K; Cholewa, M

    1988-08-15

    In 20 healthy test persons and 44 patients with a coronary heart disease without stenocardia at rest the ergonovine and the cold pressure test were performed. During the tests the ECG in 12 standard leads and the mechanocardiogrammes were registered, from which the time intervals of the left-ventricular systole were calculated. From the analysis of the pectanginous complaints and/or from the changes of the ST segment for the diagnosis of the coronary heart disease a sensitiveness of the ergonovine test of 40% was obtained, whereas the sensitiveness of the cold tolerance test was only 10%. In healthy test persons during the ergonovine test a shortening of Q-1, a decrease of the quotient PEP/LVET and a prolongation of LVETI were established. Apart from this, in patients with coronary heart disease also shortenings of ICT and PEP and an increase of the quotient LVET/S1S2 were made evident. During the cold tolerance test in healthy test persons, besides the prolongation of LVETI, no other changes were stated. On the other hand, in the patients a decrease of the quotient PEP/LVET and a shortening of PEP were existing. The diagnostic value of the analysis of the left-ventricular time intervals was insignificantly higher during the ergonovine test than at rest. However, during the cold pressure tests no differences were stated. The application of the analysis of the left-ventricular time intervals does not essentially enlarge the sensitiveness of the two tests in comparison to the analysis of the changes of the ST segment in the ECG. PMID:3188594

  19. Solvent/detergent-treated plasma: a tale of 30 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Liumbruno, Giancarlo Maria; Marano, Giuseppe; Grazzini, Gioia; Capuzzo, Enrico; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    Solvent/detergent-treated plasma was licensed >30 years ago. It has several specific characteristics, the most important being the standardized content of clotting factors, the lack of antibodies implicated in transfusion-related acute lung injury pathogenesis and the very high level of safety against transfusion-related viral infections. Since 1992, many clinical studies have confirmed its safety and efficacy in a wide range of congenital and acquired bleeding disorders. After a brief analysis of the pharmaceutical characteristics of solvent/detergent plasma, this review will focus on the clinical experience with this virus-inactivated plasma. PMID:25695198

  20. Changes in Tropical Cyclone Intensity Over the Past 30 Years: A Global and Dynamic Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Liguang; Wang, Bin; Braun, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    The hurricane season of 2005 was the busiest on record and Hurricane Katrina (2005) is believed to be the costliest hurricane in U. S. history. There are growing concerns regarding whether this increased tropical cyclone activity is a result of global warming, as suggested by Emanuel(2005) and Webster et al. (2005), or just a natural oscillation (Goldenberg et al. 2001). This study examines the changes in tropical cyclone intensity to see what were really responsible for the changes in tropical cyclone activity over the past 30 years. Since the tropical sea surface temperature (SST) warming also leads to the response of atmospheric circulation, which is not solely determined by the local SST warming, this study suggests that it is better to take the tropical cyclone activities in the North Atlantic (NA), western North Pacific (WNP) and eastern North Pacific (ENP) basins as a whole when searching for the influence of the global-scale SST warming on tropical cyclone intensity. Over the past 30 years, as the tropical SST increased by about 0.5 C, the linear trends indicate 6%, 16% and 15% increases in the overall average intensity and lifetime and the annual frequency. Our analysis shows that the increased annual destructiveness of tropical cyclones reported by Emanuel(2005) resulted mainly from the increases in the average lifetime and annual frequency in the NA basin and from the increases in the average intensity and lifetime in the WNP basin, while the annual destructiveness in the ENP basin generally decreased over the past 30 years. The changes in the proportion of intense tropical cyclones reported by Webster et a1 (2005) were due mainly to the fact that increasing tropical cyclones took the tracks that favor for the development of intense tropical cyclones in the NA and WNP basins over the past 30 years. The dynamic influence associated with the tropical SST warming can lead to the impact of global warming on tropical cyclone intensity that may be very

  1. A 30 year High -Spatial Resolution Cloud Climatology from NOAA's PATMOS-x Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidinger, A. K.; Walther, A.; Foster, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Pathfinder Atmospheres Extended (PATMOS-x) project at NOAA has recently developed a new higher spatial resolution data set derived from over 30 years of data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The PATMOS-x data is now online and has been submitted into the GEWEX cloud climatology assessment library of cloud climate data sets. This data also benefits from a recent recalibration of the solar reflectance channels. This work will present our latest analysis and provide our insights into the strengths and limitations of this new data. Comparisons with GEWEX data sets and to the recently generated AVHRR cloud climatology from EUMETSAT will be shown.

  2. The biochemistry and nutrition group: 30 years of research in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Levy Benshimol, A

    1996-12-01

    The most relevant results of 30 years of research from the Group of Biochemistry and Nutrition are presented. Research was focused mainly around the identification and detection of the heatlabile toxic factors present in legume seeds of human consumption, namely protease inhibitors and lectins with special emphasis on their isolation, molecular characterization, mechanistic and nutritional relevance of both protein groups. The antinutritional effect of the polyphenols, thermolabile compounds present in colored seeds, has also been studied as well as the impact of seed complex carbohydrates on the digestive process. PMID:9137631

  3. Seismic recurrence intervals and timing of aseismic subduction inferred from emerged corals and reefs of the Central Vanuatu (New Hebrides) Frontal Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Frederick W.; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Wasserburg, G. J.; Frohlich, Cliff

    1990-01-01

    The recognition and dating of corals that have been killed by tectonic uplift allow us to date paleoseismic uplifts in the Vanuatu island arc. We recognize corals that record paleouplifts by their similarity to those known to have died during contemporary sudden uplifts and date them (1) by counting annual coral growth bands (only if part of the coral is alive at the time of collection) or (2) by newly developed techniques for obtaining 230Th ages by mass spectrometry. The mass spectrometric method produces isotopic ages with precisions of ±3 to ±9 years (2σ) in the 0-1000 years B.P. time range. The 230Th ages in this time range appear to be accurate. Samples whose ages are known by counting coral growth bands give 230Th ages that are indistinguishable from their growth band ages. By dividing the average increment of uplift for the latest Holocene uplifts by the mean Holocene uplift rate, we can estimate average seismic uplift recurrence intervals for the past 6000 years. The results for each of four central Vanuatu arc segments are (1) North Santo emerged 1.2 m in 1866 A.D. and 0.6 m 107 years later in 1973 A.D. The average coseismic uplift of 0.9 m and mean Holocene uplift rate of 4.3 mm yr-1 suggest a longer recurrence interval of 212 years. (2) South Santo emerged 0.29 m in 1946 and 0.26 m 19 years later in 1965, including the related 1971 event. Here the mean Holocene uplift rate is 5.5 mm yr-1. The uplift data suggest a longer average recurrence interval of about 51 years. (3) North Malekula emerged 1.23 m near 1729 A. D. and 1.05 m 236 years later in 1965. The mean Holocene uplift rate of 2.7 mm yr-1 and mean coseismic uplift of 1.14 m for dated events suggest a longer recurrence interval of 422 years. (4) Part of southernmost Malekula has uplifted continuously or episodically by about 0.35 m from about 1957 until at least mid-1983 A.D. The maximum uplift of 2.7 mm yr-1 occurs near a nest of small earthquakes. Both the earthquakes and rapid uplift suggest

  4. Evaluation of Geochemical Proxies Preserved in the Sapropel Record from the Eastern Mediterranean Within the Pliocene-Holocene Time Interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Torres, D.; Martinez-Ruiz, F.; Paytan, A.; Kastner, M.

    2004-12-01

    Considerable research has been devoted during the last decade to productivity and oxygenation proxies of sapropel deposition in the Mediterranean. Pliocene-Holocene sapropel layers from Mediterranean basins are considered to be an important key to assess the role of productivity vs. anoxia in organic matter (OM) accumulation. Evaluation of proxy preservation within these sediments is therefore crucial to further investigate forcing mechanism for OM deposition. With this aim, diverse layers from Pliocene, Pleistocene and Holocene sediments recovered at ODP Site 964 in the eastern Mediterranean have been analyzed. Ba excess is recognized as a reliable proxy for enhanced productivity because it derives from barite crystals originated in the water column. Additionally, their S isotope composition revealed that barite is an authigenic phase (Paytan et al., 2004). This proxy also revealed of exceptional importance in Mediterranean basins because some sapropels have been partially or totally oxidized. Assessment of productivity variations cannot be based therefore on the OM record which is strongly subjected to diagenetic preservation. Certain redox-sensitive elements as Mn were also subjected to remobilization during oxidation precipitating upon encountering the oxidation front. However some well preserved trace-element ratios, used as oxygenation proxies, are still recognized. These consistently point to a relatively oxic environment during the deposition of Quaternary sapropels while Pliocene sapropels tend to be characterized by lower oxygen conditions. Ba excess also indicates that barite accumulation rates within sapropels decreased through time, being considerable higher during the Pliocene. Thus, elevated primary export production could have enhanced oxygen consumption leading to lower oxygen levels at this time. Paytan, A., F. Martinez-Ruiz, M. Eagle, A. Ivy, and S.D. Wankel (2004) Using sulfur isotopes in barite to elucidate the origin of high organic matter

  5. Ventriculo-atrial time interval measured on M mode echocardiography: a determining element in diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of fetal supraventricular tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Jaeggi, E; Fouron, J; Fournier, A; van Doesburg, N; Drblik, S; Proulx, F

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To determine whether M mode echocardiography can differentiate fetal supraventricular tachycardia according to the ventriculo-atrial (VA) time interval, and if the resulting division into short and long VA intervals holds any relation with clinical presentation, management, and fetal outcome.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Subjects—23 fetuses with supraventricular tachycardia.
Main outcome measures—A systematic review of the M mode echocardiograms (for VA and atrioventricular (AV) interval measurements), clinical profile, and final outcome.
Results—19 fetuses (82.6%) had supraventricular tachycardia of the short VA type (mean (SD) VA/AV ratio 0.34 (0.16); heart rate 231 (29) beats/min). Tachycardia was sustained in six and intermittent in 13. Hydrops was present in three (15.7%). Digoxin, the first drug given in 14, failed to control tachycardia in five. Three of these then received sotalol and converted to sinus rhythm. All fetuses of this group survived. Postnatally, supraventricular tachycardia recurred in three, two having Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Four fetuses (17.4%) had long VA tachycardia (VA/AV ratio 3.89 (0.82); heart rate 226 (10) beats/min). Initial treatment with digoxin was ineffective in all, but sotalol was effective in two. Heart failure caused fetal death in one and premature delivery in one. All three surviving fetuses had recurrences of supraventricular tachycardia after birth: two had the permanent form of junctional reciprocating tachycardia and one had atrial ectopic tachycardia.
Conclusions—Careful measurement of ventriculo-atrial intervals on fetal M mode echocardiography can be used to distinguish short from long VA supraventricular tachycardia and may be helpful in optimising management. Digoxin, when indicated, may remain the drug of choice in the short VA type but appears ineffective in the long VA type.

 Keywords: fetus;  supraventricular tachycardia;  ventriculo-atrial interval

  6. Terrestrial cosmogenic 3He: where are we 30 years after its discovery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blard, Pierre-Henri; Pik, Raphaël; Farley, Kenneth A.; Lavé, Jérôme; Marrocchi, Yves

    2016-04-01

    It is now 30 years since cosmogenic 3He has been detected for the first time in a terrestrial sample (Kurz, 1986). 3He is now a widely used geochemical tool in many fields of Earth sciences: volcanology, tectonics, paleoclimatology. 3He has the advantage to have a high "production rate" to "detection limit" ratio, allowing surfaces as young as hundred of years to be dated. Although its nuclear stability implies several limitations, it moreover represents a useful alternative to 10Be in mafic environments. This contribution is a review of the progresses that have been accomplished since this discovery, and discuss strategies to improve both the accuracy and the precision of this geochronometer. 1) Measurement of cosmogenic 3He Correction of magmatic 3He. To estimate the non-cosmogenic magmatic 3He, Kurz (1986) invented a two steps method involving crushing of phenocrysts (to analyze the isotopic ratio of the magmatic component), followed by a subsequent melting of the sample, to extract the remaining components, including the cosmogenic 3He: 3Hec = 3Hemelt ‑4Hemelt x (3He/4He)magmatic (1) Several studies suggested that the preliminary crushing may induce a loss of cosmogenic 3He (Hilton et al., 1993; Yokochi et al., 2005; Blard et al., 2006), implying an underestimate of the cosmogenic 3He measurement. However, subsequent work did not replicate these observations (Blard et al., 2008; Goerhing et al., 2010), suggesting an influence of the used apparatus. An isochron method (by directly melting several phenocrysts aliquots) is an alternative to avoid the preliminary crushing step (Blard and Pik, 2008). Atmospheric contamination. Protin et al. (in press) provides robust evidences for a large and irreversible contamination of atmospheric helium on silicate surfaces. This unexpected behavior may reconcile the contrasted observations about the amplitude of crushing loss. This undesirable atmospheric contamination is negligible if grain fractions smaller than 150 mm are

  7. A comparative analysis of spectral exponent estimation techniques for 1/fβ processes with applications to the analysis of stride interval time series

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Alexander; Brach, Jennifer S.; Perera, Subashan; Sejdić, Ervin

    2013-01-01

    Background The time evolution and complex interactions of many nonlinear systems, such as in the human body, result in fractal types of parameter outcomes that exhibit self similarity over long time scales by a power law in the frequency spectrum S(f) = 1/fβ. The scaling exponent β is thus often interpreted as a “biomarker” of relative health and decline. New Method This paper presents a thorough comparative numerical analysis of fractal characterization techniques with specific consideration given to experimentally measured gait stride interval time series. The ideal fractal signals generated in the numerical analysis are constrained under varying lengths and biases indicative of a range of physiologically conceivable fractal signals. This analysis is to complement previous investigations of fractal characteristics in healthy and pathological gait stride interval time series, with which this study is compared. Results The results of our analysis showed that the averaged wavelet coefficient method consistently yielded the most accurate results. Comparison with Existing Methods: Class dependent methods proved to be unsuitable for physiological time series. Detrended fluctuation analysis as most prevailing method in the literature exhibited large estimation variances. Conclusions The comparative numerical analysis and experimental applications provide a thorough basis for determining an appropriate and robust method for measuring and comparing a physiologically meaningful biomarker, the spectral index β. In consideration of the constraints of application, we note the significant drawbacks of detrended fluctuation analysis and conclude that the averaged wavelet coefficient method can provide reasonable consistency and accuracy for characterizing these fractal time series. PMID:24200509

  8. Systolic time intervals derived from electrocardiographic gated intra-renal artery Doppler waveform associated with left ventricular systolic function

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Hsien; Hsu, Po-Chao; Chu, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Szu-Chia; Lee, Hung-Hao; Lee, Meng-Kuang; Lee, Chee-Siong; Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung; Su, Ho-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the correlation between renal and cardiac STIs, including pre-ejection period (PEP), ejection time (ET), and PEP/ET, and to assess the diagnostic values of renal STIs in predicting left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50%. The cross sectional observation study enrolled 230 participants. The renal STIs, including renal PEP (rPEP), renal ET (rET), and rPEP/rET, were measured from electrocardiographic gated renal Doppler ultrasound and cardiac PEP, ET, and PEP/ET were measured from echocardiography. Renal STIs were correlated with cardiac STIs (all P < 0.001). Multivariate analyses showed that rPEP/rET was independently associated with LVEF (unstandardized coefficient β = −0.116, P = 0.046) and LVEF <50% (odds ratio = 2.145, per 0.11 increase; P = 0.017). The areas under the curve for rPEP, 1/rET, and rPEP/rET in predicting LVEF <50% were 0.773, 0.764, and 0.821, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of rPEP/rET > 0.46 in prediction of LVEF <50% were 76.7% and 78.1%, respectively. Our study demonstrated that the novel parameters of renal STIs were significantly associated with cardiac STIs. However, the clinical application of renal STIs needs to be investigated in future studies. PMID:27553182

  9. Chlorinated, brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in African Penguin eggs: 30 years since the previous assessment.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Govender, Danny; Underhill, Les; Polder, Anuschka

    2015-05-01

    The African Penguin population has drastically declined over the last 100 years. Changes in food availability due to over-fishing and other oceanographic changes seem to be major causes. However, it has also been 30 years since organic pollutants as a potential factor have been assessed. We analysed penguin eggs collected in 2011 and 2012 from two breeding colonies 640 km apart: Robben Island near Cape Town on the Atlantic Ocean coast, and Bird Island near Port Elizabeth on the Indian Ocean coast of South Africa. We quantified organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Compared to 30 years ago, concentrations of ΣDDT have remained about the same or slightly lower, while ΣPCBs declined almost four-fold. The use of DDT in malaria control is unlikely to have contributed. PFCs were detected in all eggs. Indications (non-significant) of eggshell thinning associated with ΣDDT and ΣPCB was found. It seems therefore that the concentrations of measured organic pollutants the African Penguin eggs are not contributing directly to its current demise, but concerns remain about thinner shells and desiccation. Effects of combinations of compounds and newer compounds cannot be excluded, as well as more subtle effects on reproduction, development, and behaviour. PMID:25613517

  10. Technical Note: 30 years of HIRS data of upper tropospheric humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierens, K.; Eleftheratos, K.; Shi, L.

    2014-07-01

    We use 30 years of intercalibrated HIRS (High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder) data to produce a 30-year data set of upper tropospheric humidity with respect to ice (UTHi). Since the required brightness temperatures (channels 12 and 6, T12 and T6) are intercalibrated to different versions of the HIRS sensors (HIRS/2 and HIRS/4) it is necessary to convert the channel 6 brightness temperatures which are intercalibrated to HIRS/4 into equivalent brightness temperatures intercalibrated to HIRS/2, which is achieved using a linear regression. Using the new regression coefficients we produce daily files of UTHi, T12 and T6, for each NOAA satellite and METOP-A (Meteorological Operational Satellite Programme), which carry the HIRS instrument. From this we calculate daily and monthly means in 2.5° × 2.5° resolution for the northern midlatitude zone 30-60° N. As a first application we calculate decadal means of UTHi and the brightness temperatures for the two decades 1980-1989 and 2000-2009. We find that the humidity mainly increased from the 1980s to the 2000s and that this increase is highly statistically significant in large regions of the considered midlatitude belt. The main reason for this result and its statistical significance is the corresponding increase of the T12 variance. Changes of the mean brightness temperatures are less significant.

  11. Technical Note: 30 years of HIRS data of upper tropospheric humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierens, K.; Eleftheratos, K.; Shi, L.

    2014-03-01

    We use 30 years of intercalibrated HIRS data to produce a 30 year data set of upper tropospheric humidity with respect to ice (UTHi). Since the required brightness temperatures (channels 12 and 6, T12 and T6) are intercalibrated to different versions of the HIRS sensors (HIRS/2 and HIRS/4) it is necessary to convert the channel 6 brightness temperatures which are intercalibrated to HIRS/4 into equivalent brightness temperatures intercalibrated to HIRS/2, which is achieved using a linear regression. Using the new regression coefficients we produce daily files of UTHi, T12 and T6, for each NOAA satellite and METOP-A, which carry the HIRS instrument. From this we calculate daily and monthly means in 2.5° × 2.5° resolution for the northern mid-latitude zone 30 to 60° N. As a first application we calculate decadal means of UTHi and the brightness temperatures for the two decades 1980-1989 and 2000-2009. We find that the humidity mainly increased from the 1980s to the 2000s and that this increase is highly statistically significant in large regions of the considered mid-latitude belt. The main reason for this result and its statistical significance is the corresponding increase of the T12 variance. Changes of the mean brightness temperatures are less significant.

  12. 30-Year Satellite Record Reveals Contrasting Arctic and Antarctic Decadal Sea Ice Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Parkinson, C. L.; Vinnikov, K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    A 30-year satellite record of sea ice extents derived mostly from satellite microwave radiometer observations reveals that the Arctic sea ice extent decreased by 0.30+0.03 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per 10 yr from 1972 through 2002, but by 0.36 plus or minus 0.05 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per 10yr from 1979 through 2002, indicating an acceleration of 20% in the rate of decrease. In contrast, the Antarctic sea ice extent decreased dramatically over the period 1973-1977, then gradually increased. Over the full 30-year period, the Antarctic ice extent decreased by 0.15 plus or minus 0.08 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per 10 yr. The trend reversal is attributed to a large positive anomaly in Antarctic sea ice extent in the early 1970's, an anomaly that apparently began in the late 1960's, as observed in early visible and infrared satellite images.

  13. Trends in maternal deaths from epilepsy in the United Kingdom: a 30-year retrospective review

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Objective Neurological diseases remain the second most common cause of maternal mortality from indirect causes, according to the last United Kingdom confidential enquiry into maternal death. The maternal mortality rate from epilepsy is reported as 0.61 per 100,000 maternities. The aim of this study was to analyse the trends and causes of maternal death from epilepsy in the UK over the last 30 years. Information on sub-standard care associated with fatalities was also consolidated to inform guidance and clinical care by obstetricians and physicians caring for pregnant women with epilepsy. Study design A retrospective review of 10 triennial confidential enquiry into maternal death reports (1979–2008) was performed, encompassing 21,514,457 maternities. Late and coincidental deaths were not included in the analyses. Results Between 1979 and 2008, there were 92 maternal deaths from epilepsy. The proportion of total maternal deaths from epilepsy over 30 years is 3.7% (95% CI 3.0–4.5), which showed an increasing trend. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy remains the single greatest cause of maternal death from epilepsy followed by aspiration of gastric contents during seizures and drowning during bathing. Conclusion All women with epilepsy should be looked after by specialist combined obstetric and medical or neurological teams in pregnancy to improve maternal and fetal outcomes.

  14. What Can We Learn About Glaciers and Ice Sheets From 30 Years of Landsat Imagery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, A. S.; Scambos, T.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Moholdt, G.; Nilsson, J.

    2015-12-01

    Glacier and ice sheets are known to be rapidly changing and currently account for two thirds of observed sea level rise. Attributing the causes of the rapid decline in land ice requires separation of mass change processes, i.e. accumulation of precipitation, meltwater runoff, and solid ice discharge. Here we examine a 30 year record of Landsat imagery to determine trends in glacier velocity at a global scale in an attempt to identify anomalies in glacier flow that are contributing to changes in land ice mass. The Landsat archive represents a treasure trove of information with hundreds of thousands of images acquired over glaciers and ice sheets during the past 30 years. Gleaning useful and consistent surface displacement information from a multiple sensor archive that is heavily contaminated by cloud, saturated images, poorly resolved sensor geometry, and data gaps has proved challenging. Temporal stacking of displacement fields (Dehecq et al., 2015) and correcting for unresolved topography (Roseanau et al., 2012) have been shown to greatly improve derived velocities. Here we present results from a global processing of the complete Landsat archive for information on glacier surface displacements. We highlight patterns of coherent regional change as well as well as rapid basin-scale changes in glacier flow.

  15. Lessons from 30 years' data of Korean end-stage renal disease registry, 1985-2015.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dong-Chan; Yun, Sung Ro; Lee, Seoung Woo; Han, Sang Woong; Kim, Won; Park, Jongha; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2015-09-01

    The Korean Society of Nephrology (KSN) launched a nationwide official survey program about dialysis therapy in 1985. Nowadays, the accumulated data for 30 years by this "Insan Prof. Min Memorial end-stage renal disease (ESRD) Registry" program have been providing the essential information for dialysis clinical practice, academic nephrology research, and health management policy. We reviewed 30 years of data to identify important changes and implications for the future improvement of dialysis therapy in Korea. Hemodialysis patients, especially diabetics and elderly patients have increased in number very rapidly during recent years in Korea. The Korean prevalence rate of ESRD patients was about 70% of the United States and about 50% of Japan according to the international comparisons in the annual data report of United States Renal Data System. The blood pressure control, anemia control, and dialysis adequacy have continuously improved year by year. The importance of calcium and phosphorus control has also been increasing because of the increase in long-term dialysis patients. In addition, chronic dialysis complications should be closely monitored and dialysis modifications, such as hemodiafiltration therapy, might be considered. Because of the increase of private clinics and nursing hospitals in dialysis practice, the role of dialysis specialists and continuing education are thought to be essential. For strict cost-effective dialysis control of increasing elderly, diabetic, and long-term dialysis patients, the KSN ESRD patient registration should be run by the KSN and health ministry in cooperation, in which the dialysis fee reimbursement should be accompanied. PMID:26484037

  16. Protective effects of quercetin on cadmium fluoride induced oxidative stress at different intervals of time in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Zargar, Seema; Siddiqi, Nikhat Jamal; Al Daihan, Sooad Khalaf; Wani, Tanveer A

    2015-01-01

    Quercetin, a member of the flavonoid family is a major antioxidant acquired in humans by food consumption, while Cadmium fluoride (CdF2) is one of the naturally occurring chemicals having adverse effects. The protective effect of quercetin on time dependent oxidative damage induced in mice liver by CdF2 was studied in the following groups of mice consisting of six mice each: (i) control group; (ii) mice treated with single i.p injection of 2 mg/kg bw CdF2 for 24 h; (iii) mice treated with single i.p injection of 2 mg/kg bw CdF2 for 48 h; (iv) mice treated with single i.p injection of quercetin (100 mg/kg bw); (v) mice treated with i.p injection of 100 mg/kg bw of quercetin followed by i.p injection of CdF2 (2 mg/kg bw) for 24 h; and (vi) mice treated with i.p injection of 100mg/kg bw of quercetin followed by CdF2 (2 mg/kg bw) for 48 h. Administration of quercetin two hours before CdF2 significantly reduced the biochemical alterations in reduced glutathione, ascorbic acid, lipid peroxidation, super oxide dismutase, catalase and total protein (p<0.05). Histopathology also showed the protective effect of quercetin. The livers treated with CdF2 were atrophic, markedly nodular, inflamed and necrotic. However, this effect was reduced to a minimum in the mice pre-treated for two hours with quercetin. PMID:25856559

  17. Effect of addition of lycopene to calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine as intracanal medicament on fracture resistance of radicular dentin at two different time intervals: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Madhusudhana, Koppolu; Archanagupta, Kasamsetty; Suneelkumar, Chinni; Lavanya, Anumula; Deepthi, Mandava

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long-term use of intracanal medicaments such as calcium hydroxide (CH) reduces the fracture resistance of dentin. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the fracture resistance of radicular dentin on long-term use of CH, chlorhexidine (CHX) with lycopene (LP). Aim: To compare the fracture resistance of radicular dentin when intracanal medicaments such as CH, CHX with LP were used for 1-week and 1-month time interval. Settings and Design: Sixty single-rooted extracted human permanent premolars were collected, and complete instrumentation was done. Samples were divided into three groups based on intracanal medicament used. Materials and Methods: Group 1 - no medicament was placed (CON), group 2 - mixture of 1.5 g of CH and 1 ml of 2% CHX (CHCHX), group 3 - mixture of 1.5 g of CH, 1 ml of CHX and 1 ml of 5% LP solution (CHCHXLP). After storage period of each group for 1-week and 1-month, middle 8 mm root cylinder was sectioned and tested for fracture resistance. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed using paired t-test. Results: At 1-month time interval, there was a statistically significant difference in fracture resistance between CHCHX and CHCHXLP groups. Conclusion: Addition of LP has not decreased the fracture resistance of radicular dentin after 1-month. PMID:26069405

  18. The Efficacy and Safety of Insulin Degludec Given in Variable Once-Daily Dosing Intervals Compared With Insulin Glargine and Insulin Degludec Dosed at the Same Time Daily

    PubMed Central

    Meneghini, Luigi; Atkin, Stephen L.; Gough, Stephen C.L.; Raz, Itamar; Blonde, Lawrence; Shestakova, Marina; Bain, Stephen; Johansen, Thue; Begtrup, Kamilla; Birkeland, Kåre I.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The requirement to inject current basal insulin analogs at a fixed time each day may complicate adherence and compromise glycemic control. This trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of varying the daily injection time of insulin degludec (IDeg), an ultra-long-acting basal insulin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This 26-week, open-label, treat-to-target trial enrolled adults (≥18 years) with type 2 diabetes who were either insulin naïve and receiving oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) (HbA1c = 7–11%) or previously on basal insulin ± OAD(s) (HbA1c = 7–10%). Participants were randomized to 1) once-daily (OD) IDeg in a prespecified dosing schedule, creating 8–40-h intervals between injections (IDeg OD Flex; n = 229); 2) once-daily IDeg at the main evening meal (IDeg OD; n = 228); or 3) once-daily insulin glargine at the same time each day (IGlar OD; n = 230). The primary outcome was noninferiority of IDeg OD Flex to IGlar OD in HbA1c reduction after 26 weeks. RESULTS After 26 weeks, IDeg OD Flex, IDeg OD, and IGlar OD improved HbA1c by 1.28, 1.07, and 1.26% points, respectively (estimated treatment difference [IDeg OD Flex − IGlar OD]: 0.04% points [–0.12 to 0.20], confirming noninferiority). No statistically significant differences in overall or nocturnal hypoglycemia were found between IDeg OD Flex and IGlar OD. Comparable glycemic control and rates of hypoglycemia were seen with IDeg OD Flex and IDeg OD. Adverse event profiles were similar across groups. CONCLUSIONS The use of extreme dosing intervals of 8–40 h demonstrates that the daily injection time of IDeg can be varied without compromising glycemic control or safety. PMID:23340894

  19. 30-year changes in the nitrogen inputs to the Yangtze River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qinxue; Koshikawa, Hiroshi; Liu, Chen; Otsubo, Kuninori

    2014-11-01

    To understand both spatial and temporal changes in nitrogen inputs to the Yangtze River Basin (YRB), we collected decadal statistical data for 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010 at the county level and the annual statistical data for the period 1980-2010 at the provincial level of China. Based on these datasets, we estimated the nitrogen inputs, including the atmospheric deposition, synthetic N fertilizer, biological N fixation and recycling reactive N inputs, such as N from human waste and animal excrement, crop residue recycled as manure, and N emission from burning crop residue. The results showed that, geographically, the variation of the total amount of N input during the last 30 years (δN = N2010 - N1980) has increased about 0-50 kg ha-1 over most of the area of the YRB. Moreover, it has increased dramatically by about 50-300 kg ha-1 in the Sichuan Basin, the Han River Basin, the Poyang and Dongting lake basins, and the Yangtze Delta as well. Temporally, the total amount of N inputs to the whole YRB was approximately 16.4 Tg N in 2010, which was a 2.0-fold increase over 1980. It increased dramatically in the 1990s and then stabilized at a high level in the 2000s. The major N inputs were human and animal wastes as well as synthetic fertilizers, but they varied regionally. Animal waste was the major input to the water source regions, and its contribution percentage gradually decreased from upper to lower reaches. In contrast, the contribution of N fertilizer increased from upper to lower reaches, and became the major input to the middle and lower reaches. The total N inputs changed slightly in the upper reaches, but increased largely in the middle reaches in the last 30 years. However, in the lower reaches, it had increased remarkably before 2000, and then tended to decrease in the last decade. Finally, the atmospheric N deposition over the basin increased continuously in the last 30 years.

  20. Histopathologic evaluation of postmortem autolytic changes in bluegill (Lepomis macrohirus) and crappie (Pomoxis anularis) at varied time intervals and storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    George, Jami; Van Wettere, Arnaud J; Michaels, Blayk B; Crain, Debbi; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2016-01-01

    Information is lacking on preserving fish carcasses to minimize postmortem autolysis artifacts when a necropsy cannot be performed immediately. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively identify and score histologic postmortem changes in two species of freshwater fish (bluegill-Lepomis macrochirus; crappie-Pomoxis annularis), at varied time intervals and storage temperatures, to assess the histologic quality of collected samples. A pooled sample of 36 mix sex individuals of healthy bluegill and crappie were euthanized, stored either at room temperature, refrigerated at 4 °C, or frozen at -20 °C, and then necropsied at 0, 4, 24, and 48 h intervals. Histologic specimens were evaluated by light microscopy. Data showed that immediate harvesting of fresh samples provides the best quality and refrigeration would be the preferred method of storage if sample collection had to be delayed for up to 24 h. When sample collection must be delayed more than 24 h, the preferred method of storage to minimize autolysis artifacts is freezing if evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract is most important, or refrigeration if gill histology is most important. The gill arch, intestinal tract, followed by the liver and kidney were the most sensitive organs to autolysis. PMID:27114885

  1. Histopathologic evaluation of postmortem autolytic changes in bluegill (Lepomis macrohirus) and crappie (Pomoxis anularis) at varied time intervals and storage temperatures

    PubMed Central

    George, Jami; Van Wettere, Arnaud J.; Michaels, Blayk B.; Crain, Debbi

    2016-01-01

    Information is lacking on preserving fish carcasses to minimize postmortem autolysis artifacts when a necropsy cannot be performed immediately. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively identify and score histologic postmortem changes in two species of freshwater fish (bluegill—Lepomis macrochirus; crappie—Pomoxis annularis), at varied time intervals and storage temperatures, to assess the histologic quality of collected samples. A pooled sample of 36 mix sex individuals of healthy bluegill and crappie were euthanized, stored either at room temperature, refrigerated at 4 °C, or frozen at −20 °C, and then necropsied at 0, 4, 24, and 48 h intervals. Histologic specimens were evaluated by light microscopy. Data showed that immediate harvesting of fresh samples provides the best quality and refrigeration would be the preferred method of storage if sample collection had to be delayed for up to 24 h. When sample collection must be delayed more than 24 h, the preferred method of storage to minimize autolysis artifacts is freezing if evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract is most important, or refrigeration if gill histology is most important. The gill arch, intestinal tract, followed by the liver and kidney were the most sensitive organs to autolysis. PMID:27114885

  2. Epidemiological aspects of beryllium-induced nonmalignant lung disease: a 30-year update

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenbud, M.; Lisson, J.

    1983-03-01

    The unusual epidemiology of beryllium disease observed in the early studies of beryllium disease led in 1951 to the hypothesis that the chronic form of the disease is the result of an acquired sensitization to beryllium or its compounds. After 30 years, the role of sensitization has been confirmed in a number of laboratory and clinical studies. The unusual epidemiological features first summarized by Sterner and Eisenbud continue to be evident. The early studies also led to formulation of standards that have resulted in effective control of both the acute and chronic pulmonary forms of beryllium disease. No case of acute chemical pneumonitis has been reported among beryllium workers in about 15 years, and the number of chronic cases has diminished greatly despite a marked increase in the use of beryllium.

  3. Analysis of 30 Years Sea Surface Elevation (sse) Data Obtained From A Global Ocean Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, M.

    In this presentation the sea surface elevation (SSE) as obtained from a global OGCM will be analysed. The model used is the Hamburg LSG model with a 2 degree hori- zontal resolution, 23 layers in the vertical and a 10 day timestep. The model has a free surface and includes the thermo- and halosteric effects. It is integrated for 50 years forced by monthly NCEP reanalyzes data (1950-1999). The last 30 years of model output are analyzed on regional to global scale to judge the role of the different contributions to the interannual sea level variations as there are: horizontal redistribution of volume (mass), surface freshwater flux (precipitaion- evaporation) and steric effects. On the global scale the surface freshwater flux can clearly be identified as the main contributor, while on regional to local scale it is the steric effect.

  4. 30-Year Satellite Record Reveals Accelerated Arctic Sea Ice Loss, Antarctic Sea Ice Trend Reversal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.; Parkinson, C. L.; Vinnikov, K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Arctic sea ice extent decreased by 0.30 plus or minus 0.03 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per decade from 1972 through 2002, but decreased by 0.36 plus or minus 0.05 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per decade from 1979 through 2002, indicating an acceleration of 20% in the rate of decrease. In contrast to the Arctic, the Antarctic sea ice extent decreased dramatically over the period 1973-1977, then gradually increased, with an overall 30-year trend of -0.15 plus or minus 0.08 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per 10yr. The trend reversal is attributed to a large positive anomaly in Antarctic sea ice extent observed in the early 1970's.

  5. Cockroach allergy and asthma in a 30-year-old man.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, G T; Gold, D R

    1999-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has implicated allergens derived from cockroaches as an important environmental factor that may aggravate asthma in sensitized persons. We present the case of a 30-year-old man with asthma and a cockroach allergy. Allergy skin testing confirmed hypersensitivity to cockroach extract, and a home visit revealed visual evidence of infestation and the presence of Bla g 1 German cockroach allergen in vacuumed dust. As is typical of patients with a cockroach allergy and asthma, multiple factors in addition to cockroach allergen appeared to aggravate the patient's asthma. A multimodality therapeutic regimen, which included medications as well as cleaning of the home, integrated pest management, and professional application of chemical controls, resulted in substantial clinical improvement. The pathophysiology, epidemiology, and clinical features of cockroach-allergic asthma are reviewed, and an approach to diagnosis and management is suggested. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10064555

  6. Anorexia Nervosa: The Course of 15 Patients Treated From 20 to 30 Years Previously

    PubMed Central

    Farquharson, R. F.; Hyland, H. H.

    1966-01-01

    A follow-up study, after 20 to 30 years, of 15 patients with anorexia nervosa, formerly treated by the authors, revealed that only one patient failed to recover from the initial illness, and she ultimately became permanently incapacitated. Three patients have had neurotic symptoms periodically during the years following recovery, and one other became very thin in later life, but these four have been able to carry on fairly adequately for the most part. The remaining 10 patients have lived useful, well-adjusted lives, free of symptoms over the years. This study shows that despite the apparently severe emotional disturbances reflected in the marked physical changes that take place in young people suffering from this syndrome, a deep-rooted psychoneurotic or psychotic predisposition does not necessarily exist; the majority of the patients in this series recovered and remained well after relatively simple treatment. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:5902703

  7. Committed retreat of Smith, Pope, and Kohler Glaciers over the next 30 years inferred by transient model calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, D. N.; Heimbach, P.; Joughin, I.; Smith, B.

    2015-12-01

    A glacial flow model of Smith, Pope and Kohler Glaciers is calibrated by means of control methods against time varying, annually resolved observations of ice height and velocities, covering the period 2002 to 2011. The inversion - termed "transient calibration" - produces an optimal set of time-mean, spatially varying parameters together with a time-evolving state that accounts for the transient nature of observations and the model dynamics. Serving as an optimal initial condition, the estimated state for 2011 is used, with no additional forcing, for predicting grounded ice volume loss and grounding line retreat over the ensuing 30 years. The transiently calibrated model predicts a near-steady loss of grounded ice volume of approximately 21 km3 a-1 over this period, as well as loss of 33 km2 a-1 grounded area. We contrast this prediction with one obtained following a commonly used "snapshot" or steady-state inversion, which does not consider time dependence and assumes all observations to be contemporaneous. Transient calibration is shown to achieve a better fit with observations of thinning and grounding line retreat histories, and yields a quantitatively different projection with respect to ice volume loss and ungrounding. Sensitivity studies suggest large near-future levels of unforced, i.e., committed sea level contribution from these ice streams under reasonable assumptions regarding uncertainties of the unknown parameters.

  8. Alcohol consumption and risk of gastric cancer: a cohort study of men in Kaunas, Lithuania, with up to 30 years follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in the world. Epidemiological findings on alcohol use in relation to gastric cancer remain controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of alcohol consumption on the risk of gastric cancer. Methods The association between alcohol intake and the risk of gastric cancer was examined in a population-based cohort of 7,150 men in Kaunas, Lithuania, who were enrolled during 1972–1974 or 1976–1980. After up to 30 years of follow-up, 185 gastric cancer cases were identified. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The attained age was used as a time-scale. Results After adjustment for smoking, education level and body mass index, the HR of gastric cancer was 2.00 (95% CI: 1.04–3.82) for the highest alcohol consumption frequency (2–7 times per week) compared with occasional drinking (a few times per year) and 1.90 (95% CI: 1.13–3.18) for ≥100.0 g ethanol/week versus 0.1–9.9 g ethanol/week. A stronger effect of alcohol consumption on gastric cancer risk was observed during the second half of the study (1993–2008). In the analysis of gastric cancer risk by alcoholic beverage type, all beverages were included simultaneously in the model. The multivariate HR for men who consumed ≥0.5 litre of wine per occasion (compared with those who consumed <0.5 litre) was 2.95 (95% CI: 1.30–6.68). Higher consumption of beer or vodka was not statistically significantly associated with gastric cancer risk. After adjustment for smoking, education level, body mass index and ethanol, we found no excess risk of gastric cancer in association with total acetaldehyde intake. Conclusions This study supports a link between alcohol consumption (primarily from ethanol) and the development of gastric cancer in the Lithuanian population. Although an association with heavy wine consumption was

  9. Further improved stability criteria for uncertain T-S fuzzy systems with interval time-varying delay by delay-partitioning approach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Luo, Wenpin; Cheng, Jun; Wang, Yonghu

    2015-09-01

    This paper focuses on further improved stability criteria for uncertain T-S fuzzy systems with interval time-varying delay by a delay-partitioning approach. A modified augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) is established by partitioning the delay in all integral terms. Then some tighter bounding inequalities, i.e., Peng-Park׳s integral inequality (reciprocally convex approach) and the Free-Matrix-Based integral inequality (which yields less conservative stability criteria than the use of Wirtinger-based inequality does) are introduced to reduce the enlargement in bounding the derivative of LKF as much as possible, therefore, less conservative results can be expected in terms of es and LMIs. Finally, a numerical example is included to show that the proposed methods are less conservative than existing ones. PMID:26073644

  10. Effect of Different Obturation Materials on Residual Antimicrobial Activity of 2% Chlorhexidine in Dentin at Different Time Intervals: An Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Bolhari, Behnam; Dehghan, Somayyeh; Sharifian, Mohammad Reza; Bahador, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gutta percha/AH26 and Resilon/RealSeal SE on residual antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine (CHX) in human root dentin and suggest the best filling material when CHX is used as final irrigant. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and forty-four single-rooted human teeth were selected for this study. Canals were instrumented to the apical size #35. Smear layer was removed using 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA and then 108 teeth were irrigated with 2% CHX and randomly divided into three groups of gutta percha/AH26, Resilon/RealSeal SE and positive controls. Each group was divided into three subgroups for different time intervals (one, three and six weeks). Thirty-six teeth, as negative controls, were irrigated with saline and obturated with gutta percha/AH26 and Resilon/RealSeal SE. Dentin powder was prepared at the afore-mentioned intervals. After exposure to Enterococcus faecalis for 24 hours, colony forming units (CFUs) were counted and residual antimicrobial activity was calculated. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal Wallis test and one-way ANOVA. The significance level was set at P<0.05. Results: The antimicrobial activity of CHX gradually decreased in a time-dependent manner but it maintained over 95% of its antimicrobial activity after six weeks. Moreover, Resilon/RealSeal SE significantly decreased the antimicrobial activity of CHX in comparison with gutta-percha/AH26 (P<0.05). Conclusion: After a final irrigation with CHX, gutta-percha/AH26 is a better choice for root canal obturation. PMID:27252755

  11. Evolution of the Urban Heat Island of the city of Bologna (Italy) in the last 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Francesca; Gaspari, Nicola; Piana, Stefano; Rossi Pisa, Paola

    2010-05-01

    The Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon is the air temperature difference between the urban area and the surrounding agricultural area of a city, due to the anthropic activities and different surfaces typical of the town. This phenomenon has been documented for many cities with different population, topography and climate (Chandler, 1962 and Oke, 1982 among the first), and has been quantified in many areas (see as an example for Italy Agnese et al, 2008). Many causes contribute to the UHI, such as different heat capacities of vegetated surfaces as compared to buildings and paving materials; different absorption due to canopy geometry; anthropogenic heat sources and so on. (for example see Camilloni and Barros, 1997) What is not so easy to find in literature is the study of the evolution of this phenomenon with time. UHI could be improved by changes in the town behaviour (increase in car traffic or winter-heating/summer-cooling), reduced by the enlargement of the suburb area, arriving to include the rural meteorological stations, or mitigated by the general growth of air temperature due to global warming. In this work, results from the analysis of two 30 years time series air temperature data are presented. The first data set comes from an agrometeorological station sited in the Botanical garden of the University of Bologna, in the centre of the town (44° 30' 05"N, 11° 21' 18" E). The second agrometeorological station is sited in the experimental farm of the University of Bologna in Cadriano (44° 33' 03" N, 11° 24' 36" E), 9 km from the first and outside of the town boundaries. Both data series range from 1978 to 2007 and are measured by mechanical thermoigrometers. Detailed information about instruments and data treatment are available in Matzneller et al. (2009). Results show an increasing trend in both stations for air maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures, more evident in the rural data. The mean UHI is of about 1.3 ± 0.7 °C as an average on the 30

  12. Intake of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks and apple juice is associated with prevalent arthritis in US adults, aged 20–30 years

    PubMed Central

    DeChristopher, L R; Uribarri, J; Tucker, K L

    2016-01-01

    Objective: There is a link between joint and gut inflammation of unknown etiology in arthritis. Existing research indicates that regular consumption of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened (HFCS) soft drinks, but not diet soft drinks, may be associated with increased risk of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in women, independent of other dietary and lifestyle factors. One unexplored hypothesis for this association is that fructose malabsorption, due to regular consumption of excess free fructose (EFF) and HFCS, contributes to fructose reactivity in the gastrointestinal tract and intestinal in situ formation of enFruAGEs, which once absorbed, travel beyond the intestinal boundaries to other tissues and promote inflammation. In separate studies, the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products has been associated with joint inflammation in RA. Objective of this study was to assess the association between EFF beverages intake and non-age, non-wear and tear-associated arthritis in US young adults. Methods: In this cross sectional study of 1209 adults aged 20–30y, (Nutrition and Health Examination Surveys 2003–2006) exposure variables were high EFF beverages, including HFCS sweetened soft drinks, and any combination of HFCS sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks (FD) and apple juice, referred to as tEFF. Analyses of diet soda and diet FD were included for comparison. The outcome was self-reported arthritis. Rao Scott Ҳ2 was used for prevalence differences and logistic regression for associations, adjusted for confounders. Results: Young adults consuming any combination of high EFF beverages (tEFF) ⩾5 times/week (but not diet soda) were three times as likely to have arthritis as non/low consumers (odds ratios=3.01; p⩽0.021; 95% confidence intervals=1.20–7.59), independent of all covariates, including physical activity, other dietary factors, blood glucose and smoking. Conclusion: EFF beverage intake is significantly associated with arthritis in US adults

  13. National Library of Medicine Celebrates 30 Years of Progress and Charts the Future | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Celebrates 30 Years of Progress and Charts the Future Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents The ... years, and help chart its course for the future. They were drawn to "The National Library of ...

  14. The importance of independent chronology in integrating records of past climate change for the 60-8 ka INTIMATE time interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, Achim; Hajdas, Irka; Blockley, Simon P. E.; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Christl, Marcus; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Moseley, Gina E.; Nowaczyk, Norbert N.; Rasmussen, Sune O.; Roberts, Helen M.; Spötl, Christoph; Staff, Richard A.; Svensson, Anders

    2014-12-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the most common dating techniques applied in palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironmental studies including four radiometric and isotopic dating methods (radiocarbon, 230Th disequilibrium, luminescence, cosmogenic nuclides) and two incremental methods based on layer counting (ice layer, varves). For each method, concise background information about the fundamental principles and methodological approaches is provided. We concentrate on the time interval of focus for the INTIMATE (Integrating Ice core, MArine and TErrestrial records) community (60-8 ka). This dating guide addresses palaeoclimatologists who aim at interpretation of their often regional and local proxy time series in a wider spatial context and, therefore, have to rely on correlation with proxy records obtained from different archives from various regions. For this reason, we especially emphasise scientific approaches for harmonising chronologies for sophisticated and robust proxy data integration. In this respect, up-to-date age modelling techniques are presented as well as tools for linking records by age equivalence including tephrochronology, cosmogenic 10Be and palaeomagnetic variations. Finally, to avoid inadequate documentation of chronologies and assure reliable correlation of proxy time series, this paper provides recommendations for minimum standards of uncertainty and age datum reporting.

  15. High-intensity interval training improves VO(2peak), maximal lactate accumulation, time trial and competition performance in 9-11-year-old swimmers.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Billy; Zinner, Christoph; Heilemann, Ilka; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Mester, Joachim

    2010-11-01

    Training volume in swimming is usually very high when compared to the relatively short competition time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 5-week HIIT versus high-volume training (HVT) in 9-11-year-old swimmers on competition performance, 100 and 2,000 m time (T(100 m) and T(2,000 m)), VO(2peak) and rate of maximal lactate accumulation (Lac(max)). In a 5-week crossover study, 26 competitive swimmers with a mean (SD) age of 11.5 ± 1.4 years performed a training period of HIIT and HVT. Competition (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.48) and T(2,000 m) (P = 0.04; effect size = 0.21) performance increased following HIIT. No changes were found in T(100 m) (P = 0.20). Lac(max) increased following HIIT (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.43) and decreased after HVT (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.51). VO(2peak) increased following both interventions (P < 0.05; effect sizes = 0.46-0.57). The increases in competition performance, T(2,000 m), Lac(max) and VO(2peak) following HIIT were achieved in significantly less training time (~2 h/week). PMID:20683609

  16. Free Delivery of a 30-YEAR Vegetation Product Archive by the Biopar Land Monitoring Core Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacholczyk, P.; Makhmara, H.; Lacaze, R. N.; Baret, F.; Weiss, M.; Verger, A.

    2012-12-01

    Geoland2 project is part of the GMES EU-lead initiative and intends to prepare, validate and demonstrate pre-operational service chains and products of the Land Monitoring Core Service. The BioPar Core Monitoring Service distributes through the Geoland 2 portal global products related to biophysical variables : the Leaf Area Index (LAI), the Fraction of green Vegetation Cover (FCover), the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR) and the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI). Long term global biophysical products are of great interest for earth science modeling applications and global change monitoring. Since end of 2011 a 12-year archive (1999-2011) of these biophysical vegetation products derived from SPOT/VEGETATION sensor, called GEOV1_VGT, is available and is continuously updated every ten days. Since this summer, a 20-year archive (1981-2000) of LAI, FAPAR and FCover biophysical vegetation products derived from the AVHRR long term data archive, called GEOV1_AVHRR, has been processed by CNES and is now available through the Geoland 2 portal. The LAI, FAPAR and FCover products issued from VGT and AVHRR data have the same characteristics (temporal resolution 10 days, global coverage) except for the spatial resolution (1/112° for VGT and 0.05° for AVHRR), with an overlap of two years (1999-2000). The evaluation of GEOV1_VGT and GEOV1_AVHRR archive indicates a very good agreement between the two datasets, including a similar level of accuracy in comparison with ground-based measurements made during the 1999-2000 overlap period. Despite that a more consistent 30-year global product at a lower resolution is very useful for communities studying carbon cycle, climate or water cycle. The last step, foreseen for this Autumn, is to process these two archives and to provide to the users a continuous 30-year vegetation product (called GEOV1_GCM) at 0.5° scale. Close to its end the BioPar project has provided demonstration products

  17. A Clinical Trial of Optimal Time Interval Between Ablation and Diagnostic Activity When a Pretherapy RAI Scanning Is Performed on Patients With Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yafu; Mao, Qiufen; Chen, Song; Li, Na; Li, Xuena; Li, Yaming

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article investigates the association of the time interval between the diagnostic dose and ablation with the stunning effect, when a 74 MBq 131I pretherapy scanning was performed on patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC); the patients who were diagnosed as DTC and would be performed radioiodine (RAI) ablation of thyroid remnants or metastases were recruited during January 2011 and May 2012 in our hospital. Thirty-seven patients with DTC who had the RAI ablation of thyroid remnants or metastases for the first time were recruited. All the patients received a dose of 1850 to 7400 MBq of 131I for ablation and a diagnostic scan was performed 24 hours after the administration of 74 MBq 131I before ablation. A posttherapy scan was performed 2 to 7 days after the ablation. The patients were broken down into 3 groups (G1, G2, and G3) according to the interval time between the diagnostic dose and therapy (1–3, 4–7, and >7 days). The fractional concentrations of 131I in remnants or functional metastases were quantified and expressed as therapeutic/diagnostic (Rx/Dx). The level of significance was set at 0.05. Sixty-seven foci were found both on pretherapy and posttherapy scans, the mean ratio of Rx/Dx was 0.43 ± 0.29, and the ratio of 49 foci (73.13%) was <0.6. The ratios in G1, G2, and G3 were 0.46 ± 0.29, 0.29 ± 0.18, and 0.55 ± 0.33, respectively. The differences between G1 and G2, and G2 and G3 were statistically significant (t = 2.40, P = 0.021 and t = 3.28, P = 0.002), whereas the difference between G1 and G3 was not significant (t = 1.01, P = 0.319). By a diagnostic scan of 74 MBq 131I, stunning prominently occurs with a time of 4 to 7 days between the diagnostic dose and ablation. We recommend that for less stunning effect, RAI ablation should be performed within 3 days or postponed until 1 week after the diagnostic dose administrated. PMID:26252311

  18. Manipulating Carbohydrate Availability Between Twice-Daily Sessions of High-Intensity Interval Training Over 2 Weeks Improves Time-Trial Performance.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Andrew J; Myslik, Frank; MacInnis, Martin J; Percival, Michael E; Bishop, David; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Gibala, Martin J

    2015-10-01

    Commencing some training sessions with reduced carbohydrate (CHO) availability has been shown to enhance skeletal muscle adaptations, but the effect on exercise performance is less clear. We examined whether restricting CHO intake between twice daily sessions of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) augments improvements in exercise performance and mitochondrial content. Eighteen active but not highly trained subjects (peak oxygen uptake [VO2peak] = 44 ± 9 ml/kg/min), matched for age, sex, and fitness, were randomly allocated to two groups. On each of 6 days over 2 weeks, subjects completed two training sessions, each consisting of 5 × 4-min cycling intervals (60% of peak power), interspersed by 2 min of recovery. Subjects ingested either 195 g of CHO (HI-HI group: ~2.3 g/kg) or 17 g of CHO (HI-LO group: ~0.3 g/kg) during the 3-hr period between sessions. The training-induced improvement in 250-kJ time trial performance was greater (p = .02) in the HI-LO group (211 ± 66 W to 244 ± 75 W) compared with the HI-HI group (203 ± 53 W to 219 ± 60 W); however, the increases in mitochondrial content was similar between groups, as reflected by similar increases in citrate synthase maximal activity, citrate synthase protein content and cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV protein content (p > .05 for interaction terms). This is the first study to show that a short-term "train low, compete high" intervention can improve whole-body exercise capacity. Further research is needed to determine whether this type of manipulation can also enhance performance in highly-trained subjects. PMID:25811132

  19. Treatment performances of French constructed wetlands: results from a database collected over the last 30 years.

    PubMed

    Morvannou, A; Forquet, N; Michel, S; Troesch, S; Molle, P

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 3,500 constructed wetlands (CWs) provide raw wastewater treatment in France for small communities (<5,000 people equivalent). Built during the past 30 years, most consist of two vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) in series (stages). Many configurations exist, with systems associated with horizontal flow filters or waste stabilization ponds, vertical flow with recirculation, partially saturated systems, etc. A database analyzed 10 years earlier on the classical French system summarized the global performances data. This paper provides a similar analysis of performance data from 415 full-scale two-stage VFCWs from an improved database expanded by monitoring data available from Irstea and the French technical department. Trends presented in the first study are confirmed, exhibiting high chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal rates (87%, 93% and 84%, respectively). Typical concentrations at the second-stage outlet are 74 mgCOD L(-1), 17 mgTSS L(-1) and 11 mgTKN L(-1). Pollutant removal performances are summarized in relation to the loads applied at the first treatment stage. While COD and TSS removal rates remain stable over the range of applied loads, the spreading of TKN removal rates increases as applied loads increase. PMID:25945849

  20. Is SfM photogrammetry really the tool we've waited 30 years for?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Jim; Micheletti, Natan; Lane, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    SFM photogrammetry has evolved rapidly in the last few years, to the point where it is beginning to surpass terrestrial laser scanning for capturing 3-D models of natural surfaces. The ability to generate high resolution digital terrain models using just a consumer grade digital camera, or even a smart phone, is an important advance. The fact that this can be achieved at a range of scales and resolutions and from a variety of platforms, whilst using software which is freely available, appears almost incredible. This invited presentation seeks to place SfM photogrammetry in its proper historical context, by demonstrating just how rapidly techniques have evolved over the last 30 years. However, it is important to look forward and help ensure that future use is effective, even if spatial measurement expertise is limited. Consequently, the presentation will also demonstrate just how well-established lessons learnt in the past continue to remain important, particularly if accurate spatial data is desired. The application of SfM to a range of case studies will help to demonstrate the importance of scene geometry and accurate camera calibration and modelling. In addition, the establishment of external control remains critical for determining true change and the provision of independent checkpoints provides important verification of accuracies actually achieved. Recognition of these traditional photogrammetric principles and well-established practices should help ensure that expectations are both realistic and can be fulfilled, even for a new generation of non-expert users.

  1. Reversible cardiomyopathy after radiofrequency ablation of 30-year persistent atrial tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Shiga, Tsuyoshi; Arai, Kotaro; Shoda, Morio

    2013-01-01

    Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy (TIC) is a reversible form of the left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction and is believed to be a relatively acute process. We report a TIC case with a 30-year history of long-lasting persistent atrial tachycardia involving a 44-year-old man previously diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy and a low LV ejection fraction (LVEF) of 20%. ECG revealed atrial tachycardia at 110–120 bpm. He was hospitalised with a worsening heart failure. His clinical status was New York Heart Association functional class III, and echocardiography revealed LV dilation and an LVEF of 9%. A two-dimensional speckle-tracking strain measurement revealed LV mechanical dyssynchrony. He underwent radiofrequency ablation for atrial tachycardia. After restoring sinus rhythm, his cardiac symptoms improved immediately. The LV mechanical dyssynchrony decreased a week after ablation, without changes in the LV dilation or LVEF. Thereafter, the LV dilation and systolic function gradually improved, and atrial tachycardia and heart failure remained absent. PMID:24326427

  2. From Energy Audits to Home Performance: 30 Years of Articles in Home Energy Magazine

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan

    2014-08-11

    Home Energy Magazine has been publishing articles about residential energy efficiency for 30 years. Its goal has been to disseminate technically reliable and neutral information to the practitioners, that is, professionals in the business of home energy efficiency. The articles, editorials, letters, and advertisements are a kind of window on the evolution of energy conservation technologies, policies, and organizations. Initially, the focus was on audits and simple retrofits, such as weatherstripping and insulation. Instrumentation was sparse sometimes limited to a ruler to measure depth of attic insulation and a blower door was exotic. CFLs were heavy, awkward bulbs which might, or might not, fit in a fixture. Saving air conditioning energy was not a priority. Solar energy was only for the most adventurous. Thirty years on, the technologies and business have moved beyond just insulating attics to the larger challenge of delivering home performance and achieving zero net energy. This shift reflects the success in reducing space heating energy and the need to create a profitable industry by providing more services. The leading edge of the residential energy services market is becoming much more sophisticated, offering both efficiency and solar systems. The challenge is to continue providing relevant and reliable information in a transformed industry and a revolutionized media landscape.

  3. 30 Years on Selected Issues in the Prevention of HIV among Persons Who Inject Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Des Jarlais, D. C.; Pinkerton, S.; Hagan, H.; Guardino, V.; Feelemyer, J.; Cooper, H.; Hatzatkis, A.; Uuskula, A.

    2013-01-01

    After 30 years of extensive research on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among persons who inject drugs (PWID), we now have a good understanding of the critical issues involved. Following the discovery of HIV in 1981, epidemics among PWID were noted in many countries, and consensus recommendations for interventions for reducing injection related HIV transmission have been developed. While high-income countries have continued to develop and implement new Harm Reduction programs, most low-/middle-income countries have implemented Harm Reduction at very low levels. Modeling of combined prevention programming including needle exchange (NSP) and antiretroviral therapy (ARV) suggests that NSP be given the highest priority. Future HIV prevention programming should continue to provide Harm Reduction programs for PWID coupled with interventions aimed at reducing sexual transmission. As HIV continues to spread in low- and middle-income countries, it is important to achieve and maintain high coverage of Harm Reduction programs in these locations. As PWID almost always experience multiple health problems, it will be important to address these multiple problems within a comprehensive approach grounded in a human rights perspective. PMID:23840957

  4. A glimpse into 30 years of struggle against prostitution by the women's liberation movement in Norway.

    PubMed

    Strøm, Agnete

    2009-11-01

    The Women's Front of Norway has worked against prostitution for 30 years. In 2008 a law criminalizing the purchase of a sexual act was passed in Norway. This article describes the struggle and the main actors in lobbying for the law. In the 1980s, we raised awareness of prostitution and trafficking in women in a study of the pornography industry, and targeted sex tourist agencies organizing trips to the Philippines and Thailand. In the 1990s, our members in trade unions got their unions to take a stand against prostitution and against legalizing prostitution as "work". In 2006, the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions Congress supported a law criminalizing the buyer of a sexual act; this had a strong impact on the centre-left coalition Government. We invited leaders of the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women to Norway to meet parliamentarians and trade unionists, and kept up the pressure. From the start, the focus was on ensuring that the situation for women in prostitution was ameliorated. Our demands have been for better social services and job training. Street prostitution, especially in Oslo, has been curbed, and a growth in the indoor market has not been reported. Our next task is participating in the awareness campaign "Buying Sex is not a Sport" in connection with the Soccer World Cup, South Africa, 2010. PMID:19962635

  5. The SLC28 (CNT) and SLC29 (ENT) nucleoside transporter families: a 30-year collaborative odyssey.

    PubMed

    Young, James D

    2016-06-15

    Specialized nucleoside transporter (NT) proteins are required for passage of nucleosides and hydrophilic nucleoside analogues across biological membranes. Physiologic nucleosides serve as central salvage metabolites in nucleotide biosynthesis, and nucleoside analogues are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cancer and antiviral diseases. The nucleoside adenosine modulates numerous cellular events via purino-receptor cell signalling pathways. Human NTs are divided into two structurally unrelated protein families: the SLC28 concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) family and the SLC29 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family. Human CNTs are inwardly directed Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transporters found predominantly in intestinal and renal epithelial and other specialized cell types. Human ENTs mediate bidirectional fluxes of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides down their concentration gradients and are ubiquitously found in most, possibly all, cell types. Both protein families are evolutionarily old: CNTs are present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes; ENTs are widely distributed in mammalian, lower vertebrate and other eukaryote species. This mini-review describes a 30-year collaboration with Professor Stephen Baldwin to identify and understand the structures and functions of these physiologically and clinically important transport proteins. PMID:27284054

  6. Planting misinformation in the human mind: a 30-year investigation of the malleability of memory.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2005-01-01

    The misinformation effect refers to the impairment in memory for the past that arises after exposure to misleading information. The phenomenon has been investigated for at least 30 years, as investigators have addressed a number of issues. These include the conditions under which people are especially susceptible to the negative impact of misinformation, and conversely when are they resistant. Warnings about the potential for misinformation sometimes work to inhibit its damaging effects, but only under limited circumstances. The misinformation effect has been observed in a variety of human and nonhuman species. And some groups of individuals are more susceptible than others. At a more theoretical level, investigators have explored the fate of the original memory traces after exposure to misinformation appears to have made them inaccessible. This review of the field ends with a brief discussion of the newer work involving misinformation that has explored the processes by which people come to believe falsely that they experienced rich complex events that never, in fact, occurred. PMID:16027179

  7. Leatherback nests increasing significantly in Florida, USA; trends assessed over 30 years using multilevel modeling.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kelly; Sims, Michelle; Meylan, Anne; Witherington, Blair; Brost, Beth; Crowder, Larry B

    2011-01-01

    Understanding population status for endangered species is critical to developing and evaluating recovery plans mandated by the Endangered Species Act. For sea turtles, changes in abundance are difficult to detect because most life stages occur in the water. Currently, nest counts are the most reliable way of assessing trends. We determined the rate of growth for leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) nest numbers in Florida (USA) using a multilevel Poisson regression. We modeled nest counts from 68 beaches over 30 years and, using beach-level covariates (including latitude), we allowed for partial pooling of information between neighboring beaches. This modeling approach is ideal for nest count data because it recognizes the hierarchical structure of the data while incorporating variables related to survey effort. Nesting has increased at all 68 beaches in Florida, with trends ranging from 3.1% to 16.3% per year. Overall, across the state, the number of nests has been increasing by 10.2% per year since 1979. Despite being a small population (probably < 1000 individuals), this nesting population may help achieve objectives in the federal recovery plan. This exponential growth rate mirrors trends observed for other Atlantic populations and may be driven partially by improved protection of nesting beaches. However, nesting is increasing even where beach protection has not been enhanced. Climate variability and associated marine food web dynamics, which could enhance productivity and reduce predators, may be driving this trend. PMID:21516903

  8. "Evolving nanoparticle gene delivery vectors for the liver: What has been learned in 30 years".

    PubMed

    Crowley, Samuel T; Rice, Kevin G

    2015-12-10

    Nonviral gene delivery to the liver has been under evolution for nearly 30years. Early demonstrations established relatively simple nonviral vectors could mediate gene expression in HepG2 cells which understandably led to speculation that these same vectors would be immediately successful at transfecting primary hepatocytes in vivo. However, it was soon recognized that the properties of a nonviral vector resulting in efficient transfection in vitro were uncorrelated with those needed to achieve efficient nonviral transfection in vivo. The discovery of major barriers to liver gene transfer has set the field on a course to design biocompatible vectors that demonstrate increased DNA stability in the circulation with correlating expression in liver. The improved understanding of what limits nonviral vector gene transfer efficiency in vivo has resulted in more sophisticated, low molecular weight vectors that allow systematic optimization of nanoparticle size, charge and ligand presentation. While the field has evolved DNA nanoparticles that are stable in the circulation, target hepatocytes, and deliver DNA to the cytosol, breaching the nucleus remains the last major barrier to a fully successful nonviral gene transfer system for the liver. The lessons learned along the way are fundamentally important to the design of all systemically delivered nanoparticle nonviral gene delivery systems. PMID:26439664

  9. Chiropractic management of a 30-year-old patient with Parsonage-Turner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this case report is to describe the chiropractic management of a patient presenting with right arm paralysis and a diagnosis of Parsonage-Turner syndrome. Clinical Features After receiving nerve entrapment release surgery, a 30-year-old man presented with a right arm contracture, atrophy, and weakness with general paralysis of the forearm and index finger of 6 weeks' duration. Intervention and Outcome The patient was provided chiropractic care that included high-velocity/low-amplitude spinal manipulation based upon applied kinesiology manual muscle testing, soft tissue trigger point therapy, exercises, and stretches. The patient demonstrated improvement in range of motion after the first treatment session. By the eighth treatment, he was able to fully straighten his arm. Three years later, the patient reported that he was able to do mountain climbing and that his arm was fully functional and pain-free. Conclusion For this patient, chiropractic care seemed to be successful in relieving his right arm paralysis and restoring normal arm movement. PMID:22654689

  10. Seasonal spatial heterogeneity of warming rates on the Tibetan Plateau over the past 30 years

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jianping; Li, Lun; Fang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Based on temperature data from 79 meteorological stations, we estimate the warming rate by season on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) during 1984–2013. The warming rate was spatially heterogeneous across seasons over the past 30 years. The northern TP (NTP) experienced more warming than the southern TP (STP) (divided near 33°N) in all seasons. The greatest north-south difference in warming was 0.70 ± 0.11 °C for summer (June-August), while the smallest difference was 0.27 ± 0.14 °C for the cold season (November-April). Such seasonal and spatial heterogeneity in the warming rate is consistent with the seasonal precipitation patterns of the NTP and the STP. One possible cause for this phenomenon is that more precipitation occurs in the STP than in the NTP (especially for summer), accompanied by more low cloud cover, which may have slowed the warming rate. Our results imply that dry regions on the TP will possibly experience greater temperature increase than wet regions under future global warming, and this will be more prominent in summer. PMID:26114895

  11. Interannual variability of the Indonesian Throughflow transport: A revisit based on 30 year expendable bathythermograph data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qin-Yan; Feng, Ming; Wang, Dongxiao; Wijffels, Susan

    2015-12-01

    Based on 30 year repeated expendable bathythermograph (XBT) deployments between Fremantle, Western Australia, and the Sunda Strait, Indonesia, from 1984 to 2013, interannual variability of geostrophic transport of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) and its relationships with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) are investigated. The IOD induced coastal Kelvin waves propagate along the Sumatra-Java coast of Indonesia, and ENSO induced coastal Kelvin waves propagate along the northwest coast of Australia, both influencing interannual variations of the ITF transport. The ITF geostrophic transport is stronger during La Niña phase and weaker during El Niño phase, with the Niño3.4 index leading the ITF variability by 7 months. The Indian Ocean wind variability associated with the IOD to a certain extent offset the Pacific ENSO influences on the ITF geostrophic transport during the developing and mature phases of El Niño and La Niña, due to the covarying IOD variability with ENSO. The ITF geostrophic transport experiences a strengthening trend of about 1 Sv every 10 years over the study period, which is mostly due to a response to the strengthening of the trade winds in the Pacific during the climate change hiatus period. Decadal variations of the temperature-salinity relationships need to be considered when estimating the geostrophic transport of the ITF using XBT data.

  12. Aetiology of maxillofacial fractures: a review of published studies during the last 30 years.

    PubMed

    Boffano, Paolo; Kommers, Sofie C; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2014-12-01

    The epidemiology of facial trauma may vary widely across countries (and even within the same country), and is dependent on several cultural and socioeconomic factors. We know of few reviews of published reports that have considered the sex distribution and aetiology of maxillofacial trauma throughout the world. The aim of this review was to discuss these aspects as they have been presented in papers published during the last 30 years. We made a systematic review of papers about the epidemiology of maxillofacial trauma that were published between January 1980 and December 2013 and identified 69 studies from Africa (n=9), North America and Brazil (n=6), Asia (n=36), Europe (n=16), and Oceania (n=2). In all the studies men outnumbered women, the ratio usually being more than 2:1. In American, African, and Asian studies road traffic crashes were the predominant cause. In European studies the aetiology varied, with assaults and road traffic crashes being the most important factors. In Oceania assaults were the most important. A comparison of the incidence of maxillofacial trauma of different countries together with a knowledge of different laws (seat belts for drivers, helmets for motocyclists, speed limits, and protection worn during sports and at work) is crucial to allow for improvement in several countries. To our knowledge this paper is the first attempt to study and compare the aetiologies of maxillofacial trauma. PMID:25218316

  13. Disability-Free Life Expectancy Over 30 Years: A Growing Female Disadvantage in the US Population

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Douglas A.; Spillman, Brenda C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine changes in active life expectancy in the United States over 30 years for older men and women (aged ≥ 65 years). Methods. We used the 1982 and 2004 National Long Term Care Survey and the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study to estimate age-specific mortality and disability rates, the overall chances of survival and of surviving without disability, and years of active life for men and women. Results. For older men, longevity has increased, disability has been postponed to older ages, disability prevalence has fallen, and the percentage of remaining life spent active has increased. However, for older women, small longevity increases have been accompanied by even smaller postponements in disability, a reversal of a downward trend in moderate disability, and stagnation of active life as a percentage of life expectancy. As a consequence, older women no longer live more active years than men, despite their longer lives. Conclusions. Neither a compression nor expansion of late-life disability is inevitable. Public health measures directed at older women to postpone disability may be needed to offset impending long-term care pressures related to population aging. PMID:26985619

  14. Twelve Weeks of Sprint Interval Training Improves Indices of Cardiometabolic Health Similar to Traditional Endurance Training despite a Five-Fold Lower Exercise Volume and Time Commitment

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Brian J.; MacInnis, Martin J.; Skelly, Lauren E.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Gibala, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims We investigated whether sprint interval training (SIT) was a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve insulin sensitivity and other indices of cardiometabolic health to the same extent as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). SIT involved 1 minute of intense exercise within a 10-minute time commitment, whereas MICT involved 50 minutes of continuous exercise per session. Methods Sedentary men (27±8y; BMI = 26±6kg/m2) performed three weekly sessions of SIT (n = 9) or MICT (n = 10) for 12 weeks or served as non-training controls (n = 6). SIT involved 3x20-second ‘all-out’ cycle sprints (~500W) interspersed with 2 minutes of cycling at 50W, whereas MICT involved 45 minutes of continuous cycling at ~70% maximal heart rate (~110W). Both protocols involved a 2-minute warm-up and 3-minute cool-down at 50W. Results Peak oxygen uptake increased after training by 19% in both groups (SIT: 32±7 to 38±8; MICT: 34±6 to 40±8ml/kg/min; p<0.001 for both). Insulin sensitivity index (CSI), determined by intravenous glucose tolerance tests performed before and 72 hours after training, increased similarly after SIT (4.9±2.5 to 7.5±4.7, p = 0.002) and MICT (5.0±3.3 to 6.7±5.0 x 10−4 min-1 [μU/mL]-1, p = 0.013) (p<0.05). Skeletal muscle mitochondrial content also increased similarly after SIT and MICT, as primarily reflected by the maximal activity of citrate synthase (CS; P<0.001). The corresponding changes in the control group were small for VO2peak (p = 0.99), CSI (p = 0.63) and CS (p = 0.97). Conclusions Twelve weeks of brief intense interval exercise improved indices of cardiometabolic health to the same extent as traditional endurance training in sedentary men, despite a five-fold lower exercise volume and time commitment. PMID:27115137

  15. Distribution of transition times in a stochastic model of excitable cell: Insights into the cell-intrinsic mechanisms of randomness in neuronal interspike intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requena-Carrión, Jesús; Requena-Carrión, Víctor J.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we develop an analytical approach to studying random patterns of activity in excitable cells. Our analytical approach uses a two-state stochastic model of excitable system based on the electrophysiological properties of refractoriness and restitution, which characterize cell recovery after excitation. By applying the notion of probability density flux, we derive the distributions of transition times between states and the distribution of interspike interval (ISI) durations for a constant applied stimulus. The derived ISI distribution is unimodal and, provided that the time spent in the excited state is constant, can be approximated by a Rayleigh peak followed by an exponential tail. We then explore the role of the model parameters in determining the shape of the derived distributions and the ISI coefficient of variation. Finally, we use our analytical results to study simulation results from the stochastic Morris-Lecar neuron and from a three-state extension of the proposed stochastic model, which is capable of reproducing multimodal ISI histograms.

  16. A Shorter Time Interval Between First and Second Dengue Infections Is Associated With Protection From Clinical Illness in a School-based Cohort in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kathryn B.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Cummings, Derek A.T.; Nisalak, Ananda; Green, Sharone; Libraty, Daniel H.; Jarman, Richard G.; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Mammen, Mammen P.; Darunee, Buddhari; Yoon, In-Kyu; Endy, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Despite the strong association between secondary dengue virus (DENV) infections and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), the majority of secondary infections are subclinical or mild. The determinants of clinical severity remain unclear, though studies indicate a titer-dependent and time-dependent role of cross-protective anti-DENV antibodies. Methods. Data from 2 sequential prospective cohort studies were analyzed for subclinical and symptomatic DENV infections in schoolchildren in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand (1998–2002 and 2004–2007). Children experiencing ≥1 DENV infection were selected as the population for analysis (contributing 2169 person-years of follow-up). Results. In total, 1696 children had ≥1 DENV infection detected during their enrollment; 268 experienced 2 or more infections. A shorter time interval between infections was associated with subclinical infection in children seronegative for DENV at enrollment, for whom a second-detected DENV infection is more likely to reflect a true second infection (average of 2.6 years between infections for DHF, 1.9 for DF, and 1.6 for subclinical infections). Conclusions. These findings support a pathogenesis model where cross-reactive antibodies wane from higher-titer, protective levels to lower-titer, detrimental levels. This is one of the first studies of human subjects to suggest a window of cross-protection following DENV infection since Sabin's challenge studies in the 1940s. PMID:23964110

  17. Time-Induced Super-Latent Inhibition Is Dependent on the Distinctiveness of the Retention-Interval Context from the Other Experimental Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubow, R.E.; De la Casa, L.G.

    2005-01-01

    A conditioned taste aversion experiment examined the role of the retention-interval context (between conditioning and test stages) on the modulation of long-delay latent inhibition (LI). A super-LI effect was obtained only when the animals spent the retention interval in a context that was different from that of preexposure, conditioning, and…

  18. Time Interval from Symptom Onset to Hospital Care in Patients with Acute Heart Failure: A Report from the Tokyo Cardiac Care Unit Network Emergency Medical Service Database

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Kohsaka, Shun; Harada, Kazumasa; Sakai, Tetsuro; Takagi, Atsutoshi; Miyamoto, Takamichi; Iida, Kiyoshi; Tanimoto, Shuzou; Fukuda, Keiichi; Nagao, Ken; Sato, Naoki; Takayama, Morimasa

    2015-01-01

    Aims There seems to be two distinct patterns in the presentation of acute heart failure (AHF) patients; early- vs. gradual-onset. However, whether time-dependent relationship exists in outcomes of patients with AHF remains unclear. Methods The Tokyo Cardiac Care Unit Network Database prospectively collects information of emergency admissions via EMS service to acute cardiac care facilities from 67 participating hospitals in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Between 2009 and 2011, a total of 3811 AHF patients were registered. The documentation of symptom onset time was mandated by the on-site ambulance team. We divided the patients into two groups according to the median onset-to-hospitalization (OH) time for those patients (2h); early- (presenting ≤2h after symptom onset) vs. gradual-onset (late) group (>2h). The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Results The early OH group had more urgent presentation, as demonstrated by a higher systolic blood pressure (SBP), respiratory rate, and higher incidence of pulmonary congestion (48.6% vs. 41.6%; P<0.001); whereas medical comorbidities such as stroke (10.8% vs. 7.9%; P<0.001) and atrial fibrillation (30.0% vs. 26.0%; P<0.001) were more frequently seen in the late OH group. Overall, 242 (6.5%) patients died during hospitalization. Notably, a shorter OH time was associated with a better in-hospital mortality rate (odds ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.51−0.99; P = 0.043). Conclusions Early-onset patients had rather typical AHF presentations (e.g., higher SBP or pulmonary congestion) but had a better in-hospital outcome compared to gradual-onset patients. PMID:26562780

  19. Comparative evaluation of demineralization of radicular dentin with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 10% citric acid, and MTAD at different time intervals: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Yogender; Lohar, Jitendra; Bhat, Sureka; Bhati, Manisha; Gandhi, Aanesh; Mehta, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Background: The smear layer has the capability to protect the bacteria within the dentinal tubules from intracanal medicament. After removal of the smear layer from infected root canals, it allows disinfection of the entire root canal. The smear layer compromising the seal between the root canal sealer and root canal wall also decreases the penetration of irrigants into dentinal tubules. Aims: This study compares the amount of phosphorous liberated and demineralization of the radicular dentin with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 10% citric acid and mixture of doxycycline, citric acid, and a detergent at different time intervals. Materials and Methods: Extracted maxillary single-rooted teeth were prepared by using a combination of passive step-back and rotary 0.04 taper nickel-titanium files. Sodium hypochlorite 5.25% and sterile distilled water were used as an intracanal irrigant. The canals were then treated with 5 mL of one of the following solutions such as final rinse sterile distilled water, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or mixture of doxycycline, citric acid, and a detergent. The presence or absence of smear layer and the amount of erosion on the surface of the root canal walls at the coronal, middle, and apical portions of each canal were examined under a scanning electron microscope. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine whether there were significant differences between the groups. Results: The results show that mixture of doxycycline, citric acid, and a detergent is an effective solution for the removal of the smear layer and does not significantly change the structure of the dentinal tubules. Conclusions: In this study, 10% citric acid shows the maximum amount of dimeneralization of radicular dentine followed by mixture of doxycycline, citric acid, and a detergent, and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. When all the subgroups were compared, it was seen

  20. Changes in the management and survival rates of patients with oral cancer: a 30-year single-institution study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the management and 5-year survival rates of patients with oral cancer in our department over a 30-year period. Materials and Methods We investigated the patient distributions, treatment methods, method of neck dissection according to cancer stage, and 5-year survival rates for 700 oral cancer patients over the periods of 1982–1996 (256 patients), 1999–2006 (248 patients), and 2007–2011 (196 patients). Results Stage IV patients were the largest group in all of the time periods evaluated. Although surgery and radiotherapy were the most common methods in all periods (over 50%), the prevalence of patients who underwent concomitant chemoradiotherapy increased from 7.0% to 16.2%. The use of radical neck dissection decreased from 43.0% to 5.3%, while conservative surgical methods increased from 24.1% to 76.3%. Lastly, the overall 5-year survival rate increased from 31.6% to 63.5% during the study period. Conclusion Although the 5-year survival rate reached the same level as that of other developed countries during the course of our study, most patients continue to come to the hospital with stage IV disease. In order to increase the 5-year survival rate of oral carcinoma, it may be necessary to improve public education and social efforts relevant to early diagnosis. PMID:26904492

  1. Recovery and reproduction of an Antarctic tardigrade retrieved from a moss sample frozen for over 30 years.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Megumu; Imura, Satoshi; Kanda, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Long-term survival has been one of the most studied of the extraordinary physiological characteristics of cryptobiosis in micrometazoans such as nematodes, tardigrades and rotifers. In the available studies of long-term survival of micrometazoans, instances of survival have been the primary observation, and recovery conditions of animals or subsequent reproduction are generally not reported. We therefore documented recovery conditions and reproduction immediately following revival of tardigrades retrieved from a frozen moss sample collected in Antarctica in 1983 and stored at -20 °C for 30.5 years. We recorded recovery of two individuals and development of a separate egg of the Antarctic tardigrade, Acutuncus antarcticus, providing the longest records of survival for tardigrades as animals or eggs. One of the two resuscitated individuals and the hatchling successfully reproduced repeatedly after their recovery from long-term cryptobiosis. This considerable extension of the known length of long-term survival of tardigrades recorded in our study is interpreted as being associated with the minimum oxidative damage likely to have resulted from storage under stable frozen conditions. The long recovery times of the revived tardigrades observed is suggestive of the requirement for repair of damage accrued over 30 years of cryptobiosis. Further more detailed studies will improve understanding of mechanisms and conditions underlying the long-term survival of cryptobiotic organisms. PMID:26724522

  2. Oral carcinoma after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation – a new classification based on a literature review over 30 years

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Astrid LD; Grätz, Klaus W

    2009-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have a higher risk of developing secondary solid tumors, in particular squamous cell carcinoma, because of several risk factors, including full-body irradiation (TBI), chemotherapy, and chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD). Based on the review presented here, a classification of oral changes is suggested in order to provide a tool to detect high-risk patients. Methods and Results The literature over the last 30 years was reviewed for development of malignoma of the oral cavity after HSCT. Overall, 64 cases were found. In 16 out of 30 cases, the tongue was the primary location, followed by the salivary gland (10 out of 30); 56.4% appeared in a latency time of 5 to 9 years after HSCT. In 76.6%, GVHD was noticed before the occurrence of oral malignancy. Premalignant changes of the oral mucosa were mucositis, xerostomia, and lichenoid changes, developing into erosive form. Conclusion All physicians involved in the treatment of post-HSCT patients should be aware of the increased risk, even after 5 years from the development of oral malignancy, in particular when oral graft versus host changes are visible. In order to develop evidence based management, screening and offer adequate therapy as early as possible in this patient group, multicenter studies, involving oncologists and head and neck surgeons, should be established. PMID:19624855

  3. Stain and dye stability over a 30-year period: a comparison of certified dye powders by the Biological Stain Commission.

    PubMed

    Penney, D P; Frank, M; Fagan, C; Willis, C

    2009-02-01

    The Biological Stain Commission (BSC) Assay Laboratory has received numerous inquiries during the past several years regarding the long-term stability of stain and dye powders, particularly since packaging requirements call for expiration dates on reagents. We have conducted a study to examine the long-term stability of selected dye powders. We used the standard procedures of the BSC for testing biological stains for certification to give an indication of the long-term chemical stability as well as staining performance of the dye powders. An earlier study by Emmel and Stotz examined the stability of various dye powders after a five-year storage period. The present study is a follow-up project covering the same dyes after storage for 30 years. The dye samples chosen for the study are the same samples used in the five-year storage period study and give comparative results for all three time periods. The results of this study affirm the generally held speculation that dye powders are stable for many years and thus have a substantial shelf-life. PMID:19096966

  4. Eighteen- to 30-year-olds more likely to link to hepatitis C virus care: an opportunity to decrease transmission.

    PubMed

    Young, K L; Huang, W; Horsburgh, C R; Linas, B P; Assoumou, S A

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection incidence among 18- to 30-year-olds is increasing and guidelines recommend treatment of active injection drug users to limit transmission. We aimed to : measure linkage to HCV care among 18- to 30-year-olds and identify factors associated with linkage; compare linkage among 18- to 30-year-olds to that of patients >30 years. We used the electronic medical record at an urban safety net hospital to create a retrospective cohort with reactive HCV antibody between 2005 and 2010. We report seroprevalence and demographics of seropositive patients, and used multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with linkage to HCV care. We defined linkage as having evidence of HCV RNA testing after reactive antibody. Thirty two thousand four hundred and eighteen individuals were tested, including 8873 between 18 and 30 years. The seropositivity rate among those ages 18-30 was 10%. In multivariate analysis, among those 18-30, diagnosis location (Outpatient vs Inpatient/ED) (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.28-2.49) and number of visits after diagnosis (OR 5.30, 95% CI 3.91-7.19) were associated with higher odds of linking to care. When we compared linkage in patients ages 18-30 to that among those older than 30, patients in the 18-30 years age group were more likely to link to HCV care than those in the older cohort even when controlling for gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, birthplace, diagnosis location and duration of follow-up. Eighteen- to 30-year-olds are more likely to link to HCV care than their older counterparts. During the interferon-free treatment era, there is an opportunity to prevent further HCV transmission in this population. PMID:26572798

  5. A Dominant X-Linked QTL Regulating Pubertal Timing in Mice Found by Whole Genome Scanning and Modified Interval-Specific Congenic Strain Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Guo, Zhengxia; Zhao, Ying; Zhou, Yuxun; Li, Kai; Xing, Zhenghong; Chen, Guoqiang; Liang, Yinming; Jin, Li; Xiao, Junhua

    2008-01-01

    Background Pubertal timing in mammals is triggered by reactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and modulated by both genetic and environmental factors. Strain-dependent differences in vaginal opening among inbred mouse strains suggest that genetic background contribute significantly to the puberty timing, although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a genome-wide scanning for linkage in reciprocal crosses between two strains, C3H/HeJ (C3H) and C57BL6/J (B6), which differed significantly in the pubertal timing. Vaginal opening (VO) was used to characterize pubertal timing in female mice, and the age at VO of all female mice (two parental strains, F1 and F2 progeny) was recorded. A genome-wide search was performed in 260 phenotypically extreme F2 mice out of 464 female progeny of the F1 intercrosses to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling this trait. A QTL significantly associated was mapped to the DXMit166 marker (15.5 cM, LOD = 3.86, p<0.01) in the reciprocal cross population (C3HB6F2). This QTL contributed 2.1 days to the timing of VO, which accounted for 32.31% of the difference between the original strains. Further study showed that the QTL was B6-dominant and explained 10.5% of variation to this trait with a power of 99.4% at an alpha level of 0.05.The location of the significant ChrX QTL found by genome scanning was then fine-mapped to a region of ∼2.5 cM between marker DXMit68 and rs29053133 by generating and phenotyping a panel of 10 modified interval-specific congenic strains (mISCSs). Conclusions/Significance Such findings in our study lay a foundation for positional cloning of genes regulating the timing of puberty, and also reveal the fact that chromosome X (the sex chromosome) does carry gene(s) which take part in the regulative pathway of the pubertal timing in mice. PMID:18725948

  6. [Dynamics of major forest vegetations in Tiantong National Forest Park during the last 30 years].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang-Yang; Guo, Chun-Zi; Ni, Jian

    2014-06-01

    The study of vegetation succession and development is not only one of the hot spots of modern ecology, but also a key issue of the sustainable development of human society, especially under the circumstances of climate change and anthropogenic disturbance. A comparison of forest communities in the Tiantong National Forest Park (TNFP) in Zhejiang Province, eastern China from 1982 to 2012 was performed. Six forests in the park were investigated, including the typical evergreen broadleaved forest (EBLF, three sub-associations), evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest (EDBLMF), evergreen conifer forest (ECF) and bamboo forest (BF). Data from two field investigations in 1982 and 2012, respectively, were used to analyze the changes of species composition, community structure and species diversity during the past 30 years. The spatial pattern and community structure of the forest vegetation in the TNFP did not obviously change. The spatial distribution of plant communities did not significantly shifted. The proportion of young trees and individuals in small diameters increased. The regeneration status of communities was healthy and the natural regeneration ability of communities was enhanced. The species diversity of the TNFP forests showed an increasing trend in the tree layer and a decreasing trend in the shrub and herb layers. Meanwhile, the evergreen component increased. Along with the changed climate, forest vegetation in the TNFP was developing towards the forward succession. Species diversity, especially the trees, increased with the increase of temperature. This demonstrated that, on one hand, forest vegetation in Tiantong had been well protected; on the other hand, there was a potential positive relationship between the EBLF succession and climate change. PMID:25223006

  7. 30 years of upper air soundings on board of R/V POLARSTERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driemel, Amelie; Loose, Bernd; Grobe, Hannes; Sieger, Rainer; König-Langlo, Gert

    2016-06-01

    The research vessel and supply icebreaker POLARSTERN is the flagship of the Alfred-Wegener-Institut in Bremerhaven (Germany) and one of the infrastructural pillars of German Antarctic research. Since its commissioning in 1982, POLARSTERN has conducted 30 campaigns to Antarctica (157 legs, mostly austral summer), and 29 to the Arctic (94 legs, northern summer). Usually, POLARSTERN is more than 300 days per year in operation and crosses the Atlantic Ocean in a meridional section twice a year. The first radiosonde on POLARSTERN was released on the 29 December 1982, 2 days after POLARSTERN started on its maiden voyage to the Antarctic. And these daily soundings have continued up to the present. Due to the fact that POLARSTERN has reliably and regularly been providing upper air observations from data sparse regions (oceans and polar regions), the radiosonde data are of special value for researchers and weather forecast services alike. In the course of 30 years (29 December 1982 to 25 November 2012) a total of 12 378 radiosonde balloons were started on POLARSTERN. All radiosonde data can now be found at König-Langlo (2015, doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.810000). Each data set contains the directly measured parameters air temperature, relative humidity and air pressure, and the derived altitude, wind direction and wind speed. 432 data sets additionally contain ozone measurements.Although more sophisticated techniques (meteorological satellites, aircraft observation, remote-sensing systems, etc.) have nowadays become increasingly important, the high vertical resolution and quality of radiosonde data remains paramount for weather forecasts and modelling approaches.

  8. Mortality after exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Dibenzofurans: 30 years after the “Yucheng Accident”

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-Chieh; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Chen, Pau-Chung; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon; Rogan, Walter J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 1979, approximately 2,000 people in central Taiwan were accidentally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans due to ingestion of contaminated cooking oil. This event was called Yucheng, “oil-syndrome” in Chinese. We followed the exposed persons and compared their cause-specific mortality with that of neighborhood referents 30 years after the accident. METHODS We obtained age- and gender-matched referents from the 1979 neighborhoods of the exposed people. Cause-specific mortality was compared between exposed subjects (N=1803) and their neighborhood referents (N=5170) using standardized mortality ratios (SMR). Total person-years for the Yucheng subjects and neighborhood referents were 48,751 and 141,774, respectively. RESULTS The SMR for all causes (SMR=1.2, 95% CI: 1.1–1.3), diseases of the circulatory system (SMR=1.3, 95% CI: 1.0–1.6), and diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (SMR=6.4, 95% CI: 2.8–12.7) were elevated in Yucheng subjects. Among Yucheng males, the SMRs for diseases of the digestive system (SMR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.2–2.8), malignant neoplasm of stomach (SMR=3.5, 95% CI: 1.5–7.0), and malignant neoplasm of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue (SMR=3.0, 95% CI: 1.1–6.6) were increased. The SMR for total neoplasms was increased (SMR=1.3, 95% CI: 0.9–1.7). CONCLUSION We conclude that exposure to PCBs/PCDFs at levels that produced symptoms in many affects mortality patterns 3 decades after exposure. PMID:23026800

  9. 30-year International Pediatric Craniofacial Surgery Partnership: Evolution from the “Third World” Forward

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jordan W.; Skirpan, Jan; Stanek, Beata; Kowalczyk, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Background: Craniofacial diseases constitute an important component of the surgical disease burden in low- and middle-income countries. The consideration to introduce craniofacial surgery into such settings poses different questions, risks, and challenges compared with cleft or other forms of plastic surgery. We report the evolution, innovations, and challenges of a 30-year international craniofacial surgery partnership. Methods: We retrospectively report a partnership between surgeons at the Uniwersytecki Szpital Dzieciecy in Krakow, Poland, and a North American craniofacial surgeon. We studied patient conditions, treatment patterns, and associated complications, as well as program advancements and limitations as perceived by surgeons, patient families, and hospital administrators. Results: Since partnership inception in 1986, the complexity of cases performed increased gradually, with the first intracranial case performed in 1995. In the most recent 10-year period (2006–2015), 85 patients have been evaluated, with most common diagnoses of Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, and single-suture craniosynostosis. In the same period, 55 major surgical procedures have been undertaken, with LeFort III midface distraction, posterior vault distraction, and frontoorbital advancement performed most frequently. Key innovations have been the employment of craniofacial distraction osteogenesis, the use of Internet communication and digital photography, and increased understanding of how craniofacial morphology may improve in the absence of surgical intervention. Ongoing challenges include prohibitive training pathways for pediatric plastic surgeons, difficulty in coordinating care with surgeons in other institutions, and limited medical and material resources. Conclusion: Safe craniofacial surgery can be introduced and sustained in a resource-limited setting through an international partnership. PMID:27200233

  10. Social media: the key to health information access for 18- to 30-year-old college students.

    PubMed

    Prybutok, Gayle; Ryan, Sherry

    2015-04-01

    This work examines where 18- to 30-year-old college students seek health information on the Internet and how they determine site and message credibility. Using a qualitative methodology, five focus groups were conducted with 18- to 30-year-old college students, and transcripts were analyzed with MaxQDA text analysis software. The study revealed that 18- to 30-year-old college students have Internet health information source preferences, reasons for seeking health information on the Internet, and message design factors that improve their perception of site and message credibility. We conclude that the Internet and social media show great promise as effective health communication channels for 18- to 30-year-old college students and confirm that preferred Internet/social media sites can be utilized by health educators to present important risk management/disease prevention information to 18- to 30-year-old college students. In addition, message design factors can lend credibility to both sites and the health information delivered there. PMID:25887107

  11. Effect of night time-intervals, height of traps and lunar phases on sand fly collection in a highly endemic area for canine leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Gaglio, Gabriella; Brianti, Emanuele; Napoli, Ettore; Falsone, Luigi; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana D; Otranto, Domenico; Giannetto, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    The activity of phlebotomine sand flies was monitored in a sub-urban area of Sicily in order to acquire data on seasonality and to elucidate the effect of the night time-intervals, height of traps from ground and lunar phases on the abundance of the capture. The study was conducted in the farm of the University of Messina (Italy). Light traps were placed as in the following: biweekly, from dusk to dawn, and from May to November; for three consecutive nights from 18:00 to 6:00, with the net bag being changed every 2h; for 30 days, at different heights from 18:00 to 6:00. A total of five species (i.e., Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus sergenti, Phlebotomus perfiliewi, and Sergentomyia minuta), three of which are proven vectors of Leishmania infantum, were captured. The most abundant species was P. perniciosus (73.3%) followed by S. minuta (23.3%). The highest number of phlebotomine sand flies was collected in August and September with a peak of collection recorded in the evening (i.e., from 20:01 to 22.00). The number of phlebotomine sand flies collected at 50cm above the ground was significantly higher (P=0.041) than that captured at 150cm. Results of this study shed light on the ecology of main phlebotomine species in the Mediterranean area, and on the influence of some factors, such as time and height of traps, on the light trap capture efficiency. PMID:24561074

  12. Contextual learning and context effects during infancy: 30 years of controversial research revisited.

    PubMed

    Revillo, D A; Cotella, E; Paglini, M G; Arias, C

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 30years a considerable number of reports have explored learning about context during infancy in both humans and rats. This research was stimulated by two different theoretical frameworks. The first, known as the neuromaturational model, postulates that learning and behavior are context-independent during early ontogeny, a hypothesis based on the idea that contextual learning is dependent on the hippocampal function, and that this brain structure does not reach full maturity until late in infancy. The second theoretical framework views infants not as immature organisms, but rather as perfectly matured ones, given that their behavioral and cognitive capacities allow them to adapt appropriately to the demands of their specific environment in accordance with their maturational level. This model predicts significant ontogenetic variations in learning and memory due to developmental differences in what is perceived and attended to during learning episodes, which can result in ontogenetic differences in contextual learning depending on the specific demands of the task. The present manuscript reviews those studies that have examined potential developmental differences in contextual learning and context effects in rats. The reviewed results show that, during infancy, context can exert a similar influence over learning and memory as that described for the adult rat. Moreover, in some cases, contextual learning and context effects were greater in infants than in adults. In contrast, under other experimental conditions, no evidence of contextual learning or context effects was observed. We analyzed the procedural factors of these studies with the aim of detecting those that favor or impede contextual learning during infancy, and we discussed whether existing empirical evidence supports the claim that the functionality of the hippocampus is a limiting factor for this type of learning during infancy. Finally, conclusions from human research into contextual learning

  13. Spatial structure of 60- and 30-year variations of the geomagnetic field according to data of analytical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalugin, V. I.; Rotanova, N. M.; Golovkov, V. P.

    1984-10-01

    The distribution of the amplitudes and phases of 60-year variations of the geomagnetic field on the earth's surface is obtained on the basis of analytical models. It is shown that the characteristic features or foci of these variations have different configurations and a dissimilar intensity. A global map of the spatial distribution of 30-year variations is also obtained; and a comparison of maps of the 60- and 30-year variations shows that, although the structure of the latter variations is more complex, the characteristic foci of both types of variations are manifested in the same regions.

  14. 30 years later: Social Representations about AIDS and sexual practices of rural towns residents.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Francisca Marina de Souza Freire; Santos, José Anderson Galdino; Loredanna, Stedile; Araújo, Eunice; Saldanha, Ana Alayde Werba; Silva, Josevânia da

    2016-06-01

    In the 30 years of the AIDS pandemic in Brazil, it is recognized the HIV virus internalization of the phenomenon as a challenge to care and current health policies. In this sense, it aimed to verify sex practices and social representations that rural towns residents have about the disease. Attended by 789 people, men and women, between 18 and 90 years old, residents in 41 towns with fewer than 11,000 inhabitants in the state of Paraiba / Brazil. Data were collected by a questionnaire and the free association of words test. The results showed low concern about disease, perception of invulnerability to HIV infection and not using condoms during sexual intercourse, and confidence in the major reason related partner. Also showed endure derogatory and stereotypical representations, revealing that still persist in rural areas, beliefs and representations concerning the beginning of the epidemic. From these findings, it is possible to point out deficiencies in the care provided by the health services in these localities, which may result in increased vulnerability of this population to diseases, so there is the need to intensify information campaigns and intervention. The results reveal the existence of three different types of modes of learning health literacy skills in informal context: : i) learning that takes place in action, in achieving daily tasks; ii) learning processes that result from problem solving; iii) learning that occurs in an unplanned manner, resulting from accidental circumstances and, in some cases, devoid of intentionality. Nos 30 anos da pandemia da Aids no Brasil, reconhece-se o fenômeno da interiorização do vírus HIV como um desafio ao cuidado e às politicas de saúde atuais. Neste sentido, objetivou-se conhecer práticas sexuais e as representações sociais que residentes de cidades rurais têm acerca da doença. Participaram 789 pessoas, homens e mulheres, entre 18 e 90 anos de idade, residentes em 41 cidades com menos de 11.000 habitantes

  15. Parent material and vegetation influence soil microbial community structure following 30-years of rock weathering and pedogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yarwood, Stephanie; Wick, Abbey; Williams, Mark; Daniels, W Lee

    2015-02-01

    The process of pedogenesis and the development of biological communities during primary succession begin on recently exposed mineral surfaces. Following 30 years of surface exposure of reclaimed surface mining sites (Appalachian Mountains, USA), it was hypothesized that microbial communities would differ between sandstone and siltstone parent materials and to a lesser extent between vegetation types. Microbial community composition was examined by targeting bacterial and archaeal (16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)) and fungal (internal transcribed spacer (ITS)) genes and analyzed using Illumina sequencing. Microbial community composition significantly differed between parent materials and between plots established with tall fescue grass or pitch x loblolly pine vegetation types, suggesting that both factors are important in shaping community assembly during early pedogenesis. At the phylum level, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria differed in relative abundance between sandstone and siltstone. The amount of the heavy fraction carbon (C) was significantly different between sandstone (2.0 mg g(-1)) and siltstone (5.2 mg g(-1)) and correlated with microbial community composition. Soil nitrogen (N) cycling was examined by determining gene copy numbers of ureC, archaeal amoA, and bacterial amoA. Gene quantities tended to be higher in siltstone compared to sandstone but did not differ by vegetation type. This was consistent with differences in extractable ammonium (NH4 (+)) concentrations between sandstone and siltstone (16.4 vs 8.5 μg NH4 (+)-N g(-1) soil), suggesting that nitrification rates may be higher in siltstone. Parent material and early vegetation are important determinants of early microbial community assembly and could be drivers for the trajectory of ecosystem development over longer time scales. PMID:25370885

  16. Treatment outcomes, quality of life, and impact of hemophilia on young adults (aged 18-30 years) with hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Witkop, Michelle; Guelcher, Christine; Forsyth, Angela; Hawk, Sarah; Curtis, Randall; Kelley, Laureen; Frick, Neil; Rice, Michelle; Rosu, Gabriela; Cooper, David L

    2015-12-01

    The Hemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities (HERO) initiative assessed psychosocial issues reported by people with moderate to severe hemophilia and was led by a multidisciplinary international advisory board. This analysis reports data from young adult respondents (aged 18-30 years), including both US and overall global (including US respondents) results, and investigates treatment outcomes, quality of life, and impacts of hemophilia on relationships. More young adults in HERO received prophylaxis than on-demand treatment, although a majority reported not using factor products exactly as prescribed, and 50% of global respondents and 26% of US respondents reported issues with access to factor replacement therapy in the previous 5 years. Many young adults with hemophilia reported comorbidities, including bone/skeletal arthritis, chronic pain, and viral infections, and nearly half of young adults reported anxiety/depression. Most reported pain interference with daily activities in the past 4 weeks, although a majority reported participating in lower-risk activities and approximately half in intermediate-risk activities. Most young adults were very or quite satisfied with the support of partners/spouses, family, and friends, although roughly one-third reported that hemophilia affected their ability to develop close relationships with a partner. A majority of young adults reported that hemophilia has had a negative impact on employment, and 62% of global respondents and 78% of US respondents were employed at least part-time. Together these data highlight the psychosocial issues experienced by young adults with hemophilia and suggest that increased focus on these issues may improve comprehensive care during the transition to adulthood. PMID:26619194

  17. The use of desmopressin in von Willebrand disease: the experience of the first 30 years (1977-2007).

    PubMed

    Federici, A B

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the treatment for von Willebrand disease (VWD) is to correct the dual defect of haemostasis, i.e. the abnormal platelet adhesion as a result of reduced and/or dysfunctional von Willebrand factor (VWF) and the abnormal coagulation expressed by low levels of factor VIII (FVIII). Correction of both deficiencies can be achieved by administering the synthetic peptide desmopressin (DDAVP) or, in cases unresponsive to this agent, the plasma concentrates containing VWF and FVIII (VWF/FVIII). DDAVP is the treatment of choice for type 1 VWD because it can induce release of normal VWF from cellular compartments, but the drug can be clinically useful also in other VWD types, including acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS). A test dose of DDAVP at the time of diagnosis is recommended to establish the individual patterns of biological response and to predict clinical efficacy during bleeding and surgery. DDAVP is not effective in VWD type 3 and in severe forms of VWD 1 and 2. It can induce transient thrombocytopenia in patients with VWD type 2B. The results of several retrospective studies on the use of DDAVP in VWD management have been reported by many authors in different countries for the last 30 years. However, despite the widespread use of DDAVP in the treatment of VWD, there are only a few prospective clinical trials in a large number of cases on DDAVP efficacy and safety aimed at determining benefits and limits of this therapeutic approach. An investigator-driven observational prospective study on clinical efficacy of DDAVP in 200 patients with VWD types 1 and 2 has been recently organized: the effectiveness and safety of DDAVP will be evaluated prospectively for 24 months during bleeding episodes and minor or major surgeries in the VWD patients who were exposed to an infusion trial at enrollment. PMID:18173689

  18. Effect of background region of interest and time-interval selection on glomerular filtration ratio estimation by percentage dose uptake of (99m)Tc-DTPA in comparison with (51)Cr-EDTA clearance in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Debruyn, Katrien; Vandermeulen, Eva; Saunders, Jimmy H; Dobbeleir, André A; Ham, Hamphrey R; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2013-08-01

    Evaluation of glomerular function is a useful part of the diagnostic approach in animals suspected of having renal disease. Time-interval and background region of interest (bg ROI) selection are determining factors when calculating the glomerular filtration ratio (GFR) based on percentage uptake of (99m)technetium-labelled diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA). Therefore, three different time intervals (60-120 s, 120-180 s, 60-180 s) and three different bg ROIs (C-shape, caudolateral, cranial + caudal) were investigated. In addition, global GFRs based on percentage dose uptake of (99m)Tc-DTPA for the different time-intervals and bg ROIs were compared with the global GFR based on (51)chromium-ethylene diaminic tetra-acetic acid ((51)Cr-EDTA) plasma clearance in nine healthy European domestic shorthair cats. Paired Student's t-tests and linear regression analysis were used to analyse the data. Different time intervals seemed to cause significant variation (P <0.01) in absolute GFR values, regardless of the choice of bg ROI. Significant differences (P <0.01) between bg ROIs were only observed in the 120-180s time interval between the C-shape and cranial + caudal bg ROI, and between the caudolateral and cranial + caudal bg ROI. The caudolateral bg ROI in the 60-180 s time interval showed the highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.882) between (99m)Tc-DTPA and (51)Cr-EDTA, although a significant difference (P <0.05) was present between both techniques. PMID:23349527

  19. Using Conference Submission Data to Uncover Broad Trends in Language Teaching: A Case Study of One Conference over 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Submissions to conferences can provide rich material for analysing characteristics and trends within a conference's history and that of similar conferences, as well as the associated field at large. The present study uses data gathered over 30 years from a language teachers' conference in Japan (JALT National) to expound upon patterns related to…

  20. Longitudinal Pathways between Maternal Mental Health in Infancy and Offspring Romantic Relationships in Adulthood: A 30-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal pathways between maternal mental health in infancy and offspring romantic relationship outcomes in adulthood were examined using a 30-year prospective longitudinal study of 196 mothers and their children. Structural equation modeling revealed that maternal mental health at 30 months was related to offspring relationship status and…

  1. 30-Year Trends in Stroke Rates and Outcome in Auckland, New Zealand (1981-2012): A Multi-Ethnic Population-Based Series of Studies

    PubMed Central

    Feigin, Valery L.; Krishnamurthi, Rita V.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; McPherson, Kathryn M.; Barber, P. Alan; Parag, Varsha; Arroll, Bruce; Bennett, Derrick A.; Tobias, Martin; Jones, Amy; Witt, Emma; Brown, Paul; Abbott, Max; Bhattacharjee, Rohit; Rush, Elaine; Suh, Flora Minsun; Theadom, Alice; Rathnasabapathy, Yogini; Te Ao, Braden; Parmar, Priya G.; Anderson, Craig; Bonita, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background Insufficient data exist on population-based trends in morbidity and mortality to determine the success of prevention strategies and improvements in health care delivery in stroke. The aim of this study was to determine trends in incidence and outcome (1-year mortality, 28-day case-fatality) in relation to management and risk factors for stroke in the multi-ethnic population of Auckland, New Zealand (NZ) over 30-years. Methods Four stroke incidence population-based register studies were undertaken in adult residents (aged ≥15 years) of Auckland NZ in 1981–1982, 1991–1992, 2002–2003 and 2011–2012. All used standard World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria and multiple overlapping sources of case-ascertainment for hospitalised and non-hospitalised, fatal and non-fatal, new stroke events. Ethnicity was consistently self-identified into four major groups. Crude and age-adjusted (WHO world population standard) annual incidence and mortality with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated per 100,000 people, assuming a Poisson distribution. Results 5400 new stroke patients were registered in four 12 month recruitment phases over the 30-year study period; 79% were NZ/European, 6% Māori, 8% Pacific people, and 7% were of Asian or other origin. Overall stroke incidence and 1-year mortality decreased by 23% (95% CI 5%-31%) and 62% (95% CI 36%-86%), respectively, from 1981 to 2012. Whilst stroke incidence and mortality declined across all groups in NZ from 1991, Māori and Pacific groups had the slowest rate of decline and continue to experience stroke at a significantly younger age (mean ages 60 and 62 years, respectively) compared with NZ/Europeans (mean age 75 years). There was also a decline in 28-day stroke case fatality (overall by 14%, 95% CI 11%-17%) across all ethnic groups from 1981 to 2012. However, there were significant increases in the frequencies of pre-morbid hypertension, myocardial infarction, and diabetes

  2. ECG of the Month: ECG in a 30-Year-Old Woman.

    PubMed

    Glancy, D Luke; Diwan, Pranav M

    2015-01-01

    Sinus rhythm; an atrial premature complex; sagging ST-segments, low T-waves, and prominent U-waves suggesting hypokalemia. The ST-T and U-wave changes described above are characteristic of hypokalemia. When the serum potassium level is between 3.0 and 3.5 mEq/L, one or more of the findings may be present. All three are common when the serum potassium level is below 2.5 mEq/L. At the lowest serum potassium levels the T-wave becomes a notch on the upstroke of a giant U-wave, as occurs here in the ECG of this woman with a serum potassium of 1.7 mEq/L.1,2 This configuration is occasionally mistaken for the ST-segment depression and long QT interval of myocardial ischemia.3 Atrial premature complexes are common with hypokalemia, and atrial fibrillation may occur. This patient's potassium was repleted, and the following day her ECG was essentially normal (Figure 2) and virtually unchanged from an ECG recorded two years earlier. PMID:27159459

  3. A sea ice free summer Arctic within 30 years: An update from CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Muyin; Overland, James E.

    2012-09-01

    Three years ago we proposed that the summer Arctic would be nearly sea ice free by the 2030s; “nearly” is interpreted as sea ice extent less than 1.0 million km2. We consider this estimate to be still valid based on projections of updated climate models (CMIP5) and observational data. Similar to previous models (CMIP3), CMIP5 still shows a wide spread in hindcast and projected sea ice loss among different models. Further, there is no consensus in the scientific literature for the cause of such a spread in results for CMIP3 and CMIP5. While CMIP5 model mean sea ice extents are closer to observations than CMIP3, the rates of sea ice reduction in most model runs are slow relative to recent observations. All CMIP5 models do show loss of sea ice due to increased anthropogenic forcing relative to pre-industrial control runs. Applying the same technique of model selection and extrapolation approach to CMIP5 as we used in our previous paper, the interval range for a nearly sea ice free Arctic is 14 to 36 years, with a median value of 28 years. Relative to a 2007 baseline, this suggests a nearly sea ice free Arctic in the 2030s.

  4. Reproductive performance, blood urea nitrogen, and blood glucose concentration in beef heifers grazing annual ryegrass in the spring and supplemented at different intervals prior to timed AI.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In successive years, 76 Gelbvieh x Angus heifers [n = 36 (year 1) and n = 40 (year 2)] at 12 to 14 months of age were stratified by weight and randomly allocated to one of three treatments to determine the impact of rumen degradable carbohydrates at different intervals prior to breeding on conceptio...

  5. Trends analyses of 30 years of ambient 8 hour ozone and precursor monitoring data in the South Central U.S.: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sather, Mark E; Cavender, Kevin

    2016-07-13

    In the last 30 years ambient ozone concentrations have notably decreased in the South Central U.S. Yet, current ambient ozone concentrations measured over the past three years 2013-2015 in this area of the U.S. are not meeting the U.S. 2015 8 hour ozone standard of 70 parts per billion (ppb). This paper provides an update on long-term trends analyses of ambient 8 hour ozone and ozone precursor monitoring data collected over the past 30 years (1986-2015) in four South Central U.S. cities, following up on two previously published reviews of 20 and 25 year trends for these cities. All four cities have benefitted from national ozone precursor controls put in place during the 1990s and 2000s involving cleaner vehicles (vehicle fleet turnover/replacement over time), cleaner fuels, cleaner gasoline and diesel engines, and improved inspection/maintenance programs for existing vehicles. Additional ozone precursor emission controls specific to each city are detailed in this paper. The controls have resulted in impressive ambient ozone and ambient ozone precursor concentration reductions in the four South Central U.S. cities over the past 30 years, including 31-70% ambient nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentration declines from historical peaks to the present, 43-72% volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration declines from historical peaks to the present, a related 45-76% VOC reactivity decline for a subset of VOC species from historical peaks to the present, and an 18-38 ppb reduction in city 8 hour ozone design value concentrations. A new challenge for each of the four South Central U.S. cities will be meeting the U.S. 2015 8 hour ozone standard of 70 ppb. PMID:27282109

  6. Static and Dynamic Cognitive Deficits in Childhood Preceding Adult Schizophrenia: A 30-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Reichenberg, Abraham; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Keefe, Richard S.E.; Murray, Robin M.; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Premorbid cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are well documented and have been interpreted as supporting a neurodevelopmental etiological model. The authors investigated the following three unresolved questions about premorbid cognitive deficits: What is their developmental course? Do all premorbid cognitive deficits follow the same course? Are premorbid cognitive deficits specific to schizophrenia or shared by other psychiatric disorders? Methods Participants were members of a representative cohort of 1,037 males and females born between 1972 and 1973 in Dunedin, New Zealand. Cohort members underwent follow-up evaluations at specific intervals from age 3 to 32 years, with a 96% retention rate. Cognitive development was analyzed and compared in children who later developed schizophrenia or recurrent depression as well as in healthy comparison subjects. Results Children who developed adult schizophrenia exhibited developmental deficits (i.e., static cognitive impairments that emerge early and remain stable) on tests indexing verbal and visual knowledge acquisition, reasoning, and conceptualization. In addition, these children exhibited developmental lags (i.e., growth that is slower relative to healthy comparison subjects) on tests indexing processing speed, attention, visual-spatial problem solving ability, and working memory. These two premorbid cognitive patterns were not observed in children who later developed recurrent depression. Conclusions These findings suggest that the origins of schizophrenia include two interrelated developmental processes evident from childhood to early adolescence (ages 7–13 years). Children who will grow up to develop adult schizophrenia enter primary school struggling with verbal reasoning and lag further behind their peers in working memory, attention, and processing speed as they get older. PMID:20048021

  7. Attrition in a 30-year follow-up of a perinatal birth risk cohort: factors change with age

    PubMed Central

    Hokkanen, Laura; Laasonen, Marja; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Virta, Maarit; Lipsanen, Jari; Tienari, Pentti J.; Michelsson, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Background. Attrition is a major cause of potential bias in longitudinal studies and clinical trials. Attrition rate above 20% raises concern of the reliability of the results. Few studies have looked at the factors behind attrition in follow-ups spanning decades. Methods. We analyzed attrition and associated factors of a 30-year follow-up cohort of subjects who were born with perinatal risks for neurodevelopmental disorders. Attrition rates were calculated at different stages of follow-up and differences between responders and non-responders were tested. To find combinations of variables influencing attrition and investigate their relative importance at birth, 5, 9, 16 and 30 years of follow-up we used the random forest classification. Results. Initial loss of potential participants was 13%. Attrition was 16% at five, 24% at nine, 35% at 16 and 46% at 30 years. The only group difference that emerged between responders and non-responders was in socioeconomic status (SES). The variables identified by random forest classification analysis were classified into Birth related, Development related and SES related. Variables from all these categories contributed to attrition, but SES related variables were less important than birth and development associated variables. Classification accuracy ranged between 0.74 and 0.96 depending on age. Discussion. Lower SES is linked to attrition in many studies. Our results point to the importance of the growth and development related factors in a longitudinal study. Parents’ decisions to participate depend on the characteristics of the child. The same association was also seen when the child, now grown up, decided to participate at 30 years. In addition, birth related medical variables are associated with the attrition still at the age of 30. Our results using a data mining approach suggest that attrition in longitudinal studies is influenced by complex interactions of a multitude of variables, which are not necessarily evident

  8. Ambient Heat and Sudden Infant Death: A Case-Crossover Study Spanning 30 Years in Montreal, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, William D.; Smargiassi, Audrey; Kosatsky, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Background Climate change may lead to more severe and extreme heat waves in the future, but its potential impact on sudden infant death—a leading cause of infant mortality—is unclear. Objectives We sought to determine whether risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is elevated during hot weather. Methods We undertook a case-crossover analysis of all sudden infant deaths during warm periods in metropolitan Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from 1981 through 2010. Our analysis included a total of 196 certified cases of SIDS, including 89 deaths at 1–2 months of age, and 94 at 3–12 months. We estimated associations between maximum outdoor temperatures and SIDS by comparing outdoor temperatures on the day of or day before a SIDS event with temperatures on control days during the same month, using cubic splines to model temperature and adjusting for relative humidity. Results Maximum daily temperatures of ≥ 29°C on the same day were associated with 2.78 times greater odds of sudden infant death relative to 20°C (95% CI: 1.64, 4.70). The likelihood of sudden death increased steadily with higher temperature. Associations were stronger for infants 3–12 months of age than for infants 1–2 months of age, with odds ratios of 3.90 (95% CI: 1.87, 8.13) and 1.73 (95% CI: 0.80, 3.73), respectively, for 29°C compared with 20°C on the day of the event. Conclusions High ambient temperature may be a novel risk factor for SIDS, especially at ≥ 3 months of age. Climate change and the higher temperatures that result may account for a potentially greater proportion of sudden infant deaths in the future. Citation Auger N, Fraser WD, Smargiassi A, Kosatsky T. 2015. Ambient heat and sudden infant death: a case-crossover study spanning 30 years in Montreal, Canada. Environ Health Perspect 123:712–716; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307960 PMID:25748025

  9. Climatic effects of 30 years of landscape change over the Greater Phoenix, Arizona, region: 1. Surface energy budget changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Georgescu, M.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Weaver, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is part 1 of a two-part study that evaluates the climatic effects of recent landscape change for one of the nation's most rapidly expanding metropolitan complexes, the Greater Phoenix, Arizona, region. The region's landscape evolution over an approximate 30-year period since the early 1970s is documented on the basis of analyses of Landsat images and land use/land cover (LULC) data sets derived from aerial photography (1973) and Landsat (1992 and 2001). High-resolution, Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), simulations (2-km grid spacing) are used in conjunction with consistently defined land cover data sets and associated biophysical parameters for the circa 1973, circa 1992, and circa 2001 time periods to quantify the impacts of intensive land use changes on the July surface temperatures and the surface radiation and energy budgets for the Greater Phoenix region. The main findings are as follows: since the early 1970s the region's landscape has been altered by a significant increase in urban/suburban land area, primarily at the expense of decreasing plots of irrigated agriculture and secondarily by the conversion of seminatural shrubland. Mean regional temperatures for the circa 2001 landscape were 0.12??C warmer than the circa 1973 landscape, with maximum temperature differences, located over regions of greatest urbanization, in excess of 1??C. The significant reduction in irrigated agriculture, for the circa 2001 relative to the circa 1973 landscape, resulted in dew point temperature decreases in excess of 1??C. The effect of distinct land use conversion themes (e.g., conversion from irrigated agriculture to urban land) was also examined to evaluate how the most important conversion themes have each contributed to the region's changing climate. The two urbanization themes studied (from an initial landscape of irrigated agriculture and seminatural shrubland) have the greatest positive effect on near-surface temperature, increasing maximum daily

  10. Poverty Rate Hits Lowest Level since 1979 as Unemployment Reaches a 30-Year Low. News Release.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, Washington, DC.

    This brief presents some U.S. Census figures on poverty and employment patterns for 1999. The percentage of U.S. citizens living in poverty declined to 11.8 percent in 1999, the lowest poverty rate since 1979, as poverty rates for people aged 65 and over, African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and people living in the South fell to all-time lows.…

  11. Effects of time of suckling during the solar day on duration of the postpartum anovulatory interval in Brahman x Hereford (F1) cows.

    PubMed

    Gazal, O S; Guzman-Vega, G A; Williams, G L

    1999-05-01

    Previously published reports have indicated that postpartum anovulatory intervals can be markedly reduced and rebreeding performance enhanced in Bos taurus cows by eliminating nighttime suckling. We sought to confirm this hypothesis by examining the effects of day, nighttime, and ad libitum suckling on suckling behavior of calves, duration of the postpartum anovulatory interval, and pregnancy rates in 45 fall-calving Brahman x Hereford (F1) cows. Beginning on d 9 to 12 postpartum, calves were removed from lactating cows from 0700 to 1900 (Night-Suckled, n = 15) or from 1900 to 0700 (Day-Suckled, n = 15), or remained with their dams continuously (Ad Libitum-Suckled, n = 15). Cows in each group were maintained with fertile Angus bulls from d 10 postpartum until the first normal luteal phase or 100 d postpartum, whichever occurred first. Cows were observed for estrous behavior twice daily, and jugular blood samples were collected twice weekly for the determination of serum progesterone concentration. Mean number of suckling episodes per 24 h was greater (P < .0001) for the Ad Libitum-Suckled group than either Night- or Day-Suckled groups (5.9+/-.42 vs 3.8+/-.14, and 3.9+/-.32, respectively). Hourly analysis of suckling episodes in the Ad Libitum group indicated that they were not skewed toward a particular period, with suckling occurring at a periodicity of 4 to 6 h. Intervals to the first rise in progesterone > or = 1 ng/mL (32+/-2.5, 32+/-4.5, and 31+/-1.7 d, respectively), first normal luteal phase (38+/-3.1, 38+/-3.8, and 37+/-2.5 d, respectively), and first estrus (43+/-3.5, 40+/-3.9, and 36+/-1.1 d, respectively) did not differ (P > .05) among the three groups. Similarly, cumulative pregnancy rates within 100 d after calving did not differ (P > .05). These results in Bos indicus x Bos taurus (F1) cattle do not support the previous conclusions in Bos taurus that eliminating nighttime suckling reduces the postpartum anovulatory interval. PMID:10340568

  12. Effects of 30 Years of Crop Rotation and Tillage on Bacterial and Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizers.

    PubMed

    Munroe, Jake W; McCormick, Ian; Deen, William; Dunfield, Kari E

    2016-05-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) both mediate soil nitrification and may have specialized niches in the soil. Little is understood of how these microorganisms are affected by long-term crop rotation and tillage practices. In this study, we assessed abundance and gene expression of AOB and AOA under two contrasting crop rotations and tillage regimes at a 30-yr-old long-term experiment on a Canadian silt loam soil. Continuous corn ( L.) (CC) was compared with a corn-corn-soybean [ (L.) Merr.]-winter wheat ( L.) rotation under-seeded with red clover ( L.) (RC), with conventional tillage (CT) and no-till (NT) as subplot treatments. Soil sampling was performed during the first corn year at four time points throughout the 2010 season and at three discrete depths (0-5, 5-15, and 15-30 cm). Overall, AOA abundance was found to be more than 10 times that of AOB, although AOA transcriptional activity was below detectable levels across all treatments. Crop rotation had a marginally significant effect on AOB abundance, with 1.3 times as many gene copies under the simpler CC rotation than under the more diverse RC rotation. More pronounced effects of depth on AOB abundance and gene expression were observed under NT versus CT management, and NT supported higher abundances of total archaea and AOA than CT across the growing season. We suggest that AOB may be more functionally important than AOA in this high-input agricultural soil but that NT management can promote enhanced soil archaeal populations. PMID:27136161

  13. Gender Trends in Radiation Oncology in the United States: A 30-Year Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Awad A.; Egleston, Brian; Holliday, Emma; Eastwick, Gary; Takita, Cristiane; Jagsi, Reshma

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although considerable research exists regarding the role of women in the medical profession in the United States, little work has described the participation of women in academic radiation oncology. We examined women's participation in authorship of radiation oncology literature, a visible and influential activity that merits specific attention. Methods and Materials: We examined the gender of first and senior US physician-authors of articles published in the Red Journal in 1980, 1990, 2000, 2004, 2010, and 2012. The significance of trends over time was evaluated using logistic regression. Results were compared with female representation in journals of general medicine and other major medical specialties. Findings were also placed in the context of trends in the representation of women among radiation oncology faculty and residents over the past 3 decades, using Association of American Medical Colleges data. Results: The proportion of women among Red Journal first authors increased from 13.4% in 1980 to 29.7% in 2012, and the proportion among senior authors increased from 3.2% to 22.6%. The proportion of women among radiation oncology full-time faculty increased from 11% to 26.7% from 1980 to 2012. The proportion of women among radiation oncology residents increased from 27.1% to 33.3% from 1980 to 2010. Conclusions: Female first and senior authorship in the Red Journal has increased significantly, as has women's participation among full-time faculty, but women remain underrepresented among radiation oncology residents compared with their representation in the medical student body. Understanding such trends is necessary to develop appropriately targeted interventions to improve gender equity in radiation oncology.

  14. GENDER TRENDS IN RADIATION ONCOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES: A 30 YEAR ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Awad A; Egleston, Brian; Holliday, Emma; Eastwick, Gary; Takita, Cristiane; Jagsi, Reshma

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objective Although considerable research exists regarding the role of women in the medical profession in the United States, little work has described the participation of women in academic radiation oncology. We examined women’s participation in authorship of radiation oncology literature, a visible and influential activity that merits specific attention. Methods and Materials We examined the gender of first and senior U.S. physician-authors of articles published in the Red Journal in 1980, 1990, 2000, 2004, 2010 and 2012. The significance of trends over time was evaluated using logistic regression. Results were compared to female representation in journals of general medicine and other major medical specialties. Findings were also placed in the context of trends in the representation of women among radiation oncology faculty and residents over the last three decades, using AAMC data. Results The proportion of women among Red Journal first authors increased from 13.4% in 1980 to 29.7% in 2012, and the proportion among senior authors increased from 3.2% to 22.6%. The proportion of women among radiation oncology full-time faculty increased from 11% to 26.7% from 1980 to 2012. The proportion of women among radiation oncology residents increased from 27.1% to 33.3% from 1980 to 2010. Conclusion Female first and senior authorship in the Red Journal has increased significantly, as has women’s participation among full-time faculty, but women remain under-represented among radiation oncology residents as compared to their representation in the medical student body. Understanding such trends is necessary to develop appropriately targeted interventions to improve gender equity in radiation oncology. PMID:24189127

  15. Chicago 2014--30 years of γδ T cells.

    PubMed

    Bonneville, Marc; Chen, Zheng W; Déchanet-Merville, Julie; Eberl, Matthias; Fournié, Jean Jacques; Jameson, Julie M; Lopez, Richard D; Massaia, Massimo; Silva-Santos, Bruno

    2015-07-01

    The international γδ T cell conference takes place every 2 years. After being held in Denver (USA) in 2004, La Jolla (USA) in 2006, Marseille (France) in 2008, Kiel (Germany) in 2010 and Freiburg (Germany) in 2012, the γδ T cell community gathered this time in Chicago (USA). This conference was organized by Zheng Chen from 16 to 18 May 2014 at his home institution, the University of Illinois College of Medicine, and boasted 180 attendants from all over the world and almost 100 submitted abstracts. PMID:25468804

  16. Programming with Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsakis, Nicholas D.; Gross, Thomas R.

    Intervals are a new, higher-level primitive for parallel programming with which programmers directly construct the program schedule. Programs using intervals can be statically analyzed to ensure that they do not deadlock or contain data races. In this paper, we demonstrate the flexibility of intervals by showing how to use them to emulate common parallel control-flow constructs like barriers and signals, as well as higher-level patterns such as bounded-buffer producer-consumer. We have implemented intervals as a publicly available library for Java and Scala.

  17. 30 Years of Forest Change in the Eastern United States Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, M. J.; Kaylor, S. D.; Hayes, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Forest disturbances drive successional changes, impact management, redistribute carbon among ecosystem pools and the atmosphere, and alter nutrient cycling. Detecting these important ecological dynamics using remotely sensed methods allows for a consistent and comprehensive census of vegetation change over the study area, unlike in traditional plot-based methods. However, in the species-rich and structurally complex forests of the eastern United States, disturbance events caused by low-intensity fires or species-specific insects and disease are often partial, and therefore difficult to detect using satellite-based methods that rely only on total vegetation amount. We developed a set of new algorithms, collectively called VeRDET (Vegetation Regeneration and Disturbance Estimates through Time), which use a novel patch-based approach to incorporate spatial information from Landsat TM to detect disturbance, stable, and regeneration periods in a time-series of imagery. VeRDET uses SPARCS to identify clear-sky probabilities for each pixel, generates a yearly clear-sky composite of those images, calculates a vegetation index using that composite, spatially segments the vegetation index into patches using total variation regularized denoising, and then temporally segments the time-series of each pixel into a piecewise linear function. For each pixel, the slopes of the segments in the piecewise linear function are interpreted as disturbed, stable, or regenerating. We present a map of cumulative forest disturbance and regeneration over the Landsat 5 record in the eastern United States. We detect higher total rates of forest disturbance than previous studies, likely because we include stress and non-mortality declines in vegetation cover. Additionally, ecoregions predict major differences in forest change, with the Piedmont and Southeastern Plains having upwards of 7% of total forest lands affected by disturbance each year on the high end and the Blue Ridge Mountains having a

  18. EVALUATION OF SPRING OPERATED RELIEF VALVE MAINTENANCE INTERVALS AND EXTENSION OF MAINTENANCE TIMES USING A WEIBULL ANALYSIS WITH MODIFIED BAYESIAN UPDATING

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, S.; Gross, R.; Mitchell, E.

    2011-01-18

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) spring operated pressure relief valve (SORV) maintenance intervals were evaluated using an approach provided by the American Petroleum Institute (API RP 581) for risk-based inspection technology (RBI). In addition, the impact of extending the inspection schedule was evaluated using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS). The API RP 581 approach is characterized as a Weibull analysis with modified Bayesian updating provided by SRS SORV proof testing experience. Initial Weibull parameter estimates were updated as per SRS's historical proof test records contained in the Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) Process Equipment Reliability Database (PERD). The API RP 581 methodology was used to estimate the SORV's probability of failing on demand (PFD), and the annual expected risk. The API RP 581 methodology indicates that the current SRS maintenance plan is conservative. Cost savings may be attained in certain mild service applications that present low PFD and overall risk. Current practices are reviewed and recommendations are made for extending inspection intervals. The paper gives an illustration of the inspection costs versus the associated risks by using API RP 581 Risk Based Inspection (RBI) Technology. A cost effective maintenance frequency balancing both financial risk and inspection cost is demonstrated.

  19. Stability of A-150 plastic ionization chamber response over a ~30 year period

    SciTech Connect

    Kroc, Thomas K.; Lennox, Arlene J.; /Fermilab

    2007-08-01

    At the NIU Institute for Neutron Therapy at Fermilab, the clinical tissue-equivalent ionization chamber response is measured every treatment day using a cesium source that was configured to match readings obtained at the National Bureau of Standards. Daily measurements are performed in air using the air-to-tissue dose conversion factors given in AAPM Report no. 7. The measured exposure calibration factors have been tabulated and graphed as a function of time from 1978 to present. For A-150 plastic ionization chambers, these factors exhibit a sinusoidal variation with a period of approximately one year and amplitude of {+-} 1%. This variation, attributable to the hygroscopic nature of A-150 plastic, is correlated with the relative humidity of the facility, and is greater than the humidity corrections for gas described in the literature. Our data suggest that chamber calibration should be performed at least weekly to accommodate these variations.

  20. Familial factors in early deaths: twins followed 30 years to ages 51-61 in 1978.

    PubMed

    Hrubec, Z; Neel, J V

    1981-01-01

    Subjects in the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Twin Registry of 31,848 male twin veterans were followed for mortality from 1 January 1946, or from the date of entry into military service if that was later, to 31 December 1978. During this time 3,573 deaths occurred among them, 837 due to trauma and 2,712 due to disease. Mortality from all causes for the entire follow-up period was 10.2% among 11,350 monozygotic (MZ) twins and 11.4% among 14,450 dizygotic (DZ) twins. Mortality of veterans is known to be favorable compared to U.S. males. Among U.S. males of the same ages as the two respective twin zygosity groups, a mortality of 13.9% would have been expected during this time period. Observed mortality from trauma was 2.3% for MZ twins and 2.5% for DZ twins, with 3.0% expected in either group. Observed mortality from all disease was 7.9% for MZ twins and 8.8% for DZ twins, with 10.9% expected in either group. For total mortality, the case twin concordance rates, based on individual deaths, were 28.2% among MZ twins and 17.7% among DZ twins. For trauma, respectively by zygosity, these concordance rates were 6.9% and 3.9%. In this sample, familial factors appear to be of little consequence in trauma deaths. For all disease the concordance rates were 30.1% and 17.4%. Estimating heritability of liability to death from disease, as proposed by Edwards (1969), provides values of h2 = r = 0.51 for MZ twins, h2 = 2r = 0.48 for DZ twins, and h2 = 2(rMZ-rDZ) = 0.54 using data for the two zygosity groups combined. PMID:10819020

  1. Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer: 30-Year Experience in a Single Institution in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Jingu, Keiichi; Tanabe, Takaya; Nemoto, Kenji; Ariga, Hisanori; Umezawa, Rei; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Ken; Koto, Masashi; Sugawara, Toshiyuki; Kubozono, Masaki; Shimizu, Eiji; Abe, Keiko; Yamada, Shogo

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze retrospectively the results of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) with or without external beam radiotherapy ({+-} EBRT) for localized pancreatic cancer in the past three decades and to analyze prognostic factors by multivariate analysis. Methods and Materials: Records for 322 patients with pancreatic cancer treated by IORT {+-} EBRT in Tohoku University Hospital between 1980 and 2009 were reviewed. One hundred ninety-two patients who had no distant organ metastases or dissemination at the time of laparotomy were enrolled in the present study. Results: Eighty-three patients underwent gross total resection (R0: 48 patients, R1: 35 patients), and 109 patients underwent only biopsy or palliative resection. Fifty-five patients underwent adjuvant EBRT, and 124 underwent adjuvant chemotherapy. The median doses of IORT and EBRT were 25 and 40 Gy, respectively. The median follow-up period was 37.5 months. At the time of the analysis, 166 patients had disease recurrence, and 35 patients had local failure. The 2-year local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) rates were 71.0% and 16.9%, respectively. Comparison of the results for each decade showed that OS was significantly improved decade by decade (2-year: 25.0% vs. 18.8% vs. 4.2%, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that degree of resection (R0-1 vs. R2, hazard ratio = 1.97, p = 0.001) and adjuvant chemotherapy (yes vs. no, hazard ratio = 1.54, p = 0.028) had significant impacts on OS. Late gastrointestinal morbidity of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 grade 4 or 5 was observed in four patients. Conclusion: Excellent local control for pancreatic cancer with few cases of severe late toxicity was achieved by using IORT. OS of patients with pancreatic cancer treated by IORT {+-} EBRT improved significantly decade by decade. Multivariate analysis showed that degree of resection and adjuvant chemotherapy had significant impacts on OS.

  2. 30 years of high-intensity negative ion sources for accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Vadim Dudnikov

    2001-07-25

    Thirty years ago, July 1, 1971, significant enhancement of negative ion emission from a gas discharge following an admixture of cesium was observed for the first time. This observation became the basis for the development of Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for efficient production of negative ions from the interaction of plasma particles with electrodes on which adsorbed cesium reduced the surface work-function. The emission current density of negative ions increased rapidly from j {approximately} 10 mA/cm{sup 2} to 3.7 A/cm{sup 2} with a flat cathode and up to 8 A/cm{sup 2} with an optimized geometrical focusing in the long pulse SPS, and to 0.3 A/cm{sup 2} for DC SPS, recently increased up to 0.7 A/cm{sup 2}. Discovery of charge-exchange cooling helped decrease the negative ion temperature T below 1 eV, and increase brightness by many orders to a level compatible with the best proton sources, B = j/T> 1 A/cm{sup 2} eV. The combination of the SPS with charge-exchange injection improved large accelerators operation and has permitted beam accumulation up to space-charge limit and overcome this limit several times. The early SPS for accelerators have been in operation without modification for {approximately} 25 years. Advanced version of the SPS for accelerators is described. Features of negative ion beam formation, transportation, space-charge neutralization-overneutralization, and instability damping is considered. Practical aspects of SPS operation and high brightness beam production is discussed.

  3. The Relationship of Housing and Population Health: A 30-Year Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, David E.; Wilson, Jonathan; Dixon, Sherry L.; Smith, Janet; Evens, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Objective We analyzed the relationship between health status and housing quality over time. Methods We combined data from two nationally representative longitudinal surveys of the U.S. population and its housing, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the American Housing Survey, respectively. We identified housing and health trends from approximately 1970 to 2000, after excluding those trends for which data were missing or where we found no plausible association or change in trend. Results Changes in housing include construction type, proportion of rental versus home ownership, age, density, size, moisture, pests, broken windows, ventilation and air conditioning, and water leaks. Changes in health measures include asthma, respiratory illness, obesity and diabetes, and lead poisoning, among others. The results suggest ecologic trends in childhood lead poisoning follow housing age, water leaks, and ventilation; asthma follows ventilation, windows, and age; overweight trends follow ventilation; blood pressure trends follow community measures; and health disparities have not changed greatly. Conclusions Housing trends are consistent with certain health trends over time. Future national longitudinal surveys should include health, housing, and community metrics within a single integrated design, instead of separate surveys, in order to develop reliable indicators of how housing changes affect population health and how to best target resources. Little progress has been made in reducing the health and housing disparities of disadvantaged groups, with the notable exception of childhood lead poisoning caused by exposure to lead-based paint hazards. Use of these and other data sets to create reliable integrated indicators of health and housing quality are needed. PMID:19440499

  4. Trends in food consumption over 30 years: evidence from a British birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pot, Gerda K; Prynne, Celia J; Almoosawi, Suzana; Kuh, Diana; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    Background As populations are ageing, more emphasis is placed on healthy ageing. Over the past decades, food consumption patterns and food availability have also changed drastically and therefore this study aimed to describe these changes in an ageing population. Subjects/Methods Food consumption of participants from the MRC National Survey on Health and Development (NSHD), a British birth cohort study, was assessed using a 5 day estimated food records at 60-64y (2006-11), 53y (1999), 43y (1989), and 36y (1982). Only those who recorded ≥ 3 days at all four time points were included in the analyses, n=989 (n=438 men and n=551 women); trends were tested using the Friedman test. Results Consumption of white bread, whole milk, fats and oils, meat and meat products, alcoholic drinks, coffee, and sugar, preserves and confectionery decreased (p<0.001) whilst consumption of wholemeal and granary bread, semi-skimmed milk, fish, and fruit and vegetables increased (p<0.001) over time. These observed changes in food consumption reflect a healthier diet, e.g. replacement of white bread by granary and wholemeal bread, lower consumption of red and processed meats, somewhat higher consumption of fish, higher consumption of vegetables, and lower consumption of coffee. This could partly be due to ageing of the cohort or compliance with dietary recommendations, facilitated by greater availability of healthier foods, such as semi-skimmed milk and wholegrain bread, in the UK. Conclusions The changes in food consumption in this British birth cohort over the past three decades are encouraging and reflect a healthier diet in the later years. PMID:25351642

  5. Dynamical Evolution of Meteoroid Streams, Developments Over the Last 30 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, I. P.

    2011-01-01

    As soon as reliable methods for observationally determining the heliocentric orbits of meteoroids and hence the mean orbit of a meteoroid stream in the 1950s and 60s, astronomers strived to investigate the evolution of the orbit under the effects of gravitational perturbations from the planets. At first, the limitations in the capabilities of computers, both in terms of speed and memory, placed severe restrictions on what was possible to do. As a consequence, secular perturbation methods, where the perturbations are averaged over one orbit became the norm. The most popular of these is the Halphen- Goryachev method which was used extensively until the early 1980s. The main disadvantage of these methods lies in the fact that close encounter can be missed, however they remain useful for performing very long-term integrations. Direct integration methods determine the effects of the perturbing forces at many points on an orbit. This give a better picture of the orbital evolution of an individual meteoroid, but many meteoroids have to be integrated in order to obtain a realistic picture of the evolution of a meteoroid stream. The notion of generating a family of hypothetical meteoroids to represent a stream and directly integrate the motion of each was probably first used by Williams Murray & Hughes (1979), to investigate the Quadrantids. Because of computing limitations, only 10 test meteoroids were used. Only two years later, Hughes et. al. (1981) had increased the number of particles 20-fold to 200 while after a further year, Fox Williams and Hughes used 500 000 test meteoroids to model the Geminid stream. With such a number of meteoroids it was possible for the first time to produce a realistic cross-section of the stream on the ecliptic. From that point on there has been a continued increase in the number of meteoroids, the length of time over which integration is carried out and the frequency with which results can be plotted so that it is now possible to produce

  6. Evolution of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 1 in Northern Australia over 30 Years

    PubMed Central

    Amos-Ritchie, Rachel; Broz, Ivano; Melville, Lorna; Flanagan, David; Davis, Steven; Hunt, Neville; Weir, Richard

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bluetongue virus serotype 1 (BTV 1) was first isolated in Australia from cattle blood collected in 1979 at Beatrice Hill Farm (BHF), Northern Territory (NT). From long-term surveillance programs (1977 to 2011), 2,487 isolations of 10 BTV serotypes were made. The most frequently isolated serotype was BTV 1 (41%, 1,019) followed by BTV 16 (17.5%, 436) and BTV 20 (14%, 348). In 3 years, no BTVs were isolated, and in 12 years, no BTV 1 was isolated. Seventeen BTV 1 isolates were sequenced and analyzed in comparison with 10 Australian prototype serotypes. BTV 1 showed an episodic pattern of evolutionary change characterized by four distinct periods. Each period consisted primarily of slow genetic drift which was punctuated from time to time by genetic shifts generated by segment reassortment and the introduction of new genome segments. Evidence was found for coevolution of BTV genome segments. Evolutionary dynamics and selection pressure estimates showed strong temporal and clock-like molecular evolutionary dynamics of six Australian BTV genome segments. Bayesian coalescent estimates of mean substitution rates clustered in the range of 3.5 × 10−4 to 5.3 × 10−4 substitutions per site per year. All BTV genome segments evolved under strong purifying (negative) selection, with only three sites identified as under pervasive diversifying (positive) selection. The obligate replication in alternate hosts (insect vector and vertebrate hosts) imposed strong evolutionary constraints. The dominant mechanism generating genetic diversity of BTV 1 at BHF was through the introduction of new viruses and reassortment of genome segments with existing viruses. IMPORTANCE Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the causative agent of bluetongue disease in ruminants. It is a disease of concern globally and is transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides species). Analysis of the evolutionary and selection pressures on BTV 1 at a single surveillance site in northern Australia showed strong

  7. People living with HIV and procreation: 30 years of progress from prohibition to freedom?

    PubMed

    Bujan, L; Pasquier, C

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the 1980s drastically changed the prospects of conceiving a child for the man or woman infected with the virus. Advances in treatment then made it possible to envisage pregnancy while decreasing the risk of transmission to the child when the mother was infected. For couples where one partner was HIV-positive and who desired a child, recourse to medical help, notably medically assisted procreation, was discouraged, and very few centres offered such assistance in the 1980s and 1990s. Improved knowledge of viral excretion in the genital tracts, together with more effective treatment, made it possible to envisage medically assisted procreation for these couples, allowing them to have a child while at the same time likely reducing the risk of transmitting HIV to their partner. Several programmes have demonstrated their effectiveness in this domain. Owing to continually increasing knowledge over the past decade, natural conception can now be proposed. Couples where one or both partners are HIV-positive may opt for medically assisted procreation or natural reproduction. Specialists in reproductive medicine and HIV specialists need to provide couples with objective information allowing them to achieve near-optimal conditions that minimize HIV transmission risk. Couples will then be able to choose freely the mode of procreation most appropriate for them. PMID:26975324

  8. In search of evolutionary developmental mechanisms: the 30-year gap between 1944 and 1974.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brian K

    2004-01-15

    The approach I have elected in this retrospective of how I became a student of evo-devo is both biographical and historical, a case study along the lines of Waddington's The Evolution of an Evolutionist ('75), although in my case it is the Evolution of an Evo-devoist. What were the major events that brought me to developmental biology and from there to evo-devo? They were, of course, specific to my generation, to the state of knowledge at the time, and to my own particular circumstances. Although exposed to evolution and embryology as an undergraduate in the 1960s, my PhD and post-PhD research programme lay within developmental biology until the early 1970s. An important formative influence on my studies as an undergraduate was the work of Conrad Hal Waddington (1905-1975), whose writings made me aware of genetic assimilation and gave me an epigenetic approach to my developmental studies. The switch to evo-devo (and my discovery of the existence of the neural crest), I owe to an ASZ (now SICB) symposium held in 1973. PMID:14760651

  9. Global dataset of biogenic VOC emissions calculated by the MEGAN model over the last 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindelarova, K.; Granier, C.; Bouarar, I.; Guenther, A.; Tilmes, S.; Stavrakou, T.; Müller, J.-F.; Kuhn, U.; Stefani, P.; Knorr, W.

    2014-04-01

    The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGANv2.1) together with the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological fields were used to create a global emission dataset of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) available on a monthly basis for the time period of 1980-2010. This dataset is called MEGAN-MACC. The model estimated mean annual total BVOC emission of 760 Tg (C) yr-1 consisting of isoprene (70%), monoterpenes (11%), methanol (6%), acetone (3%), sesquiterpenes (2.5%) and other BVOC species each contributing less than 2%. Several sensitivity model runs were performed to study the impact of different model input and model settings on isoprene estimates and resulted in differences of up to ±17% of the reference isoprene total. A greater impact was observed for a sensitivity run applying parameterization of soil moisture deficit that led to a 50% reduction of isoprene emissions on a global scale, most significantly in specific regions of Africa, South America and Australia. MEGAN-MACC estimates are comparable to results of previous studies. More detailed comparison with other isoprene inventories indicated significant spatial and temporal differences between the datasets especially for Australia, Southeast Asia and South America. MEGAN-MACC estimates of isoprene, α-pinene and group of monoterpenes showed a reasonable agreement with surface flux measurements at sites located in tropical forests in the Amazon and Malaysia. The model was able to capture the seasonal variation of isoprene emissions in the Amazon forest.

  10. A 30-Year Record of the Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric Methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teama, Doaa Galal

    Methane (CH4) is one of the most important greenhouse gases after water vapor and carbon dioxide due to its high concentration and global warming potential 25 times than that of CO2(based on a 100 year time horizon). Its atmospheric concentration has more than doubled from the preindustrial era due to anthropogenic activities such as rice cultivation, biomass burning, and fossil fuel production. However, the rate of increase of atmospheric CH4 (or the growth rate) slowed from 1980 until present. The main reason for this trend is a slowdown in the trend of CH 4sources. Measuring stable isotopes of atmospheric CH4 can constrain changes of CH4sources. The main goal of this work is to interpret the CH4 trend from 1978-2010 in terms of its sources using measurements of CH4 mixing ratio and its isotopes. The current work presents the measurements and analysis of CH4 and its isotopes (delta13C and deltaD) of four air archive sample sets collected by the Oregon Graduate Institute (OGI). CH4 isotope ratios (delta13C and deltaD) were measured by a continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer technique developed at PSU. The first set is for Cape Meares, Oregon which is the oldest and longest set and spans 1977-1999. The integrity of this sample set was evaluated by comparing between our measured CH4 mixing ratio values with those measured values by OGI and was found to be stable. Resulting CH4 seasonal cycle was evaluated from the Cape Meares data. The CH4 seasonal cycle shows a broad maximum during October-April and a minimum between July and August. The seasonal cycles of delta13C and deltaD have maximum values in May for delta13C and in July for deltaD and minimum values between September-October for delta13C and in October for deltaD. These results indicate a CH4 source that is more enriched January-May (e.g. biomass burning) and a source that is more depleted August-October (e.g. microbial). In addition to Cape Meares, air archive sets were analyzed from: South Pole

  11. Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) Project: 3.0 Year Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2015-01-01

    mirror substrate size, first fundamental mode frequency (i.e., stiffness) and mass required to fabricate without quilting, survive launch, and achieve stable pointing and maximum thermal time constant.

  12. HIV Genome-Wide Protein Associations: a Review of 30 Years of Research.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangdi; De Clercq, Erik

    2016-09-01

    The HIV genome encodes a small number of viral proteins (i.e., 16), invariably establishing cooperative associations among HIV proteins and between HIV and host proteins, to invade host cells and hijack their internal machineries. As a known example, the HIV envelope glycoprotein GP120 is closely associated with GP41 for viral entry. From a genome-wide perspective, a hypothesis can be worked out to determine whether 16 HIV proteins could develop 120 possible pairwise associations either by physical interactions or by functional associations mediated via HIV or host molecules. Here, we present the first systematic review of experimental evidence on HIV genome-wide protein associations using a large body of publications accumulated over the past 3 decades. Of 120 possible pairwise associations between 16 HIV proteins, at least 34 physical interactions and 17 functional associations have been identified. To achieve efficient viral replication and infection, HIV protein associations play essential roles (e.g., cleavage, inhibition, and activation) during the HIV life cycle. In either a dispensable or an indispensable manner, each HIV protein collaborates with another viral protein to accomplish specific activities that precisely take place at the proper stages of the HIV life cycle. In addition, HIV genome-wide protein associations have an impact on anti-HIV inhibitors due to the extensive cross talk between drug-inhibited proteins and other HIV proteins. Overall, this study presents for the first time a comprehensive overview of HIV genome-wide protein associations, highlighting meticulous collaborations between all viral proteins during the HIV life cycle. PMID:27357278

  13. From Deck Hand to Program Manager - 30 years with Research Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    exchange data for real-time modeling updates. These new technologies and the multi-disciplinary nature of ocean science research projects have led to many improvements to our Science Mission Requirements for new research vessels. In the next three to four years, three new research vessels will come on line followed by the possibility of three additional Regional Class research vessels. All of these new vessels will come with improved capabilities to support research projects of the future.

  14. 30-year Dynamics of Terrestrial Vegetation Activity and the Relationship with Climatologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, R.; Schaepman, M. E.; Furrer, R.; de Bruin, S.; Verburg, P. H.

    2013-12-01

    The climate governs the seasonal activity of terrestrial vegetation while humankind influences it. The relative role of these drivers in changing vegetation activity is crucial information for accurate modeling of vegetation and climate dynamics and for adaptation and mitigation strategies. Disentangling the two, however, is an ongoing scientific challenge, because of limited data availability, mainly regarding non-climatic drivers, and complex biosphere-atmosphere feedback mechanisms. Here, we contribute to this quest by modeling the spatial relationship between climatologies and changes in global vegetation activity (de Jong et al., 2013a). Vegetation activity is commonly quantified using remotely sensed vegetation indices (VI). Extensive reports on temporal trends over the past decades in time series of such indices can be found in literature, including the detection of shifts (de Jong et al., 2013b), which may be related to climate (e.g. Zhao & Running, 2010). However, little remains known about the exact processes underlying vegetation change at large spatial scales. Depending on eco-region, three climatologies potentially constrain plant growth (Churkina and Running, 1998). In the humid mid-latitudes, for example, temperature is the largest influencing factor; in (semi) arid regions it is the availability of water and in the tropics incident solar radiation. Based on this logic, we developed a mixed-effect model to relate changes in these climatologies to changes in vegetation activity and to quantify the spatial process underlying the other drivers, including human land use. Little over 50% of the spatial variation in vegetation change could be attributed to changes in climatologies; conspicuously, many of the global ';greening' trends and the ';browning' hotspots in Argentina and Australia. Browning hotspots in the non-climatic component were especially located in subequatorial Africa (e.g. parts of Zimbabwe and Tanzania), where human drivers may be

  15. The effect of the time interval used to calculate mean wind velocity on the calculated drift potential, relative drift potential, and resultant drift direction for sands from three deserts in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengcai; Dong, Zhibao; Zhao, Aiguo

    2016-01-01

    Wind is the power behind many erosion processes and is responsible for many of the characteristics of arid zone geomorphology. Wind velocity is a key factor in determining the potential sand transport, but the nature of the wind velocity data can strongly affect assessments of the risk of blowing sand. In this study, we obtained real-time wind velocity data in a region of the Tengger Desert with shifting sands, in the Badain Jaran Desert, and in the Madoi desertification land, with the data obtained at 1-min intervals, and used the data to determine the influence of how the wind velocity was calculated (mean versus mid-point values and the averaging time used to calculate these values) on sand drift potential. In the three regions, for both the mean and the mid-point wind velocities, the estimated drift potential decreased with increasing averaging time. The relationships between velocities calculated using the different averaging time intervals and the value calculated using a 1-min interval could be expressed as linear functions. The drift potential calculated using the mid-point wind velocity was larger than that calculated using the mean wind velocity.

  16. Flood Dynamics in the Sacramento Valley over the Last 30 Years: When and Where Were the Rest Stops for Shorebirds during Spring Migration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer-Smith, D.; Swenson, J. J.; Reiter, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland dependent migratory shorebirds continue to suffer population declines, largely due to loss of habitat. A better understanding of the variability of flooded resting and feeding sites is needed over the large areas traveled by these birds, particularly in inland areas subject to cyclical droughts. We analyzed habitat availability patterns in the Sacramento Valley, an internationally important shorebird stopover site, using low cloud cover scenes during spring migration (February - June) from the 30-year Landsat Climate Data Record. We found that a simple band 5 threshold efficiently delineated open water over the past thirty years of surface reflectance data (Landsat 4-8). A random forest model for flooded and non-flooded regions (AUC = 0.9997444) and ROC optimization were used to determine the best threshold for the analysis. Using the time series of classifications, we assessed historical flooded habitat availability within each two week period during spring over the past 30 years. Flood irrigated agriculture on private lands represents the largest potential habitat area and consistently provides habitat at the early and late stages of migration. Rice alone represents five times the area of herbaceous wetlands and has a comparable probability of inundation as this wetland type in early spring (0.3). Flood extent is most restricted during the peak of spring migration when birds most need the habitat, which is limited primarily to federal and state managed lands (average 0.78 probability of inundation). The timing of drying and reflooding in agricultural fields could strongly influence habitat availability in the valley during the spring.

  17. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland) and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study. Methods A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present. Results Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66°N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60°N) where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the respondents, the abundance

  18. European environmental research infrastructures are going for common 30 years strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, Ari; Konjin, Jacco; Pursula, Antti

    2014-05-01

    Environmental Research infrastructures are facilities, resources, systems and related services that are used by research communities to conduct top-level research. Environmental research is addressing processes at very different time scales, and supporting research infrastructures must be designed as long-term facilities in order to meet the requirements of continuous environmental observation, measurement and analysis. This longevity makes the environmental research infrastructures ideal structures to support the long-term development in environmental sciences. ENVRI project is a collaborative action of the major European (ESFRI) Environmental Research Infrastructures working towards increased co-operation and interoperability between the infrastructures. One of the key products of the ENVRI project is to combine the long-term plans of the individual infrastructures towards a common strategy, describing the vision and planned actions. The envisaged vision for environmental research infrastructures toward 2030 is to support the holistic understanding of our planet and it's behavior. The development of a 'Standard Model of the Planet' is a common ambition, a challenge to define an environmental standard model; a framework of all interactions within the Earth System, from solid earth to near space. Indeed scientists feel challenged to contribute to a 'Standard Model of the Planet' with data, models, algorithms and discoveries. Understanding the Earth System as an interlinked system requires a systems approach. The Environmental Sciences are rapidly moving to become a one system-level science. Mainly since modern science, engineering and society are increasingly facing complex problems that can only be understood in the context of the full overall system. The strategy of the supporting collaborating research infrastructures is based on developing three key factors for the Environmental Sciences: the technological, the cultural and the human capital. The technological

  19. Interval polynomial positivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, N. K.; Kim, K. D.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that a univariate interval polynomial is globally positive if and only if two extreme polynomials are globally positive. It is shown that the global positivity property of a bivariate interval polynomial is completely determined by four extreme bivariate polynomials. The cardinality of the determining set for k-variate interval polynomials is 2k. One of many possible generalizations, where vertex implication for global positivity holds, is made by considering the parameter space to be the set dual of a boxed domain.

  20. Increasing runoff and sediment load from the Greenland ice sheet at kangerlussuaq (Sonder Stromfjord) in a 30-year perspective, 1979-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard; Liston, Glen; Hasholt, Bent; Steffen, Konrad; Van Den Broeke, Michiel; Mcgrath, Daniel; Yde, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    This observation and modeling study provides insights into runoff and sediment load exiting the Watson River drainage basin, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland during a 30 year period (1978/79-2007/08) when the climate experienced increasing temperatures and precipitation. The 30-year simulations quantify the terrestrial freshwater and sediment output from part of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and the land between the GrIS and the ocean, in the context of global warming and increasing GrIS surface melt. We used a snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel) to simulate the winter accumulation and summer ablation processes, including runoff and surface mass balance (SMB), of the Greenland ice sheet. Observed sediment concentrations were related to observed runoff, producing a sediment-load time series. To a large extent, the SMB fluctuations could be explained by changes in net precipitation (precipitation minus evaporation and sublimation), with 8 out of 30 years having negative SMB, mainly because of relatively low annual net precipitation. The overall trend in net precipitation and runoff increased significantly, while 5MB increased insignificantly throughout the simulation period, leading to enhanced precipitation of 0.59 km{sup 3} w.eq. (or 60%), runoff of 0.43 km{sup 3} w.eq (or 54%), and SMB of 0.16 km3 w.eq. (or 86%). Runoff rose on average from 0.80 km{sup 3} w.eq. in 1978/79 to 1.23 km{sup 3} w.eq. in 2007/08. The percentage of catchment oudet runoff explained by runoff from the GrIS decreased on average {approx} 10%, indicating that catchment runoff throughout the simulation period was influenced more by precipitation and snowmelt events, and less by runoff from the GrIS. Average variations in the increasing Kangerlussuaq runoff from 1978/79 through 2007/08 seem to follow the overall variations in satellite-derived GrIS surface melt, where 64% of the variations in simulated runoff were explained by regional melt conditions on the GrIS. Throughout the simulation

  1. Statistical estimation of extreme ocean waves over the eastern Canadian shelf from 30-year numerical wave simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lanli; Sheng, Jinyu

    2015-11-01

    Reliable estimation of extreme ocean surface gravity waves is important for many scientific and practical issues. In this study, WAVEWATCHIII is used to simulate wave conditions over the eastern Canadian shelf (ECS) for the 30-year period, 1979-2008. The wave model is forced by the 6-hourly winds and ice cover taken from the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR). A parametric vortex is inserted into the CFSR winds to better represent surface winds associated with tropical storms or hurricanes. The model performance in simulating the bulk significant wave height is assessed by comparing model results with wave observations at 12 buoy stations over the ECS. The peaks-over-threshold method is used to estimate the extreme significant wave heights from 30-year wave simulations. The estimated extreme waves with the 50-year return period over the ECS feature large wave heights of more than 12 m in the offshore deep waters and about 8-12 m over the open shelf waters of the ECS. By comparison, the 50-year extreme waves are moderate and 7 m or less in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and inner Gulf of Maine.

  2. What We Write about When We Write About AAC: The Past 30 Years of Research and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, David; Light, Janice

    2015-01-01

    For the past 30 years, the Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) journal has both documented and instigated change in the field of AAC. We reviewed the papers published in the AAC journal from 1985-2014 in order to identify trends in research and publication activities. Intervention research made up the largest proportion of the four types of research (i.e., intervention, descriptive, experimental, and instrument and measurement development) reported in the journal. Intervention research has most commonly focused on the individual with complex communication needs, and most frequently on younger individuals (aged 17 and younger) with developmental disabilities. While much has been learned in the past 30 years, there continues to be a need for high quality research in a large number of areas. There is a special need for reports of interventions with older individuals with complex communication needs as a result of acquired disabilities, and for information on effective interventions for the communication partners of persons with complex communication needs. PMID:26490318

  3. A perspective on 30 years of progress in ambient noise: Source mechanisms and the characteristics of the sound field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cato, Douglas H.

    2012-11-01

    The last 30 years has seen substantial progress in ocean ambient noise research, particularly in understanding the mechanisms of sound generation by the sources of ambient noise, the way in which the noise field is affected by sound propagation, and improvements in quantifying the relationship between noise and environmental parameters. This has led to significant improvements in noise prediction. Activity was probably strongest in the 1980s and 1990s, as evident, for example, in the Sea Surface Sound conferences and their published proceedings (four over 10 years). Although much of the application has been to sonar, there has also been interest in using ambient noise to measure properties of the environment and in its significance to marine life. There have been significant changes in the ambient noise itself over the last 30 years. The contribution from human activities appears to have increased, particularly that due to increases in shipping numbers. Biological noise has also increased with the significant increases in populations of some whale species following the cessation of broad scale whaling in the 1960s and early 1970s. Concern about the effects of noise on marine animals as well as the way they exploit the noise has led to renewed interest in ambient noise.

  4. Four weeks of running sprint interval training improves cardiorespiratory fitness in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Taura N; Thomas, Matthew P L; Schmale, Matthew S; Copeland, Jennifer L; Hazell, Tom J

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 4-week running sprint interval training protocol to improve both aerobic and anaerobic fitness in middle-aged adults (40-50 years) as well as compare the adaptations to younger adults (20-30 years). Twenty-eight inactive participants - 14 young 20-30-year-olds (n = 7 males) and 14 middle-aged 40-50-year-olds (n = 5 males) - completed 4 weeks of running sprint interval training (4 to 6, 30-s "all-out" sprints on a curved, self-propelled treadmill separated by 4 min active recovery performed 3 times per week). Before and after training, all participants were assessed for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), 2000 m time trial performance, and anaerobic performance on a single 30-s sprint. There were no interactions between group and time for any tested variable, although training improved relative VO2max (young = 3.9, middle-aged = 5.2%; P < 0.04), time trial performance (young = 5.9, middle-aged = 8.2%; P < 0.001), peak sprint speed (young = 9.3, middle-aged = 2.2%; P < 0.001), and average sprint speed (young = 6.8, middle-aged = 11.6%; P < 0.001) in both young and middle-aged groups from pre- to post-training on the 30-s sprint test. The current study demonstrates that a 4-week running sprint interval training programme is equally effective at improving aerobic and anaerobic fitness in younger and middle-aged adults. PMID:26514645

  5. Updating representations of temporal intervals.

    PubMed

    Danckert, James; Anderson, Britt

    2015-12-01

    Effectively engaging with the world depends on accurate representations of the regularities that make up that world-what we call mental models. The success of any mental model depends on the ability to adapt to changes-to 'update' the model. In prior work, we have shown that damage to the right hemisphere of the brain impairs the ability to update mental models across a range of tasks. Given the disparate nature of the tasks we have employed in this prior work (i.e. statistical learning, language acquisition, position priming, perceptual ambiguity, strategic game play), we propose that a cognitive module important for updating mental representations should be generic, in the sense that it is invoked across multiple cognitive and perceptual domains. To date, the majority of our tasks have been visual in nature. Given the ubiquity and import of temporal information in sensory experience, we examined the ability to build and update mental models of time. We had healthy individuals complete a temporal prediction task in which intervals were initially drawn from one temporal range before an unannounced switch to a different range of intervals. Separate groups had the second range of intervals switch to one that contained either longer or shorter intervals than the first range. Both groups showed significant positive correlations between perceptual and prediction accuracy. While each group updated mental models of temporal intervals, those exposed to shorter intervals did so more efficiently. Our results support the notion of generic capacity to update regularities in the environment-in this instance based on temporal information. The task developed here is well suited to investigations in neurological patients and in neuroimaging settings. PMID:26303026

  6. Comparison of temperature, precipitation and snow characteristics in two 30-year periods 1951-1980 and 1981-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasko, Pavel; Švec, Marek; Šťastný, Pavel; Kajaba, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Differences in some characteristics of temperature, precipitation totals and snow cover, for two 30-year periods 1951-1980 and 1981-2010 were examined at selected meteorological stations located in different regions of Slovakia. Stations represent lowland regions (up to 300 meters), mid-altitude regions (300 to 800 meters) and high altitude mountain regions (above 1000 m). The analysis of highest maximum air temperature for individual days showed higher values of maxima for 1981 - 2010 period primarily during the summer months. The differences between corresponding values of two periods were relatively often higher at some stations during the winter months, but unlike the periods in summer months they were more regional in nature. The comparison of long-term average of daily air temperature for two 30-years periods showed increase in 1981 - 2010 period. The most significant change occurred mainly in January, July and August. Warming was not significant in September - December period. The annual regime of mean monthly precipitation amount was different in both 30-years periods in the most of the selected stations with noticeable increase in the average monthly sum in May and decline in June in 1981 - 2010 period. The only exception is the station Košice airport, where on the contrary the increase in June was registered in the 1981-2010 period. Increase of precipitation in May in the second thirty year period was probably caused by a higher number of storms in the spring months as a result of faster warming of the earth's surface and occurrence of more frequent convective precipitation. Average number of days with a snow cover in the period 1981-2010 compared with the period 1951-1980 is significantly lower in January at meteorological stations lying at lower altitudes. This is due to the higher air temperature and a higher amount of mixed and liquid precipitation during this month. In February, small increase in the average number of days with a total snow cover

  7. Materials performance in CANDU reactors: The first 30 years and the prognosis for life extension and new designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapping, R. L.

    2008-12-01

    A number of CANDU reactors have now been in-service for more than 30 years, and several are planning life extensions. This paper summarizes the major corrosion degradation operating experience of various out-of-core (i.e., excluding fuel channels and fuel) materials in-service in currently operating CANDU reactors. Also discussed are the decisions that need to be made for life extension of replaceable and non-replaceable components such as feeders and steam generators, and materials choices for new designs, such as the advanced CANDU reactor (ACR) and enhanced CANDU-6. The basis for these choices, including a brief summary of the R&D necessary to support such decisions is provided. Finally we briefly discuss the materials and R&D needs beyond the immediate future, including new concepts to improve plant operability and component reliability.

  8. Unilateral Optic Neuritis: A Rare Complication after Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination in a 30-Year-Old Woman.

    PubMed

    De Giacinto, Chiara; Guaglione, Elvira; Leon, Pia E; D'Aloisio, Rossella; Vattovani, Odilla; Ravalico, Giuseppe; Tognetto, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of unilateral optic neuritis following Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccination. Methods. A 30-year-old female developed unilateral optic neuritis five days after a Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) booster vaccination. The patient displayed unilateral involvement, with severe visual loss. However, visual acuity improved significantly after four days of intravenous steroid therapy with 500 mg/day of methylprednisolone. Conclusions. Optic neuritis is one of the rare complications associated with the mumps, measles, and rubella vaccine. It may be a toxic reaction to the nonviral component of the vaccine, but the exact etiology is unknown. Postvaccination neuritis is generally bilateral and usually affects children. In adults, unilateral optic neuritis is usually correlated with multiple sclerosis (MS). PMID:27195163

  9. Factors controlling peat chemistry and vegetation composition in Sudbury peatlands after 30 years of pollution emission reductions.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Sophie E; Watmough, Shaun A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this research was to assess factors controlling peat and plant chemistry, and vegetation composition in 18 peatlands surrounding Sudbury after more than 30 years of large (>95%) pollution emission reductions. Sites closer to the main Copper Cliff smelter had more humified peat and the surface horizons were greatly enriched in copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni). Copper and Ni concentrations in peat were significantly correlated with that in the plant tissue of Chamaedaphne calyculata. The pH of peat was the strongest determining factor for species richness, diversity, and community composition, although percent vascular plant cover was strongly negatively correlated with surface Cu and Ni concentrations in peat. Sphagnum frequency was also negatively related to peat Cu and Ni concentrations indicating sites close to Copper Cliff smelter remain adversely impacted by industrial activities. PMID:26160672

  10. Unilateral Optic Neuritis: A Rare Complication after Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination in a 30-Year-Old Woman

    PubMed Central

    De Giacinto, Chiara; Guaglione, Elvira; Leon, Pia E.; D'Aloisio, Rossella; Vattovani, Odilla; Ravalico, Giuseppe; Tognetto, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of unilateral optic neuritis following Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccination. Methods. A 30-year-old female developed unilateral optic neuritis five days after a Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) booster vaccination. The patient displayed unilateral involvement, with severe visual loss. However, visual acuity improved significantly after four days of intravenous steroid therapy with 500 mg/day of methylprednisolone. Conclusions. Optic neuritis is one of the rare complications associated with the mumps, measles, and rubella vaccine. It may be a toxic reaction to the nonviral component of the vaccine, but the exact etiology is unknown. Postvaccination neuritis is generally bilateral and usually affects children. In adults, unilateral optic neuritis is usually correlated with multiple sclerosis (MS). PMID:27195163

  11. Complementary-relationship-based 30 year normals (1981-2010) of monthly latent heat fluxes across the contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    2015-11-01

    Thirty year normal (1981-2010) monthly latent heat fluxes (ET) over the conterminous United States were estimated by a modified Advection-Aridity model from North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) radiation and wind as well as Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) air and dew-point temperature data. Mean annual ET values were calibrated with PRISM precipitation (P) and validated against United States Geological Survey runoff (Q) data. At the six-digit Hydrologic Unit Code level (sample size of 334) the estimated 30 year normal runoff (P - ET) had a bias of 18 mm yr-1, a root-mean-square error of 96 mm yr-1, and a linear correlation coefficient value of 0.95, making the estimates on par with the latest Land Surface Model results but without the need for soil and vegetation information or any soil moisture budgeting.

  12. Interval neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    Traditional neural networks like multi-layered perceptrons (MLP) use example patterns, i.e., pairs of real-valued observation vectors, ({rvec x},{rvec y}), to approximate function {cflx f}({rvec x}) = {rvec y}. To determine the parameters of the approximation, a special version of the gradient descent method called back-propagation is widely used. In many situations, observations of the input and output variables are not precise; instead, we usually have intervals of possible values. The imprecision could be due to the limited accuracy of the measuring instrument or could reflect genuine uncertainty in the observed variables. In such situation input and output data consist of mixed data types; intervals and precise numbers. Function approximation in interval domains is considered in this paper. We discuss a modification of the classical backpropagation learning algorithm to interval domains. Results are presented with simple examples demonstrating few properties of nonlinear interval mapping as noise resistance and finding set of solutions to the function approximation problem.

  13. Intervals in evolutionary algorithms for global optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    Optimization is of central concern to a number of disciplines. Interval Arithmetic methods for global optimization provide us with (guaranteed) verified results. These methods are mainly restricted to the classes of objective functions that are twice differentiable and use a simple strategy of eliminating a splitting larger regions of search space in the global optimization process. An efficient approach that combines the efficient strategy from Interval Global Optimization Methods and robustness of the Evolutionary Algorithms is proposed. In the proposed approach, search begins with randomly created interval vectors with interval widths equal to the whole domain. Before the beginning of the evolutionary process, fitness of these interval parameter vectors is defined by evaluating the objective function at the center of the initial interval vectors. In the subsequent evolutionary process the local optimization process returns an estimate of the bounds of the objective function over the interval vectors. Though these bounds may not be correct at the beginning due to large interval widths and complicated function properties, the process of reducing interval widths over time and a selection approach similar to simulated annealing helps in estimating reasonably correct bounds as the population evolves. The interval parameter vectors at these estimated bounds (local optima) are then subjected to crossover and mutation operators. This evolutionary process continues for predetermined number of generations in the search of the global optimum.

  14. Comparative evaluation of the calcium release from mineral trioxide aggregate and its mixture with glass ionomer cement in different proportions and time intervals – An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sawhney, Surbhi; Vivekananda Pai, A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Addition of glass ionomer cement (GIC) has been suggested to improve the setting time and handling characteristics of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). This study evaluated the effect of adding GIC to MTA in terms of calcium release, an issue that has not been previously studied. Materials and methods The study comprised four groups with five samples each: a control group of MTA alone and experimental groups I (1MTA:1GIC), II (2MTA:1GIC), and III (1MTA:2GIC) based on the mixture of MTA and GIC powders in the respective proportions by volume. Calcium release from the samples was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry at 15 min, 6 h, 24 h, and 1 week after setting. The level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results Groups I (1MTA:1GIC) and III (1MTA:2GIC) released significantly less calcium than the control group at all time periods, except at 15 min for group I. Group II (2MTA:1GIC) showed no significant difference in calcium release compared to the control at any time period. Group II exhibited greater calcium release than group I or III at all time periods, with significant differences between groups I and II at 1 week and between groups I and III at 24 h and 1 week. There were no statistical differences in calcium release between groups I and III. Conclusions Adding GIC to improve the setting time and handling properties of the MTA powder can be detrimental to the calcium-releasing ability of the resultant mixture, depending on the proportion of GIC added. Adding MTA and GIC at a proportion of 2:1 by volume did not impact calcium release from the mixture. These findings should be verified through further clinical studies. PMID:26644757

  15. Interval velocity analysis using wave field continuation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhusheng, Z. )

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the author proposes a new interval velocity inversion method which, based on wave field continuation theory and fuzzy decision theory, uses CMP seismic gathers to automatically estimate interval velocity and two-way travel time in layered medium. The interval velocity calculated directly from wave field continuation is not well consistent with that derived from VSP data, the former is usually higher than the latter. Three major factors which influence the accuracy of interval velocity from wave field continuation are corrected, so that the two kinds of interval velocity are well consistent. This method brings better interval velocity, adapts weak reflection waves and resists noise well. It is a feasible method.

  16. Optimal Approximation of Quadratic Interval Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshelev, Misha; Taillibert, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Measurements are never absolutely accurate, as a result, after each measurement, we do not get the exact value of the measured quantity; at best, we get an interval of its possible values, For dynamically changing quantities x, the additional problem is that we cannot measure them continuously; we can only measure them at certain discrete moments of time t(sub 1), t(sub 2), ... If we know that the value x(t(sub j)) at a moment t(sub j) of the last measurement was in the interval [x-(t(sub j)), x + (t(sub j))], and if we know the upper bound D on the rate with which x changes, then, for any given moment of time t, we can conclude that x(t) belongs to the interval [x-(t(sub j)) - D (t - t(sub j)), x + (t(sub j)) + D (t - t(sub j))]. This interval changes linearly with time, an is, therefore, called a linear interval function. When we process these intervals, we get an expression that is quadratic and higher order w.r.t. time t, Such "quadratic" intervals are difficult to process and therefore, it is necessary to approximate them by linear ones. In this paper, we describe an algorithm that gives the optimal approximation of quadratic interval functions by linear ones.

  17. Timing of HPV vaccine intervals among United States teens with consideration to the current ACIP schedule and the WHO 2-dose schedule.

    PubMed

    Cloessner, Emily A; Stokley, Shannon; Yankey, David; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2016-06-01

    The current recommendation for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in the United States is for 3 doses to be administered over a 6 month period. In April 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended adoption of a 2-dose schedule, with doses spaced a minimum of 6 months apart, for teens who begin the series before age 15. We analyzed data from the 2013 National Immunization Survey-Teen to examine the timing of second and third dose receipt among US adolescents. All analyses were restricted to adolescents age 13-17 y who had adequate provider data. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test measured differences in time to receive vaccine doses among demographic and socioeconomic groups. Logistic regression identified socioeconomic characteristics associated with receiving the second dose of HPV vaccine at least 6 months after the first dose. The median time for teens to receive the second dose of HPV vaccine was 2.6 months after the first dose, and the median time to receive the third dose was 4.9 months after the second dose. Minority teens and teens living below the poverty level took significantly longer to receive doses. Among teens that initiated the HPV vaccine series before age 15 y, 28.6% received the second dose at least 6 months after the first dose. If these teens, who met the WHO criteria for up-to-date HPV vaccination, were classified as having completed the vaccination series, overall coverage in the US would increase 3.9 percentage points, with African American and Hispanic teens having the greatest increases in coverage. PMID:26587886

  18. Exact statistics of the gap and time interval between the first two maxima of random walks and Lévy flights.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Satya N; Mounaix, Philippe; Schehr, Grégory

    2013-08-16

    We investigate the statistics of the gap G(n) between the two rightmost positions of a Markovian one-dimensional random walker (RW) after n time steps and of the duration L(n) which separates the occurrence of these two extremal positions. The distribution of the jumps η(i)'s of the RW, f(η), is symmetric and its Fourier transform has the small k behavior 1-f[over ^](k)~|k|(μ), with 0<μ≤2. For μ=2, the RW converges, for large n, to Brownian motion, while for 0<μ<2 it corresponds to a Lévy flight of index μ. We compute the joint probability density function (PDF) P(n)(g,l) of G(n) and L(n) and show that, when n→∞, it approaches a limiting PDF p(g,l). The corresponding marginal PDFs of the gap, p(gap)(g), and of L(n), p(time)(l), are found to behave like p(gap)(g)~g(-1-μ) for g>1 and 0<μ<2, and p(time)(l)~l(-γ(μ)) for l>1 with γ(1<μ≤2)=1+1/μ and γ(0<μ<1)=2. For l, g>1 with fixed lg(-μ), p(g,l) takes the scaling form p(g,l)~g(-1-2μ)p[over ˜](μ)(lg(-μ)), where p[over ˜](μ)(y) is a (μ-dependent) scaling function. We also present numerical simulations which verify our analytic results. PMID:23992054

  19. An Assessment of the INM RAS Coupled Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Model. The Results of the AOMIP 30-year Coordinated Spin-Up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovlev, N.

    2003-04-01

    run-off, precipitation, cloudiness, humidity and ocean temperature and salinity at open boundaries. The first stage of the AOMIP is the 30-year Coordinated Spin-up 1948-1977. The results on the 30-year spin-up of the Arctic Ocean climate system are presented and compared with observations. The spatial distribution and temporal variability of ocean temperature and salinity, sea level and ice characteristics are investigated with the special focus on the Atlantic water pathways and Arctic Ocean freshwater content. The limits and utility of the coarse resolution models in Arctic modeling are also discussed.

  20. Impact of preload changes on positive and negative left ventricular dP/dt and systolic time intervals: preload changes on left ventricular function

    PubMed Central

    Jamshidi, Peiman; Kobza, Richard; Toggweiler, Stefan; Arand, Patti; Zuber, Michel; Erne, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Aim/objectives Previous work has shown that the electromechanical activation time (EMAT) is prolonged in patients with abnormally low left ventricular (LV) dP/dt. In the present study, we investigated whether EMAT was responsive to rapid changes in LV systolic function induced by abrupt increases in LV preload. Methods and results A total of 116 patients were assessed before and after LV angiography with a bolus injection of 40 mL of non-ionic contrast dye. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) increased from 18 ± 7 mmHg to 20 ± 8 mmHg (P < 0.01). In patients with a baseline dP/dt < 1500 mmHg/sec, dP/dt increased from 1098 ± 213 mmHg/sec to 1146 ±306 mmHg/sec (P=0.02) and EMAT decreased from 106 ± 29 ms to 103 ±18 ms (P=0.02). In patients with a baseline dP/dt > 1500 mmHg/sec, dP/dt decreased from 1894 ± 368 mmHg/sec to 1762 ± 403 mmHg/sec (P=0.01) and EMAT increased from 88 ± 13 ms to 93 ± 16 ms (P=0.02). Changes in negative dP/dt were similar to changes in dP/dt. Conclusion Electromechanical activation time is a non-invasively measured parameter that allows accurate and rapid detection of changes in LV contractility. PMID:22664818