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Sample records for 30-year-old caucasian female

  1. Valproic acid malabsorption in 30 year-old female patient - Case study.

    PubMed

    Jopowicz, Anna; Piechal, Agnieszka; Kurkowska-Jastrzębska, Iwona

    Valproic acid (VPA) is used in epilepsy treatment and as a stabilizer in bipolar affective disorder for over 40 years. Although, the pharmacokinetic properties of valproic acid are well known, it is often forgotten that the formulation of the drug significantly influences its gastrointestinal absorption. We are describing the case of 30 year-old female patient, diagnosed at the age of 13 with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Complete ineffectiveness of the treatment was caused by malabsorption of sodium valproate and valproic acid in the patient. The change of the drug formulation resulted in a several times higher bioavailability of the drug and a partial improvement of the patient's clinical condition. Low concentration of valproic acid after administration the slow-released tablets are usually observed. However, a low bioavailability beside the bad compliance should be considered when the minimal level is extremely low during therapy. It is known that form of the drug, beside presence of food and its components, as well as gastrointestinal tract condition or interactions with other drugs can influence the drug level. Modification of the formulation of the drug may lead to improvement of absorption and increase its effectiveness. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  2. A 30-Year-Old Female Found to Have a Couvelaire Uterus With Placenta Accreta During Planned Cesarean Delivery.

    PubMed

    Uwagbai, Omici N; Wittich, Arthur C

    2017-03-01

    A case of Couvelaire uterus with placenta accreta found during scheduled repeat low transverse Cesarean section will be discussed within this article. First described in the 1900s, Couvelaire syndrome, also known as uteroplacental apoplexy, is a rare form of nonfatal placenta abruption complication. The case involves a 30-year-old gravida 3 para 2 otherwise healthy female with an uncomplicated pregnancy and two previous cesarean deliveries without complication. She received routine prenatal care. During her pregnancy, she did not experience any symptoms such as vaginal bleeding or abdominal pain. After delivering a healthy female, there were several unsuccessful attempts to remove the placenta from the uterus. Upon inspection, the uterus was found have dark purple patches with ecchymosis and indurations, diagnostic of Couvelaire uterus. Furthermore, there was high clinical suspicion for placenta accreta as the 30-minute mark approached without placenta detachment. A telephonic emergency review with the wet desk radiologist of the 18-week ultrasound revealed high suspicion for placenta accreta. A Cesarean hysterectomy was performed for prevention of significant hemorrhage. This case report may be the first documented association of Couvelaire uterus with placenta accreta. Providers should be vigilant in monitoring for antenatal bleeding, timing of placenta separation, and postpartum hemorrhage.

  3. A 30-year-old female Behçet’s disease patient with recurrent pleural and pericardial effusion and elevated adenosine deaminase levels: case report

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Jung, Jung Im; Lee, Kyo-Young; Kim, Tae-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Behçet’s disease is a systemic disease which may involve various organs. We describe a case of a patient diagnosed as pleuropericardial involvement of Behçet’s disease. A 30-year-old woman visited our clinic presented with left pleuritic chest pain for s days. She had been diagnosed as Behçet’s disease and admitted to our clinic due to pericardial and pleural effusion repeatedly in past two years. In the previous studies, effusion analysis revealed to be lympho-dominant exudate with high adenosine deaminase level. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for mycobacterial tuberculosis (M.TB) were negative in the pericardial tissue, and pathologic finding showed mild endothelitis with micro-thrombi formation in the lumen. The patient had been treated with antituberculous medication for a year. In the current admission, chest computed tomography (CT) again showed left pleural effusion without other significant lesion. Pleural fluid analysis was similar with the previous study. Video-assisted thoracoscopic pleural biopsy was performed to obtain the definite diagnosis. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis as pleuropericardial involvement of Behçet’s disease, and we treated the patient with oral steroid in the out-patient department. Pleuropericardial involvement of Behçet’s disease may mimic TB pleurisy or pericarditis due to high adenosine deaminase (ADA) level in effusion analysis. Clinicians should keep in mind that Behçet’s disease may manifest as pleural or pericardial effusion, and pathologic confirmation could be helpful for the definite diagnosis. PMID:27499994

  4. Transient Unexplained Shock in 30-year-old Trauma Patient.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Farzad; Ebrahimi Bakhtavar, Hanieh; Shahsavari Nia, Kavous; Mohammadi, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Shock as an inadequate tissue perfusion is one of the frequent causes of death in trauma patients. In this context, there are various reasons for hemodynamic instability and shock including hypovolemic (hemorrhagic), obstructive (cardiac tamponade, tension pneumothorax), cardiogenic, neurogenic, and rarely septic. In the present report, a 30-year-old trauma patient with full clinical signs and symptoms of shock referred while had unknown origin; it was finally recognized as anaphylactic shock.

  5. Transient Unexplained Shock in 30-year-old Trauma Patient

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Farzad; Ebrahimi Bakhtavar, Hanieh; Shahsavari Nia, Kavous; Mohammadi, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Shock as an inadequate tissue perfusion is one of the frequent causes of death in trauma patients. In this context, there are various reasons for hemodynamic instability and shock including hypovolemic (hemorrhagic), obstructive (cardiac tamponade, tension pneumothorax), cardiogenic, neurogenic, and rarely septic. In the present report, a 30-year-old trauma patient with full clinical signs and symptoms of shock referred while had unknown origin; it was finally recognized as anaphylactic shock. PMID:26495357

  6. Necrotising pneumonia and bronchiectasis in a previously healthy 30-year-old man

    PubMed Central

    Blauvelt, David G; Castellanos, Angela; Stern, Theodore A; Puig, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a previously healthy 30-year-old man who presented with a necrotising pneumonia and bronchiectasis. His infectious workup revealed a Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. Since bronchiectasis and necrotising pneumonia are unusual findings in an otherwise healthy person, further investigation was pursued. His workup revealed non-classic cystic fibrosis (CF) and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). This case discusses the differential diagnosis of bronchiectasis, the diagnosis and treatment of ABPA, and the role of CF mutations in the pathogenesis of ABPA. PMID:25608981

  7. [30-year-old Patient with suspected Marfan Syndrome and Progressive Gait disturbance].

    PubMed

    Balke, Maryam; Lehmann, Helmar C; Fink, Gereon R; Wunderlich, Gilbert

    2017-07-01

    History A 30-year-old man presented with a history of progressive muscle weakness, difficulty in concentrating, and a slender habitus since early childhood. Marfan syndrome was suspected since the age of 14. Examinations 13 years later he was examined by Marfan experts and by genetic testing and Marfan syndrome could not be confirmed. Further neurological examination revealed the suspected diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy type 1, which was confirmed by genetic testing. Treatment and course Similar to Marfan syndrome, myotonic dystrophy is a multisystemic disorder with the risk of cardiac arrythmias. It is necessary to provide an interdisciplinary care by neurologists, internists, ophthalmologists, speech therapists, and physiotherapists. Conclusion It is not enough to take the habitus as the principle sign to diagnose Marfan syndrome. Furthermore, it is essential to consider symptoms that are not typical for Marfan syndrome, such as cognitive deficiencies or progressive paresis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Rigid bronchoscopic management of acute respiratory failure in a 30-year-old woman

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Karan; Dhungana, Ashesh; Madan, Neha Kawatra; Mohan, Anant; Hadda, Vijay; Garg, Rakesh; Jain, Deepali; Guleria, Randeep

    2016-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman presented with a history of progressive shortness of breath, cough, and hoarseness. Stridor was audible on examination. Chest X-ray showed normal lung fields and contrast-enhanced computed tomography thorax showed lower tracheal occlusion with endoluminal growth. Diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy demonstrated multiple whitish glistening nodules over both vocal cords and lower tracheal occlusion by whitish nodular growth. In view of critical central airway obstruction, rigid bronchoscopy and excision of the lower tracheal growth were performed. Histopathological examination of the excised specimen demonstrated features of squamous papillomas. A diagnosis of respiratory papillomatosis was established. On follow-up surveillance bronchoscopy, there was a gradual spontaneous regression of the residual lesions, and the patient remains currently asymptomatic 1 year since the procedure. PMID:27891001

  9. A 30 year old man with an acute presentation of a cerebellopontine angle lesion.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Nancy; Berthelet, France; Bojanowski, Michel W

    2013-03-01

    Schwannomas are slow-growing tumors with symptoms manifesting progressively. We report the case of a patient who manifested a sudden loss of consciousness as clinical presentation of an intracranial schwannoma with no acute hemorrhage or hydrocephalus. A 30-year-old male presented comatose and posturing. Cerebral CT revealed an extra-axial lesion with a heterogeneous enhancement and a cystic component located on the right cerebellopontine angle (CPA), displacing the brain stem. No acute hemorrhage or hydrocephalus was documented. Through a retrosigmoid suboccipital craniotomy, an extended subtotal tumor resection was performed. The patient experienced no functional hearing impairment and resumed his daily-life activities 3 months after surgery. Histopathological examination was compatible with a benign schwannoma. An exuberant lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate was found in many areas, signing the presence of an unusual inflammatory reaction with adjacent important intratumoral edema. We propose that the exuberant inflammatory infiltrate and the associated intratumoral edema acted as determining elements in the increase of mass effect and sudden clinical deterioration.

  10. Chiropractic management of a 30-year-old patient with Parsonage-Turner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this case report is to describe the chiropractic management of a patient presenting with right arm paralysis and a diagnosis of Parsonage-Turner syndrome. Clinical Features After receiving nerve entrapment release surgery, a 30-year-old man presented with a right arm contracture, atrophy, and weakness with general paralysis of the forearm and index finger of 6 weeks' duration. Intervention and Outcome The patient was provided chiropractic care that included high-velocity/low-amplitude spinal manipulation based upon applied kinesiology manual muscle testing, soft tissue trigger point therapy, exercises, and stretches. The patient demonstrated improvement in range of motion after the first treatment session. By the eighth treatment, he was able to fully straighten his arm. Three years later, the patient reported that he was able to do mountain climbing and that his arm was fully functional and pain-free. Conclusion For this patient, chiropractic care seemed to be successful in relieving his right arm paralysis and restoring normal arm movement. PMID:22654689

  11. Social media: the key to health information access for 18- to 30-year-old college students.

    PubMed

    Prybutok, Gayle; Ryan, Sherry

    2015-04-01

    This work examines where 18- to 30-year-old college students seek health information on the Internet and how they determine site and message credibility. Using a qualitative methodology, five focus groups were conducted with 18- to 30-year-old college students, and transcripts were analyzed with MaxQDA text analysis software. The study revealed that 18- to 30-year-old college students have Internet health information source preferences, reasons for seeking health information on the Internet, and message design factors that improve their perception of site and message credibility. We conclude that the Internet and social media show great promise as effective health communication channels for 18- to 30-year-old college students and confirm that preferred Internet/social media sites can be utilized by health educators to present important risk management/disease prevention information to 18- to 30-year-old college students. In addition, message design factors can lend credibility to both sites and the health information delivered there.

  12. Comparison of age-related changes in wrinkling and sagging of the skin in Caucasian females and in Japanese females.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Kazue; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Yasuko; Kitahara, Takashi; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Witt, Pamela S; Simion, F Anthony; Takema, Yoshinori

    2004-01-01

    We compared age-related changes in wrinkles in eight areas of facial skin (forehead, glabella, upper eyelid, corner of the eye, lower eyelid, nasolabial groove, cheek, and corner of the mouth) and sagging in the subzygomatic area of Caucasian females and of Japanese females. The subjects studied included 85 healthy Caucasian females (ages 20-69 years) living in Cincinnati in the U.S. and 70 Japanese females (ages 20-69 years) living in Tokyo. Photos of the face in frontal and in oblique 45 degrees views were analyzed. Wrinkles in the face and sagging in the subzygomatic area were graded on Japanese photoscales, respectively, by the same experienced observer. The wrinkle score increased with age in all eight areas of the face examined in Caucasian females as well as in Japanese females. In the group aged 20-29 years, the wrinkle score in each area was significantly higher in Caucasian females than in Japanese females. The wrinkle scores in the forehead, glabella, upper eyelid, and corner of the eye were similar at advanced ages between the two groups, while the wrinkle scores in lower areas of the face (lower eyelid, nasolabial groove, cheek, and corner of the mouth) were markedly higher in Caucasian females than in Japanese females in each age group, and reached an upper limit at advanced ages in Caucasian females. The sagging score also increased with age in Caucasian females as well as in Japanese females. The sagging score was significantly higher in Caucasian females than in Japanese females in the groups aged 40 years or more. These results suggest more marked wrinkle formation in all areas of the face in younger age groups of Caucasian females living in North America than in Japanese females living in Tokyo. In particular, Caucasian females showed marked age-related wrinkle formation in the lower areas of the face, probably due to sagging in the subzygomatic area, which suggests a higher susceptibility to sagging in the subzygomatic area of Caucasian females.

  13. Early lessons from commercial thinning in a 30-year-old Sitka Spruce-Western Hemlock forest.

    Treesearch

    Sarah E. Greene; William H. Emmingham

    1986-01-01

    A commercial thinning study was undertaken in a 30-year-old stand, pre-commercially thinned at 15 years of age, at Cascade Head Experimental Forest on the Oregon coast. Measurements obtained after three different thinning treatments are presented and include stand volume, basal area, current growth rate, scar damage, crown ratio, and sapwood radius. Method of...

  14. Eighteen- to 30-year-olds more likely to link to hepatitis C virus care: an opportunity to decrease transmission.

    PubMed

    Young, K L; Huang, W; Horsburgh, C R; Linas, B P; Assoumou, S A

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection incidence among 18- to 30-year-olds is increasing and guidelines recommend treatment of active injection drug users to limit transmission. We aimed to : measure linkage to HCV care among 18- to 30-year-olds and identify factors associated with linkage; compare linkage among 18- to 30-year-olds to that of patients >30 years. We used the electronic medical record at an urban safety net hospital to create a retrospective cohort with reactive HCV antibody between 2005 and 2010. We report seroprevalence and demographics of seropositive patients, and used multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with linkage to HCV care. We defined linkage as having evidence of HCV RNA testing after reactive antibody. Thirty two thousand four hundred and eighteen individuals were tested, including 8873 between 18 and 30 years. The seropositivity rate among those ages 18-30 was 10%. In multivariate analysis, among those 18-30, diagnosis location (Outpatient vs Inpatient/ED) (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.28-2.49) and number of visits after diagnosis (OR 5.30, 95% CI 3.91-7.19) were associated with higher odds of linking to care. When we compared linkage in patients ages 18-30 to that among those older than 30, patients in the 18-30 years age group were more likely to link to HCV care than those in the older cohort even when controlling for gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, birthplace, diagnosis location and duration of follow-up. Eighteen- to 30-year-olds are more likely to link to HCV care than their older counterparts. During the interferon-free treatment era, there is an opportunity to prevent further HCV transmission in this population. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Soft tissue evaluation of contemporary Caucasian and African American female facial profiles.

    PubMed

    Sutter, R E; Turley, P K

    1998-12-01

    Previous studies suggest that esthetic Caucasian profiles exhibit fuller lips than the norm for their race, while esthetic African American profiles are similar to those of esthetic Caucasians. The present study was undertaken to compare the profiles of female Caucasian and African American models and their nonmodel counterparts. Four groups of 30 subjects were evaluated: Caucasian models [CM], Caucasian controls [CC], African American models [AM], and African American controls [AC]. The models' profiles were photographed from current fashion magazines, the photos were scanned, and 17 landmarks were digitized. Each profile was standardized for size and oriented along the N'-Sn' line on a Macintosh 6115CD computer. Control photographs were processed in a similar manner. Twenty-six variables were measured for each profile. Means, ranges, and standard deviations were computed along with unpaired, two-tailed Student's t-tests (p<0.05) to evaluate group differences. The results showed that for the AM and AC profiles, all but two of the 26 variable were similar. For the CM and CC profiles, eight variables demonstrated significant differences. Between-race comparisons demonstrated greater numbers of parameters that were significantly different: CM/AM with 18 and CM/AC, CC/AC, and CC/AM with 22 each. Most of the differences involved the lips. Vertical soft tissue proportions for the four groups did not follow a 40/20/40 ratio. Caucasian and African American models displayed significantly different profile characteristics. The African American models and controls showed similar profile features, whereas greater differences were observed between Caucasian models and controls. Based on our study, the African American profile currently presented in the mass media is not "Caucasian-like." In fact, it appears that Caucasian models display more ethnic features than African American models do Caucasian features, suggesting that previously held concepts of facial beauty may no

  16. [Smoking habits among women over 30 years old in Małopolska].

    PubMed

    Rachtan, Jadwiga; Sokołowski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate smoking habits and their intensity among women from urban and rural residents of Małopolska voivodship. A structured questionnaire was used by trained nurses who conducted personal interview. Questions regarding smoking referred to age of starting smoking, duration of smoking, average daily number of cigarettes smoked. The total number of collected interviews was 840. Lifetime exposure to cigarette smoking was expressed in pack-years. Data were collected among 602 urban and 238 rural women from Małopolska voivodship. In Małopolska, there are 23.4% current smokers among women, 21.7% are ex-smokers, and about 55% never smoked. The percentage of never smokers in women is significantly higher among the rural women group (67.3%) than urban women group (50.0%). Currently smoking are 25.9% urban inhabitans and 17.2% women from rural population. There were no significant differences in smoking habits among younger group of women (below 50 years) living in urban and rural areas. The present results indicate that female population in urban and rural areas need effective educational strategy associated with presenting negative consequences of tobacco smoking and support in quitting the addiction.

  17. Brief daily exposures to Asian females reverses perceptual narrowing for Asian faces in Caucasian infants.

    PubMed

    Anzures, Gizelle; Wheeler, Andrea; Quinn, Paul C; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Tanaka, James W; Lee, Kang

    2012-08-01

    Perceptual narrowing in the visual, auditory, and multisensory domains has its developmental origins during infancy. The current study shows that experimentally induced experience can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing on infants' visual recognition memory of other-race faces. Caucasian 8- to 10-month-olds who could not discriminate between novel and familiarized Asian faces at the beginning of testing were given brief daily experience with Asian female faces in the experimental condition and Caucasian female faces in the control condition. At the end of 3 weeks, only infants who received daily experience with Asian females showed above-chance recognition of novel Asian female and male faces. Furthermore, infants in the experimental condition showed greater efficiency in learning novel Asian females compared with infants in the control condition. Thus, visual experience with a novel stimulus category can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing during infancy via improved stimulus recognition and encoding.

  18. Ethnic characteristics of eyelashes: a comparative analysis in Asian and Caucasian females.

    PubMed

    Na, J I; Kwon, O S; Kim, B J; Park, W S; Oh, J K; Kim, K H; Cho, K H; Eun, H C

    2006-12-01

    Despite similar biochemical composition of human hair between races, physico-morphological characteristics are not identical in different ethnic groups. Eyelashes have been investigated far less than scalp hair, and the information available is insufficient. To obtain basic information about eyelashes and to clarify differences between female eyelashes in Asians and Caucasians. Twenty Asian and 10 white Caucasian female volunteers aged between 20 and 29 years were admitted to the study. Lateral digital photographs of upper eyelashes were taken and curl-up and lift-up angles of upper eyelashes were measured from lateral views. Images of upper eyelashes were also taken using the phototrichogram technique and total numbers, lengths and thicknesses of upper eyelashes were obtained (a total of 4661 eyelashes; 2946 for Asian, 1715 for Caucasian). The central portion of the eyelashes or whole eyelashes were clipped and images were taken immediately and 7 days later to obtain the growth rate and anagen ratio of upper eyelashes. Numbers and thickness of eyelash cuticular layers were obtained by electron microscopy. Compared with Caucasians, Asian eyelashes revealed lower lift-up and curl-up angles, fewer numbers and a thicker transverse diameter. However, no statistical difference was observed in length or growth rate. Duration of anagen was estimated at about 2 months. The eyelash anagen ratio obtained from five Asians was 17.8 +/- 3.3%. By electron microscopy, the number of cuticular layers in transverse section was greater in Asian (8.0 +/- 1.2) than Caucasian females (6.5 +/- 1.1), but no statistical difference was found in single cuticle layer thickness between the two groups. Moreover, eyelash characteristics were not influenced by eye makeup in either race. Our results on eyelash morphology and growth characteristics demonstrated significant ethnic differences in Asian and Caucasian females that could provide basic information for future investigations.

  19. Theory of planned behavior and multivitamin supplement use in Caucasian college females

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to identify predictors of the use of multivitamin supplements among Caucasian college females utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior. Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the self-reported use of multivitamin supplements were measured by two separate surv...

  20. [Periodontal health status in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1, from 18 to 30 years-old, from Santiago de Chile].

    PubMed

    Pavez, Violeta; Araya, Verónica; Rubio, Alex; Ríos, Lorena; Meza, Patricio; Martínez, Benjamín

    2002-04-01

    The prevalence of periodontal diseases, gingivitis and periodontitis, is higher in diabetic patients and can have severe functional and esthetic consequences early in their lives. To evaluate the prevalence of periodontal disease in type 1 diabetics, aged between 18 and 30 years old, living in Santiago de Chile. One hundred male and female type 1 diabetics were examined. Glycated hemoglobin A1c, microalbuminuria, and fundoscopy were assessed in a sample of 52 subjects, separated in two groups according to the presence of periodontal disease. The prevalence of gingivitis was 22%, periodontitis 41%. Only 37% of subjects were free of periodontal disease. When compared with patients without periodontal disease, in the group of patients with the disease there was a higher proportion of subjects with diabetes lasting more than 10 years (28 and 55% respectively) and a higher proportion of patients with chronic complications of diabetes (42 and 58% respectively). A high prevalence of periodontal diseases was observed in this sample of diabetic patients. A long history of diabetes and the presence of chronic complications were risk factors for these diseases in the analyzed sample.

  1. Body composition and anthropometry in Japanese and Australian Caucasian males and Japanese females.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masaharu; Binns, Colin B; Hills, Andrew P

    2007-01-01

    The total amount and location of fat deposition are important factors in the development of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. To date there have been no reported studies of ethnic and gender differences in body composition and fat distribution patterns in Japanese and Australian young adults. The aim of this study was to assess body composition of young Japanese and Australian Caucasian adults using whole-body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and anthropometry to examine body fat deposition patterns. Body composition of 45 Japanese males and 42 Australian Caucasian males living in Australia (aged 18-40 years) and 139 Japanese females living in Japan (aged 18-27 years) were measured using whole-body DXA scanning and anthropometry. Differences in relationships between BMI and waist circumference (WC), sum of skinfolds (SigmaSF) and %BF obtained from DXA were assessed using multivariate analyses. Distinct gender and ethnic differences (p<0.05) in bone density and waist circumference were observed but no gender differences in BMI and bone mineral content and no ethnic differences in sum of skinfolds and %BF. Both Japanese males and females showed a greater %BF at given BMI, WC and SigmaSF values (p<0.05). The results indicate differences in relationships between %BF and anthropometric measures in young Japanese compared to Caucasians and the importance of population-specific cut-off points for these indices. These findings also have implications for the development of chronic disease and further research, including studies in other Asian countries, is recommended.

  2. 46 CFR 31.10-21a - Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-21a Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes—TB/ALL. (a) As...

  3. 46 CFR 31.10-21a - Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-21a Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes—TB/ALL. (a) As...

  4. 46 CFR 31.10-21a - Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-21a Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes—TB/ALL. (a) As...

  5. Association of Acute Interstitial Nephritis with Carnivora, a Venus Flytrap Extract, in a 30-Year-Old Man with Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ziolkowski, Susan; Moore, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a common cause of acute kidney injury and has been associated with a variety of medications. This is the case of 30-year-old man with Hodgkin's lymphoma who on routine labs before chemotherapy was found to have acute nonoliguric renal failure. A kidney biopsy was performed and confirmed the diagnosis of acute interstitial nephritis. The patient had taken several medications including a higher dose of Carnivora, a Venus flytrap extract, composed of numerous amino acids. The medication was discontinued and kidney function improved towards the patient's baseline indicating that this may be the possible cause of his AIN. Proximal tubular cell uptake of amino acids increasing transcription of nuclear factor-kappaB is a proposed mechanism of AIN from this compound. PMID:24839571

  6. Brief Daily Exposures to Asian Females Reverses Perceptual Narrowing for Asian Faces in Caucasian Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzures, Gizelle; Wheeler, Andrea; Quinn, Paul C.; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Tanaka, James W.; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing in the visual, auditory, and multisensory domains has its developmental origins during infancy. The current study shows that experimentally induced experience can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing on infants' visual recognition memory of other-race faces. Caucasian 8- to 10-month-olds who could not discriminate…

  7. Brief Daily Exposures to Asian Females Reverses Perceptual Narrowing for Asian Faces in Caucasian Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzures, Gizelle; Wheeler, Andrea; Quinn, Paul C.; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Tanaka, James W.; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing in the visual, auditory, and multisensory domains has its developmental origins during infancy. The current study shows that experimentally induced experience can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing on infants' visual recognition memory of other-race faces. Caucasian 8- to 10-month-olds who could not discriminate…

  8. Male/Female Role Values: A Comparison of Caucasian and Japanese American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, John W.

    Research in America on sex role attitudes and beliefs tends to neglect the views of minorities. While there is some research on the sex role attitudes of Chinese Americans, little is known about Japanese American attitudes and beliefs. To assess and compare Japanese and Caucasian American college students' attitudes, a questionnaire assessing…

  9. Different shapes in different cultures: body dissatisfaction, overweight, and obesity in African-American and caucasian females.

    PubMed

    Padgett, Justina; Biro, Frank M

    2003-12-01

    Body dissatisfaction and medical issues arising at both ends of the weight continuum are discussed from a cultural perspective. More specifically, a possible aesthetic preference and physical tolerance for increased adiposity among African-American females is discussed, as contrasted with that of Caucasian females. This mini-review of the existing literature suggests many avenues for future research in the cross-cultural aspects of body dissatisfaction, overweight, and obesity. Among these suggestions are (1) educating children and adolescents about excessive weight, (2) assessing cultural perceptions of overweight and obesity among African-Americans, (3) understanding the developmental trajectory of body dissatisfaction in females, and (4) placing more emphasis on the cross-cultural representation and psychological influence of the female body image in the media.

  10. Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of different formulations of ONO-5334, cathepsin K inhibitor, in Caucasian and Japanese postmenopausal females.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Chihiro; Ohno, Tomoya; Umemura, Takeo; Honda, Naoki; Ohyama, Michiyo; Nagase, Shinichi; Small, Maria; Deacon, Steve; Ogawa, Mikio; Ieiri, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    ONO-5334, a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K, is a potential new treatment for osteoporosis. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) models for ONO-5334 using dose-ascending data from healthy postmenopausal females, (2) examine comparability of PK and/or PD profile between Caucasian and Japanese, and (3) compare PK-PD profile between immediate release tablet (IRT) and sustained release tablet (SRT). The population PK-PD models were developed for each formulation for post-dose levels of bone resorption markers (serum CTX and NTX). The data were provided from 4 phase 1 studies with total of 201 Caucasian and 94 Japanese subjects. Plasma concentrations of ONO-5334 and bone resorption markers were thoroughly evaluated in those studies. An indirect response model described relationships between bone resorption markers and plasma concentrations of ONO-5334. There was no significant difference in PK and pharmacodynamic potency (IC50 ) between Caucasian and Japanese. Based on the developed model, serum CTX and NTX after administration of ONO-5334 IRT or SRT were simulated, and the results showed that ONO-5334 SRT would provide comparable PD effect on bone resorption markers with lower dose relative to IRT.

  11. Incidence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Oskoo (Northwest Iran): An Approach through WHO CVD-risk Management Package for Low–and Medium-Resource Settings on 37,329 Adults ≥30 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Ahmadali; Yaghoubi, Alireza; Safaie, Naser; Eyvazi, Karim; Azarfarin, Rasoul; Ebrahimzadeh, Adel; Alizadehasl, Azin; Safarzadeh, Ghader; Farzandan, Abbas; Zamanzadeh, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to determine incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors [hypertension (HTN), obesity, Dyslipidemia (DLP), diabetes mellitus (DM) and smoking] in Oskoo. Methods This study was planned according to WHO protocol “WHO CVD-risk management package for low and medium-resource settings” and named “East Azerbaijan healthy heart program”. The pilot study of this program was done in Oskoo in 2007-2009. In this study, demographic data and CVD risk factors of 37,329 adults aged ≥30 years old living in Oskoo were collected. In addition, blood samples of 17,388 adults ≥40 years old were taken (free of charge) for assessment of serum glucose and lipid profile. Results The study covered 93.52% of Oskoo town population aged≥30 years old. We studied 18637 male (91.50% coverage) and 18692 female (95.52% coverage) participants. The incidence of HTN [SBP≥140 & DBP≥90 mmHg] was 16.25% (M:15.08%, F:17.29%), pre-hypertension [SBP=120-139 & DBP=80-89 mmHg] =37.78% (M:41.38%, F:34.18%), DM [fast blood glucose (FBS)≥126mg/dl] was 7.45% (M:6.35%, F:8.54%), smoking was 9.40% (M:17.00%, F:1.57%), hypercholesterolemia (>200mg/dl) was 47.64% (M:42.46%, F:52.81%) and obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥27] was 50.47% (M:38.79%, F:62.09%). Conclusion Considering high incidence of CVD risk factors (except smoking) in Oskoo adults ≥30 years, it is recommended that this pilot study expanded to all of East Azerbaijan. Free of charge taking blood samples from people ≥ 40 years to evaluate lipid profile and glucose levels is worthy to early detecting the prevalent DM or DLP in this target population. PMID:24250965

  12. Finger Fractures as an Early Manifestation of Primary Hyperparathyroidism Among Young Patients: A Case Report of a 30-Year-Old Male With Recurrent Osteoporotic Fractures.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Akihiko; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Yamagishi, Eiki; Sato, Shunsuke; Tsukada, Manabu; Sawano, Toyoaki; Leppold, Claire; Tsuda, Kenji; Asakura, Takanori; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Kami, Masahiro; Ohira, Hiromichi

    2016-05-01

    Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures represent a substantial health burden, and predominantly affect the elderly. Younger generations may also develop these conditions because of various predisposing conditions, including primary hyperparathyroidism. However, little information is available regarding early skeletal manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism.A 30-year-old Japanese male presented with pain in his left wrist, and was diagnosed with a distal radius fracture. During surgery, we noticed decreased bone strength of the fracture site. Further investigation found osteoporosis and primary hyperparathyroidism owing to a solitary parathyroid adenoma, which was resected without significant complications. History revealed that the patient suffered a metacarpal bone fracture of his right fifth bone 6 months earlier. Although serial x-rays at that time had shown rapidly developed cortical bone erosion around the fractured finger, the possibility of primary hyperparathyroidism was overlooked because of poor awareness of the condition, leading to a 6-month delay in the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism.Clinicians should be aware that finger fractures may be an early skeletal manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism that can help achieve a prompt diagnosis of the condition, especially when they occur in young adults in the absence of major trauma.

  13. Contributing Factors That Affect the Achievement of African-American Females Taught by Caucasian Teachers on the Arkansas Literacy Exam: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Felicia R.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative intrinsic case study was designed to assist Caucasian educators with the researched academic skills and behaviors to engage African-American females in the learning environment. The study provided strategies and recommendations to promote self-worth, self-motivation, self-efficacy, and morale in African-American females when they…

  14. Contributing Factors That Affect the Achievement of African-American Females Taught by Caucasian Teachers on the Arkansas Literacy Exam: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Felicia R.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative intrinsic case study was designed to assist Caucasian educators with the researched academic skills and behaviors to engage African-American females in the learning environment. The study provided strategies and recommendations to promote self-worth, self-motivation, self-efficacy, and morale in African-American females when they…

  15. Use of drugs of abuse in less than 30-year-old drivers killed in a road crash in France: a spectacular increase for cannabis, cocaine and amphetamines.

    PubMed

    Mura, P; Chatelain, C; Dumestre, V; Gaulier, J M; Ghysel, M H; Lacroix, C; Kergueris, M F; Lhermitte, M; Moulsma, M; Pépin, G; Vincent, F; Kintz, P

    2006-07-13

    A collaborative study was conducted in France in order to determine the prevalence of cannabinoids, opiates, cocaine metabolites and amphetamines in blood samples from drivers killed in road accidents in 2003 and 2004 and to compare these values with those of a previous study performed during the period 2000-2001 involving 900 drivers. Blood samples were provided from 2003 under 30-year-old drivers, killed in a traffic accident. Drugs of abuse were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using the same analytical procedures in all the 12 laboratories. The most frequently observed compounds were by far cannabinoids, that tested positive in 39.6% of the total number of samples. Delta9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the most active of the principle constituents in marijuana (cannabis sativa), was detected in the blood of 28.9% drivers and was the single drug of abuse in 80.2% of the positive cases. It was associated with amphetamines in 7.4% and with opiates and cocaine in 1.9 and 4.8%, respectively. Amphetamines were present in 3.1% of the total number of samples, cocaine metabolites in 3.0% and opiates in 3.5%. When comparing these results with those of a previous study performed 3 years before, a significant increase is observed for THC (28.9% versus 16.9%), cocaine metabolites (3.0% versus 0.2%) and amphetamines (3.1% versus 1.4%). This study demonstrates the critical necessity of implementing in France as soon as possible systematical roadside testing for drugs of abuse.

  16. Barriers to Career Mobility/Advancement by African-American and Caucasian Female Administrators in Minnesota Organizations: A Perception or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Jo Evans

    The primary purpose of this research was to identify perceived barriers affecting African-American and Caucasian female administrators' career mobility/advancement in education, business/industry, and government in Minnesota. The study explored women's perceptions of the effects that race/gender discrimination and gender underrepresentation have…

  17. Moyamoya Disease in an 18-Month-Old Female Caucasian Complicated by Cerebral Hyperperfusion Syndrome Following Indirect Revascularization.

    PubMed

    Murchison, James; Wilson, John M; Ray, Coby; Ginsberg, Jessica; Nagy, Laszlo

    2017-10-09

    BACKGROUND Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome is a rare complication of indirect revascularization due to moyamoya disease, but has not been reported previously in the pediatric population. We present a case of an 18-month-old girl with moyamoya disease that was treated with bilateral pial synangiosis and had complications consistent with cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome. This case report discusses the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in cerebral hyperperfusion in moyamoya syndrome. CASE REPORT An 18-month-old female Caucasian presented with seizures and weakness of the left side. Angiography confirmed bilateral cerebral moyamoya disease that was worse on the right side. Indirect revascularization with pial synangiosis was first performed on the right side to allow for healing. Five months later, pial synangiosis was then performed on the left side. Postoperatively, the patient experienced increased intracranial pressure (ICP), suggesting cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome. She was treated with a repeat lumbar puncture, a lumbar drain, and a lumbar shunt. CONCLUSIONS This report demonstrates a case of cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome as a complication of moyamoya disease in a pediatric patient. Although the patient progressed well after placement of a lumbar shunt, this case demonstrates the occurrence of cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome as a complication of revascularization in pediatric patients and highlights the need for further research in this area.

  18. The effect of photodamage on the female Caucasian facial stratum corneum corneome using mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

    PubMed

    Voegeli, Rainer; Monneuse, Jean-Marc; Schoop, Rotraut; Summers, Beverley; Rawlings, Anthony V

    2017-09-02

    The effect of photodamage on facial stratum corneum (SC) is still poorly understood. To describe the SC proteome from tape strippings of Caucasian SC from photoexposed cheek and photoprotected post auricular (PA) site a global analysis of photodamage on the skin will be developed leading to a better understanding of keratinocyte signalling pathways and identification of new molecular targets for the treatment of photoaged skin. Female Caucasian subjects had 9 consecutive tape strippings taken from their cheeks and PA site. Proteins were extracted and the trypsin digested peptides were analyzed by nanochromatography coupled to a high-resolution mass spectrometer. Data dependent acquisition allowed protein identification that was processed by Paragon algorithm of Protein Pilot software. Changes in the levels of epidermal differentiation proteins were apparent indicating poor epidermal differentiation and SC maturation (keratins, cornified envelope (CE) proteins) on photoexposed cheeks. Differences in protease-antiprotease balance were observed for corneodesmolysis (favouring desquamation) and filaggrinolysis (favouring reduced filaggrin processing). 12R-LOX, a CE maturation enzyme, was reduced in photodamaged skin but not transglutaminases. Changes in signal keratinocyte transduction pathway markers were demonstrated especially by reduced levels of downstream signalling markers such as calreticulin (unfolded protein response; UPR) and increased level of stratifin (target of rapamycin; mTOR). Evidence for impaired proteostasis was apparent by reduced levels of a key proteasomal subunit (subunit beta type-6). Finally, key antioxidant proteins were upregulated except catalase. Clear examples of poor keratinocyte differentiation and associated metabolic and signalling pathways together with reduced SC maturation were identified in photodamaged facial SC. Corneocyte immaturity was evident with changes in CE proteins. Particularly, the reduction in 12R-LOX is a novel

  19. Digit ratio (2D:4D), sex differences, allometry, and finger length of 12-30-year olds: evidence from the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) Internet study.

    PubMed

    Manning, John T

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have reported digit ratio (2D:4D) to be sexually dimorphic, (males lower 2D:4D than females). However, Kratochvíl and Flegr ([2009]: Biol Lett 5:643-646) have suggested that 2D regressed on 4D has an allometric regression line with nonzero Y-intercept that is shared by males and females. Thus, 2D is shorter than expected when 4D is long, and males have lower 2D:4D than females because they have longer fingers. In this study, it is shown that this suggestion may be incorrect because sex differences in slope were not considered. Participants were recruited in an Internet study and had an age range of 12-30 years. The expected sex difference in 2D:4D was found, and the regression of 2D on 4D showed a significant sex difference in slope (males lower than females). A comparison of 10 age groups (12 years, 13 years..., 21-30 years) showed that sexual dimorphism for fingers was age dependent, varying from monomorphic to very dimorphic. Changes in sexual dimorphism of 2D:4D were much less marked, but there was a significant reduction in mean 2D:4D with age. The tendency for slopes of 2D regressed on 4D to be lower in males compared with females was significant in eight age groups. Sex difference in 2D:4D varied across the age groups and was positively related to the magnitude of the difference in female and male slopes. In contrast to the report of Kratochvíl and Flegr, it was found that the regression of 2D on 4D showed sex differences in slope, and such differences gave rise to the sexual dimorphism in 2D:4D.

  20. Visual perceptions of male obesity: a cross-cultural study examining male and female lay perceptions of obesity in Caucasian males.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S

    2015-05-16

    Obesity is now common and this may have altered visual perceptions of what constitutes a 'normal' and therefore healthy weight. The present study examined cross-cultural differences in male and female participants' ability to visually identify the weight status of photographed Caucasian males. Five hundred and fifty three male and female young adults from the US (high obesity prevalence), UK and Sweden (lower obesity prevalence) participated in an online study. Participants judged the weight status of a series of photographed healthy weight, overweight and obese (class I) Caucasian males and rated the extent to which they believed each male should consider losing weight. There was a strong tendency for both male and female participants to underestimate the weight status of the photographed overweight and obese males. Photographed males were frequently perceived as being of healthier weight than they actually were. Some modest cross-cultural differences were also observed; US participants were worse at recognising obesity than UK participants (p < 0.05) and were also significantly more likely to believe that the photographed obese males did not need to consider losing weight, in comparison to both the UK and Swedish participants (ps < 0.05). No cross-cultural differences were observed for perceptions or attitudes towards the photographed healthy weight or overweight males. The weight status of overweight and obese (class I) Caucasian males is underestimated when judged by males and females using visual information alone. This study provides initial evidence of modest cross-cultural differences in attitudes toward, and the ability to recognise, obesity in Caucasian males.

  1. A single center kidney transplant experience among ten Caucasian females with end-stage renal disease due to scleroderma
.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Nishkarsh; Djamali, Arjang; Astor, Brad C; Mohamed, Maha; Mandelbrot, Didier; Parajuli, Sandesh

    2017-07-01

    There is limited information on kidney transplant recipients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to scleroderma. We conducted an observational study on kidney transplant recipients with ESRD due to scleroderma who received kidney transplant at our center between 01/1994 and 06/2013. During the study period, there were 10 kidney transplant recipients, all of whom were Caucasian females. Seven of them were living-donor kidney transplant recipients, and the mean age at time of transplant was 56.6 ± 11.99 years. The mean post-transplant follow-up was 76.75 ± 56.18 months; the mean dialysis vintage was 46.4 ± 80.35 months, ranging from 8 to 272 months; and the mean serum creatinine (Cr) levels at 3, 6, and 12 months were 1.31 ± 0.47 mg/dL, 1.35 ± 0.51 mg/dL, and 1.34 ± 0.49 mg/dL, respectively. There were 5 graft failures with median graft survival of 101 months. None had recurrence of scleroderma renal crisis. In those without graft failure, the mean serum Cr at last follow-up was 0.96 ± 0.39 mg/dL. Six patients were on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) after transplant. In univariate analysis, none of the factors including, age at time of transplant, dialysis vintage, use of ACE-I, living-donor transplant, cytomegalovirus infection, and serum Cr at 1 year were predictive of graft failure. In our study, we hoped to find outcomes and various factors associated with graft failure in these patients. We found a wide variation in outcomes after kidney transplantation. More studies are needed to assess the factors that may influence the graft survival in this rare disease.
.

  2. Black Like Me: How Idealized Images of Caucasian Women Affect Body Esteem and Mood States of African-American Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisby, Cynthia M.

    Using the theory of social comparison, the present research explores how exposure to idealized images of physically attractive Caucasian women affects and changes the self-reported esteem levels of African-American undergraduate students. Though research reveals that the number of portrayals of African-Americans in ads is growing, little if any…

  3. Change in frequency of the maxillary midline diastema appearing in photographs of Caucasian females in two fashion magazines from 2003 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kylie C; Sherriff, Martyn; Stewart Denize, E

    2014-06-01

    To ascertain if there has been a change in the frequency of appearance of maxillary midline diastema in two leading women's fashion magazines over a decade. Two observers counted the frequency of maxillary midline diastema that appeared in Caucasian female models featured in British Vogue and Glamour (UK). An increase in the frequency of maxillary midline diastema appearing in both publications was observed between 2003 and 2012. This change may indicate an increase in the acceptance of the maxillary midline diastema, which may in turn, influence orthodontic and aesthetic dentistry treatment planning. © 2014 British Orthodontic Society.

  4. Incremental and Predictive Validity of the Antisocial Process Screening Device in a Community Sample of Male and Female Ethnic Minority and Caucasian Youth.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Catherine; Gatner, Dylan; Gray, Andrew L; Douglas, Kevin S; Viljoen, Jodi L; Tweed, Roger; Bhatt, Gira; Dooley, Stephen; Gagnon, Nathalie

    2016-11-01

    The Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) is a well-supported tool for assessing psychopathic features in youth. However, most research with the APSD has been derived from clinical and forensic samples comprised mainly of male Caucasian and African American adolescents. In this prospective study, the incremental and predictive validity of the self-report APSD for violent and non-violent offending was examined in an ethnically diverse community sample of male and female youth (N = 335) aged 12 to 14. High-school students from a moderate sized city in Western Canada completed the self-report APSD and then completed the Self-Report of Offending 6 months later. Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis indicated that APSD total and subscale scores were predictive of violent and non-violent offending at 6-month follow-up with moderate to large effect sizes. In addition, total scores on the APSD added incremental predictive utility above and beyond traditional criminogenic predictors of youth offending (i.e., prior offending, delinquent peer affiliation, poor school achievement, substance use, low parental monitoring). Although sex differences emerged in the predictive utility of the Impulsivity subscale of the APSD vis-à-vis violent offending, sex did not moderate the relationship between APSD total, Narcissism, or Callous/Unemotional scores and offending. In addition, the predictive utility of the APSD did not vary as a function of the youth's ethnic background. These findings suggest that: (1) the self-report APSD may have utility for risk or threat assessment with normative school populations, (2) APSD findings from higher risk samples generalize to a lower risk sample of high-school youth, and (3) predictive utility of APSD total scores do not differ across male and female Caucasian and ethnic minority youth.

  5. Very Long Segment Congenital Thoracoabdominal Aortic Coarctation (Diffuse Aortic Dysplasia) with Infrarenal Aortobi-Iliac and Cavobi-Iliac Aplasia in a 30-Year-Old Patient.

    PubMed

    Mamopoulos, Apostolos; Luther, Bernd

    2015-10-01

    Congenital dysplastic aortic syndromes range from coarctation at the aortic isthmus to more extended aortic disease (midaortic syndrome). The latter is usually restricted to dysplastic aortic segments of up to 15 cm. Long segment dysplasia of the entire abdominal or thoracic aorta is extremely rare. This case of a 30-year-old patient with a very long segment congenital thoracoabdominal aortic coarctation and infrarenal aortobi-iliac and cavobi-iliac aplasia represents to our knowledge the most extended congenital vascular malformation in a surviving adult patient. The developed extensive collateral pathways ensured the survival of the patient, so that the main clinical manifestation was a refractory hypertension. Because of the extent of the disease, open surgery represented the only viable option. Interestingly, after 30 years of uncontrollable hypertension, the patient's blood pressure promptly responded to surgical treatment. A concomitant infrarenal aplasia of both the aorta and cava vein is also very unusual and points to a major developmental deficit during vascular embryogenesis.

  6. How can young women be encouraged to attend cervical cancer screening? Suggestions from face-to-face and internet focus group discussions with 30-year-old women in Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Blomberg, Karin; Tishelman, Carol; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie; Törnberg, Sven; Levál, Amy; Widmark, Catarina

    2011-01-01

    cervical cancer screening (CCS) using Pap-smears has been carried out for decades and is still an essential tool for secondary cancer prevention. Focus has traditionally been on what hinders women's attendance, instead of researching this issue from a positive standpoint, i.e. what factors encourage women to take a Pap-smear? In this article, we therefore explore issues that 30-year-old women have addressed as encouraging CCS attendance, with particular focus on aspects susceptible to intervention. through the population-based cervical cancer screening (PCCSP) registry in Stockholm, Sweden, a stratified random sampling technique was used to recruit women from the same birth cohort with varied CCS histories and results. Nine face-to-face focus groups discussions (FGDs) and 30 internet-based FGDs were conducted with a total of 138 women aged 30. Qualitative analysis was inspired by interpretative description, to generate clinically relevant and useful data. in general, these women expressed positive views about the PCCSP as an existing service, regardless of screening history. They described a wide range of factors encompassing the entire screening trajectory from invitation through follow-up which could motivate young women to CCS participation, including social marketing. Many of the suggestions related to individualization of the PCCSP, as well as a need to understand the relationship between human papilloma virus (HPV) and cervical cancer. [corrected these results are discussed in terms of the inherent tension between population-based public health initiatives and individually-oriented health care provision. Many suggestions given are already incorporated into the existing Stockholm-Gotland screening program, although this information may not reach women who need it. New research should test whether systematic information on HPV may provide a missing link in motivating young women to attend CCS, and which of their suggestions can serve to increase CCS

  7. Timing of peak bone mass in Caucasian females and its implication for the prevention of osteoporosis. Inference from a cross-sectional model.

    PubMed Central

    Matkovic, V; Jelic, T; Wardlaw, G M; Ilich, J Z; Goel, P K; Wright, J K; Andon, M B; Smith, K T; Heaney, R P

    1994-01-01

    To determine the timing of peak bone mass and density, we conducted a cross-sectional study of bone mass measurements in 265 premenopausal Caucasian females, aged 8-50 yr. Bone mass and bone mineral density were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry and single-photon absorptiometry at the spine (anteroposterior, lateral), proximal femur, radius shaft, distal forearm, and the whole body. Bone mass parameters were analyzed using a quadratic regression model and segmented regression models with quadratic-quadratic or quadratic-linear form. The results show that most of the bone mass at multiple skeletal locations will be accumulated by late adolescence. This is particularly notable for bone mineral density of the proximal femur and the vertebral body. Bone mass of the other regions of interest is either no different in women between the age of 18 yr and the menopause or it is maximal in 50-yr-old women, indicating slow but permanent bone accumulation continuing at some sites up to the time of menopause. This gain in bone mass in premenopausal adult women is probably the result of continuous periosteal expansion with age. Since rapid skeletal mineral acquisition at all sites occurs relatively early in life, the exogenous factors which might optimize peak bone mass need to be more precisely identified and characterized. Images PMID:8113412

  8. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, V. F.; Milian, F. M.; Kramer, R.; de Oliveira Lira, C. A. B.; Khoury, H. J.

    2011-07-01

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  9. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations.

    PubMed

    Cassola, V F; Milian, F M; Kramer, R; de Oliveira Lira, C A B; Khoury, H J

    2011-07-07

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  10. Eating Behaviors and Obesity in African American and Caucasian Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-16

    relationship between affective eating and depressive symptoms [6] has been found in Caucasian females. Cultural dietary practices, body weight ideals, and...dissatisfaction among Caucasian compared to African American college students [15]; however, African American subsamples including postpartum [16...reported history of heart disease, uncontrolled hypertension, thyroid disease, diabetes, tobacco use, mental health disorder diagnosis, anti- depressant

  11. Smile arcs of Caucasian and Korean youth.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jin-Keun; Rashid, Robert G; Rosenstiel, Stephen F

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to measure and compare the smile arcs (tooth and lip arcs) of young Caucasian and Korean subjects. Two hundred subjects (100 male and 100 female) were selected from Caucasian and Korean students. Class photographs taken with a digital camera showing the subjects with a posed smile were used for this study. Curves were rendered as semitransparent overlays, which were manipulated over the images using Adobe Photoshop to determine the best fit for tooth and lip arcs. There were statistically significant differences due to ethnicity and gender. Mean lip arcs had greater curvature than mean tooth arcs.

  12. rs10767664 Gene Variant in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Is Associated with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in Caucasian Females with Obesity.

    PubMed

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Aller, Rocío; Izaola, Olatz; Primo, David; Romero, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) variants on diabetes prevalence, basal adipokine levels, body weight, and cardiovascular risk factors remains unclear in obese patients. This study is aimed at analyzing the effects of rs10767664 BDNF gene polymorphism on diabetes mellitus prevalence, body weight, cardiovascular risk factors, and serum adipokine levels in obese female patients. A total of 507 obese women were enrolled in a prospective way. Biochemical evaluation and anthropometric measures were recorded. The frequency of diabetes mellitus in the group of patients with non-T allele was 20.1 and 28.3% in T-allele carriers. Logistic regression showed a risk of diabetes mellitus of 1.33 (95% CI 1.17-2.08) in subjects with T allele adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI). T-allele carriers with diabetes mellitus have a higher weight, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels than non-T-allele carriers. rs10767664 polymorphism of BDNF gene is associated with prevalence of diabetes mellitus in obese female patients. T-allele carriers with diabetes mellitus have a higher weight, fat mass, blood pressure, level of insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR, and CRP than non-T-allele carriers. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. A comparison of Australian caucasian and aboriginal brain weights.

    PubMed

    Harper, C; Mina, L

    1981-01-01

    The weights of normal brains obtained at autopsy from Royal Perth Hospital and the Perth City Coroner's Department during the last decade were reviewed. The analysis involved 728 Caucasian and 63 Aboriginal brains. The ages ranged from 21 to 90 years, but the Aboriginal group were generally younger than the Caucasian. All brains were examined in detail by the Neuropathology Department, Royal Perth Hospital. Brains with any significant macroscopic or microscopic abnormality were excluded from the analysis. Statistical comparisons between the brain weights of the Caucasians and Aboriginal subpopulations show that Aboriginals had smaller brains than Caucasians. Even after correcting for body height, Caucasian brain weights were significantly heavier than Aboriginal brain weights. Results also showed that men had significantly higher mean brain weights than women of the same age. There was a tendency for the mean brain weight of both men and women to decrease in later life, particularly in the eighth and ninth decades. Ho et al. (1980) showed in their analysis of 1261 brains in the USA, that brain weight decreases from white males to black males to white females to black females. The tendency in both this and the present investigation for the non-Caucasians to have smaller brains than the Caucasians warrants further study.

  14. A study of dental development in a Caucasian population compared with a non-Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Al-Tuwirqi, A; Holcombe, T; Seow, W K

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to compare dental development in children from a non-Caucasian population (Saudi Arabia) with age- and gender- matched children from a Caucasian population (Australia). Randomised study comparing two population groups using a common set of standards. Dental ages of 842 Australian and 456 Saudi Arabian children were assessed from orthopantomograms (OPGs) using the method of Demirjian and co-workers. The children were divided into male and female groups of 5-6, 7-8, 9-10, 11-12, and 13-14 year-olds, and the dental age of each child compared to that the corresponding calendar age group. In both Australian and Saudi Arabian children, the dental ages were higher than the corresponding calendar ages. The largest difference between calendar and dental ages (1.10±0.80 years, p<0.001) was noted in 11-12 year-old Saudi Arabian girls, and the smallest difference (0.33±1.19 years, p<0.01) in 11-12 year-old Australian boys. These discrepancies between calendar and dental ages were significantly different between Australian and Saudi Arabian children (p<0.01). Although the results suggest that dental development of both Caucasian and non-Caucasian children are generally underestimated by current standards, a few age-specific differences between the two types of population can be discerned.

  15. Preferences for facial profiles between Mexican Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Mejia-Maidl, Martha; Evans, Carla A; Viana, Grace; Anderson, Nina K; Giddon, Donald B

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine differences between Mexican American and Caucasian judges in the acceptability of lip protrusion in computer animations of two male and two female persons of Mexican descent. Thirty Caucasians and 30 Mexican Americans of varying age, sex, education, and level of acculturation responded to facial profile computer animations that moved lips from an extreme protrusive to an extreme retrusive position. Judges were asked to complete two tasks: (1) to press the mouse button when the image was perceived to be most pleasing (MP) and (2) to determine the boundaries of a zone of acceptability (ZA) of lip protrusion by pressing the mouse button when the moving image became acceptable and releasing it when the image of the protrusion became unacceptable. In general, Mexican Americans preferred upper or lower lip positions to be less protrusive than did Caucasians. Larger mean ZAs for both upper and lower lip positions with male computer animation images and lower lip position for female computer animation images were found among Caucasians when compared with low-acculturated Mexican Americans. A significant mean difference in midpoint of acceptability (MA) for lip position between Caucasians and low-acculturated Mexican Americans was observed for both upper and lower lip position with female computer animation images.

  16. In vitro permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin.

    PubMed

    Franken, A; Eloff, F C; du Plessis, J; Badenhorst, C J; Du Plessis, J L

    2015-02-03

    The majority of the South African workforce are Africans, therefore potential racial differences should be considered in risk and exposure assessments in the workplace. Literature suggests African skin to be a superior barrier against permeation and irritants. Previous in vitro studies on metals only included skin from Caucasian donors, whereas this study compared the permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin. A donor solution of 0.3 mg/ml of potassium tetrachloroplatinate (K₂PtCl₄) dissolved in synthetic sweat was applied to the vertical Franz diffusion cells with full thickness abdominal skin. Skin from three female African and three female Caucasian donors were included (n=21). The receptor solution was removed at various intervals during the 24 h experiment, and analysed with high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Skin was digested and analysed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Significantly higher permeation of platinum through intact African skin (p=0.044), as well as a significantly higher mass of platinum retention in African skin in comparison with Caucasian skin (p=0.002) occurred. Significant inter-donor variation was found in both racial groups (p<0.02). Results indicate that African workers have increased risk of dermal permeation and therefore possible sensitisation caused by dermal exposure to platinum salts. These results are contradictory to limited literature suggesting a superior barrier in African skin and further investigation is necessary to explain the higher permeation through African skin.

  17. Gender- and Ethnicity-Related Differences in Optic Nerve Head Topography in Healthy Indian and Caucasian Participants.

    PubMed

    Pilat, Anastasia V; Gottlob, Irene; Sheth, Viral; Thomas, Mervyn G; Proudlock, Frank A

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of ethnicity and gender on optic nerve head morphology in healthy subjects using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Thirty-five Indian (i.e. Indian subcontinent) females, 34 Caucasian females, 32 Indian males, and 32 Caucasian males were examined using SD-OCT (Copernicus, Optopol Technology). Disc and rim areas were larger in Caucasian males compared with females but smaller in Indians males compared with females. Indian participants had significantly larger cup areas and volumes without significant differences in retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thicknesses between groups. Gender and ethnicity differences should be considered in assessment of patients.

  18. Gender- and Ethnicity-Related Differences in Optic Nerve Head Topography in Healthy Indian and Caucasian Participants

    PubMed Central

    Pilat, Anastasia V.; Gottlob, Irene; Sheth, Viral; Thomas, Mervyn G.; Proudlock, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the effect of ethnicity and gender on optic nerve head morphology in healthy subjects using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Thirty-five Indian (i.e. Indian subcontinent) females, 34 Caucasian females, 32 Indian males, and 32 Caucasian males were examined using SD-OCT (Copernicus, Optopol Technology). Disc and rim areas were larger in Caucasian males compared with females but smaller in Indians males compared with females. Indian participants had significantly larger cup areas and volumes without significant differences in retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thicknesses between groups. Gender and ethnicity differences should be considered in assessment of patients. PMID:27928300

  19. African and Caucasian body ideals in South Africa and the United States.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Vinet; Perrett, David I

    2011-01-01

    African women are often thought to be protected from developing eating disorder pathology because they experience less cultural pressure to be thin. Yet, to our knowledge, no previous study has quantified the African body ideals portrayed by the media. We determined the African and Caucasian body ideals portrayed by the media in the United States (US) and South Africa (RSA), by calculating the average body mass index of male and female fashion models in the respective countries. The African female body ideal was significantly heavier than the Caucasian body ideal in the US, but significantly thinner than the Caucasian body ideal in RSA. The African male body ideal was significantly thinner than the Caucasian body ideal in both countries. Findings indicate that the body ideals portrayed by the media parallel the previously reported eating disorder pathology for both sexes, and in both countries.

  20. Depression in Asian-American and Caucasian undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Young, Christina B; Fang, Daniel Z; Zisook, Sidney

    2010-09-01

    Depression is a serious and often under-diagnosed and undertreated mental health problem in college students which may have fatal consequences. Little is known about ethnic differences in prevalence of depression in US college campuses. This study compares depression severity in Asian-American and Caucasian undergraduate students at the University of California San Diego (UCSD). Participants completed the nine item Patient Health Questionnaire and key demographic information via an anonymous online questionnaire. Compared to Caucasians, Asian-Americans exhibited significantly elevated levels of depression. Furthermore, Korean-American students were significantly more depressed than Chinese-American, other minority Asian-American, and Caucasian students. In general, females were significantly more depressed than males. Results were upheld when level of acculturation was considered. The demographic breakdown of the student population at UCSD is not representative to that of the nation. These findings suggest that outreach to female and Asian-American undergraduate students is important and attention to Korean-American undergraduates may be especially worthwhile. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A 3D analysis of Caucasian and African American facial morphologies in a US population.

    PubMed

    Talbert, Leslie; Kau, Chung How; Christou, Terpsithea; Vlachos, Christos; Souccar, Nada

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to compare facial morphologies of an adult African-American population to an adult Caucasian-American population using three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging. The images were captured using a stereophotogrammetric system (3dMDface(TM) system). Subjects were aged 19-30 years, with normal body mass index and no gross craniofacial anomalies. Images were aligned and combined using RF6 Plus Pack 2 software to produce a male and female facial average for each population. The averages were superimposed and the differences were assessed. The most distinct differences were in the forehead, alar base and perioricular regions. The average difference between African-American and Caucasian-American females was 1·18±0·98 mm. The African-American females had a broader face, wider alar base and more protrusive lips. The Caucasian-American females had a more prominent chin, malar region and lower forehead. The average difference between African-American and Caucasian-American males was 1·11±1·04 mm. The African-American males had a more prominent upper forehead and periocular region, wider alar base and more protrusive lips. No notable difference occurred between chin points of the two male populations. Average faces were created from 3D photographs, and the facial morphological differences between populations and genders were compared. African-American males had a more prominent upper forehead and periocular region, wider alar base and more protrusive lips. Caucasian-American males showed a more prominent nasal tip and malar area. African-American females had broader face, wider alar base and more protrusive lips. Caucasian-American females showed a more prominent chin point, malar region and lower forehead.

  2. Leaf Biomass and Acorn Production in a Thinned 30-Year-Old Cherrybark Oak Plantation

    Treesearch

    Erika L. Stelzer; Jim L. Chamgers; James S. Meadows; Kenneth F. Ribbeck

    2004-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the effects of two levels of thinning on leaf biomass and acorn production of cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.). To evaluate the effects of thinning 2 years after treatment, treatment plots were selected and blocked on the basis of initial stocking levels. Two levels of stocking and a control were...

  3. Long-term survival of cryopreserved germplasm: contributing factors and assessments from 30 year old experiments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cryobiologists assume that the extreme low temperatures of liquid nitrogen stop chemical and physical reactions that lead to sample aging and loss of viability. This assumption, based on extrapolations of temperature–reaction kinetic relationships, is not completely supported by accumulating eviden...

  4. Growth and yield of a managed 30-year-old noble fir plantation.

    Treesearch

    Marshall D. Murray

    1988-01-01

    A thinned and fertilized noble fir plantation produced 3,450 cubic feet per acre 30 years after it was planted in western Washington. More than half of this volume was in trees with diameter at breast height of 10 inches and larger. Current annual increment the last 6 years was 295 cubic feet per acre. Ornamental boughs have been harvested annually for about a 15-year...

  5. Growth and development of red alder compared with conifers in 30-year-old stands.

    Treesearch

    Carl M. Berntsen

    1961-01-01

    Red alder (Alnus rubra), although a widespread tree species in Pacific coast forests, has only in recent years attained commercial importance as a source of wood material for diversified products including furniture, paneling, and paper pulp. With the rapid increase in the harvest of red alder, both public agencies and private industry are making a...

  6. Paraganglioma, neuroblastoma, and a SDHB mutation: Resolution of a 30-year-old mystery.

    PubMed

    Schimke, R Neil; Collins, Debra L; Stolle, Catherine A

    2010-06-01

    Familial paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma (PGL/PCC) is genetically heterogenous with mutations in three of the four subunits of the heterotetrameric mitochondrial complex II enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) being causally responsible for the majority of cases. In addition to PGL/PCC an array of non-paraganglial tumors have been described in affected individuals. We present a 30-year follow-up on the family of a deceased patient who synchronously developed malignant neuroblastoma (NBL), PCC, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Other family members with late onset disease have come to our attention, and molecular study revealed a mutation in the SDHB gene. Despite the embryologic relationship, NBL has been seen in only two previous patients with familial PGL/PCC, both with deletions of the SDHB gene. Review of the literature suggests the lack of a reported association between NBL and familial PGL/PCC may be an ascertainment bias. We further suggest that study of the SDH genes in NBL survivors who develop secondary solid tumors, particularly RCC, may correct this bias, and provide for more effective and comprehensive tumor screening in this patient population.

  7. Results of 30-year-old plantations on surface mines in the Central States

    Treesearch

    W. Clark Ashby; Clay A. Kolar; Nelson F. Rogers

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-eight tree species have grown successfully on surface-mined lands in the Central States. Variability in species performance can be related to geographic area, type of rooting medium, and associated species. Many planted stands have been vigorously invaded by volunteer trees, as well as by other plants and animals.

  8. Unmet needs in the transition to adulthood: 18- to 30-year-old people with hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Quon, Doris; Reding, Mark; Guelcher, Chris; Peltier, Skye; Witkop, Michelle; Cutter, Susan; Buranahirun, Cathy; Molter, Don; Frey, Mary Jane; Forsyth, Angela; Tran, Duc Bobby; Curtis, Randall; Hiura, Grant; Levesque, Justin; de la Riva, Debbie; Compton, Matthew; Iyer, Neeraj N; Holot, Natalia; Cooper, David L

    2015-12-01

    Young adults with hemophilia face unique challenges during the transition to adulthood, including issues associated with switching from pediatric to adult hematology care, building mature interpersonal relationships, and establishing an independent career with an assurance of medical insurance coverage. A greater understanding of these challenges is essential for developing effective strategies to address the specific needs of this population. These challenges may be differentiated from those of older adults with hemophilia in large part because of more extensive childhood prophylaxis and safer factor products, resulting in fewer joint problems and lower rates of HIV and HCV infections. This analysis of the changing nature and unmet needs of today's young adults entering into adult hemophilia treatment centers, as well as potential strategies for optimally addressing these needs, was developed following roundtable discussions between patients, caregivers, hematologists, and other health care professionals participating in comprehensive care. Challenges identified among young adults with hemophilia include psychosocial issues related to maturity, personal responsibility, and increased independence, as well as concerns regarding when and with whom to share information about one's hemophilia, limited awareness of educational and financial resources, and a low perceived value of regular hematology care. The initiatives proposed herein highlight important opportunities for health care professionals at pediatric and adult hemophilia treatment centers, as well as national organizations, community groups, and career counselors, to address key unmet needs of this patient population. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Changes in hematologic indices in caucasian and non-caucasian pregnant women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Harm, Sarah K; Yazer, Mark H; Waters, Jonathan H

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if there are differences in common red blood cell (RBC) indices and platelet concentrations during pregnancy and to establish if any observed differences in these parameters were based on the patient's ethnicity. From an electronic perinatal database which stores laboratory and clinical information on a large number of births at a regional hospital specializing in obstetrical care, RBC index and platelet concentration data were retrospectively analyzed at various time points throughout pregnancy. RBC index data was collected from 8,277 pregnant women (5,802 Caucasian pregnant women and 2,475 non-Caucasian pregnant women). Platelet concentration data was available from 8252 pregnant women (5,784 Caucasian pregnant women and 2,468 non-Caucasian pregnant women). Hemoglobin (HGB) levels were significantly higher amongst Caucasian women compared to non-Caucasian women (P at least <0.01) starting at 27 weeks gestation and proceeding until term. There was no significant difference in the mean PLT counts between Caucasian and non-Caucasian pregnant women at any point during gestation. There are ethnic differences in HGB levels, but not the platelet concentrations, during pregnancy. Based on this finding it would be reasonable to conduct formal prospective studies to determine the clinical significance of this difference and to establish the threshold for diagnosing gestational anemia, especially in pregnant non-Caucasian women.

  10. Differences in breast cancer characteristics and outcomes between Caucasian and Chinese women in the US.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dan-Na; Song, Chuan-Gui; Ouyang, Qian-Wen; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Ye, Fu-Gui; Ma, Fang-Jing; Luo, Rong-Cheng; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2015-05-20

    Chinese breast cancer patients living in the United States (US) can experience different disease patterns than Caucasians, which might allow for predicting the future epidemiology of breast cancer in China. We aimed to compare the clinicopathologic characteristics and outcomes of Caucasian and Chinese female breast cancer patients residing in the US. The study cohort consisted of 3868 Chinese and 208621 Caucasian women (diagnosed from 1990 to 2009) in the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Compared with the Caucasian patients, the US-residing Chinese patients had a younger age at diagnosis and a higher family income, remained married longer, and more frequently lived in metropolitan areas. Other tumor characteristics were similarly distributed between the two races. Compared with the Caucasians, the Chinese patients had a significantly improved overall survival (OS) but similar breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). Our analysis suggested that US-residing Chinese patients had significant differences in age, family income, marital status and area of residence, compared with their Caucasian counterparts. No significant disparities were noted in BCSS between the two races, whereas the Chinese patients had a significantly better OS. These findings warrant further investigation and should be considered in the screening and treatment of breast cancer.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of macitentan in caucasian and Japanese subjects: the influence of ethnicity and sex.

    PubMed

    Bruderer, Shirin; Marjason, Joanne; Sidharta, Patricia N; Dingemanse, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    Macitentan is a novel dual endothelin receptor antagonist with sustained receptor binding in clinical development for pulmonary arterial hypertension. The present study compared the pharmacokinetics and safety of macitentan in healthy Caucasian and Japanese subjects and explored the potential sex differences. In this single-center, open-label, phase I study 10 healthy subjects of each ethnic origin with a male/female ratio of 1:1 in each group were administered a single oral 10-mg dose of macitentan. Blood samples were taken to determine plasma levels of macitentan and its pharmacologically active metabolite, ACT-132577, and safety and tolerability were monitored using standard assessments. For both macitentan and its metabolite, values for Cmax were similar but a shorter half-life was determined in Japanese subjects resulting in an exposure to both compounds being approximately 15% lower in Japanese when compared to Caucasian subjects. The exposure to macitentan was similar in Japanese males and females whereas Caucasian females had an approximately 25% higher exposure than Caucasian males. In both ethnic groups, females had an approximately 15% higher exposure to ACT-132577 than male subjects. Macitentan was well tolerated in both ethnic groups. There were no clinically significant differences in adverse event profile, clinical laboratory, electrocardiographic parameters, and vital signs between both groups. The data suggest that the minor differences in pharmacokinetics between the two groups are not clinically relevant and no dose adjustment of macitentan based on Japanese ethnic origin or sex is necessary. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Japanese vs. Caucasian Intelligence and Social Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagoshi, Craig T.

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes a series of studies from the Hawaii Family Study of Cognition on possible genetic and social environmental determinants of individual differences in and racial/ethnic differences between groups on intelligence and attainment. These studies, which focused on Japanese and Caucasian Americans, illustrate the complex, interactive, and…

  13. Japanese vs. Caucasian Intelligence and Social Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagoshi, Craig T.

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes a series of studies from the Hawaii Family Study of Cognition on possible genetic and social environmental determinants of individual differences in and racial/ethnic differences between groups on intelligence and attainment. These studies, which focused on Japanese and Caucasian Americans, illustrate the complex, interactive, and…

  14. Comparison of the efficacy of salmeterol/fluticasone propionate combination in Japanese and Caucasian asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Kawai, M; Kempsford, R; Pullerits, T; Takaori, S; Hashimoto, K; Takemoto, Y; Lötvall, J

    2007-12-01

    The effect of ethnicity on the efficacy of salmeterol (S)+fluticasone propionate (FP) has not been examined in Japanese and Caucasian asthmatics. In this study, the efficacy of combination treatment with S and FP from a single inhaler (SFC) was compared with concurrent treatment with S and FP administration from separate inhalers (S+FP) in Japanese and Caucasian asthmatics. This was a randomised, double-blind, crossover study in male and female Japanese (n=18) and Caucasian (n=17) asthmatics (50-100% predicted FEV(1); >35% reversibility in sGaw). Subjects received SFC (S 50 mcg/FP 250 mcg b.i.d.) and S+FP (S 50 mcg b.i.d.+FP 250 mcg b.i.d.) for 14 days. sGaw and FEV(1) were determined 0-12h after the first and last doses. Treatment with both SFC and S+FP produced marked bronchodilation, which was maintained 0-12h after the first dose. Baseline sGaw and FEV(1) increased up to 51% and 180 mL, respectively, in Japanese subjects over 2 weeks of treatment, with similar improvements in Caucasian subjects. On Day 14 the 0-12h S+FP:SFC treatment ratios (90% CI) for sGaw AUC and peak were 1.05 (0.98, 1.12) and 1.05 (0.97, 1.14), respectively, in Japanese subjects, and 0.99 (0.92, 1.07) and 0.98 (0.89, 1.07), respectively, in Caucasian subjects, with no difference between the two ethnic groups. The finding of a similar significant bronchodilator response in Japanese and Caucasian asthmatics following concurrent and combination treatment with salmeterol and FP suggests that the therapeutic response to these agents is comparable and independent of ethnicity in Japanese and Caucasian asthma patients.

  15. Sexual Hookups and Alcohol Consumption Among African American and Caucasian College Students: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Thomson Ross, Lisa; Zeigler, Stephanie; Kolak, Amy M; Epstein, Dryden

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated college students' sexual hooking up and its associations with alcohol consumption for men and women; furthermore, potential differences related to ethnicity were investigated. Students at a midsized southeastern university who identified as Caucasian or African American (N = 227) completed a survey assessing sexual behavior, demographics, and alcohol consumption. Heavy drinking was associated with ever hooking up, number of hookup partners, hookup frequency, and level of sexual contact during hooking up for Caucasian students, but not for their African American peers. Among Caucasians, moderate drinking men reported more intense sexual contact during hookups than their female peers who were moderate drinkers; sexual contact levels were more similar for men and women who were either nondrinkers or heavy drinkers. Limitations and strengths are discussed, as are ideas for future studies on hooking up and for educational efforts to protect against potentially negative outcomes of hooking up.

  16. A comparison of weight-control behaviors in African American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Annunziato, Rachel A; Lee, Janet N; Lowe, Michael R

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether there are overall differences in help-seeking, in specific weight control behaviors used, and in predictors of seeking professional help for weight loss between African American and Caucasian women. Cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited from community sources in Philadelphia. One hundred twenty female participants were studied. Of these, 58% were African American. Participants completed a packet of measures assessing weight-control behaviors, body mass index, co-morbid medical conditions, socioeconomic status, disordered eating behavior, and body image. Caucasian women were significantly more likely to be classified as high help-seekers than were African American women, X2 = 4.27, P = .04. Caucasian women were more likely to use commercial weight loss programs, X2 = 4.25, P = .04, while African American women were more likely to try herbal supplements for weight control, X2 = 6.21, P = .01. Higher scores on a measure of body image, responsiveness to the food environment, and the disinhibition and hunger subscales of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) predicted seeking professional help for Caucasian women only. The results indicate that African American and Caucasian women differ in overall weight-control efforts as well as in specific behaviors used. Furthermore, interactions were found between some factors associated with help-seeking and ethnicity. A better understanding of how available programs could be augmented to address the needs of African American and other minority groups is necessary.

  17. A comparative study of tracheal diameter in Caucasian and Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Tai, A; Corke, C; Joynt, G M; Griffith, J; Lunn, D; Tong, Pwy

    2016-11-01

    Ethnicity may be considered a factor when considering what size endotracheal tube to insert. In particular it has been suggested that Chinese patients have a smaller tracheal diameter, justifying the selection of smaller endotracheal tubes. We systematically evaluated transverse tracheal diameters in Chinese and Caucasian patients, utilising archived computer tomography images. A convenience sample of 100 Caucasian patients from Australia was compared with 100 Chinese patients from Hong Kong. Patients over 18 years of age who had undergone a computerised tomography scan of the neck and thorax, and also had accurate body height and weight recorded, were studied. The mean transverse diameter of the trachea measured at three levels was similar between the Chinese and Caucasian patients. At the narrowest measurement point, the immediate subcricoid transverse diameter, the unadjusted mean difference between male Chinese and Caucasian patients was small (1 mm, standard deviation 0.83 mm, P=0.01), and similarly small between female Chinese and Caucasian patients (1.5 mm, standard deviation 0.8 mm, P <0.01). Multivariate analysis demonstrated only a small influence related to ethnicity (12% relative contribution to the overall variance [R(2)] of the model), but substantial influence of height (40%) and sex (41%). Our findings do not support the practice of routinely selecting a smaller endotracheal tube size for Chinese patients on the basis that there is a difference related to the Chinese ethnic phenotype. Considerations regarding choice of endotracheal tube size should rather focus on patient sex and height.

  18. Haematological studies on pre-menopausal Indian and Caucasian vegetarians compared with Caucasian omnivores.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S; Sanders, T A

    1990-09-01

    Full blood counts, serum ferritin, vitamin B12 and folate, erythrocyte folate concentrations and nutrient intakes were estimated in twenty-three Indian vegetarian, twenty-two Caucasian omnivores and eighteen Caucasian vegetarian women aged 25-40 years. Energy and copper intakes were lower in the Indian women than in the Caucasians. Intakes of dietary fibre, vitamin C and folate were greater and the proportion of energy derived from fat was lower in the vegetarians than in the omnivores. Vitamin B12 and protein intakes were lower in both vegetarian groups than in the omnivores. Fe intake was similar in all the groups but haem Fe provided one-quarter of the Fe intake of the omnivores. Haemoglobin concentrations were generally inside the normal range in all groups, but were lower in the Indians as were mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH). Higher MCV, MCH and lower erythrocyte (RBC) counts were observed in Caucasian vegetarians compared with the Caucasian omnivores. In both groups of vegetarians, concentrations of serum vitamin B12 and ferritin were markedly lower than in the omnivores. RBC folate concentrations were lower in the Indians than in either of the Caucasian groups when subjects taking supplements were excluded. It is concluded that vegetarians need to ensure they have adequate intakes of Fe and vitamin B12.

  19. Bathing Epilepsy: Report of Three Caucasian Cases

    PubMed Central

    Dashi, Florian; Seferi, Arsen; Rroji, Arben; Enesi, Eugen; Petrela, Mentor

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Bathing epilepsy is a specific type of reflex epilepsy triggered by domestic bathing in water. It is a geographically specific epilepsy syndrome that is more prevalent in India Cases in Caucasian population are very rarely reported. These cases share many similar clinical features and a similar prognosis to the Indian cases. Case report: We describe three cases of bathing epilepsy in Albanian population; two cases with well controlled seizures and one with drug-resistant seizures. PMID:26005279

  20. Towards a body hair atlas of women of caucasian ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, D; Hoff, A; Scheede, S; Fischer, F; Tilsner, J; Lüttke, J; Neumann, Y; Hagens, R

    2016-08-01

    A preliminary study was conducted in 17 female volunteers (mean age 29.8 years) to gain deeper insights into the characteristics of terminal Caucasian female body hair of different body parts. The focus on Caucasian women was driven by the high number of different scalp hair phenotypes in this ethnicity and intended to identify relevant differences between body areas to improve body hair removal approaches. Multiple growth parameters and structural parameters were assessed for hair on the upper arm, forearm, upper leg, lower leg, axilla and intimate area and compared to scalp data. In particular, macroscopic and much less microscopic or hair surface properties differ strikingly in the investigated body areas. Hair density on the body is much lower than on scalp with the highest hair density in the axilla and intimate area. Multihair follicular units are described for scalp but were also found to a smaller proportion in the axilla and the intimate area. Substantial percentages of hair triplets are only found on the scalp and intimate area. Hair diameter is highest in the intimate area, followed by axillary and lower leg hair and correlates with a faster hair growth rate. The angle of emerging hair is smallest in the intimate area, axilla and on the lower leg. Hair shafts on the lower leg and in the axilla have most overlapping cuticle layers, but independent of body region, no significant differences in the mean thickness of cuticle layers were detectable. In addition, no differences were found in the mean distance between cuticle layer edges along the hair shaft and the hair surface roughness. Hair on the scalp, forearm, upper arm and upper leg had an almost round shape, whereas hair of the lower leg, intimate area and axilla had more elliptical shape. Hairs on the arm showed the highest luminance values and no visible medulla. The darkest hairs were in the axilla and intimate area containing the highest level of visible medulla in hair shafts. To our knowledge

  1. Size and form of the human temporomandibular joint in African-Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Cecilia; Magnusson, Tomas

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine contemporary human skull material for possible differences between Caucasians and African-Americans in respect to size and form of the temporomandibular condyles. The material consisted of a total of 129 Caucasian skulls (94 males and 35 females) and 76 African-American skulls (40 males and 36 females). Their mean age at death was 46 years for the Caucasians (range: 19-89 years) and 37 years for the African-Americans (range: 18-70 years). The mediolateral and anteroposterior dimensions of the 410 condyles were measured, and the condylar form was estimated using both anterior and superior views. No statistically significant differences could be found between Caucasians and African-Americans for any of the recorded variables. In conclusion, the present results lend no support for the existence of ethnic differences between the two groups examined in respect of temporomandibular joint size and form. It is likely that other factors such as evolution, overall cranial size, dietary differences, and genetic factors, irrespective of ethnicity, can explain the differences found in different skull samples.

  2. The Caucasian oil and gas province

    SciTech Connect

    Adamia, S.H.; Akhvlediani, K.; Chabukiant, A. ); Kilasonia, V. )

    1991-08-01

    The Caucasus lies between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east. The main morphological elements of the Caucasus are the mountain ranges of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, which are divided by the Rioni (Colchis) and Kura intermontane troughs and the pre-Caucasian plain and Araks Depression. The tectonic features of the region result from its position between the Eurasian and Africa-Arabian plates. Two tectonic units of the highest order are distinguished within its limits, the young Scythian platform in the north and the Alpine fold belt in the south. Oil and gas deposits have been found only in the lowlands of the Caucasus, in the pre-Caucasian foreland, and within the Transcaucasian intermontane depressions. The North Caucasian province is made up of the Scythian platform and the marginal troughs of the Alpine Greater Caucasus. Oil and gas accumulations occur at all levels within the sedimentary cover from Triassic the Neogene. In the South Caspian oil and gas subprovince, oil and gas occurs within reservoirs range in age from Late Cretaceous to the Apsheronian stage of the Neogene. The Black Sea subprovince comprises the northwestern part of the sea and the western part of Georgia. The bulk of the explored oil reserves lies within the Neogene and Upper Cretaceous units. The potential in this region is associated with Jurassic terrigenous, Upper Cretaceous carbonate, and Paleogene terrigenous sediments.

  3. Female sexuality in Nairobi: flawed or favoured?

    PubMed

    Spronk, Rachel

    2005-05-01

    Studies of female sexuality in Africa tend to adopt an instrumental approach, many times problematizing sexual conduct in relation to HIV infection and/or reproduction. This study aimed to explore sexuality as a relational concept. Using interviews and participant observation, the paper shows how sexuality becomes a point of self-identification for young professional women in Nairobi between 20 and 30 years-old. These women form a group who implicitly and explicitly criticize conventional gender roles through the overt pursuit of sexual pleasure as recognition of their womanhood. This aspect of the feminine sense of self is at odds with normative notions of femininity. To avoid criticism for being 'un-proper', women adopt a deferential attitude towards men. The focus on upwardly mobile professional women and their experiments with new types of heterosexual relations in dating provides insight into both sexuality and gender.

  4. Lipoprotein Profiles in Class III Obese Caucasian and African American Women with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Anna E.; Kasim, Nader; Tamboli, Robyn A.; Gonzalez, Raul S.; Antoun, Joseph; Eckert, Emily A.; Marks-Shulman, Pamela A.; Dunn, Julia; Wattacheril, Julia; Wallen, Taylor; Abumrad, Naji N.; Flynn, Charles Robb

    2015-01-01

    Triglyceride content in the liver is regulated by the uptake, production and elimination of lipoproteins, and derangements in these processes contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previous studies show a direct relationship between intrahepatic fat and production of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) containing particles, VLDL and LDL, but little consensus exists regarding changes in lipoprotein production in the development of simple steatosis (SS) versus nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Further, ethnic variations in lipoproteins among SS and NASH are unknown as is how such variations might contribute to the differential prevalence of disease among Caucasians versus African Americans. In this study, we assessed plasma lipoprotein profiles by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in 70 non-diabetic class III obese females recruited from the surgical weight loss clinic. Of these, 51 females were stratified by biopsy-staged NAFLD severity (histologically normal, SS, or NASH). NASH females displayed increased circulating triglycerides and increased VLDL particle number and size relative to those with histologically normal livers, while total and large LDL concentration decreased in SS versus NASH and correlated with increased insulin resistance (via HOMA2-IR). When Caucasian women were examined alone (n = 41), VLDL and triglycerides increased between normal and SS, while total LDL and apoB100 decreased between SS and NASH along with increased insulin resistance. Compared to Caucasians with SS, African American women with SS displayed reduced triglycerides, VLDL, and small LDL and a more favorable small to large HDL ratio despite having increased BMI and HOMA2-IR. These findings suggest that ApoB100 and lipoprotein subclass particle number and size can delineate steatosis from NASH in obese Caucasian females, but should be interpreted with caution in other ethnicities as African Americans with SS display relatively improved lipoprotein profiles

  5. Sex-biased gene flow in African Americans but not in American Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, V F; Prosdocimi, F; Santos, L S; Ortega, J M; Pena, S D J

    2007-05-09

    We have previously shown evidence of strong sex-biased genetic blending in the founding and ongoing history of the Brazilian population, with the African and Amerindian contribution being highest from maternal lineages (as measured by mitochondrial DNA) and the European contribution foremost from paternal lineages (estimated from Y-chromosome haplogroups). The same phenomenon has been observed in several other Latin American countries, suggesting that it might constitute a universal characteristic of the Iberian colonization of the Americas. However, it has also recently been detected in the Black population of the United States. We thus wondered if the same could be observed in American Caucasians. To answer that question, we retrieved 1387 hypervariable I Caucasian mitochondrial DNA sequences from the FBI population database and established their haplogroups and continental geographical sources. In sharp contrast with the situation of the Caucasian population of Latin American countries, only 3.1% of the American Caucasian sequences had African and/or Amerindian origin. To explain this discrepancy we propose that the finding of elevated genomic contributions from European males and Amerindian or African females depends not only on the occurrence of directional mating, but also on the "racial" categorization of the children born from these relations. In this respect, social practices in Latin America and in the United States diverge considerably; in the former socially significant "races" are normally designated according to physical appearance, while in the latter descent appears to be the most important factor.

  6. Melanoma: differences between Asian and Caucasian patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haur Yueh; Chay, Wen Yee; Tang, Mark By; Chio, Martin Tw; Tan, Suat Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is rare in Asia and the clinical presentation and outcome of melanoma is not well described in Southeast Asia. In addition, it is unclear if ethnic variations exist between the various racial groups. The objective of our study is to present the clinical characteristics of melanoma in Singapore and to highlight ethnical differences between Asians and Caucasians living in Singapore. Data were retrospectively collected from 48 patients with histological confirmation of melanoma who were seen in both the National Skin Centre and National Cancer Centre of Singapore. Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) was the most common subtype of melanoma in Singapore (50%). A higher proportion of non-ALM subtypes of melanoma compared to ALM were diagnosed at stage 1 (48% vs. 25%). The delay in diagnosis of ALM was 27 months compared to 12 months in other subtypes. Compared to Caucasians, there was a trend towards Asian patients being older, having a higher proportion of ALM and a longer delay to diagnosis. Geographical and ethnic variations in the clinical presentation of melanoma exist. Specially adapted programmes are necessary to increase awareness of the different clinical presentation of melanoma in Asia and to encourage examination of the palms and soles in order to reduce the delay in diagnosis.

  7. Atrial fibrillation among African Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians: clinical features and outcomes from the AFFIRM trial.

    PubMed Central

    Bush, David; Martin, Lisa W.; Leman, Robert; Chandler, Mary; Haywood, L. Julian

    2006-01-01

    The Atrial Fibrillation Follow-Up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) study concluded that rate control with anticoagulation was equivalent overall to rhythm control with cardioversion for long-term survival and that anticoagulation reduced the risk of stroke. We compared baseline and follow-up data for three ethnic groups: Caucasians (n=3,599), African Americans (n=265) and Hispanics (n=132). Caucasians were older and more likely male, African Americans were more likely female and hypertensive, and Hispanics had higher prevalence of cardiomyopathy. Survival was better for rate control than rhythm control in Caucasians, equivalent in African Americans and better for rhythm control in Hispanics. Outcomes may be influenced by differential baseline characteristics, but low numbers of African Americans and Hispanics warrant caution in data interpretation. BACKGROUND: The AFFIRM study compared a rate-control strategy to a rhythm-control strategy for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients at high risk for stroke or death. It concluded that the rhythm-control strategy offered no survival advantage, and it also confirmed the value of anticoagulation to prevent complications of AF. Data have not previously been available for specific racial ethnic populations. METHODS: We compared baseline and follow-up data for the patients randomized to rate-control versus rhythm-control in three population groups-Caucasian, African-American and Hispanic. RESULTS: Among 4,060 total patients, 3,599 were Caucasian, 265 were African-American and 132 were Hispanic. At baseline, Caucasians were older and had a higher percentage of males, normal ejection fractions, AF as their only cardiac diagnosis, a prior antiarrhythmic drug failure and less congestive heart failure. African Americans were more likely to be female, had more hypertension and qualified for the study with a first episode of AF, compared to Caucasians. Hispanics had more cardiomyopathy at baseline than

  8. Comparison of systemic health conditions between African American and Caucasian complete denture patients.

    PubMed

    Szylkowska, Ewelina; Kaste, Linda M; Schreiner, Joseph; Gordon, Sara C; Lee, Damian J

    2014-07-01

    To compare prevalence of systemic health conditions (SHC) between African American and Caucasian edentulous patients presenting for complete dentures (CD) at an urban dental school. The study included patients presenting for CD 1/1-12/31/2010, ages 20 to 64 years, and either African American or Caucasian. Covariates included: age group, gender, employment status, Medicaid status, smoking history, and alcohol consumption. SHC included at least one of the following: arthritis, asthma, cancer, diabetes, emphysema, heart attack, heart murmur, heart surgery, hypertension, or stroke. The group (n = 88) was 44.3% African American, 65.9% ≥50, 45.5% male, 22.7% employed, and 67.0% with at least one SHC. African Americans were older (p = 0.001) and more likely to have one or more SHC (p = 0.011). Patients with at least one SHC were older (p = 0.018) and more likely female (p = 0.012). The total sample logistic regression model assessing SHC yielded only gender as statistically significant (males < OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.92). Caucasian males were less likely to have SHC (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.77), and Caucasians ≥50 were more likely (OR 5.36, 95% CI 1.19 to 24.08). African Americans yielded no significant associations. Among selected completely edentulous denture patients at an urban dental school, two out of three patients had at least one SHC. This exploratory study suggests there may be health status differences between African American and Caucasian patients in this setting, calling for further study. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  9. Do men hold African-American and Caucasian women to different standards of beauty?✩

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Rachel E.K.; Carter, Michele M.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Gray, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Racial differences in men’s preferences for African-American and Caucasian women’s body size and shape were examined. As expected, there was a trend for African-American men to choose ideal figures with a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), which is associated with a more curvaceous figure. Contrary to expectations, however, African-American men did not choose heavier female figures as ideal. In fact, both groups chose underweight and normal weight figures as ideal. The results from this study suggest that while preferences for WHR may continue to be associated with cultural factors, African-American and Caucasian men may have become more similar than different in their preferences for female weight. Also, the results suggest that within the African-American sample, there were two subsamples with regard to WHR preferences, with one subgroup endorsing the same ideal WHR as their Caucasian counterparts. The results are discussed in terms of possible changes to cultural values that may be reflected in a change in what is considered attractive. PMID:17606230

  10. Do men hold African-American and Caucasian women to different standards of beauty?

    PubMed

    Freedman, Rachel E K; Carter, Michele M; Sbrocco, Tracy; Gray, James J

    2007-08-01

    Racial differences in men's preferences for African-American and Caucasian women's body size and shape were examined. As expected, there was a trend for African-American men to choose ideal figures with a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), which is associated with a more curvaceous figure. Contrary to expectations, however, African-American men did not choose heavier female figures as ideal. In fact, both groups chose underweight and normal weight figures as ideal. The results from this study suggest that while preferences for WHR may continue to be associated with cultural factors, African-American and Caucasian men may have become more similar than different in their preferences for female weight. Also, the results suggest that within the African-American sample, there were two subsamples with regard to WHR preferences, with one subgroup endorsing the same ideal WHR as their Caucasian counterparts. The results are discussed in terms of possible changes to cultural values that may be reflected in a change in what is considered attractive.

  11. Comparative investigation of the pharmacokinetics of bosentan in Caucasian and Japanese healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    van Giersbergen, Paul L M; Dingemanse, Jasper

    2005-01-01

    Bosentan is a dual endothelin receptor antagonist in development for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension in Japan, whereas it is registered for this indication in Europe and the United States. The present study was conducted to compare the pharmacokinetics of bosentan in Caucasian and Japanese subjects. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, ascending single-dose, 5-way crossover study, 10 healthy Caucasian and 10 Japanese subjects (1:1 male/female ratio) received single doses of 31.25, 62.5, 125, and 250 mg of bosentan or placebo. Pharmacokinetic profiles of bosentan and its pharmacologically active hydroxy metabolite, Ro 48-5033, were determined after each dose of bosentan. The pharmacokinetics of bosentan were similar and dose proportional in both ethnic groups. However, peak plasma concentration values of Ro 48-5033 were significantly greater in Japanese subjects (P < .05). This difference could not be explained by the lower body weight of the Japanese subjects. Females in both groups tended to have higher exposure to both bosentan and Ro 48-5033 than males. The results suggest that, based on pharmacokinetic grounds, no dose adjustment of bosentan is necessary when used to treat Japanese patients in comparison to Caucasian patients.

  12. Field-Dependence Factors in American Indian and Caucasian Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Charles J.

    1984-01-01

    Compared urban obese and nonobese American Indians and Caucasians on the Group Embedded Figures Test (N=160). Results indicated an apparent relationship between obesity and field-independence for Caucasians, but not for American Indians. American Indians were more field-dependent, which implies a social conformity factor. (JAC)

  13. Galantamine pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability profiles are similar in healthy Caucasian and Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qinying; Brett, Martin; Van Osselaer, Nancy; Huang, Fenglei; Raoult, Alain; Van Peer, Achiel; Verhaeghe, Tom; Hust, Rita

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of galantamine in healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects and assess the safety and tolerability of galantamine in both ethnic groups. Parallel groups of healthy Japanese (n = 13; 6 males and 7 females)and Caucasian (n = 12; 6 males and 6 females) subjects matched for weight and age received single oral doses of galantamine 4 mg, or galantamine 8 mg, or placebo in a double-blind, three-way crossover trial according to a randomized dosing schedule. Concentrations of galantamine and norgalantamine were determined in plasma and urine samples taken up to 48 and 24 hours after dosing, respectively. Safety and tolerability were monitored throughout the trial by recording adverse events, laboratory tests, and cardiovascular parameters. The mean plasma concentration-time profiles of galantamine were very similar after single doses of galantamine (4 and 8 mg), and there was an approximate dose proportionality of galantamine pharmacokinetic parameters in both Caucasian and Japanese ethnic groups. The mean (+/- SD) pharmacokinetic parameters in the two ethnic groups did not show any clinically relevant differences. The ratios for the area under the plasma-concentration curve from time zero to infinity (AUC)0-infinity) in Japanese:Caucasian subjects with 4 and 8 mg doses were 103% (90% confidence interval [CII = 92-116) and 107% (90% CI = 94-121), respectively. Ratios for maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) values were 107% (90% CI= 90-127) and 108% (90% CI= 95-123), respectively. These ratios and associated 90% CIs were within the 80% to 125% range limit of bioequivalence. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that these ratio values demonstrated no statistically significant difference between the two ethnic groups. There was no overt difference in the adverse event profile in Japanese subjects compared with Caucasian subjects. There were no serious adverse events, and no subjects discontinued from the study because of

  14. Incidental tricuspid valve fibroelastoma associated with patent foramen ovale in a young female: Straightforward diagnosis but controversial management.

    PubMed

    Ruisanchez, Cristina; Alonso, Angela; Carballo, Beatriz; Gil, Aritz; Lerena, Piedad; Sarralde, Jose Aurelio; Ruano, Francisco Javier

    2017-09-01

    Papillary fibroelastoma is an uncommon primary cardiac tumor, predominantly associated with left-sided valvular endocardium. Affectation of tricuspid valve leaflets is rare, and management in asymptomatic patients remains controversial. We present a 30-year-old female referred for evaluation prior to bariatric surgery. A routine echocardiogram revealed a mobile cardiac mass attached to the tricuspid valve. A patent foramen ovale was also present. Tumor was surgically removed. Histology confirmed the definite diagnosis of a papillary fibroelastoma. In our case, the presence of a patent foramen ovale associated with the right-sided fibroelastoma was decisive in the decision for surgery. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Early stages of pedogenesis at the bottom of a 30-year-old artificial depression under semidesert conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, T. A.; Tolpeshta, I. I.; Sizemskaya, M. L.; Sapanov, M. K.; Kolesnikov, A. V.

    2013-08-01

    Initial soils that developed at the bottom of an artificial hollow 30 × 40 m in size and 3 m in depth have been studied. The hollow was dug on a plot with a predominance of solonetzic complexes in the soil cover on the territory of the Dzhanybek Research Station in 1979. A soil with a shallow but clearly differentiated profile composed of a litter, a humus-accumulative W horizon leached from carbonates, and an underlying C1ca horizon with a high content of dispersed carbonates formed in the hollow over 30 years. The total thickness of these horizons is 7-10 cm. The morphology of the profile corresponds to the slightly alkaline humus-accumulative calcareous soil type of the order of immature soils in the current classification of Russian soils. The soil-sediment layer to a depth of >80 cm contains little soluble salts, predominantly sulfates; the content of exchangeable Na does not exceed 1 meq/100 g. Groundwater of calcium sulfate composition occurs at a depth of ˜3.8 m. These features, together with additional moistening by low-saline melt water, ensure favorable conditions for the spontaneous propagation and development of herbaceous, shrubby, and woody plants in the bottoms of artificial hollows. The development of a soil profile is accompanied by the depletion of the clay fraction from the upper W horizon, presumably due to the predominant removal of smectite minerals. In the upper W horizon, transformations of layered aluminosilicates takes place: it involves the formation of illites from smectites and from smectitic layers in illite-smectite mixed-layered minerals and partial vermiculitization of chlorites. The technology used upon the excavation of the hollow can be recommended for growing woody-shrubby plants on soils of the solonetzic complex in the clay semidesert during a relatively short time period.

  16. A 30-Year-Old Man with Three Primary Malignancies: A Case of Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Rengifo-Cam, William; Jasperson, Kory; Garrido-Laguna, Ignacio; Colman, Howard; Scaife, Courtney; Samowitz, Wade

    2017-01-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is a devastating cancer predisposition syndrome for which clinical manifestations, genetic screening, and cancer prevention strategies are limited. We report a case of CMMRD presenting with metachronous colorectal cancer and brain cancer. Oncologists and gastroenterologists should be aware of the CMMRD syndrome as a rare cause of very early-onset colorectal cancer. PMID:28286799

  17. A 30-Year-Old Man with Three Primary Malignancies: A Case of Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rengifo-Cam, William; Jasperson, Kory; Garrido-Laguna, Ignacio; Colman, Howard; Scaife, Courtney; Samowitz, Wade; Samadder, N Jewel

    2017-01-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is a devastating cancer predisposition syndrome for which clinical manifestations, genetic screening, and cancer prevention strategies are limited. We report a case of CMMRD presenting with metachronous colorectal cancer and brain cancer. Oncologists and gastroenterologists should be aware of the CMMRD syndrome as a rare cause of very early-onset colorectal cancer.

  18. Biodiversity conservation in Swedish forests: ways forward for a 30-year-old multi-scaled approach.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Lena; Perhans, Karin

    2010-12-01

    A multi-scaled model for biodiversity conservation in forests was introduced in Sweden 30 years ago, which makes it a pioneer example of an integrated ecosystem approach. Trees are set aside for biodiversity purposes at multiple scale levels varying from individual trees to areas of thousands of hectares, with landowner responsibility at the lowest level and with increasing state involvement at higher levels. Ecological theory supports the multi-scaled approach, and retention efforts at every harvest occasion stimulate landowners' interest in conservation. We argue that the model has large advantages but that in a future with intensified forestry and global warming, development based on more progressive thinking is necessary to maintain and increase biodiversity. Suggestions for the future include joint planning for several forest owners, consideration of cost-effectiveness, accepting opportunistic work models, adjusting retention levels to stand and landscape composition, introduction of temporary reserves, creation of "receiver habitats" for species escaping climate change, and protection of young forests.

  19. Orientation anisotropy: incidence and magnitude in Caucasian and Chinese subjects.

    PubMed

    Timney, B N; Muir, D W

    1976-08-20

    Cutoff spatial frequencies for sine-wave gratings were measured at four orientations for 100 Caucasian and 24 Chinese subjects, all of whom were raised in carpentered enviornments. For the Caucasian subjects, average acuity for horizontal and vertical gratings was superior to that for obliques by about one-quarter of an octive. However, about 10 percent of subjects showed an anisotropy of about one-eight of an ovtave. The carpentered enviornment explanation of orientation anisotropy cannot, in its present form, account for the wide variety of response patterns obtained, nor the differences between Chinese and Caucasian subjects.

  20. Differing reports of asthma symptoms in African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Trochtenberg, D Scott; BeLue, Rhonda; Piphus, Sharon; Washington, Niketa

    2008-03-01

    This pilot study explores the reported symptoms in African Americans and Caucasians with asthma. Asthma patients in an inner-city pulmonary clinic were given a brief questionnaire of asthma symptoms and the BORG scale, followed by spirometry. African Americans were less likely to report nocturnal awakenings (67% vs. 100%; p = 0.037), complain of dyspnea (33% vs. 75%; p = 0.038), or experience chest pain (13% vs. 75%; p = 0.002) than Caucasians. This is the first study to demonstrate that there are clinically significant differences in the reporting of asthma symptoms between African Americans and Caucasians.

  1. Asian women have greater abdominal and visceral adiposity than Caucasian women with similar body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Lim, U; Ernst, T; Buchthal, S D; Latch, M; Albright, C L; Wilkens, L R; Kolonel, L N; Murphy, S P; Chang, L; Novotny, R; Le Marchand, L

    2011-01-01

    Background: In the Multiethnic Cohort Study, Japanese Americans (JA) have lower mean body mass index (BMI) compared with Caucasians, but show a higher waist-to-hip ratio at similar BMI values and a greater risk of diabetes and obesity-associated cancers. Objective: We investigated the abdominal, visceral and hepatic fat distribution in these Asian and Caucasian Americans. Design: A cross-sectional sample of 60 female cohort participants (30 JA and 30 Caucasians), of ages 60–65 years and BMIs 18.5–40 kg m−2, underwent anthropometric measurements and a whole-body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan: a subset of 48 women also had abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: By design, JA women had similar BMIs (mean 26.5 kg m−2) to Caucasian women (27.1 kg m−2). JA women were found to have a significantly smaller hip circumference (96.9 vs 103.6 cm; P=0.007) but not a significantly lower DXA total fat mass (25.5 vs 28.8 kg; P=0.16). After adjusting for age and DXA total fat mass, JA women had a greater waist-to-hip ratio (0.97 vs 0.89; P<0.0001), DXA trunk fat (15.4 vs 13.9 kg; P=0.0004) and MRI % abdominal visceral fat (23.9 vs 18.5% P=0.01) and a lower DXA leg fat mass (8.2 vs 10.0 kg; P=<.0001). Their MRI % subcutaneous fat (33.4 vs 30.2% P=0.21) and % liver fat (5.8 vs 3.8% P=0.06) did not significantly differ from that of Caucasian women. Conclusions: Our findings build on limited past evidence, suggesting that Asian women carry greater abdominal and visceral fat when compared with Caucasian women with similar overall adiposity. This may contribute to their elevated metabolic risk for obesity-related diseases. PMID:23449381

  2. The moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-04-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of parenting styles, including authoritarian, permissive, and features of authoritative parenting, on depressed and aggressive children's suicidal behavior, including ideation and attempts, were evaluated with young children (N = 172; 72% male, 28% female) ranging from 6 to 12 years of age. African American (69%) and Caucasian (31%) children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care completed standardized measures of suicidal behavior, depressive symptoms, and proactive and reaction aggression. Their parents also completed standardized measures of parental distress and parenting style. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, while statistically controlling for age and gender, children who endorsed more depressive symptoms or reactive aggression reported more current and past suicidal behavior than children who endorsed fewer depressive or aggressive symptoms. The significant positive relationship observed between depressive symptoms and childhood suicidal behavior, however, was attenuated by parental use of authoritarian parenting practices for African-American and older children but not for younger and Caucasian children. The ethnic/racial difference observed for the buffering effect of authoritarian parenting practices offers potential theoretical and clinical implications for conceptualizing the moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behavior.

  3. Breastfeeding Exposure, Attitudes, and Intentions of African American and Caucasian College Students.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Urmeka T

    2017-02-01

    African American mothers lag behind in breastfeeding initiation. Research is needed to gain an understanding of potential reasons for breastfeeding disparities. Research aim: This study explored breastfeeding exposure, attitudes, and intentions of African American and Caucasian college students by race and gender. Women and men (696) attending college, who were younger than 45 years and without children, were included in this study. Survey data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale. Overall, students demonstrated favorable attitudes regarding breastfeeding but viewed formula feeding as more practical. Students who were Caucasian and female and experienced breastfeeding exposure demonstrated higher breastfeeding attitudes and intent. Breastfeeding exposure and attitudes contributed 32% of the variance in breastfeeding intentions. The odds of experiencing breastfeeding exposure and positive breastfeeding attitudes were approximately 3 times higher for Caucasian students than for African American students. External factors demonstrated a stronger association with breastfeeding intentions. The link with race and gender appears to operate through their effect on attitudes and exposure. More research is needed to identify strategies to improve breastfeeding exposure and attitudes among African Americans.

  4. Ethnicity Specific Norms and Alcohol Consumption Among Hispanic/Latino/a and Caucasian Students

    PubMed Central

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Atkins, David C.; Neighbors, Clayton; Mirza, Tehniat; Larimer, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that social norms are among the strongest predictors of college student drinking and that normative misperceptions of more similar groups’ drinking behavior may be more influential on individual drinking than those groups perceived to be more different. However, limited research has explored the moderating role of ethnicity in this context. The current study examined the differential impact that Hispanic/Latino/a and Caucasian students’ normative perceptions of both typical and same-ethnicity college students’ drinking behavior had on their own drinking. Participants (N = 5,369 students; 60.4% female; 81.4% Caucasian; mean age 19.9 years) from two colleges completed web-based surveys assessing their alcohol consumption, and their perceptions of the drinking behaviors of both the typical college student and the typical same-ethnicity college student at their campus. Results demonstrated that perceived norms were significantly associated with likelihood of drinking regardless of race or ethnicity specificity, but that Hispanics/Latinos/as typically had weaker relationships between ethnicity-specific norms and drinking than general student norms and drinking. The opposite was true for Caucasians such that the relationship between same-ethnicity norms and drinking was stronger than the relationship between general student norms and drinking. Further, Hispanic/Latino/a students with high perceived norms were less likely to have consumed any alcohol than Caucasians with similar normative beliefs. Further, a campus site interaction suggests that the size of the minority population on campus relative to other students may influence the relationship between norms and drinking. Implications and targets for future investigation are discussed. PMID:22293207

  5. Ossification of the ligamentum flavum in a Caucasian: case report.

    PubMed

    Parekh, H C; Gurusinghe, N T; Perera, S S; Prabhu, S S

    1993-01-01

    Ossification of the ligamenta flava (OLF) and posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) of the spine causing spinal cord compression is described mainly in Japanese patients and is often termed as 'Japanese disease'. We are reporting a case of OLF of the thoracic spine seen in a male Caucasian who presented with an intractable intercostal pain. This is the first case report of OLF in a Caucasian.

  6. Iris melanocyte numbers in Asian, African American, and Caucasian irides.

    PubMed

    Albert, Daniel M; Green, W Richard; Zimbric, Michele L; Lo, Cecilia; Gangnon, Ronald E; Hope, Kirsten L; Gleiser, Joel

    2003-01-01

    The anatomical basis for iris color has long been a controversial issue in ophthalmology. Recent studies demonstrated that in Caucasians, blue-eyed, gray-eyed, and hazel-eyed individuals have comparable numbers of iris melanocytes. The present investigation was carried out to compare melanocyte numbers in the irides of Asian, African American, and Caucasian brown-eyed individuals. Paraffin-embedded sections from 71 brown-colored irides were incubated with rabbit anti-cow antibody against S100a, linked with an FITC conjugate antibody, and counterstained with Evans blue. Cells were counted under a fluorescence microscope and scored as melanocytes or other cells. Cell number, density, and iris area were calculated for each specimen. Caucasian and African American irides had comparable mean total melanocyte numbers. Asian irides had fewer total melanocytes than African American (P = .042) and Caucasian (P = .001) irides and smaller total number of cells (ie, melanocytes plus other cells) than African American (P = .054) or Caucasian (P = .009) irides. There is a statistically significant smaller mean total melanocyte number and mean total cellularity in Asian irides as compared to Caucasian and African American irides. This difference appears to be due to the combination of smaller iris area and lower melanocyte density in the Asian irides. The possibility exists that this may be a factor in ethnic variations in certain ocular diseases.

  7. Iris melanocyte numbers in Asian, African American, and Caucasian irides.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Daniel M; Green, W Richard; Zimbric, Michele L; Lo, Cecilia; Gangnon, Ronald E; Hope, Kirsten L; Gleiser, Joel

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: The anatomical basis for iris color has long been a controversial issue in ophthalmology. Recent studies demonstrated that in Caucasians, blue-eyed, gray-eyed, and hazel-eyed individuals have comparable numbers of iris melanocytes. The present investigation was carried out to compare melanocyte numbers in the irides of Asian, African American, and Caucasian brown-eyed individuals. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded sections from 71 brown-colored irides were incubated with rabbit anti-cow antibody against S100a, linked with an FITC conjugate antibody, and counterstained with Evans blue. Cells were counted under a fluorescence microscope and scored as melanocytes or other cells. Cell number, density, and iris area were calculated for each specimen. RESULTS: Caucasian and African American irides had comparable mean total melanocyte numbers. Asian irides had fewer total melanocytes than African American (P = .042) and Caucasian (P = .001) irides and smaller total number of cells (ie, melanocytes plus other cells) than African American (P = .054) or Caucasian (P = .009) irides. CONCLUSIONS: There is a statistically significant smaller mean total melanocyte number and mean total cellularity in Asian irides as compared to Caucasian and African American irides. This difference appears to be due to the combination of smaller iris area and lower melanocyte density in the Asian irides. The possibility exists that this may be a factor in ethnic variations in certain ocular diseases. PMID:14971580

  8. Western Cultural Identification Explains Variations in the Objectification Model for Eating Pathology Across Australian Caucasians and Asian Women

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Charmain S.; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Utpala, Ranjani; Yeung, Victoria Wai Lan; De Paoli, Tara; Loughan, Stephen; Krug, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess differences in trait objectifying measures and eating pathology between Australian Caucasians and Asian women living in Australia and in Hong Kong with high and low levels of western cultural identification (WCI) and to see if exposure to objectifying images had an effect on state-objectification. A further aim was to assess using path analyses whether an extended version of the objectification model, including thin-ideal internalization, differed depending on the level of WCI. Method: A total of 424 participants comprising 162 Australian Caucasians and 262 Asians (n = 183 currently residing in Australia and n = 79 living in Hong Kong) took part in the study. Of the overall Asian sample, 133 individuals were classified as high-WCI and 129 participants as low-WCI. Participants were randomly allocated into one of two conditions, presenting either objectifying images of attractive and thin Asian and Caucasian female models (objectification group, n = 204), or showing neutral images of objects (e.g., chairs, tables; control group, n = 220). Subsequently, participants were asked to complete a series of questionnaires assessing objectification processes and eating pathology. Results: Findings revealed that the Caucasian group presented with significantly higher internalization and body surveillance scores than either of the two Asian groups and also revealed higher scores on trait-self-objectification than the low-WCI Asian sample. As regards to the effects of objectifying images on state self-objectification, we found that ratings were higher after exposure to women than to control objects for all groups. Finally, multi-group analyses revealed that our revised objectification model functioned equally across the Caucasian and the high-WCI Asian group, but differed between the Caucasian and the low-WCI Asian group. Conclusion: Our findings outline that individuals with varying levels of WCI might respond differently to self-objectification processes

  9. Gefitinib Treatment in EGFR Mutated Caucasian NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Ostoros, Gyula; Cobo, Manuel; Ciuleanu, Tudor; Cole, Rebecca; McWalter, Gael; Walker, Jill; Dearden, Simon; Webster, Alan; Milenkova, Tsveta; McCormack, Rose

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the phase IV, open-label, single-arm study NCT01203917, first-line gefitinib 250 mg/d was effective and well tolerated in Caucasian patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive non–small-cell lung cancer (previously published). Here, we report EGFR mutation analyses of plasma-derived, circulating-free tumor DNA. Methods: Mandatory tumor and duplicate plasma (1 and 2) baseline samples were collected (all screened patients; n = 1060). Preplanned, exploratory analyses included EGFR mutation (and subtype) status of tumor versus plasma and between plasma samples. Post hoc, exploratory analyses included efficacy by tumor and plasma EGFR mutation (and subtype) status. Results: Available baseline tumor samples were 1033 of 1060 (118 positive of 859 mutation status known; mutation frequency, 13.7%). Available plasma 1 samples were 803 of 1060 (82 positive of 784 mutation status known; mutation frequency, 10.5%). Mutation status concordance between 652 matched tumor and plasma 1 samples was 94.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92.3–96.0) (comparable for mutation subtypes); test sensitivity was 65.7% (95% CI, 55.8–74.7); and test specificity was 99.8% (95% CI, 99.0–100.0). Twelve patients of unknown tumor mutation status were subsequently identified as plasma mutation-positive. Available plasma 2 samples were 803 of 1060 (65 positive of 224 mutation status-evaluable and -known). Mutation status concordance between 224 matched duplicate plasma 1 and 2 samples was 96.9% (95% CI, 93.7–98.7). Objective response rates are as follows: mutation-positive tumor, 70% (95% CI, 60.5–77.7); mutation-positive tumor and plasma 1, 76.9% (95% CI, 65.4–85.5); and mutation-positive tumor and mutation-negative plasma 1, 59.5% (95% CI, 43.5–73.7). Median progression-free survival (months) was 9.7 (95% CI, 8.5–11.0; 61 events) for mutation-positive tumor and 10.2 (95% CI, 8.5–12.5; 36 events) for mutation-positive tumor and plasma 1

  10. Comparison of cephalometric norms between Japanese and Caucasian adults in antero-posterior and vertical dimension.

    PubMed

    Ioi, Hideki; Nakata, Shunsuke; Nakasima, Akihiko; Counts, Amy L

    2007-10-01

    The aims of this study were to determine Japanese cephalometric norms in the antero-posterior and vertical dimension, and to test the hypothesis that there are racial differences in cephalometric measurements between Japanese and Caucasian norms. Radiographs were obtained from 25 healthy Japanese males (aged 25.1 +/- 2.7 years) and 24 healthy Japanese females (aged 23.6 +/- 1.3 years). Inclusion criteria were an ANB angle between 2 and 5 degrees, a normal occlusion with minor or no crowding, all teeth present except third molars, no previous orthodontic treatment, and no prosthetic replacement of teeth. Two angular and five linear measurements were constructed for the skeletal hard tissue analysis, one angular and six linear measurements for the dental hard tissue analysis, and two angular and seven linear measurements for the soft tissue analysis. The mean and standard deviations for the hard and soft tissue measurements were determined for each gender. Unpaired t-tests were used to determine the mean differences for each cephalometric measurement between the Japanese and the Caucasians. In the antero-posterior dimension, the Japanese subjects had a significantly more retruded chin position (P < 0.001), typically protruding mandibular incisors, and protruded lip positions compared with the Caucasian norms. In the vertical dimension, the Japanese had a significantly steeper mandibular plane (P < 0.01). The Japanese females had a significantly larger lower face height and increased dental height (P < 0.001). The results of this study suggest that these cephalometric measurements might be helpful to formulate treatment plans for Japanese patients.

  11. Alcohol and acetaldehyde metabolism in Caucasians, Chinese and Amerinds.

    PubMed Central

    Reed, T. E.; Kalant, H.; Gibbins, R. J.; Kapur, B. M.; Rankin, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    Ethanol (0.4 to 0.8 g/kg in 30 minutes) was given by mouth to 102 healthy young volunteers (37 Caucasian men, 21 Caucasian women, 20 Chinese men and 24 Ojibwa men). Venous blood concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes after the end of drinking were measured by gas chromatography. The calculated rates of ethanol metabolism in the Caucasian men and women did not differ, but the overall group means for subgroups of Caucasians (103.6 mg/kg-h), Chinese (136.6 mg/kg-h) and Ojibwa (182.7 mg/kg-h) with decreasing postabsorption values differed significantly from each other. Mean acetaldehyde values paralleled the rates of ethanol metabolism: Ojibwa, 14.6 mug/ml; Chinese, 10.0 mug/ml; and Caucasians, 9.4 mug/ml. The high rate of ethanol metabolism in Amerind subjects differs from previous findings. Habitual level of alcohol consumption, proportion of body fat and genetic factors appear to account for most of the group differences. PMID:991030

  12. Metabolic differences between Asian and Caucasian patients on clozapine treatment.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Ng, Chee; Chong, Siow-Ann; Mahendran, Rathi; Lambert, Tim; Pek, Elaine; Huak, Chan Yiong

    2007-06-01

    To establish if there are ethnic differences in the various metabolic disturbances that are common with clozapine treatment. Forty subjects (20 Asians and 20 Caucasians) with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited for the study. Clozapine blood levels as well as fasting blood glucose, lipid levels, and liver function tests were established. Other clinical parameters such as blood pressure and Body Mass Index (BMI) were recorded for each patient. The mean clozapine dose was significantly higher in the Caucasian subjects (432.5+/-194.7 mg) as compared to the Asian subjects (175.6+/-106.9 mg) (p<0.001) while the mean weight-corrected dose for Asian patients was lower (3.0+/-1.9 and 5.0+/-2.1 mg/kg, respectively, p=0.005). There were, however, no ethnic differences in the mean plasma clozapine concentration (415.3+/-185.8 ng/ml in Caucasians and 417.1+/-290.8 ng/ml in Asians). BMI were significantly higher in Caucasians, as were the number of subjects with hypertension; levels of hepatic enzymes were higher in the Asian group. Not only are there pharmacokinetic differences between Asian and Caucasian patients receiving clozapine, but there may also be differential emergence of certain metabolic abnormalities like hypertension and weight gain in these two ethnic groups. However, the effects of life style including diet and exercise cannot be excluded. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Bacteriuria in pregnancy: a comparison of Bangladeshi and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Versi, E; Chia, P; Griffiths, D J; Harlow, B L

    1997-01-01

    During a 5-year period all urine culture results from pregnant Caucasian and Bangladeshi women booked for confinement at the Royal London Hospital, London, UK, were reviewed to determine race-specific rates of bacteriuria. The results showed that the overall prevalence of bacteriuria in the Caucasian group was 6.3% compared to 2.0% for the Bangladeshi women. Caucasian women were found to be at significantly greater risk across all pregnancy outcome and history categories, with the greatest risk observed in grand multiparous women (RR: 4.7, 95% CI: 2.8-8.3). Pregnancies that resulted in preterm delivery showed a strong association of bacteriuria in Caucasian women which was not seen in the Bangladeshi women (RR: 4.4, 95% CI: 2.0-8.7). The data suggest that Caucasian women have a significantly higher prevalence of bacteriuria in pregnancy than their Bangladeshi neighbors. Differences in hygiene practices and clothing may explain the observed differences in the bacteriuria rates.

  14. Body density differences between negro and caucasian professional football players

    PubMed Central

    Adams, J.; Bagnall, K. M.; McFadden, K. D.; Mottola, M.

    1981-01-01

    Other workers have shown that the bone density for the average negro is greater than for the average caucasian. This would lead to greater values of body density for the average negro but it is confused because the average negro has a different body form (and consequently different proportions of body components) compared with the average caucasian. This study of body density of a group of professional Canadian football players investigates whether or not to separate negroes from caucasians when considering the formation of regression equations for prediction of body density. Accordingly, a group of 7 negroes and 7 caucasians were matched somatotypically and a comparison was made of their body density values obtained using a hydrostatic weighing technique and a closed-circuit helium dilution technique for measuring lung volumes. The results show that if somatotype is taken into account then no significant difference in body density values is found between negro and caucasian professional football players. The players do not have to be placed in separate groups but it remains to be seen whether or not these results apply to general members of the population. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:7317724

  15. Caucasian facial L* shifts may communicate anti-ageing efficacy.

    PubMed

    Zedayko, T; Azriel, M; Kollias, N

    2011-10-01

    An ageing study was conducted to capture skin colour parameters in the CIELab system from Caucasians of both genders and all available adult ages. This study produced a linear correlation between L* and age for a Caucasian population between 20 and 59 years of age as follows: (L* value) = -0.13 × (Age in years) + 63.01. Previous studies have addressed age-related changes in skin colour. This work presents a novel consumer correlated quantitative linear model of skin brightness by which to communicate age-related changes. Two product assessment studies are also presented here, demonstrating the ability of anti-ageing products to deliver on objective and subjective improvements in skin brightness. It was determined to be possible to use the fundamental Caucasian L*-age correlation to describe product benefits in a novel quantitative and consumer-relevant fashion, through the depiction of a 'years back' calculation.

  16. Maturity and Regrowth Influences on Quality of Caucasian Bluestem Hay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Caucasian bluestem [Bothriochloa caucasia (Trin.) C.E. Hubbard ‘Caucasian’], appears adapted to the mid-Atlantic region. Three experiments (Exp.), one with sheep and two with steers were conducted to assess hay quality. In Exp. 1, initial growth was cut at early boot, anthesis, and post-anthesis and...

  17. Eating Disorders: Explanatory Variables in Caucasian and Hispanic College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviña, Vanessa; Day, Susan X.

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored Hispanic and Caucasian college women's (N = 264) behavioral and attitudinal symptoms of eating disorders after controlling for body mass index and internalization of the thinness ideal, as well as the roles of ethnicity and ethnic identity in symptomatology. Correlational analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, and…

  18. A quantitative study of Australian aboriginal and Caucasian brains.

    PubMed Central

    Klekamp, J; Riedel, A; Harper, C; Kretschmann, H J

    1987-01-01

    The brain volumes of 8 male Australian Aborigines and 11 male Caucasians were determined. Total brain volume was significantly smaller for Aborigines (1199 +/- 84 ml) compared to Caucasians (1386 +/- 98 ml). Significantly smaller volumes were also found for cerebellum, prosencephalon-mesencephalon unit, cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, parieto-occipitotemporal cortex, and hippocampus. Volumes of ponsmedulla oblongata unit (21 +/- 3 ml for Aborigines and 22 +/- 3 ml for Caucasians) and visual cortex (14.9 ml +/- 2.6 ml and 14.6 +/- 2.2 ml, respectively) did not differ significantly. The striate cortex extended further onto the lateral surface of the occipital lobe in Aboriginal brains. The frontal portion of cerebral cortex was larger in Aboriginal than in Caucasian brains. According to the specific growth periods for the areas studied, these differences could be explained by the higher incidence of malnutrition and infectious diseases for Aboriginals during the development of the brain in early childhood, especially after the 6th postnatal month. However, genetic influences cannot be excluded. The results for the visual cortex of Aborigines might represent an adaptation to living conditions in the bush and desert regions of Australia. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3654333

  19. Eating Disorders: Explanatory Variables in Caucasian and Hispanic College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviña, Vanessa; Day, Susan X.

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored Hispanic and Caucasian college women's (N = 264) behavioral and attitudinal symptoms of eating disorders after controlling for body mass index and internalization of the thinness ideal, as well as the roles of ethnicity and ethnic identity in symptomatology. Correlational analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, and…

  20. Counseling the Disadvantaged Caucasian: A Statistically Significant Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titison, Chessadar

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether counseling of disadvantaged students during the course of the academic school year would produce an improvement in their emotional problems and lessen the probability of their becoming school dropouts. The 26 disadvantaged Caucasian subjects received extensive counseling therapy for a…

  1. Eating Attitudes and Body Satisfaction among Asian and Caucasian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Sameena; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated whether religious affiliation (Hindu or Muslim) and gender were important factors in explaining difference in unhealthy eating attitudes of Asian adolescents living in United Kingdom compared with Caucasians. Muslim adolescents had most characteristic pattern of eating psychopathology. Muslim boys' eating attitudes were particularly…

  2. Comparison of the epidemiology of acne vulgaris among Caucasian, Asian, Continental Indian and African American women.

    PubMed

    Perkins, A C; Cheng, C E; Hillebrand, G G; Miyamoto, K; Kimball, A B

    2011-09-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease with a large quality of life impact, characterized by comedones, inflammatory lesions, secondary dyspigmentation and scarring. There are few large objective studies comparing acne epidemiology between racial and ethnic groups. This study aimed to define the prevalence and subtypes of acne in women of different racial groups from four ethnicities. The sample consisted of 2895 (384 African American, 520 Asian, 1295 Caucasian, 258 Hispanic and 438 Continental Indian) women ranging in age from 10 to 70 years. Photographs of subjects were graded for acne lesions, scars, dyspigmentation, and measurements taken of sebum excretion and pore size. Clinical acne was more prevalent in African American and Hispanic women (37%, 32% respectively) than in Continental Indian, Caucasian and Asian (23%, 24%, 30% respectively) women. All racial groups displayed equal prevalence of both subtypes of acne with the exception of Asians, for whom inflammatory acne was more prevalent than comedonal (20% vs. 10%) acne, and in Caucasians, for whom comedonal acne was more prevalent than inflammatory (14% vs. 10%) acne. Hyperpigmentation was more prevalent in African American and Hispanic (65%, 48% respectively) than in Asian, Continental Indian and Caucasian (18%, 10%, 25% respectively) women. Dyspigmentation and atrophic scarring were more common in African American and Hispanic women than in all other ethnicities. There was a negative correlation between pore size and skin lightness for all ethnicities. Sebum production was positively correlated with acne severity in African American, Asian and Hispanic women, and pore size was positively correlated with acne in African American, Asian and Continental Indian women, (for all above results, P<0.05). Only female participants were recruited. Data collection was restricted to four cities, with some ethnicities from single cities. Acne was evaluated only on the left side of the face and the two

  3. A descriptive study of high school Latino and Caucasian students' values about math, perceived math achievement and STEM career choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Flecha, Samuel

    The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' math values, perceived math achievement, and STEM career choice. Participants (N=515) were rural high school students from the U.S. Northwest. Data was collected by administering the "To Do or Not to Do:" STEM pilot survey. Most participants (n=294) were Latinos, followed by Caucasians (n=142). Fifty-three percent of the students rated their math achievement as C or below. Of high math students, 57% were male. Females were 53% of low math students. Caucasians (61%) rated themselves as high in math in a greater proportion than Latinos (39%). Latinos (58%) rated themselves as low in math in a greater proportion than Caucasians (39%). Math Values play a significant role in students' perceived math achievement. Internal math values (r =.68, R2 =.46, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.70, R2 =.49, p =.001; females: r =.65, R2 =.43, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.66, R2 =.44, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.72, R2 =.51, p =.001). External math values (r =.53, R2 =.28, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.54, R2 =.30, p =.001; females: r =.49, R2 =.24, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.47, R2 =.22, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.58, R2 =.33, p =.001). Most high-math students indicated an awareness of being good at math at around 11 years old. Low-math students said that they realized that math was difficult for them at approximately 13 years of age. The influence of parents, teachers, and peers may vary at different academic stages. Approximately half of the participants said there was not a person who had significantly impacted their career choice; only a minority said their parents and teachers were influencing them to a STEM career. Parents and teachers are the most influential relationships in students' career choice. More exposure to STEM role models and in a variety of professions is needed. Possible strategies to impact students

  4. A Case of Unexplained Cerebral Sinus Thrombosis in a 22-Year-Old Obese Caucasian Woman

    PubMed Central

    Seheult, Jansen N.; Chibisov, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we present the case of a 22-year old obese Caucasian woman female with no acquired thrombophilic risk factors who was diagnosed with extensive cerebral sinus thrombosis. A detailed thrombophilia workup demonstrated persistently elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) activity levels, with an elevated PAI-1 antigen concentration and homozygosity for the PAI-1 4G allele (4G/4G genotype). The patient was treated with indefinite warfarin anticoagulation medication due to the unprovoked nature of her thrombotic event. Disturbances in the fibrinolytic system, in particular PAI-1, have been related to an increased risk of arterial and venous thrombosis. In this article, we discuss the pathophysiology of hypofibrinolysis associated with elevated PAI-1 levels and the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism. PMID:27287941

  5. Racial disparities in stroke awareness: African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Alkadry, Mohamad G; Bhandari, Ruchi; Wilson, Christina S; Blessett, Brandi

    2011-01-01

    Considerable evidence supports the existence of racial disparities in incidence, mortality, and morbidity related to stroke. Awareness of risk factors could substantially lower the probability of stroke incidence. Awareness of stroke warning signs and treatment options could significantly alter the outcome of a stroke if patients immediately seek emergency help. This article examines the disparities in awareness of stroke risk factors, stroke signs, and action to be taken when stroke occurs. Survey results from 422 Caucasian Americans and 368 African Americans in West Virginia were analyzed. Significant disparities in recognition of cholesterol, smoking, prior stroke, and race as stroke risk factors were observed. The study also found a significant and substantial difference in awareness of stroke signs. There was also a significant difference in the way African Americans and Caucasians would respond to a stroke. The study found no evidence of disparities in recognition of stroke risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, obesity, alcoholism, and family history.

  6. Scrutinizing skinfield melanin patterns in young Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Hermanns-Lê, Trinh; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Piérard, Gérald E

    2013-09-01

    When using adequate wavelength illumination and high resolution recordings, Caucasian skin color appears uneven. The patterns of faint mosaic melanoderma (FMM) are diverse and possibly related to the risk of skin cancer development. The current peer-reviewed publications about objective methods quantifying FMM are revisited. The images from the Visioscan® and Visioface® Quick devices are computerized in order to record the ultraviolet light-enhanced visualization (ULEV) and the color-enhanced visualization (CEV) of the skin. Previously published data regarding the FMM are gathered in 20 odd Caucasian women. Seven FMM patterns are distinguished. They appear expressed differently according to body regions, but the mean gray level appears more uniform. The combination of larger subclinical melanotic macules and ivory spots during early adulthood is apparently associated with an increased risk for non-melanoma skin cancers.

  7. Bone mineral density in postmenopausal Caucasian, Filipina, and Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Morton, Deborah J; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Wingard, Deborah L; Schneider, Diane L

    2003-02-01

    Previous bone mineral density (BMD) studies have suggested Asian women have lower BMD and Hispanic women have similar or higher BMD compared with Caucasian women, partially explained by ethnic differences in body size. This study compared the effect of different variables representing body size on BMD in postmenopausal women aged 50-69 years from three ethnic groups in San Diego County, CA: 354 Caucasians, 285 Filipinas, and 164 Hispanics. In all three groups, BMD was measured by DXA (Hologic 2000) at the hip, lumbar spine, and total body. Lifestyle variables and anthropometric measures were assessed by standard methodology; medication and supplement use were validated by a nurse. Regardless of the variables used to represent body size in the regression modelling, either body mass index or lean and fat tissue mass, ethnic differences were minimal across the three groups. The only significant differences observed using the two fully adjusted models (age, height, body mass index or lean and fat tissue mass, smoking, alcohol, exercise, current oestrogen and calcium supplement use, and osteoarthritis) were at the total body BMD site where Filipinas had significantly higher BMD than the Caucasians or Hispanics, whose total body BMD was similar to one another. The independent variables in the fully adjusted models explained approximately 20-40% of the variation in BMD at each of the four sites. Income or occupation did not help explain BMD differences, but a pattern of increased BMD among those with some college education in all three groups was observed. Accounting for body size using either body mass index or fat and lean tissue mass along with height and other lifestyle variables minimizes ethnic differences and explains a considerable amount of variation in mean BMD among older ethnic minority and Caucasian women.

  8. Longitudinal differences in sleep duration in Hispanic and Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Combs, Daniel; Goodwin, James L; Quan, Stuart F; Morgan, Wayne J; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2016-02-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with significant negative consequences, including poor school performance, behavioral problems, obesity, and hypertension. There is prior evidence that there are disparities in sleep duration related to ethnicity; however, there are no specific data on Hispanic children. We aimed to test the hypothesis that there are ethnic differences in parent-reported sleep duration in a community-based cohort of Hispanic and Caucasian children. We examined the parent-reported sleep patterns of a community-based prospective cohort (Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea study [TuCASA]) involving 338 Hispanic and Caucasian children at two time points approximately five years apart. In the initial phase of the TuCASA study with a cohort median age of 8.8 years (interquartile range (IQR), 7.6-10.1 years), parent-reported sleep duration during weekdays was shorter in Hispanic (median, 9.5 h; IQR, 9.0, 10.0 years) than in Caucasian children (10 h; IQR, 9.5, 10.0 h; p < 0.0001); however, this difference was not seen 5 years later when the cohort was older (median age, 13.3 years; IQR, 11.9-14.6 years; p = 0.43). In addition, Hispanic children had a significantly later bedtime at both time points (p < 0.02). In the initial phase, parent-reported sleep duration during weekends tended to be shorter in Hispanic than in Caucasian children (p = 0.06). Short sleep duration in Hispanic children may contribute to health disparities. Our research suggests that in Hispanic children, behavioral interventions toward improving sleep duration accomplished by earlier bedtimes or delayed school start times and mechanistic studies to unravel any inherent tendency toward a delayed sleep phase are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Inflammation and cognitive functioning in African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Felicia C; Zhao, Liping; Steenland, Kyle; Levey, Allan I

    2015-09-01

    To examine associations between inflammation and cognitive performance in African Americans and Caucasians. The sample included 59 African Americans and 219 Caucasians ≥  50 years old who had a baseline visit at the Emory/Georgia Tech Center for Health Discovery and Well Being. Peripheral levels of inflammation (interleukin-6, interleukin-8, C-reactive protein, and tumor necrosis factor-α) were examined in relation to performance on tests of visual processing (Identify the Odd Pattern), attention (Digit Span Forward), visuomotor set shifting (Digit Symbol Substitution), verbal set shifting (Digit Span Backwards), and memory (Recall a Pattern). Multiple regression models adjusting for potential demographic and vascular/metabolic confounders were conducted, with markers of inflammation included as either continuous or categorical (quartiles) variables. There were significant interactions between IL-8 and race for the Recall a Pattern (p = .006) and the Digit Symbol Substitution (p = .014) tests. Race-specific analyses (using a continuous variable for IL-8) demonstrated slower response times on the Recall a Pattern and Digit Symbol Substitution tests for African Americans but not for Caucasians. Categorical analyses among African Americans indicated that all of the top three quartiles of IL-8 were associated with slower reaction times on the Recall a Pattern test compared to the lowest quartile, while for Digit Symbol, the highest quartile of IL-8 was associated with the slowest cognitive performance. These preliminary findings suggest a stronger association between IL-8 and cognitive performance in African Americans than Caucasians. This relationship should be further examined in larger samples that are followed over time. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Racial Differences in Clinical Characteristics, Perceptions and Behaviors, and Psychosocial Impact of Adult Female Acne

    PubMed Central

    Alexis, Andrew F.; Daniels, Selena R.; Kawata, Ariane K.; Burk, Caroline T.; Wilcox, Teresa K.; Taylor, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Limited data are available on racial differences in clinical characteristics and burden in adult female acne. The objective was to describe racial differences in clinical characteristics, psychosocial impact, perceptions, behaviors, and treatment satisfaction in facial adult female acne. Design: Cross-sectional, web-based survey. Setting: Diverse sample of United States women. Participants: Women between the ages of 25 and 45 years with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Measurements: Outcomes included sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial impacts, perceptions, behaviors, and treatment satisfaction. Racial differences were evaluated using descriptive statistics and t-test/chi-square analyses. Results: 208 females participated (mean age 35±6 years); 51.4 percent were White/Caucasian and 48.6 percent were non-White/Caucasian women [Black/African American (n=51); Hispanic/Latina (n=23); Asian (n=16); Other (n=ll)]. Age of acne onset (mean 14.8±5 vs. 17.0±8 years, p<0.05) and acne concern occurred earlier (16.6±7 vs. 19.3±9 years, p<0.05) in White/Caucasian than non-White/Caucasian subjects. Facial acne primarily presented on chin (28.0%) and cheeks (30.8%) for White/Caucasian women versus cheeks (58.4%) for non-White/Caucasian women. Non-White/Caucasian women experienced more postinflammatory hyperpigmentation than White/Caucasian women (p<0.0001). Facial acne negatively affected quality of life (QoL) in both groups, and most participants (>70%) reported some depression/anxiety symptoms. More White/Caucasian than non-White/Caucasian women were troubled by facial acne (88.8% vs. 76.2%, p<0.05). Lesion clearance was most important to White/Caucasian women (57.9 vs. non-White/Caucasian 31.7%, p<0.001); non-White/Caucasian females focused on postinflammatory hyperpigmentation clearance (41.6% vs. Caucasian 8.4%, p<0.0001). Conclusion: Results highlight racial differences in participant-reported clinical characteristics, attitudes, behaviors, and

  11. Genetic differences between Asian and Caucasian chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    KAWAMATA, NORIHIKO; MOREILHON, CHIMENE; SAITOH, TAKAYUKI; KARASAWA, MASAMITSU; BERNSTEIN, BRIAN K.; SATO-OTSUBO, AIKO; OGAWA, SEISHI; RAYNAUD, SOPHIE; KOEFFLER, H. PHILLIP

    2013-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common hematological malignancy in Western countries. However, this disease is very rare in Asian countries. It is not clear whether the mechanisms of development of CLL in Caucasians and Asians are the same. We compared genetic abnormalities in Asian and Caucasian CLL using 250k GeneChip arrays. Both Asian and Caucasian CLL had four common genetic abnormalities: deletion of 13q14.3, trisomy 12, abnormalities of ATM (11q) and abnormalities of 17p. Interestingly, trisomy 12 and deletion of 13q14.3 were mutually exclusive in both groups. We also found that deletions of miR 34b/34c (11q), caspase 1/4/5 (11q), Rb1 (13q) and DLC1 (8p) are common in both ethnic groups. Asian CLL more frequently had gain of 3q and 18q. These suggest that classic genomic changes in the Asian and Caucasina CLL are same. Further, we found amplification of IRF4 and deletion of the SP140/SP100 genes; these genes have been reported as CLL-associated genes by previous genome-wide-association study. We have found classic genomic abnormalities in Asian CLL as well as novel genomic alteration in CLL. PMID:23708256

  12. Pubertal Timing, Peer Victimization, and Body Esteem Differentially Predict Depressive Symptoms in African American and Caucasian Girls

    PubMed Central

    Hamlat, Elissa J.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    This study prospectively examined pubertal timing and peer victimization as interactive predictors of depressive symptoms in a racially diverse community sample of adolescents. We also expanded on past research by assessing body esteem as a mechanism by which pubertal timing and peer victimization confer risk for depression. In all, 218 adolescents (53.4% female, 49.3% African American, 50.7% Caucasian) completed both a baseline assessment and a follow-up assessment approximately 8 months later. Early maturing Caucasian girls and late maturing African American girls experienced the greatest increases in depressive symptoms at follow-up if they experienced higher levels of peer victimization between baseline and follow-up. Furthermore, body esteem significantly mediated the relationship between pubertal timing, peer victimization, and depressive symptoms for girls of both races. The interaction of pubertal timing and peer victimization did not predict depressive symptoms for boys of either race. These results support body esteem as a mechanism that contributes to increased depression among girls in adolescence—despite a differential impact of pubertal timing for Caucasian and African American girls. PMID:26146433

  13. A Comparison Between Chinese and Caucasian 3-Dimensional Bony Morphometry in Presimulated and Postsimulated Osteotomy for Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qian-Li; Lipman, Joseph D; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Wang, Xiao-Nan; Zhang, Yi-Yuan; You, Bin

    2017-09-01

    The bone morphologies of intact knees were measured and compared between Chinese and Caucasian populations. However, to assess if distinct designs of implants are necessary for the Chinese population owing to different morphologies and sizes, the knee measurements after osteotomy performed in total knee arthroplasty were evaluated. Thirty-seven Caucasian and 50 Chinese patients' knees were examined using computed tomography scans. Mimics were applied to reconstruct 3-dimensional bone models. Dimensions of the 3-dimensional knee models and simulated bone resections during total knee arthroplasty were measured using Geomagic Studio and Pro/ENGINEER. The morphologic measurements of the native and resected femur and tibia included the anteroposterior (AP) depth, mediolateral (ML) width, notch width, knee physical valgus angle, tibial slope angle, and the ML-to-AP ratio of the femur, tibia, and resected femur. Statistical analysis was performed using the independent samples t test and the Pearson correlation coefficient in SPSS for Windows. Values of P < .05 were considered significant. No measurements were significantly different between the Chinese and Caucasian knees. However, the Chinese female showed significant differences compared with the Chinese male on distal femoral measurements both presimulated and postsimulated osteotomy such as a smaller mean ML-to-AP ratio in presimulated (1.3 ± 0.1) and postsimulated (1.3 ± 0.1) osteotomy. The necessity of designing a full set of total knee components specifically for the Chinese population is still undetermined. However, we suggest designing femoral components specific for the Chinese females because of different postosteotomy distal femoral ML-to-AP ratio between the Chinese males and the Chinese females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reference ranges for cardiac structure and function using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in Caucasians from the UK Biobank population cohort.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Steffen E; Aung, Nay; Sanghvi, Mihir M; Zemrak, Filip; Fung, Kenneth; Paiva, Jose Miguel; Francis, Jane M; Khanji, Mohammed Y; Lukaschuk, Elena; Lee, Aaron M; Carapella, Valentina; Kim, Young Jin; Leeson, Paul; Piechnik, Stefan K; Neubauer, Stefan

    2017-02-03

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is the gold standard method for the assessment of cardiac structure and function. Reference ranges permit differentiation between normal and pathological states. To date, this study is the largest to provide CMR specific reference ranges for left ventricular, right ventricular, left atrial and right atrial structure and function derived from truly healthy Caucasian adults aged 45-74. Five thousand sixty-five UK Biobank participants underwent CMR using steady-state free precession imaging at 1.5 Tesla. Manual analysis was performed for all four cardiac chambers. Participants with non-Caucasian ethnicity, known cardiovascular disease and other conditions known to affect cardiac chamber size and function were excluded. Remaining participants formed the healthy reference cohort; reference ranges were calculated and were stratified by gender and age (45-54, 55-64, 65-74). After applying exclusion criteria, 804 (16.2%) participants were available for analysis. Left ventricular (LV) volumes were larger in males compared to females for absolute and indexed values. With advancing age, LV volumes were mostly smaller in both sexes. LV ejection fraction was significantly greater in females compared to males (mean ± standard deviation [SD] of 61 ± 5% vs 58 ± 5%) and remained static with age for both genders. In older age groups, LV mass was lower in men, but remained virtually unchanged in women. LV mass was significantly higher in males compared to females (mean ± SD of 53 ± 9 g/m(2) vs 42 ± 7 g/m(2)). Right ventricular (RV) volumes were significantly larger in males compared to females for absolute and indexed values and were smaller with advancing age. RV ejection fraction was higher with increasing age in females only. Left atrial (LA) maximal volume and stroke volume were significantly larger in males compared to females for absolute values but not for indexed values. LA ejection fraction was similar

  15. Network-based proteomic analysis for postmenopausal osteoporosis in Caucasian females.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lan; Liu, Yao-Zhong; Zeng, Yong; Zhu, Wei; Zhao, Ying-Chun; Zhang, Ji-Gang; Zhu, Jia-Qiang; He, Hao; Shen, Hui; Tian, Qing; Deng, Fei-Yan; Papasian, Christopher J; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Menopause is one of the crucial physiological events during the life of a woman. Transition of menopause status is accompanied by increased risks of various health problems such as osteoporosis. Peripheral blood monocytes can differentiate into osteoclasts and produce cytokines important for osteoclast activity. With quantitative proteomics LC-nano-ESI-MS(E) (where MS(E) is elevated-energy MS), we performed protein expression profiling of peripheral blood monocytes in 42 postmenopausal women with discordant bone mineral density (BMD) levels. Traditional comparative analysis showed proteins encoded by four genes (LOC654188, PPIA, TAGLN2, YWHAB) and three genes (LMNB1, ANXA2P2, ANXA2) were significantly down- and upregulated, respectively, in extremely low- versus high-BMD subjects. To study functionally orchestrating groups of detected proteins in the form of networks, we performed weighted gene coexpression network analysis and gene set enrichment analysis. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis showed that the module including the annexin gene family was most significantly correlated with low BMD, and the lipid-binding related GO terms were enriched in this identified module. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that two significantly enriched gene sets may be involved in postmenopausal BMD variation by regulating pro-inflammatory cytokines activities. To gain more insights into the proteomics data generated, we performed integrative analyses of the datasets available to us at the genome (DNA level), transcriptome (RNA level), and proteome levels jointly.

  16. Spiritual Well-Being Scale Differences between Caucasian Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Geri; Gridley, Betty; Chester, Terri; Nunn, David; Vickers, Valerie

    This paper presents an exploratory factor analysis of the Spiritual Well-Being (SWB) Scale, which was developed to examine overall life satisfaction. It is a 20-item, self-report instrument that measures three dimensions: an overall Spiritual Well-Being score, a Religious Well-Being score, and an Existential Well-Being score. The findings show…

  17. Abundance of Hepatic Transporters in Caucasians: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Howard J.; Riedmaier, Arian Emami; Harwood, Matthew D.; Crewe, H. Kim; Gill, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to derive quantitative abundance values for key hepatic transporters suitable for in vitro–in vivo extrapolation within a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling framework. A meta-analysis was performed whereby data on abundance measurements, sample preparation methods, and donor demography were collated from the literature. To define values for a healthy Caucasian population, a subdatabase was created whereby exclusion criteria were applied to remove samples from non-Caucasian individuals, those with underlying disease, or those with subcellular fractions other than crude membrane. Where a clinically relevant active genotype was known, only samples from individuals with an extensive transporter phenotype were included. Authors were contacted directly when additional information was required. After removing duplicated samples, the weighted mean, geometric mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and between-study homogeneity of transporter abundances were determined. From the complete database containing 24 transporters, suitable abundance data were available for 11 hepatic transporters from nine studies after exclusion criteria were applied. Organic anion transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 showed the highest population abundance in healthy adult Caucasians. For several transporters, the variability in abundance was reduced significantly once the exclusion criteria were applied. The highest variability was observed for OATP1B3 > OATP1B1 > multidrug resistance protein 2 > multidrug resistance gene 1. No relationship was found between transporter expression and donor age. To our knowledge, this study provides the first in-depth analysis of current quantitative abundance data for a wide range of hepatic transporters, with the aim of using these data for in vitro–in vivo extrapolation, and highlights the significance of investigating the background of tissue(s) used in quantitative transporter proteomic studies. Similar

  18. A Case of Nonuremic Calciphylaxis in a Caucasian Woman

    PubMed Central

    Valecha, Nishant; Miller, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of nonuremic calcific arteriolopathy (NUCA) in an 82-year-old Caucasian woman from rural Australia. The patient had no history of kidney disease or dialysis. NUCA is rare disease suspected on cutaneous and clinical features and diagnosed by characteristic findings on skin biopsy and vasculature imaging. Calcification induced microvascular occlusion in the absence of renal failure may not be immediately apparent. Clinical suspicion and appropriate investigations are essential for making a diagnosis. A diagnosis of NUCA may be missed given the rarity of the disease, and dermatologists and patients alike would benefit from a greater awareness of this disease. PMID:28191356

  19. Late-onset monomelic amyotrophy in a Caucasian woman.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dharmesh R; Knepper, Laurie; Jones, H Royden

    2008-01-01

    We describe a 53-year-old Caucasian woman with a 19-year history of an evolving amyotrophy confined to her dominant right arm and hand. Although this atypical case of a late-onset monomelic amyotrophy in some respects mimics Hirayama disease or O'Sullivan-McLeod syndrome, it does not conform precisely with either of those disorders. We compare this individual's difficulties and clinical temporal profile to other disorders considered in the differential diagnoses with regard to her evolving clinical setting.

  20. Phenotypic Diversity in Caucasian Adults with Moderate to Severe Class II Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Uribe, Lina M.; Howe, Sara C.; Kummet, Colleen; Vela, Kaci C.; Dawson, Deborah V.; Southard, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Class II malocclusion affects about 15 % of the US population and is characterized by a convex profile and occlusion disharmonies. The specific etiological mechanisms resulting in the range of Class II dento-skeletal combinations observed is not yet understood. Most studies describing the class II phenotypic diversity have utilized moderate sample sizes or have focused on younger individuals that later in life may outgrow their class II discrepancies; such a focus may also preclude the visualization of adult class II features. The majority have utilized simple correlation methods resulting in phenotypes that may not be generalizable to different samples and thus may not be suitable for studies of malocclusion etiology. The purpose of this study is to address these knowledge gaps by capturing the maximum phenotypic variation present in a large Caucasian sample of class II individuals selected with strict eligibility criteria and rigorously standardized multivariate reduction analyses. METHODS Sixty-three lateral cephalometric variables were measured from pre-treatment records of 309 Class II Caucasian adults (82 males, 227 females; ages 16–60 years). Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis were used to generate comprehensive phenotypes in an effort to identify the most homogeneous groups of individuals reducing heterogeneity and improving the power of future malocclusion etiology studies. RESULTS PCA resulted in 7 principal components that accounted for 81% of the variation. The first three components represented variation on mandibular rotation, upper incisor angulation and mandibular length, respectively. The cluster analysis identified 5 distinct Class II phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS A comprehensive spectrum of Class II phenotypic definitions was obtained that could be generalized to other samples advancing our efforts to the identification of etiological factors underlying Class II malocclusion. PMID:24582022

  1. Association analyses of vitamin D-binding protein gene with compression strength index variation in Caucasian nuclear families

    PubMed Central

    Xu, X.-H.; Xiong, D.-H.; Liu, X.-G.; Guo, Y.; Chen, Y.; Zhao, J.; Recker, R. R.; Deng, H.-W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary This study was conducted to test whether there exists an association between vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) gene and compression strength index (CSI) phenotype. Candidate gene association analyses were conducted in total sample, male subgroup, and female subgroup, respectively. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with significant association results were found in males, suggesting the importance of DBP gene polymorphisms on the variation in CSI especially in Caucasian males. Introduction CSI of the femoral neck (FN) is a newly developed phenotype integrating information about bone size, body size, and bone mineral density. It is considered to have the potential to improve the performance of risk assessment for hip fractures because it is based on a combination of phenotypic traits influencing hip fractures rather than a single trait. CSI is under moderate genetic determination (with a heritability of ~44% found in this study), but the relevant genetic study is still rather scarce. Methods Based on the known physiological role of DBP in bone biology and the relatively high heritability of CSI, we tested 12 SNPs of the DBP gene for association with CSI variation in 405 Caucasian nuclear families comprising 1,873 subjects from the Midwestern US. Association analyses were performed in the total sample, male and female subgroups, respectively. Results Significant associations with CSI were found with two SNPs (rs222029, P=0.0019; rs222020, P=0.0042) for the male subgroup. Haplotype-based association tests corroborated the single-SNP results. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the DBP gene might be one of the genetic factors influencing CSI phenotype in Caucasians, especially in males. PMID:19543766

  2. Dental age assessment (DAA) of Afro-Trinidadian children and adolescents. Development of a Reference Dataset (RDS) and comparison with Caucasians resident in London, UK.

    PubMed

    Moze, Kevin; Roberts, Graham

    2012-07-01

    The large number of extant Dental Panoramic Tomographs of Afro-Trinidadian subjects were collected and Tooth Development Stages (TDSs) were assessed for each of the 878 radiographs to provide a Reference Dataset (RDS) of Afro-Trinidadian children and adolescents. The values for each of the 256 TDSs present were statistically significantly different from the values for the same TDSs in the UK Caucasian RDS. A validation study of 50 radiographs of Afro-Trinidadian subjects from 24 boys and 26 girls were assessed to enable calculation of the Dental Age (DA). The DA calculated using the UK Caucasian RDS was statistically significantly different from the chronological age. The same radiographs were used to calculate the Age of Attainment of the individual Tooth Development Stages for females and males in both the UK Caucasian subjects, and the Afro-Trinidadians. The majority of these comparisons showed the TDSs in Afro-Trinidadian subjects to develop earlier than the UK Caucasian subjects by approximately 8 months.

  3. Nose tip refinement using interdomal suture in caucasian nose

    PubMed Central

    Pasinato, Rogério; Mocelin, Marcos; Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Refinement of the nose tip can be accomplished by a variety of techniques, but currently, the use of sutures in the nasal tip with conservative resection of the alar cartilage is the most frequently recommended approach. Objective: To classify the nasal tip and to demonstrate the interdomal suture applied to nasal tip refinement in the Caucasian nose, as well as to provide a simple and practical presentation of the surgical steps. Method: Development of surgical algorithm for nasal tip surgery: 1. Interdomal suture (double binding suture), 2. Interdomal suture with alar cartilage weakening (cross-hatching), 3. Interdomal suture with cephalic removal of the alar cartilage (McIndoe technique) based on the nasal tip type classification. This classification assesses the interdomal distance (angle of domal divergence and intercrural distance), domal arch width, cartilage consistency, and skin type. Interdomal suture is performed through endonasal rhinoplasty by basic technique without delivery (Converse-Diamond technique) under local anesthesia. Conclusion: This classification is simple and facilitates the approach of surgical treatment of the nasal tip through interdomal suture, systematizing and standardizing surgical maneuvers for better refinement of the Caucasian nose. PMID:25991963

  4. Detection and characterization of clostebol sulfate metabolites in Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Balcells, Georgina; Pozo, Oscar J; Garrostas, Lorena; Esquivel, Argitxu; Matabosch, Xavier; Kotronoulas, Aristotelis; Joglar, Jesús; Ventura, Rosa

    2016-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic testosterone derivatives which undergo extensive metabolism in man. Differences in the excretion of phase II metabolites are strongly associated with inter-individual and inter-ethnic variations. Sulfate metabolites have been described as long-term metabolites for some AAS. Clostebol is the 4-chloro derivative of testosterone and the aim of the present study was the evaluation of clostebol sulfate metabolites in Caucasian population by LC-MS/MS technology. Clostebol was orally administered to four healthy Caucasian male volunteers, and excretion study urines were collected up to 31 days. Several analytical strategies (neutral loss scan, precursor ion scan and selected reaction monitoring acquisitions modes) were applied to detect sulfate metabolites in post-administration samples. Sixteen sulfate metabolites were detected, five of them having detectability times above 10 days (S1a, S2a, S3b, S3g and S4b). Interestingly, metabolite S1a could be detected up to the last collected sample of all excretion studies and it was characterized by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS as 4ξ-chloro-5α-androst-3β-ol-17-one 3β-sulfate. Thus, monitoring of S1a improves the detection time of clostebol misuse with respect to the commonly monitored metabolites, excreted in the glucuronide fraction. Importantly, this new metabolite can be incorporated into recently developed LC-MS/MS screening methods base on the direct detection of phase II metabolites.

  5. The use of spectrophotometry to estimate melanin density in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, T; Muller, H K; Blizzard, L; Ashbolt, R; Phillips, G

    1998-03-01

    The density of cutaneous melanin may be the property of the skin that protects it from damage by solar radiation, but there is not an accepted, noninvasive method of measuring it. To determine whether the density of cutaneous melanin can be estimated from reflectance of visible light by the skin, reflectance of 15-nm wavebands of light by the skin of the inner upper arm of each of 82 volunteers was measured at 20-nm intervals with a Minolta 508 spectrophotometer. A 3-mm skin biopsy was then taken from the same site, and four nonserial sections of it were stained with Masson Fontana for melanin. The melanin content of the basal area was calculated using the NIH Image analysis system. We show that cutaneous melanin in Caucasians can be estimated by the difference between two measurements of reflectance of visible light by the skin: those at wavelengths 400 and 420 nm. This new spectrophotometric measurement was more highly correlated (r = 0.68) with the histological measurements of cutaneous melanin than was skin reflectance of light of wavelength 680 nm (r = 0.33). Reflectances in the range of 650-700 nm have been used previously in skin cancer research. This relatively accurate measurement of melanin is quick and noninvasive and can be readily used in the field. It should provide improved discrimination of individual susceptibility to epidermal tumors in Caucasians and information about melanin's biological role in the causation of skin cancer.

  6. MicroRNAs: Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    08-1-0379 TITLE: MicroRNAs : Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women PRINCIPAL... MicroRNAs : Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women Hua Zhao Health Research Inc. Buffalo, NY 14263 So far...identified several SNPs in microRNA processing genes and microRNA genes are associated with breast cancer risk in either Caucasian Americans or

  7. Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance Coping, and Fear of Pain as Mediators of the Relationship between Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Pain-Related Distress among African American and Caucasian College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Wells, Anita G.; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Pietruszka, Todd; Ciftci, Ayse; Stancil, Brett

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…

  8. Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance Coping, and Fear of Pain as Mediators of the Relationship between Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Pain-Related Distress among African American and Caucasian College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Wells, Anita G.; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Pietruszka, Todd; Ciftci, Ayse; Stancil, Brett

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…

  9. Addison's Disease and Possible Cannabis Withdrawal Syndrome Presenting as an Eating Disorder in a Thirty-Year-Old Female

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A 30-year-old female with a history of anxiety, cannabis use, and Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder presented for residential treatment of a Cannabis Use Disorder. Upon arrival, she had not eaten for two days and was found to be hypotensive with electrolyte disturbances. She was admitted to a nearby hospital, where the Internist diagnosed her with Addison's disease. She was treated with corticosteroid therapy, with rapid normalization of her electrolytes, eating, and anxiety. This is the first published case of undiagnosed Addison's disease presenting as an eating disorder, with cannabis use likely contributing to symptoms. This case elucidates the importance of ruling out other biologic and psychologic causes of clinical presentations before an eating disorder diagnosis can be made. PMID:28348901

  10. Addison's Disease and Possible Cannabis Withdrawal Syndrome Presenting as an Eating Disorder in a Thirty-Year-Old Female.

    PubMed

    Lazare, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    A 30-year-old female with a history of anxiety, cannabis use, and Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder presented for residential treatment of a Cannabis Use Disorder. Upon arrival, she had not eaten for two days and was found to be hypotensive with electrolyte disturbances. She was admitted to a nearby hospital, where the Internist diagnosed her with Addison's disease. She was treated with corticosteroid therapy, with rapid normalization of her electrolytes, eating, and anxiety. This is the first published case of undiagnosed Addison's disease presenting as an eating disorder, with cannabis use likely contributing to symptoms. This case elucidates the importance of ruling out other biologic and psychologic causes of clinical presentations before an eating disorder diagnosis can be made.

  11. Female condoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... women; Contraception - female condom; Family planning - female condom; Birth control - female condom ... care provider or pharmacy for information about emergency contraception (Plan B) if the condom tears or the ...

  12. Comparative craniofacial variation in Navajo Indians and North American Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Phipps, G S; German, R Z; Smith, R J

    1988-06-01

    Landmarks digitized from lateral cephalometric radiographs of 107 Navajo Indians between 10 and 12 years of age were analyzed to determine coefficients of variation or standard deviations for 38 cephalometric measurements. These values were compared with the same measures of variation for identical measurements on North American whites derived from the Michigan and Philadelphia Growth Studies. For the majority of variables, there were no differences between groups. Variation for the genetically and environmentally isolated Navajo Indians was the same as that of the highly diverse Caucasian samples. However, measurements of upper, lower, and total anterior facial height (N-ANS, ANS-Me, and N-Me, respectively) indicate that these features are substantially less variable in Navajo Indians relative to the Michigan and Philadelphia populations.

  13. HDL functionality in South Asians as compared to white Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Bakker, L E H; Boon, M R; Annema, W; Dikkers, A; van Eyk, H J; Verhoeven, A; Mayboroda, O A; Jukema, J W; Havekes, L M; Meinders, A E; Willems van Dijk, K; Jazet, I M; Tietge, U J F; Rensen, P C N

    2016-08-01

    South Asians have an exceptionally high risk of developing cardiovascular disease compared to white Caucasians. A contributing factor might be dysfunction of high density lipoprotein (HDL). We aimed to compare HDL function in different age groups of both ethnicities. HDL functionality with respect to cholesterol efflux, anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation was determined using fasting, apoB-depleted, plasma samples from South Asian and white Caucasian neonates (n = 14 each), adolescent healthy men (n = 12 each, 18-25 y), and adult overweight men (n = 12 each, 40-50 y). Adolescents were subjected to a 5-day high fat high calorie diet (HCD) and adults to an 8-day very low calorie diet (LCD). Additionally, HDL composition was measured in adolescents and adults using (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. Anti-oxidative capacity was lower in South Asian adults before LCD (19.4 ± 2.1 vs. 25.8 ± 1.2%, p = 0.045, 95%-CI = [0.1; 12.7]) and after LCD (16.4 ± 2.4 vs. 27.6 ± 2.7%, p = 0.001, 95%-CI = [4.9; 17.5]). Anti-inflammatory capacity was reduced in South Asian neonates (23.8 ± 1.2 vs. 34.9 ± 1.3%, p = 0.000001, 95%-CI = [-14.6; -7.5]), and was negatively affected by an 8-day LCD only in South Asian adults (-12.2 ± 4.3%, p = 0.005, 95%-CI = [-5.9; -1.2]). Cholesterol efflux capacity was increased in response to HCD in adolescents (South Asians: +6.3 ± 2.9%, p = 0.073, 95%-CI = [-0.02; 0.46], Caucasians: +11.8 ± 3.4%, p = 0.002, 95%-CI = [0.17;0.65]) and decreased after LCD in adults (South Asians: -10.3 ± 2.4%, p < 0.001, 95%-CI = [-0.57; -0.20], Caucasians: -13.7 ± 1.9%, p < 0.00001, 95%-CI = [-0.67; -0.33]). Although subclass analyses of HDL showed no differences between ethnicities, cholesterol efflux correlated best with cholesterol and phospholipid within small HDL compared to other HDL subclasses and constituents. Impaired HDL functionality in South Asians may be a contributing factor to their high CVD risk

  14. Gender, age and seasonal effects on IgA deficiency: a study of 7293 Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Weber-Mzell, D; Kotanko, P; Hauer, A C; Goriup, U; Haas, J; Lanner, N; Erwa, W; Ahmaida, I A; Haitchi-Petnehazy, S; Stenzel, M; Lanzer, G; Deutsch, J

    2004-03-01

    The frequency of serum IgA deficiency (SIgAD) differs between populations. We examined the prevalence of SIgAD in healthy Caucasians. Serum immunoglobulin A (SIgA) was measured in 7293 volunteers (2264 women, 5029 men) aged 30 +/- 14.2 years (mean +/- SD; range: 12-66). Serum immunoglobulin A and subnormal SIgA levels were defined by a SIgA level < 0.07 g L(-1), and between 0.07 and 0.7 g L(-1), respectively. Means were compared by analysis of variance (anova) and analysis of covariance (ancova); frequencies by the chi(2) test. Fifteen subjects (0.21%; one woman, 14 men) had SIgAD. Subnormal SIgA levels were found in 155 persons (2.13%): 21 females (0.93% of the females) and 134 males (2.66% of the males; difference: 1.74%; 95% CI: 1.12-2.33%; P < 0.001). Males were more likely to have subnormal SIgA levels or SIgAD (odds ratio 3.09, 95% CI: 1.97-4.85). The prevalence of SIgAD and subnormal SIgA was lowest in winter (chi(2) = 14.8; P = 0.002; 3 d.f.; and chi(2) = 43.2; P < 0.001; 3 d.f., respectively). Serum immunoglobulin A concentrations were significantly higher during winter. Serum immunoglobulin A levels increased with age on average by 0.2 +/- 0.06 g L(-1) per decade of life (P < 0.001). Taking into account the influence of age, SIgA concentration was lower in females as compared with males. The prevalence of SIgAD and subnormal SIgA levels is increased in males. There exists a significant influence of gender, age and seasons on SIgA levels.

  15. Mental Health Values Differences between Native American and Caucasian American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, John D.; Suan, Lance V.

    1990-01-01

    Used the Mental Health Values Questionnaire to compare concepts of mental health in 66 Native American and 93 Caucasian American college students. Caucasian Americans tend more strongly to associated unconventional experiences of reality, such as visions, with poor mental health, whereas Native Americans were more likely to view such experiences…

  16. Cognitive Effects of College: Differences between African American and Caucasian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Lamont A.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2003-01-01

    In this longitudinal study of African American and Caucasian students from 18 4-year institutions, objective tests were used to estimate the cognitive effects of race in college, while applying statistical controls for an extensive set of confounding influences. Found that Caucasian students scored higher than African Americans on standardized…

  17. Counselling Expectations of a Sample of East Asian and Caucasian Canadian Undergraduates in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Darren M.; Glenwright, Brittni J.; Bhatia, Maneet; Drapeau, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether East Asians differ from Caucasian Canadians in their expectations about counselling. Participants in this study included 31 East Asian and 53 Caucasian Canadian university students. The East Asian participants were all first-generation East Asians living in Canada, originally from China, Korea, Japan, or Vietnam.…

  18. Physical Activities and Sedentary Pursuits in African American and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Felton, Gwen M.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure…

  19. Predictors of Early Substance Use among African American and Caucasian Youth from Urban and Suburban Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia; Jacques, Angela J.; Hayman, Lenwood W., Jr.; Sobeck, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    The deleterious effects of early substance use have been well documented. Past research has produced mixed results regarding the extent to which the profile of risk differs for urban African American and suburban Caucasian youth. Sixth graders from urban (n = 420; 92% African American) and suburban (n = 391; 89% Caucasian) schools in metropolitan…

  20. Physical Activities and Sedentary Pursuits in African American and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Felton, Gwen M.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure…

  1. Chinese American and Caucasian American Family Interaction Patterns in Spatial Rotation Puzzle Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.

    1995-01-01

    Examined sociocultural influences on mathematics achievement. First generation Chinese American and Caucasian American mother-father-daughter triads were audiotaped as the fifth- and sixth-grade girls solved a spatial puzzle. Chinese American triads were quieter, more respectful, more serious, and more orderly, whereas Caucasian American triads…

  2. Differences between Japanese Infants and Caucasian American Infants in Behavioral and Cortisol Response to Inoculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The behavioral and cortisol responses of Japanese and Caucasian American infants, four months of age, were observed during and following routine inoculation. The Caucasian American group showed a more intense initial affective response and a longer latency to quiet than the Japanese group; the Japanese group showed a greater cortisol response than…

  3. A Cross-Cultural Study of Anxiety among Chinese and Caucasian American University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Dong; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural differences on state, trait, and social anxiety between Chinese and Caucasian American university students. Chinese students reported higher levels of social anxiety than did Caucasian American students. Correlations between trait and state anxiety were compared in light of the trait model of…

  4. microRNAs: Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Hua Zhao, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Roswell...Park Cancer Institute Buffalo , NY 14263 REPORT DATE: June 2012 TYPE OF REPORT...microRNAs: Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1

  5. Cultural Differences in Psychological Distress between Asian and Caucasian American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined possible cultural differences in psychological distress between 50 Asian-American and 48 Caucasian-American college students using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Found significant differences between the two groups on six of the nine symptom scales. Asians scored significantly higher than Caucasians on obsessive compulsiveness,…

  6. African American and Caucasian Attempters Compared for Suicide Risk Factors: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare African American and Caucasian substance dependent suicide attempters for risk factors for suicidal behavior. One hundred and fifty-eight African American and 95 Caucasian substance dependent patients who had attempted suicide were interviewed and their family history of suicidal behavior recorded. Patients…

  7. A Comparison of the Motor Performance of Black and Caucasian Girls Age 6-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinucci, James M.; Shows, David A.

    1977-01-01

    No significant differences in measures of flexibility, muscular endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, speed, balance, or muscular power were found between black and Caucasian girls ages six, seven, and eight. Blacks were significantly superior on two agility measurements, and Caucasians better on shuttle run and grip strength. (MJB)

  8. A Cross-Cultural Study of Anxiety among Chinese and Caucasian American University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Dong; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural differences on state, trait, and social anxiety between Chinese and Caucasian American university students. Chinese students reported higher levels of social anxiety than did Caucasian American students. Correlations between trait and state anxiety were compared in light of the trait model of…

  9. Perplexing purpura in two females: Rare case of autoerythrocyte sensitization syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tainwala, Ram R.; Phiske, Meghna; Raghuwanshi, Abhijith; Mathapati, Sukesh; Manjare, Ashwini K.; Jerajani, Hemangi R.

    2013-01-01

    Autoerythrocyte sensitization syndrome is a psychologically induced painful bruising condition. Two female, 19 and 30-year-old presented with recurrent episodes of painful ecchymotic bruising over accessible areas of body. In the younger female, episodes were since 3 years and were precipitated by stress and trivial trauma. The elder female presented with similar lesions since 3 months which were spontaneous in presentation. There were no obvious psychiatric manifestations in either. Clinically, ecchymotic changes in various stages of development were seen. Routine hemogram and coagulation profile were normal. Histopathology showed extravasated erythrocytes, perivascular neutrophils and fibrinoid deposition. Intradermal injection of autologous whole blood produced a painful ecchymotic reaction after 2 h similar to the presenting lesions. Psychiatric evaluation revealed mild mixed depression – anxiety disorder in the younger female while the latter revealed no abnormalities. The diagnosis of autoerythrocyte sensitization syndrome was made based on clinical history and findings, positive autoerythrocyte sensitization test, psychiatric evaluation and absence of any other clinical or laboratory pathology. PMID:24350012

  10. Clonal diversity and clone formation in the parthenogenetic Caucasian rock Lizard Darevskia dahli [corrected].

    PubMed

    Vergun, Andrey A; Martirosyan, Irena A; Semyenova, Seraphima K; Omelchenko, Andrey V; Petrosyan, Varos G; Lazebny, Oleg E; Tokarskaya, Olga N; Korchagin, Vitaly I; Ryskov, Alexey P

    2014-01-01

    The all-female Caucasian rock lizard species Darevskia dahli and other parthenogenetic species of this genus reproduce normally via true parthenogenesis. Previously, the genetic diversity of this species was analyzed using allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, and DNA fingerprint markers. In the present study, variation at three microsatellite loci was studied in 111 specimens of D. dahli from five populations from Armenia, and new information regarding clonal diversity and clone formation in D. dahli was obtained that suggests a multiple hybridization origin. All individuals but one were heterozygous at the loci studied. Based on specific allele combinations, 11 genotypes were identified among the individuals studied. Individuals with the same genotypes formed distinct clonal lineages: one major clone was represented by 72 individuals, an intermediate clone was represented by 21 individuals, and nine other clones were rare and represented by one or several individuals. A new approach based on the detection and comparison of genotype-specific markers formed by combinations of parental-specific markers was developed and used to identify at least three hybridization founder events that resulted in the initial formation of one major and two rare clones. All other clones, including the intermediate and seven rare clones, probably arose through postformation microsatellite mutations of the major clone. This approach can be used to identify hybridization founder events and to study clone formation in other unisexual taxa.

  11. Clonal Diversity and Clone Formation in the Parthenogenetic Caucasian Rock Lizard Darevskia dahli

    PubMed Central

    Vergun, Andrey A.; Martirosyan, Irena A.; Semyenova, Seraphima K.; Omelchenko, Andrey V.; Petrosyan, Varos G.; Lazebny, Oleg E.; Tokarskaya, Olga N.; Korchagin, Vitaly I.; Ryskov, Alexey P.

    2014-01-01

    The all-female Caucasian rock lizard species Darevskia dahli and other parthenogenetic species of this genus reproduce normally via true parthenogenesis. Previously, the genetic diversity of this species was analyzed using allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, and DNA fingerprint markers. In the present study, variation at three microsatellite loci was studied in 111 specimens of D. dahli from five populations from Armenia, and new information regarding clonal diversity and clone formation in D. dahli was obtained that suggests a multiple hybridization origin. All individuals but one were heterozygous at the loci studied. Based on specific allele combinations, 11 genotypes were identified among the individuals studied. Individuals with the same genotypes formed distinct clonal lineages: one major clone was represented by 72 individuals, an intermediate clone was represented by 21 individuals, and nine other clones were rare and represented by one or several individuals. A new approach based on the detection and comparison of genotype-specific markers formed by combinations of parental-specific markers was developed and used to identify at least three hybridization founder events that resulted in the initial formation of one major and two rare clones. All other clones, including the intermediate and seven rare clones, probably arose through postformation microsatellite mutations of the major clone. This approach can be used to identify hybridization founder events and to study clone formation in other unisexual taxa. PMID:24618670

  12. Phenotypic Diversity in Caucasian Adults with Moderate to Severe Class III Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Moreno Uribe, Lina M.; Vela, Kaci C.; Kummet, Colleen; Dawson, Deborah V.; Southard, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Class III malocclusion is characterized by a composite of dento-skeletal patterns that lead to the forward positioning of the mandibular teeth in relation to the maxillary teeth and a concave profile. Environmental and genetic factors are associated with this condition, which affects 1% of the US population and imposes significant esthetic and functional burdens on affected individuals. The purpose of this study was to capture the phenotypic variation present in a large sample of white adults with Class III malocclusion by using multivariate reduction methods. METHODS Sixty-three lateral cephalometric variables were measured from pre-treatment records of 292 Class II Caucasian adults (126 males, 166 females; ages 16-57 years). Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to capture the phenotypic variation and identify the most homogeneous groups of individuals to reduce genetic heterogeneity. RESULTS Principal component analysis resulted in 6 principal components that accounted for 81.2% of the variation. The first three components represented variations in mandibular horizontal and vertical position, maxillary horizontal position, and mandibular incisor angulation, respectively. The cluster model identified 5 distinct subphenotypes of Class III malocclusion. CONCLUSIONS A spectrum of phenotypic definitions was obtained replicating results of previous studies and supporting the validity of these phenotypic measures in future research of genetic and environmental etiology of Class III malocclusion. PMID:23810043

  13. Changes in the Caucasian male facial profile as depicted in fashion magazines during the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, D D; Turley, P K

    1998-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to (1) measure changes in the young adult Caucasian male profile through time and (2) describe the male profile depicted in current fashion magazines. Profile photographs (n = 116) of male models collected from leading fashion magazines of the last 65 years were analyzed. They were reproduced as slides, and the images were scanned and projected onto a computer monitor. Soft tissue landmarks were digitized and the profiles were corrected for size differences. Six linear, nine angular, and three proportional parameters were measured. Anteroposterior lip position, lip curl, and vermilion area showed statistically significant correlations (r > or = 31, p < 0.01) with the progression of time. Other angular measurements and vertical facial proportions did not change significantly (r < or = 17, p > 0.05). The results showed that (1) the male profile depicted in fashion magazines has changed significantly with time and the changes were in the area of the lips; and (2) there was a trend of increasing lip protrusion, lip curl, and vermilion display. We conclude that similar to the female profile, the esthetic male profile has changed with time.

  14. Comparison of mesiodistal tooth widths in Caucasian, African and Japanese individuals with Brazilian ancestry and normal occlusion.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire; Sathler, Renata; Natalício, Gabriela Letícia; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Pinzan, Arnaldo

    2013-01-01

    To observe the presence of sexual dimorphism and compare the mesiodistal width of the teeth in Caucasian, African and Japanese individuals with Brazilian ancestry not orthodontically treated and with normal occlusion. One hundred pairs of dental casts were used. It was measured, from first molar to first molar in both arches, the teeth's mesiodistal widths, using a digital caliper. For the statistical analysis of results Kolmogorov-Smirnov, t test, ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05) were used. Sexual dimorphism occurred on the three evaluated groups, and the highest mesiodistal widths were found in males. There was statistically significant difference between racial groups in all evaluated teeth in males. However, in females, this same difference was found only on upper lateral incisor and first molar; and lower lateral incisor, canine, first premolar and first molar. Most of mesiodistal measures present particular characteristics in relation to gender, with higher values for males, and to race, with a tendency for African to present greater mesiodistal distance of the teeth, followed by Japanese and Caucasians, respectively, important for the correct diagnosis and orthodontic planning.

  15. Effects of tobacco-related media campaigns on smoking among 20-30-year-old adults: longitudinal data from the USA.

    PubMed

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; Emery, Sherry; Wakefield, Melanie A; O'Malley, Patrick M; Szczypka, Glen; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2013-01-01

    Young adults in the USA have one of the highest smoking prevalence rates of any age group, and young adulthood is a critical time period of targeting by the tobacco industry. The authors examined relationships between potential exposure to tobacco-related media campaigns from a variety of sponsors and 2-year smoking change measures among a longitudinal sample of US adults aged 20-30 years from 2001 to 2008. Self-report data were collected from a longitudinal sample of 12,931 US young adults from age 20 to 30. These data were merged with tobacco-related advertising exposure data from Nielsen Media Research. Two-year measures of change in smoking were regressed on advertising exposures. Two-year smoking uptake was unrelated to advertising exposure. The odds of quitting among all smokers and reduction among daily smokers in the 2 years between the prior and current survey were positively related to anti-tobacco advertising, especially potential exposure levels of 104-155 ads over the past 24 months. Tobacco company advertising (including corporate image and anti-smoking) and pharmaceutical industry advertising were unrelated to quitting or reduction. Continued support for sustained, public health-based well-funded anti-tobacco media campaigns may help reduce tobacco use among young adults.

  16. 46 CFR 31.10-21a - Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-21a Periodic... vessels certificated to carry a pollution category I oil cargo listed in 46 CFR Table 30.25-1 must undergo...

  17. 46 CFR 31.10-21a - Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-21a Periodic... vessels certificated to carry a pollution category I oil cargo listed in 46 CFR Table 30.25-1 must undergo...

  18. The Use of Locative Prepositions by Hebrew Speaking Children 2:0 - 3:0 Years Old. Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dromi, Esther

    The use of locative prepositions in the spontaneous speech of 30 Hebrew speaking children two to three years old was studied. The rank order of locative prepositions is determined according to the correct use in obligatory contexts, and tentative conclusions are drawn concerning the order of acquisition of these terms in Hebrew. An attempt is made…

  19. The Influence of Framed Messages and Self-Affirmation on Indoor Tanning Behavioral Intentions among 18 to 30 Year Old Women

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Darren; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of gain- and loss-framed indoor tanning (IT) prevention messages among young adult women, and examine the potential moderating effect of self-affirmation. Methods Young adult women ages 18 to 30 who reported IT at least once in the past year (n = 475) participated in an online experiment. Participants first completed assessments of IT behavior and related constructs and were randomized to either a self-affirmation manipulation or control condition. Then, participants were randomized to either a gain-framed message emphasizing the benefits of avoiding IT or a loss-framed message emphasizing the risks of IT. Participants completed outcome measures of intentions to IT, intentions to quit IT, and emotional and cognitive responses to the framed messages. Results Compared with gain-framed messages, loss-framed messages led to weaker intentions to IT and stronger intentions to quit IT. Self-affirmation did not moderate message framing effects, but had a main effect increasing intentions to IT. Mediation analyses indicate that loss-framed messages affect IT behavioral intentions by increasing fear and self-affirmation may have increased intentions to IT by producing defensive reactions to the framed messages. Conclusions Loss-framed messages were more effective for reducing intentions to IT and promoting intentions to quit IT among young women after a brief exposure, and emotional response appears to be one pathway through which loss-framed messages affect behavioral outcomes. Messages emphasizing the risks of IT may be optimal as a public health intervention strategy. Unlike other behavioral domains, self-affirmation did not reduce defensive processing of loss-framed messages. PMID:26192383

  20. The influence of framed messages and self-affirmation on indoor tanning behavioral intentions in 18- to 30-year-old women.

    PubMed

    Mays, Darren; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effects of gain- and loss-framed indoor tanning (IT) prevention messages among young adult women, and examine the potential moderating effect of self-affirmation. Young adult women ages 18 to 30 who reported IT at least once in the past year (n = 475) participated in an online experiment. Participants first completed assessments of IT behavior and related constructs and were randomized to either a self-affirmation manipulation or control condition. Then, participants were randomized to either a gain-framed message emphasizing the benefits of avoiding IT or a loss-framed message emphasizing the risks of IT. Participants completed outcome measures of intentions to IT, intentions to quit IT, and emotional and cognitive responses to the framed messages. Compared with gain-framed messages, loss-framed messages led to weaker intentions to IT and stronger intentions to quit IT. Self-affirmation did not moderate message framing effects, but had a main effect increasing intentions to IT. Mediation analyses indicate that loss-framed messages affect IT behavioral intentions by increasing fear, and self-affirmation may have increased intentions to IT by producing defensive reactions to the framed messages. Loss-framed messages were more effective for reducing intentions to IT and promoting intentions to quit IT among young women after a brief exposure, and emotional response appears to be 1 pathway through which loss-framed messages affect behavioral outcomes. Messages emphasizing the risks of IT may be optimal as a public health intervention strategy. Unlike other behavioral domains, self-affirmation did not reduce defensive processing of loss-framed messages. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. What is wrong with the 30-year-old practice of scalp cooling for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced hair loss?

    PubMed

    Breed, Wim P M

    2004-01-01

    Since about 1970 scalp cooling has been used to prevent chemotherapy-induced hair loss, one of the most common and emotionally distressing side effects of cancer therapy. Generally accepted opinions, uncertainty and controversy, topics to study and recommendations for improving the results of scalp cooling are the subjects of this article which was also presented at the MASCC Symposium, June 2003, Berlin.

  2. The Effect of Active versus Passive Recovery Periods during High Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Local Tissue Oxygenation in 18 – 30 Year Old Sedentary Men

    PubMed Central

    Kerhervé, Hugo A.; Askew, Christopher D.; Solomon, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proposed as a time-efficient format of exercise to reduce the chronic disease burden associated with sedentary behaviour. Changes in oxygen utilisation at the local tissue level during an acute session of HIIT could be the primary stimulus for the health benefits associated with this format of exercise. The recovery periods of HIIT effect the physiological responses that occur during the session. It was hypothesised that in sedentary individuals, local and systemic oxygen utilisation would be higher during HIIT interspersed with active recovery periods, when compared to passive recovery periods. Methods Twelve sedentary males (mean ± SD; age 23 ± 3 yr) completed three conditions on a cycle ergometer: 1) HIIT with passive recovery periods between four bouts (HIITPASS) 2) HIIT with active recovery periods between four bouts (HIITACT) 3) HIITACT with four HIIT bouts replaced with passive periods (REC). Deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb) in the vastus lateralis (VL) and gastrocnemius (GN) muscles and the pre-frontal cortex (FH), oxygen consumption (VO2), power output and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously during the three conditions. Results There was a significant increase in HHb at VL during bouts 2 (p = 0.017), 3 (p = 0.035) and 4 (p = 0.035) in HIITACT, compared to HIITPASS. Mean power output was significantly lower in HIITACT, compared to HIITPASS (p < 0.001). There was a significant main effect for site in both HIITPASS (p = 0.029) and HIITACT (p = 0.005). There were no significant differences in VO2 and HR between HIITPASS and HIITACT. Conclusions The increase in HHb at VL and the lower mean power output during HIITACT could indicate that a higher level of deoxygenation contributes to decreased mechanical power in sedentary participants. The significant differences in HHb between sites indicates the specificity of oxygen utilisation. PMID:27677081

  3. Comparison of the Chromium Distribution in New Super Koropon Primer to 30 Year Old Super Koropon Using Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lomness, Janice K.; Calle, Luz Marina

    2006-01-01

    Super Koropon primer (MB0125-055) plays a significant role in the corrosion protection of areas throughout the Orbiter. Because the Shuttle Program relies so heavily upon the performance of the Koropon primer, it is necessary to fully understand all aspects of the behavior of the coating. One area where little understanding of the Koropon primer still exists is the level of risk associated with age related degradation. Recently, efforts were undertaken to better understand the age life of the Koropon primer and to gain some insight into the aging process of this coating. In that study, an aluminum access panel from the Orbiter Enterprise was used to investigate the performance of the old Koropon film. A control panel was also used to study the performance of new Koropon coating. Preliminary investigations into the performance of aged Super Koropon primer indicated a significant decrease in corrosion protection. This investigation serves as an example of how Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Microscopy can be used to characterize the changes that occur as coatings age.

  4. Oxygen Isotopes for Lavas from Kilauea's Ongoing, 30-year old Puu Oo Eruption: Evidence for the Nature of the Mantle Source and Crustal Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M. O.; Eiler, J. M.; Pietruszka, A. J.; Lynn, K.

    2013-12-01

    Oxygen isotopic compositions (δ18O, SMOW) of Puu Oo lavas erupted during the last 30 years show a greater range than those for Kilauea summit lavas over the last ~380 years (1.1 vs. 0.7‰; Garcia et al. 2008; J. Petrology). Overall, δ18O values of Puu Oo lavas have increased with time. Early lavas (before mid-1986, when eruptions were episodic) have lower δ18O values (4.6-4.9‰) than subsequent lavas (5.0-5.6‰). The early and most subsequent lavas show evidence of oxygen exchange and/or crustal contamination with hydrothermally altered Kilauea lavas. This is indicated by the oxygen isotope disequilibrium between matrix and co-existing olivine, the relatively low δ18O values for these lavas (4.7-5.2‰) and the lack of correlation between δ18O values and other geochemical parameters. The highest O isotope ratio (5.6‰) is for a 2007 lava, which was erupted ~6 km uprift of the primary vent. The magma that fed this eruption was related to a new dike intrusion from Kilauea's upper rift zone and not from the shallow magma reservoir under the Puu Oo cone (Montgomery-Brown et al., 2010; J. Geophys. Res.). Thus, the higher δ18O value is probably representative of the magma feeding the Puu Oo eruption. It is identical to the highest values observed among Kilauea summit lavas (5.6‰; Garcia et al. 2008) suggesting that the volcano's primary magmas have δ18O values identical to those of MORB (5.4-5.8‰; Eiler, 2001; Rev. Mineral. Geochem.). The magnitude of oxygen isotope exchange experienced by lower δ18O Puu Oo lavas can be estimated assuming bulk assimilation between a parental magma (as reflected by the 2007 uprift sample) and a hydrothermally altered Kilauea rift zone lava (1.9‰; Garcia et al., 2008) as a contaminant. Puu Oo lavas erupted just before and after the 2007 uprift event have average δ18O values of 5.4‰, indicating 5% bulk contamination, whereas earlier lavas (1986-2006) with average δ18O values of 5.25‰, might have experienced 10% contamination. This contamination is likely to have occurred in the Puu Oo reservoir and did not have any obvious effect on other geochemical parameters. These results demonstrate the importance of oxygen exchange and/or contamination even during a voluminous (>4 km3), high effusion rate eruption like Puu Oo (0.10-0.25 km3/year; Poland et al., 2012, Nature Geosci.).

  5. Young Australians and alcohol: the acceptabllity of ready-to-drink (RTD) alcoholic beverages among 12-30-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Jan; Stevenson, Richard J; Gates, Peter; Dillon, Paul

    2007-11-01

    Concern has been expressed regarding the influence of the newer premixed alcohols, known as ready-to-drinks (RTDs), on adolescent alcohol use as a result of their sweet and milky flavours. Use of these flavours may reduce the natural barrier of the often strong and unpleasant flavour of alcohol to early experimentation and regular and heavy use. To determine the acceptability and alcohol detectability of a range of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages to young adolescents and young adults. A convenience sample of 350 participants was recruited, 70 in each of five age groups. Participants were grouped according to age into 12-13 years, 14-15 years, 16-17 years, younger adults of 18-23 years and older adults of 24-30 years, with even gender distribution in an experimental design comparing blind and labelled acceptability testing of a range of RTDs and their alcohol and soft drink components, beer, wine and a novel beverage. The acceptability of alcohol increased with age; however, chocolate 'Mudshake', and to a lesser extent watermelon 'Breezer', had acceptability scores more like their soft drink base than their alcohol component. There were no significant differences in the ability to detect the presence of alcohol in the RTDs across age or beverage types. Public policy makers and others concerned with preventing early initiation to alcohol use and binge drinking among adolescents should be aware that when using milk as a base for an RTD, particularly with an alcoholic base such as vodka, the drink may have high acceptance with young adolescents and equal palatability to milk, even though the presence of alcohol is not completely masked. Further research with a wider range of RTDs is required.

  6. [Social awareness related to the rights of the patient and knowledge of the possible actions in case of a breach of those under 30 years old].

    PubMed

    Kiełbasa, Sylwia; Niedzielski, Antoni

    2015-06-01

    Patients' rights are a special case of broadly defined human rights. They specify what patient can expect during treatment process and determine his status in contacts with the healthcare system. The aim of this study was to investigate the awareness of patients' rights and knowledge of possible proceedings in case of violation of them among people under 30 years of age. The research was conducted in February and March 2014 on a group of 269 respondents. Research tool was an author-made questionnaire. More than half of respondents (54.6%) had never heard about patients' rights. Among rights, that respondents know the best were: the right to health benefits (58.2%), the right to information (39.3%), the right to consent to health services (33.6%) and the right to the secrecy of information associated with the patient (32%). More than half of respondents declared that they would report a violation of their rights to appropriate institution - 49.2% of respondents indicated the Commissioner for Patients' Rights, 14.8% the National Health Fund, 11.5% Ministry of Health. The study showed also that the main source of acquiring knowledge about patients' rights for the study population is the internet. Analysis of the results showed that the awareness of the patients' rights and knowledge of possible proceedings for violation of them among the study population is low. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  7. Sunlight exposure and photoprotection behaviour of white Caucasian adolescents in the UK.

    PubMed

    Gould, M; Farrar, M D; Kift, R; Berry, J L; Mughal, M Z; Bundy, C; Vail, A; Webb, A R; Rhodes, L E

    2015-04-01

    Sun exposure has positive and negative effects on health, yet little is known about the sun exposure behaviour of UK adolescents, including those more prone or less prone to sunburn. To examine sun exposure behaviour of UK white Caucasian adolescents including time spent outdoors, holiday behaviour, use of sunscreen and clothing, with assessment for differences between sun-reactive skin type groups. White Caucasian adolescents (12-15 years) attending schools in Greater Manchester completed a two-page questionnaire to assess sun exposure and photoprotective behaviour. A total of 133 adolescents (median age 13.4 years; 39% skin type I/II, 61% skin type III/IV) completed the questionnaire. In summer, adolescents spent significantly longer outdoors at weekends (median 4 h/day, range 0.25-10) than on weekdays (2, 0.25-6; P < 0.0001). When at home in the UK during summer, 44% reported never wearing sunscreen compared to just 1% when on a sunny holiday. Sunscreen use was also greater (frequency/coverage) when on a sunny holiday than at home in the UK summer (P < 0.0001). Adolescents of skin types I/II (easy burning) spent significantly less time outdoors than skin types III/IV (easy tanning) on summer weekends (P < 0.001), summer weekdays (P < 0.05) and on a sunny holiday (P = 0.001). Furthermore, skin types I/II reported greater sunscreen use during summer in the UK and on sunny holiday (both P < 0.01), and wore clothing covering a greater skin area on a sunny holiday (P < 0.01) than skin types III/IV. There was no difference in sun exposure behaviour/protection between males and females. The greater sun-protective measures reported by adolescents of sun-reactive skin type group I/II than III/IV suggest those who burn more easily are aware of the greater need to protect their skin. However, use of sunscreen during the UK summer is low and may need more effective promotion in adolescents. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  8. Alterations of the USP26 gene in Caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Stouffs, Katrien; Lissens, Willy; Tournaye, Herman; Van Steirteghem, André; Liebaers, Inge

    2006-12-01

    The Ubiquitin Specific Protease 26 gene is a testis-specific gene that is located on the X chromosome. Sequence variants of this gene were previously reported in men with azoospermia caused by defects at the level of spermatogenesis. Especially a cluster of three changes (c.370_371insACA, c.494T>C and c.1423C>T) was frequently observed. To further define the role of this cluster of sequence variants in the USP26 gene, we have now analysed 202 control samples and 146 patients of Caucasian origin with cryptozoospermia or oligozoospermia. The detection method was based on a restriction reaction, by which the change c.494T>C can be detected. In none of the patients, the change c.494T>C was observed. Only in one man with normal spermatogenesis this sequence variant was detected. Sequencing can confirm the presence of the three changes of the USP26 gene. These data indicate that the cluster of changes is not restricted to men with severe testicular dysfunction.

  9. In vitro permeation of platinum and rhodium through Caucasian skin.

    PubMed

    Franken, A; Eloff, F C; Du Plessis, J; Badenhorst, C J; Jordaan, A; Du Plessis, J L

    2014-12-01

    During platinum group metals (PGMs) refining the possibility exists for dermal exposure to PGM salts. The dermal route has been questioned as an alternative route of exposure that could contribute to employee sensitisation, even though literature has been focused on respiratory exposure. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro permeation of platinum and rhodium through intact Caucasian skin. A donor solution of 0.3mg/ml of metal, K2PtCl4 and RhCl3 respectively, was applied to the vertical Franz diffusion cells with full thickness abdominal skin. The receptor solution was removed at various intervals during the 24h experiment, and analysed with high resolution ICP-MS. Skin was digested and analysed by ICP-OES. Results indicated cumulative permeation with prolonged exposure, with a significantly higher mass of platinum permeating after 24h when compared to rhodium. The mass of platinum retained inside the skin and the flux of platinum across the skin was significantly higher than that of rhodium. Permeated and skin retained platinum and rhodium may therefore contribute to sensitisation and indicates a health risk associated with dermal exposure in the workplace.

  10. Standardization of Malaysian adult female nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih Fang; Abdullah, Mohd Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin; Lutfi Shuaib, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on creating a standardized nasal cavity model of adult Malaysian females. The methodology implemented in this research is a new approach compared to other methods used by previous researchers. This study involves 26 females who represent the test subjects for this preliminary study. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was carried out to better understand the characteristics of the standardized model and to compare it to the available standardized Caucasian model. This comparison includes cross-sectional areas for both half-models as well as velocity contours along the nasal cavities. The Malaysian female standardized model is larger in cross-sectional area compared to the standardized Caucasian model thus leading to lower average velocity magnitudes. The standardized model was further evaluated with four more Malaysian female test subjects based on its cross-sectional areas and average velocity magnitudes along the nasal cavities. This evaluation shows that the generated model represents an averaged and standardized model of adult Malaysian females.

  11. Standardization of Malaysian Adult Female Nasal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Mohd. Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin; Lutfi Shuaib, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on creating a standardized nasal cavity model of adult Malaysian females. The methodology implemented in this research is a new approach compared to other methods used by previous researchers. This study involves 26 females who represent the test subjects for this preliminary study. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was carried out to better understand the characteristics of the standardized model and to compare it to the available standardized Caucasian model. This comparison includes cross-sectional areas for both half-models as well as velocity contours along the nasal cavities. The Malaysian female standardized model is larger in cross-sectional area compared to the standardized Caucasian model thus leading to lower average velocity magnitudes. The standardized model was further evaluated with four more Malaysian female test subjects based on its cross-sectional areas and average velocity magnitudes along the nasal cavities. This evaluation shows that the generated model represents an averaged and standardized model of adult Malaysian females. PMID:23840279

  12. Similarities and Differences in Chinese and Caucasian Adults' Use of Facial Cues for Trustworthiness Judgments

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fen; Wu, Dingcheng; Toriyama, Rie; Ma, Fengling; Itakura, Shoji; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    Background All cultural groups in the world place paramount value on interpersonal trust. Existing research suggests that although accurate judgments of another's trustworthiness require extensive interactions with the person, we often make trustworthiness judgments based on facial cues on the first encounter. However, little is known about what facial cues are used for such judgments and what the bases are on which individuals make their trustworthiness judgments. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that individuals may use facial attractiveness cues as a “shortcut” for judging another's trustworthiness due to the lack of other more informative and in-depth information about trustworthiness. Using data-driven statistical models of 3D Caucasian faces, we compared facial cues used for judging the trustworthiness of Caucasian faces by Caucasian participants who were highly experienced with Caucasian faces, and the facial cues used by Chinese participants who were unfamiliar with Caucasian faces. We found that Chinese and Caucasian participants used similar facial cues to judge trustworthiness. Also, both Chinese and Caucasian participants used almost identical facial cues for judging trustworthiness and attractiveness. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that without opportunities to interact with another person extensively, we use the less racially specific and more universal attractiveness cues as a “shortcut” for trustworthiness judgments. PMID:22514680

  13. Arterial stiffness profiles: investigating various sections of the arterial tree of African and Caucasian people.

    PubMed

    Schutte, Aletta E; Huisman, Hugo W; Schutte, Rudolph; Van Rooyen, Johannes M; Malan, Leoné; Malan, Nicolaas T; Reimann, Manja

    2011-01-01

    In Africans, arterial stiffness progression seems more pronounced compared to Caucasians. We compared the arterial stiffness profiles of different age groups and focused on muscular arteries and two more central arterial segments in African and Caucasian people from South Africa. In African (N = 374) and Caucasian (N = 376) participants (20-70 years), we measured carotid-radial (C-R) and carotid-dorsalis pedis (C-DP) pulse wave velocity (PWV) and aortic characteristic impedance (Zao). Major findings were that normotensive and high-normal/hypertensive (HT) Caucasians indicated increased trends of C-R PWV with aging (P = .029 and P = .067), not seen in the African groups (P = .122 and P = .526). Both ethnic groups showed significant increases of C-DP PWV and Zao with aging. High-normal/hypertensive Africans had significantly stiffer arteries than hypertensive Caucasians for almost all age groups, and for all stiffness measures. African C-R PWV correlated significantly with blood pressure (BP), but not with age. Opposite results were observed for Caucasians. In conclusion, the stiffness of muscular arteries is already elevated in young Africans, in both those with normal or elevated BP. This is possibly due to an earlier deterioration during childhood, or perhaps already present from birth. Also, in Caucasians stiffness seems more age-related, while in Africans it seems to be more pressure-related.

  14. Similarities and differences in Chinese and Caucasian adults' use of facial cues for trustworthiness judgments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fen; Wu, Dingcheng; Toriyama, Rie; Ma, Fengling; Itakura, Shoji; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    All cultural groups in the world place paramount value on interpersonal trust. Existing research suggests that although accurate judgments of another's trustworthiness require extensive interactions with the person, we often make trustworthiness judgments based on facial cues on the first encounter. However, little is known about what facial cues are used for such judgments and what the bases are on which individuals make their trustworthiness judgments. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that individuals may use facial attractiveness cues as a "shortcut" for judging another's trustworthiness due to the lack of other more informative and in-depth information about trustworthiness. Using data-driven statistical models of 3D Caucasian faces, we compared facial cues used for judging the trustworthiness of Caucasian faces by Caucasian participants who were highly experienced with Caucasian faces, and the facial cues used by Chinese participants who were unfamiliar with Caucasian faces. We found that Chinese and Caucasian participants used similar facial cues to judge trustworthiness. Also, both Chinese and Caucasian participants used almost identical facial cues for judging trustworthiness and attractiveness. The results suggest that without opportunities to interact with another person extensively, we use the less racially specific and more universal attractiveness cues as a "shortcut" for trustworthiness judgments.

  15. Ethnic Differences in Mathematics Teaching Styles: Chinese-American and Caucasian-American Mother-Father-Daughter Triads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.

    Chinese-American girls perform as well as Chinese-American boys at higher levels of mathematics. Caucasian-American girls perform significantly less well than Caucasian-American boys. This study, designed to examine factors involved in this differential, contrasts 25 first generation Chinese-American mother-father pairs and 27 Caucasian-American…

  16. Efficacy of brachytherapy for prostate cancer in African Americans compared with Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Barrett, William L; Kassing, William M; Shirazi, Reza

    2004-01-01

    To compare the biochemical response to prostate brachytherapy between African Americans and Caucasians in a consecutive series of patients treated at a single institution. Between July 1995 and October 2001, 173 patients were treated with permanent (125)I seed implantation alone for presumed localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Twelve patients were African American and their biochemical response to treatment was compared with the 161 Caucasian patients. The patients were evaluated for biochemical recurrence according to the ASTRO consensus statement and for achieving and maintaining PSA nadirs of < or = 1.0, < or = 0.5, and < or = 0.2. Median pretreatment PSA level was 8 for the African American group and 6 for the Caucasian group. Median Gleason score for each group was 6 and no patients had palpable extraprostatic disease at the time of treatment. None of the African American patients have experienced biochemical recurrence compared with 7.5% of the Caucasian patients (p=0.34). The percentage of African American patients achieving and maintaining a PSA level of < or = 1.0 was 83% compared with 89% for the Caucasian patients (p=0.61). PSA nadir of < or = 0.5 was achieved in 75% of the African American patients and 81% of the Caucasian patients (p=0.52) and 50% of the African American patients experienced PSA levels of < or = 0.2 compared with 59% of the Caucasian patients (p=0.88). African American patients with prostate cancer have in general been reported to have worse prognosis compared with Caucasians. This series suggests similar outcome between African American and Caucasian patients treated with brachytherapy for prostate cancer.

  17. Differences in esophageal cancer characteristics and survival between Chinese and Caucasian patients in the SEER database

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Min-Qiang; Li, Yue-Ping; Wu, San-Gang; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Lin, Huan-Xin; Zhang, Shi-Yang; He, Zhen-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background To compare the clinicopathologic characteristics and survival of Chinese and Caucasian esophageal cancer (EC) patients residing in the US, using a population-based national registry (Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results [SEER]) database. Methods Patients with EC were identified from the SEER program from 1988 to 2012. Kaplan–Meier survival methods and Cox proportional hazards regression were performed. Results A total of 479 Chinese and 35,748 Caucasian EC patients were identified. Compared with Caucasian patients, the Chinese patients had a later year of diagnosis, remained married after EC was diagnosed, had esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) more frequently, had tumors located in the upper-third and middle-third of the esophagus more frequently, and fewer patients presented with poorly/undifferentiated EC and underwent cancer-directed surgery. In Chinese patients, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinomas (EACs) increased from 1988 to 2012 (P=0.054), and the majority of EAC patients had tumors located in the lower thoracic esophagus. The overall survival (OS) was not significantly different between Chinese and Caucasian patients (P=0.767). However, Chinese patients with ESCC had a significantly better OS when compared to their Caucasian counterparts, whereas there was no significant difference in the OS between Chinese and Caucasian patients with EAC. Conclusion The presenting demographic features, tumor characteristics, and outcomes of EC patients differed between Chinese and Caucasian patients residing in the US. Chinese patients diagnosed with EAC tended to share similar clinical features with their Caucasian counterparts, and the Chinese patients with ESCC had better OS than their Caucasian counterparts. PMID:27799791

  18. High prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium among female sex workers in Honduras: implications for the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Johnston, L G; Paz-Bailey, G; Morales-Miranda, S; Morgan, M; Alvarez, B; Hickman, L; Monterroso, E

    2012-01-01

    This study describes HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STI) and risk factors associated with Mycoplasma genitalium among female sex workers (FSWs) in four cities in Honduras. In 2006, 795 FSWs from Tegucigalpa, San Pedro Sula, La Ceiba and Comayagua were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and tested for HIV prevalence and STI. HIV prevalence ranged from no infections in Comayagua to 5.4% in Tegucigalpa. With the exception of Comayagua, more than 20% of FSWs were infected with M. genitalium. M. genitalium in the aggregated cities was associated with HIV positivity, being aged ≤30 years old, drinking alcohol more than once weekly and always using condoms with regular clients in the past month. In comparison with a 2001 surveillance study we found lower rates of HIV infection. Interventions for HIV control and prevention among FSWs, including promotion of condom use, are needed in Honduras.

  19. [The voice of women subjected to female genital mutilation in the Region of Murcia (Spain)].

    PubMed

    Ballesteros Meseguer, Carmen; Almansa Martínez, Pilar; Pastor Bravo, María del Mar; Jiménez Ruiz, Ismael

    2014-01-01

    To explore the perceptions of a group of women who underwent female genital mutilation on the impact of this practice on their sexual and reproductive health. We performed a phenomenological qualitative study in a sample of 9 sub-Saharan Africa women, whose mean age was 30 years old and who had lived in Spain for 1 to 14 years. These women underwent genital mutilation in their countries of origin. Data was collected using a socio-demographic survey and an in-depth, structured personal interview. Subsequently, we performed a thematic discourse analysis. The discourses were grouped into four categories related to participants' perceptions of female genital mutilation. These categories were intimate relationships, pregnancy, childbirth, and social impact. The practice of female genital mutilation is maintained due to social and family pressure, transmitted from generation to generation and silenced by women themselves. This practice affects their sexual and reproductive health, as demonstrated by anorgasmia and dyspareunia. The women were satisfied with the healthcare received during pregnancy and childbirth. Nevertheless, most of them were not satisfied with family planning. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Intensity of Oxidative Stress in Mongoloid and Caucasian Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kolesnikova, L I; Vlasov, B Ya; Kolesnikov, S I; Darenskaya, M A; Grebenkina, L A; Semenova, N V; Vanteeva, O A

    2016-10-01

    Specific features of LPO were studied in Mongoloid and Caucasian patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The intensity of LPO in Mongoloid patients was lower than in Caucasians: the level of primary and intermediate products was by lower 1.53 and 1.83 times, while total antioxidant activity was elevated by 1.44 times, which was also supported by oxidative stress coefficient (1.35 in Mongoloids and 2.32 in Caucasians). These differences suggest that differentiated approach is required for the treatment of these patients.

  1. [Genetic and morphological variation in a partially isolated population of Caucasian shrew sorex Satunini (Mammalia)].

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, O O; Sychova, V B

    2011-09-01

    Morphological and genetic variation at microsatellite loci of Caucasian shrew Sorex satunini Ogn. is examined and compared with that of the common shrew S. araneus L. Genetic distance at microsatellite loci between the common shrew and Caucasian shrew proved to be threefold higher than between chromosome races of the common shrew. The Caucasian shrew manifested low polymorphism in studies of both microsatellites and morphometric mandibular traits. The heterozygote deficit was also typical. These properties may be a consequence of partial isolation of the population and gene drift.

  2. Pigmentation and Vitamin D Metabolism in Caucasians: Low Vitamin D Serum Levels in Fair Skin Types in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Daniel; Lens, Marko; Swaminathan, Ramasamyiyer; Spector, Tim D.; Bataille, Veronique

    2009-01-01

    Background Vitamin D may play a protective role in many diseases. Public health messages are advocating sun avoidance to reduce skin cancer risk but the potential deleterious effects of these recommendations for vitamin D metabolism have been poorly investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the association between 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D), skin type and ultraviolet exposure in 1414 Caucasian females in the UK. Mean age of the cohort was 47 years (18–79) and mean 25(OH)D levels were 77 nmol/L (6–289). 25(OH)D levels were strongly associated with season of sampling with higher levels in the spring and summer months (p<0.0001). Light skin types (skin type 1 and 2) have lower levels of 25(OH)D (mean 71 nmol/L) compared to darker skin types (skin type 3 and 4) (mean 82 nmol/L) after adjusting for multiple confounders (p<0.0001). The trend for increasing risk of low vitamin D with fairer skin types was highly significant despite adjustment for all confounders (p = 0.001). Conclusions/Significance Contrary to previous studies across different ethnic backgrounds, this study within Caucasian UK females shows that fair skin types have lower levels of 25(OH)D compared to darker skin types with potential detrimental health effects. Public health campaigns advocating sun avoidance in fair skinned individuals may need to be revised in view of their risk of vitamin D deficiency. PMID:19649299

  3. Comparison of the body mass index to other methods of body fat evaluation in ethnic Japanese and Caucasian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Sampei, M A; Novo, N F; Juliano, Y; Sigulem, D M

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the body mass index (BMI) and its relationship with other methods of body fat evaluation in pre- and post-menarcheal, Japanese and Caucasian female adolescents, using two different cut-off points for obesity: 28% and 30%. A cross-sectional study with incomplete sampling, using the subject as the evaluation unit. A total of 436 Japanese and Caucasian female adolescents in two age groups: 10-11 (pre-menarcheal adolescent); and 16-17 (post-menarcheal adolescents). For the BMI the cut-off point for thinness was set at the 5th percentile of the BMI distribution of the NCHS reference population and the cut-off point for overweight and obesity was set at the 85th percentile. Body composition was assessed using foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), near-infrared interactance (NIR) and Slaughter skinfold equations (SKI). The statistical comparison of the methods was performed using the kappa agreement test and the McNemar disagreement test. In the 10- and 11-y-old girls, the BMI was considerably and significantly correlated with the other methods. The major agreements were: in Japanese adolescents BMI x NIR=82.3% (cut-off point of 28%), BMI x BIA=85.7% (cut-off point of 30%); in Caucasian adolescents BMI x NIR=80.7% (cut-off point of 28%), BMI x BIA=87.4% (cut-off point of 30%). The disagreement above the diagonal between BMI x NIR was higher within the two groups for both the cut-off points, revealing that the girls identified as obese by the BMI were considered eutrophic by NIR. In the 16- and 17-y-old adolescents, the BMI demonstrated low or no correlation with the other methods. Furthermore, it presented disagreements below the diagonal, revealing that the BMI identified fewer obese subjects than the other methods. Among the 10- and 11-y-olds, the BMI presented a good correlation with the other methods, independent of ethnicity. The BMI can therefore be used in place of these methods, although it may underestimate

  4. Genetic and environmental determinants on bone loss in postmenopausal Caucasian women: a 14-year longitudinal twin study.

    PubMed

    Zhai, G; Andrew, T; Kato, B S; Blake, G M; Spector, T D

    2009-06-01

    This longitudinal twin study documented that genetic factors explain 44-56% of the between-individual variance in bone loss at femoral neck, lumbar spine, and forearm in postmenopausal Caucasian women, providing a rationale for identifying the specific genes involved. Although there is a significant genetic effect on peak BMD, until recently, no substantive studies on heritability of bone loss in human were available. The aim of the study was to estimate the heritability of the bone loss at multiple sites in postmenopausal Caucasian women. Postmenopausal female monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins aged 40 or above at baseline were selected from the TwinsUK registry and followed up for an average of 8 years (range 5-14 years). All twins were noncurrent hormone replacement therapy users and not on any osteoporosis treatment. They had dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of their hip, lumbar spine, and forearm several times (range 2-9) during the follow-up period. Individual bone losses at femoral neck, lumbar spine, and forearm were estimated by linear regression modeling. Structural equation modeling was utilized to estimate the heritability of the bone loss. A total of 712 postmenopausal Caucasian female twins (152 MZ and 204 DZ pairs) were included. MZ twins were older and had slightly lower BMD at all sites than DZ twins. DZ twins had slightly higher bone loss at lumbar spine, but similar at femoral neck and forearm compared to MZ twins. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for the bone loss at all sites were significantly higher in MZ than DZ twin pairs (p = 0.0045, 0.0003, and 0.0007 for femoral neck, lumbar spine, and forearm, respectively), indicating a significant genetic influence on bone loss at these sites. After adjustment for age at baseline and weight change during the follow-up, the heritability estimate was 47% (95% CI 27-63%) for bone loss at femoral neck, 44% (95% CI 27-58%) for lumbar spine, and 56% (95% CI 44-65%) for forearm

  5. Dental age assessment of Maltese children and adolescents. Development of a reference dataset and comparison with a United Kingdom Caucasian reference dataset.

    PubMed

    Elshehawi, Waleed; Alsaffar, Hani; Roberts, Graham; Lucas, Victoria; McDonald, Fraser; Camilleri, Simon

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a Reference Data Set for Dental Age Assessment of the Maltese population and compare the mean Age of Attainment to a UK Caucasian Reference Data Set. The Maltese Reference Data Set was developed from 1593 Dental Panoramic Tomograms of patients aged between 4 and 26 years, taken from the radiographic archives of the Dental Department, Mater Dei Hospital, Malta. Tooth Development Stages were recorded for all 16 maxillary and mandibular permanent teeth on the left side and both permanent third molars on the right, according to Demirjian's staging method. Summary and percentile data were calculated for each Tooth Development Stage, including the mean Age of Attainment. These means were used to estimate the Dental Age of each subject in the study sample using the simple unweighted average method. The estimated Dental Age was compared to the gold standard of the Chronological Age. Comparison of the Maltese and UK Caucasian Reference Data Set was by a series of t-tests, carried out for each paired Tooth Development Stage by gender. The mean Age of Attainment was slightly higher for the Maltese than the UK Caucasians in both males and females. However there was no statistically significant difference between the Chronological Age and Dental Age for either sex.

  6. Immunogenetic Risk and Protective Factors for Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Mamyrova, Gulnara; O’Hanlon, Terrance P.; Monroe, Jason B.; Carrick, Danielle Mercatante; Malley, James D.; Adams, Sharon; Reed, Ann M.; Shamim, Ejaz A.; James‐Newton, Laura; Miller, Frederick W.; Rider, Lisa G.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To define the relative importance of MHC Class II alleles and peptide binding motifs as risk and protective factors for juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) and to compare these to HLA associations in adult DM. Methods DRB1 and DQA1 typing was performed in 142 Caucasian patients with juvenile DM, and compared to HLA typing from 193 patients with adult DM and 797 race‐matched controls. Random Forests classification and multiple logistic regression assessed the relative importance of the HLA associations. Results The HLA DRB1*0301 allele was a primary risk factor (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.9), while DQA1*0301 (OR 2.8), DQA1*0501 (OR 2.1), and homozygosity of DQA1*0501 (OR 3.2) were additional risk factors for juvenile DM. These risk factors were not present in adult DM without defined autoantibodies. DQA1 *0201 (OR 0.37), *0101 (OR 0.38), and *0102 (OR 0.51) were identified as novel protective factors for juvenile DM, the latter two being shared with adult DM. The peptide binding motif DRB1 9EYSTS13 was a risk factor and DQA1 motifs F25, S26 and 45(V/A) W (R/K)47 were protective. Random Forests classification analysis revealed DRB1*0301 (Relative Importance [RI] 100%) had higher relative importance than DQA1*0301 (RI 57%), DQA1*0501 (RI 42%), or the peptide binding motifs among risk factors for juvenile DM. In a logistic regression model, DRB1*0301 and DQA*0201 were the strongest risk and protective factors, respectively, for juvenile DM. Conclusion DRB1*0301 has higher relative importance than DQA1*0501 as a risk factor for juvenile DM. DQA1*0301 has been identified as a new HLA risk factor for juvenile DM. Three DQA1 alleles are newly identified protective factors for juvenile DM. PMID:17133612

  7. Natural Uranium Tissue Content of Three Caucasian Males.

    PubMed

    Kathren, Ronald L; Tolmachev, Sergei Y

    2015-09-01

    Uranium content and concentrations were measured in the tissues of three Caucasian male whole body donors to the U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries with no known intake other than from natural environmental sources. Average total body uranium content in the three cases was 81.3 ± 22.3 μg, of which 37.2 ± 2.1 μg (46%) was in the skeleton. The skeleton had a mean concentration of 3.79 ± 0.45 μg U kg(-1) wet weight and 11.72 ± 1.49 μg U kg(-1) ash. Distribution was in bone volume and not predominately on bone surfaces. Soft tissue concentrations ranged over about an order of magnitude, averaging about 0.5 μg kg wet weight for all tissues except the thoracic lymph nodes, which averaged 32.3 times the mean for soft tissue of the three cases. Observed thyroid tissue concentrations were about an order of magnitude greater than the average soft tissue concentration in two of the three background cases, suggestive of a possible long-term depot in this organ. Kidney content of uranium averaged 0.38 ± 0.21 μg for the three cases, an order of magnitude lower than the 7 μg recommended for Reference Man. The lower content and concentration in the kidney do not support a significant long-term depot for uranium in that organ. Assuming equilibrium between intake and excretion, the tissue data suggest a transfer coefficient from blood to skeleton of 0.14 with a residence half-life in the skeleton of 4,950 d (13.56 y), significantly greater than the 1,500 d (4.1 y) half-time proposed by ICRP.

  8. Female circumcision.

    PubMed

    Abu Daia, J M

    2000-10-01

    It is uncertain when female circumcision was first practiced, but it certainly preceded the founding of both Christianity and Islam. A review of past and current historical, popular and professional literature was undertaken, and 4 types of female circumcision were identified. Typically female circumcision is performed by a local village practitioner, lay person or by untrained midwives. Female genital mutilation is not accepted by any religious or medical opinion, and is a violation of human rights against helpless individuals who are unable to provide informed consent and who must therefore be protected through education and legislation. Complications of female circumcision can present after many years. Any medical practitioner (either for adult or pediatric) can be confronted with this issue of female circumcision, even in countries where this custom is not present, thus mandating the understanding of this complex issue.

  9. Cultural influences on stigmatization of problem gambling: East Asian and Caucasian canadians.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Jasmin; Horch, Jenny D; Hodgins, David C

    2011-12-01

    Cultural influences on problem gambling stigma were examined using a between subject vignette study design. Students of East Asian (n = 64) and Caucasian (n = 50) ancestry recruited from a Canadian University rated a vignette describing either an East Asian problem gambler or a Caucasian problem gambler on a measure of attitudinal social distance. In accordance with the hypothesis, a factorial ANOVA revealed that East Asian Canadians stigmatize problem gambling more than Caucasian Canadians. Moreover, East Asian participants stigmatized the East Asian individual described in the vignette more than they did the Caucasian individual. Individuals with gambling problems were generally not perceived as being dangerous. However, participants who perceived problem gambling as a dangerous condition wanted more social distance than those who did not perceive individuals with a gambling problem as dangerous.

  10. Are African-American nuclear workers at lower mortality risk than Caucasians?

    PubMed

    Wartenberg, D; Brown, S; Mohr, S; Cragle, D; Friedlander, B

    2001-10-01

    This study investigated disparities in worker mortality across race at the Savannah River site (SRS) nuclear facility in Aiken, South Carolina. Standardized mortality ratios were calculated stratified by race (Caucasian, African-American) and gender for specific causes of death, and by race, gender, duration of employment, and follow-up for overall mortality. Race-specific standardized mortality ratios for African-American male workers generally were lower than those for Caucasian male workers, although both groups showed strong healthy worker effects. Nevertheless, African-American male workers generally had higher absolute mortality rates. Understanding why SRS African-American male workers are substantially healthier than their reference population as compared with Caucasian male workers but are less healthy in absolute terms than the SRS Caucasian male workers may provide clues for prevention or intervention. Further, the standardized mortality ratios at the SRS were lower than at the Hanford and Oak Ridge nuclear facilities, which warrants investigation.

  11. Racial influences associated with weight-related beliefs in African American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Malpede, Christie Z; Greene, Lori E; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Jefferson, Wendy K; Shewchuk, Richard M; Baskin, Monica L; Ard, Jamy D

    2007-01-01

    This study examines African American and Caucasian women's perception of how race affects their weight. Structured focus groups that used the nominal group technique (NGT) were conducted with four groups of African American women (n = 30) and four groups of Caucasian women (n = 30). Participants generated responses to the question, "How does being a Black/White woman affect your weight?" The African American groups generated 48 unique ideas, including unhealthy food preparation, poor food selection habits, lack of exercise, stress, increased risk of chronic diseases, and associated medical costs; the Caucasian groups produced 32 responses, including distorted expectations of perfect body type, success depended on thinness and beauty, social pressures, media, and men's preferences. Results suggest that the African American women focused on food choices and health consequences while the Caucasian women emphasized body size and aesthetics. The observed differences support a need for culturally specific interventions that promote good eating patterns and healthy body shapes.

  12. Differences between Caucasian and Hispanic undergraduates in emphasis on distributive, procedural, and interactional justice.

    PubMed

    Tata, J

    2000-08-01

    Most theories of justice focus on individual-level approaches; few examine the role of contextual factors such as culture. To fill this gap in the literature, this study examined the differences between Caucasian and Hispanic undergraduates (n = 120 and 58, respectively) in terms of their emphasis on distributive, procedural, and interactional justice. Analyses indicated that Hispanic students were more likely to use interactional justice than Caucasian respondents, but the groups did not differ in their likelihood of using distributive or procedural justice.

  13. Secondary structure estimation and properties analysis of stretched Asian and Caucasian hair.

    PubMed

    Zhou, A J; Liu, H L; Du, Z Q

    2015-02-01

    In this previous work, we investigated the secondary structure changes of stretched yak hairs by deconvolution, secondary derivation, and curve fitting and determined the number of bands and their positions in order to resolve the protein spectrum of Raman spectroscopy. The secondary structure estimation and properties analysis of stretched Asian and Caucasian hair were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, tensile curves, and measurement of density. The hairs were stretched, dried, and baked at ratios 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%. The analysis of the amide I band indicated that the transformation from α-helix to β-pleated structure occurred during the stretching process, which could be verified from the tensile analysis. The cysteine oxide in S-O vibration area exhibited that stretching led to the breakage of the disulfide bonds. When the stretching ratio of Caucasian hair was more than a certain ratio, the fiber macromolecular structure was destroyed because Caucasian hair had finer diameter and less medulla than Asian hair. The β turn was easier to retract compared with other conformations, resulted in the content increase. The density measurements revealed that the structure of Caucasian hair was indeed more destroyed than that of Asian hair. The cuticles characterization indicated the length of scales was stretched longer and the thickness became thinner. Caucasian hair tended to collapse to form small fragments at the early stage of stretching. With the increase in stretching ratio, the scales of Caucasian hair lifted up, then flaked off and the scale interval increased accordingly. Asian hair was more easily peeled off than Caucasian hair cuticles with the increase in stretching ratio. The secondary structure of Caucasian hair was destroyed more easily than that of Asian hair. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Perceived discrimination, coping, and quality of life for African-American and Caucasian persons with cancer.

    PubMed

    Merluzzi, Thomas V; Philip, Errol J; Zhang, Zhiyong; Sullivan, Courtney

    2015-07-01

    In racial disparities research, perceived discrimination is a proposed risk factor for unfavorable health outcomes. In a proposed "threshold-constraint" theory, discrimination intensity may exceed a threshold and require coping strategies, but social constraint limits coping options for African Americans, who may react to perceived racial discrimination with disengagement, because active strategies are not viable under this social constraint. Caucasian Americans may experience less discrimination and lower social constraint, and may use more active coping strategies. There were 213 African Americans and 121 Caucasian Americans with cancer who participated by completing measures of mistreatment, coping, and quality of life. African Americans reported more mistreatment than Caucasian Americans (p < 001) and attributed mistreatment more to race or ethnicity (p < .001). In the mistreatment-quality of life relationship, disengagement was a significant mediator for Caucasians (B = -.39; CI .13-.83) and African Americans (B = -.20; CI .07-.43). Agentic coping was a significant mediator only for Caucasians (B = -.48; CI .18-.81). Discrimination may exceed threshold more often for African Americans than for Caucasians and social constraint may exert greater limits for African Americans. Results suggest that perceived discrimination affects quality of life for African Americans with cancer because their coping options to counter mistreatment, which is racially based, are limited. This process may also affect treatment, recovery, and survivorship.

  15. Are Dimensions of Parenting Differentially Linked to Substance Use Across Caucasian and Asian American College Students?

    PubMed

    Luk, Jeremy W; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; King, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Parental warmth and autonomy granting are commonly thought of as protective factors against substance use among Caucasians. However, limited research has examined whether associations between parenting dimensions and substance use outcomes are the same or different among Asian Americans. A final analytic sample of 839 college students was used to test whether race (Caucasian vs. Asian American) moderated the relations between parenting dimensions and substance use outcomes across Caucasians and Asian Americans. We utilized the Parental Bonding Instrument (Parker, Tupling, & Brown, 1979) to measure maternal and paternal warmth, encouragement of behavioral freedom, and denial of psychological autonomy. Multivariate regression models controlling for covariates including age, gender, and paternal education indicated four significant parenting by race interactions on alcohol problems and/or marijuana use. Specifically, maternal warmth was inversely associated with both alcohol problems and marijuana use among Caucasians but not among Asian Americans. Both maternal and paternal denial of psychological autonomy were positively associated with alcohol problems among Caucasians but not among Asian Americans. Consistent with emerging cross-cultural research, the associations between parenting dimensions and substance use behaviors observed in Caucasian populations may not be readily generalized to Asian Americans. These findings highlight the importance of considering different parenting dimensions in understanding substance use etiology among Asian Americans. Future research should use longitudinal data to replicate these findings across development and seek to identify other parenting dimensions that may be more relevant for Asian American youth.

  16. Perceived Discrimination, Coping, and Quality of Life for African-American and Caucasian Persons with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Merluzzi, Thomas V.; Philip, Errol J.; Zhang, Zhiyong; Sullivan, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    In racial disparities research, perceived discrimination is a proposed risk factor for unfavorable health outcomes. In a proposed “threshold-constraint” theory, discrimination intensity may exceed a threshold and require coping strategies, but social constraint limits coping options for African Americans, who may react to perceived racial discrimination with disengagement, because active strategies are not viable under this social constraint. Caucasian Americans may experience less discrimination and lower social constraint, and thus may use more active coping strategies. 213 African Americans and 121 Caucasian Americans with cancer participated by completing measures of mistreatment, coping, and quality of life. African Americans reported more mistreatment than Caucasian Americans (p< 001) and attributed mistreatment more to race/ethnicity (p < .001). In the mistreatment-quality of life relationship, disengagement was a significant mediator for Caucasians (B = −.39;CI .13–.83) and African Americans (B = −.20;CI .07–.43). Agentic coping was a significant mediator only for Caucasians (B = −.48;CI .18–.81). Discrimination may exceed threshold more often for African Americans than for Caucasians and social constraint may exert greater limits for African Americans. Results suggest that perceived discrimination affects quality of life for African Americans with cancer because their coping options to counter mistreatment, which is racially based, are limited. This process may also affect treatment, recovery, and survivorship. PMID:25090144

  17. Multimodal imaging and diagnosis of myopic choroidal neovascularization in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Paolo; Massacesi, Amedeo; Moschini, Stefania; Setaccioli, Marco; Bulone, Ennio; Tremolada, Gemma; Ciaccia, Stefano; Mantovani, Elena; Morale, Daniela; Bergamini, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) by fluorescein angiography (FA), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near-infrared (NIR) reflectance, and autofluorescence (AF). Methods This retrospective study included 65 eyes of 62 Caucasian patients with a mean age of 66.72 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 63–70 years) and a mean refraction of −9.72 diopters (95% CI −8.74 to −10.70 diopters). Results Most of the mCNV cases were foveal-juxtafoveal (60/65, 92.3%), with thickening of the corresponding retina (62/65, 95.3%) and leakage on FA (44/65, 67.6%). No retinal fluid was detectable in 32 (49.2%) eyes and there was no hemorrhage in 25 (38.4%) eyes. Papillary chorioretinal atrophy was evident in 58 (89.2%), a shadowing effect in 48 (73.8%), and an epiretinal membrane in 38 (58.4%) eyes. If an area of macular chorioretinal atrophy was present, mCNV frequently developed adjacent to it and was hyperfluorescent rather than with leakage (P⩽0.001). In eyes with edema or hemorrhage, hyper-reflective foci were more frequent (P⩽0.005). NIR and AF features were indeterminable in 19 (29.2%) and 27 (41.5%) eyes, respectively. The predominant feature was black or grayish on NIR (34/65, 52.3%) and patchy (hypo- and hyperfluorescence was observed) on AF (25/65, 38.4%). FA and SD-OCT correctly detected mCNV in 49 (75.3%) and 48 (73.8%) eyes, respectively, whereas NIR and AF exhibited limited diagnostic sensitivity. Doubtful diagnosis was associated with hyperfluorescent mCNV (P⩽0.001), absence of retinal fluid and epiretinal membrane (P⩽0.05), and presence of macular chorioretinal atrophy (P⩽0.01). Conclusion Tomographic, angiographic, AF, and NIR features of mCNV are described in this study. Combination of SD-OCT and FA is recommendable for diagnosis. PMID:27672306

  18. Perception of Caucasian and African faces in 5- to 9-month-old Caucasian infants: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Timeo, Susanna; Brigadoi, Sabrina; Farroni, Teresa

    2017-09-13

    Race is an important perceptual cue for face perception. In adults, other-race faces are elaborated differently and remembered less well than own-race faces. Moreover, they show a different pattern of activation at the neural level. Developmental studies demonstrated that, during the first year of life, infants start to show the same behavioral pattern as adults in race perception. However, little is known about where and how in the brain other-race perception is elaborated in this population. The present study is the first to investigate the development of different neural responses to faces of different race in infants using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Specifically, a group of 5-month-old and a group of 9-month-old Caucasian infants were assessed during passing-viewing of Caucasian and African faces. Results showed a greater activation for African than for Caucasian faces for both oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin. Moreover, results suggested a tendency for a progressive specialization between 5 and 9 months of age. This is the first fNIRS study investigating the neural correlates of race perception in Caucasian infants during the first year of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Histopathological evidence of Fabry disease in a female patient with left ventricular noncompaction.

    PubMed

    Martins, Elisabete; Pinho, Teresa; Carpenter, Stirling; Leite, Sérgio; Garcia, Raquel; Madureira, António; Oliveira, João Paulo

    2014-09-01

    Fabry disease is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the alpha-galactosidase gene. The most frequent cardiac presentation of Fabry disease is cardiomyopathy characterized by left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, usually concentric. Heart disease in affected females tends to be clinically recognized later than in males and cardiac complications are the most frequently reported cause of death in females with Fabry disease. There are few data regarding the association between Fabry disease and LV noncompaction. We report a case of a 30-year-old asymptomatic woman, heterozygous for a nonsense alpha-galactosidase gene mutation (p.R220X), who presented LV noncompaction on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, without LV wall hypertrophy. Histopathological examination of myocardial fragments showed marked deposition of glycosphingolipids in cardiomyocytes, confirming the diagnosis of Fabry cardiomyopathy. Based on this finding, the patient was proposed for enzyme replacement therapy. This case illustrates the role of endomyocardial biopsy in the clarification of doubtful or atypical findings related to cardiac Fabry disease, even in heterozygous women, and corroborates the contention that Fabry disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of LV hypertrabeculation/noncompaction.

  20. Pelvic floor muscle biometry and pelvic organ mobility in East Asian and Caucasian nulliparae.

    PubMed

    Cheung, R Y K; Shek, K L; Chan, S S C; Chung, T K H; Dietz, H P

    2015-05-01

    To compare the differences in levator ani muscle biometry and hiatal dimensions between pregnant nulliparous Caucasian and East Asian women. Offline analysis of three/four-dimensional ultrasound volume data obtained from two groups of pregnant nulliparous women, Caucasian and East Asian, was performed. Volume acquisition was performed in the late third trimester using the same method in both groups, in the context of two prospective observational studies with identical entry criteria. Pelvic organ descent and levator hiatal dimensions were assessed using the volumes acquired on Valsalva maneuver, and pubovisceral muscle thickness was measured from the volumes obtained on pelvic floor muscle contraction (PFMC). Datasets of 200 East Asian and 168 Caucasian women were analyzed. Compared with Caucasian women, East Asian women had a significantly lower body mass index. All indices of pelvic organ descent were significantly higher in the Caucasian group than in the East Asian group. The difference, expressed as a percentage, in levator hiatal area on both Valsalva maneuver and PFMC was markedly greater in Caucasian (32% vs. 19%; P < 0.001) than in East Asian (24% vs. 20%; P = 0.01) women. After controlling for potential confounders using multivariate regression analysis, racial origin remained the only significant factor associated with differences in pelvic organ descent and hiatal dimensions. The thickness and area of pubovisceral muscle were significantly higher in the East Asian group. Pregnant women of East Asian racial origin have a thicker pubovisceral muscle, smaller hiatus and less mobility of pelvic organs than do pregnant Caucasian women. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous and inhaled fluticasone furoate in healthy Caucasian and East Asian subjects

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Ann; Bal, Joanne; Cheesbrough, Anne; Hamilton, Melanie; Kempsford, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    AIM The aim of the study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of inhaled and intravenous (i.v.) fluticasone furoate (FF) in healthy Caucasian, Chinese, Japanese and Korean subjects. METHOD This was an open label, randomized, two way crossover study in healthy Caucasian, Chinese, Japanese and Korean subjects (n = 20 per group). Inhaled FF (200 μg for 7 days, then 800 μg for 7 days from a dry powder inhaler [DPI]) was administered in one treatment period and i.v.FF (250 μg infusion) in the other. FF PK and serum cortisol (inhaled 200 μg only) were compared between the ethnic groups using analysis of variance. P450 CYP3A4 activity and safety were also assessed. RESULTS Ethnic differences in i.v. FF PK were accounted for by body weight differences. CYP3A4 activity was similar across the groups. Higher FF systemic exposure was seen following inhaled dosing in Chinese, Japanese and Korean subjects compared with Caucasian subjects. Absolute bioavailability was greater (36%–55%) in all East Asian groups than for Caucasian subjects following inhaled FF 800 μg. Deconvolution analysis suggested inhaled FF resided in the lung of East Asian subjects longer than for Caucasians (time for 90% to be absorbed [t90]: 29.1–30.8 h vs. 21.4 h). In vitro simulation method predicted comparable delivered lung dose across ethnic groups. Serum cortisol weighted mean was similar between Caucasians and Chinese or Koreans, while in Japanese was on average 22% lower than in Caucasians. All FF treatments were safe and well tolerated. CONCLUSION Modestly higher (<50%) FF systemic exposure seen in East Asian subjects following inhaled dosing was not associated with a clinically significant effect on serum cortisol, suggesting that a clinical dose adjustment in East Asian subjects is not required. PMID:24152086

  2. Effects of advancing gestation and non-Caucasian race on ductus arteriosus gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Waleh, Nahid; Barrette, Anne Marie; Dagle, John M.; Momany, Allison; Jin, Chengshi; Hills, Nancy K.; Shelton, Elaine L.; Reese, Jeff; Clyman, Ronald I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify genes affected by advancing gestation and racial/ethnic origin in human ductus arteriosus (DA). Study design We collected three sets of DA tissue (n=93, n=89, n=91; total = 273 fetuses) from second trimester pregnancies. We examined four genes, with DNA polymorphisms that distribute along racial lines, to identify "Caucasian" and "Non-Caucasian" DA. We used RT-PCR to measure RNA expression of 48 candidate genes involved in functional closure of the DA, and used multivariable regression analyses to examine the relationships between advancing gestation, "Non-Caucasian" race, and gene expression. Results Mature gestation and Non-Caucasian race are significant predictors for identifying infants who will close their patent DA when treated with indomethacin. Advancing gestation consistently altered gene expression in pathways involved with oxygen-induced constriction (e.g., calcium-channels, potassium-channels, and endothelin signaling), contractile protein maturation, tissue remodeling, and prostaglandin and nitric oxide signaling in all three tissue sets. None of the pathways involved with oxygen-induced constriction appeared to be altered in "Non-Caucasian" DA. Two genes, SLCO2A1 and NOS3, (involved with prostaglandin reuptake/metabolism and nitric oxide production, respectively) were consistently decreased in "Non-Caucasian" DA. Conclusions Prostaglandins and nitric oxide are the most important vasodilators opposing DA closure. Indomethacin inhibits prostaglandin production, but not nitric oxide production. Because decreased SLCO2A1 and NOS3 expression can lead to increased prostaglandin and decreased nitric oxide concentrations, we speculate that prostaglandin-mediated vasodilation may play a more dominant role in maintaining the "Non-Caucasian" PDA, making it more likely to close when inhibited by indomethacin. PMID:26265282

  3. Absence of AVPR2 copy number variation in eunatremic and dysnatremic subjects in non-Hispanic Caucasian populations.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yi; Chen, Zhan; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; Orwoll, Eric; Cohen, David M

    2010-02-04

    Copy number variation (CNV) is increasingly recognized as a source of phenotypic variation among humans. We hypothesized that a CNV in the human arginine vasopressin receptor-2 gene (AVPR2) would be associated with serum sodium concentration based on the following lines of evidence: 1) the protein product of the AVPR2 gene is essential for renal water conservation; 2) mutations in the AVPR2 gene are associated with aberrant water balance in humans; 3) heritability of serum sodium concentration may be greater in females than in males; 4) the AVPR2 gene is X-linked; and 5) a common CNV spanning the AVPR2 gene was recently described in a non-Hispanic Caucasian population. We developed a highly reproducible assay for AVPR2 CNV. Among 279 subjects with measured serum sodium concentration in the Offspring Cohort of the Framingham Heart Study, no subjects exhibited CNV at the AVPR2 locus. Among 517 subjects in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS)-including 152 with hyponatremia and 183 with hypernatremia-no subjects with CNV at the AVPR2 locus were identified. CNV at the AVPR2 locus could not be independently confirmed, and CNV at the AVPR2 gene is unlikely to influence systemic water balance on a population-wide basis in non-Hispanic Caucasian subjects. A novel AVPR2 single nucleotide polymorphism affecting the reporter hybridization site gave rise to an artifactually low copy number signal (i.e., less than unity) in one male African American subject. Reanalysis of the original comparative genomic hybridization data revealed bona fide CNVs flanking-but not incorporating-the AVPR2 gene, consistent with our new genotyping data.

  4. Female Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  5. Female Condom

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staff The female condom is a birth control (contraceptive) device that acts as a barrier to keep ... more times a week, you've had previous contraceptive failure with vaginal barrier methods, or you're ...

  6. Assessing inflammatory bowel disease-associated antibodies in Caucasian and First Nations cohorts.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Charles Noah; El-Gabalawy, Hani; Sargent, Michael; Landers, Carol; Rawsthorne, Patricia; Elias, Brenda; Targan, Stephan R

    2011-05-01

    First Nation populations in Canada have a very low incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Based on typical infections in this population, it is plausible that the First Nations react differently to microbial antigens with a different antibody response pattern, which may shed some light as to why they experience a low rate of IBD. To compare the positivity rates of antibodies known to be associated with IBD in Canadian First Nations compared with a Canadian Caucasian population. Subjects with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis (UC), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (as an immune disease control) and healthy controls without a personal or family history of chronic immune diseases, were enrolled in a cohort study aimed to determine differences between First Nations and Caucasians with IBD or RA. Serum from a random sample of these subjects (n=50 for each of First Nations with RA, First Nations controls, Caucasians with RA, Caucasians with Crohn's disease, Caucasians with UC and Caucasians controls, and as many First Nations with either Crohn's disease or UC as could be enrolled) was analyzed in the laboratory for the following antibodies: perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA), and four Crohn's disease-associated antibodies including anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the outer membrane porin C of Escherichia coli, I2 - a fragment of bacterial DNA associated with Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the bacterial flagellin CBir-1. The rates of positive antibody responses and mean titres among positive results were compared. For pANCA, First Nations had a positivity rate of 55% in those with UC, 32% in healthy controls and 48% in those with RA. The pANCA positivity rate was 32% among Caucasians with RA. The rates of the Crohn's disease-associated antibodies for the First Nations and Caucasians were comparable. Among First Nations, up to one in four healthy controls were positive for any one of the Crohn's disease-associated antibodies. First Nations had

  7. Association of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in Caucasian children and adolescents with autism.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Suma; Brune, Camille W; Carter, C S; Leventhal, Bennett L; Lord, Catherine; Cook, Edwin H

    2007-04-24

    The oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) has been studied in autism because of the role of oxytocin (OT) in social cognition. Linkage has also been demonstrated to the region of OXTR in a large sample. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a haplotype constructed from them in OXTR have been associated with autism in the Chinese Han population. We tested whether these associations replicated in a Caucasian sample with strictly defined autistic disorder. We genotyped the two previously associated SNPs (rs2254298, rs53576) in 57 Caucasian autism trios. Probands met clinical, ADI-R, and ADOS criteria for autistic disorder. Significant association was detected at rs2254298 (p=0.03) but not rs53576. For rs2254298, overtransmission of the G allele to probands with autistic disorder was found which contrasts with the overtransmission of A previously reported in the Chinese Han sample. In both samples, G was more frequent than A. However, in our Caucasian autism trios and the CEU Caucasian HapMap samples the frequency of A was less than that reported in the Chinese Han and Chinese in Bejing HapMap samples. The haplotype test of association did not reveal excess transmission from parents to affected offspring. These findings provide support for association of OXTR with autism in a Caucasian population. Overtransmission of different alleles in different populations may be due to a different pattern of linkage disequilibrium between the marker rs2254298 and an as yet undetermined susceptibility variant in OXTR.

  8. Comparison of photodermatoses in African-Americans and Caucasians: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mio; Henderson, Marsha; Jacobsen, Gordon; Lim, Henry W

    2014-10-01

    Only a few studies have compared frequencies of photodermatoses among different races and skin types. This is an extension of a study performed by Kerr and Lim and evaluates the frequency of photodermatoses in African-Americans compared with Caucasians in the same institution during an 8-year period. Retrospective chart review was performed, including dermatology clinic charts from October 2004 to August 2012 with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnostic codes related to photodermatoses. We identified 229 patients with photodermatoses. Of these, 138 (46.6%) were African-American and 63 (42.2%) were Caucasian. Statistically significant differences in the distribution of photodermatoses in African-Americans and Caucasians, respectively, were as follows: phototoxic drug eruption (0.7% and 15.9%, P < 0.0001), phytophotodermatitis (0% and 6.3%, P = 0.009), polymorphous light eruption (PMLE) (86.2% and 54%, P < 0.0001) and porphyrias (0% and 7.9%, P = 0.003). Combined with data from Kerr and Lim, this is the largest study of photodermatoses in African-Americans to date. Congruent to former studies, photodermatoses do occur regularly in dark-skinned individuals. Overall, the frequency of photodermatoses in African-Americans and Caucasians are similar; however, PMLE occurs more commonly in African-Americans, and porphyias and phototoxicity occur more commonly in Caucasians. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Bone density, microarchitecture and stiffness in Caucasian and Caribbean Hispanic postmenopausal American women

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bin; Wang, Ji; Stein, Emily M; Zhang, Zhendong; Nishiyama, Kyle K; Zhang, Chiyuan A; Nickolas, Thomas L; Shane, Elizabeth; Guo, X Edward

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic Americans of Caribbean origin are a fast-growing subset of the US population, but there are no studies on bone density, microstructure and biomechanical integrity in this minority group. In this study, we aimed to compare Caucasian and Caribbean Hispanic postmenopausal American women with respect to these characteristics. Thirty-three Caribbean Hispanics were age-matched to thirty-three Caucasian postmenopausal women. At the lumbar spine, the Hispanic women had significantly lower areal bone mineral density (aBMD). At the radius by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), there were minimal differences between Hispanic and Caucasian women. At the tibia, Hispanic women had lower trabecular volumetric bone density and trabecular number, and higher trabecular separation. Individual trabecula segmentation (ITS) analyses indicated that at the tibia, Hispanic women not only had significantly lower bone volume fraction, but also had significantly lower rod bone volume fraction, plate trabecular number, rod trabecular number and lower plate–plate, plate–rod and rod–rod junction densities compared to Caucasian women. The differences in bone quantity and quality contributed to lower whole bone stiffness at the radius, and both whole bone and trabecular bone stiffness at the tibia in Hispanic women. In conclusion, Hispanic women had poorer bone mechanical and microarchitectural properties than Caucasian women, especially at the load-bearing distal tibia. PMID:26273525

  10. Fatalism and health promoting behaviors in Chinese and Korean immigrants and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Heiniger, Louise E; Sherman, Kerry A; Shaw, Laura-Kate E; Costa, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Fatalism has been associated with non-adherence to health behavior in the past. This study compared fatalism of Chinese and Korean immigrants with native-born Caucasians (N = 309) and examined whether the relationship between fatalism and exercise, nutrition and medical screening would be moderated by ethnicity. Chinese reported higher fatalism than Caucasians and Koreans. Higher fatalism was associated with greater exercise among Chinese and Koreans, but less reported exercise among Caucasians. Caucasian participants had higher scores for nutrition and medical screening compared with Chinese and Korean immigrants. These findings indicate that fatalism is more prevalent among Chinese immigrants; however, there is no evidence of a detrimental effect of fatalism on exercise, nutrition or medical screening among the Asian immigrants. Caucasians with higher fatalism may be at greater risk of future illnesses, given the association between fatalism and sedentary behavior in this group. Differences between cultural groups in the adoption of health behavior justify the development and assessment of targeted interventions to optimize health promoting behaviors.

  11. Comparison of the frontal esthetic preferences in the lower facial portion of Koreans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yoon-Goo; Lee, Yong-Hun; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Kim, Seong-Hun; Sinclair, Peter M

    2009-01-01

    To compare the differences in frontal esthetics in the lower face among Caucasian models, Korean models, and Korean nonmodels. The sample consisted of three groups comprising 36 Caucasian models, 30 Korean models, and 26 Korean nonmodels. Their frontal photos were scanned, and 12 distances, five angles, lip perimeter, and lip area were measured. Differences among groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test. There was no significant difference in the upper lip height among the three groups. The Korean models had shorter lower lip to chin height than the two other groups. Full lip width was wider in the Korean and Caucasian models than in the Korean nonmodels. The Caucasian models had greater total vermilion area compared to both Korean groups. Finally, the Korean models had fuller lower and thinner upper vermilion areas than the nonmodels. Attractive lower facial portions in Caucasians are different from those of Koreans. Therefore, clinicians in Korea should use these data as guidelines for evaluating and enhancing patients' frontal facial esthetics. © 2009 Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc. All Rights Reserved

  12. Association of the Oxytocin Receptor Gene (OXTR) in Caucasian Children and Adolescents with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Suma; Brune, Camille W.; Carter, C. S.; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Lord, Catherine; Cook, Edwin H.

    2009-01-01

    Background The oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) has been studied in autism because of the role of oxytocin (OT) in social cognition. Linkage has also been demonstrated to the region of OXTR in a large sample. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a haplotype constructed from them in OXTR have been associated with autism in the Chinese Han population. We tested whether these associations replicated in a Caucasian sample with strictly defined autistic disorder. Methods We genotyped the two previously associated SNPs (rs2254298, rs53576) in 57 Caucasian autism trios. Probands met clinical, ADI-R, and ADOS criteria for autistic disorder. Results Significant association was detected at rs2254298 (p = 0.03) but not rs53576. For rs2254298, overtransmission of the G allele to probands with autistic disorder was found which contrasts with the overtransmission of A previously reported in the Chinese Han sample. In both samples, G was more frequent than A. However, in our Caucasian autism trios and the CEU Caucasian HapMap samples the frequency of A was less than that reported in the Chinese Han and Chinese in Bejing HapMap samples. The haplotype test of association did not reveal excess transmission from parents to affected offspring. Conclusions These findings provide support for association of OXTR with autism in a Caucasian population. Overtransmission of different alleles in different populations may be due to a different pattern of linkage disequilibrium between the marker rs2254298 and an as yet undetermined susceptibility variant in OXTR. PMID:17383819

  13. Proportionality in Asian and North American Caucasian faces using neoclassical facial canons as criteria.

    PubMed

    Le, Thuy T; Farkas, Leslie G; Ngim, Rexon C K; Levin, L Scott; Forrest, Christopher R

    2002-01-01

    Nine projective linear measurements were taken to determine morphometric differences of the face among healthy young adult Chinese, Vietnamese, and Thais (60 in each group) and to assess the validity of six neoclassical facial canons in these populations. In addition, the findings in the Asian ethnic groups were compared to the data of 60 North American Caucasians. The canons served as criteria for determining the differences between the Asians and Caucasians. In neither Asian nor Caucasian subjects were the three sections of the facial profile equal. The validity of the five other facial canons was more frequent in Caucasians (range: 16.7-36.7%) than in Asians (range: 1.7-26.7%). Horizontal measurement results were significantly greater in the faces of the Asians (en-en, al-al, zy-zy) than in their white counterparts; as a result, the variation between the classical proportions and the actual measurements was significantly higher among Asians (range: 90-100%) than Caucasians (range: 13.3-48%). The dominant characteristics of the Asian face were a wider intercanthal distance in relation to a shorter palpebral fissure, a much wider soft nose within wide facial contours, a smaller mouth width, and a lower face smaller than the forehead height. In the absence of valid anthropometric norms of craniofacial measurements and proportion indices, our results, based on quantitative analysis of the main vertical and horizontal measurements of the face, offers surgeons guidance in judging the faces of Asian patients in preparation for corrective surgery.

  14. British Gujarati Indian immigrants' and British Caucasians' beliefs about health and illness.

    PubMed

    Jobanputra, Rena; Furnham, Adrian

    2005-12-01

    This study examined cultural differences in beliefs about health and illness to explore differences in younger and older British Caucasians' and British Gujarati Indian immigrants' beliefs about health and illness. This study required a matched group consisting of first- and second-generation Gujarati Indian immigrants and native British Caucasians to complete a questionnaire assessing their beliefs concerning health and illness. Factor analysis of the health beliefs questionnaire identified six clear factors accounting for 36.04% of the variance. Subsequent ANCOVAs conducted on the factor scores, partialling out the demographic differences between the participants, revealed that Gujarati Indian immigrants agreed with items reflecting supernatural explanations of ill health more than indigenous British Caucasian participants. Older Indian immigrants also rated chance-related factors as more important than older Caucasian immigrants. There were no significant differences between the Gujarati Indian immigrants and British Caucasians in terms of attributions made to psychological factors and self-responsibility, social factors and life circumstances, medical treatment and physical vulnerability and the external environment. Findings are discussed in relation to the model proposed by Helman (2001) and the impact of migration on health beliefs systems; practical implications of the findings are also highlighted.

  15. Profiles of Motivation for Reading Among African American and Caucasian Students

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, John T.; Coddington, Cassandra S.; Wigfield, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has investigated motivations for reading by examining positive, or affirming, motivations including intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy. Related to them, we examined two negative, or undermining, motivations consisting of avoidance and perceived difficulty. We proposed that the motivations of intrinsic motivation and avoidance are relatively independent, and thus, can be combined to form meaningful profiles consisting of: avid, ambivalent, apathetic, and averse readers. With Grade 5 students we found that these motivations were relatively independent for both Caucasian and African American students. The two motivations uniquely explained a significant proportion of variance in reading comprehension and other cognitive reading variables. Although intrinsic motivation was stronger for Caucasians, avoidance was stronger for African Americans. The profile of the African American students contained higher proportions of averse and ambivalent readers than the Caucasian profile. The profile of avid readers showed higher reading achievement than the other profiles. PMID:19960100

  16. Attitudes toward rape: a comparison between Asian and Caucasian college students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joohee; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C; Yoo, Seo-Koo; Rheinboldt, Kurt T

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate differences in attitudes toward rape between Asian and Caucasian college students. The Attitudes Toward Rape scale was used to measure beliefs about rape in a convenience sample of 169 college students. Three items regarding stranger rape myths were added. Findings suggest that Asian students are more likely than Caucasian students to believe women should be held responsible for preventing rape and to view sex as the primary motivation for rape. Asians also have stronger beliefs than Caucasians do that victims cause the rape and that most rapists are strangers. This research suggests that outreach programs can play an important role in providing information, education, and prevention regarding rape and that males and Asian students should be target populations for such programs.

  17. Perceived racism and alcohol consequences among African American and Caucasian college students.

    PubMed

    Grekin, Emily R

    2012-12-01

    Few studies have assessed relationships between perceived racism, racism-related stress, and alcohol problems. The current study examined these relationships within the context of tension reduction models of alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 African American and 189 Caucasian college freshmen who completed an online survey assessing perceived racism, alcohol consequences, alcohol consumption, negative affect, and deviant behavior. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that racism-related stress predicted alcohol consequences for both African American and Caucasian college students, even after controlling for alcohol consumption, negative affect, and behavioral deviance. The frequency of racist events predicted alcohol consequences for Caucasian but not African American students. These findings highlight the need to address racism and racism-related stress in college-based alcohol prevention and intervention efforts.

  18. Knowledge and Attitudes in Alzheimer's Disease in a Cohort of Older African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Howell, J Christina; Soyinka, Oretunlewa; Parker, Monica; Jarrett, Thomas L; Roberts, David L; Dorbin, Cornelya D; Hu, William T

    2016-06-01

    African American participation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research studies has been historically low. To determine whether older African Americans and Caucasians had different knowledge or attitudes related to AD, we administered the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS) to 67 older African Americans and 140 older caucasians in the greater Atlanta area as well as questions targeting locus of control over general health and AD risks. Older African Americans scored slightly lower on ADKS than older caucasians, with race only accounting for 1.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-2.61, P < .001) points of difference in a multivariate model. Attitudes toward AD were also similar between the 2 groups but 1 (35.7%) in 3 adults reported control over general health but not AD risks. In addition to enhancing education content in outreach efforts, there is an urgent need to address the perception that future AD risks are beyond one's own internal control.

  19. A comparison of aesthetic proportions between the Oriental and Caucasian nose.

    PubMed

    Leong, S C L; White, P S

    2004-12-01

    Differences in aesthetics between the Oriental and Caucasian nose were examined from a cohort of 118 healthy volunteers of which 61 had an Oriental and 57 had a Caucasian racial origin. The oriental nose projected less from the face, and was broader at the intercanthal level (P < 0.001) and the alar base (P < 0.001), but not at the bony base. The oriental nose projected less at all levels: nasion projection (P < 0.001) and tip projection (P < 0.001). The naso-labial angles for the Orientals in this study exhibited a wider range of variation than the Caucasians, with the oriental male exhibiting the most acute angle (average 86.2 degrees ), because of the forward angulation of the upper lip. Many of the average aesthetic parameters obtained from these two cohorts of healthy subjects did not conform to the published aesthetic standards, set out as the ideal goals for rhinoplasty.

  20. Comparative study of dental cephalometric patterns of Japanese-Brazilian, Caucasian and Mongoloid patients

    PubMed Central

    Sathler, Renata; Pinzan, Arnaldo; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to identify the patterns of dental variables of adolescent Japanese-Brazilian descents with normal occlusion, and also to compare them with a similar Caucasian and Mongoloid sample. Methods Lateral cephalometric radiographs were used to compare the groups: Caucasian (n = 40), Japanese-Brazilian (n = 32) and Mongoloid (n = 33). The statistical tests used were one-way ANOVA and ANCOVA. The cephalometric measurements used followed the analyses of Steiner, Tweed and McNamara Jr. Results Statistical differences (P < 0.05) indicated a smaller interincisal angle and overbite for the Japanese-Brazilian sample, when compared to the Caucasian sample, although with similar values to the Mongoloid group. Conclusion The dental patterns found for the Japanese-Brazilian descents were, in general, more similar to those of the Mongoloid sample. PMID:25279521

  1. Comparative study of dental cephalometric patterns of Japanese-Brazilian, Caucasian and Mongoloid patients.

    PubMed

    Sathler, Renata; Pinzan, Arnaldo; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the patterns of dental variables of adolescent Japanese-Brazilian descendants with normal occlusion, and also to compare them with a similar Caucasian and Mongoloid sample. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were used to compare the groups: Caucasian (n = 40), Japanese-Brazilian (n = 32) and Mongoloid (n = 33). The statistical tests used were one-way ANOVA and ANCOVA. The cephalometric measurements used followed the analyses of Steiner, Tweed and McNamara Jr. Statistical differences (P < 0.05) indicated a smaller interincisal angle and overbite for the Japanese-Brazilian sample, when compared to the Caucasian sample, although with similar values to the Mongoloid group. The dental patterns found for the Japanese-Brazilian descendants were, in general, more similar to those of the Mongoloid sample.

  2. Do Basque- and Caucasian-speaking populations share non-Indo-European ancestors?

    PubMed

    Bertorelle, G; Bertranpetit, J; Calafell, F; Nasidze, I S; Barbujani, G

    1995-01-01

    Genetic evidence is consistent with the view that the Indo-European languages were propagated in Europe by the diffusion of early farmers. The existence of phylogenetic relationships between European populations speaking other languages has been proposed on linguistic and archaeological grounds, and is here tested by analyzing allele frequencies at ten polymorphic protein and blood group loci. Genetic distances between speakers of Basque and Caucasian languages are compared with those between controls, i.e. contiguous populations speaking Indo-European and Altaic. Although some statistical tests show an excess of genetic similarity between Basque and South Caucasian speakers, most results do not support their common origin. If the Basques and the Caucasian-speaking populations share common ancestors, recent evolutionary phenomena must have caused divergence between them, so that their gene frequencies do not appear more similar now than those of random pairs of populations separated by the same geographic distance.

  3. Double product and end-organ damage in African and Caucasian men: the SABPA study.

    PubMed

    Schultz, A J; Schutte, A E; Schutte, R

    2013-08-10

    Increasing urbanisation in sub-Saharan African countries is causing a rapid increase in cardiovascular disease. Evidence suggests that Africans have higher blood pressures and a higher prevalence of hypertension-related cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, compared to Caucasians. We investigated double product (systolic blood pressure × heart rate), a substantial measure of cardiac workload, as a possible cardiovascular risk factor in African and Caucasian men. The study consisted of 101 urbanised African and 101 Caucasian male school teachers. We measured 24h ambulatory blood pressure and the carotid cross-sectional wall area, and determined left ventricular hypertrophy electrocardiographically by means of the Cornell product. Urinary albumin and creatinine were analysed to obtain the albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Africans had higher 24h, daytime and nighttime systolic- and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and resultant double product compared to the Caucasians. In addition, markers of end-organ damage, albumin-to-creatinine ratio and left ventricular hypertrophy were higher in the Africans while cross-sectional wall area did not differ. In Africans after single partial and multiple regression analysis, 24h systolic blood pressure, but not double product or heart rate, correlated positively with markers of end-organ damage (cross-sectional wall area: β=0.398, P=0.005; left ventricular hypertrophy: β=0.455, P<0.001; albumin-to-creatinine ratio: β=0.280, P=0.012). No associations were evident in Caucasian men. Double product may not be a good marker of increased cardiovascular risk when compared to systolic blood pressure in African and Caucasian men. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Average heterozgosity of STRPs in the Pima Indians is lower than in Caucasians

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.B.; Norman, R.A.; Robertson, D.

    1994-09-01

    The Pima Indians of Arizona have the highest reported prevalence of non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM) in the world. To localize regions of the genome which may contain genes important in the predisposition to NIDDM, we are producing a high density genetic map in this population. In contrast to previous studies in the Pima which have examined polymorphisms in single genes or small genetic regions, we are using short tandem repeated polymorphisms (STRPs) as genetic markers covering the entire genome. We have genotyped over 150 STRPs in a sample consisting of approximately 1000 individuals comprising 250 nuclear families. Many of these STRPs were originally typed in a sample of Caucasians (CEPH) thus allowing direct comparisons between populations. Our analyses indicate that the average heterozygosity of the STRPs is 11% lower in the Pima (P<0.001). A survey of 8 different blood group markers in the Pima showed a 17% difference in average heterozygosity when compared with North American Caucasians (P<0.001). In contrast, a sample of 11 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) does not show a similar difference in average heterozygosity. The average heterozygosity is 3% higher in the Pima as compared to Caucasians for these 11 RFLPs (P<0.001). There is a significant correlation between estimates of heterozygosity based on the sample of STRP markers in Pima and Caucasians (R=0.48 P<0.001), but less than 25% of the variance is explained by this relationship, presumably reflecting different evolutionary histories for each group since divergence of these two populations. In addition to differences in allele frequencies between the two populations, we have tentatively identified a number of markers which differ from Caucasians in the allele sizes. The decrease in average heterozygosity observed with STRP markers supports the view that the Pima Indians represent a more genetically homogenous population than Caucasians.

  5. Prevalence of inflammation and benign prostatic hyperplasia on autopsy in Asian and Caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Zlotta, Alexandre R; Egawa, Shin; Pushkar, Dmitry; Govorov, Alexander; Kimura, Takahiro; Kido, Masahito; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kuk, Cynthia; Kovylina, Marta; Aldaoud, Najla; Fleshner, Neil; Finelli, Antonio; Klotz, Laurence; Lockwood, Gina; Sykes, Jenna; Kwast, Theodorus van der

    2014-10-01

    Inflammation has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We studied the prevalence of inflammation and BPH in Asian and Caucasian men on prostate glands (n=320) obtained during autopsy in Moscow, Russia (Caucasian men, n=220), and Tokyo, Japan (Asian men, n=100). We correlated the presence and grade of acute inflammation (AI) or chronic inflammation (CI) and BPH. AI, CI, and histologic BPH were analyzed in a blinded fashion using a grading system (0-3). We used the Cochran-Armitage test for associations between the degree of BPH and clinical variables and proportional odds logistic regression models in multivariable analysis. Histologic BPH was observed in a similar proportion of Asian and Caucasian men (p=0.94). CI was found in>70% of men in both the Asian and Caucasian groups (p>0.05). Higher BPH scores were associated with more CI (p<0.001). In multivariate analyses, individuals with CI were 6.8 times more likely to have a higher BPH score than individuals without (p<0.0001). Men included in this study presented at the hospital and their symptomatic status was not known. The prevalence of CI and BPH on autopsy is similar in Asian and Caucasian men despite very different diet and lifestyle. CI is strongly associated in both groups with BPH. In this study, we looked at the prevalence of inflammation and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) on autopsy in Asian and Caucasian men. We found chronic inflammation in>70% of men on autopsy. More chronic inflammation was associated with more BPH. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Coronary artery size and disease in UK South Asian and Caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Zindrou, Dlear; Taylor, Kenneth M; Bagger, Jens Peder

    2006-04-01

    South Asian patients in the UK have a higher mortality rate after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) than Caucasian patients. As coronary artery size has been shown to correlate to outcome from bypass grafting, it has been suggested that smaller coronary arteries in South Asians as compared to Caucasians could contribute to a poorer outcome in the Asian population. We aimed to measure coronary artery size and disease in matched South Asian and Caucasian men undergoing first time coronary artery bypass grafting. Coronary arteriograms from 53 matched first generation South Asian and Caucasian men were examined. The patients had no history of myocardial infarction, coronary revascularisation, familial dyslipidaemia, diabetes or renal disease. They were individually matched for age, height, weight, body mass index and body surface area. Thereafter, coronary artery diameters and significant (> or =50%) diameter stenoses were measured in a blinded fashion using quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). In South Asian men, diameters of the left main stem (LMS) and the proximal left anterior descending, the circumflex and the right coronary arteries were 4.6+/-0.9 mm, 3.5+/-0.8 mm, 3.4+/-0.8 mm and 3.5+/-0.8 mm, respectively. The corresponding arterial diameters among Caucasian men (4.5+/-0.9 mm, 3.5+/-0.7 mm, 3.5+/-0.8 mm and 3.8+/-0.8 mm) did not differ from those in South Asians. There was no difference in the number of significant coronary artery stenoses between the two groups and no difference in bypass and cross-clamp times or in adverse outcome (one from each group died after coronary artery bypass grafting). Proximal coronary artery size and number of significant coronary stenoses did not differ between matched pairs of South Asian and Caucasian men using strict inclusion/exclusion criteria.

  7. Insulin autoimmune syndrome (Hirata Disease) in European Caucasians taking α-lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Gullo, Damiano; Evans, Joseph L; Sortino, Grazia; Goldfine, Ira D; Vigneri, Riccardo

    2014-08-01

    Lipoic acid (LA) is a widely used nutritional supplement and is sometimes used as an adjuvant treatment for diabetic neuropathy and other conditions. Insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS, Hirata disease) is a rare cause of spontaneous hypoglycaemia, extremely high serum insulin levels and high titres of autoantibodies against endogenous insulin despite no prior exposure to exogenous insulin. In Japanese individuals, IAS is associated with the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) HLA-DRB1*04:06 allele and often occurs upon exposure to sulphhydryl-containing compounds including LA. Only one case has been reported in Caucasians. We now report six Caucasian patients taking LA with IAS and describe a unique HLA subtype in these patients. Six Caucasian patients (M = 3; F = 3), median age 63 years, presented with spontaneous episodes of fasting and postabsorptive hypoglycaemia associated with mainly neuroglycopenic symptoms. No patient was treated with insulin or had an insulinoma. Hypoglycaemic symptoms appeared 30 and 120 days after taking lipoic acid (LA; 600 mg/day). Case histories and standard laboratory analyses were utilized. Discontinuation of LA resulted in a reduction in hypoglycaemic episodes. All patients were treated with oral or iv glucose and prednisone (12.5-25 mg/day). HLA analysis revealed the HLA-DRB1*04:03 allele in five patients, while the HLA-DRB1*04:06 allele was present in one patient. This is the first report of LA-related IAS in Caucasians who possess the HLA-DRB1*04:03 allele, implicating this allele in the genetic susceptibility to IAS in Caucasians. The greater occurrence of the HLA-DRB1*04:03 allele in Caucasian and other populations, combined with the growing use of LA in developed countries, may be a future predictor of additional cases of IAS. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Investigation of Caucasian rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility loci in African patients with the same disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The largest genetic risk to develop rheumatoid arthritis (RA) arises from a group of alleles of the HLA DRB1 locus ('shared epitope', SE). Over 30 non-HLA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) predisposing to disease have been identified in Caucasians, but they have never been investigated in West/Central Africa. We previously reported a lower prevalence of the SE in RA patients in Cameroon compared to European patients and aimed in the present study to investigate the contribution of Caucasian non-HLA RA SNPs to disease susceptibility in Black Africans. Methods RA cases and controls from Cameroon were genotyped for Caucasian RA susceptibility SNPs using Sequenom MassArray technology. Genotype data were also available for 5024 UK cases and 4281 UK controls and for 119 Yoruba individuals in Ibadan, Nigeria (YRI, HapMap). A Caucasian aggregate genetic-risk score (GRS) was calculated as the sum of the weighted risk-allele counts. Results After genotyping quality control procedures were performed, data on 28 Caucasian non-HLA susceptibility SNPs were available in 43 Cameroonian RA cases and 44 controls. The minor allele frequencies (MAF) were tightly correlated between Cameroonian controls and YRI individuals (correlation coefficient 93.8%, p = 1.7E-13), and they were pooled together. There was no correlation between MAF of UK and African controls; 13 markers differed by more than 20%. The MAF for markers at PTPN22, IL2RA, FCGR2A and IL2/IL21 was below 2% in Africans. The GRS showed a strong association with RA in the UK. However, the GRS did not predict RA in Africans (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.29 - 1.74, p = 0.456). Random sampling from the UK cohort showed that this difference in association is unlikely to be explained by small sample size or chance, but is statistically significant with p<0.001. Conclusions The MAFs of non-HLA Caucasian RA susceptibility SNPs are different between Caucasians and Africans, and several polymorphisms are barely detectable in

  9. Prognostic role of the histological subtype of melanoma on the hands and feet in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Cristina; Gual, Adrià; Díaz, Alba; Puig-Butillé, Joan A; Noguès, Susanna; Vilalta, Antonio; Conill, Carlos; Rull, Ramón; Vilana, Ramon; Arguis, Pedro; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Alós, Llucia; Palou, Josep; Castel, Teresa; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana

    2017-08-01

    Acral melanoma (AM) is associated with a poor prognosis in part because of delayed diagnosis, but probably also because of other intrinsic characteristics of location. The aim of this study was to review the specific characteristics and outcome of AM in Caucasians. This was a cross-sectional retrospective clinical-pathological study of 274 patients identified with AM in the database of a referral unit in Europe from 1986 to 2010. The mean age of the patients was 56.6 (SD 17.7) years. 269 cases could be histologically classified and included in the study. In all, 222 (82.5%) were located on feet. According to melanoma subtype, 165 (61.3%) were acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM), 84 (31.2%) were superficial spreading melanoma (SSM), and 20 (7.5%) were nodular melanoma (NM). SSM patients were characterized by female predominance (77.4%), younger age, and classic melanoma-risk phenotype (fair skin and multiple nevi). Among the 198 invasive cases with a mean follow-up of 56.2 months, the mean (SD) Breslow's thickness was 3.1 (3.6) mm, being 1.4 (1.4) mm in SSM, 3.5 (4.1) mm in ALM and 4.9 (2.9) mm in NM (P<0.001). Ulceration was present in 33.3%, 2.9% in SSM, 38.6% in ALM, and 76.9% in NM (P<0.001). A total of 29.3% relapsed (7.3% of SSM, 35% of ALM and 55% of NM) and 24.2% died because of AM. In multivariate analysis, age at diagnosis, Breslow, and histopathological subtype were independent prognostic factors for both disease-free and AM-specific survival. The ALM and NM subtypes presented poorer outcome after weighting Breslow and age (P=0.02). Histological subtype of AM could have an impact on biological behavior, ALM and NM subtypes presenting a poorer prognosis after adjusting for age and Breslow's thickness.

  10. Correlates of AUDIT Risk Status for Male and Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMartini, Kelly S.; Carey, Kate B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The current study identified gender-specific correlates of hazardous drinker status as defined by the AUDIT. Participants: A total of 462 college student volunteers completed the study in 2006. The sample was predominantly Caucasian (75%) and female (55%). Methods: Participants completed a survey assessing demographics, alcohol use…

  11. Correlates of AUDIT Risk Status for Male and Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMartini, Kelly S.; Carey, Kate B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The current study identified gender-specific correlates of hazardous drinker status as defined by the AUDIT. Participants: A total of 462 college student volunteers completed the study in 2006. The sample was predominantly Caucasian (75%) and female (55%). Methods: Participants completed a survey assessing demographics, alcohol use…

  12. Nigerian Female with Skin Lesions in the Leg and Face: Herpetic Sycosis Folliculitis

    PubMed Central

    Dilorenzo, Dominique; Gilford, Patricia; Deschere, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Nongenital HSV 1 presents outside the mucus membrane. Our patient had unusual presentation that caused diagnostic dilemma. 30-year-old native Nigerian female coming with fiancée to the United States presented to our service one day after arrival through ER with a lesion on her right ankle. She was diagnosed with cellulitis, started on antibiotics, and admitted to hospital. She had fever of 39.1°C. Head and neck exam showed multiple sized lesions over tongue and palate and inner aspect of lower lip. Abdomen and genital exam was normal. Skin exam showed lesions over the face and lesions over the lateral aspect of the right leg. There was ulcerated lesion over the right lateral malleolus with surrounding erythema and edema. Her tests showed elevated ESR of 98; HIV test was negative; CT scan of the ankle showed no abscess or osteomyelitis. TB quantiferon was indeterminate; AFB stain and culture were negative; HSV IgM was elevated at 1 : 16; RPR was negative; ANA was negative; malaria screen was negative, and blood cultures were negative for bacteria, fungus, and virus. Debrided wound had no growth of bacteria or fungus or virus. This case illustrates the unusual presentation of the HSV1 outside the mucus membrane and how it can be confused with other conditions that required extensive tests. Therapeutic trail with antiviral medications resolved lesions over the leg and face. PMID:28018688

  13. Nigerian Female with Skin Lesions in the Leg and Face: Herpetic Sycosis Folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Dilorenzo, Dominique; Channaveeraiah, Naganna; Gilford, Patricia; Deschere, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Nongenital HSV 1 presents outside the mucus membrane. Our patient had unusual presentation that caused diagnostic dilemma. 30-year-old native Nigerian female coming with fiancée to the United States presented to our service one day after arrival through ER with a lesion on her right ankle. She was diagnosed with cellulitis, started on antibiotics, and admitted to hospital. She had fever of 39.1°C. Head and neck exam showed multiple sized lesions over tongue and palate and inner aspect of lower lip. Abdomen and genital exam was normal. Skin exam showed lesions over the face and lesions over the lateral aspect of the right leg. There was ulcerated lesion over the right lateral malleolus with surrounding erythema and edema. Her tests showed elevated ESR of 98; HIV test was negative; CT scan of the ankle showed no abscess or osteomyelitis. TB quantiferon was indeterminate; AFB stain and culture were negative; HSV IgM was elevated at 1 : 16; RPR was negative; ANA was negative; malaria screen was negative, and blood cultures were negative for bacteria, fungus, and virus. Debrided wound had no growth of bacteria or fungus or virus. This case illustrates the unusual presentation of the HSV1 outside the mucus membrane and how it can be confused with other conditions that required extensive tests. Therapeutic trail with antiviral medications resolved lesions over the leg and face.

  14. Infective endocarditis due to Bacillus cereus in a pregnant female: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mahek; Patnaik, Soumya; Wongrakpanich, Supakanya; Alhamshari, Yaser; Alnabelsi, Talal

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of infective endocarditis during pregnancy is around 0.006% with high maternal and fetal mortality. Bacillus cereus is an extremely rare cause for endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers (IVDA) or those with valvular disease or devices such as pacemakers. We report a case of B. cereus endocarditis, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been reported in pregnancy. A 30-year-old, 25-week pregnant female presented with right shoulder pain, swelling and erythema on the lateral aspect of deltoid muscle from large abscess over her deltoid muscle. She was found to have a vegetation on the native tricuspid valve. Cultures from abscess fluid and blood cultures grew B. cereus, she was appropriately treated with antimicrobials and had favorable outcomes. There are <20 cases of B. cereus endocarditis reported but none during pregnancy. When cultures grow unusual organisms the case must be thoroughly investigated. This case illustrates a rare situation (endocarditis in pregnancy) with an unusual outcome (B. cereus) on an uncommon valve (tricuspid valve).

  15. Complete heart block in a Caucasian woman with Behçet's disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Butt, Sabeeh-Ur-Rehman; McNeil, Julian

    2016-04-19

    Behçet's disease is a progressive diffuse inflammatory vasculitis characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulceration and ocular inflammation. Cardiac involvement is a rare but well-documented manifestation of Behçet's disease. Complete heart block in non-Caucasian populations has been reported previously; however, in this report, we describe a unique case of complete heart block in a Caucasian woman with Behçet's disease. A 48-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our hospital with symptomatic complete heart block requiring a pacemaker implant on a background of recurrent oral and genital ulcers and oligoarthritis of 10 months' duration. She also had a history of recurrent diarrhea with a single episode of ocular inflammation in the recent past. She had no evidence of cardiac ischemia, and her autoimmune antibodies were within normal ranges. She was diagnosed with Behçet's disease according to international study group criteria and was commenced on prednisolone and sulfasalazine, to which she responded very well. Cardiac complications should be considered when making a diagnosis of Behçet's disease, even in Caucasian patients. While mucocutaneous ulceration is indeed the most common manifestation of Behçet's disease, cardiovascular involvement tends to cause the most morbidity and mortality.

  16. Loss of Control Eating in African-American and Caucasian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Omni L.; Matheson, Brittany; Osborn, Robyn; Vannucci, Anna; Kozlosky, Merel; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Loss of control (LOC) eating, a disinhibited eating behavior shown to predict excessive weight gain in youth, has been reported by African-American children and adolescents. Yet, little is known about how LOC-eating manifests in this population. To investigate potential racial differences in LOC-eating, the Eating Disorder Examination was administered to 185 non-Hispanic African-American and Caucasian youth ages 8-17y. Objective eating was assessed at two test meals during which youth ate ad libitum from a multi-item lunchtime food array. African-American and Caucasian youth reported a similar prevalence of LOC episodes (24.2% vs. 28.9%, p =.75). Yet, accounting for sex, age, fat-free mass, percent fat mass, height, and socioeconomic status, African-Americans consumed more total energy at both laboratory meals (1608 ± 57 kcal vs. 1362 ± 44 kcal; p <.001). Furthermore, African-American youth reporting LOC consumed the most total energy across both meals (1855 ± 104 kcal) compared to African-Americans without LOC (152 ± 60 kcal), Caucasians with LOC (1278 ± 68 kcal), and Caucasians without LOC (1399 ± 46 kcal; p <.001). Future research is required to examine whether LOC-eating contributes to the high rates of obesity in African-American youth. PMID:22365807

  17. Intake and Digestibility Among Caucasian Bluestem, Big Bluestem, and Switchgrass Compared with Bermudagrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Warm-season perennial grasses, mainly bermudagrass, have been a major source of hay for ruminant systems across the upper southern USA. This study compares the quality of Caucasian bluestem [Bothriochloa caucasia (Trin.) C.E. Hubbard ‘Caucasian’] (CBS) with ‘Kanlow’ switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.)...

  18. Physiologic and Endocrine Correlates of Overweight and Obesity in African Americans and Caucasians

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    INVESTIGATOR: Patricia A. Deuster, Ph.D. Merrily Poth, M.D. Tracey Sbrocco , Ph.D. Martha Faraday, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Henry M. Jackson...Overweight DAMD17-03-2-0024 and Obesity in African Americans and Caucasians 6. AUTHOR(S) Patricia A. Deuster, Ph.D. Merrily Poth, M.D. Tracey Sbrocco

  19. Ocular presentation of natural killer/T-cell lymphoma in a Caucasian man.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Emily; Fogarty, Helen; Fortune, Anne; Keegan, David

    2016-04-26

    Natural killer/T-cell (NK/T-cell) lymphoma-nasal subtype, is a rare form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, most common in South East Asia, and can have an ophthalmological presentation. This report describes a 51-year-old Caucasian man with uveitis, recurrent retinal detachment and paraneoplastic features subsequently diagnosed as NK/T-cell lymphoma.

  20. Phenotypic comparison of Caucasian and Asian women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Erica T; Kao, Chia-Ning; Shinkai, Kanade; Pasch, Lauri; Cedars, Marcelle I; Huddleston, Heather G

    2013-07-01

    To determine whether manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), particularly androgen excess, differ between Caucasian and Asian women in the San Francisco Bay Area. Cross-sectional study. Multidisciplinary PCOS clinic at a tertiary academic center. 121 Caucasian and 28 Asian women, aged 18-44, examined between 2006 and 2011 with PCOS verified by a reproductive endocrinologist and dermatologist according to the Rotterdam criteria. Transvaginal ultrasounds, comprehensive dermatologic exams, and serum testing. Hirsutism defined as a modified Ferriman-Gallwey (mFG) score ≥ 8, acne, androgenic alopecia, and biochemical hyperandrogenism. Caucasian and Asian women had a similar prevalence of all measures of androgen excess. Both groups had similar total mFG scores and site-specific mFG scores, except Asian women had a lower site-specific mFG score for the chest. Although Asian women were more likely to use laser hair removal, the results were unchanged when the women with a history of laser hair removal were excluded. Caucasian and Asian women with PCOS living in the same geographic region had a similar prevalence of hirsutism as well as other markers for androgen excess. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the need for ethnic-specific mFG scores in women with PCOS. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nonsuicidal self-injury in Asian versus Caucasian university students: who, how, and why?

    PubMed

    Turner, Brianna J; Arya, Shalini; Chapman, Alexander L

    2015-04-01

    The correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among Asian and Caucasian university students; differences in the rates, frequency, forms, severity, and emotional contexts of NSSI among self-injuring students; and whether Asian students who are highly oriented toward Asian culture differed from those less oriented toward Asian culture in NSSI characteristics were investigated. University students (N = 931), including 360 Caucasian students (n = 95, 26.4%, with a history of ≥ 1 episode of NSSI) and 571 Asian students (n = 107, 18.7%, with a history of NSSI), completed questionnaires assessing NSSI, acculturation, and putative risk factors for NSSI. Caucasian students were more likely to report NSSI, particularly cutting behavior, self-injured with greater frequency and versatility, and reported greater increases in positively valenced, high arousal emotions following NSSI, compared to Asian students. Among Asian students, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, experiential avoidance, and anger suppression increased the likelihood of reporting a history of NSSI. Among Caucasian students, lack of emotional clarity and anger suppression increased likelihood of NSSI. Finally, some tentative findings suggested potentially important differences in rates and frequency of NSSI among Asian students who were highly oriented toward Asian culture compared with those less oriented toward Asian culture. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  2. Differences in Career and Life Planning between African American and Caucasian Undergraduate Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Caroline S.; Myers, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    Women, especially African American women, have traditionally been in low-paying careers. This exploratory study examined how career aspirations are affected by future career and family plans. Results revealed that African American undergraduate women had higher career aspirations than Caucasian undergraduate women and also planned for multiple…

  3. Noninvasive Screening for Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes in Young, Rural, Caucasian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Sharon; Sheffer, Sarah; Long Roth, Sara; Bennett, Paul A.; Lloyd, Les

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play an important role in identifying students who are at risk for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Few studies have screened Caucasian students, and none have targeted rural, low-income, elementary children. The five noninvasive risk factors used for this study were family history, high body mass index (BMI) for age/sex,…

  4. Differences in bone quality and strength between Asian and Caucasian young men.

    PubMed

    Kepley, A L; Nishiyama, K K; Zhou, B; Wang, J; Zhang, C; McMahon, D J; Foley, K F; Walker, M D; Edward Guo, X; Shane, E; Nickolas, T L

    2017-02-01

    This is a cross-sectional study to assess differences in bone quality in young Asian and Caucasian (n = 30/group) men between 25 and 35 years. We found that Asians had smaller bones, thicker and denser cortices, and more plate-like trabeculae, but stiffness did not differ between groups.

  5. Income Parity through Different Paths: Chinese Americans, Japanese Americans, and Caucasians in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsukada, Mamoru

    1988-01-01

    A sample of 277 Caucasian, Chinese American, and Japanese American men at the University of Hawaii was surveyed in 1969, and again in 1979. Analysis of variables from the human capital and the labor market formulations reveals that race/ethnicity remains an important factor in explaining income attainment. (BJV)

  6. First report of Erysiphe knautiae (Erysiphales) on Lomelosia caucasica (Caucasian pincushion flower) in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A powdery mildew, Erysiphe knautiae, is reported on Lomelosia caucasica (synonym Scabiosa caucasica, Caucasian pincushion flower) for the first time in North America. Lomelosia is now recognized as a genus distinct from, albeit closely related to, Scabiosa. The host range of E. knautiae seemingly ex...

  7. Navajo and Caucasian Children's Verbal and Nonverbal-Visual Behavior in the Urban Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilmet, George M.

    1978-01-01

    A formal observation technique was used in an urban classroom context to assess the verbal and nonverbal-visual behavior of 17 Navajo and 7 Caucasian children. Two statistical techniques revealed significant intergroup differences in verbal and nonverbal-visual style. ( Author)

  8. Instructor Reaction to Verbal and Nonverbal-Visual Styles: An Example of Navajo and Caucasian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilmet, George M.

    1979-01-01

    Holds that differences observed in instructor attention to Navajo and Caucasian children are due to the contrasting verbal and nonverbal-visual styles displayed by the two groups. Offers an evaluation program which attempts to offset teachers' tendencies to attend differentially to children displaying diverse behavioral styles in the classroom.…

  9. The Importance of Family and School Domains in Adolescent Deviance: African American and Caucasian Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Pickering, Lloyd E.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the importance of family (closeness, monitoring, and conflict) and school (grades, homework time, educational aspirations, and commitment) domains on 809 African American and Caucasian youth. Both developmental domains revealed independent relationships with different measures of adolescent deviance, and results were similar for both…

  10. Alcohol Use and Depression among African-American and Caucasian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.; Irvin, Deborah M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in reported alcohol use and depressive symptomatology among a sample of 524 African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Of specific interest was determining if ethnicity, gender, and age predicted severity of scores obtained on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and Adolescent…

  11. The Educational Attainment of Minority Learners Who Attended 2-Year Colleges Compared to Caucasian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Angel N.

    2013-01-01

    In this educational study, Caucasian and minority learners' grade point averages and overall academic success were examined at learning institutions. Several minorities experienced problems with completing college courses at universities and community colleges. Individuals from various racial backgrounds had school enrollment issues compared to…

  12. Instructor Reaction to Verbal and Nonverbal-Visual Styles: An Example of Navajo and Caucasian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilmet, George M.

    1979-01-01

    Holds that differences observed in instructor attention to Navajo and Caucasian children are due to the contrasting verbal and nonverbal-visual styles displayed by the two groups. Offers an evaluation program which attempts to offset teachers' tendencies to attend differentially to children displaying diverse behavioral styles in the classroom.…

  13. Navajo and Caucasian Children's Verbal and Nonverbal-Visual Behavior in the Urban Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilmet, George M.

    1978-01-01

    A formal observation technique was used in an urban classroom context to assess the verbal and nonverbal-visual behavior of 17 Navajo and 7 Caucasian children. Two statistical techniques revealed significant intergroup differences in verbal and nonverbal-visual style. ( Author)

  14. Spiritual Well-Being Scale Ethnic Differences between Caucasians and African-Americans: Follow Up Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Geri; Gridley, Betty; Fleming, Willie

    This follow up study is in response to Miller, Fleming, and Brown-Andersons (1998) study of ethnic differences between Caucasians and African-Americans where the authors suggested that the Spiritual Well-Being (SWB) Scale may need to be interpreted differently depending on ethnicity. In this study, confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for…

  15. Noninvasive Screening for Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes in Young, Rural, Caucasian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Sharon; Sheffer, Sarah; Long Roth, Sara; Bennett, Paul A.; Lloyd, Les

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play an important role in identifying students who are at risk for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Few studies have screened Caucasian students, and none have targeted rural, low-income, elementary children. The five noninvasive risk factors used for this study were family history, high body mass index (BMI) for age/sex,…

  16. Parenting Beliefs and Academic Achievement across African-American and Caucasian Family Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvaney, Matthew K.; Morrissey, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the role of parents' child-rearing beliefs in determining the academic achievement of African-American and Caucasian children, with a particular emphasis on describing the differential impact of parenting beliefs across these family contexts. Models were specified in which third-grade academic outcome…

  17. Comparative Validity of MMPI-2 Scores of African American and Caucasian Mental Health Center Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, John L.; Graham, John R.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Stein, L. A. R.

    1997-01-01

    The comparative validity of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scores for 123 African American and 561 Caucasian clients from a community mental health center was studied by contrasting mean MMPI-2 scores and correlations between these scores and therapists' ratings. Correlations were not significantly different for racial…

  18. Effect of adolescent obesity on cardiometabolic risk in african-americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    African-Americans have more hypertension, stroke, and type 2 diabetes than do Caucasians. Endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance are precursors for each. Since these diseases have origins in pediatrics and are associated with obesity, this study was designed to determine if obesity has different effects on endothelial function, insulin sensitivity, and secretion in African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Thirty-three Caucasian and 25 African-Americans (10-18 years old) were subdivided by BMI into lean, overweight, and obesity groups. Endothelial function was measured as forearm vascular resistance (FVR) over 1 min following 5 min of upper arm vascular occlusion. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were measured using intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal model. Postocclusive FVR was significantly increased in obese African-Americans. Insulin sensitivity was reduced in obese subjects but did not differ by race. Insulin secretion was increased in African-Americans but did not differ by obesity. Subjects were subdivided into risk groups based on 20th percentile for postocclusion FVR response in lean. Seven of nine obese African-Americans were in the high risk group compared to 0 of 5 obese Caucasians. These results demonstrate that obesity significantly impairs endothelial function in African-Americans. Endothelial dysfunction likely predisposes to future cardiometabolic disease in obese African-American adolescents.

  19. Alcohol Use and Depression among African-American and Caucasian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.; Irvin, Deborah M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in reported alcohol use and depressive symptomatology among a sample of 524 African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Of specific interest was determining if ethnicity, gender, and age predicted severity of scores obtained on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and Adolescent…

  20. The Educational Attainment of Minority Learners Who Attended 2-Year Colleges Compared to Caucasian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Angel N.

    2013-01-01

    In this educational study, Caucasian and minority learners' grade point averages and overall academic success were examined at learning institutions. Several minorities experienced problems with completing college courses at universities and community colleges. Individuals from various racial backgrounds had school enrollment issues compared to…

  1. Melodies in Motherese in Tonal and Nontonal Languages: Mandarin Chinese, Caucasian American, and German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papousek, Mechthild

    In a comparison of the melodies in the speech of Mandarin Chinese and Caucasian American mothers, striking similarities were found: (1) in the overall distribution and average structure of melodic contours; (2) in close contextual links to given forms of intuitive parental care; and (3) in a tendency to neglect lexical tones in favor of pitch…

  2. Information Processed by Negro and Caucasian Children Engaged in Problem-Solving Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felen, Barbara K.

    The memory model, based on information theory proposed by Moser (see SE 013 578), was used to compare the cognitive processing patterns of second and eighth grade Negro and Caucasian students in solving the "parallel circuits" problem. (Connecting two light bulbs and a dry cell so that when both bulbs light, one bulb can be unscrewed,…

  3. Physical Activity Attitudes, Preferences, and Practices in African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieser, Mira; Vu, Maihan B.; Bedimo-Rung, Ariane L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Moody, Jamie; Young, Deborah Rohm; Moe, Stacey G.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity levels in girls decline dramatically during adolescence, most profoundly among minorities. To explore ethnic and racial variation in attitudes toward physical activity, semistructured interviews (n = 80) and physical activity checklists (n = 130) are conducted with African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian middle school girls in…

  4. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  5. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality.

  6. Effects of Ethnically Diverse Photographic Stimuli on Preference and Discourse Tasks in African American and Caucasian American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…

  7. Relationship between leptin, adiponectin, bone mineral density, and measures of adiposity among pre-menopausal Hispanic and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    King, George A; Deemer, Sarah E; Thompson, Dixie L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fasting serum leptin and adiponectin levels with bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in pre-menopausal, middle-aged Hispanic and Caucasian women. Participants' (68 Hispanic and 36 Caucasian) BMD and bone mineral content were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and body density was measured by hydrodensitometry. Serum leptin was determined by enzyme immunoassay and adiponectin by ELISA. Hispanic women had significantly higher leptin, BMD, and fat mass (FM), and lower adiponectin than Caucasian women. There was no significant correlation between leptin and BMD for Hispanic or Caucasian women; adiponectin was inversely correlated with BMD in Caucasian women only (p = 0.01). In both Hispanic and Caucasian women, lean body mass and adiponectin best explained the variance in BMD (r(2) = 0.25, p < 0.001). These data demonstrate no significant relationship between leptin and BMD of pre-menopausal, middle-aged Hispanic and Caucasian women, and a significant inverse relationship between adiponectin and BMD in Caucasian women. The role of adipocytokines in the regulation of BMD remains inconclusive and may vary across ethnic groups.

  8. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous and inhaled fluticasone furoate in healthy Caucasian and East Asian subjects.

    PubMed

    Allen, Ann; Bal, Joanne; Cheesbrough, Anne; Hamilton, Melanie; Kempsford, Rodger

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of inhaled and intravenous (i.v.) fluticasone furoate (FF) in healthy Caucasian, Chinese, Japanese and Korean subjects. This was an open label, randomized, two way crossover study in healthy Caucasian, Chinese, Japanese and Korean subjects (n = 20 per group). Inhaled FF (200 μg for 7 days, then 800 μg for 7 days from a dry powder inhaler [DPI]) was administered in one treatment period and i.v.FF (250 μg infusion) in the other. FF PK and serum cortisol (inhaled 200 μg only) were compared between the ethnic groups using analysis of variance. P450 CYP3A4 activity and safety were also assessed. Ethnic differences in i.v. FF PK were accounted for by body weight differences. CYP3A4 activity was similar across the groups. Higher FF systemic exposure was seen following inhaled dosing in Chinese, Japanese and Korean subjects compared with Caucasian subjects. Absolute bioavailability was greater (36%-55%) in all East Asian groups than for Caucasian subjects following inhaled FF 800 μg. Deconvolution analysis suggested inhaled FF resided in the lung of East Asian subjects longer than for Caucasians (time for 90% to be absorbed [t90]: 29.1-30.8 h vs. 21.4 h). In vitro simulation method predicted comparable delivered lung dose across ethnic groups. Serum cortisol weighted mean was similar between Caucasians and Chinese or Koreans, while in Japanese was on average 22% lower than in Caucasians. All FF treatments were safe and well tolerated. Modestly higher (<50%) FF systemic exposure seen in East Asian subjects following inhaled dosing was not associated with a clinically significant effect on serum cortisol, suggesting that a clinical dose adjustment in East Asian subjects is not required. © 2013 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics in Caucasian and Asian subjects residing in the United States.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, Bruce K; Bujac, Sarah R; Elsby, Robert; Azumaya, Connie T; Zalikowski, Julie; Chen, Yusong; Kim, Kenneth; Ambrose, Helen J

    2015-03-01

    Systemic exposure to rosuvastatin in Asian subjects living in Japan or Singapore is approximately twice that observed in Caucasian subjects in Western countries or in Singapore. This study was conducted to determine whether pharmacokinetic differences exist among the most populous Asian subgroups and Caucasian subjects in the USA. Rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics was studied in Chinese, Filipino, Asian-Indian, Korean, Vietnamese, Japanese and Caucasian subjects residing in California. Plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin and metabolites after a single 20-mg dose were determined by mass spectrometric detection. The influence of polymorphisms in SLCO1B1 (T521>C [Val174Ala] and A388>G [Asn130Asp]) and in ABCG2 (C421>A [Gln141Lys]) on exposure to rosuvastatin was also assessed. The average rosuvastatin area under the curve from time zero to time of last quantifiable concentration was between 64 and 84 % higher, and maximum drug concentration was between 70 and 98 % higher in East Asian subgroups compared with Caucasians. Data for Asian-Indians was intermediate to these two ethnic groups at 26 and 29 %, respectively. Similar increases in exposure to N-desmethyl rosuvastatin and rosuvastatin lactone were observed. Rosuvastatin exposure was higher in subjects carrying the SLCO1B1 521C allele compared with that in non-carriers of this allele. Similarly, exposure was higher in subjects carrying the ABCG2 421A allele compared with that in non-carriers. Plasma exposure to rosuvastatin and its metabolites was significantly higher in Asian populations residing in the USA compared with Caucasian subjects living in the same environment. This study suggests that polymorphisms in the SLCO1B1 and ABCG2 genes contribute to the variability in rosuvastatin exposure.

  10. Leptin levels distribution and ethnic background in two populations from Chile: Caucasian and Mapuche groups.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bravo, F; Albala, C; Santos, J L; Yañez, M; Carrasco, E

    1998-10-01

    Leptin, the product of the human ob gene is increased in obese individuals, suggesting resistance to its effect. We examined the relationship of serum leptin levels with respect to obesity, gender and insulin levels in two populations with different ethnic compositions in Chile. Leptin and insulin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and correlated with body mass index (BMI), gender and ethnic background. 79 Caucasian subjects from Santiago and 65 Mapuche natives from the Araucania region, Chile, were included in this study. Leptin concentrations in obese subjects were significantly increased in both ethnic groups in relation to lean status: Caucasian and Mapuche obese 19.3 +/- 11.6 and 10.1 +/- 5.8 (P < 0.001), respectively vs Caucasian and Mapuche lean 10.4 +/- 5.8 and 4.7 +/- 2.9 (P < 0.001, respectively). When we compared Mapuche and Caucasian groups, similar leptin levels were observed among the males of the two populations in both metabolic states (lean and obese). In contrast, the leptin level distributions between women showed a marked difference, having a minor value in the Mapuche women with a comparable value with the male group in this ethnic population. The leptin concentrations are associated with obesity in both ethnic groups in Chile. However, the leptin levels between the Mapuche natives were significantly decreased compared to the Caucasian group. The gender distribution does not seem to be important in the Mapuche natives. The ethnic composition seems to be important in the leptin distribution in the analysed populations.

  11. Influence of ethnic origin (Asian v. Caucasian) and background diet on the bioavailability of dietary isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Vergne, Sébastien; Sauvant, Patrick; Lamothe, Valérie; Chantre, Philippe; Asselineau, Julien; Perez, Paul; Durand, Marlène; Moore, Nicholas; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine

    2009-12-01

    Soya isoflavones: genistein and daidzein are increasingly consumed in Western countries. Their beneficial effects are discussed considering nutrition and health in Asia. The present study aimed to check whether chronic ingestions, ethnic origin and dietary context can influence soya phyto-oestrogen bioavailability. Two prospective trials were carried out to blindly assess the pharmacokinetics after acute and chronic intake of soya-based cheese (45.97 (sd1.57) mg isoflavones) taken once a day for 10 d. Twelve healthy young Asians immersed for 2 months in France were randomised in a cross-over design to compare the influence of a Western v. Asian dietary context. The second trial partly nested in the first one, compared Asians under the Western diet to twelve healthy young male Caucasians under the same diet. All volunteers were non-equol producers. After an acute intake of soya in Western diet, Asians exhibited higher maximum concentration measured in plasma (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for genistein and daidzein than Caucasians (P = 0.005, 0.006, 0.032 and 0.008, respectively). In Caucasians under Western diet, AUC and Cmax values significantly increased after chronic intake. This was not the case for daidzein in Asians whatever the dietary context. For the first time, it is evidenced that on acute intake of soya cheese, Asians absorb soya phyto-oestrogens better than Caucasians, regardless of whether the background diet is Western or Asian. On chronic ingestions, AUC and Cmax values were increased for daidzein and genistein in Caucasians but not in Asians. There are ethnic differences in isoflavone pharmacokinetic and bioavailability. This may influence health outcomes.

  12. Kidney transplantation outcomes in African-, Hispanic- and Caucasian-Americans with lupus.

    PubMed

    Contreras, G; Mattiazzi, A; Schultz, D R; Guerra, G; Ladino, M; Ortega, L M; Garcia-Estrada, M; Ramadugu, P; Gupta, C; Kupin, W L; Roth, D

    2012-01-01

    African-American recipients of kidney transplants with lupus have high allograft failure risk. We studied their risk adjusting for: (1) socio-demographic factors: donor age, gender and race-ethnicity; recipient age, gender, education and insurance; donor-recipient race-ethnicity match; (2) immunologic factors: donor type, panel reactive antibodies, HLA mismatch, ABO blood type compatibility, pre-transplant dialysis, cytomegalovirus risk and delayed graft function (DGF); (3) rejection and recurrent lupus nephritis (RLN). Two thousand four hundred and six African-, 1132 Hispanic-, and 2878 Caucasian-Americans were followed for 12 years after transplantation. African- versus Hispanic- and Caucasian-Americans received more kidneys from deceased donors (71.6%, 57.3% and 55.1%) with higher two HLA loci mismatches for HLA-A (50%, 39.6% and 32.4%), HLA-B (52%, 42.8% and 35.6%) and HLA-DR (30%, 24.5% and 21.1%). They developed more DGF (19.5%, 13.6% and 13.4%). More African- versus Hispanic- and Caucasian-Americans developed rejection (41.7%, 27.6% and 35.9%) and RLN (3.2, 1.8 and 1.8%). 852 African-, 265 Hispanic-, and 747 Caucasian-Americans had allograft failure (p < 0.0001). After adjusting for transplant era, socio-demographic-immunologic differences, rejection and RLN, the increased hazard ratio for allograft failure of African- compared with Caucasian-Americans became non-significant (1.26 [95% confidence interval 0.78-2.04]). African-Americans with lupus have high prevalence of risk factors for allograft failure that can explain poor outcomes.

  13. Differences in mammographic density between Asian and Caucasian populations: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, Nadia; Mariapun, Shivaani; Eriksson, Mikael; Tapia, Jose; Kwan, Pui Yoke; Ho, Weang Kee; Harun, Faizah; Rahmat, Kartini; Czene, Kamila; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Hall, Per; Teo, Soo Hwang

    2017-01-01

    Mammographic density is a measurable and modifiable biomarker that is strongly and independently associated with breast cancer risk. Paradoxically, although Asian women have lower risk of breast cancer, studies of minority Asian women in predominantly Caucasian populations have found that Asian women have higher percent density. In this cross-sectional study, we compared the distribution of mammographic density for a matched cohort of Asian women from Malaysia and Caucasian women from Sweden, and determined if variations in mammographic density could be attributed to population differences in breast cancer risk factors. Volumetric mammographic density was compared for 1501 Malaysian and 4501 Swedish healthy women, matched on age and body mass index. We used multivariable log-linear regression to determine the risk factors associated with mammographic density and mediation analysis to identify factors that account for differences in mammographic density between the two cohorts. Compared to Caucasian women, percent density was 2.0% higher among Asian women (p < 0.001), and dense volume was 5.7 cm(3) higher among pre-menopausal Asian women (p < 0.001). Dense volume was 3.0 cm(3) lower among post-menopausal Asian women (p = 0.009) compared to post-menopausal Caucasian women, and this difference was attributed to population differences in height, weight, and parity (p < 0.001). Our analysis suggests that among post-menopausal women, population differences in mammographic density and risk to breast cancer may be accounted for by height, weight, and parity. Given that pre-menopausal Asian and Caucasian women have similar population risk to breast cancer but different dense volume, development of more appropriate biomarkers of risk in pre-menopausal women is required.

  14. Differences in Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease between African American and Caucasian Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Rhew, Elisa Y.; Manzi, Susan M.; Dyer, Alan R.; Kao, Amy H.; Danchenko, Natalya; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; McPherson, David D.; Pearce, William; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Kondos, George T.; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind

    2009-01-01

    Racial differences exist in disease rates and mortality in both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare the frequency of and risk factors for subclinical CVD in African-American (AA) and Caucasian women with SLE and no prior CVD events. Traditional CVD risk factors and SLE-related factors were assessed in 309 SLE women. Subclinical CVD was assessed by carotid ultrasound to measure intima-medial thickness (IMT) and plaque, and electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) to measure coronary artery calcium (CAC). AA had less education, higher body mass index, blood pressure, lipoprotein(a), CRP, fibrinogen, and ESR, but lower albumin; more and longer duration of corticosteroid use; higher SLE disease activity and damage; and more had dsDNA antibodies compared to Caucasian women, after adjustment for age and study-site. More AA had carotid plaque (adjusted OR 1.94, 95%CI 1.03, 3.65) and higher carotid IMT (0.620 vs. 0.605mm, p=0.07) compared with Caucasians, but similar CAC. Multivariate analysis included risk factor variables significantly different between the racial groups and associated with plaque: blood pressure, current corticosteroid use, SLE disease activity and damage. All factors contributed, but no individual risk factor fully accounted for the association between race and plaque. In conclusion, the presence of carotid plaque was higher in AA compared with Caucasian women with SLE, in contrast to studies of non-SLE subjects, where AA have similar or less plaque than Caucasians. A combination of SLE-related and traditional CVD risk factors explained the racial difference in plaque burden. PMID:19138649

  15. Differences in subclinical cardiovascular disease between African American and Caucasian women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Rhew, Elisa Y; Manzi, Susan M; Dyer, Alan R; Kao, Amy H; Danchenko, Natalya; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; McPherson, David D; Pearce, William; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Kondos, George T; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind

    2009-02-01

    Racial differences exist in disease rates and mortality in both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare the frequency and risk factors for subclinical CVD in African American (AA) and Caucasian women with SLE and no prior CVD events. Traditional CVD risk factors and SLE-related factors were assessed in 309 SLE women. Subclinical CVD was assessed by carotid ultrasound to measure intimamedial thickness (IMT) and plaque, and electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) was used to measure coronary artery calcium (CAC). AA women had less education and higher levels of body mass index, blood pressure, lipoprotein(a), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). However, AA women had lower albumin, more and longer duration of corticosteroid use, higher SLE disease activity and damage, and more dsDNA antibodies compared with Caucasian women after adjustment for age and study site. More AA women had carotid plaque (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-3.65) and higher carotid IMT (0.620 vs 0.605 mm, P = 0.07) but similar CAC compared with Caucasians. A multivariate analysis revealed that the following risk factor variables were significantly different between the racial groups and associated with plaque: blood pressure, current corticosteroid use, SLE disease activity, and SLE damage. All factors contributed to the result, but no individual risk factor fully accounted for the association between race and plaque. In conclusion, the presence of carotid plaque was higher in AA compared with Caucasian women with SLE, in contrast to studies of non-SLE subjects, in which AA have similar or less plaque than Caucasians. A combination of SLE-related and traditional CVD risk factors explained the racial difference in plaque burden.

  16. Peak oxygen consumption and skeletal muscle bioenergetics in African-American and Caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Suminski, R R; Robertson, R J; Goss, F L; Arslanian, S

    2000-12-01

    To compare peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism between nine African-American and nine Caucasian men. Subjects performed arm ergometry to exhaustion. On a separate occasion 31phosphorous-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-NMRS) was used to determine the concentrations of phosphorous (Pi), phosphocreatine (PCr), and the intracellular pH of the flexor carpi radialis before and during 4 min of steady-state, wrist flexion exercise performed at 28% (15 W) of each subject's peak voluntary contraction. The Pi/PCr ratio was used as an indirect measure of skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism. VO2peak was lower in the African-Americans compared with the Caucasians (means +/- SD, 19.4 +/- 3.4 vs 23.3 +/- 4.0 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) (P < 0.05). No significant between group difference was noted in the Pi/PCr ratio at rest (0.10 +/- 0.02 both groups). However, resting pH was lower in the African-Americans (6.99 +/- 0.04 vs 7.03 +/- 0.05) (P < 0.05). Exercise caused an increase in the Pi/PCr ratio in the African-Americans (1.06 +/- 0.11), which was higher than the increase observed in the Caucasians (0.50 +/- 0.14) (P < 0.05). pH levels decreased to a lower level during exercise in the African-Americans (6.89 +/- 0.04) than in the Caucasians (6.98 +/- 0.05) (P < 0.05). This select group of African-American men achieved a lower VO2peak than the Caucasian men. Variations in skeletal muscle oxidative metabolic components may explain this difference.

  17. Discordance of Somatic Mutations Between Asian and Caucasian Patient Populations with Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jia, Feifei; Teer, Jamie K; Knepper, Todd C; Lee, Jae K; Zhou, Hong-Hao; He, Yi-Jing; McLeod, Howard L

    2017-04-01

    Differences in response to cancer treatments have been observed among racially and ethnically diverse gastric cancer (GC) patient populations. In the era of targeted therapy, mutation profiling of cancer is a crucial aspect of making therapeutic decisions. Mapping driver gene mutations for the GC patient population as a whole has significant potential to advance precision therapy. GC patients with sequencing data (N = 473) were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA; n = 295), Moffitt Cancer Center Total Cancer Care™ (TCC; n = 33), and three published studies (n = 145). In addition, relevant somatic mutation frequency data were obtained from cBioPortal, the TCC database, and an in-house analysis tool, as well as relevant publications. We found that the somatic mutation rates of several driver genes vary significantly between GC patients of Asian and Caucasian descent, with substantial variation across different geographic regions. Non-parametric statistical tests were performed to examine the significant differences in protein-altering somatic mutations between Asian and Caucasian GC patient groups. The frequencies of somatic mutations of five genes were: APC (Asian: Caucasian 6.06 vs. 14.40%, p = 0.0076), ARIDIA (20.7 vs. 32.1%, p = 0.01), KMT2A (4.04 vs. 12.35%, p = 0.003), PIK3CA (9.6 vs. 18.52%, p = 0.01), and PTEN (2.52 vs. 9.05%, p = 0.008), showing significant differences between Asian and Caucasian GC patients. Our study found significant differences in protein-altering somatic mutation frequencies in diverse geographic populations. In particular, we found that the somatic patterns may offer better insight and important opportunities for both targeted drug development and precision therapeutic strategies between Asian and Caucasian GC patients.

  18. Autonomic Recovery Is Delayed in Chinese Compared with Caucasian following Treadmill Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peng; Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant M.; Lane, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Baynard, Tracy; Hu, Min; Li, Shichang; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Caucasian populations have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) when compared with their Chinese counterparts and CVD is associated with autonomic function. It is unknown whether autonomic function during exercise recovery differs between Caucasians and Chinese. The present study investigated autonomic recovery following an acute bout of treadmill exercise in healthy Caucasians and Chinese. Sixty-two participants (30 Caucasian and 32 Chinese, 50% male) performed an acute bout of treadmill exercise at 70% of heart rate reserve. Heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were obtained during 5-min epochs at pre-exercise, 30-min, and 60-min post-exercise. HRV was assessed using frequency [natural logarithm of high (LnHF) and low frequency (LnLF) powers, normalized high (nHF) and low frequency (nLF) powers, and LF/HF ratio] and time domains [Root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), natural logarithm of RMSSD (LnRMSSD) and R–R interval (RRI)]. Spontaneous BRS included both up-up and down-down sequences. At pre-exercise, no group differences were observed for any HR, HRV and BRS parameters. During exercise recovery, significant race-by-time interactions were observed for LnHF, nHF, nLF, LF/HF, LnRMSSD, RRI, HR, and BRS (up-up). The declines in LnHF, nHF, RMSSD, RRI and BRS (up-up) and the increases in LF/HF, nLF and HR were blunted in Chinese when compared to Caucasians from pre-exercise to 30-min to 60-min post-exercise. Chinese exhibited delayed autonomic recovery following an acute bout of treadmill exercise. This delayed autonomic recovery may result from greater sympathetic dominance and extended vagal withdrawal in Chinese. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-IPR-15006684 PMID:26784109

  19. Say “Adios” to the American Dream? The Interplay Between Ethnic and National Identity Among Latino and Caucasian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Devos, Thierry; Gavin, Kelly; Quintana, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1–3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification than Latino participants (Studies 2 and 3). In addition, ethnic American associations accounted for the strength of national identification for Caucasian participants, but not for Latino participants (Study 2). Finally, ethnic differences in national identification among individuals who exclude Latino Americans from the national identity emerged when persistent ethnic disparities were primed, but not when increasing equalities were stressed (Study 3). In sum, ethnic American associations account for the merging versus dissociation between ethnic and national identifications and reflect a long-standing ethnic hierarchy in American society. PMID:20099963

  20. Say "adios" to the American dream? The interplay between ethnic and national identity among Latino and Caucasian Americans.

    PubMed

    Devos, Thierry; Gavin, Kelly; Quintana, Francisco J

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1-3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification than Latino participants (Studies 2 and 3). In addition, ethnic American associations accounted for the strength of national identification for Caucasian participants, but not for Latino participants (Study 2). Finally, ethnic differences in national identification among individuals who exclude Latino Americans from the national identity emerged when persistent ethnic disparities were primed, but not when increasing equalities were stressed (Study 3). In sum, ethnic American associations account for the merging versus dissociation between ethnic and national identifications and reflect a long-standing ethnic hierarchy in American society. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Elemental content of anagen hairs in a normal Caucasian population studies with proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    SciTech Connect

    Forslind, B.; Li, H.K.; Malmqvist, K.G.; Wiegleb, D.

    1986-01-01

    The elemental content of anagen hair fibers in a Caucasian population of healthy females and males in the age range 10-69 years was performed to constitute a baseline for further studies of pathological conditions. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analyses were performed on single hair fibers in triplicate from 103 individuals in order to determine sulfur, zinc, calcium, and chlorine content. The hair fibers were all anagen hairs collected from a site little influenced by genetic and hormonal influences 1.5 cm above the right ear of the probands. An area 5-8 mm from the follicle bottom was chosen for the analysis in all cases to minimize effect of hair-do contamination. The average sulfur content was 0.049 g/g and the average zinc content 170 micrograms/g. These results were not significantly influenced by chloroform/ethanol rinsing before analysis. The calcium and chlorine contents were 330 micrograms/g and 0.0033 g/g respectively. The latter data are expected to be more seriously influenced by external factors (e.g., contamination) than sulfur and zinc. No correlation between elemental concentration and sex was found for sulfur and zinc in the present material. PIXE analysis of single hair fibers yields valuable information on the elemental composition of hair fibers and can be rapidly and efficiently performed after simple mounting procedures.

  2. Offender and victim characteristics of registered female sexual offenders in Texas: a proposed typology of female sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Vandiver, Donna M; Kercher, Glen

    2004-04-01

    Victim and offender characteristic of all registered adult female sexual offenders in Texas (N = 471) were examined. The most common offenses the females were arrested for were indecency with a child--sexual contact, sexual assault on a child, and aggravated sexual assault on a child. The majority (88%) of the females were Caucasian and the ages ranged from 18 to 77 (M = 32). The results of Hierarchical Loglinear Modeling yielded a complex relationship between offender and victim characteristics; thus, identification of preferred victims is mitigated by more than one variable. Additionally, the employment of cluster analysis yielded 6 types of female sexual offenders. The most common group includes 146 offenders, heterosexual nurturers. They were the least likely to have an arrest for a sexual assault. The victims were males who averaged 12 years of age. The other types of offenders included, noncriminal homosexual offenders, female sexual predators, young adult child exploiters, homosexual criminals, and aggressive homosexual offenders.

  3. Breast Cancer in Elderly Caucasian Women-An Institution-Based Study of Correlation between Breast Cancer Prognostic Markers, TNM Stage, and Overall Survival.

    PubMed

    Orucevic, Amila; Curzon, Matthew; Curzon, Christina; Heidel, Robert E; McLoughlin, James M; Panella, Timothy; Bell, John

    2015-07-31

    There is still a paucity of data on how breast cancer (BC) biology influences outcomes in elderly patients. We evaluated whether ER/PR/HER2 subtype and TNM stage of invasive BC had a significant impact on overall survival (OS) in a cohort of 232 elderly Caucasian female patients (≥70 year old (y/o)) from our institution over a ten-year interval (January 1998-July 2008). Five ER/PR/HER2 BC subtypes classified per 2011 St. Gallen International Expert Consensus recommendations were further subclassified into three subtypes (traditionally considered "favorable" subtype-ER+/PR+/HER2-, and traditionally considered "unfavorable" BC subtypes: HER2+ and triple negative). OS was measured comparing these categories using Kaplan Meier curves and Cox regression analysis, when controlled for TNM stage. The majority of our patients (178/232 = 76.8%) were of the "favorable" BC subtype; 23.2% patients were with "unfavorable" subtype (HER2+ = 12% (28/232) and triple negative = 11.2% (26/232)). Although a trend for better OS was noted in HER2+ patients (68%) vs. 56% in ER+/PR+ HER2- or 58% in triple negative patients, "favorable" BC subtype was not significantly predictive of better OS (p = 0.285). TNM stage was predictive of OS (p < 0.001). These results are similar to our published studies on Caucasian BC patients of all ages in which ER/PR/HER2 status was not predictive of OS, irrespective of classification system used.

  4. Female condoms.

    PubMed

    Bounds, W

    1997-06-01

    Early versions of a female condom were available in the 1920s and 1960s, but they were little used and soon forgotten. It took the arrival of AIDS, and the urgent need for a wider range of female-controlled barrier techniques, to rekindle scientific interest in this method. In the 1980s, three groups in Europe and the USA began development of new female condom designs, comprising 'Femidom (Reality)', the 'Bikini Condom', and 'Women's Choice'. Apart from differences in their physical design, Femidom differs from the others in that it is made of a polyurethane membrane, which has several advantages over latex. Of the three, Femidom is the most advanced in terms of development and clinical testing, and it is the only one to have reached the marketing stage. Laboratory studies and clinical trials suggest that its contraceptive efficacy is similar to that documented for the male condom, though a direct comparison is not possible because no comparative clinical trials have, as yet, been undertaken. Reported 'typical-use' pregnancy rates range from 12.4 to 22.2% at 6 months of use in the USA and Latin America, respectively, while a study in the UK observed a rate of 15% at 12 months. As with all barrier methods, most failures appear to be associated with poor compliance or incorrect use. 'Perfect-use' pregnancy rates were substantially lower, indicating that Femidom can be very effective, if used consistently and correctly. Evidence for Femidom's effectiveness to protect against transmission of sexual disease-causing organisms, including HIV, is still very limited and based largely on laboratory studies. Whilst, in theory, the condom should confer reliable protection, its efficacy in clinical use will depend upon correct and consistent use and upon the product's ability to maintain an effective physical barrier throughout penetrative intercourse. In this respect, the results of recent and ongoing clinical studies are expected with much interest. How valuable Femidom will

  5. Sex differences in cyclosporine pharmacokinetics and ABCB1 gene expression in mononuclear blood cells in African American and Caucasian renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Tornatore, Kathleen M; Brazeau, Daniel; Dole, Kiran; Danison, Ryan; Wilding, Gregory; Leca, Nicolae; Gundroo, Aijaz; Gillis, Kathryn; Zack, Julia; DiFrancesco, Robin; Venuto, Rocco C

    2013-10-01

    Cyclosporine exhibits pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variability in renal transplant recipients (RTR) attributed to P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ABCB1 efflux transporter that influences bioavailability and intracellular distribution. Data on race and sex influences on P-gp in RTR are lacking. We investigated sex and race influences on cyclosporine pharmacokinetics and ABCB1 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Fifty-four female and male African American and Caucasian stable RTR receiving cyclosporine and mycophenolic acid completed a 12-hour study. ABCB1 gene expression was assessed in PBMCs pre-dose and 4 hours after cyclosporine. Statistical analysis used mixed effects models on transformed, normalized ABCB1 expression and cyclosporine pharmacokinetics. Sex and race differences were observed for the dose-normalized area under the concentration curve (AUC0-12 /Dose) [P = .0004], apparent clearance [P = .0004] and clearance/body mass index (CL/BMI) [P = .027] with slowest clearance and greatest drug exposure in females. Sex and race differences were found pre-dose and 4 hours for ABCB1 [P < .0001] with females having less expression than males. ABCB1 differences were observed between pre-dose and 4 hours [P = .0009]. Female RTR had slower cyclosporine clearance and lower ABCB1 gene expression in PBMC suggesting reduced efflux activity and greater intracellular drug exposure. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Second generation Tibetan lowlanders acclimatize to high altitude more quickly than Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Marconi, Claudio; Marzorati, Mauro; Grassi, Bruno; Basnyat, Buddha; Colombini, Angelo; Kayser, Bengt; Cerretelli, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    Tibetan highlanders develop at altitude peak aerobic power levels (V̇O2peak) close to those of Caucasians at sea level. In order to establish whether this feature is genetic and, as a consequence, retained by Tibetan lowlanders, altitude-induced changes of peak aerobic performance (ΔV̇O2peak) were assessed in four groups of volunteers with different ethnic, altitude exposure and fitness characteristics, i.e. eight untrained second-generation Tibetans (Tib 2) born and living at 1300 m; seven altitude Sherpas living at ∼2800–3500 m; and 10 untrained and five trained Caucasians. Measurements were carried out at sea level or at Kathmandu (1300 m, Nepal) (PRE), and after 2–4 (ALT1), 14–16 (ALT2), and 26–28 (ALT3) days at 5050 m. At ALT3, ΔV̇O2peak of untrained and trained Caucasians was –31% and –46%, respectively. By contrast, ΔV̇O2peak of Tib 2 and Sherpas was –8% and –15%, respectively. At ALT3, peak heart rate (HRpeak) of untrained and trained Caucasians was 148 ± 11 and 149 ± 7 beats min−1, respectively; blood oxygen saturation at peak exercise (SaO2peak) was 76 ± 6% and 73 ± 6%, and haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) was 19.4 ± 1.0 and 18.6 ± 1.2 g dl−1, respectively. Compared to Caucasians, Tib 2 and Sherpas exhibited at ALT3 higher HRpeak (179 ± 9 and 171 ± 4 beats min−1, P < 0.001), lower [Hb] (16.6 ± 0.6 and 17.4 ± 0.9 g dl−1, respectively, P < 0.001), and slightly but non-significantly greater average SaO2peak values (82 ± 6 and 80 ± 7%). The above findings and the time course of adjustment of the investigated variables suggest that Tibetan lowlanders acclimatize to chronic hypoxia more quickly than Caucasians, independent of the degree of fitness of the latter. PMID:14766936

  7. Association of CYP1B1 haplotypes and breast cancer risk in Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yifan; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; García-Closas, Montserrat; Newcomb, Polly A.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Hampton, John M.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Egan, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    CYP1B1 is a key enzyme involved in estrogen metabolism and may play an important role in the development and progression of breast cancer. In a population-based case-control study, we examined eight CYP1B1 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) in relation to invasive breast cancer risk. Analyses were based on 1,655 cases and 1,470 controls; all women were Caucasian. Among the individual SNPs, one (rs9341266) was associated with increased risk of breast cancer (ptrend = 0.021), although the association was no longer significant after adjusting for multiple tests. A marginally significant haplotype effect was identified (pglobal = 0.015), with significant associations identified for 2 uncommon haplotypes comprising 4% of the controls. Results suggest that genetic variation in CYP1B1 has at most a minor influence on breast cancer susceptibility among Caucasian women. PMID:19293312

  8. Physical activities and sedentary pursuits in African American and Caucasian girls.

    PubMed

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R; Felton, Gwen M; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S; Dishman, Rod K; Trost, Stewart G

    2004-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure participation in physical activities and sedentary pursuits. The most frequently reported physical activities were walking, basketball, jogging or running, bicycling, and social dancing. Differences between groups were found in 11 physical activities and 3 sedentary pursuits. Participation rates were higher in African American girls (p < or = .001) for social dancing, basketball, watching television, and church attendance but lower in calisthenics, ballet and other dance, jogging or running, rollerblading, soccer, softball or baseball, using an exercise machine, swimming, and homework. Cultural differences of groups should be considered when planning interventions to promote physical activity.

  9. Attractiveness in African American and Caucasian Women: Is Beauty in the Eyes of the Observer?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Dawnavan S.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups. PMID:19962117

  10. Nutrient intake and meal patterns of Micmac indian and Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J L; Williams, C N; Weldon, K L

    1977-06-18

    North American Indians have a higher morbidity from gallbladder disease, diabetes mellitus and obesity than other North Americans; this may result from their food intake. Nutrient intake and meal patterns were compared in 120 Micmac Indian and 115 Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS. Findings were compared with the Canadian Dietary Standard (CDS) and the Nutrition Canada national and Indian survey reports. The diet of Indian women had higher carbohydrate, lower protein and lower fibre content than that of Caucasian women, who derived a higher percentage of energy from protein and had a higher intake of vitamin A, niacin and ascorbic acid. Overnight fast was longer among Indian women. A high percentage of all women studied reported diets that did not reach the CDS for total energy intake in kilocalories or for calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin or riboflavin.

  11. Nutrient intake and meal patterns of Micmac indian and Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, J. L.; Williams, C. N.; Weldon, K. L.

    1977-01-01

    North American Indians have a higher morbidity from gallbladder disease, diabetes mellitus and obesity than other North Americans; this may result from their food intake. Nutrient intake and meal patterns were compared in 120 Micmac Indian and 115 Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS. Findings were compared with the Canadian Dietary Standard (CDS) and the Nutrition Canada national and Indian survey reports. The diet of Indian women had higher carbohydrate, lower protein and lower fibre content than that of Caucasian women, who derived a higher percentage of energy from protein and had a higher intake of vitamin A, niacin and ascorbic acid. Overnight fast was longer among Indian women. A high percentage of all women studied reported diets that did not reach the CDS for total energy intake in kilocalories or for calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin or riboflavin. PMID:861896

  12. Disordered eating in African American and Caucasian women: the role of ethnic identity.

    PubMed

    Shuttlesworth, Mary E; Zotter, Deanne

    2011-01-01

    The influential roles of culture and ethnic identity are frequently cited in developing disordered eating and body dissatisfaction, constituting both protective and risk factors. For African American women, strongly identifying with African American cultural beauty ideals may protect against disordered eating to lose weight, but may actually increase risk in development of disordered eating directed at weight gain, such as binge eating. This study compares African American and Caucasian women on disordered eating measures, positing that African American women show greater risk for binge eating due to the impact of ethnic identity on body dissatisfaction. Findings indicate low levels of ethnic identity represent a risk factor for African American women, increasing the likelihood of showing greater binge eating and bulimic pathology. In Caucasian women, high levels of ethnic identity constitute a risk factor, leading to higher levels of both binge eating and global eating pathology. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed.

  13. Differences in gene mutations between Chinese and Caucasian cystic fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Baoying

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cystic fibrosis (CF) is rarely seen in Asian populations. We diagnosed two CF cases. One of them had a novel mutation c.870‐1G>C in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. There have been 38 Chinese CF patients reported in literature from 1974 until the present (2016), 25 different mutations were identified. Only one of these mutations (R553X) is in the Caucasian CF screening panel. The mutations identified in Chinese CF patients are very different from the common Caucasian gene mutations. The CFTR gene mutation spectrum for the Chinese population requires further investigation. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:E11–E14. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatric Pulmonology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27717243

  14. Measurement and Structural Invariance of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Hispanic and Caucasian Firefighters.

    PubMed

    Arbona, Consuelo; Fan, Weihua; Schwartz, Jonathan; Pao, Christine; Tran, Jana K; Buser, Sam

    2017-01-01

    This study compared across Hispanic and Caucasian firefighters the relative fit of the four-factor Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria posttraumatic stress disorder models to the more recently proposed Dysphoric Arousal five-factor model. As hypothesized, the Dysphoric Arousal five-factor model emerged as the best fitting model within each ethnic group and it also showed measurement invariance between groups (configural invariance). Results of multigroup confirmatory factor analyses and a bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals analytic approach indicated that the five factor model also demonstrated invariance in factor loadings (metric invariance) and item-level intercepts (scalar invariance) across the two ethnic groups. Results indicate that the Dysphoric Arousal five factor model captures similar psychological constructs across Caucasian and English-speaking Hispanic firefighters. Therefore, observed factor scores are comparable across ethnic groups and can be combined when examining predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder severity.

  15. MAOA regulates antisocial personality in Caucasians with no history of physical abuse

    PubMed Central

    Reti, Irving M.; Xu, Jerry Z.; Yanofski, Jason; McKibben, Jodi; Uhart, Magdalena; Cheng, Yu-Jen; Zandi, Peter; Bienvenu, Oscar J.; Samuels, Jack; Willour, Virginia; Kasch-Semenza, Laura; Costa, Paul; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Eaton, William W.; Nestadt, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Objective Preclinical and human family studies clearly link MAOA to aggression and antisocial personality. The 30bp VNTR in the MAOA promoter regulates MAOA levels but its effects on antisocial personality (ASP) in humans are unclear. Methods We evaluated the association of the VNTR of the MAOA promoter with DSM-IV antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) traits in a community sample of 435 participants from the Hopkins Epidemiology of Personality Disorders Study Results We did not find an association between the activity of the MAOA allele and ASPD traits, however amongst Caucasians, when subjects with a history of childhood physical abuse were excluded, the remaining subjects with low activity alleles had ASPD trait counts that were 41% greater than those with high activity alleles (p<0.05). Conclusion The high activity MAOA allele is protective against ASP amongst Caucasians with no history of physical abuse, lending support to a link between MAOA expression and antisocial behavior. PMID:21295226

  16. Association of CYP1B1 haplotypes and breast cancer risk in Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yifan; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; García-Closas, Montserrat; Newcomb, Polly A; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Hampton, John M; Chanock, Stephen J; Haines, Jonathan L; Egan, Kathleen M

    2009-04-01

    CYP1B1 is a key enzyme involved in estrogen metabolism and may play an important role in the development and progression of breast cancer. In a population-based case-control study, we examined eight CYP1B1 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in relation to invasive breast cancer risk. Analyses were based on 1,655 cases and 1,470 controls; all women were Caucasian. Among the individual single nucleotide polymorphisms, one (rs9341266) was associated with increased risk of breast cancer (P(trend) = 0.021), although the association was no longer significant after adjusting for multiple tests. A marginally significant haplotype effect was identified (P(global) = 0.015), with significant associations identified for 2 uncommon haplotypes comprising 4% of the controls. Results suggest that genetic variation in CYP1B1 has at most a minor influence on breast cancer susceptibility among Caucasian women.

  17. Attractiveness in African American and Caucasian women: is beauty in the eyes of the observer?

    PubMed

    Davis, Dawnavan S; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M

    2010-01-01

    Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups.

  18. A new distribution of Caucasian wingnut (Pterocarya fraxinifolia (Poiret) Spach) in the Kahramanmaras region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Avsar, Mahmut D; Ok, Tolga

    2004-01-01

    Caucasian wingnut (Pterocarya fraxinifolia (Poiret) Spach) is a relict tree species having limited natural distribution in Turkey. In this study, a new distribution of this species in the Kahramanmaras region was explained. This distribution occurs in Onsenhopuru and Yavuzlar villages and Yesilyore town of Turkoglu district, at elevations between 600 and 640 m along Orcan stream, and continues about 4 km. In this area, Caucasian wingnut had about 100 trees. This distribution area of the species, quite important for biodiversity, should be protected and the existing individuals should be evaluated as a gene resource. Especially vegetative reproduction of the species should be started and the seedlings obtained should be used at the margins of lakes and streams, parks and large gardens, avenues, boulevards, and streets in the region.

  19. Physiologic and Endocrine Correlates of Overweight and Obesity in African Americans and Caucasians

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    metabolic syndrome , African Americans, Caucasians, exercise, meal feeding 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome than CA women. Our preliminary data indicate that obese men and women have several characteristics consistent with poor...next two years we will continue to examine differences between CA and AA in terms of potential underlying causes of the metabolic syndrome and how

  20. Physiologic and Endocrine Correlates of Overweight and Obesity in African Americans and Caucasians

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    O’Neal W Jr; African-American Lipid and Cardiovascular Council. The Metabolic Syndrome in African Americans: a review . Ethn Dis. 2003;13(4):414-28. 6...sensitivity, glucocorticoids, metabolic syndrome , African Americans, Caucasians, exercise, meal feeding 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...between men and women. Men have a greater maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) (Men: 44.6 ± 1.2 vs. Women 36.1 ± 1.4 ml/kg/min), waist circumference (Men

  1. Optimization of lactobionic acid production by Acetobacter orientalis isolated from Caucasian fermented milk, "Caspian Sea yogurt".

    PubMed

    Kiryu, Takaaki; Yamauchi, Kouhei; Masuyama, Araki; Ooe, Kenichi; Kimura, Takashi; Kiso, Taro; Nakano, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    We have reported that lactobionic acid is produced from lactose by Acetobacter orientalis in traditional Caucasian fermented milk. To maximize the application of lactobionic acid, we investigated favorable conditions for the preparation of resting A. orientalis cells and lactose oxidation. The resting cells, prepared under the most favorable conditions, effectively oxidized 2-10% lactose at 97.2 to 99.7 mol % yield.

  2. Inflammation, obesity and cardiovascular function in African and Caucasian women from South Africa: the POWIRS study.

    PubMed

    Schutte, A E; van Vuuren, D; van Rooyen, J M; Huisman, H W; Schutte, R; Malan, L; Malan, N T

    2006-11-01

    The integrated relationship between inflammation, obesity and cardiovascular disease is currently a subject of much research interest. These specific relationships, however, have not been studied in-depth in South African population groups in order to determine the role of ethnicity. It is known that Africans, compared to Caucasians, suffer from a high prevalence of hypertension. It was therefore hypothesized that the levels of inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen and leptin) are higher in Africans compared to Caucasians and are notably associated with cardiovascular dysfunction in Africans. Apparently healthy African (N=102) and Caucasian (N=115) women, matched for age and body mass index (BMI), were recruited. Leptin, hsCRP, fibrinogen and lipid levels, waist circumference (WC), BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cardiac output (CO), total peripheral resistance (TPR) and Windkessel compliance were measured. Results showed that the levels of leptin, hsCRP and fibrinogen were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the African women. The inflammatory markers correlated strongly with cardiovascular parameters, age and obesity (BMI, WC) in both groups, but after adjusting for age and obesity, none of the correlations were significant anymore. Multiple regression analyses (with leptin, hsCRP or fibrinogen as dependent variable) showed that only leptin levels of African women were explained by cardiovascular parameters (BP, TPR and CO). In conclusion, even though African women had significantly higher leptin, hsCRP, fibrinogen and blood pressure levels than Caucasian women, no cardiovascular parameters explained the variation in the inflammatory markers (except for leptin levels of African women).

  3. Kidney allograft survival of African American and Caucasian American recipients with lupus.

    PubMed

    Contreras, G; Li, H; Gonzalez-Suarez, M; Isakova, T; Scialla, J J; Pedraza, F; Mattiazzi, A; Diaz-Wong, R; Sageshima, J; Brito, Y; Guerra, G; Acevedo, B; Sajid Ali, A; Kershaw, T J; Chen, L; Burke, G W; Kupin, W; Ciancio, G; Roth, D

    2014-02-01

    African Americans with lupus who receive kidney transplants have high prevalence of predictors of allograft failure, which can explain their poor outcomes. Of 1223 African Americans and 1029 Caucasian Americans with lupus who received kidney transplants from deceased donors between 1987 and 2006 with complete records in the UNOS program, 741 pairs were matched in 16 predictors employing a predicted probability of group membership. The primary outcome was allograft failure. Main secondary outcomes were rejection, allograft failure due to rejection, and mortality. Matched pairs were predominantly women (82%) with a mean age of 39 years. Twenty-four percent of recipients received kidneys from expanded criteria donors. African Americans and Caucasian Americans matched well (p ≥ 0.05): donor age, gender and race; recipient age, gender, education and insurance; dialysis prior to transplant, kidneys from expanded criteria donors, cold ischemia time, history of prior kidney transplant, panel reactive antibodies, human leukocyte antigens mismatch, blood type compatibility, transplant Era, and follow-up time. Contrary to the unmatched cohort with significantly higher allograft failure rate (events per 100 patient-years) in African Americans compared to Caucasian Americans (10.49 vs 6.18, p<0.001), matched pairs had similar allograft failure rates (8.41 vs 7.81, p=0.418). Matched pairs also had similar rates of rejections (9.82 vs 9.39, p=0.602), allograft failure due to rejection (6.19 vs 5.71, p=0.453), and mortality (2.79 vs 3.52, p=0.097). In lupus recipients of kidney transplants from deceased donors, African American and Caucasian Americans have similar allograft failure rates when predictors are matched between groups.

  4. Association between Apolipoprotein E genotype and cerebral palsy is not confirmed in a Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Gai L; Gibson, Catherine S; Goldwater, Paul N; Haan, Eric A; Priest, Kevin; Dekker, Gustaaf A; MacLennan, Alastair H

    2008-11-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) plays a significant role in lipid metabolism and has been implicated in the growth and repair of injured neurons. Two small studies have suggested an association between APOE genotype and cerebral palsy. We investigated if APOE genotype is associated with an increased risk for cerebral palsy, influences the type of cerebral palsy or interacts with prenatal viral infection to influence risk of cerebral palsy. The population-based case-control study comprised newborn screening cards of 443 Caucasian patients with cerebral palsy and 883 Caucasian matched controls. APOE genotyping was performed on DNA extracted from dried blood spots. Allelic and genotypic frequencies did not differ between cases and controls and combined frequencies were 0.10 (epsilon2), 0.76 (epsilon3), 0.14 (epsilon4), 0.03 (epsilon2/epsilon2), 0.10 (epsilon2/epsilon3), 0.03 (epsilon2/epsilon4), 0.02 (epsilon4/epsilon4), 0.21 (epsilon3/epsilon4), 0.61 (epsilon3/epsilon3). APOE genotype was correlated with cerebral palsy, type of cerebral palsy, gestation at birth and the presence of viral nucleic acids detected in previous work. Analysis by gestational age (all gestational ages, >/=37, 32-36 and <32 weeks) and type of cerebral palsy (all types, diplegia, hemiplegia and quadriplegia) showed no association between APOE genotype and cerebral palsy in this Caucasian population. An association between prenatal viral infection, APOE genotype and cerebral palsy was not demonstrated. These results did not confirm an association between APOE genotype, cerebral palsy, type of cerebral palsy and prenatal infection in a Caucasian population. Given the low frequency of APOE epsilon2 and some of the heterozygote and homozygote combinations in this study, a larger study is assessing this further.

  5. Research Lumbar Punctures among African Americans and Caucasians: Perception Predicts Experience

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Jennifer C.; Parker, Monica W.; Watts, Kelly D.; Kollhoff, Alexander; Tsvetkova, Dobromira Z.; Hu, William T.

    2016-01-01

    African Americans are under-represented in Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-related biomarker studies, and it has been speculated that mistrust plays a major factor in the recruitment of African Americans for studies involving invasive procedures such as the lumbar puncture (LP). We set out to determine factors associated with non-participation in a biomarker study aiming to explore cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarker differences between older African Americans and Caucasians. We also surveyed participants’ procedure-related perception (a standard medical procedure vs. a frightening invasive procedure) and reluctance, as well as the rate and type of post-procedure discomfort and complications. Among 288 subjects approached for study participation, 145 (50.3%) refused participation with concerns over LP being the most commonly reported reason. Relatively more African Americans than Caucasians reported concerns over LP as the main reason for non-participation (46% vs. 25%, p = 0.03), but more African Americans also did not provide a specific reason for non-participation. Among those who completed study participation (including the LP), African Americans and Caucasians were similar in pre-LP perceptions and reluctance, as well as post-LP rates of discomfort or complication. Perceiving LP as a frightening invasive procedure, not race, is associated with increased likelihood of post-LP discomfort or complication (RR 6.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1–37.0). Our results indicate that LP is a well perceived procedure in a cohort of African American and Caucasian research participants, and is associated with few serious complications. The pre-procedure perception that the LP is a frightening invasive procedure significantly increases the risk of self-reported discomfort of complications, and African Americans may be more likely to turn down study participation because of the LP. Future studies will need to address factors associated with negative LP perceptions to further

  6. Genetic association analysis highlights new loci that modulate hematological trait variation in Caucasians and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Ken Sin; Wilson, James G.; Lange, Leslie A.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Galarneau, Geneviève; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Keating, Brendan J.; McCarroll, Steven A.; Mohler, Emile R.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Palmas, Walter; Tang, Weihong; Tracy, Russell P.

    2012-01-01

    Red blood cell, white blood cell, and platelet measures, including their count, sub-type and volume, are important diagnostic and prognostic clinical parameters for several human diseases. To identify novel loci associated with hematological traits, and compare the architecture of these phenotypes between ethnic groups, the CARe Project genotyped 49,094 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that capture variation in ~2,100 candidate genes in DNA of 23,439 Caucasians and 7,112 African Americans from five population-based cohorts. We found strong novel associations between erythrocyte phenotypes and the glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) A-allele in African Americans (rs1050828, P < 2.0 × 10−13, T-allele associated with lower red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and higher mean corpuscular volume), and between platelet count and a SNP at the tropomyosin-4 (TPM4) locus (rs8109288, P = 3.0 × 10−7 in Caucasians; P = 3.0 × 10−7 in African Americans, T-allele associated with lower platelet count). We strongly replicated many genetic associations to blood cell phenotypes previously established in Caucasians. A common variant of the α-globin (HBA2-HBA1) locus was associated with red blood cell traits in African Americans, but not in Caucasians (rs1211375, P < 7 × 10−8, A-allele associated with lower hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular volume). Our results show similarities but also differences in the genetic regulation of hematological traits in European- and African-derived populations, and highlight the role of natural selection in shaping these differences. PMID:21153663

  7. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and tolerability of tezosentan between caucasian and Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Dingemanse, Jasper; Gunawardena, Kulasiri A; van Giersbergen, Paul L M

    2006-04-01

    To investigate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and tolerability of the dual endothelin receptor antagonist tezosentan in caucasian and Japanese subjects. Twelve subjects of each ethnic origin were treated in a double-blind, randomized design with sequential 3-h infusions of 2.5, 5.0, 12.5 and 25 mg h(-1), or placebo. Vital signs, ECG and adverse events were recorded and blood samples collected for determination of plasma concentrations of tezosentan and endothelin-1 (ET-1). Tezosentan was well tolerated in both ethnic groups with no clinically significant differences in laboratory measurements, ECG parameters and vital signs. The plasma concentration-time profiles of tezosentan were described by a three-compartment model with half-lives of approximately 5 min, 41 min and 3.6 h. Mean clearance and volume of distribution were approximately 35 l h(-1) and 20 l, respectively. Differences in the means (95% confidence intervals) between ethnic groups in these two parameters were 6.0 l h(-1) (-1.3, 13.3) and 4.3 l (-1.3, 9.9), respectively. Baseline ET-1 concentrations were similar but increases in response to tezosentan were greater in caucasian than in Japanese subjects. An indirect response model described the relationship between tezosentan and ET-1 plasma concentrations. The mean concentrations inhibiting 50% of ET-1 clearance (IC(50)) in caucasian and Japanese subjects were 243 and 227 ng ml(-1), respectively, with a difference in the means of 28.6 ng ml(-1) (-52.7, 110). The data in healthy subjects suggest that caucasian and Japanese patients can be treated with a similar dosing regimen of tezosentan.

  8. Is pelvic organ support different between young nulliparous African and Caucasian women?

    PubMed

    Shek, K L; Krause, H G; Wong, V; Goh, J; Dietz, H P

    2016-06-01

    There seems to be substantial variation in the prevalence of pelvic floor disorders between different ethnic groups. This may be due partially to differences in pelvic floor structure and functional anatomy. To date, data on this issue are sparse. The aim of this study was to compare hiatal dimensions, pelvic organ descent and levator biometry in young, healthy nulliparous Caucasian and African women. Healthy nulliparous non-pregnant volunteers attending a local nursing school in Uganda were invited to participate in this study during two fistula camps. All volunteers underwent a simple physician-administered questionnaire and a four-dimensional translabial ultrasound examination. Offline analysis was performed to assess hiatal dimensions, pelvic organ descent, levator muscle thickness and area. To compare findings with those obtained in nulliparous non-pregnant Caucasians, we retrieved the three-dimensional/four-dimensional ultrasound volume datasets of a previously published study. The dataset of 76 Ugandan and 49 Caucasian women was analyzed. The two groups were not matched but they were comparable in age and body mass index. All measurements of hiatal dimensions and pelvic organ descent were significantly higher among the Ugandans (all P ≤ 0.01); however, muscle thickness and area were not significantly different between the two groups. Substantial differences between Caucasian and Ugandan non-pregnant nulliparae were identified in this study comparing functional pelvic floor anatomy. It appears likely that these differences in functional anatomy are at least partly genetic in nature. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. In vivo and in vitro characterization of CYP2E1 activity in Japanese and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Kim, R B; Yamazaki, H; Chiba, K; O'Shea, D; Mimura, M; Guengerich, F P; Ishizaki, T; Shimada, T; Wilkinson, G R

    1996-10-01

    Chlorzoxazone's disposition after oral administration was determined in 20 young healthy Caucasian men and a similar group of Japanese men. The drug's plasma concentrations were significantly higher and its rate of elimination slower in Japanese compared to Caucasian men. Accordingly, chlorzoxazone's oral clearance was smaller (40%) in Japanese men and a similar difference (30%) was still apparent after normalizing for body weight (3.74 +/- 1.23 versus 5.05 +/- 1.41 ml.min-1.kg-1, P < .05). This slower elimination was associated with a reduced (fractional) clearance by 6-hydroxylation (2.34 +/- 1.04 ml.min-1.kg-1 versus 3.23 +/- 1.10, P < .05). Because such metabolism is mediated by cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1), these findings suggest a lower level of the enzyme's catalytic activity in Japanese men. This was confirmed by in vitro studies with microsomes prepared from livers of individuals representative of the two racial groups. CYP2E1 levels were lower (61% P < .002) and CYP2E1-mediated chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylase (22%, P < .001) and aniline 4-hydroylase (35%, P < .0001) activities were reduced in Japanese preparations compared to those from Caucasians. No relationships were found between measures of CYP2E1 activity, both in vivo and in vitro, and genomic polymorphisms in the CYP2E1 gene identified by Rsal/Pstl and Dral restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Collectively, these data show an interracial difference in CYP2E1 activity. Because this enzyme is importantly involved in the activation of environmental procarcinogens, such a difference may account, in part, for the lower rate of some cancers, e.g., lung cancer, in Japanese compared to Caucasians men.

  10. Genetic Associations in the Vitamin D Receptor and Colorectal Cancer in African Americans and Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Kupfer, Sonia S.; Anderson, Jeffrey R.; Ludvik, Anton E.; Hooker, Stanley; Skol, Andrew; Kittles, Rick A.; Keku, Temitope O.; Sandler, Robert S.; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Castells, Antoni; Carracedo, Angel; Ellis, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Low vitamin D levels are associated with an increased incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and higher mortality from the disease. In the US, African Americans (AAs) have the highest CRC incidence and mortality and the lowest levels of vitamin D. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have been previously associated with CRC, but few studies have included AAs. We studied 795 AA CRC cases and 985 AA controls from Chicago and North Carolina as well as 1324 Caucasian cases and 990 Caucasian controls from Chicago and Spain. We genotyped 54 tagSNPs in VDR (46586959 to 46521297 Mb) and tested for association adjusting for West African ancestry, age, gender, and multiple testing. Untyped markers were imputed using MACH1.0. We analyzed associations by gender and anatomic location in the whole study group as well as by vitamin D intake in the North Carolina AA group. In the joint analysis, none of the SNPs tested was significantly associated with CRC. For four previously tested restriction fragment length polymorphisms, only one (referred to as ApaI), tagged by the SNP rs79628898, had a nominally significant p-value in AAs; none of these polymorphisms were associated with CRC in Caucasians. In the North Carolina AAs, for whom we had vitamin D intake data, we found a significant association between an intronic SNP rs11574041 and vitamin D intake, which is evidence for a VDR gene-environment interaction in AAs. In summary, using a systematic tagSNP approach, we have not found evidence for significant associations between VDR and CRC in AAs or Caucasians. PMID:22046258

  11. Fat distribution and adipose tissue metabolism in non-obese male black African and Caucasian subjects.

    PubMed

    Ama, P F; Poehlman, E T; Simoneau, J A; Boulay, M R; Thériault, G; Tremblay, A; Bouchard, C

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-four male black African (25.5 +/- 3.0, mean +/- s.d., years of age) and 24 male Caucasian (21.5 +/- 3.6) subjects, ascertained as sedentary individuals, participated in this study designed to determine whether there were racial differences in fat distribution and adipose tissue metabolism while controlling the differences in body fat. An adipose tissue biopsy was obtained from the suprailiac region for the determination of basal (BL), epinephrine submaximal 10(-4) M (ESML) and maximal 10(-3) M (EML) stimulated lipolysis, basal (BLG) and maximal insulin 9 microU/ml (ILG) stimulated lipogenesis and heparin releasable lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. Body density was determined through underwater weighing procedures and body fat derived with the Siri equation. The following skinfolds were also measured: triceps, biceps, subscapular, abdomen, suprailiac, front thigh and medial calf. Caucasians were matched with the black Africans for age, body weight and body density. Results indicated that when Caucasians and black Africans of similar percentage body fat were compared, no significant differences were observed in the total amount of subcutaneous fat, fat distribution and suprailiac mean fat cell size. Moreover, no significant differences were observed between the two groups for BL, BLG, and ILG of adipose tissue. However, black Africans had higher (P less than 0.01) epinephrine stimulated lipolytic values (ESML and EML) and LPL activity (P less than 0.01) than the Caucasian subjects. These results suggest that for a comparable level of fatness and similar fat morphology and distribution, there are racial differences in adipose tissue metabolism.

  12. Two independent apolipoprotein A5 haplotypes modulate postprandial lipoprotein metabolism in a healthy Caucasian population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) plays an important role in plasma triacylglycerol (TG) homeostasis. Five polymorphisms (1131T>C, c.-3A>G, c.56C>G, IVS3+476G>A, c.1259T>C) in the APOA5 gene define three common haplotypes (APOA5'1, APOA5'2 and APOA5'3) in Caucasian individuals. Our aim was to de...

  13. A protective effect of the BDNF Met/Met genotype in obesity in healthy Caucasian subjects but not in patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Sustar, A; Nikolac Perkovic, M; Nedic Erjavec, G; Svob Strac, D; Pivac, N

    2016-08-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophic factor with an important role in the regulation of body weight, body mass index (BMI) and obesity. Increased BMI that leads to obesity is a substantial risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). The functional BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) has been associated with CHD, obesity and BMI. The aim of the study was to determine the association between BDNF rs6265 polymorphism and CHD and/or BMI in patients with CHD and healthy control subjects. The study included 704 Caucasian subjects: 206 subjects with CHD and 498 healthy control subjects. The BDNF rs6265 genotype frequency was similar in male and female subjects, and there were no differences in the frequency of the BDNF rs6265 genotypes in 206 patients with CHD and in 498 healthy subjects. When study participants were subdivided according to the BMI categories into normal weight, overweight and obese subjects, significantly different BDNF rs6265 genotype frequency was found within healthy subjects, but not within patients with CHD. Healthy subjects, but not patients with CHD, subdivided into carriers of the Met/Met, Met/Val and Val/Val genotype, had different BMI scores. The BDNF rs6265 genotype frequency was similar in male and female subjects, and there were no differences in the frequency of the BDNF rs6265 genotypes in 206 patients with CHD and in 498 healthy subjects. When study participants were subdivided according to the BMI categories into normal weight, overweight and obese subjects, significantly different BDNF rs6265 genotype frequency was found within healthy subjects, but not within patients with CHD. Healthy subjects, but not patients with CHD, subdivided into carriers of the Met/Met, Met/Val and Val/Val genotype, had different BMI scores. BDNF rs6265 polymorphism was not associated with a diagnosis of CHD or with BMI categories among patients with CHD. In contrast, healthy Caucasians, carriers of the BDNF Met/Met genotype, had more

  14. Free Fatty Acid Flux in African American and Caucasian Adults – Effect of Sex and Race

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Søren; Sumner, Anne E.; Miller, Bernard V.; Turkova, Hana; Klein, Samuel; Jensen, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes disproportionately affect African American (AA) women. Abnormal adipose tissue free fatty acid (FFA) release is associated with these conditions. Resting energy expenditure (REE) and sex predict FFA release in Caucasians, but whether this is true in AA is unknown. We sought to understand the sex-specific relationships between FFA release, REE and race. Design and Methods 100 adults (47% AA, 50% male, age 32±8y (mean ± SD)) from 3 different centers underwent duplicate measures of FFA release ([U-13C] palmitate) and REE (indirect calorimetry). Body composition was determined by DXA and abdominal imaging. Results AA participants had lower REE, but similar FFA concentrations and flux compared with Caucasian participants. The significant predictors of palmitate release were REE, sex, and race. REE and FFA flux were correlated in both sexes and both races. In a multiple-linear regression analysis with palmitate flux as the dependent variable and REE, sex, race, total fat mass, fat free mass, and insulin as independent variables, REE was the only independent predictor of FFA release in men. Both REE and race predicted palmitate flux in women. Conclusions FFA flux is related to REE, but the relationship differs in AA and Caucasian women. PMID:23418014

  15. Daily coffee consumption and prevalence of nonmelanoma skin cancer in Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Hendrix, Susan O; McNeeley, S Gene; Johnson, Karen C; Rosenberg, Carol A; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Vitolins, Mara; Kruger, Michael

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between daily coffee consumption and nonmelanoma skin cancer. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (n=93 676). As nearly all cases of self-reported nonmelanoma skin cancer occurred among Caucasian women (97.8%), we focused our analyses on this group. Compared with nondrinkers, women drinking only caffeinated coffee on a daily basis had a 10.8% lower prevalence of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Consumption of six or more cups of caffeinated coffee per day was associated with a 36% reduction in nonmelanoma skin cancer. After adjusting for various demographic and life style variables, daily consumption of six or more cups was associated with a 30% reduced prevalence of nonmelanoma skin cancer. In contrast to caffeinated coffee, daily consumption of decaffeinated coffee was not associated with a significant change in self-reported nonmelanoma skin cancer for Caucasian women. Daily caffeinated coffee consumption was associated with a dose-related decreased prevalence of nonmelanoma skin cancer in Caucasian women.

  16. Lung diffusing capacity in sub-Saharan Africans versus European Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Simaga, Bamodi; Forton, Kevin; Motoji, Yoshiki; Naeije, Robert; Faoro, Vitalie

    2017-01-10

    Single breath measurements of lung diffusing capacity (DL) for carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) were performed in age-, sex-, weight- and height-matched 32 sub-Saharan Africans (13 women) and 32 Caucasian Europeans, and repeated in 14 of each group at 80% of maximum exercise capacity. In Africans versus Caucasians respectively, DLNO was 153±31 vs 176±38ml/mmHg/min at rest (P<0.001) and 210±48 vs 241±52ml/mmHg/min at exercise (P<0.01) while hemoglobin-adjusted DLCO was 29±6 vs 34±6ml/mmHg/min at rest (P<0.001), and 46±11 vs 51±13ml/mmHg/min at exercise (P<0.01). However there were no differences in DLCO/alveolar volume(VA) (KCO) and DLNO/VA(KNO). The sitting-to-standing height ratio was lower in the Africans. Differences in lung volume with respect to body height explain lower DLNO and DLCO in sub-Saharan Africans as compared to Caucasian Europeans.

  17. Immunohistological analysis of ABCD3 expression in Caucasian and African American prostate tumors.

    PubMed

    Reams, R Renee; Jones-Triche, Jacqueline; Chan, Owen T M; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Soliman, Karam F A; Yates, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    In a previously published study, we showed that expression of the ABCD3 gene increased with increasing metastatic potential in a panel of prostate cancer cell lines derived from African American and Caucasian American men. Given importance of identifying biomarker(s) that can distinguish indolent versus aggressive prostate tumors, we conducted an immunohistochemical analysis of ABCD3 expression Caucasian and African American prostate tumors. ABCD3 expression in each patient population was compared with clinicopathologic characteristics, Gleason score, and age. ABCD3 expression increased with increasing Gleason score (P = 0.0094), age (P = 0.0014), and pathology grade (P = 0.0007) in Caucasian patients. Interestingly, in the AA patients, ABCD3 expression highly increased to the same degree in both low and high Gleason score tumors. Similarly, ABCD3 expression was elevated to the same degree in BPH derived from AA. Our findings demonstrate that increased ABCD3 expression correlates with Gleason Score in CA prostate tumors. However, in AA prostate tumors, ABCD3 expression was higher and was sustained in both low Gleason and high Gleason AA tumors. While the functional role of ABCD3 in prostate cancer is not completely elucidated, this gene warrants further study as a potential biomarker for aggressive prostate.

  18. Locus of control and peer relationships among Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian, and African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hannah Soo; Chang, Kyle Edward; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Past research has shown that locus of control plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors, such as academic achievement and positive social behaviors. However, little is known about whether locus of control plays the same role in minority adolescents' peer relationships. The current study examined ethnic differences in the associations between locus of control and peer relationships in early adolescence using samples from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K: 5,612 Caucasian, 1,562 Hispanic, 507 Asian, and 908 African-American adolescents) and the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS: 8,484 Caucasian, 1,604 Hispanic, and 860 Asian, and 1,228 African American adolescents). Gender was approximately evenly split in both samples. The results from the two datasets were highly consistent. Significant interactions between ethnicity and locus of control indicated that having a more internal locus of control was particularly important for Caucasian students' peer relationships (ECLS-K) and social status (NELS), but less so for Asian, Hispanic, and African American students. Our findings suggest that the role of locus of control in peer relationship is contingent upon culture.

  19. CLU rs2279590 polymorphism contributes to Alzheimer's disease susceptibility in Caucasian and Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyan; Zhang, Donghui; Jiang, Yongshuai; Wu, Lina; Shang, Hong; Liu, Jiafeng; Feng, Rennan; Liao, Mingzhi; Zhang, Liangcai; Liu, Yong; Liu, Guiyou; Li, Keshen

    2015-03-01

    It is reported that CLU rs2279590 polymorphism is significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in European ancestry. Recent studies investigated rs2279590 polymorphism in Asian population (Chinese, Japanese and Korean). Four studies showed negative association and two studies showed weak association between rs2279590 and AD. We believe that the weak association or no association may be caused by the relatively small sample size in Asian population. Here, we reinvestigated the association in Asian population. Meanwhile, to investigate the genetic heterogeneity of the rs2279590 polymorphism in Asian and Caucasian populations, we searched the PubMed and AlzGene databases and selected 11 independent studies (6 studies in Asian population and 5 studies in Caucasian population) including 20,655 individuals (8,605 cases and 12,050 controls) for meta-analysis. Our results showed significant association between rs2279590 polymorphism and AD in Asian population with P = 2.00E-04 and P = 2.00E-04 using additive and recessive models, respectively. We observed no significant heterogeneity between Asian and Caucasian populations. We believe that our results may be helpful to understand the mechanisms of CLU in AD pathogenesis and will be useful for future genetic studies in AD.

  20. Association of the presence of bone bars on radiographs and hip fracture in postmenopausal Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Sarver, D B; Lopez-Ben, R; Morgan, S L; Rehder, D; Duke, J N; Fineberg, N; Pitt, M J

    2012-09-01

    To determine whether the presence of bone bars (BB) identified on anteroposterior hip radiographs are more prevalent in patients that have had a hip fracture as compared to patients without a fracture. Ninety-two Caucasian women with a unilateral proximal femur fracture were retrospectively evaluated and randomly selected using radiology database records to comprise the investigational group. Ninety-eight age-matched Caucasian women without hip fracture were selected as a control group. Anteroposterior hip radiographs were evaluated for the presence of BBs by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Chi-square tests were used to assess whether fractures were more prevalent in patients with BB than those without BB. The patient population was comprised Caucasian women with a mean age of 79.8 ± 6.4 years in the control group and 79.9 ± 6.6 years in the investigational group. Regardless of the reader, BB were identified in a significantly higher percentage of women with a fracture (75 versus 39%, p < 0.001 or 53 versus 38%, p = 0.041) as compared to those without a fracture. BB are associated with hip fracture. Their presence is a trigger for requesting a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination to confirm or refute a diagnosis of low bone mineral density (BMD) and a subsequent increased risk of fracture. Copyright © 2012 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: a common type of neovascular age-related macular degeneration in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sohraab; Parry, David G; Beare, Nick A V; Pearce, Ian A

    2017-10-01

    To describe the prevalence of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in a Caucasian population with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NAMD). All patients referred to a city AMD service over a 2-year period underwent imaging including Indocyanine Green Angiography at baseline. A panel of experts confirmed the patients with NAMD and diagnosed the lesion type including PCV. The proportion of Caucasian patients with PCV was identified. Two authors independently reviewed clinical imaging and recorded data of patients with PCV on lesion characteristics. Further information including treatments received and visual acuity at different time points was analysed. A total of 492 patients were diagnosed with NAMD during the 2-year study period. Of these patients, 204 had occult lesions (41.5%). PCV was identified in 45 patients (22.1% of occult NAMD and 9.1% of all NAMD). 23 patients received anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) monotherapy, 8 received verteporfin photodynamic therapy (PDT) monotherapy and the remaining 14 patients were managed with combined PDT and anti-VEGF treatment. The prevalence of PCV in Caucasians is higher than previously reported. Indocyanine Green Angiography should be a standard investigation for all new patients with NAMD, particularly those with occult NAMD, to avoid missing this important subset. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. CLU rs9331888 Polymorphism Contributes to Alzheimer's Disease Susceptibility in Caucasian But Not East Asian Populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyan; Li, Xuling; Ma, Guoda; Jiang, Yongshuai; Liao, Mingzhi; Feng, Rennan; Zhang, Liangcai; Liu, Jiafeng; Wang, Guangyu; Zhao, Bin; Jiang, Qinghua; Li, Keshen; Liu, Guiyou

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified three single nucleotide polymorphisms rs11136000, rs2279590, and rs9331888 in CLU gene to be significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Caucasian ancestry. Both rs11136000 and rs2279590 variants were successfully replicated in Asian population. However, previous studies reported either a weak association or no association between rs9331888 polymorphism and AD in Asian population. Here, we searched the PubMed, AlzGene, and Google Scholar databases. We selected 12 independent studies that evaluated the association between the rs9331888 polymorphism and AD using a case-control design. Using an additive model, we did not identify significant heterogeneity among these 12 studies. We observed significant association between rs9331888 polymorphism and AD in pooled populations (P = 2.26E - 07, odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.14). In subgroup analysis, we did not identify significant heterogeneity in both Asian and Caucasian populations. We identified significant association in Caucasian population (P = 1.67E - 08, OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.08-1.18) but not in East Asian population (P = 0.49, OR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.96-1.10).

  3. Parenting and attachment among low-income African American and Caucasian preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Casey A; Wong, Kristyn; Stacks, Ann M; Beeghly, Marjorie; Barnett, Douglas

    2013-08-01

    Despite a plethora of research on parenting and infant attachment, much less is known about the contributions of parenting to preschool attachment, particularly within different racial groups. This study seeks to build on the extant literature by evaluating whether similar associations between parenting and attachment can be observed in African American and Caucasian families, and whether race moderates them. Seventy-four primary caregivers and their preschool children (51% African American, 49% Caucasian, 46% male) from similar urban, low-income backgrounds participated in two visits 4 weeks apart when children were between 4 and 5 years of age. Attachment was scored from videotapes of the Strange Situation paradigm using the preschool classification system developed by Cassidy, Marvin, and the MacArthur Working Group. Parenting was assessed using a multimethod, multicontext approach: in the child's home, in the laboratory, and via parent-report. Seventy-three percent of the children were classified as securely attached. Warm, responsive parenting behavior (but not race) predicted attachment. Although parents of African American and Caucasian children demonstrated some significant differences in parenting behaviors, race did not moderate the relationship between parenting and child attachment. These findings highlight the direct role that parenting plays over and above race in determining attachment security during the preschool period. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  4. Effects of sulfur dioxide exposure on African-American and Caucasian asthmatics

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, S.K.; Koenig, J.Q.; Morgan, M.S.; Checkoway, H.; Hanley, Q.S.; Rebolledo, V. )

    1994-07-01

    There is concern that air pollution may be causing increases in asthma morbidity and mortality, especially among African-Americans. It is possible that there may be ethnic differences in susceptibility. To evaluate this speculation, a comparative pilot study of respiratory function in 10 African American and 12 Caucasian methacholine positive asthmatic males was conducted. Subjects were exposed to pure air or 1 ppm SO[sub 2] while breathing inside a polycarbonate head dome, for 10 min of rest and 10 min of exercise. Baseline and postexposure pulmonary function measurements were recorded, and nasal lavage fluid samples were collected and processed for epithelial and white blood counts. Although significant increases were seen in total respiratory resistance following SO[sub 2] exposure in both groups (P = 0.04), no ethnic-based difference in response was seen. No significant differences were found in pulmonary or nasal measurements after exposure to SO[sub 2] between African-American and Caucasian subjects. No significant changes in epithelial or white blood cell count were found either when data were analyzed from the entire group or separately from the two subject groups. Even though there were no significant group changes, some individuals were particularly responsive to SO[sub 2]. Three Caucasian and 5 African-American subjects showed greater than 20% increases in respiratory resistance. 26 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Repeat expansions in the C9ORF72 gene contribute to Alzheimer's disease in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Martin A; John-Williams, Krista; Rajbhandary, Ruchita; Naj, Adam; Whitehead, Patrice; Hamilton, Kara; Carney, Regina M; Wright, Clinton; Crocco, Elizabeth; Gwirtzman, Harry E; Lang, Rosalyn; Beecham, Gary; Martin, Eden R; Gilbert, John; Benatar, Michael; Small, Gary W; Mash, Deborah; Byrd, Goldie; Haines, Jonathan L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Züchner, Stephan

    2013-05-01

    Recently, a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene has been identified to account for a significant portion of Caucasian families affected by frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Given the clinical overlap of FTD with Alzheimer's disease (AD), we hypothesized that C9ORF72 expansions might contribute to AD. In Caucasians, we found C9ORF72 expansions in the pathogenic range of FTD/ALS (>30 repeats) at a proportion of 0.76% in AD cases versus 0 in control subjects (p = 3.3E-03; 1182 cases, 1039 controls). In contrast, no large expansions were detected in individuals of African American ethnicity (291 cases, 620 controls). However, in the range of normal variation of C9ORF72 expansions (0-23 repeat copies), we detected significant differences in distribution and mean repeat counts between Caucasians and African Americans. Clinical and pathological re-evaluation of identified C9ORF72 expansion carriers revealed 9 clinical and/or autopsy confirmed AD and 2 FTD final diagnoses. Thus, our results support the notion that large C9ORF72 expansions lead to a phenotypic spectrum of neurodegenerative disease including AD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of sequence variability in the CART gene in relation to obesity in a Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Guérardel, Audrey; Barat-Houari, Mouna; Vasseur, Francis; Dina, Christian; Vatin, Vincent; Clément, Karine; Eberlé, Delphine; Vasseur-Delannoy, Valérie; Bell, Christopher G; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Helbecque, Nicole; Potoczna, Natascha; Horber, Fritz F; Boutin, Philippe; Froguel, Philippe

    2005-04-11

    Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) is an anorectic neuropeptide located principally in hypothalamus. CART has been shown to be involved in control of feeding behavior, but a direct relationship with obesity has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymorphisms within the CART gene with regards to a possible association with obesity in a Caucasian population. Screening of the entire gene as well as a 3.7 kb region of 5' upstream sequence revealed 31 SNPs and 3 rare variants; 14 of which were subsequently genotyped in 292 French morbidly obese subjects and 368 controls. Haplotype analysis suggested an association with obesity which was found to be mainly due to SNP-3608T>C (rs7379701) (p = 0.009). Genotyping additional cases and controls also of European Caucasian origin supported further this possible association between the CART SNP -3608T>C T allele and obesity (global p-value = 0.0005). Functional studies also suggested that the SNP -3608T>C could modulate nuclear protein binding. CART SNP -3608T>C may possibly contribute to the genetic risk for obesity in the Caucasian population. However confirmation of the importance of the role of the CART gene in energy homeostasis and obesity will require investigation and replication in further populations.

  7. Analysis of sequence variability in the CART gene in relation to obesity in a Caucasian population

    PubMed Central

    Guérardel, Audrey; Barat-Houari, Mouna; Vasseur, Francis; Dina, Christian; Vatin, Vincent; Clément, Karine; Eberlé, Delphine; Vasseur-Delannoy, Valérie; Bell, Christopher G; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Helbecque, Nicole; Potoczna, Natascha; Horber, Fritz F; Boutin, Philippe; Froguel, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Background Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) is an anorectic neuropeptide located principally in hypothalamus. CART has been shown to be involved in control of feeding behavior, but a direct relationship with obesity has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymorphisms within the CART gene with regards to a possible association with obesity in a Caucasian population. Results Screening of the entire gene as well as a 3.7 kb region of 5' upstream sequence revealed 31 SNPs and 3 rare variants ; 14 of which were subsequently genotyped in 292 French morbidly obese subjects and 368 controls. Haplotype analysis suggested an association with obesity which was found to be mainly due to SNP-3608T>C (rs7379701) (p = 0.009). Genotyping additional cases and controls also of European Caucasian origin supported further this possible association between the CART SNP -3608T>C T allele and obesity (global p-value = 0.0005). Functional studies also suggested that the SNP -3608T>C could modulate nuclear protein binding. Conclusion CART SNP -3608T>C may possibly contribute to the genetic risk for obesity in the Caucasian population. However confirmation of the importance of the role of the CART gene in energy homeostasis and obesity will require investigation and replication in further populations. PMID:15823203

  8. Cultural perceptions in cancer care among African-American and Caucasian patients.

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Robin K.; Grange, Christina; Lyckholm, Laurie J.; Utsey, Shawn O.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: This exploratory study examined perceptions and beliefs of African Americans and Caucasians related to cancer care. Understanding belief systems and cultures optimizes cancer treatment and care delivery to ethnic minority individuals. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Focus groups were conducted with 39 African-American and Caucasian cancer patients. Data analysis included whole group analysis with a team of five researchers. RESULTS: Regardless of ethnicity, cancer patients share many of the same emotions and experiences, and want complete information and quality care. Differences were also apparent. African-American participants were more likely to report increased religious behaviors, believe that healthcare providers demonstrate care with simple actions and provision of practical assistance, and use church and community information sources. Caucasian participants were more likely to report spiritual but not overtly religious changes, and depend on healthcare providers for information. CONCLUSION: Understanding how culture colors perceptions, communication and information requirements is critical to providing effective care to ethnically diverse cancer patients. Findings have implications for professionals understanding ways patients seek information, the role of spirituality and religion in care, and ways healthcare providers demonstrate care. PMID:17987914

  9. Large-scale in-vivo Caucasian facial soft tissue thickness database for craniofacial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    De Greef, S; Claes, P; Vandermeulen, D; Mollemans, W; Suetens, P; Willems, G

    2006-05-15

    A large-scale study of facial soft tissue depths of Caucasian adults was conducted. Over a 2-years period, 967 Caucasian subjects of both sexes, varying age and varying body mass index (BMI) were studied. A user-friendly and mobile ultrasound-based system was used to measure, in about 20min per subject, the soft tissue thickness at 52 facial landmarks including most of the landmarks used in previous studies. This system was previously validated on repeatability and accuracy [S. De Greef, P. Claes, W. Mollemans, M. Loubele, D. Vandermeulen, P. Suetens, G. Willems, Semi-automated ultrasound facial soft tissue depth registration: method and validation. J. Forensic Sci. 50 (2005)]. The data of 510 women and 457 men were analyzed in order to update facial soft tissue depth charts of the contemporary Caucasian adult. Tables with the average thickness values for each landmark as well as the standard deviation and range, tabulated according to gender, age and BMI are reported. In addition, for each landmark and for both sexes separately, a multiple linear regression of thickness versus age and BMI is calculated. The lateral asymmetry of the face was analysed on an initial subset of 588 subjects showing negligible differences and thus warranting the unilateral measurements of the remaining subjects. The new dataset was statistically compared to three datasets for the Caucasian adults: the traditional datasets of Rhine and Moore [J.S. Rhine, C.E. Moore, Tables of facial tissue thickness of American Caucasoids in forensic anthropology. Maxwell Museum Technical series 1 (1984)] and Helmer [R. Helmer, Schädelidentifizierung durch elektronische bildmischung, Kriminalistik Verlag GmbH, Heidelberg, 1984] together with the most recent in vivo study by Manhein et al. [M.H. Manhein, G.A. Listi, R.E. Barsley, R. Musselman, N.E. Barrow, D.H. Ubelbaker, In vivo facial tissue depth measurements for children and adults. J. Forensic Sci. 45 (2000) 48-60]. The large-scale database

  10. A trabecular plate-like phenotype is overrepresented in Chinese-American versus Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Walker, M D; Shi, S; Russo, J J; Liu, X S; Zhou, B; Zhang, C; Liu, G; McMahon, D J; Bilezikian, J P; Guo, X E

    2014-12-01

    This study used extreme phenotype selection to define two trabecular bone phenotypes in a cohort of Chinese-American and Caucasian women. A trabecular plate-predominant phenotype is more common in Chinese-Americans while the rod-predominant phenotype is more typical of Caucasians. The robustness of these phenotypic associations with respect to lifestyle factors suggests that this trait may have a genetic basis and that these phenotypes can be utilized in future genetic studies. Compared to Caucasians, Chinese-Americans have more plate-like trabecular bone when measured by individual trabecula segmentation (ITS). These findings suggest a phenotypic difference between the races, which may be amenable to genetic analysis. We sought to identify a single ITS plate trait to pursue in genetic studies by conducting an extreme phenotype selection strategy to numerically define two distinct phenotypes-plate-like and rod-like-and determine whether the selected phenotypic associations were independent of lifestyle factors in order to conduct future genetic studies. A previously described cohort of 146 Chinese-American and Caucasian women with high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography imaging and ITS analyses were studied with logistic regression and receiver operator characteristic analyses. The tibial plate-to-rod (TPR) ratio was the best ITS discriminator of race. Using extreme phenotypic selection, two TPR ratio phenotypes were defined numerically: plate-like as a TPR ratio value in the highest quartile (≥1.336) and rod-like as a TPR ratio value in the lowest quartile (≤0.621). Women with a plate-like phenotype were 25.7 times more likely (95 % CI 7.3-90.1) to be Chinese-American than women with rod-like morphology. After controlling for constitutional and lifestyle covariates, women in the highest vs. lowest TPR ratio quartile were 85.0 times more likely (95 % CI 12.7-568.0) to be Chinese-American. Using extreme phenotype selection, we defined a plate

  11. Light treatment for seasonal Winter depression in African-American vs Caucasian outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Uzoma, Hyacinth N; Reeves, Gloria M; Langenberg, Patricia; Khabazghazvini, Baharak; Balis, Theodora G; Johnson, Mary A; Sleemi, Aamar; Scrandis, Debra A; Zimmerman, Sarah A; Vaswani, Dipika; Nijjar, Gagan Virk; Cabassa, Johanna; Lapidus, Manana; Rohan, Kelly J; Postolache, Teodor T

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare adherence, response, and remission with light treatment in African-American and Caucasian patients with Seasonal Affective Disorder. METHODS: Seventy-eight study participants, age range 18-64 (51 African-Americans and 27 Caucasians) recruited from the Greater Baltimore Metropolitan area, with diagnoses of recurrent mood disorder with seasonal pattern, and confirmed by a Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, were enrolled in an open label study of daily bright light treatment. The trial lasted 6 wk with flexible dosing of light starting with 10000 lux bright light for 60 min daily in the morning. At the end of six weeks there were 65 completers. Three patients had Bipolar II disorder and the remainder had Major depressive disorder. Outcome measures were remission (score ≤ 8) and response (50% reduction) in symptoms on the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (SIGH-SAD) as well as symptomatic improvement on SIGH-SAD and Beck Depression Inventory-II. Adherence was measured using participant daily log. Participant groups were compared using t-tests, chi square, linear and logistic regressions. RESULTS: The study did not find any significant group difference between African-Americans and their Caucasian counterparts in adherence with light treatment as well as in symptomatic improvement. While symptomatic improvement and rate of treatment response were not different between the two groups, African-Americans, after adjustment for age, gender and adherence, achieved a significantly lower remission rate (African-Americans 46.3%; Caucasians 75%; P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: This is the first study of light treatment in African-Americans, continuing our previous work reporting a similar frequency but a lower awareness of SAD and its treatment in African-Americans. Similar rates of adherence, symptomatic improvement and treatment response suggest that light treatment is a

  12. Pharmacokinetics of the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam in healthy Japanese and Caucasian volunteers following intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Toublanc, Nathalie; Okagaki, Takuya; Boyce, Malcolm; Chan, Robert; Mugitani, Ayumi; Watanabe, Shikiko; Yamamoto, Katsumi; Yoshida, Katsumi; Andreas, Jens-Otto

    2015-12-01

    The intravenous (iv) formulation of levetiracetam has been available in clinical practice worldwide for several years, but not in Japan. Two open-label studies were conducted: Study A evaluated the bioequivalence of iv and oral tablet formulations in healthy Japanese volunteers; and Study B subsequently compared the pharmacokinetics of iv levetiracetam in healthy Japanese and Caucasian volunteers. Study A had a randomised, two-way crossover design; a single 1,500 mg levetiracetam dose was administered as a 15-min iv infusion and as 3 × 500 mg oral tablets to Japanese volunteers. In Study B, 1,500 mg levetiracetam was administered as single and repeated 15-min iv infusions to Japanese and Caucasian volunteers. Overall, 26/27 volunteers completed Study A and 32/32 (16 Japanese; 16 Caucasian) completed Study B. In Study A, the point estimate and 90 % confidence interval (CI) for the geometric least squares mean (LSM) ratio (iv vs oral) were fully included within the acceptance range for bioequivalence (0.85-1.25) for the area under plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to last quantifiable observation (AUClast 0.97 [0.95, 0.99]), but not for the maximum plasma concentration (C max 1.64 [1.47, 1.83]). In Study B, after a single iv infusion, the point estimates (90 % CI) for the geometric LSM ratio (Japanese vs Caucasian) for body weight-normalised C max and AUClast were 1.21 (1.07, 1.36) and 0.97 (0.90, 1.04), respectively. Corresponding values after repeated iv infusions were C max,ss 1.01 (0.91, 1.12) and AUCτ,ss 0.89 (0.83, 0.96). Levetiracetam was well tolerated in both studies. Study A did not demonstrate the bioequivalence of single doses of levetiracetam 1,500 mg administered as an iv infusion and as oral tablets in healthy Japanese adults. Study B, however, showed that pharmacokinetic profiles were generally similar between Japanese and Caucasian adults after single and repeated iv infusions of levetiracetam 1,500 mg.

  13. Molecular identification of rare FY*Null and FY*X alleles in Caucasian thalassemic family from Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Manfroi, Silvia; Scarcello, Antonio; Pagliaro, Pasqualepaolo

    2015-10-01

    Molecular genetic studies on Duffy blood group antigens have identified mutations underlying rare FY*Null and FY*X alleles. FY*Null has a high frequency in Blacks, especially from sub-Saharan Africa, while its frequency is not defined in Caucasians. FY*X allele, associated with Fy(a-b+w) phenotype, has a frequency of 2-3.5% in Caucasian people while it is absent in Blacks. During the project of extensive blood group genotyping in patients affected by hemoglobinopathies, we identified FY*X/FY*Null and FY*A/FY*Null genotypes in a Caucasian thalassemic family from Sardinia. We speculate on the frequency of FY*X and FY*Null alleles in Caucasian and Black people; further, we focused on the association of FY*X allele with weak Fyb antigen expression on red blood cells and its identification performing high sensitivity serological typing methods or genotyping.

  14. Depression and HIV Risk Behaviors among Female Sex Workers in Guangdong, China: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shujie; Liu, Fengying; Zhao, Peizhen; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Ye; Luo, Xiaomin; Tang, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    Background. Our study aimed to assess the burden of depression and evaluate factors associated with depression and status of HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs) in Guangdong, China. Method. We recruited FSWs from massage parlors, saunas, restaurants, hotels, hair salons, and streets in Guangdong, China, in 2014. Information on demographic characteristics, HIV testing history, and sexual behaviors was collected using a questionnaire. A blood sample was collected to test for HIV, syphilis, and HCV. A participant was defined as being depressed if she obtained 6 points or above using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Results. Among the 653 participants, 41.7% were 21–30 years old and 43.6% married. Overall, 52.4% were found to be depressed. FSWs who had correct syphilis related knowledge [aOR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.04–2.03] and had primary sex partner (1.63, 1.14–2.33) were more likely to be depressed. FSWs who did not use a condom during their last sex with the primary sex partner were less likely to be depressed (0.47, 0.31–0.71). Conclusion. Our study observed high level of depression and HIV risk behaviors among Chinese FSWs. Future interventions should integrate mental health services in comprehensive interventions to prevent depression among Chinese FSWs. PMID:28097145

  15. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of fosfluconazole and fluconazole after single intravenous administration of fosfluconazole in healthy Japanese and Caucasian volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sobue, Satoshi; Tan, Keith; Shaw, Linda; Layton, Gary; Hust, Rita

    2004-06-01

    To investigate the bioavailability of fluconazole (FLCZ) from fosfluconazole (phosphate pro-drug of FLCZ) and to compare the pharmacokinetics of fosfluconazole and FLCZ in Japanese and Caucasian subjects. In a randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, single-dose, two-period, crossover study, 12 Japanese and 12 Caucasian healthy subjects received a bolus intravenous injection of 1000 mg fosfluconazole or an intravenous infusion of 800 mg FLCZ in random order. Concentrations of fosfluconazole and FLCZ were determined in plasma and urine samples taken up to 144 h and 48 h post-dose, respectively. The bioavailability of FLCZ after administration of fosfluconazole was 95.2% (95% confidence interval: 89.0, 102.0) in Japanese subjects and 100.6% (94.0, 107.7) in Caucasian subjects. The ratio of bioavailabilities (Japanese/Caucasian) was 94.7% (86.0, 104.3). There were no statistically significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters of fosfluconazole (except for AUC(inf)) and FLCZ between Japanese and Caucasian subjects. Although mean AUC(inf) of fosfluconazole was 25.6% (5.6, 49.2) greater in Japanese subjects, the lack of a statistically significant difference in weight-adjusted CL of fosfluconazole demonstrates that the difference in AUC(inf) was due to a difference in body weight. The adverse-event profile was similar in Japanese and Caucasian subjects after both fosfluconazole and FLCZ dosing, and both treatments were well tolerated in each group. The pharmacokinetics of fosfluconazole and FLCZ were similar in Japanese and Caucasian subjects. Fosfluconazole is almost completely converted to FLCZ and similar systemic exposure to FLCZ is achieved after single doses of fosfluconazole in both Japanese and Caucasian subjects.

  16. Differential levels of elastin fibers and TGF-β signaling in the skin of Caucasians and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, J; Lin, C B; Wiwi, C; Kaur, S; Hu, Y P; Zhang, J; Southall, M D

    2013-06-01

    While skin color is the most notable difference among ethnic skins the current knowledge on skin physiological and aging properties are based mainly on Caucasian skin studies. To evaluate histological differences in elastin fiber network and differential responsiveness to TGF-β in skin of Caucasians and African Americans. These studies were undertaken using human skin biopsies, primary dermal fibroblasts, Western blot analyses, immunofluorescence microscopy, cDNA array and quantitative real-time PCR. In Caucasian subjects, tropoelastin expression and elastin fibers in photoprotected skin was substantially less than in age-matched African American skin. Expression of tropoelastin in photoexposed skin of African American was similar to their photoprotected skin, suggesting that photoexposure did not affect elastin fibers in African American skin to the same extent as Caucasian skin. An elevated level of TGF-β1 present in media from dermal fibroblasts derived from African American skins correlated well with the higher levels of TGF-β mRNA in African American skins analyzed by cDNA array. Treatment with TGF-β1 resulted in a considerably higher induction of elastin mRNA in dermal fibroblasts from African Americans than from Caucasian fibroblasts, indicative of enhanced TGF-β signaling in African American skins. Furthermore, UVA exposure decreased levels of elastin mRNA in Caucasian fibroblasts compared to African Americans fibroblasts. These results suggest that there are ethnic differences in the elastin fiber network and in TGF-β signaling in African American and Caucasian skin, and that African American have less UV dependent loss of elastin than Caucasian which may contribute to the different perceived aging phenotypes. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact and characteristics of the non-Caucasian population in hospital admissions for diabetes onset during 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    San José, Patricia; Guerrero, Mireia; García-Martín, Isabel; Caballero, Jordi; Pérez-Maraver, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of non-Caucasian patients in hospital admissions for onset of symptomatic diabetes mellitus during the 2003-2010 period, and to analyze the characteristics differentiating them from the Caucasian population at diagnosis and 2 years later. A retrospective, observational study. Patients aged 18-40 years admitted for de novo symptomatic diabetes from January 2003 to October 2010. Prevalence of patients of non-Caucasian origin was analyzed, and clinical, biochemical, immunological, and beta-cell function of both populations were compared at diagnosis and 2 years later. Nineteen percent of patients admitted to hospital for de novo symptomatic diabetes were non-Caucasian, with a progressive increase in recent years. Non-Caucasian patients had milder decompensation (3.0% had ketoacidosis, as compared to 15.2% in the Caucasian group, P<.05), lower presence of autoimmunity (27.2 vs. 73.1%, P<.01) and higher stimulated C-peptide levels (0.70±0.56 vs. 0.42±0.39 nmol/l, P<.05), mainly because of the subgroup with negative autoimmunity (0.82 vs. 0.25). Two years after diagnosis, less non-Caucasian patients were on intensified treatment (39.1 vs. 93.8%). Non-Caucasian patients had a lower prevalence of autoimmunity, better beta-cell function at diagnosis, particularly due to the subgroup with negative autoimmunity, and less need for intensive treatment 2 years after diagnosis, features which are more characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of Indirect Calorimetry and Predictive Equations in Estimating Resting Metabolic Rate in Underweight Females.

    PubMed

    Aliasgharzadeh, Soghra; Mahdavi, Reza; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Namazi, Nazli

    2015-06-01

    Underweight as a public health problem in young women is associated with nutritional deficiencies, menstrual irregularity, eating disorders, reduced fertility, etc. Since resting metabolic rate (RMR) is a necessary component in the development of nutrition support therapy, therefore we determined the accuracy of commonly used predictive equations against RMR measured by indirect calorimetry among healthy young underweight females. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 104 underweight females aged 18-30 years old with body mass index (BMI) <18.5 kg/m(2) in 2013. After collecting anthropometric data, body composition was measured by bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). RMR was measured by using indirect calorimetry (FitMate™) and was estimated by 10 commonly used predictive equations. Comparisons were conducted using paired t-test. The accuracy of the RMR equations was evaluated on the basis of the percentage of subjects' predicted RMR within 10% of measured RMR. The mean BMI of subjects was 17.3±1.3 kg/m(2). The measured RMR ranged 736-1490 kcal/day (mean 1084.7±175 kcal/day). Findings indicated that except Muller and Abbreviation, other equations significantly over estimated RMR, compared to measured value (P<0.05). As an individual prediction accuracy, these predictive equations showed poor performance with the highest accuracy rate of 54.8% for Muller equation (22.1% under and 23.1% over-prediction) and 43.3% for Abbreviation equation (31.7% under and 25% over-prediction), the percentage bias was 1.8% and 0.63% and RMSE was 162 and 173 kcal/d, respectively. Although Muller equation gave fairly acceptable prediction, more suitable new equations are needed to be developed to help better management of nutritional plans in young underweight people.

  19. Peripheral and Autonomic Neuropathy in South Asians and White Caucasians with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Possible Explanations for Epidemiological Differences

    PubMed Central

    Altaf, Q. A.; Piya, Milan K.; Barnett, Anthony H.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and that of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) between South Asians and White Caucasians with type 2 diabetes and to explore reasons for observed differences. Methods. A cross-sectional study of casually selected South Asian and White Caucasian adults attending a hospital-based diabetes clinic in the UK. DPN and CAN were assessed using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) and heart rate variability testing, respectively. Results. Patients (n = 266) were recruited (47.4% South Asians). DPN was more common in White Caucasians compared to South Asians (54.3% versus 38.1%, p = 0.008). Foot insensitivity as assessed by 10 g monofilament perception was more common in White Caucasians (43.9% versus 23.8%, p = 0.001). After adjustment for confounders, White Caucasians remained twice as likely to have DPN as South Asians, but the impact of ethnicity became nonsignificant after adjusting for adiposity measures or height. No difference in prevalence of standardized CAN test abnormalities was detected between ethnicities. Skin microvascular assessment demonstrated that South Asians had reduced heating flux but preserved acetylcholine response. Conclusions. South Asians with type 2 diabetes have fewer clinical signs of DPN compared to White Caucasians. Differences in adiposity (and its distribution) and height appear to explain these differences. PMID:28409160

  20. What women want: understanding obesity and preferences for primary care weight reduction interventions among African-American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed Central

    Blixen, Carol E.; Singh, Anisha; Xu, Meng; Thacker, Holly; Mascha, Edward

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To explore attitudes and perceptions of obesity, and identify preferences for weight-management interventions by African-American and Caucasian women who were followed in general internal medicine clinics. PROCEDURE: Surveys exploring these issues were mailed to African-American (n=240) and Caucasian (n=240) women with a BMI of > or =30. MAIN FINDINGS: Caucasian women felt past weight-loss efforts were helped by weight-loss programs significantly more than African-American women (P<0.001); African-American women were more likely to feel that their cultural background contributed to their weight gain than did Caucasian women (P=0.001). African-American women expressed a higher need for one-on-one counseling with their physician (P<0.001) as well as group meetings with the dietician, physician and other women (P=0.004) than did Caucasian women. African-American women also felt it was more important for weight-loss programs to have information on food common to their culture than did Caucasian women (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in cultural background and preferences about weight loss interventions have important policy implications for how the U.S. healthcare system provides care to an ever-increasing multicultural population with a national epidemic such as obesity. PMID:16895288

  1. Peripheral and Autonomic Neuropathy in South Asians and White Caucasians with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Possible Explanations for Epidemiological Differences.

    PubMed

    Tahrani, Abd A; Altaf, Q A; Piya, Milan K; Barnett, Anthony H

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and that of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) between South Asians and White Caucasians with type 2 diabetes and to explore reasons for observed differences. Methods. A cross-sectional study of casually selected South Asian and White Caucasian adults attending a hospital-based diabetes clinic in the UK. DPN and CAN were assessed using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) and heart rate variability testing, respectively. Results. Patients (n = 266) were recruited (47.4% South Asians). DPN was more common in White Caucasians compared to South Asians (54.3% versus 38.1%, p = 0.008). Foot insensitivity as assessed by 10 g monofilament perception was more common in White Caucasians (43.9% versus 23.8%, p = 0.001). After adjustment for confounders, White Caucasians remained twice as likely to have DPN as South Asians, but the impact of ethnicity became nonsignificant after adjusting for adiposity measures or height. No difference in prevalence of standardized CAN test abnormalities was detected between ethnicities. Skin microvascular assessment demonstrated that South Asians had reduced heating flux but preserved acetylcholine response. Conclusions. South Asians with type 2 diabetes have fewer clinical signs of DPN compared to White Caucasians. Differences in adiposity (and its distribution) and height appear to explain these differences.

  2. Long-Term Exposure to American and European Movies and Television Series Facilitates Caucasian Face Perception in Young Chinese Watchers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yamin; Zhou, Lu

    2016-10-01

    Most young Chinese people now learn about Caucasian individuals via media, especially American and European movies and television series (AEMT). The current study aimed to explore whether long-term exposure to AEMT facilitates Caucasian face perception in young Chinese watchers. Before the experiment, we created Chinese, Caucasian, and generic average faces (generic average face was created from both Chinese and Caucasian faces) and tested participants' ability to identify them. In the experiment, we asked AEMT watchers and Chinese movie and television series (CMT) watchers to complete a facial norm detection task. This task was developed recently to detect norms used in facial perception. The results indicated that AEMT watchers coded Caucasian faces relative to a Caucasian face norm better than they did to a generic face norm, whereas no such difference was found among CMT watchers. All watchers coded Chinese faces by referencing a Chinese norm better than they did relative to a generic norm. The results suggested that long-term exposure to AEMT has the same effect as daily other-race face contact in shaping facial perception.

  3. Comparing the Experiential and Psychosocial Dimensions of Chronic Pain in African Americans and Caucasians: Findings from a National Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ruehlman, Linda S.; Karoly, Paul; Newton, Craig

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain whether non-Hispanic African American and Caucasian chronic pain sufferers differ or converge in their self-reports of pain experience and pain adjustment. Research Design A telephone survey of U.S. English-speaking adults selected via random-digit dialing procedures and constrained to locate persons with chronic pain within selected gender by age groupings. Subjects A national sample of 2,407 participants contained a total of 214 non-Hispanic African Americans. A sample of 214 non-Hispanic Caucasians was randomly selected from the larger set of 1,935 Caucasian participants to serve as a comparison group for the present study. Measures Participants provided responses to interviewer questions that assessed pain experience (severity, interference, and emotional burden) and psychosocial outcomes (coping, attitudes and beliefs, catastrophizing, social support and hindrance, pain’s interference with daily life activities, treatment status, and medication taking). Results Although African American and Caucasian adults with chronic pain did not differ significantly in pain severity, interference, emotional burden, or current treatment status, multivariate analyses revealed differences in several domains of psychosocial functioning. Compared to Caucasians, African Americans reported greater pain-related interference with daily living, deficiencies in coping, and counterproductive attitudes and beliefs. African Americans also reported greater impatience and insensitivity from the most important person in their lives. Conclusions Psychosocial dimensions of chronic pain differed between community-residing African American and Caucasian adults surveyed as part of a national sample. PMID:15669950

  4. Voices of African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic Surrogates on the Burdens of End-of-Life Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Beyth, Rebecca J.; Ford, Marvella E.; McCullough, Laurence B.

    2008-01-01

    Background End-of-life decisions are frequently made by patients’ surrogates. Race and ethnicity may affect such decision making. Few studies have described how different racial/ethnic groups experience end-of-life surrogate decision making. Objectives To describe the self-reported experience the self-reported experience of African-American, Caucasian, and Hispanic surrogate decision makers of seriously ill patients and to examine the relationship of race, ethnicity, and culture to that experience. Design Purposive sample to include racial/ethnic minorities in a qualitative study using focus group interviews. Participants The participants of the study were 44 experienced, mostly female, surrogate decision makers for older veterans. Approach Transcripts were qualitatively analyzed to identify major themes, with particular attention to themes that might be unique to each of the three groups. Results The experience of burden of end-of-life decision making was similar in all three groups. This burden in its medical, personal, and familial dimensions is compounded by uncertainty about prognosis and the patient’s preferences. Racial/ethnic variations of responses to this burden concerned the physician–family relationship, religion and faith, and past experiences with race/ethnicity concordant versus non-concordant physicians. Conclusions Regardless of race/ethnicity, surrogates for seriously ill patients appeared to experience increased significant, multidimensional burdens of decision making under conditions of uncertainty about a patient’s preferences. This aspect of the burden of surrogate decision making may not be fully appreciated by physicians. Physicians should identify and be especially attentive to strategies used by surrogates, which may vary by race/ethnicity, to reduce the uncertainty about a patient’s preferences and thus the burden of surrogate decision making to assist them in this difficult process. PMID:18172738

  5. Voices of African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic surrogates on the burdens of end-of-life decision making.

    PubMed

    Braun, Ursula K; Beyth, Rebecca J; Ford, Marvella E; McCullough, Laurence B

    2008-03-01

    End-of-life decisions are frequently made by patients' surrogates. Race and ethnicity may affect such decision making. Few studies have described how different racial/ethnic groups experience end-of-life surrogate decision making. To describe the self-reported experience the self-reported experience of African-American, Caucasian, and Hispanic surrogate decision makers of seriously ill patients and to examine the relationship of race, ethnicity, and culture to that experience. Purposive sample to include racial/ethnic minorities in a qualitative study using focus group interviews. The participants of the study were 44 experienced, mostly female, surrogate decision makers for older veterans. Transcripts were qualitatively analyzed to identify major themes, with particular attention to themes that might be unique to each of the three groups. The experience of burden of end-of-life decision making was similar in all three groups. This burden in its medical, personal, and familial dimensions is compounded by uncertainty about prognosis and the patient's preferences. Racial/ethnic variations of responses to this burden concerned the physician-family relationship, religion and faith, and past experiences with race/ethnicity concordant versus non-concordant physicians. Regardless of race/ethnicity, surrogates for seriously ill patients appeared to experience increased significant, multidimensional burdens of decision making under conditions of uncertainty about a patient's preferences. This aspect of the burden of surrogate decision making may not be fully appreciated by physicians. Physicians should identify and be especially attentive to strategies used by surrogates, which may vary by race/ethnicity, to reduce the uncertainty about a patient's preferences and thus the burden of surrogate decision making to assist them in this difficult process.

  6. Clinical profile and in-hospital outcome of Caucasian patients with takotsubo syndrome and right ventricular involvement.

    PubMed

    Citro, Rodolfo; Bossone, Eduardo; Parodi, Guido; Carerj, Scipione; Ciampi, Quirino; Provenza, Gennaro; Zito, Concetta; Prota, Costantina; Silverio, Angelo; Vriz, Olga; D'Andrea, Antonello; Galasso, Gennaro; Baldi, Cesare; Rigo, Fausto; Piepoli, Massimo; Salerno-Uriarte, Jorge; Piscione, Federico

    2016-09-15

    To determine the prevalence, clinical characteristics, in-hospital course and determinants of major adverse events in a cohort of Caucasian patients with Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) and right ventricular involvement (RVi), regardless of left ventricular variant forms. The study population consisted of 424 patients (mean age 69.1±11.5years; female 92.2%) with a diagnosis of TTS divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of RVi. RVi patients (n=57; 13.4%) showed a higher prevalence of comorbidities, especially respiratory diseases (p=0.011), and a higher Charlson comorbidity index (CCI; p=0.006) than non-RVi patients. In-hospital major adverse events (acute heart failure, cardiogenic shock and death) occurred more frequently in RVi patients (p<0.001). Heart rate and CCI, along with the echocardiographic parameters of wall motion score index, E/e' ratio, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) were associated with adverse in-hospital outcome. At multivariate analysis, CCI (HR: 1.871; 95% CI: 1.202-2.912; p=0.006), sPAP (HR: 1.059; 95% CI: 1.016-1.104; p=0.007) and TAPSE (HR: 0.728; 95% CI: 0.619-0.855; p<0.001) were independent correlates of the composite outcome in patients with RVi. Patients with RVi are characterized by distinct clinical profile and should undergo closely clinical and echocardiographic monitoring. The presence of echocardiographic signs of right ventricular failure along with substantial comorbidities burden identify a cohort at higher risk of in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vitamin D effect on umbilical cord blood characteristics: a comparison between African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Eldjerou, Lamis K; Cogle, Christopher R; Rosenau, Emma H; Lu, Xiaomin; Bennett, Clay A; Sugrue, Michele W; Hoyne, Jonathan; Lambert, Amy; Ashley, Lindsay; Sazama, Kathleen; Fields, Gary; Wingard, John R; Zubair, Abba C

    2015-07-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) units collected from African Americans (AAs) have lower total nucleated cell (TNC) and CD34+ cell counts and are more likely to disqualify for banking compared to other ethnic groups. Furthermore, AAs have higher prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency. Given the importance of 25(OH)D in hematopoiesis, we examined the racial differences in UCB unit 25(OH)D content and its correlation with UCB cellular characteristics. A total of 119 UCB units that did not meet the TNC count banking criteria were analyzed. Fifty-one UCB units were collected from AA mothers and 68 from Caucasian mothers. We analyzed UCB volume, hematocrit (Hct), TNCs, mononuclear cells (MNCs), CD34+ cells, plasma 25(OH)D concentration, and progenitor clonogenic capacity measured by colony-forming cell (CFC) assay. Compared to Caucasians, AAs had significantly lower UCB 25(OH)D levels (p<0.0001), TNCs (p=0.002), MNCs (p=0.026), and CD34+ cells (p=0.026). Severe deficiency (25(OH)D<10 ng/mL) was only detected in AAs. No difference in median CFC count/10,000 MNCs was detected between AAs and Caucasians. Independent of race, a significant association was detected between 25(OH)D level and TNCs (r=0.193 p=0.035) and Hct (r=0.196 p=0.033). These results indicate the importance of 25(OH)D level as a racially independent predictor of UCB cellular characteristics and support further investigation of bioactive vitamin D and other predictors of hematopoiesis on cord blood quality. © 2015 AABB.

  8. Vitamin D production in UK Caucasian and South Asian women following UVR exposure.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Ohood A; Hart, Kathryn; McCabe, Patrick; Berry, Jacqueline; Francesca, Robertson; Rhodes, Lesley E; Spyrou, Nicholas; Alfuraih, Abdulrahman; Lanham-New, Susan

    2016-11-01

    It is known that skin pigmentation reduces the penetration of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and thus photosynthesis of 25-hydroxvitamin D (25(OH)D). However ethnic differences in 25(OH)D production remain to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in vitamin D production between UK South Asian and Caucasian postmenopausal women, in response to a defined and controlled exposure to UVR. Seventeen women; 9 white Caucasian (skin phototype II and III), 8 South Asian women (skin phototype IV and V) participated in the study, acting as their own controls. Three blood samples were taken for the measurement of vitamin D status during the run in period (9days, no sunbed exposure) after which, all subjects underwent an identical UVR exposure protocol irrespective of skin colour (9 days, 3 sun bed sessions, 6, 8 and 8min respectively with approximately 80% body surface exposed). Skin tone was measured four times during the study. Despite consistently lower 25(OH)D levels in South Asian women, they were shown to synthesise vitamin D as efficiently as Caucasians when exposed to the same dose of UVR. Interestingly, the baseline level of vitamin D rather than ethnicity and skin tone influenced the amount of vitamin D synthesised. This study have found no ethnic differences in the synthesis of 25(OH)D, possibly due to the baseline differences in 25(OH)D concentration or due to the small population size used in this study. Applying mixed linear model, findings indicated no effect of ethnicity and skin tone on the production of vitamin D; baseline level and length of exposure were the critical factors. To confirm that ethnicity and skin tone has no effect on 25(OH)D production, a larger sample size study is required that considers other ethnic groups with highly pigmented skin. Initial vitamin D status influences the amount of UVB needed to reach equal serum concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism in Caucasians and African-Americans: the GATE Study.

    PubMed

    Dowling, N F; Austin, H; Dilley, A; Whitsett, C; Evatt, B L; Hooper, W C

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess, comprehensively, medical and genetic attributes of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in a multiracial American population. The Genetic Attributes and Thrombosis Epidemiology (GATE) study is an ongoing case-control study in Atlanta, Georgia, designed to examine racial differences in VTE etiology and pathogenesis. Between 1998 and 2001, 370 inpatients with confirmed VTE, and 250 control subjects were enrolled. Data collected included blood specimens for DNA and plasma analysis and a medical lifestyle history questionnaire. Comparing VTE cases, cancer, recent surgery, and immobilization were more common in caucasian cases, while hypertension, diabetes, and kidney disease were more prevalent in African-American cases. Family history of VTE was reported with equal frequency by cases of both races (28-29%). Race-adjusted odds ratios for the associations of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations were 3.1 (1.5, 6.7) and 1.9 (0.8, 4.4), respectively. Using a larger external comparison group, the odds ratio for the prothrombin mutation among Caucasians was a statistically significant 2.5 (1.4, 4.3). A case-only analysis revealed a near significant interaction between the two mutations among Caucasians. We found that clinical characteristics of VTE patients differed across race groups. Family history of VTE was common in white and black patients, yet known genetic risk factors for VTE are rare in African-American populations. Our findings underscore the need to determine gene polymorphisms associated with VTE in African-Americans.

  10. Contribution of structural brain phenotypes to the variance in resting energy expenditure in healthy Caucasian subjects.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Corinna; Hübers, Mark; Granert, Oliver; Muller, Manfred James

    2017-09-21

    Brain gray (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes are related to weight changes. The impact of structural variations in GM and WM on the variance in resting energy expenditure (REE) and the REE on fat free mass (FFM) association is unknown. The aim of this study was to address this in healthy Caucasian subjects. Cross-sectional data analysis of 493 healthy Caucasian subjects (age range 6 to 80 years; three age groups) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses and detailed brain composition as assessed by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and REE (assessed by indirect calorimetry). REE was calculated (REEc) using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. FFM was the major determinant of REE (70.6%), individual masses of liver, total brain and heart explained further 2.1% of the variance in REE. Replacing total brain by GM and WM did not change the total R². Nevertheless, GM added more to the variance in REE (5.6%) and corresponding residuals (12.5%) than total brain. Additionally, up to 12% were explained by age and sex (<2%). There was a systematic bias between REE and REEc with positive values in younger subjects but negative values in the older ones. This bias remained after substituting the specific metabolic rate of brain by the specific metabolic rates of GM and WM. In healthy Caucasian subjects, GM and WM contributed to the variance in REE. Detailed brain structures do not explain the bias between REE and REEc. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  11. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) Polymorphisms and Risk of Ovarian Cancer in Caucasian and African American women

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Delores J.; Hoyo, Cathrine; Akushevich, Lucy; Iversen, Edwin S.; Whitaker, Regina; Marks, Jeffrey; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have been shown in some studies to be associated with the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in Caucasian women. This association among African American women has been understudied. Methods Case-control data from the North Carolina Ovarian Cancer Study were analyzed using logistic regression to determine the association between seven VDR polymorphisms of functional significance and EOC in both Caucasians (513 cases, 532 controls) and African Americans (74 cases, 79 controls). In a follow-up analysis, associations were assessed between six SNPs in proximity of the Apa1 variant and a larger sample of African-Americans (125 cases, 155 controls). Results African American women who carried at least one minor allele of Apa1 (rs7975232) were at higher risk for invasive EOC controlling for age and admixture with an odds ratio (OR) for association under the log-additive model of 2.08 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19, 3.63, p = 0.010). No association was observed between any of the VDR variants and EOC among Caucasians. A follow-up analysis in a larger sample of African American subjects revealed a nearly two-fold increase in risk of invasive EOC in rs7971418, a SNP in proximity to the Apa1 SNP (R2 = 0.369) with a log-additive OR of 1.87 (95% CI = 1.20, 2.93, p = 0.006). Conclusion This is the first report showing VDR variants associated with ovarian cancer risk in African American women. A larger study of African American women is needed to confirm these findings. Impact Our results imply that vitamin D exposure is a possible modifiable risk factor of ovarian cancer among African Americans. PMID:23262379

  12. Relationship between body fat and body mass index: differences between Indonesians and Dutch Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Gurrici, S; Hartriyanti, Y; Hautvast, J G; Deurenberg, P

    1998-11-01

    To study the relationship between percent body fat and body mass index (BMI) in two different ethnic groups (Indonesians and Caucasians) in order to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. Cross-sectional study. Not specially selected populations living in southern Sumatra (Palembang, Indonesia) and Caucasian Dutch living in Wageningen. Body weight, body height, body fat by deuterium oxide dilution and skinfold thickness. Body fat could be well predicted by body mass index (BMI) and sex in the Indonesians and by BMI, sex and age in the Dutch with a prediction error of 3.6 and 3.3% for the two populations respectively. Although the body mass index in the Indonesian group was about 2 kg/m2 lower compared to the Dutch, the amount of body fat was 3% points higher. Because of small differences between the groups in age, weight and height the differences in body fat were corrected for this (ANOVA). Indonesians having the same weight, height, age and sex have generally 4.8% points more body fat compared to Dutch. Indonesians having the same % BF, age and sex have generally a 2.9 kg/m2 lower BMI compared to the Dutch. The results show that the relationship between % BF and BMI is different between Indonesians and Dutch Caucasians. If obesity is regarded as an excess of body fat and not as an excess of weight (increased BMI), the cut-off points for obesity in Indonesia based on the BMI should be 27 kg/m2 instead of 30 kg/m2.

  13. Genetic differences at four DNA typing loci in Finnish, Italian, and mixed Caucasian populations.

    PubMed Central

    Krane, D E; Allen, R W; Sawyer, S A; Petrov, D A; Hartl, D L

    1992-01-01

    Highly polymorphic segments of the human genome containing variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTRs) have been widely used to establish DNA profiles of individuals for use in forensics. Methods of estimating the probability of occurrence of matching DNA profiles between two randomly selected individuals have been subject to extensive debate regarding the possibility of significant substructure occurring within the major races. We have sampled two Caucasian subpopulations, Finns and Italians, at four commonly used VNTR loci to determine the extent to which the subgroups differ from each other and from a mixed Caucasian database. The data were also analyzed for the occurrence of linkage disequilibrium among the loci. The allele frequency distributions of some loci were found to differ significantly among the subpopulations in a manner consistent with population substructure. Major differences were also found in the probability of occurrence of matching DNA profiles between two individuals chosen at random from the same subpopulation. With respect to the Finnish and Italian subpopulations, the conventional product rule for estimating the probability of a multilocus VNTR match using a mixed Caucasian database consistently yields estimates that are artificially small. Systematic errors of this type were not found using the interim ceiling principle recently advocated in the National Research Council's report [National Research Council (1992) DNA Technology in Forensic Science (Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington)]. The interim ceiling principle is based on currently available racial or ethnic databases and sets an arbitrary lower limit on each VNTR allele frequency. In the future the ceiling frequencies are expected to be established from more adequate data acquired for relevant VNTR loci from multiple subpopulations. Images PMID:1438254

  14. Differential aerobic exercise-induced changes in plasma aldosterone between African Americans and Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jennifer M.; Dowling, Thomas C.; Park, Jung-Jun; Phares, Dana A.; Park, Joon-Young; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Brown, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Aldosterone influences the kidney’s regulation of blood pressure (BP), but aldosterone can contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension. Blood pressure is reduced with aerobic exercise training (AEX), but the extent to which plasma aldosterone (PA) levels change is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether 6 months of AEX changed PA levels, 24 h sodium (Na+) excretion and BP in prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects and whether these changes differed according to ethnicity. The study was performed in the Kinesiology Department at the University of Maryland, College Park, and 35 (22 Caucasian; 13 African American) sedentary prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects completed 6 months of AEX. Blood samples were collected under fasting and supine conditions, and PA was measured by radioimmunoassay. In total population aerobic exercise training increased maximal oxygen consumption (24 ± 0.8 versus 28 ± 1 ml kg−1 min−1, P < 0.001) and decreased PA levels (97 ± 11 versus 72 ± 6 pg ml−1, P = 0.01), body mass index (28 ± 0.5 versus 28 ± 0.5 kg m−2, P = 0.004) and weight (85 ± 2 versus 83 ± 2 kg, P = 0.003). Aerobic exercise training decreased PA levels (from 119 ± 16 to 81 ± 7 pg ml−1, P = 0.02) in the Caucasians but there was no change in BP or Na+ excretion. African American participants had no significant changes in PA levels, BP and Na+ excretion. Plasma aldosterone levels were 47% lower at baseline (P = 0.01) and 30% lower after AEX (P = 0.04) in African American participants compared with Caucasians. Baseline (P = 0.08) and final PA levels (P = 0.17) did not differ between the two groups after accounting for baseline and final intra-abdominal fat, respectively. The reduction in PA levels with AEX appeared to be driven by the change in PA levels in Caucasian participants. Fat distribution contributed to the ethnic differences in PA levels. PMID:17483200

  15. Assessing appendicular skeletal muscle mass with bioelectrical impedance analysis in free-living Caucasian older adults.

    PubMed

    Sergi, Giuseppe; De Rui, Marina; Veronese, Nicola; Bolzetta, Francesco; Berton, Linda; Carraro, Sara; Bano, Giulia; Coin, Alessandra; Manzato, Enzo; Perissinotto, Egle

    2015-08-01

    Aging is characterized by a loss of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM) leading to physical disability and death. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is reliable in estimating ASMM but no prediction equations are available for elderly Caucasian subjects. The aim of the study was to develop and validate an equation derived from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to predict appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM) in healthy Caucasian elderly subjects, taking dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference method, and comparing the reliability of the new equation with another BIA-based model developed by Kyle et al. (Kyle UG, Genton L, Hans D, Pichard C, 2003). With a cross-sectional design, 296 free-living, healthy Caucasian subjects (117 men, 179 women) over 60 years of age were enrolled. Lean mass of limbs was measured with DXA to ascertain ASMM (ASMMDxA). Whole-body tetrapolar BIA was performed to measure resistance (Rz), resistance normalized for stature (RI), and reactance (Xc). The BIA multiple regression equation for predicting ASMM was developed using a double cross-validation technique. The predicted ASMM values were compared with ASMMKyle, i.e. ASMM estimates derived from the model developed by Kyle et al. (Kyle et al., 2003). Cross-validation resulted in a unique equation using the whole sample: ASMM (kg) = -3.964 + (0.227*RI) + (0.095*weight) + (1.384*sex) + (0.064*Xc) [R(2) = 0.92 and SEE = 1.14 kg]. In our sample, ASMMKyle differed significantly from the ASMMDxA (p < 0.0001), with a mean error of -0.97 ± 1.34 kg (5.1 ± 6.9%). Unlike the present BIA prediction equation, the Kyle et al. model showed a correlation between the bias and the mean of ASMMDxA and ASMMKyle (r = -0.406, p < 0.001). The new BIA equation provides a valid estimate of ASMM in older Caucasian adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of light propagation in Asian and Caucasian skins by means of the Boundary Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, M. A.; Massudi, R.

    2009-09-01

    Boundary Element Method (BEM) is explored to study transport of light in Asian and Caucasian skins. Precision of the method is compared with the Monte Carlo (MC) method and the Finite Difference Method (FDM) and it is observed that BEM offers more precise results and requires shorter running times. Reflection and penetration of different wavelengths from those skins are calculated. Maximum penetration depths are calculated using BEM and the results are compared with those obtained using MC and FDM. The method can simply be used to study transport of light in different types of tissues.

  17. Optimism and coping strategies among Caucasian, Korean, and African American older women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heesoon; Mason, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Coping strategies and optimism have significant effects on the health of older women. Culture affects coping behaviors used to deal with stress. We examined the relationship between optimism and coping strategies used to manage daily stress and health among community-dwelling Caucasian, Korean American, and African American women. Data were collected from 373 women over the age of 65. Results showed that each group used different coping strategies. The more optimistic used more problem-focused and adaptive copings, while the less optimistic employed more avoidant copings. Differences in cultural background and individual levels of optimism guided their coping strategies.

  18. Health Information Seeking Among Rural African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics: It Is Built, Did They Come?

    PubMed

    Powe, Barbara D

    2015-09-01

    This cross-sectional study examines health information-seeking behaviors and access to and use of technology among rural African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics. There was a low level of health information seeking across the sample. Few used smartphones or tablets and did not endorse receiving health information from their health care provider by e-mail. Printed materials remained a source of health information as did friends and family. Information should be shared using multiple platforms including more passive methods such as television and radio. More research is needed to ensure the health literacy, numeracy, and ability to navigate the online environment.

  19. Rocuronium blockade reversal with sugammadex vs. neostigmine: randomized study in Chinese and Caucasian subjects.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinmin; Oerding, Helle; Liu, Jin; Vanacker, Bernard; Yao, Shanglong; Dahl, Vegard; Xiong, Lize; Claudius, Casper; Yue, Yun; Huang, Yuguang; Abels, Esther; Rietbergen, Henk; Woo, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    This study compared efficacy and safety of the selective relaxant binding agent sugammadex (2 mg/kg) with neostigmine (50 μg/kg) for neuromuscular blockade (NMB) reversal in Chinese and Caucasian subjects. This was a randomized, active-controlled, multicenter, safety-assessor-blinded study (NCT00825812) in American Society of Anesthesiologists Class 1-3 subjects undergoing surgery with propofol anesthesia. Rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was administered for endotracheal intubation, with 0.1-0.2 mg/kg maintenance doses given as required. NMB was monitored using TOF-Watch(®) SX. At second twitch reappearance, after last rocuronium dose, subjects received sugammadex 2 mg/kg or neostigmine 50 μg/kg plus atropine 10-20 μg/kg, according to randomization. Primary efficacy variable was time from sugammadex/neostigmine to recovery of the train-of-four (TOF) ratio to 0.9. Overall, 230 Chinese subjects (sugammadex, n = 119, neostigmine, n = 111); and 59 Caucasian subjects (sugammadex, n = 29, neostigmine, n = 30) had evaluable data. Geometric mean (95% CI) time to recovery to TOF ratio 0.9 was 1.6 (1.5-1.7) min with sugammadex vs 9.1 (8.0-10.3) min with neostigmine in Chinese subjects. Corresponding times for Caucasian subjects were 1.4 (1.3-1.5) min and 6.7 (5.5-8.0) min, respectively. Sugammadex 2 mg/kg was generally well tolerated, with no serious adverse events reported. There was no residual NMB or recurrence of NMB. Both Chinese and Caucasian subjects recovered from NMB significantly faster after sugammadex 2 mg/kg vs neostigmine 50 μg/kg, with a ~5.7 times (p < 0.0001) faster recovery with sugammadex vs neostigmine in Chinese subjects. Sugammadex was generally well tolerated. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00825812.

  20. Rocuronium blockade reversal with sugammadex vs. neostigmine: randomized study in Chinese and Caucasian subjects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study compared efficacy and safety of the selective relaxant binding agent sugammadex (2 mg/kg) with neostigmine (50 μg/kg) for neuromuscular blockade (NMB) reversal in Chinese and Caucasian subjects. Methods This was a randomized, active-controlled, multicenter, safety-assessor-blinded study (NCT00825812) in American Society of Anesthesiologists Class 1-3 subjects undergoing surgery with propofol anesthesia. Rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was administered for endotracheal intubation, with 0.1–0.2 mg/kg maintenance doses given as required. NMB was monitored using TOF-Watch® SX. At second twitch reappearance, after last rocuronium dose, subjects received sugammadex 2 mg/kg or neostigmine 50 μg/kg plus atropine 10–20 μg/kg, according to randomization. Primary efficacy variable was time from sugammadex/neostigmine to recovery of the train-of-four (TOF) ratio to 0.9. Results Overall, 230 Chinese subjects (sugammadex, n = 119, neostigmine, n = 111); and 59 Caucasian subjects (sugammadex, n = 29, neostigmine, n = 30) had evaluable data. Geometric mean (95% CI) time to recovery to TOF ratio 0.9 was 1.6 (1.5–1.7) min with sugammadex vs 9.1 (8.0–10.3) min with neostigmine in Chinese subjects. Corresponding times for Caucasian subjects were 1.4 (1.3–1.5) min and 6.7 (5.5–8.0) min, respectively. Sugammadex 2 mg/kg was generally well tolerated, with no serious adverse events reported. There was no residual NMB or recurrence of NMB. Conclusion Both Chinese and Caucasian subjects recovered from NMB significantly faster after sugammadex 2 mg/kg vs neostigmine 50 μg/kg, with a ~5.7 times (p < 0.0001) faster recovery with sugammadex vs neostigmine in Chinese subjects. Sugammadex was generally well tolerated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00825812. PMID:25187755

  1. What women want - quantifying the perception of hair amount: an analysis of hair diameter and density changes with age in caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Robbins, C; Mirmirani, P; Messenger, A G; Birch, M P; Youngquist, R S; Tamura, M; Filloon, T; Luo, F; Dawson, T L

    2012-08-01

    It has long been known that women lose satisfaction with their hair with ageing. Our data show that caucasian women perceive a decrease in hair amount in their mid 40s with a further decrease in the mid to late 50s, which leads to this dissatisfaction. Neither loss of density (hairs per cm(2) ) nor shaft diameter alone can fully account for this perception. A new metric, 'hair amount', is proposed as a quantitative metric combining the impact of both density and diameter on the perception of hair loss. Creation of a single parameter combining the contribution of diameter and density to perception of female age-related hair loss. In total, 1099 caucasian women (ages 18-66 years) with self-perceived hair loss and 315 caucasian women (ages 17-86 years) with no complaint of hair loss were evaluated. Scalp hair diameter was measured using optical fibre diameter and image analysis. Scalp hair density was measured by phototrichogram with manual or automated counting. Parietal scalp hair diameter increased from ages 20 to 40-45 years, then decreased. Hair density was highest in the youngest group, age 20-30 years, and decreased thereafter with increasing rate. In women self-perceiving hair loss, the rate of decrease in density was significantly faster than for women with no self-perception of hair loss. The combined metric 'hair amount' was relatively constant at younger ages, increasing very slightly to age 35 years, then decreasing significantly. Increasing hair shaft diameter offsets decreasing hair density through the mid 30s. After that, a lower rate of diameter increase combined with the decrease in density begins to significantly impact the perception of hair amount so that thinning becomes increasingly more noticeable in the mid 40s to the mid to late 50s. Quantitative determination of hair amount is a useful tool to combine the contributions of hair density and diameter to women's perception of age-related hair loss. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British

  2. Sagittal parameters of global spinal balance: normative values from a prospective cohort of seven hundred nine Caucasian asymptomatic adults.

    PubMed

    Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Roussouly, Pierre; Berthonnaud, Eric; Guigui, Pierre

    2010-10-15

    Prospective study of normal sagittal global spinal balance in the Caucasian adult population. To document values for parameters of global spinal balance in 709 asymptomatic adults without spinal pathology. Previous studies have investigated sagittal spinal balance in the normal population, but there is still a need for a large prospective database with normative values on the basis of gender and age. Spinosacral angle (SSA), spinal tilt (ST), and C7 translation ratio were evaluated in 709 asymptomatic adults (354 males and 355 females). Position of C7 plumbline relative to sacrum and hip axis (HA) was also assessed. Comparisons on the basis of gender were performed using analyses of covariance with age as covariate. Relationships between parameters and age were assessed using Spearman's coefficients. Mean SSA, ST, and C7 translation ratio were respectively 130.4° ± 8.1°, 90.8° ± 3.4°, and 0.1° ± 1.9°. Mean ± 2 standard deviations were respectively 110° to 150° for SSA and 85° to 100° for ST. Mean SSA and ST were higher in females but by less than 2°. C7 plumbline was behind the HA in 86% of subjects. Correlations between global balance and age were small (-0.1 ≤ r ≤ 0.1), with only 1 correlation reaching statistical significance (SSA vs. age; r = -0.1), reflecting a slight tendency for SSA to decrease with age. There was no relationship between ST and age. Asymptomatic adults tend to stand with a stable global balance and it is expected that 95% of normal adults have an SSA and ST between 110° to 150° and 85° to 100°, respectively. C7 plumbline in front of the HA is not necessarily associated with a spinal pathology. Results suggest that in adults, anterior displacement of C7 plumbline with respect to sacrum cannot be attributed solely to aging and should raise a suspicion for the risk of developing spinal pathology.

  3. A comparison of the pharmacokinetics of codeine and its metabolites in healthy Chinese and Caucasian extensive hydroxylators of debrisoquine.

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Q Y; Svensson, J O; Sjöqvist, F; Säwe, J

    1991-01-01

    1. The kinetics of codeine and metabolites were studied in eight unrelated healthy Chinese subjects following a single oral dose of 50 mg codeine phosphate. The data were compared with those from eight Caucasian subjects who were matched with the Chinese group according to their metabolic ratio (MR) of debrisoquine. 2. Mean values of Cmax (445 nmol l-1) and AUC (1660 nmol l-1 h) of codeine in the Chinese were significantly higher than those in the Caucasians (292 nmol l-1 and 1010 nmol l-1 h). Thus plasma clearance was significantly lower (P less than 0.02) and the plasma half-life was longer (P less than 0.05) in the Chinese. 3. Partial clearance by glucuronidation was significantly lower (0.79 +/- 0.14 s.d. vs 1.42 +/- 0.48 s.d. 1 h-1 kg-1) in Chinese than in Caucasians. 4. The total urinary recovery of drug-related material in 48 h urine was similar in Chinese (82.2%) and Caucasians (84.4%). The recovery of unchanged codeine was significantly higher in Chinese (5.7%) than in Caucasians (3.3%). 5. The AUC ratios of codeine relative to its 6-glucuronide, morphine and norcodeine were 1:9, 35:1 and 4:1, respectively in Chinese. The corresponding ratios in Caucasians were 1:15, 50:1 and 6:1. 6. There was no significant difference between Chinese and Caucasians in the renal clearances of codeine and its primary metabolites. 7. Large interethnic differences in the kinetics of codeine have been shown. The Chinese are less able to metabolise codeine mainly because of a lower efficiency in glucuronidation. PMID:1867958

  4. Longitudinal relationships between college education and patterns of heavy drinking: A comparison between Caucasians and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pan; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The current study compared longitudinal relationships between college education and patterns of heavy drinking from early adolescence to adulthood for Caucasians and African Americans. Methods Data were collected from N=9,988 non-Hispanic Caucasian and African American participants from all four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Growth curve modeling tested differences in rates of change and levels of heavy drinking from ages 13–31 among non-college youth, college withdrawers, 2-year-college graduates, and 4-year-college graduates, and compared these differences for Caucasians and African Americans. Results There were significant racial differences in relationships between college education with both changes in and levels of heavy drinking. Rates of change of heavy drinking differed significantly across the college education groups examined for Caucasians but not for African Americans. In addition, Caucasians who graduated from 4-year colleges showed the highest levels of heavy drinking after age 20, although differences between the four groups diminished by the early 30s. In contrast, for African Americans, graduates from 2- or 4-year colleges did not show higher levels of heavy drinking from ages 20–31 than the non-college group. Instead, African American participants who withdrew from college without an associate’s, bachelor’s, or professional degree consistently exhibited the highest levels of heavy drinking from ages 26–31. Conclusions The relationship between college education and increased levels of heavy drinking in young adulthood is significant for Caucasians but not African Americans. Conversely, African Americans are likely to be more adversely affected than Caucasians by college withdrawal. PMID:23707401

  5. Cardiovascular flexibility in middle-aged overweight South Asians vs. white Caucasians: response to short-term caloric restriction.

    PubMed

    Van Schinkel, L D; Bakker, L E H; Jonker, J T; De Roos, A; Pijl, H; Meinders, A E; Jazet, I M; Lamb, H J; Smit, J W A

    2015-04-01

    South Asians have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease than white Caucasians. The underlying cause is unknown, but might be related to higher cardiac susceptibility to metabolic disorders. Short-term caloric restriction (CR) can be used as a metabolic stress test to study cardiac flexibility. We assessed whether metabolic and functional cardiovascular flexibility to CR differs between South Asians and white Caucasians. Cardiovascular function and myocardial triglycerides were assessed using a 1.5T-MRI/S-scanner in 12 middle-aged overweight male South Asians and 12 matched white Caucasians before and after an 8-day very low calorie diet (VLCD). At baseline South Asians were more insulin resistant than Caucasians. Cardiac dimensions were smaller, despite correction for body surface area, and pulse wave velocity (PWV) in the distal aorta was higher in South Asians. Systolic and diastolic function, myocardial triglycerides and pericardial fat did not differ significantly between groups. After the VLCD body weight reduced on average by 4.0 ± 0.2 kg. Myocardial triglycerides increased in both ethnicities by 69 ± 18%, and diastolic function decreased although this was not significant in South Asians. However, pericardial fat and PWV in the proximal and total aorta were reduced in Caucasians only. Myocardial triglyceride stores in middle-aged overweight and insulin resistant South Asians are as flexible and amenable to therapeutic intervention by CR as age-, sex- and BMI-matched but less insulin resistant white Caucasians. However, paracardial fat volume and PWV showed a differential effect in response to an 8-day VLCD in favor of Caucasians. NTR 2473 (URL: http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctsearch.asp?Term=2473). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. CYP1B1 variants are associated with prostate cancer in non-Hispanic and Hispanic Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Beuten, Joke; Gelfond, Jonathan A.L.; Byrne, John J.; Balic, Ivana; Crandall, AnaLisa C.; Johnson-Pais, Teresa L.; Thompson, Ian M.; Price, Douglas K.; Leach, Robin J.

    2008-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is involved in the activation of many carcinogens and in the metabolism of steroid hormones. We compared allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within CYP1B1 among non-Hispanic Caucasians (496 cases and 498 controls) and Hispanic Caucasians (153 cases and 240 controls). In the Hispanic Caucasians, the GG genotype for rs1056836 decreased the risk for prostate cancer (PCa) when compared with the CC genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 0.31, P = 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.10–0.96]. Among non-Hispanic Caucasian men with more aggressive PCa, the prevalence of several SNPs (rs2567206, rs2551188, rs2617266, rs10012 and rs1056836) was significantly associated with the disease status. A common C-G-C-C-G-A haplotype for rs2567206-rs2551188-rs2617266-rs10012-rs1056836-rs1800440 showed an inverse association with PCa risk in Hispanic Caucasians (OR = 0.19, P = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.04–0.95) and with aggressive disease status (i.e. Gleason score ≥7) in non-Hispanic Caucasian cases (OR = 0.64, P = 0.008, 95% CI = 0.47–0.89). In the non-Hispanic Caucasian cases, a second major haplotype T-A-T-G-C-A was positively associated with the high-grade disease status (OR = 1.77, P = 0.002, 95% CI = 1.24–2.53). Our findings suggest that genetic polymorphisms in CYP1B1 may modify the risk for PCa and support the role of CYP1B1 as a candidate gene for PCa. PMID:18544568

  7. Longitudinal relationships between college education and patterns of heavy drinking: a comparison between Caucasians and African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pan; Jacobson, Kristen C

    2013-09-01

    The current study compared longitudinal relationships between college education and patterns of heavy drinking from early adolescence to adulthood for Caucasians and African-Americans. We analyzed data from 9,988 non-Hispanic Caucasian and African-American participants from all four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Growth curve modeling tested differences in rates of change and levels of heavy drinking from ages 13 to 31 years among non-college youth, college withdrawers, 2-year college graduates, and 4-year college graduates, and compared these differences for Caucasians and African-Americans. There were significant racial differences in relationships between college education with both changes in and levels of heavy drinking. Rates of change of heavy drinking differed significantly across the college education groups examined for Caucasians but not for African-Americans. In addition, Caucasians who graduated from 4-year colleges showed the highest levels of heavy drinking after age 20 years, although differences among the four groups diminished by the early 30s. In contrast, for African-Americans, graduates from 2- or 4-year colleges did not show higher levels of heavy drinking from ages 20 to 31 years than the non-college group. Instead, African-American participants who withdrew from college without an associate's, bachelor's, or professional degree consistently exhibited the highest levels of heavy drinking from ages 26 to 31 years. The relationship between college education and increased levels of heavy drinking in young adulthood is significant for Caucasians but not African-Americans. Conversely, African-Americans are likely to be more adversely affected than are Caucasians by college withdrawal. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differences in Subjective Response to Alcohol in Heavy and Light Drinking Chinese Men versus Caucasian American Men

    PubMed Central

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Hu, Hongxing; McNamara, Patrick; Cao, Dingcai; Hao, Wei; King, Andrea C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Compare subjective responses to alcohol among Han Chinese and Caucasian American males. Design Double-blinded, placebo-controlled human laboratory design. Participants completed three randomized experimental sessions with high and low alcohol, and placebo beverage. Setting Chinese participants were examined at Xinjiang Medical University, China. Caucasian participants were examined at the University of Chicago, USA. Participants 70 Han Chinese (35 heavy/35 light drinkers) and 75 Caucasian Americans (43 heavy/32 light drinkers). Measurements Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) and the Stimulation and Sedation subscales of the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale were assessed at pre-drink baseline and four timepoints after beverage consumption. The Like and Want subscales of the Drug Effects Questionnaire were also assessed at the post-drink assessments. Findings Comparisons with light drinkers showed that high and low dose alcohol produced decreases in stimulation, liking, and wanting in Chinese vs. Caucasians (ps<.05), and dose-dependent increases in sedation in both groups (ps<0.001). Among heavy drinkers, high dose alcohol produced higher stimulation (p<0.001) but with concomitant higher sedation for both doses (ps<0.05) for Chinese vs. Caucasians. Alcohol also demonstrated significantly lower liking (ps<0.001) in Chinese vs. Caucasian heavy drinkers for both doses. Interestingly, both groups showed dose dependent increases in wanting relative to placebo (ps<0.05), but the magnitude of the increase was lower in Chinese. Conclusions Stimulating effects of alcohol are predominant in Chinese male binge drinkers, as has been found in Caucasians, but with less hedonic and motivational reward, potentially explaining some of the lower risk for alcohol disorders in Asian subgroups. PMID:25203488

  9. CYP1B1 variants are associated with prostate cancer in non-Hispanic and Hispanic Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Beuten, Joke; Gelfond, Jonathan A L; Byrne, John J; Balic, Ivana; Crandall, AnaLisa C; Johnson-Pais, Teresa L; Thompson, Ian M; Price, Douglas K; Leach, Robin J

    2008-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is involved in the activation of many carcinogens and in the metabolism of steroid hormones. We compared allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within CYP1B1 among non-Hispanic Caucasians (496 cases and 498 controls) and Hispanic Caucasians (153 cases and 240 controls). In the Hispanic Caucasians, the GG genotype for rs1056836 decreased the risk for prostate cancer (PCa) when compared with the CC genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 0.31, P = 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.10-0.96]. Among non-Hispanic Caucasian men with more aggressive PCa, the prevalence of several SNPs (rs2567206, rs2551188, rs2617266, rs10012 and rs1056836) was significantly associated with the disease status. A common C-G-C-C-G-A haplotype for rs2567206-rs2551188-rs2617266-rs10012-rs1056836-rs1800440 showed an inverse association with PCa risk in Hispanic Caucasians (OR = 0.19, P = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.04-0.95) and with aggressive disease status (i.e. Gleason score >or=7) in non-Hispanic Caucasian cases (OR = 0.64, P = 0.008, 95% CI = 0.47-0.89). In the non-Hispanic Caucasian cases, a second major haplotype T-A-T-G-C-A was positively associated with the high-grade disease status (OR = 1.77, P = 0.002, 95% CI = 1.24-2.53). Our findings suggest that genetic polymorphisms in CYP1B1 may modify the risk for PCa and support the role of CYP1B1 as a candidate gene for PCa.

  10. Differences in subjective response to alcohol in heavy- and light-drinking Chinese men versus Caucasian American men.

    PubMed

    Rueger, Sandra Y; Hu, Hongxing; McNamara, Patrick; Cao, Dingcai; Hao, Wei; King, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    To compare subjective responses to alcohol among Han Chinese and Caucasian American males. Double-blinded, placebo-controlled human laboratory design. Participants completed three randomized experimental sessions with high and low alcohol and placebo beverages. Chinese participants were examined at Xinjiang Medical University, China. Caucasian participants were examined at the University of Chicago, USA. Seventy Han Chinese (35 heavy/35 light drinkers) and 75 Caucasian Americans (43 heavy/32 light drinkers). Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) and the 'stimulation' and 'sedation' subscales of the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale were assessed at pre-drink baseline and four time-points after beverage consumption. The 'like' and 'want' subscales of the Drug Effects Questionnaire were also assessed at the post-drink assessments. Comparisons with light drinkers showed that high- and low-dose alcohol produced decreases in stimulation, liking and wanting in Chinese versus Caucasians (P < 0.05), and dose-dependent increases in sedation in both groups (P < 0.001). Among heavy drinkers, high-dose alcohol produced higher stimulation (P < 0.001) but with concomitant higher sedation for both doses (P < 0.05) for Chinese versus Caucasians. Alcohol also demonstrated significantly lower liking (P < 0.001) in Chinese versus Caucasian heavy drinkers for both doses. Interestingly, both groups showed dose-dependent increases in wanting relative to placebo (P < 0.05), but the magnitude of the increase was lower in Chinese drinkers. Stimulating effects of alcohol are predominant in Chinese male binge drinkers, as has been found in Caucasians, but with less hedonic and motivational reward, potentially explaining some of the lower risk for alcohol disorders in Asian subgroups. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. First-line gefitinib in Caucasian EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC patients: a phase-IV, open-label, single-arm study

    PubMed Central

    Douillard, J-Y; Ostoros, G; Cobo, M; Ciuleanu, T; McCormack, R; Webster, A; Milenkova, T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Phase-IV, open-label, single-arm study (NCT01203917) to assess efficacy and safety/tolerability of first-line gefitinib in Caucasian patients with stage IIIA/B/IV, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Treatment: gefitinib 250 mg day−1 until progression. Primary endpoint: objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints: disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and safety/tolerability. Pre-planned exploratory objective: EGFR mutation analysis in matched tumour and plasma samples. Results: Of 1060 screened patients with NSCLC (859 known mutation status; 118 positive, mutation frequency 14%), 106 with EGFR sensitising mutations were enrolled (female 70.8% adenocarcinoma 97.2% never-smoker 64.2%). At data cutoff: ORR 69.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 60.5–77.7), DCR 90.6% (95% CI 83.5–94.8), median PFS 9.7 months (95% CI 8.5–11.0), median OS 19.2 months (95% CI 17.0–NC; 27% maturity). Most common adverse events (AEs; any grade): rash (44.9%), diarrhoea (30.8%); CTC (Common Toxicity Criteria) grade 3/4 AEs: 15% SAEs: 19%. Baseline plasma 1 samples were available in 803 patients (784 known mutation status; 82 positive; mutation frequency 10%). Plasma 1 EGFR mutation test sensitivity: 65.7% (95% CI 55.8–74.7). Conclusion: First-line gefitinib was effective and well tolerated in Caucasian patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC. Plasma samples could be considered for mutation analysis if tumour tissue is unavailable. PMID:24263064

  12. Effects of the ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Burgos, M A; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E; Martín-Alcántara, A; Hidalgo-Martínez, M

    2014-03-01

    We analyse the effects of the air ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity under different ambient temperatures using CFD simulations. A three-dimensional nasal model was constructed from high-resolution computed tomography images for a nasal cavity from a Caucasian male adult. An exhaustive parametric study was performed to analyse the laminar-compressible flow driven by two different pressure drops between the nostrils and the nasopharynx, which induced calm breathing flow rates ࣈ 5.7 L/min and ࣈ 11.3 L/min. The inlet air temperature covered the range - 10(o) C ⩽ To ⩽50(o) C. We observed that, keeping constant the wall temperature of the nasal cavity at 37(o) C, the ambient temperature affects mainly the airflow velocity into the valve region. Surprisingly, we found an excellent linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the air average temperature reached at different cross sections, independently of the pressure drop applied. Finally, we have also observed that the spatial evolution of the mean temperature data along the nasal cavity can be collapsed for all ambient temperatures analysed with the introduction of suitable dimensionless variables, and this evolution can be modelled with the help of hyperbolic functions, which are based on the heat exchanger theory. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Prediagnostic Helicobacter pylori Antibodies and Colorectal Cancer Risk in an Elderly, Caucasian Population.

    PubMed

    Blase, Jennifer L; Campbell, Peter T; Gapstur, Susan M; Pawlita, Michael; Michel, Angelika; Waterboer, Tim; Teras, Lauren R

    2016-12-01

    Study results on overall seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori and colorectal cancer risk have been inconsistent. However, one study found positive associations with antibodies to specific H. pylori proteins. To follow up on those findings, we assessed associations of 15 H. pylori specific proteins with colorectal cancer incidence in the prospective Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort. Participants in this nested case-control study included 392 cases and 774 controls who were predominantly elderly (median age at blood draw: 71 years) and Caucasian (98%). Seroreactivity against 15 H. pylori proteins was assessed by fluorescent bead-based multiplex serology and associations with colorectal cancer were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Helicobacter pylori serostatus was not associated with colorectal cancer incidence (odds ratio (OR), 1.17, 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.91-1.50). Among individual antigens, GroEl serostatus was associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR, 1.32, 95% CI: 1.03-1.70), whereas CagM was associated with colon cancer risk only (OR, 1.35, 95% CI: 1.01-1.80). No dose-response relationships were observed for any of the antigens, including GroEl and CagM. The results of our study do not support an association between H. pylori infection and colorectal cancer risk in this elderly, mostly Caucasian population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Gene-environment interactions on mental development in African American, Dominican, and Caucasian Mothers and Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang; Chanock, Stephen; Tang, Deliang; Li, Zhigang; Edwards, Susan; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P.

    2009-01-01

    The health impact of environmental toxins has gained increasing recognition over the years. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are known to affect nervous system development in children, but no studies have investigated how polymorphisms in PAH metabolic or detoxification genes affect child cognitive development following PAH exposure during pregnancy. In two parallel prospective cohort studies of nonsmoking African American and Dominican mothers and children in New York City and of Caucasian mothers and children in Krakow, Poland, we explored the effect of gene-PAH interaction on child mental development index (MDI), as measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Revised (BSID-II). Genes known to play important roles in the metabolic activation or detoxification of PAHs were selected. Genetic variations in these genes could influence susceptibility to adverse effects of PAHs in polluted air. We explored the effects of interactions between prenatal PAH exposure and 21 polymorphisms or haplotypes in these genes on MDI at 12, 24, and 36 months among 547 newborns and 806 mothers from three different ethnic groups: African Americans, Dominicans, and Caucasians. PAHs were measured by personal air monitoring of mothers during pregnancy. Significant interaction effects between haplotypes and PAHs were observed in mothers and their newborns in all three ethnic groups after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The strongest and most consistent effect observed was between PAH and haplotype ACCGGC of the CYP1B1 gene. PMID:19860743

  15. Anterior Segment Dimensions in Asian and Caucasian Eyes Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Bing; Tang, Maolong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xinbo; Chu, Renyuan; Huang, David

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE To compare Asian and Caucasian anterior segment dimensions measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS Anterior segment OCT images were obtained in normal subjects. Four line scans were acquired at the 90°, 45°, 0°, and 135° meridians of each eye. Computer calipers acquired anterior segment dimensions of corneal diameter, anterior chamber width, corneal vault, and anterior chamber depth on OCT images. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess correlations. RESULTS Corneal diameter was 0.5 mm narrower (P < .01), anterior chamber width was 0.46 mm narrower (P < .01), and corneal vault was 0.22 mm lower (P < .01) in Asian eyes. All anterior segment dimensions decreased with age. CONCLUSION Asian eyes had smaller anterior segments compared to Caucasian eyes. Regardless of race, anterior segment dimensions were smaller in older subjects. Age-related changes may affect the tolerability of long-term implants such as phakic intraocular lenses. PMID:22320411

  16. Common and recurrent HPGD mutations in Caucasian individuals with primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy.

    PubMed

    Diggle, Christine P; Carr, Ian M; Zitt, Emanuel; Wusik, Katie; Hopkin, Robert J; Prada, Carlos E; Calabrese, Olga; Rittinger, Olaf; Punaro, Marilynn G; Markham, Alexander F; Bonthron, David T

    2010-06-01

    Homozygous recessive germline mutations of the 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD) gene, encoding 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase, result in persistent elevation of circulating PGE(2) levels, causing the syndrome of primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (PHO). Homozygous HPGD mutations have so far been reported in 10 families, all but one displaying parental consanguinity. Only two of these families were of European origin. We wished to determine the role of HPGD in causing PHO in non-consanguineous European families. Five previously unreported families of Caucasian European origin, with one or more individuals affected with typical PHO, were characterized clinically and by complete sequencing of the HPGD coding exons. Biallelic HPGD mutations were identified in affected individuals in all the five families, confirming a very specific association of this phenotype with HPGD mutations. The previously described c.175_176delCT frameshift mutation was observed in association with two different alleles of an adjacent single nucleotide polymorphism. Biallelic HPGD mutations are found in the majority of patients with typical PHO, and sequencing of the HPGD gene is a highly specific first-line investigation for patients presenting in this way, particularly during childhood. The c.175_176delCT frameshift mutation appears to be recurrent and to be the commonest HPGD mutation in Caucasian families.

  17. Discriminant musculo-skeletal leg characteristics between sprint and endurance elite Caucasian runners.

    PubMed

    Bex, T; Iannaccone, F; Stautemas, J; Baguet, A; De Beule, M; Verhegghe, B; Aerts, P; De Clercq, D; Derave, W

    2017-03-01

    Excellence in either sprinting or endurance running requires specific musculo-skeletal characteristics of the legs. This study aims to investigate the morphology of the leg of sprinters and endurance runners of Caucasian ethnicity. Eight male sprinters and 11 male endurance runners volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study. They underwent magnetic resonance imaging and after data collection, digital reconstruction was done to calculate muscle volumes and bone lengths. Sprinters have a higher total upper leg volume compared to endurance runners (7340 vs 6265 cm(3) ). Specifically, the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and hamstrings showed significantly higher muscle volumes in the sprint group. For the lower leg, only a higher muscle volume was found in the gastrocnemius lateralis for the sprinters. No differences were found in muscle volume distribution, center of mass in the different muscles, or relative bone lengths. There was a significant positive correlation between ratio hamstrings/quadriceps volume and best running performance in the sprint group. Sprinters and endurance runners of Caucasian ethnicity showed the greatest distinctions in muscle volumes, rather than in muscle distributions or skeletal measures. Sprinters show higher volumes in mainly the proximal and lateral leg muscles than endurance runners.

  18. Topical adenosine increases the proportion of thick hair in Caucasian men with androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Tokuro; Ideta, Ritsuro; Ehama, Ritsuko; Yamanishi, Haruyo; Iino, Masato; Nakazawa, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Takashi; Ohyama, Manabu; Kishimoto, Jiro

    2016-05-01

    Adenosine is an effective treatment for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in Japanese men and women. Adenosine exerts its effects by significantly increasing the proportion of thick hair. In this study, we assessed the clinical outcome of adenosine treatment for 6 months in 38 Caucasian men. The change in proportion of thick hair (≥60 μm) compared with baseline in the adenosine group was significantly higher than that in the placebo group (P < 0.0001). The change in vellus hair proportion (<40 μm) was significantly lower in the adenosine group than that in the placebo group (P = 0.0154). The change in hair density compared with baseline of the adenosine group was also significantly higher compared with that of the placebo group (P = 0.0470). No adverse effects due to treatment were noted during this study by dermatological evaluation. Adenosine is effective in increasing the proportion of thick hair in Caucasian men with AGA as well as in Japanese men and women. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  19. Smoking, nicotine dependence, and motives to quit in Asian American versus Caucasian college students.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Sarah; Kurz, Andrew S

    2012-10-01

    Few smoking cessation programs are designed for college students, a unique population that may categorically differ from adolescents and adults, and thus may have different motivations to quit than the general adult population. Understanding college student motives may lead to better cessation interventions tailored to this population. Motivation to quit may differ, however, between racial groups. The current study is a secondary analysis examining primary motives in college student smokers, and differences between Asian American and Caucasian students in smoking frequency, nicotine dependence, and motives to quit. Participants (N = 97) listed personal motives to quit cigarette smoking, which were then coded into categories: health, personal relationships (e.g., friends, family, romantic partners), self-view (e.g., "addicted" or "not in control"), image in society, impact on others or the environment (e.g., second-hand smoke, pollution), and drain on personal resources (e.g., money, time). Mean number of motives were highest in the category of health, followed by personal relationships, drain on resources, self-view, image, and impact. Asian American students listed significantly fewer motives in the categories of health, self-view and image, and significantly more in the category of personal relationships than Caucasian students. Nicotine dependence was significantly higher for Asian American students. However, frequency of smoking did not differ between groups. Results may inform customization of smoking cessation programs for college students and address relevant culturally specific factors of different racial groups.

  20. Parent report of binge eating in Hispanic, African American and Caucasian youth.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Camden A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Mirza, Nazrat M

    2013-01-01

    Binge eating is prevalent among weight loss treatment-seeking youth. However, there are limited data on the relationship between binge eating and weight in racial or ethnically diverse youth. We therefore examined 409 obese (BMI≥95th percentile for age and sex) treatment-seeking Hispanic (29.1%), Caucasian (31.7%), and African American (39.2%), boys and girls (6-18 years). Weight, height, waist circumference, and body fat were measured to assess body composition. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Children's Depression Inventory and disordered eating cognitions were measured with the Children's Eating Attitudes Test. Accounting for age, sex, body fat mass, and height, the odds of parents reporting that their child engaged in binge eating were significantly higher among Caucasian compared to African American youth, with Hispanic youth falling non-significantly between these two groups. Youth with binge eating had greater body adiposity (p=.02), waist circumference (p=.02), depressive symptoms (p=.01), and disordered eating attitudes (p=.04), with no difference between racial or ethnic group. We conclude that, regardless of race or ethnicity, binge eating is prevalent among weight loss treatment-seeking youth and is associated with adiposity and psychological distress. Further research is required to elucidate the extent to which binge eating among racially and ethnically diverse youth differentially impacts weight loss outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Interactions Between Monoamine Oxidase A and Punitive Discipline in African American and Caucasian Men's Antisocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Shaw, Daniel S; Hyde, Luke W; Forbes, Erika E

    2014-09-01

    Although previous studies have shown that interactions between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype and childhood maltreatment predict Caucasian boys' antisocial behavior, the generalizability of this gene-environment interaction to more diverse populations and more common parenting behaviors, such as punitive discipline in early childhood, is not clearly understood. Among 189 low-income men (44% African American, 56% Caucasian) who underwent rigorous assessments of family behavior and social context longitudinally across 20 years, those men with the low activity MAOA allele who experienced more punitive discipline at ages 1.5, 2, and 5 years showed more antisocial behavior from ages 15 through 20 years. Effects of punitive discipline on antisocial behavior differed by caregiver and age at which it occurred, suggesting sensitive periods throughout early childhood in which low MAOA activity elevated boys' vulnerability to harsh parenting and risk for antisocial behavior. This genetic vulnerability to punitive discipline-and not just extreme, maltreatment experiences-may generalize to other male populations at risk for antisocial behavior.

  2. Definition and characterization of relative hypo- and hyperleptinemia in a large Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Buettner, R; Bollheimer, L C; Zietz, B; Drobnik, W; Lackner, K; Schmitz, G; Schölmerich, J; Palitzsch, K-D

    2002-12-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin, has been implicated in the regulation of appetite, weight gain and glucose homeostasis as well as in liver fibrogenesis, hematopoiesis and immune function. No previous reports have clearly defined pathologically elevated or decreased serum leptin levels for Caucasian adults. The aim of this study was to define and characterize subjects with relative hyper- and hypoleptinemia in a large population-based German cohort. Percentiles of leptin levels by body mass index (BMI) were calculated from 4971 adult Germans, and the participants with leptin levels above the 95th and below the 5th percentile were defined as relatively hyperleptinemic and relatively hypoleptinemic, respectively, for their BMI. These participants were compared with the intermediate group with respect to anthropometric and clinical data and parameters of glucose and iron metabolism, lipid status, renal, adrenal and reproductive function. Relatively hyperleptinemic participants (HL) showed higher insulin, c-peptide, and total cholesterol levels than the hypoleptinemic subjects; in males, ferritin levels were higher and testosterone levels lower in the HL group. In conclusion, we report the first percentile curves for serum leptin by BMI in a large Caucasian population. Relatively low leptin values may be associated with a lower metabolic risk than relatively high serum leptin values.

  3. Risk factors for cardiovascular calcifications in non-diabetic Caucasian haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Schlieper, Georg; Brandenburg, Vincent; Djuric, Zivka; Damjanovic, Tatjana; Markovic, Natasa; Schurgers, Leon; Kruger, Thilo; Westenfeld, Ralf; Ackermann, Diana; Haselhuhn, Angelika; Dimkovic, Sinisa; Ketteler, Markus; Floege, Jurgen; Dimkovic, Nada

    2009-01-01

    Dialysis patients display an increased mortality which is associated with cardiovascular calcifications. Diabetes mellitus and ethnicity are known factors that affect the extent of cardiovascular calcifications. However, most studies have investigated mixed cohorts with diabetics and/or mixed ethnicity. Cardiovascular calcifications were assessed in non-diabetic Caucasian haemodialysis patients by the semiquantitative Adragao calcification score (X-ray pelvis and hands) and a novel composite calcification score encompassing the Adragao score as well as calcifications detected by X-ray of the fistula arm, echocardiography of heart valves and carotid ultrasound. Using multivariate analysis, age, male gender, dialysis vintage, lower Kt/V, calcium-phosphate product, smoking and high-sensitivity CRP were independent risk factors for cardiovascular calcifications as assessed by the Adragao or the composite score. Pulse wave velocity was independently related to both calcification scores. Body mass index, cholesterol, triglycerides, iPTH and serum levels of fetuin-A and uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein were not associated with cardiovascular calcifications. In our cohort of non-diabetic Caucasian haemodialysis patients, age, male gender, dialysis vintage, smoking, calcium-phosphate product, high-sensitivity CRP and lower Kt/V were independent risk factors for cardiovascular calcifications. Whether lowering the calcium-phosphate product and increasing dialysis efficiency can reduce cardiovascular calcifications in dialysis patients remains to be determined. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Burkitt-type lymphoma in France among non-Hodgkin malignant lymphomas in Caucasian children.

    PubMed Central

    Philip, T.; Lenoir, G. M.; Bryon, P. A.; Gerard-Marchant, R.; Souillet, G.; Philippe, N.; Freycon, F.; Brunat-Mentigny, M.

    1982-01-01

    In a retrospective analysis of 87 cases of Caucasian childhood non-Hodgkin malignant lymphoma (NHML) from Lyon, France, all the case were diffuse lymphomas, but 47 were diagnosed as monomorphic small non-cleaved NHML, pathologically indistinguishable from Burkitt's lymphoma (BL). BL could then be the most frequent childhood lymphoma in France. This homogeneous series allows better definition of the characteristics of BL within NHML. Age distribution is similar to that of endemic BL, with a sex ratio of 3.7/1. Abdominal masses are initially present in 68% of the cases, whereas jaw is involved in only 4%. The disease is characterized by its overwhelming evolution in the absence of therapy. However, complete remission (CR) is usually obtained after the first chemtherapy regimen. Most relapses occur at 3-8 months. Death could be related to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) involvement, local recurrence or secondary marrow involvement. Ninety per cent of the patients alive with no evidence of disease (NED) 8 months after CR can be considered as definitely cured. Our study on Caucasian children with NHML indicates that, from histological and clinical criteria, nearly half the cases are very similar to African BL. Even though EBV rarely associated with our cases, BL could be a worldwide lymphoma. PMID:7082553

  5. Impact of season and diet on vitamin D status of African American and Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Kumaravel; Holick, Michael F; Jeong, Kwonho; Moore, Charity G; Chen, Tai C; Olabopo, Flora; Haralam, Mary Ann; Nucci, Anita; Thomas, Stephen B; Greenspan, Susan L

    2011-06-01

    Seasonal variation of vitamin D status and adequacy of dietary vitamin D and impact of race on maintaining vitamin D sufficiency was assessed in 140 healthy 6- to 12-year-old African American (AA) and Caucasian (C) children residing in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania during summer and winter. Vitamin D insufficiency was not rare in either group (AA vs C, summer, 17.2% vs 14.3%, nonsignificant; winter, 34.1% vs 32.5%, nonsignificant) despite a mean dietary intake of vitamin D above the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommended intake (400 IU/d; AA vs C, summer, 421 vs 456 IU/d, nonsignificant; winter, 507 vs 432 IU/d, nonsignificant). Race/season and dietary vitamin D were predictors of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations. However, dietary vitamin D influenced 25(OH)D only in Caucasians during winter. Current AAP recommended daily intake for vitamin D is inadequate for maintaining vitamin D sufficiency in children.

  6. Analysis of soft tissue display during enjoyment smile. Part II: elder Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Katja; Hu, Xiulian; Nack, Claudia; Nahles, Günter; Mehrhof, Jürgen; Nahles, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Esthetic parameters in elder patients are essential in esthetic oral rehabilitation. To date, no study has quantified the amount and frequency of soft tissue display in the papilla area in patients over 50 years of age. Photographic examination of 42 fully dentate patients with a mean age of 59 years was performed during enjoyment smile. Digital processing and measurement of the tooth, gingiva, and papilla display revealed that over 90% of subjects displayed soft tissue in the papilla area of the anterior teeth and first premolar during enjoyment smile regardless of their sex. The frequency of the display in descending order follows: maxillary lateral incisor (96%), central incisor (94%), canine (94%), first premolar (91%), second premolar (85%), and first molar (39%). The mean amount of papilla display was 3.4 mm (0 to 10 mm). There was no significant difference in the amount of papilla display between sexes for anterior teeth, premolars, or first molar (P = .97, P = .79, and P = .48, respectively). Elder caucasians showed significantly less gingiva in the area of the premolars and molars but not in the anterior region. The amount of papilla display is significantly less in elder caucasians in the anterior and premolar region. The mean amount of soft tissue display decreased with age but the frequency of papilla display was more than 90% in the anterior region and greater than 70% in the premolar region, suggesting that pink esthetics is an issue in patients over 50 years of age.

  7. Metastatic progression and gene expression between breast cancer cell lines from African American and Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Yancy, Haile F; Mason, Jacquline A; Peters, Sharla; Thompson, Charles E; Littleton, George K; Jett, Marti; Day, Agnes A

    2007-01-01

    African American (AA) women have a lower overall incidence of breast cancer than do Caucasian (CAU) women, but a higher overall mortality. Little is known as to why the incidence of breast cancer is lower yet mortality is higher in AA women. Many studies speculate that this is only a socio-economical problem. This investigation suggests the possibility that molecular mechanisms contribute to the increased mortality of AA women with breast cancer. This study investigates the expression of 14 genes which have been shown to play a role in cancer metastasis. Cell lines derived from AA and CAU patients were analyzed to demonstrate alterations in the transcription of genes known to be involved in cancer and the metastatic process. Total RNA was isolated from cell lines and analyzed by RT-PCR analysis. Differential expression of the 14 targeted genes between a spectrum model (6 breast cancer cell lines and 2 non-cancer breast cell lines) and a metastasis model (12 metastatic breast cancer cell lines) were demonstrated. Additionally, an in vitro comparison of the expression established differences in 5 of the 14 biomarker genes between African American and Caucasian breast cell lines. Results from this study indicates that altered expression of the genes Atp1b1, CARD 10, KLF4, Spint2, and Acly may play a role in the aggressive phenotype seen in breast cancer in African American women. PMID:17472751

  8. White, European, Western, Caucasian, or what? Inappropriate labeling in research on race, ethnicity, and health.

    PubMed Central

    Bhopal, R; Donaldson, L

    1998-01-01

    The request for scientifically appropriate terminology in research on race, ethnicity, and health has largely bypassed the term White. This and other words, such as Caucasian, are embedded in clinical and epidemiological discourse, yet they are rarely defined. This commentary analyzes the issue from the perspective of the epidemiology of the health of minority ethnic and racial groups in Europe and the United States. Minority groups are usually compared with populations described as White, Caucasian, European, Europid, Western, Occidental, indigenous, native, and majority. Such populations are heterogeneous, the labels nonspecific, and the comparisons misleading. Terminology that reflects the research purpose-for examples, reference, control, or comparison--is better (unlike White, these terms imply no norm, allowing neither writers nor readers to make stereotyped assumptions about the comparison populations. This paper widens the debate on nomenclature for racial and ethnic groups. Many issues need exploration, including whether there is a shared understanding among the international research community of the terms discussed. PMID:9736867

  9. A panel of 130 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms for ancestry assignment in five Asian populations and in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Lin, Chih-Peng; Huang, Tsun-Ying; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Hsieh, Wei-Hsin; Lin, Chun-Yen; Yin, Hsiang-I; Tseng, Li-Hui; Lee, James Chun-I

    2017-06-01

    Ancestry informative single-nucleotide polymorphism (AISNP) panels for differentiating between East and Southeast Asian populations are scarce. This study aimed to identify AISNPs for ancestry assignment of five East and Southeast Asian populations, and Caucasians. We analyzed 145 autosomal SNPs of the 627 DNA samples from individuals of six populations (234 Taiwanese Han, 91 Filipinos, 79 Indonesians, 60 Thais, 71 Vietnamese, and 92 Caucasians) using arrays. The multiple logistic regression model and a multi-tier approach were used for ancestry classification. We observed that 130 AISNPs were effective for classifying the ethnic origins with fair accuracy. Among the 130 AISNPs, 122 were useful for stratification between these five Asian populations and 64 were effective for differentiating between Caucasians and these Asian populations. For differentiation between Caucasians and Asians, an accuracy rate of 100% was achieved in these 627 subjects with 50 optimal AISNPs among the 64 effective SNPs. For classification of the five Asian populations, the accuracy rates of ancestry inference using 20 to 57 SNPs for each of the two Asian populations ranged from 74.1% to 100%. Another 14 degraded DNA samples with incomplete profiling were analyzed, and the ancestry of 12 (85.7%) of those subjects was accurately assigned. We developed a 130-AISNP panel for ethnic origin differentiation between the five East and Southeast Asian populations and Caucasians. This AISNP set may be helpful for individual ancestral assignment of these populations in forensic casework.

  10. Positive expectancies mediate the link between race and alcohol use in a sample of Native American and Caucasian college students.

    PubMed

    Looby, Alison; Luger, Elizabeth J; Guartos, Cynthia S

    2017-10-01

    Though abundant research suggests that Native Americans report high rates of alcohol use and related consequences, little research has examined drinking patterns among Native American college students. It is possible that drinking rates for this group may differ from their non-college counterparts and also from those of Caucasian college students. The aim of this study was to examine whether alcohol use differs between Native American and Caucasian college students, and specifically whether alcohol expectancy effects mediate the relationship between race and drinking. Participants were 43 Native American and 87 Caucasian college students who reported on their positive and negative expectancy effects and past-6-month drinking. Caucasians reported drinking significantly more alcohol and holding stronger positive expectancies. Bootstrapping mediational analysis with 95% confidence intervals indicated that positive but not negative expectancy effects mediated the relationship between race and past-6-month drinking. This preliminary research is the first to examine expectancy effects as mediators of the relationship between Native American and Caucasian race and drinking. Further understanding of the differences in positive expectancy effects between groups may have important implications for prevention and treatment of alcohol use among Native American college students. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Associations of parent-adolescent relationship quality with type 1 diabetes management and depressive symptoms in Latino and Caucasian youth.

    PubMed

    Main, Alexandra; Wiebe, Deborah J; Croom, Andrea R; Sardone, Katie; Godbey, Elida; Tucker, Christy; White, Perrin C

    2014-01-01

    To examine associations of parent-adolescent relationship quality (parental acceptance and parent-adolescent conflict) with adolescent type 1 diabetes management (adherence and metabolic control) and depressive symptoms in Latinos and Caucasians. In all, 118 adolescents and their mothers (56 = Latino, 62 = Caucasian) completed survey measures of parental acceptance, diabetes conflict, adolescent adherence, and adolescent depressive symptoms. Glycemic control was obtained from medical records. Across ethnic groups, adolescent-reported mother and father acceptance were associated with better diabetes management, whereas mother-reported conflict was associated with poorer diabetes management and more depressive symptoms. Independent of socioeconomic status, Latinos reported lower parental acceptance and higher diabetes conflict with mothers than Caucasians. Ethnicity moderated some associations between relationship quality and outcomes. Specifically, diabetes conflicts with mothers (mother and adolescent report) and fathers (adolescent report) were associated with poorer mother-reported adherence among Caucasians, but not among Latinos. Parent-adolescent relationship quality differs and may have different relations with diabetes management across Latinos and Caucasians. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Self catheterization - female

    MedlinePlus

    ... bladder. You have signs of infection (a burning sensation when you urinate, fever, fatigue, or chills). Alternative Names Clean intermittent catheterization - female; CIC - female Images Bladder catheterization, female References Cepedes RD, Gerboc JL. Other therapies for storage ...

  13. Serum Vitamin D3 Level in Patients with Female Pattern Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Banihashemi, Mahnaz; Nahidi, Yalda; Meibodi, Naser Tayyebi; Jarahi, Lida; Dolatkhah, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common cause of alopecia in women, characterized by diffuse nonscarring hair loss in frontal, central, and parietal areas of the scalp. Pathophysiology of FPHL is still not well known, and it is probably a multifactorial genetic trait. FPHL is also observed in women without increased androgen levels, which raises the likelihood of androgen-independent mechanisms and explains the lack of response to antiandrogen treatments in some patients. Vitamin D is a factor that has recently been considered in dealing with these patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of Vitamin D in patients with FPHL and compare it with healthy controls. Methods: In this case-control study, 45 women with FPHL were evaluated as well as the same number of healthy women matched for age, hours spent under sunlight per day, and body mass index. Serum 25(OH) D3 level was measured using ELISA. Results: 60% of FPHL patients were in 15–30 years old age group with the mean standard deviation (SD) age of 29.11 (7.30) years. In the majority of patients (66.7%), severity of hair loss was Ludwig I. Mean (SD) serum Vitamin D3 level in patient and control group was 13.45 (8.40) and 17.16 (8.96), respectively. T-test showed a significant difference between the two groups in terms of Vitamin D3 serum levels (P = 0.04). Conclusions: This study indicated the correlation between the incidence of FPHL and decreased serum levels of Vitamin D3. It is recommended to evaluate serum Vitamin D3 levels as well as other hormone assays in these patients. PMID:27625563

  14. Serum Vitamin D3 Level in Patients with Female Pattern Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Banihashemi, Mahnaz; Nahidi, Yalda; Meibodi, Naser Tayyebi; Jarahi, Lida; Dolatkhah, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common cause of alopecia in women, characterized by diffuse nonscarring hair loss in frontal, central, and parietal areas of the scalp. Pathophysiology of FPHL is still not well known, and it is probably a multifactorial genetic trait. FPHL is also observed in women without increased androgen levels, which raises the likelihood of androgen-independent mechanisms and explains the lack of response to antiandrogen treatments in some patients. Vitamin D is a factor that has recently been considered in dealing with these patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of Vitamin D in patients with FPHL and compare it with healthy controls. In this case-control study, 45 women with FPHL were evaluated as well as the same number of healthy women matched for age, hours spent under sunlight per day, and body mass index. Serum 25(OH) D3 level was measured using ELISA. 60% of FPHL patients were in 15-30 years old age group with the mean standard deviation (SD) age of 29.11 (7.30) years. In the majority of patients (66.7%), severity of hair loss was Ludwig I. Mean (SD) serum Vitamin D3 level in patient and control group was 13.45 (8.40) and 17.16 (8.96), respectively. T-test showed a significant difference between the two groups in terms of Vitamin D3 serum levels (P = 0.04). This study indicated the correlation between the incidence of FPHL and decreased serum levels of Vitamin D3. It is recommended to evaluate serum Vitamin D3 levels as well as other hormone assays in these patients.

  15. Variations in mental health problems, substance use, and delinquency between African American and Caucasian juvenile offenders: implications for reentry services.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Michael G; Wallace, John M; Davis, Larry E; Fernandes, Giselle T; Howard, Matthew O

    2008-06-01

    The incarceration of young people is a growing national problem. Key correlates of incarceration among American youth include mental health problems, substance use, and delinquency. The present study uses a statewide sample of incarcerated youth to examine racial differences in African American and Caucasian juvenile offenders' outcomes related to mental health, substance use, and delinquency. The data indicate that relative to Caucasian offenders, African American offenders report lower levels of mental health problems and substance use but higher levels of delinquent behavior such as violence, weapon carrying, and gang fighting. The data further reveal that African American offenders are more likely than Caucasian offenders to be victims of violence and to experience traumatic events such as witnessing injury and death. Recognition of these patterns may help to improve postrelease services by tailoring or adapting preexisting programs to patterns of risk factors and their relative magnitudes of effect.

  16. HEART score performance in Asian and Caucasian patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Hoog, Vince C; Lim, Swee Han; Bank, Ingrid Em; Gijsberts, Crystel M; Ibrahim, Irwani B; Kuan, Win Sen; Ooi, Shirley Bs; Chua, Terrance Sj; Tai, E Shyong; Gao, Fei; Pasterkamp, Gerard; den Ruijter, Hester M; Doevendans, Pieter A; Wildbergh, Thierry X; Mosterd, Arend; Richards, A Mark; de Kleijn, Dominique Pv; Timmers, Leo

    2017-03-01

    The HEART score is a simple and effective tool to predict short-term major adverse cardiovascular events in patients suspected of acute coronary syndrome. Patients are assigned to three risk categories using History, ECG, Age, Risk factors and Troponin (HEART). The purpose is early rule out and discharge is considered safe for patients in the low risk category. Its performance in patients of Asian ethnicity is unknown. We evaluated the performance of the HEART score in patients of Caucasian, Chinese, Indian and Malay ethnicity. The HEART score was assessed retrospectively in 3456 patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected acute coronary syndrome (1791 Caucasians, 1059 Chinese, 344 Indians, 262 Malays), assigning them into three risk categories. The incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events within six weeks after presentation was similar between the ethnic groups. A smaller proportion of Caucasians was in the low risk category compared with Asians (Caucasians 35.8%, Chinese 43.5%, Indians 45.3%, Malays 44.7%, p<0.001). The negative predictive value of a low HEART score was comparable across the ethnic groups, but lower than previously reported (Caucasians 95.3%, Chinese 95.0%, Indians 96.2%, Malays 96.6%). Also the c-statistic for the HEART score was not significantly different between the groups. These results show that the overall performance of the HEART score is equal among Caucasian and Asian ethnic groups. The event rate in the low risk group, however, was higher than reported in previous studies, which queries the safety of early discharge of patients in the low risk category.

  17. Dark-light change of iris parameters and related factors among American Caucasians, American Chinese, and Mainland Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dandan; He, Mingguang; Wu, Lingling; Kao, Andrew; Pekmezci, Melike; Singh, Kuldev; Lin, Shan

    2012-07-01

    To assess the distribution of dark-light changes in iris features and associated factors amongst American Caucasians, American Chinese and mainland Chinese aged 40 years and over. Four gender- and age-matched cohorts: Caucasians, American Chinese, Southern Chinese and Northern Chinese comprised the study population. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) images were acquired under dark and light conditions. Customized software was used to calculate iris thickness at 750 μm from the scleral spur (IT750), iris curvature (ICurv), iris area (IArea), and pupil diameter (PD) from ASOCT images. Data from 121, 124, 121 and 120 subjects were available for American Caucasian, American Chinese, Southern and Northern Chinese subjects respectively. Caucasians had significantly less dark-light change (Δ) of IT750 and greater ΔPD than Chinese. When using multiple linear regression analyses, the inter-ethnic difference for ΔIT750 was independent of age, gender, refractive error, anterior chamber width and axial length. After controlling for ΔPD, ΔICurv was found to be inversely associated with age (β = -0.001, P = 0.001). Independent predictors of greater ΔPD included younger age (β = -0.02, P = 0.001), Caucasian ethnicity (β = -0.022, P = 0.009) and wider anterior chamber (β = 0.18, P = 0.03). Compared with Caucasians, Chinese irides show greater thickening with light to dark adaptation despite the lesser change of PD in Chinese. The change of iris area per unit change of pupil diameter from dark to light did not differ between ethnicities. These dynamic characteristics intrinsic to Chinese irides may partially account for the substantially increased risk for angle closure among this ethnic group.

  18. Digital Technology Ownership, Usage, and Factors Predicting Downloading Health Apps Among Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino Americans: The Digital Link to Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interventions using mobile health (mHealth) apps have been effective in promoting healthy lifestyle behavior change and hold promise in improving health outcomes to thereby reduce health disparities among diverse racial/ethnic populations, particularly Latino and Asian American subgroups (Filipinos and Koreans) at high risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Latinos and Asian Americans are avid digital technology owners and users. However, limited datasets exist regarding digital technology ownership and use, especially among specific racial/ethnic subgroups. Such information is needed to inform development of culturally tailored mHealth tools for use with lifestyle interventions promoting healthy behaviors for these at-risk racial/ethnic populations. Objective The intent of the study was to examine (1) digital technology ownership and usage, and (2) factors predicting downloading health apps for Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino American subgroups. Methods A cross-sectional survey conducted in August 2013 through December 2013 recruited 904 participants (Caucasians n=172, Filipinos n=250, Koreans n=234, and Latinos n=248), age >18 years, from California community events, clinics, churches, and online. English, Spanish, and Korean surveys were administered via paper or online. Descriptive statistics characterized the sociodemographics and digital technology ownership/usage of the 904 participants. Differences among groups in categorical variables were examined using chi-square statistics. Logistic regression was used to determine factors predicting downloading health apps. Results Overall, mean age was 44 years (SD 16.1), with 64.3% (581/904) female. Only 44.7% (404/904) of all participants reported English as their primary language (Caucasian 98.3%, 169/172; Filipino 67.6%, 169/250; Korean 9.4%, 22/234, and Latino 17.7%, 44/248. Overall, mobile phone ownership was 92.8% (839/904). Compared to all groups, Koreans were more likely to own a

  19. Digital technology ownership, usage, and factors predicting downloading health apps among caucasian, filipino, korean, and latino americans: the digital link to health survey.

    PubMed

    Bender, Melinda S; Choi, JiWon; Arai, Shoshana; Paul, Steven M; Gonzalez, Prisila; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2014-10-22

    Interventions using mobile health (mHealth) apps have been effective in promoting healthy lifestyle behavior change and hold promise in improving health outcomes to thereby reduce health disparities among diverse racial/ethnic populations, particularly Latino and Asian American subgroups (Filipinos and Koreans) at high risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Latinos and Asian Americans are avid digital technology owners and users. However, limited datasets exist regarding digital technology ownership and use, especially among specific racial/ethnic subgroups. Such information is needed to inform development of culturally tailored mHealth tools for use with lifestyle interventions promoting healthy behaviors for these at-risk racial/ethnic populations. The intent of the study was to examine (1) digital technology ownership and usage, and (2) factors predicting downloading health apps for Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino American subgroups. A cross-sectional survey conducted in August 2013 through December 2013 recruited 904 participants (Caucasians n=172, Filipinos n=250, Koreans n=234, and Latinos n=248), age >18 years, from California community events, clinics, churches, and online. English, Spanish, and Korean surveys were administered via paper or online. Descriptive statistics characterized the sociodemographics and digital technology ownership/usage of the 904 participants. Differences among groups in categorical variables were examined using chi-square statistics. Logistic regression was used to determine factors predicting downloading health apps. Overall, mean age was 44 years (SD 16.1), with 64.3% (581/904) female. Only 44.7% (404/904) of all participants reported English as their primary language (Caucasian 98.3%, 169/172; Filipino 67.6%, 169/250; Korean 9.4%, 22/234, and Latino 17.7%, 44/248. Overall, mobile phone ownership was 92.8% (839/904). Compared to all groups, Koreans were more likely to own a mobile phone (82.8%, 194/234), computer

  20. Differences in the relationship between lipid CHD risk factors and body composition in Caucasians and Japanese.

    PubMed

    Iwao, N; Iwao, S; Muller, D C; Koda, M; Ando, F; Shimokata, H; Kobayashi, F; Andres, R

    2005-02-01

    To examine differences in the relationship between fat distribution and lipid coronary risk factors in Caucasian and Japanese population and further to determine whether the cut-points for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) proposed by WHO and NHLBI are applicable to Japanese population as a predictor of a lipid risk factor abnormality or not. Subjects were 895 participants of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging in the US (BLSA) and 1705 participants of the Longitudinal Study of Aging by the National Institutes for Longevity Science in Japan (NILS-LSA). Subjects were divided into four demographic groups as younger (age<65 y) men and women, and older (age> or =65 y) men and women. Blood total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol and anthropometry were measured. Regression coefficients of BMI and WC on risk factors, sensitivity and specificity of the BMI and WC cut-points for blood lipid abnormality, and mean values of blood lipids at BMI or WC cut-points were computed in both populations. Height, weight, WC and BMI were significantly greater in the BLSA than those in the NILS-LSA subjects. Total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol were significantly greater in the NILS-LSA than in the BLSA subjects. Sensitivities of BMI and WC cut-points were much lower in the NILS-LSA than in the BLSA subjects. Specificities of BMI and WC cut-points were higher in the NILS-LSA than in the BLSA subjects. Mean values of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol at BMI=25 were significantly greater in the NILS-LSA than in the BLSA subjects. At the WC cut-point (94 cm for men, 80 cm for women), mean values of all lipids were significantly greater in the NILS-LSA than in the BLSA subjects with the exception of triglycerides in younger women. The Japanese subjects have smaller BMI and WC, worse total and LDL-cholesterol levels and better HDL-cholesterol levels compared to Caucasians. Sensitivities of BMI and WC for predicting lipid

  1. Are Asians at greater mortality risks for being overweight than Caucasians? Redefining obesity for Asians.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chi Pang; David Cheng, Ting Yuan; Tsai, Shan Pou; Chan, Hui Ting; Hsu, Hui Ling; Hsu, Chih Cheng; Eriksen, Michael P

    2009-04-01

    To assess whether overweight Asians, assessed on the basis of WHO criteria, are at greater mortality risk than overweight Caucasians, and to determine whether alternative cut-off points (BMI = 23.0-24.9 kg/m2 for overweight and BMI >or= 25.0 kg/m2 for obesity) suggested by the WHO Western Pacific Regional Office are appropriate. The cohort was followed prospectively until the end of 2001. All-cause and CVD mortality risks of the overweight and obese group, relative to the reference group (BMI = 18.5-24.9 or 18.5-22.9 kg/m2), were assessed using Cox regression analysis, adjusting for age, smoking and gender. Excess deaths were estimated with a method proposed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS 2001) and a middle-aged perspective cohort in Taiwan. Subjects comprised 36 386 civil servants and school teachers, aged 40 years and older, who underwent a medical examination during 1989-1992. In the WHO-defined overweight group, Asians showed a significant increase in all-cause mortality risk compared with Caucasians. Asians showed risks equivalent to Caucasians' at lower BMI (around 5 units). Every unit of BMI increase, at 25.0 kg/m2 or above, was associated with a 9 % increase in relative mortality risk from all causes. Applying a cut-off point of 25.0 kg/m2 for obesity would result a prevalence of 27.1 %, while the traditional WHO cut-off point of 30.0 kg/m2 yielded obesity prevalence of 4.1 %. Excess deaths due to obesity accounted for 8.6 % of all deaths and 21.1 % of CVD deaths, based on the alternative cut-offs. In this Asian population, significant mortality risks started at BMI >or= 25.0 kg/m2, rather than at BMI >or= 30.0 kg/m2. The study supports the use of BMI >or= 25.0 kg/m2 as a new cut-off point for obesity and BMI = 23.0-24.9 kg/m2 for overweight. The magnitude of obesity-attributable deaths has been hitherto under-appreciated among Asians.

  2. Differences in bone turnover and intact PTH levels between African American and Caucasian patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Sawaya, B Peter; Butros, Rezkalla; Naqvi, Shehzab; Geng, Zhaopo; Mawad, Hanna; Friedler, Robert; Fanti, Paolo; Monier-Faugere, Marie-Claude; Malluche, Hartmut H

    2003-08-01

    Evidence derived from healthy subjects suggests that African Americans have higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and decreased bone responsiveness to PTH than Caucasians. African American patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) also have higher serum PTH than Caucasians. Studies that correlate intact PTH (iPTH) levels with bone turnover in ESRD patients were performed in a predominantly Caucasian population. In this study, serum iPTH and bone histomorphometric data were analyzed for racial differences in 76 ESRD patients (Caucasian = 48, African Americans = 28). Bone turnover was determined by histomorphometric measurement of activation frequency in all patients. Age, duration of dialysis, and calcium and phosphorus levels were similar between the two groups. iPTH levels (pg/mL; mean +/- SE) were significantly higher in the African American group (534 +/- 79 vs. 270 +/- 46, P < 0.01). Also, alkaline phosphatase levels (IU/L) were significantly higher in the African American group (162 +/- 31 vs. 144 +/- 43, P < 0.01). Correlations between PTH levels and activation frequency were r = 0.60, P < 0.01 in Caucasians and r = 0.22, P = NS in African Americans. The mean PTH level in African American patients with histologic findings of low bone turnover was 460 +/- 115 vs. 168 +/- 41 in Caucasian patients with similar bone turnover (P < 0.01). In patients with low bone turnover, African Americans had significantly higher osteoid volume and thickness, number of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, erosion surface, peritrabecular fibrosis, and single-label surface than Caucasians. However, erosion depth, bone formation rate per osteoblast and mineralization apposition rate were similar between the two groups. There is no correlation between iPTH and bone turnover in African Americans with ESRD. A substantial number of African American patients with low bone turnover have very high serum PTH levels. Bone histomorphometric results reveal differences in remodeling

  3. Evaluation of Markers of Bone Turnover During Lactation in African-Americans: A Comparison With Caucasian Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Raquel M.; Prebehalla, Linda; Tedesco, Mary Beth; Sereika, Susan M.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Stewart, Andrew F.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The African-American skeleton is resistant to PTH; whether it is also resistant to PTHrP and the hormonal milieu of lactation is unknown. Objectives: The objective of the study was to assess bone turnover markers in African-Americans during lactation vs Caucasians. Design and Participants: A prospective cohort study with repeated measures of markers of bone turnover in 60 African-American women (3 groups of 20: lactating, bottle feeding, and healthy controls), compared with historic Caucasian women. Setting: The study was conducted at a university medical center. Outcome Measures: Biochemical markers of bone turnover and calcium metabolism were measured. Results: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and PTH were similar among all 3 African-American groups, but 25-OHD was 30%–50% lower and PTH 2-fold higher compared with Caucasians (P < .001, P < .002), with similar 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] values. Formation markers [amino-terminal telopeptide of procollagen-1 (P1NP) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP)] increased significantly (2- to 3-fold) in lactating and bottle-feeding African-American women (P1NP, P < .001; BSAP, P < .001), as did resorption [carboxy-terminal telopeptide of collagen-1 (CTX) and serum amino-terminal telopeptide of collagen 1 (NTX), both P < .001]. P1NP and BSAP were comparable in African-American and Caucasian controls, but CTX and NTX were lower in African-American vs Caucasian controls. African-American lactating mothers displayed quantitatively similar increases in markers of bone formation but slightly lower increases in markers of resorption vs Caucasians (P = .036). Conclusions: Despite reported resistance to PTH, lactating African-American women have a significant increase in markers of bone resorption and formation in response the hormonal milieu of lactation. This response is similar to that reported in Caucasian women despite racial differences in 25-OHD and PTH. Whether this is associated with similar bone

  4. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System A A ... the egg or sperm. continue Parts of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  5. [The phylogeography of the Yersinia pestis vole strains isolated from the natural foci of caucasian region].

    PubMed

    Platonov, M E; Evseeva, V V; Svetoch, T E; Efremenko, D V; Kuznetsova, I V; Dentovskaia, S V; Kulichenko, A N; Anisimov, A P

    2012-01-01

    57 Y pestis bv. caucasica strains were assayed using molecular typing. The results of these assays indicated the presence within this biovar of the three separate clonal clusters and necessity of detachment of the Leninakan mountain mesofocus (subfocus) from the structure of Transcaucasian-highland focus into self-supporting one, as well as inclusion of a part of the Pre-Araks low-mountain natural plague focus in the capacity of the subfocus along with Pre-Sevan mountain and Zanzegur-Karabakh mountain subfoci into the structure of Transcaucasian-highland focus. It was shown that the strains circulating in the East-Caucasian highland plague focus were the most ancient branch of bv. caucasica or even of the entire Y pestis phylogenetic tree.

  6. Angiographic profile in childhood moyamoya disease. A study of 8 Caucasian Indian children.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, P N; Arya, B Y; Vasudev, M K

    1991-11-01

    The cerebral angiograms of 8 patients with childhood moyamoya disease showed that the common findings were stenosis/occlusion of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery and the proximal segments of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries and basal moyamoya. The volume of basal moyamoya and its collateral supply depended upon the stage of the disease. Leptomeningeal collaterals were frequent in the later stages. Stenotic lesions in the posterior circulation were seen in a majority (75%) of patients. A feature unique to the study was evidence of intracranial small-vessel disease and stenotic cervical internal carotid artery in half of the cases. The disease in the ethnic caucasian Indians seems largely similar to the classical disease frequently reported in the Japanese literature.

  7. Lateral intercrural suture in the caucasian nose: Decreased domal divergence angle in endonasal rhinoplasty without delivery

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf; Mocelin, Marcos; Soares, Caio Márcio Correia; Pasinato, Rogério; Frota, Andreia Ellery

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Several techniques can be performed to improve nasal tip definition such as cartilage resection, tip grafts, or sutures. Objctive: To evaluate the outcome of lateral intercrural suture at the lower lateral cartilage by endonasal rhinoplasty with a basic technique without delivery in decreasing the angle of domal divergence and improving the nasal tip definition. Method: This prospective study was performed in 64 patients in which a suture was made on the board head of the lower lateral cartilage in the joint between the dome and lateral crus, using polydioxanone (PDS) with sharp, curved needle. Results: In all of the cases, better definition of the nasal tip was achieved by intercrural suturing for at least 6 months postoperatively. Conclusion: Lateral intercrural suture of the lower lateral cartilage provides improved nasal tip definition and can be performed by endonasal rhinoplasty without delivery in the Caucasian nose. PMID:25991941

  8. Circulatory adaptation to long-term high altitude exposure in Aymaras and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Stuber, Thomas; Scherrer, Urs

    2010-01-01

    About 30 million people live above 2500 m in the Andean Mountains of South America. Among them are 5.5 million Aymaras, an ethnic group with its own language, living on the altiplano of Bolivia, Peru, and northern Chile at altitudes of up to 4400 m. In this high altitude region traces of human population go back for more than 2000 years with constant evolutionary pressure on its residents for genetic adaptation to high altitude. Aymaras as the assumed direct descendents of the ancient cultures living in this region were the focus of much research interest during the last decades and several distinctive adaptation patterns to life at high altitude have been described in this ethnic group. The aim of this article was to review the physiology and pathophysiology of circulatory adaptation and maladaptation to longtime altitude exposure in Aymaras and Caucasians.

  9. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Feng; Xiong Donghai; Wang Wei; Shen Hui; Xiao Peng; Yang Fang; Recker, Robert R.; Deng Hongwen . E-mail: dengh@umkc.edu

    2006-10-06

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women.

  10. Type 2 diabetes in South Asians: similarities and differences with white Caucasian and other populations

    PubMed Central

    Gujral, Unjali P; Pradeepa, R; Weber, Mary Beth; Narayan, KM Venkat; Mohan, V

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. While all ethnic groups are affected, the prevalence of T2DM in South Asians, both in their home countries and abroad, is extremely high and is continuing to rise rapidly. Innate biological susceptibilities coupled with rapid changes in physical activity, diet, and other lifestyle behaviors are contributing factors propelling the increased burden of disease in this population. The large scope of this problem calls for investigations into the cause of increased susceptibility and preventative efforts at both the individual and population level that are aggressive, culturally sensitive, and start early. In this review, we outline the biological and environmental factors that place South Asians at elevated risk for T2DM, compared with Caucasian and other ethnic groups. PMID:23317344

  11. Hispanic Americans and African Americans with multiple sclerosis have more severe disease course than Caucasian Americans.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Rachel E; Antezana, Ariel O; Bacon, Tamar; Kister, Ilya

    2017-10-01

    Whether disease course in Hispanic Americans (HA) with multiple sclerosis (MS) is different from Caucasian Americans (CA) or African Americans (AA) is unknown. We compared MS severity in the three main ethnic populations in our tertiary MS clinics using disease duration-adjusted rank score of disability: Patient-Derived Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (P-MSSS). The age- and gender-adjusted P-MSSS was significantly higher in HA (3.9 ± 2.6) and AA (4.5 ± 3.0) compared to CA (3.4 ± 2.6; p < 0.0001 for both). Adjusting for insurance did not change these results. These findings suggest that HA, as AA, have more rapid disability accumulation than CA.

  12. Features of the Caucasian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan-Indonesian Convergence Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E.

    2012-04-01

    The Caucasus Mountain System is a part of the Cenozoic Alpine-Himalayan-Indonesian Convergence Zone (AHICZ) which lasted throughout Eurasia from Western Mediterranean to Western Pacific. This belt has been formed after closure of the Mesozoic Tethys and is marked by mountains building processes, appearance of riftogenic structures, numerous late Cenozoic basaltic plateaus, and chain of often within-continental andesite-latite volcanic arcs, which trace suture zones of the continental plates collision. Caucasus Mountains are located in eastern part of the proper Alpine Zone in zone of Arabian-Eurasian syntaxis and appeared as a result of submeridional pressure which generated by oncoming moving of these plates. The Great Caucasus is represent the south border of the Eurasian plate, uplifted along the Main Caucasian Fault (Thrust). The latter is a part of super-regional deep-seated fault ranged from the Kopetdag through Caspian Sea, Caucasus and Crimea; very likely, that its further continuation is Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone. This superfault separates areas of Alpine convergence from Eurasian plate sensu stricto. The Caucasus occurred between Black and Caspian seas with passive margins and oceanic crust, covered by sediments of 10-15 km thick. Depressions of the seas form large "downfall", or caldrons which cut off pre-Pliocene structures of Caucasus and Kopetdag. These seas are, probably, small remnants of the Tethys which gradually shallowing in the Miocene (Zonenshain, Le Pichon, 1986). New essential deepening of the Black Sea and South-Caspian deep began in the Pliocene- Quaternary; it occurred simultaneously with uprising of Crimea and Caucasus, which were not marked in relief before (Grachev, 2000). Large positive isostatic anomaly beneath the Trans-Caucasian Transverse Uplift (TCTU) of the Great Caucasus and Lesser Caucasus, which stretch out to Arabian plate, occurred between "subsides" Black and especially Caspian seas with neutral to negative isostatic

  13. Of Caucasians, Asians, and Giraffes: The Influence of Categorization and Target Valence on Social Projection.

    PubMed

    Machunsky, Maya; Walther, Eva

    2015-09-01

    Past research has indicated that social projection is moderated by categorization, with more projection onto ingroups than onto outgroups. However, a few studies have reported elevated levels of projection even onto outgroups. In line with recent evidence, we hypothesized that positive target valence is the key feature of conditions that elicit projection onto outgroups. The present research extends previous findings by testing whether the effect of valence occurs independent of categorization, with increased levels of projection onto positive ingroup and non-ingroup targets alike. We designed two experiments in which target valence was manipulated by means of evaluative conditioning. Category membership was varied by using faces of Caucasians, Asians, and giraffes. The results supported our valence hypothesis. Counter-intuitively, we also found higher levels of projection onto giraffes than onto humans. These findings suggest that current cognition-based models of projection are not sufficient to account for the whole range of projection phenomena.

  14. Four Caucasian patients with mutations in the fukutin gene and variable clinical phenotype.

    PubMed

    Vuillaumier-Barrot, S; Quijano-Roy, S; Bouchet-Seraphin, C; Maugenre, S; Peudenier, S; Van den Bergh, P; Marcorelles, P; Avila-Smirnow, D; Chelbi, M; Romero, N B; Carlier, R Y; Estournet, B; Guicheney, P; Seta, N

    2009-03-01

    Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) is frequent in Japan, due to a founder mutation of the fukutin gene (FKTN). Outside Japan, FKTN mutations have only been reported in a few patients with a wide spectrum of phenotypes from Walker-Warburg syndrome to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2M). We studied four new Caucasian patients from three unrelated families. All showed raised serum CK initially isolated in one case and muscular dystrophy. Immunohistochemical studies and haplotype analysis led us to search for mutations in FKTN. Two patients (two sisters) presented with congenital muscular dystrophy, mental retardation, and posterior fossa malformation including cysts, and brain atrophy at Brain MRI. The other two patients had normal intelligence and brain MRI. Sequencing of the FKTN gene identified three previously described mutations and two novel missense mutations. Outside Japan, fukutinopathies are associated with a large spectrum of phenotypes from isolated hyperCKaemia to severe CMD, showing a clear overlap with that of FKRP.

  15. Physical Activity Attitudes, Preferences, and Practices in African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian Girls

    PubMed Central

    Grieser, Mira; Vu, Maihan B.; Bedimo-Rung, Ariane L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Moody, Jamie; Young, Deborah Rohm; Moe, Stacey G.

    2008-01-01

    Physical activity levels in girls decline dramatically during adolescence, most profoundlyamong minorities. To explore ethnic and racial variation in attitudes toward physical activity, semistructured interviews (n = 80) and physical activity checklists (n = 130) are conducted with African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian middle school girls in six locations across the United States. Girls from all groups have similar perceptions of the benefits of physical activity, with staying in shape as the most important. Girls have similar negative perceptions of physical activity, including getting hurt, sweating, aggressive players, and embarrassment. Chores, runningor jogging, exercises, and dance are common activities for girls regardless of ethnicity. Basketball, swimming, running, and dance are commonly cited favorite activities, although there are slight differences between ethnic groups. The results suggest that factors other than ethnicity contribute to girls’physical activity preferences and that distinct interventions may not be needed for each ethnic group. PMID:16397158

  16. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of intravenous glibenclamide in Caucasian and Chinese patients with type-2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, A; Chan, J C; Rydberg, T; Vaaler, S; Hallengren, B; Cockram, C S; Critchley, J A; Melander, A

    2000-01-01

    We analysed the kinetics and effects of glibenclamide (Gb) on glucose, insulin and proinsulin secretion in two ethnic groups (10 in each) of type-2 diabetic patients, one of Caucasian, the other of Chinese origin. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a global disease affecting all ethnic groups. There are ethnic differences in both the prevalence and metabolic characteristics of the disease. Important interethnic pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic differences have been reported for several drugs. With few exceptions, detailed studies on sulphonylurea are lacking. The patients were studied on two occasions when either no Gb (control) or 1.25 mg Gb was administered i.v., immediately before the administration of a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Concentrations of insulin and proinsulin were determined by means of radioimmunoassay without cross-reactivities. Gb concentration was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacodynamic results were calculated using net areas under the curves, with basal values set as zero. A P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. When glucose was administered orally without Gb, Chinese patients had higher plasma glucose increases at 10 min (7.6 mmol/l x min vs 2.6 mmol/l x min) and higher increases of plasma insulin levels than Caucasians at both 10 min (198 pmol/l x min vs 54 pmol/l x min) and 30 min (2286 pmol/l x min vs 1198 pmol/l x min). When Gb was administered, the plasma glucose increases were reduced, and the increases of serum insulin and proinsulin levels were greater in both ethnic groups. Compared with the basal values (-1 min), proinsulin/insulin ratios (RPI) were lowest at 10-30 min, followed by an increase. Chinese patients had higher increases of serum insulin levels at 10 min (1109 pmol/l x min vs 550 pmol/l x min) and a lower RPI at 30 min (6. 0% vs 7.6%) and 240 min (15.0% vs 21.0%) relative to Caucasians. Serum Gb data were best fitted to a biexponential i.v. model. There were no interethnic

  17. Comparison of MMPI-2 validity scales among compensation-seeking Caucasian and Asian American medical patients.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, William T; Tsushima, Vincent G

    2009-06-01

    Validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) are widely used for the detection of exaggerated psychological complaints, although little is known about the results of these scales with racial or ethnic minority individuals. Five validity scales derived from the MMPI-2, including the F Scale, the Back Infrequency Scale, the Symptom Validity Scale, the Infrequency-Psychopathology Scale, and the Dissimulation Scale-MMPI-2, were evaluated in 157 medical patients-109 Caucasian Americans and 48 Asian Americans. All patients were involved in personal injury litigation or seeking compensation for alleged psychological conditions. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) conducted on the five validity scales revealed no significant group effects for race. The results were consistent with the limited available data on the MMPI-2 validity scales with minority group samples. Further research with other racial minorities, including relevant extra-test criteria for malingering, is encouraged.

  18. Epistatic selection of a sequence 5{prime} of the gene responsible for cystic fibrosis may account for the high frequency of this disease in the Caucasian population

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, M. Jr. |; Nash, E.; Cutting, G.R.

    1994-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the more common lethal autosomal recessive disorders in Caucasian populations. Numerous hypotheses including genetic drift, founder effect, sex ratio, segregation distortions and various forms of heterozygote advantage have been proposed to explain the relatively high frequency of CF alleles. The observation of high linkage disequilibrium between markers at the 5{prime} end of CFTR and mutations that cause CF raised the possibility of epistatic selection. CF-linked marker allele frequencies were determined in 417 elderly individuals from a stable Czech population that survived high levels of infant and childhood mortality in the pre-antibiotic era. These data were compared with allele frequencies of 646 contemporary newborns and 345 young adults drawn from the same population who had significantly lower mortality rates in the antibiotic era. Allele frequencies of markers CS7/Hhal and KM19/Pstl from the D7S23 locus are significantly different (p<0.05) between elderly female and male subjects in this population. Furthermore, there is a significant difference in the allele frequencies of marker CS7/Hhal when newborn females and elderly women are compared (p<0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that the allele status at the CS7 region influenced female survival in the period of high infant and childhood mortality in the pre-antibiotic era. Under this selective pressure, CFTR mutations that occurred on the {open_quotes}favorable{close_quotes} background would marginally increase in frequency in each successive generation and more ancient mutations residing on this background would become the most frequent in the general population.

  19. GSTM1 Gene Polymorphism is Implicated in Increased Susceptibility to Prostate Cancer in Caucasians and Asians.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong-Yang; Li, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Zongpei; Zhou, Tian-Biao; Drummen, Gregor P C

    2016-12-01

    Published reports on the relationship between GSTM1 gene polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk are heterogeneous in their conclusions, and the significance of these polymorphisms is still debated. This meta-analysis was performed to attempt to combine comparable studies, thereby increasing sample size and statistical significance in order to obtain a better evaluation of the association between GSTM1 polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk. The association investigations were identified from PubMed, Cochrane Library, and China Biological Medicine Database on March 1, 2014. Forty-three reports were recruited into this meta-analysis that contained data from 6741 patients and 9053 controls. There was a marked association between the GSTM1 null genotype and prostate cancer risk in the overall population (odds ratio = 1.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.21-1.60, P <00001), caucasians (odds ratio = 1.48, 95% confidence interval: 1.23-1.79, P <0001) and Asians (odds ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.16-2.27, P = .005). However, the GSTM1 null genotype was not associated with prostate cancer risk in Africans (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.53-1.13, P = 0.19) and African Americans (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% confidence interval: 0.69-1.45, P = 0.99). In conclusion, GSTM1 null genotype was a risk factor to predict the prostate cancer risk in the overall population, Caucasians, and Asians. Although compelling, limitations inherent to meta-analysis, study design of the individual studies, and most importantly, possible gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, as well as the potential involvement of glutathione S-transferases in multiple cellular processes make drawing definite conclusions difficult. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Osteoporotic Caucasian and South Asian women: a qualitative study of general practitioners' support.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Jim; Ludwig, Alison Frances

    2008-09-01

    Health professionals face two complicated but contradictory epidemics: obesity and osteoporosis (OP). While obesity is obvious, OP progresses silently affecting one in two UK women. Both South Asian and Caucasian women are at OP risk. This study compared experiences of osteoporotic Caucasian and South Asian women in a purposive sample of 21 volunteers from south east England, aged 43 to 82 years. The women had been diagnosed for eight months to 40 years. Long disease duration was marked by complacent OP dialogue, although OP was objectionable and marked a loss of quality of life. Inductive content analysis of transcripts showed that 'uncertainty'--about one another and about what constituted helpful self-care--affected both GPs and patients. Instead, support groups and the media supported learning about OP care. Beyond providing drug prescriptions, women reported desiring, but rarely feeling, that GPs fully supported their preferences for self-care. Self-care often included specialist exercise classes. Some younger women led their GPs to better understand the range of self-care options. GPs were seen as being unsure about how and when to discuss physical activity (PA). In conclusion, women with OP in this sample are sensitive to their GP's hesitance about offering detailed PA recommendations. Regardless of ethnicity, younger women undertook PA based on personal initiative. Positive PA experiences stimulated an interest in discussing PA with GPs, and these dialogues broke the silence surrounding OP care. By providing important information regarding the OP patient experience, the findings highlight the unmet desire of OP sufferers for better and closer attention from GPs.

  1. Association study of B-cell marker gene polymorphisms in European Caucasian patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Karen; Dieudé, Philippe; Avouac, Jérôme; Wipff, Julien; Hachulla, Eric; Diot, Elisabeth; Tiev, Kiet; Cracowski, Jean-Luc; Mouthon, Luc; Amoura, Zahir; Frances, Camille; Carpentier, Patrick; Meyer, Olivier; Kahan, André; Boileau, Catherine; Allanore, Yannick

    2011-01-01

    BANK1 and BLK B-cell genetic markers have been reproducibly and convincingly found to contribute to susceptibility to systemic sclerosis (SSc). To determine whether other B-cell genetic markers including CD19, CD20, CD22 and CD24 polymorphisms affect susceptibility to SSc in the European Caucasian population. A case-control study was performed in 900 patients with SSc and 1034 healthy controls. Among the whole SSc population, 304 (34%) had the diffuse cutaneous subtype, 551 (61%) had the limited cutaneous subtype, 732 (81%) were positive for antinuclear antibodies , 331 (37%) were positive for anticentromere antibodies and 228 (25%) for the topo-isomerase I. Genotyping has been performed for CD19 rs35979293, CD19 rs2904880, CD20 rs7126354, CD20 rs3802954, CD20 rs105146, CD20 rs4939364, CD22 rs10406069, CD22 rs10413500, CD22 rs10419538, CD22 rs34826052 and CD24 ins-del polymorphisms. Genotype frequencies were at the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the control population for all the SNPs investigated and observed frequencies were very similar to those expected in the European population. Allelic and genotypic frequencies for all these tested SNPs were found to be similar in SSc patients and controls. Moreover, subphenotype analyses in particular for subgroups having the diffuse cutaneous subset or topo-isomerase I positive antibodies, which are the most associated with BANK1 variants, did not detect any difference between SSc patients and controls. These results obtained through a large cohort of European caucasian patients with SSc do not support the contribution of CD19, CD20, CD22, CD24 variants to the genetic susceptibility of SSc.

  2. Kaiso is highly expressed in TNBC tissues of women of African ancestry compared to Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Bassey-Archibong, Blessing I; Hercules, Shawn M; Rayner, Lyndsay G A; Skeete, Desiree H A; Smith Connell, Suzanne P; Brain, Ian; Daramola, Adetola; Banjo, Adekunbiola A F; Byun, Jung S; Gardner, Kevin; Dushoff, Jonathan; Daniel, Juliet M

    2017-09-08

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is most prevalent in young women of African ancestry (WAA) compared to women of other ethnicities. Recent studies found a correlation between high expression of the transcription factor Kaiso, TNBC aggressiveness, and ethnicity. However, little is known about Kaiso expression and localization patterns in TNBC tissues of WAA. Herein, we analyze Kaiso expression patterns in TNBC tissues of African (Nigerian), Caribbean (Barbados), African American (AA), and Caucasian American (CA) women. Formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) TNBC tissue blocks from Nigeria and Barbados were utilized to construct a Nigerian/Barbadian tissue microarray (NB-TMA). This NB-TMA and a commercially available TMA comprising AA and CA TNBC tissues (AA-CA-YTMA) were subjected to immunohistochemistry to assess Kaiso expression and subcellular localization patterns, and correlate Kaiso expression with TNBC clinical features. Nigerian and Barbadian women in our study were diagnosed with TNBC at a younger age than AA and CA women. Nuclear and cytoplasmic Kaiso expression was observed in all tissues analyzed. Analysis of Kaiso expression in the NB-TMA and AA-CA-YTMA revealed that nuclear Kaiso H scores were significantly higher in Nigerian, Barbadian, and AA women compared with CA women. However, there was no statistically significant difference in nuclear Kaiso expression between Nigerian versus Barbadian women, or Barbadian versus AA women. High levels of nuclear Kaiso expression were detected in patients with a higher degree of African heritage compared to their Caucasian counterparts, suggesting a role for Kaiso in TNBC racial disparity.

  3. Replication of Caucasian Loci Associated with Osteoporosis-related Traits in East Asians

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Beom-Jun; Ahn, Seong Hee; Kim, Hyeon-Mok; Ikegawa, Shiro; Yang, Tie-Lin; Guo, Yan; Deng, Hong-Wen; Koh, Jung-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Most reported genome-wide association studies (GWAS) seeking to identify the loci of osteoporosis-related traits have involved Caucasian populations. We aimed to identify the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of osteoporosis-related traits among East Asian populations from the bone mineral density (BMD)-related loci of an earlier GWAS meta-analysis. Methods A total of 95 SNPs, identified at the discovery stage of the largest GWAS meta-analysis of BMD, were tested to determine associations with osteoporosis-related traits (BMD, osteoporosis, or fracture) in Korean subjects (n=1,269). The identified SNPs of osteoporosis-related traits in Korean subjects were included in the replication analysis using Chinese (n=2,327) and Japanese (n=768) cohorts. Results A total of 17 SNPs were associated with low BMD in Korean subjects. Specifically, 9, 6, 9, and 5 SNPs were associated with the presence of osteoporosis, non-vertebral fractures, vertebral fractures, and any fracture, respectively. Collectively, 35 of the 95 SNPs (36.8%) were associated with one or more osteoporosis-related trait in Korean subjects. Of the 35 SNPs, 19 SNPs (54.3%) were also associated with one or more osteoporosis-related traits in East Asian populations. Twelve SNPs were associated with low BMD in the Chinese and Japanese cohorts. Specifically, 3, 4, and 2 SNPs were associated with the presence of hip fractures, vertebral fractures, and any fracture, respectively. Conclusions Our results identified the common SNPs of osteoporosis-related traits in both Caucasian and East Asian populations. These SNPs should be further investigated to assess whether they are true genetic markers of osteoporosis. PMID:27965945

  4. A Meta-Analysis of Alzheimer's Disease Incidence and Prevalence Comparing African-Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Steenland, Kyle; Goldstein, Felicia C; Levey, Allan; Wharton, Whitney

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown higher Alzheimer's disease (AD) incidence rates are in African-Americans (AAs) than Caucasians (CCs). If this finding is consistent across studies, it raises important etiologic questions regarding factors responsible for this discrepancy. It also affects the likely public health burden of AD in the US in the future, as the non-Caucasian population becomes the majority. Estimate the AA/CC rate ratio for AD incidence across all available studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of population-based studies for the rate ratio (RR) of AD incidence for AAs versus CCs, after identifying six relevant studies from the literature. We calculated an AA/CC rate ratio across all studies using inverse-variance weighting, and assessed inter-study heterogeneity. Using these incidence data, as well as data on survival after diagnosis, and on all-cause mortality, we also estimated the US prevalence of AD among AAs and CCs. There were six population-based studies with data comparing AD incidence between AAs and CCs, with an estimated 370 AA and 640 CC incident cases. The meta-analysis RR showed that the AD rate for AAs was 64% higher than for CCs (RR = 1.64 (95% CI 1.35-2.00)) 1.35-2.00)), with no evidence of heterogeneity. We estimated the current US AD prevalence for ages 65-90 to be 5.5% for CCs, and 8.6% for AAs (prevalence ratio 1.56). AAs have an increased risk of incident and prevalent AD compared to CCs for reasons which are unknown, but are hypothesized to reflect biological, psychological, and socioeconomic factors.

  5. Lactase haplotype frequencies in Caucasians: association with the lactase persistence/non-persistence polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Harvey, C B; Hollox, E J; Poulter, M; Wang, Y; Rossi, M; Auricchio, S; Iqbal, T H; Cooper, B T; Barton, R; Sarner, M; Korpela, R; Swallow, D M

    1998-05-01

    A genetic polymorphism is responsible for determining that some humans express lactase at high levels throughout their lives and are thus lactose tolerant, while others lose lactase expression during childhood and are lactose intolerant. We have previously shown that this polymorphism is controlled by an element or elements which act in cis to the lactase gene. We have also reported that 7 polymorphisms in the lactase gene are highly associated and lead to only 3 common haplotypes (A, B and C) in individuals of European extraction. Here we report the frequencies of these polymorphisms in Caucasians from north and south Europe and also from the Indian sub-continent, and show that the alleles differ in frequency, the B and C haplotypes being much more common in southern Europe and India. Allelic association studies with lactase persistence and non-persistence phenotypes show suggestive evidence of association of lactase persistence with certain alleles. This association was rather more clear in the analysis of small families, where haplotypes could be determined. Furthermore haplotype and RNA transcript analysis of 11 unrelated lactase persistent individuals shows that the persistence (highly expressed) allele is almost always on the A haplotype background. Non-persistence is found on a variety of haplotypes including A. Thus it appears that lactase persistence arose more recently than the DNA marker polymorphisms used here to define the main Caucasian haplotypes, possibly as a single mutation on the A haplotype background. The high frequency of the A haplotype in northern Europeans is consistent with the high frequency of lactase persistence.

  6. [Gestational diabetes mellitus and maternal ethnicity: high prevalence of fetal macrosomia in non-Caucasian women].

    PubMed

    Aulinas, Anna; Biagetti, Betina; Vinagre, Irene; Capel, Ismael; Ubeda, Justa; María, Miguel Ángel; García-Patterson, Apolonia; Adelantado, Juan María; Ginovart, Gemma; Corcoy, Rosa

    2013-09-21

    Differences in perinatal outcomes according to ethnicity have been described in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We analysed the relationship between ethnicity, maternal characteristics and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women with GDM. Retrospective analysis of women with GDM attended at the centre between 1986 and 2007. We studied 2,543 mother-infant pairs (8.9% multiple pregnancies, 2,480 Caucasian [C] and 63 non-Caucasian [NC] mothers). Maternal characteristics and perinatal outcomes were compared according to maternal ethnicity and multivariable logistic regression analyses (backward method) were performed to predict perinatal outcomes. The groups (C vs NC) differed in previous pregnancies, obstetric history, pregestational body mass index, delay between diagnosis and clinic entry, fasting plasma glucose at diagnosis and both initial and third trimester glycated hemoglobin, with all of them being worse in NC group. As to perinatal outcomes, we also observed differences in the prevalence of macrosomic (4.3 vs 19.4%) and large for gestational age newborns (LGA) (9.5 vs 32.3%), all of them being higher in the NC group. In the logistic regression analyses, NC was an independent predictor of macrosomia, LGA and jaundice with odds ratio ranging from 2.767 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.257-6.091) for LGA and 3.629 (95% CI 0.972-13.548) for neonatal jaundice. NC-GDM patients had more adverse perinatal outcomes only partially explained by medical history, anthropometric data and maternal glycemic control. NC ethnicity was an independent predictor of poor perinatal outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding the Burden of Adult Female Acne

    PubMed Central

    Kawata, Ariane K.; Daniels, Selena R.; Yeomans, Karen; Burk, Caroline T.; Callender, Valerie D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Typically regarded as an adolescent condition, acne among adult females is also prevalent. Limited data are available on the clinical characteristics and burden of adult female acne. The study objective was to describe clinical characteristics and psychosocial impact of acne in adult women. Design: Cross-sectional, web-based survey. Setting: Data were collected from a diverse sample of United States females. Participants: Women ages 25 to 45 years with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Measurements: Outcomes included sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, perceptions, coping behaviors, psychosocial impact of acne (health-related quality of life using acne-specific Quality of Life questionnaire and psychological status using Patient Health Questionnaire), and work/productivity. Results: A total of 208 women completed the survey (mean age 35±6 years), comprising White/Caucasian (51.4%), Black/African American (24.5%), Hispanic/Latino (11.1%), Asian (7.7%), and Other (5.3%). Facial acne presented most prominently on cheeks, chin, and forehead and was characterized by erythema, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and scarring. Average age of adult onset was 25±6 years, and one-third (33.7%) were diagnosed with acne as an adult. The majority (80.3%) had 25 to 49 visible facial lesions. Acne was perceived as troublesome and impacted self-confidence. Makeup was frequently used to conceal acne. Facial acne negatively affected health-related quality of life, was associated with mild/moderate symptoms of depression and/or anxiety, and impacted ability to concentrate on work or school. Conclusion: Results highlight the multifaceted impact of acne and provide evidence that adult female acne is under-recognized and burdensome. PMID:24578779

  8. Understanding the burden of adult female acne.

    PubMed

    Tanghetti, Emil A; Kawata, Ariane K; Daniels, Selena R; Yeomans, Karen; Burk, Caroline T; Callender, Valerie D

    2014-02-01

    Typically regarded as an adolescent condition, acne among adult females is also prevalent. Limited data are available on the clinical characteristics and burden of adult female acne. The study objective was to describe clinical characteristics and psychosocial impact of acne in adult women. Cross-sectional, web-based survey. Data were collected from a diverse sample of United States females. Women ages 25 to 45 years with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Outcomes included sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, perceptions, coping behaviors, psychosocial impact of acne (health-related quality of life using acne-specific Quality of Life questionnaire and psychological status using Patient Health Questionnaire), and work/productivity. A total of 208 women completed the survey (mean age 35±6 years), comprising White/Caucasian (51.4%), Black/African American (24.5%), Hispanic/Latino (11.1%), Asian (7.7%), and Other (5.3%). Facial acne presented most prominently on cheeks, chin, and forehead and was characterized by erythema, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and scarring. Average age of adult onset was 25±6 years, and one-third (33.7%) were diagnosed with acne as an adult. The majority (80.3%) had 25 to 49 visible facial lesions. Acne was perceived as troublesome and impacted self-confidence. Makeup was frequently used to conceal acne. Facial acne negatively affected health-related quality of life, was associated with mild/moderate symptoms of depression and/or anxiety, and impacted ability to concentrate on work or school. RESULTS highlight the multifaceted impact of acne and provide evidence that adult female acne is under-recognized and burdensome.

  9. Thorough QT study of the effect of oral moxifloxacin on QTc interval in the fed and fasted state in healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects

    PubMed Central

    Taubel, Jorg; Ferber, Georg; Lorch, Ulrike; Batchvarov, Velislav; Savelieva, Irina; Camm, A John

    2014-01-01

    Aims The aims of this study were three-fold and were to (i) investigate the effect of food (fasted and fed state) on the degree of QT prolongation caused by moxifloxacin under the rigorous conditions of a TQT study, (ii) differentiate the effects on QTc that arise from changes in PK from those arising as a result of electrophysiological changes attributable to raised levels of C-peptide [11] offsetting in part the IKr blocking properties of moxifloxacin and (iii) characterize the QTcF profile of oral moxifloxacin (400 mg) in healthy Japanese volunteers compared with Caucasian subjects. Methods The study population consisted of 32 healthy non-smoking, Caucasian (n = 13) and Japanese (n = 19), male and female subjects, aged between 20–45 years with a body mass index of between 18 to 25 kg m−2. Female volunteers were required to use an effective contraceptive method or be abstinent. Subjects with ECGs which were deemed unsuitable for evaluation in a TQT study were excluded. ECGs were recorded in triplicate with subsequent blinded manual adjudication of the automated interval measurements. Electrocardiograms in the placebo arm were recorded twice in fasted and fed condition. Results The results demonstrated a substantial change in the typical moxifloxacin effect on the ECG. The effect on ΔΔQTc in the fed state led to a significant delay and a modest reduction compared with the fasted state correcting both conditions with the corresponding placebo data. The largest QTcF change from baseline in the fed state was observed at 4 h with a peak value of 11.6 ms (two-sided 90% CI 9.1, 14.1). In comparison, the largest QTcF change observed in the fasted state was 14.4 ms (90% CI 11.9, 16.8) and occurred at 2.5 h post-dose. The PK of moxifloxacin were altered by food and this change was consistent with the observed QTcF change. In the fed state plasma concentrations of moxifloxacin were considerably and consistently lower in comparison with the fasted state, and this

  10. Thorough QT study of the effect of oral moxifloxacin on QTc interval in the fed and fasted state in healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects.

    PubMed

    Taubel, Jorg; Ferber, Georg; Lorch, Ulrike; Batchvarov, Velislav; Savelieva, Irina; Camm, A John

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were three-fold and were to (i) investigate the effect of food (fasted and fed state) on the degree of QT prolongation caused by moxifloxacin under the rigorous conditions of a TQT study, (ii) differentiate the effects on QTc that arise from changes in PK from those arising as a result of electrophysiological changes attributable to raised levels of C-peptide [11] offsetting in part the IKr blocking properties of moxifloxacin and (iii) characterize the QTc F profile of oral moxifloxacin (400 mg) in healthy Japanese volunteers compared with Caucasian subjects. The study population consisted of 32 healthy non-smoking, Caucasian (n = 13) and Japanese (n = 19), male and female subjects, aged between 20-45 years with a body mass index of between 18 to 25 kg m(-2). Female volunteers were required to use an effective contraceptive method or be abstinent. Subjects with ECGs which were deemed unsuitable for evaluation in a TQT study were excluded. ECGs were recorded in triplicate with subsequent blinded manual adjudication of the automated interval measurements. Electrocardiograms in the placebo arm were recorded twice in fasted and fed condition. The results demonstrated a substantial change in the typical moxifloxacin effect on the ECG. The effect on ΔΔQTc in the fed state led to a significant delay and a modest reduction compared with the fasted state correcting both conditions with the corresponding placebo data. The largest QTc F change from baseline in the fed state was observed at 4 h with a peak value of 11.6 ms (two-sided 90% CI 9.1, 14.1). In comparison, the largest QTc F change observed in the fasted state was 14.4 ms (90% CI 11.9, 16.8) and occurred at 2.5 h post-dose. The PK of moxifloxacin were altered by food and this change was consistent with the observed QTc F change. In the fed state plasma concentrations of moxifloxacin were considerably and consistently lower in comparison with the fasted state, and this

  11. Mental Illness Stigma as a Mediator of Differences in Caucasian and South Asian College Students' Attitudes toward Psychological Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loya, Fred; Reddy, Radhika; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has established that Asian Americans use mental health services less frequently and hold poorer attitudes toward psychological counseling than Caucasians. The authors directly tested whether stigmatizing beliefs regarding mental illness might explain such differential attitudes toward counseling in a South Asian and Caucasian…

  12. Absence of bias in clinician ratings of everyday functioning among African American, Hispanic and Caucasian patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Sabbag, Samir; Prestia, Davide; Robertson, Belinda; Ruiz, Pedro; Durand, Dante; Strassnig, Martin; Harvey, Philip D.

    2015-01-01

    A substantial research literature implicates potential racial/ethnic bias in the diagnosis of schizophrenia and in clinical ratings of psychosis. There is no similar information regarding bias effects on ratings of everyday functioning. Our aims were to determine if Caucasian raters vary in their ratings of the everyday functioning of schizophrenia patients of different ethnicities, to find out which factors determine accurate self-report of everyday functioning in different ethnic groups, and to know if depression has similar effects on the way people of different ethnicities self-report their current functionality. We analyzed data on 295 patients with schizophrenia who provided their self-report of their everyday functioning and also had a Caucasian clinician rating their functionality. Three racial/ethnic groups (African American (AA). Hispanic and Caucasian) were studied and analyzed on the basis of neurocognition, functional capacity, depression and real-world functional outcomes. No differences based on racial/ethnic status in clinician assessments of patients' functionality were found. Differences between racial groups were found in personal and maternal levels of education. Severity of depression was significantly correlated with accuracy of self-assessment of functioning in Caucasians, but not in AAs. Higher scores on neurocognition and functional capacity scales correlated with reduced overestimation of functioning in AAs, but not in Hispanics. This data might indicate that measurement of everyday functionality is less subject to rater bias than measurement of symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:26160197

  13. Cultural diversity and saccade similarities: culture does not explain saccade latency differences between Chinese and Caucasian participants.

    PubMed

    Knox, Paul C; Wolohan, Felicity D A

    2014-01-01

    A central claim of cultural neuroscience is that the culture to which an individual belongs plays a key role in shaping basic cognitive processes and behaviours, including eye movement behaviour. We previously reported a robust difference in saccade behaviour between Chinese and Caucasian participants; Chinese participants are much more likely to execute low latency express saccades, in circumstances in which these are normally discouraged. To assess the extent to which this is the product of culture we compared a group of 70 Chinese overseas students (whose primary cultural exposure was that of mainland China), a group of 45 participants whose parents were Chinese but who themselves were brought up in the UK (whose primary cultural exposure was western European) and a group of 70 Caucasian participants. Results from the Schwartz Value Survey confirmed that the UK-Chinese group were culturally similar to the Caucasian group. However, their patterns of saccade latency were identical to the mainland Chinese group, and different to the Caucasian group. We conclude that at least for the relatively simple reflexive saccade behaviour we have investigated, culture cannot explain the observed differences in behaviour.

  14. A comparative study of sertraline dosages, plasma concentrations, efficacy and adverse reactions in Chinese versus Caucasian patients.

    PubMed

    Hong Ng, Chee; Norman, Trevor R; Naing, Khin Ohnmar; Schweitzer, Isaac; Kong Wai Ho, Brian; Fan, Agnes; Klimidis, Steven

    2006-03-01

    This prospective 6-week study examined the differences in dosage and steady state plasma concentrations of sertraline in Chinese versus Caucasian depressed patients. Two groups of Chinese patients from different geographical sites and a group of Caucasian patients were evaluated with clinical measures during an initial dose of 50 mg/day, with subsequent doses adjusted clinically. The results of 17 Australian Chinese (ACHI), 13 Malaysian Chinese (MCHI) and 15 Australian Caucasians (AC) were analysed. Despite controlling for weight, the AC subjects received a significantly higher dose than both the ACHI (P = 0.002) and the MCHI groups (P = 0.012). However, the mean sertraline concentration to dose ratios at weeks 1 and 6 were not significantly different between the three groups. Sertraline was effective and well tolerated in both ethnic groups with few adverse events. Although there was a lack of difference between groups in the pharmacokinetic results, Chinese depressed patients appeared to require lower dosages with consequently lower plasma concentrations of sertraline compared to Caucasian patients to achieve clinical efficacy. Further studies of the dosages, kinetics and adverse effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors linked with genotyping are necessary.

  15. Latino and Caucasian Students' Academic and Non-Academic Characteristics as Predictors of Educational Outcomes, High School and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jafeth Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    The pathway to a postsecondary education is challenging for many students, including students from the growing Latino population in the United States. This research project focused on Latino and Caucasian students' academic and non-academic characteristics as predictors of educational outcomes, high school and beyond. The introduction to the…

  16. Latino and Caucasian Students' Academic and Non-Academic Characteristics as Predictors of Educational Outcomes, High School and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jafeth Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    The pathway to a postsecondary education is challenging for many students, including students from the growing Latino population in the United States. This research project focused on Latino and Caucasian students' academic and non-academic characteristics as predictors of educational outcomes, high school and beyond. The introduction to the…

  17. Longitudinal Study of Perceived Negative Impact in African American and Caucasian Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Themba; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the stability of mothers' perceptions of the negative impact of having a child with ASD in a sample of African American and Caucasian families as their children transitioned to early adolescence. Participants were mothers and children participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of children referred for…

  18. Ethnic Differences in Early Math Learning: A Comparison of Chinese-American and Caucasian-American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntsinger, Carol S.; And Others

    This study compared Chinese-American and Caucasian-American children and families in order to better understand which cultural and family characteristics, parent beliefs, and parent practices operate at the early childhood level to produce the more uniform high level of math achievement among Asian-American children. Forty second-generation…

  19. African-American TOMM40'523-APOE haplotypes are admixture of West African and Caucasian alleles.

    PubMed

    Roses, Allen D; Lutz, Michael W; Saunders, Ann M; Goldgaber, Dmitry; Saul, Robert; Sundseth, Scott S; Akkari, P Anthony; Roses, Stephanie M; Gottschalk, W Kirby; Whitfield, Keith E; Vostrov, Alexander A; Hauser, Michael A; Allingham, R Rand; Burns, Daniel K; Chiba-Falek, Ornit; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A

    2014-11-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a lower apolipoprotein E4 (APOE ε4) allele frequency in African-Americans, but yet an increased age-related prevalence of AD. An algorithm for prevention clinical trials incorporating TOMM40'523 (Translocase of Outer Mitochondria Membrane) and APOE depends on accurate TOMM40'523-APOE haplotypes. We have compared the APOE and TOMM40'523 phased haplotype frequencies of a 9.5 kb TOMM40/APOE genomic region in West African, Caucasian, and African-American cohorts. African-American haplotype frequency scans of poly-T lengths connected in phase with either APOE ε4 or APOE ε3 differ from both West Africans and Caucasians and represent admixture of several distinct West African and Caucasian haplotypes. A new West African TOMM40'523 haplotype, with APOE ε4 connected to a short TOMM40'523 allele, is observed in African-Americans but not Caucasians. These data have therapeutic implications for the age of onset risk algorithm estimates and the design of a prevention trial for African-Americans or other mixed ethnic populations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cultural Diversity and Saccade Similarities: Culture Does Not Explain Saccade Latency Differences between Chinese and Caucasian Participants

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Paul C.; Wolohan, Felicity D. A.

    2014-01-01

    A central claim of cultural neuroscience is that the culture to which an individual belongs plays a key role in shaping basic cognitive processes and behaviours, including eye movement behaviour. We previously reported a robust difference in saccade behaviour between Chinese and Caucasian participants; Chinese participants are much more likely to execute low latency express saccades, in circumstances in which these are normally discouraged. To assess the extent to which this is the product of culture we compared a group of 70 Chinese overseas students (whose primary cultural exposure was that of mainland China), a group of 45 participants whose parents were Chinese but who themselves were brought up in the UK (whose primary cultural exposure was western European) and a group of 70 Caucasian participants. Results from the Schwartz Value Survey confirmed that the UK-Chinese group were culturally similar to the Caucasian group. However, their patterns of saccade latency were identical to the mainland Chinese group, and different to the Caucasian group. We conclude that at least for the relatively simple reflexive saccade behaviour we have investigated, culture cannot explain the observed differences in behaviour. PMID:24709988

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Child Welfare Services through the Eyes of African American, Caucasian, and Latino Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayon, Cecilia; Lee, Cheryl D.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to find if differences exist among 88 African American, Caucasian, and Latino families who received child welfare services. Method: A secondary data analysis of cross-sectional survey data employing standardized measures was used for this study. Family preservation (FP) services were received by 49…

  2. Understanding physical activity behavior in African American and Caucasian college students: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Chris; Fisher, Janet; Sparling, Phil; Nehl, Erich; Rhodes, Ryan; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Only 30% of college students meet the recommended amount of physical activity (PA) for health benefits, and this number is lower for African American students. Moreover, the correlates of PA may vary by ethnicity. In the present study, the authors tested the utility of the theory of planned behavior for explaining PA intentions and behavior in Caucasian and African American students. Participants were 238 African American (M age = 20.05 years, SD = 2.28) and 197 Caucasian (M age = 19.50 years, SD = 2.28) students who completed a baseline theory of planned behavior questionnaire and a follow-up PA measure 1 week later. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that affective (beta = .23) and instrumental (beta = .28) attitudes and perceived behavioral control (beta = .59) were significantly predictive of intention for the Caucasian students, whereas affective attitude (beta = .18) and perceived behavioral control (beta = .56) were significant for African American students. Furthermore, intention (beta = .33) was the lone significant predictor of PA for Caucasian students, whereas perceived behavioral control (beta = .23) was the significant predictor of PA for African American students. These data suggest that practitioners may need to consider ethnicity when developing PA interventions for college students based on the theory of planned behavior.

  3. Walking Patterns in a Sample of African American, Native American, and Caucasian Women: The Cross-Cultural Activity Participation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitt, Melicia C.; DuBose, Katrina D.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2004-01-01

    This analysis describes walking patterns among African American, Native American, and Caucasian women from South Carolina and New Mexico. Walking was assessed using pedometer and physical activity (PA) record data based on 4 consecutive days on either three (Study Phase 1) or two (Study Phase 2) occasions. Participants walked 5,429 [plus or minus]…

  4. Longitudinal Study of Perceived Negative Impact in African American and Caucasian Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Themba; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the stability of mothers' perceptions of the negative impact of having a child with ASD in a sample of African American and Caucasian families as their children transitioned to early adolescence. Participants were mothers and children participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of children referred for…

  5. Biopsychosocial Correlates of Binge Eating Disorder in Caucasian and African American Women with Obesity in Primary Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Lydecker, Janet L; Barnes, Rachel D; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    This study examined racial differences in eating-disorder psychopathology, eating/weight-related histories, and biopsychosocial correlates in women (n = 53 Caucasian and n = 56 African American) with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity seeking treatment in primary care settings. Caucasians reported significantly earlier onset of binge eating, dieting, and overweight, and greater number of times dieting than African American. The rate of metabolic syndrome did not differ by race. Caucasians had significantly elevated triglycerides whereas African Americans showed poorer glycaemic control (higher glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), and significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant racial differences in features of eating disorders, depressive symptoms, or mental and physical health functioning. The clinical presentation of eating-disorder psychopathology and associated psychosocial functioning differed little by race among obese women with BED seeking treatment in primary care settings. Clinicians should assess for and institute appropriate interventions for comorbid BED and obesity in both African American and Caucasian patients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  6. Association between the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism and the metabolic syndrome in a non-Caucasian multi-ethnic sample.

    PubMed

    Al-Attar, Salam A; Pollex, Rebecca L; Ban, Matthew R; Young, T Kue; Bjerregaard, Peter; Anand, Sonia S; Yusuf, Salim; Zinman, Bernard; Harris, Stewart B; Hanley, Anthony Jg; Connelly, Philip W; Huff, Murray W; Hegele, Robert A

    2008-03-13

    The rs9939609 T>A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the FTO gene has previously been found to be associated with obesity in European Caucasian samples. The objective of this study is to examine whether this association extends to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and applies in non-Caucasian samples. The FTO rs9939609 SNP was genotyped in 2121 subjects from four different non-Caucasian geographical ancestries. Subjects were classified for the presence or absence of MetS according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP ATP) III definitions. Carriers of > or = 1 copy of the rs9939609 A allele were significantly more likely to have IDF-defined MetS (35.8%) than non-carriers (31.2%), corresponding to a carrier odds ratio (OR) of 1.23 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 to 1.50), with a similar trend for the NCEP ATP III-defined MetS. Subgroup analysis showed that the association was particularly strong in men. The association was related to a higher proportion of rs9939609 A allele carriers meeting the waist circumference criterion; a higher proportion also met the HDL cholesterol criterion compared with wild-type homozygotes. Thus, the FTO rs9939609 SNP was associated with an increased risk for MetS in this multi-ethnic sample, confirming that the association extends to non-Caucasian population samples.

  7. Profile Analysis of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition, with African American and Caucasian Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Brittany A.; McIntosh, David E.; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; Ward, Kimberly E.; Bradley, Madeline Hunt

    2011-01-01

    This study used profile analysis to investigate the interpretability of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II), in terms of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory among ethnically diverse preschool children. Forty-nine African American and 49 Caucasian preschool children from a Midwestern city were included in the…

  8. Understanding Nonsmoking in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehl, Eric J.; Blanchard, Chris M.; Peng, Chao-Ying J.; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phillip B.; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have considered whether psychological determinants of nonsmoking among college students vary by ethnicity. The authors tested the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain differences in nonsmoking intentions of 238 African American and 197 Caucasian college students who completed an in-class TPB questionnaire and a smoking…

  9. Risk of post-transplantation diabetes mellitus is greater in South Asian versus Caucasian kidney allograft recipients.

    PubMed

    Peracha, Javeria; Nath, Jay; Ready, Andrew; Tahir, Sanna; Parekh, Krishan; Hodson, James; Ferro, Charles J; Borrows, Richard; Sharif, Adnan

    2016-06-01

    South Asians have increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with Caucasians in the general population, but data for the development of post-transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is scarce. In this retrospective analysis, data was extracted from electronic patient records at a single centre (2004-2014). Caucasians were more likely to be male, with higher age and BMI than South Asians. Case-control matching was therefore undertaken to remove this bias, resulting in 102 recipient pairs. Median follow-up was 50 months (range 4-127 months). Matched groups had similar baseline characteristics, although South Asians compared with Caucasians received more deceased-donor kidneys (74% vs. 43%, respectively, P < 0.001) and were more likely to be CMV positive (77% vs. 43%, respectively, P < 0.001). PTDM incidence was significantly higher in South Asians versus Caucasians (35% vs. 10%, respectively, subhazard ratio 4.2 [95% CI: 2.1-8.5, P < 0.001]). Donor type had significant interaction with ethnicity, with the observed difference in PTDM rates between ethnicities most visible with receipt of deceased-donor kidneys. No significant difference was detected in allograft function, rejection episodes, adverse cardiovascular events or patient/graft survival. South Asians have increased risk of PTDM, especially recipients of deceased kidneys, and recognition of this allows appropriate patient counselling and development of targeted strategies. © 2016 Steunstichting ESOT.

  10. Walking Patterns in a Sample of African American, Native American, and Caucasian Women: The Cross-Cultural Activity Participation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitt, Melicia C.; DuBose, Katrina D.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2004-01-01

    This analysis describes walking patterns among African American, Native American, and Caucasian women from South Carolina and New Mexico. Walking was assessed using pedometer and physical activity (PA) record data based on 4 consecutive days on either three (Study Phase 1) or two (Study Phase 2) occasions. Participants walked 5,429 [plus or minus]…

  11. Mental Illness Stigma as a Mediator of Differences in Caucasian and South Asian College Students' Attitudes toward Psychological Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loya, Fred; Reddy, Radhika; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has established that Asian Americans use mental health services less frequently and hold poorer attitudes toward psychological counseling than Caucasians. The authors directly tested whether stigmatizing beliefs regarding mental illness might explain such differential attitudes toward counseling in a South Asian and Caucasian…

  12. GVHD after HLA-matched sibling BMT or PBSCT: Comparison of North American Caucasian and Japanese Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Junya; Brazauskas, Ruta; Hu, Zhen-Huan; Kuwatsuka, Yachiyo; Nagafuji, Koji; Kanamori, Heiwa; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Miyamura, Koichi; Murata, Makoto; Fukuda, Takahiro; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Kimura, Fumihiko; Seo, Sachiko; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Yoshimi, Ayami; Milone, Giuseppe; Wood, William A; Ustun, Celalettin; Hashimi, Shahrukh; Pasquini, Marcelo; Bonfim, Carmem; Dalal, Jignesh; Hahn, Theresa; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Saber, Wael

    2016-01-01

    The risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after HLA-matched sibling bone marrow (BM) transplantation is lower in Japanese than in Caucasian patients. However, race may have differential effect on GVHD dependent on the graft source. North American Caucasian and Japanese patients receiving their first allogeneic BM or peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantations from an HLA-matched sibling for leukemia were eligible. BM was used in 13% and 53% of Caucasian and Japanese patients, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the interaction term between race and graft source was not significant in any of the models, indicating that graft source does not affect the impact of race on outcomes. The risk of grades III–IV acute GVHD was significantly lower in Japanese than in Caucasian patients (hazard ratio (HR) 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57–0.96), which resulted in lower risk of non-relapse mortality in Japanese patients (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.54–0.89). The risk of relapse was also lower in this group. Lower risk of non-relapse mortality and relapse resulted in lower overall mortality rates among Japanese patients. In conclusion, irrespective of graft source, the risk of severe acute GVHD is lower in Japanese patients, which results in lower risk of non-relapse mortality. PMID:26762681

  13. Motor Performance Age and Race Differences between Black and Caucasian Boys Six to Nine Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiNucci, James M.

    This study was undertaken to compare the motor performance age and race differences between black and caucasian boys ages six to nine. One hundred and twenty subjects were administered 25 test items which measured (a) muscular strength, (b) muscular endurance, (c) cardio-respiratory endurance, (d) speed, (e) power, (f) agility, (g) balance, and…

  14. Body Image and Disordered Eating among Asian American and Caucasian College Students: An Examination of Race and Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Kashubeck, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Examined gender differences within race and race differences within gender regarding various body image and disordered eating variables among Caucasian and Asian American college students. Regardless of race, women reported more problem attitudes and behaviors than men. Gender differences were common and similar for both ethnic groups. Race made…

  15. Cranial Capacity: New Caucasian Data and Comments on Rushton's Claimed Mongoloid-Caucasoid Brain-Size Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, T. Edward; Jensen, Arthur R.

    1993-01-01

    Data are presented on body weight and cranial capacity for 211 young adult male Caucasians (postsecondary students). The data do not support Rushton's claim for a greater weight-adjusted cranial capacity of Mongoloid males. Speed and efficiency of cortical information processing may be more important for intelligence than brain size. (SLD)

  16. Study of the International Epidemiology of Androgenetic Alopecia in Young Caucasian Men Using Photographs From the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Avital, Yaniv Shalom; Morvay, Marta; Gaaland, Magdolna; Kemény, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    Background: The epidemiological evaluation of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is based mainly on direct observation and questionnaires. The international epidemiology and environmental risk factors of AGA in young Caucasian men remain unknown. Aim: To use photographs and data from the Internet to evaluate severe AGA and generate greater understanding of the international epidemiology of the disorder in young Caucasian men. Materials and Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. The sample included 26,340 Caucasian men aged 30 to 40 years who had uploaded profiles to two dating websites. Their photographs were evaluated for AGA and graded as follows: severe AGA (Norwood type VI-VII), non-severe AGA, and unknown. Epidemiological data were collected from the sites. Logistic regression was used to analyze the effect of risk factors on the prevalence of severe AGA. Results The overall success rate for identifying severe AGA by indirect evaluation of Internet photographs was 94%. The prevalence of severe AGA was 15.33% overall and varied significantly by geographical region. The risk of having severe AGA was increased by 1.092 for every year of age between 30 and 40 years. Severe AGA was more prevalent in subjects with higher body mass index. Conclusions: Photographs from the Internet can be used to evaluate severe AGA in epidemiological studies. The prevalence of severe AGA in young Caucasian men increases with age and varies by geographical region. Body mass index is an environmental risk factor for severe AGA. PMID:26288425

  17. Body Image and Disordered Eating among Asian American and Caucasian College Students: An Examination of Race and Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Kashubeck, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Examined gender differences within race and race differences within gender regarding various body image and disordered eating variables among Caucasian and Asian American college students. Regardless of race, women reported more problem attitudes and behaviors than men. Gender differences were common and similar for both ethnic groups. Race made…

  18. A Multivariate Comparison of Elderly African Americans and Caucasians Voting Behavior: How Do Social, Health, Psychological, and Political Variables Effect Their Voting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Used data from Aging in the Eighties national survey to examine impact of health rating and life satisfaction as well as other socio-psychological characteristics on voting turnout among elderly Caucasian and African Americans. For Caucasians, self-assessment of health was significantly related to voting behavior; whereas among African Americans,…

  19. Cross-Race Preferences for Same-Race Faces Extend beyond the African versus Caucasian Contrast in 3-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, David J.; Liu, Shaoying; Ge, Liezhong; Quinn, Paul C.; Slater, Alan M.; Lee, Kang; Liu, Qinyao; Pascalis, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    A visual preference procedure was used to examine preferences among faces of different ethnicities (African, Asian, Caucasian, and Middle Eastern) in Chinese 3-month-old infants exposed only to Chinese faces. The infants demonstrated a preference for faces from their own ethnic group. Alongside previous results showing that Caucasian infants…

  20. Basal cell carcinoma in Singapore: a prospective study on epidemiology and clinicopathological characteristics with a secondary comparative analysis between Singaporean Chinese and Caucasian patients.

    PubMed

    Tan, Eugene St; Ee, Melvin; Shen, Liang; Chua, Hilary; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Tan, Suat-Hoon

    2015-08-01

    Susceptibility to and clinical presentation of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) differ in Asian and Caucasian populations. This study aims to evaluate the epidemiological and clinicopathological characteristics of BCC in a multiracial Singaporean population, with a secondary comparative analysis between Chinese and Caucasian patients. We prospectively studied patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed BCC at the National Skin Centre, Singapore from 2004 to 2008. In total, 274 BCC from 260 patients were studied, with 19 patients having two or more tumours. Their mean age was 67.5 years and 54% were male. Chinese comprised 80% and Caucasians 14%. The Chinese were 1.8-fold as likely as Caucasians to be older than 60 years, and experienced itch thrice more frequently. Caucasians developed multiple BCC threefold and truncal or upper limb BCC 2.9-fold more frequently than the Chinese. In terms of tumour subtype, morphoeic BCC was 2.7-fold more common in Caucasians. Pigmented BCC occurred 2.7-fold more often in the Chinese, most frequently on the head and neck of elderly Chinese. Compared to the Chinese, BCC occurred more often in younger Caucasians, with a predilection for the trunk and upper limb, suggesting a greater role for recreational sun exposure as a risk factor. Pigmented BCC more commonly occurred on the head and neck of elderly Chinese and may be reflective of cumulative sun exposure as a risk factor. Aggressive morphoeic BCC was more common in Caucasians than in Singaporean Chinese patients. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  1. Comparisons of the Efficacy of Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitors on Type 2 Diabetes Patients between Asian and Caucasian

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiaoling; Han, Xueyao; Luo, Yingying; Ji, Linong

    2013-01-01

    Background To compare the efficacy of glycemic control and insulin secretion of alpha glucosidase inhibitors (AGI) on type 2 diabetes patients between Asian and Caucasian. Methodology/Principal Findings The MEDLINE®, EMBASE®, CENTRAL were searched and qualified studies in Asian and Caucasian population comparing AGI treatment with placebo or other oral anti-diabetic drugs in type 2 diabetic patients were included. Totally 58 qualified studies were included. When AGI treatment was compared with placebo, a significant difference in HbA1c decline from baseline favoring AGI treatment was found in Asian (weighted mean difference (WMD), −0.50%; 95% CI, −0.66% to −0.34%) and in Caucasian a significant difference in HbA1c decline favoring AGI treatment was also found (WMD, −0.68%; 95% CI, −0.76% to −0.60%). In Asian, fasting plasma glucose was reduced with AGI treatment compared with placebo (WMD, −0.53 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.91 to −0.14 mmol/L) and in Caucasian there was also a significant difference in FPG changes favoring AGI therapy (WMD, −0.88 mmol/L; 95% CI, −1.00 to −0.77 mmol/L). Studies in Asian showed a significant difference in fasting insulin changes favoring AGI treatment (WMD, −0.78 uU/ml; 95% CI, −0.96 to −0.59 uU/ml). While in Caucasian fasting insulin was decreased without significance with AGI treatment (WMD-1.24 uU/ml; 95% CI, −2.51 to 0.04 uU/ml). Body weight was decreased with AGI treatment in Asian (WMD, −1.00 kg; 95% CI, −1.69 to −0.31 kg) and was also decreased with AGI treatment in Caucasian (WMD, −0.73 kg; 95% CI, −1.13 to −0.33 kg). Conclusions/Significance According to results from this meta-analysis, the efficacy in glucose lowering, body weight reduction and insulin secretion decreasing of AGI treatment in Asian were comparable with those in Caucasian. PMID:24236131

  2. Comparisons of the efficacy of alpha glucosidase inhibitors on type 2 diabetes patients between Asian and Caucasian.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaoling; Han, Xueyao; Luo, Yingying; Ji, Linong

    2013-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of glycemic control and insulin secretion of alpha glucosidase inhibitors (AGI) on type 2 diabetes patients between Asian and Caucasian. The MEDLINE®, EMBASE®, CENTRAL were searched and qualified studies in Asian and Caucasian population comparing AGI treatment with placebo or other oral anti-diabetic drugs in type 2 diabetic patients were included. Totally 58 qualified studies were included. When AGI treatment was compared with placebo, a significant difference in HbA1c decline from baseline favoring AGI treatment was found in Asian (weighted mean difference (WMD), -0.50%; 95% CI, -0.66% to -0.34%) and in Caucasian a significant difference in HbA1c decline favoring AGI treatment was also found (WMD, -0.68%; 95% CI, -0.76% to -0.60%). In Asian, fasting plasma glucose was reduced with AGI treatment compared with placebo (WMD, -0.53 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.91 to -0.14 mmol/L) and in Caucasian there was also a significant difference in FPG changes favoring AGI therapy (WMD, -0.88 mmol/L; 95% CI, -1.00 to -0.77 mmol/L). Studies in Asian showed a significant difference in fasting insulin changes favoring AGI treatment (WMD, -0.78 uU/ml; 95% CI, -0.96 to -0.59 uU/ml). While in Caucasian fasting insulin was decreased without significance with AGI treatment (WMD-1.24 uU/ml; 95% CI, -2.51 to 0.04 uU/ml). Body weight was decreased with AGI treatment in Asian (WMD, -1.00 kg; 95% CI, -1.69 to -0.31 kg) and was also decreased with AGI treatment in Caucasian (WMD, -0.73 kg; 95% CI, -1.13 to -0.33 kg). According to results from this meta-analysis, the efficacy in glucose lowering, body weight reduction and insulin secretion decreasing of AGI treatment in Asian were comparable with those in Caucasian.

  3. Poor Prognosis with In Vitro Fertilization in Indian Women Compared to Caucasian Women Despite Similar Embryo Quality

    PubMed Central

    Shahine, Lora K.; Lamb, Julie D.; Lathi, Ruth B.; Milki, Amin A.; Langen, Elizabeth; Westphal, Lynn M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Disease prevalence and response to medical therapy may differ among patients of diverse ethnicities. Poor outcomes with in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment have been previously shown in Indian women compared to Caucasian women, and some evidence suggests that poor embryo quality may be a cause for the discrepancy. In our center, only patients with the highest quality cleavage stage embryos are considered eligible for extending embryo culture to the blastocyst stage. We compared live birth rates (LBR) between Indian and Caucasian women after blastocyst transfer to investigate whether differences in IVF outcomes between these ethnicities would persist in patients who transferred similar quality embryos. Methodology/Principal Findings In this retrospective cohort analysis, we compared IVF outcome between 145 Caucasians and 80 Indians who had a blastocyst transfer between January 1, 2005 and June 31, 2007 in our university center. Indians were younger than Caucasians by 2.7 years (34.03 vs. 36.71, P = 0.03), were more likely to have an agonist down regulation protocol (68% vs. 43%, P<0.01), and were more likely to have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), although not significant, (24% vs. 14%, P = 0.06). Sixty eight percent of Indian patients had the highest quality embryos (4AB blastocyst or better) transferred compared to 71% of the Caucasians (P = 0.2). LBR was significantly lower in the Indians compared to the Caucasians (24% vs. 41%, P<0.01) with an odds ratio of 0.63, (95%CI 0.46–0.86). Controlling for age, stimulation protocol and PCOS showed persistently lower LBR with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.56, (95%CI 0.40–0.79) in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions/Significance Despite younger age and similar embryo quality, Indians had a significantly lower LBR than Caucasians. In this preliminary study, poor prognosis after IVF for Indian ethnicity persisted despite limiting analysis to patients with high quality embryos transferred

  4. Body adiposity index as a risk factor for the metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal Caucasian, African American, and Filipina women.

    PubMed

    Djibo, Djeneba Audrey; Araneta, Maria Rosario G; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Wooten, Wilma

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the utility of the body adiposity index (BAI) and its association with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in older Caucasian (n=369), African American (n=336) and Filipina (n=275) women. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, anthropometric measures, plasma glucose and medical history were assessed in 1993-1999. Despite smaller body size, 32.7% of Filipina women had higher MetS compared to African American and Caucasian women based on the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) (32.7% vs 19.6% and 13.3%, respectively) or the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) (42.6% vs 33.0% and 18.7%, respectively ps<0.05). BAI had higher positive correlations with BMI, %body fat (%BF), and %truncal fat in Caucasian than African American and Filipina women. Adjusted for age, smoking, estrogen use, exercise, and alcohol intake, odds of the MetS (NCEP) were 2.08 (95%CI: 1.52-2.85) by BAI, 3.04 (95%CI: 2.11-4.38) by BMI, and 2.13 (95%CI: 1.52-3.00) by %BF for Caucasian women; 0.92 (95%CI: 0.69-1.23) by BAI, 1.44 (95%CI: 1.09-1.90) by BMI, and 1.12 (95%CI: 0.84-1.50) by %BF for African American women; and 1.14 (95%CI: 0.88-1.47) by BAI, 1.51 (95%CI: 1.15-1.97) by BMI, and 0.96 (95%CI: 0.74-1.25) by %BF for Filipinas. BAI was better able to assess adiposity in postmenopausal Caucasian women compared to African American and Filipina women. This index can distinguish ethnic differences in MetS confirmed by %BF. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sulfotransferase 2B1b in human breast: differences in subcellular localization in African American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Nicole A; He, Dongning; Frost, Andra R; Falany, Charles N

    2008-09-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among American women; however, the development of post-menopausal BC is significantly lower in African Americans as compared to Caucasians. Hormonal stimulation is important in BC development and differences in the conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) into estrogens may be involved in the lower incidence of post-menopausal BC in African American women. DHEA sulfation by sulfotransferase 2B1b (SULT2B1b) is important in regulating the conversion of DHEA into estrogens in tissues. SULT2B1b is localized in both cytosol and nuclei of some tissues including cancerous and associated-normal breast tissue. Immunohistochemical staining was used to evaluate the total expression and subcellular localization of SULT2B1b in African American and Caucasian breast tissues. Cell fractionation, immunoblot analysis and sulfation assays were used to characterize the subcellular expression and activity of SULT2B1b in BC tissues and T-47D breast adenocarcinoma cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of SULT2B1b showed that African Americans had a significantly greater amount of SULT2B1b in epithelial cells of associated-normal breast tissue as compared to Caucasians. Also, more SULT2B1b in African American associated-normal breast epithelial cells was localized in the nuclei than in Caucasians. Equivalent levels of SULT2B1b were detected in breast adenocarcinoma tissues from both African American and Caucasian women. Nuclei isolation and immunoblot analysis of both BC tissue and human T-47D breast adenocarcinoma cells demonstrated that SULT2B1b is present in nuclei and cytoplasm.

  6. Disparities in adequate mental health care for past-year major depressive episodes among Caucasian and Hispanic youths.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Pierre K; Martins, Silvia S; Richard, Patrick

    2009-10-01

    Following efforts made in recent years to provide effective mental health treatments based on evidence-based guidelines, a working definition was developed in the literature detailing a minimum level of "adequate mental health care" for serious mental illness. However, little is known about racial or ethnic disparities in receipt of adequate mental health care for individuals affected with serious mental illness. The objective of this study was to examine disparities among Caucasian and Hispanic youths in receipt of adequate mental health care for past-year major depressive episodes. Data for this study were drawn from the 2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. The study sample was composed of 1,169 Caucasian youths and 316 Hispanic youths aged 12 to 17 with past-year major depressive episodes. The percentages of youths in the sample who received adequate mental health care for past-year major depressive episodes were estimated, and the correlates of receipt of adequate mental health care were examined. Thirty-four percent of the full sample received adequate mental health care for past-year major depressive episodes, but separate analyses indicated that adequate mental health care was received by a significantly higher proportion of Caucasian youths (36%) than Hispanic youths (27%). The odds of receiving adequate mental health care for past-year major depressive episodes for Caucasians were 1.55 times that of Hispanics (p=.01). Having Medicaid or coverage via the State Children's Health Insurance Program significantly increased the odds of receiving adequate mental care for past-year major depressive episodes for both Hispanics and Caucasians. As mental health problems of adolescents from diverse racial or ethnic backgrounds become more easily identified and a larger proportion of these groups is referred to mental health treatment services, it is important to examine the degree to which treatment should be tailored to engage and retain specific racial or

  7. Differences in radiographic features of knee osteoarthritis in African-Americans and Caucasians: the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project

    PubMed Central

    Braga, L.; Renner, J. B.; Schwartz, T. A.; Woodard, J.; Helmick, C. G.; Hochberg, M. C.; Jordan, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objective To examine racial differences in tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) and patellofemoral joint (PFJ) radiographic osteoarthritis in African-American (AA) and Caucasian men and women. Method Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate cross-sectional associations between race and tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (TF-OA) and the presence, severity and location of individual radiographic features of tibiofemoral joint osteoarthritis [TFJ-OA] (osteophytes, joint space narrowing [JSN], sclerosis and cysts) and patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis (PFJ-OA) (osteophytes, JSN and sclerosis), using data from the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project. Proportional odds ratios (POR) assessed severity of TF-OA, TFJ and PFJ osteophytes, and JSN, adjusting for confounders. Generalized estimating equations accounted for auto-correlation of knees. Results Among 3187 participants (32.5% AAs; 62% women; mean age 62 years), 6300 TFJ and 1957 PFJ were included. Compared to Caucasians, AA men were more likely to have TF-OA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.00–1.86); tri-compartmental TFJ and PFJ osteophytes (aOR = 3.06; 95%CI = 1.96–4.78), and TFJ and PFJ sclerosis. AA women were more likely than Caucasian to have medial TFJ and tri-compartmental osteophytes (aOR = 2.13; 1.55–2.94), and lateral TFJ sclerosis. AAs had more severe TF-OA than Caucasians (adjusted cumulative odds ratio [aPOR] = 2.08; 95% CI, 1.19–3.64 for men; aPOR = 1.56; 95% CI, 1.06–2.29 for women) and were more likely to have lateral TFJ JSN. Conclusions Compared to Caucasians, AAs were more likely to have more severe TF-OA; tri-compartmental disease; and lateral JSN. Further research to clarify the discrepancy between radiographic features in OA among races appears warranted. PMID:19735758

  8. Higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in African-American women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared with Caucasian counterparts.

    PubMed

    Koval, Kathryn W; Setji, Tracy L; Reyes, Eric; Brown, Ann J

    2010-09-01

    Studies have demonstrated lipid differences among African-Americans and Caucasians and between women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and normally ovulating women. However, few studies have examined racial differences in lipoprotein levels in women with PCOS. This study compared lipoprotein levels in African-American and Caucasian women with PCOS. We performed a retrospective chart review of 398 subjects seen as new patients for PCOS at the Duke University Medical Center Endocrinology Clinic in Durham, NC. We identified 126 charts appropriate for review, based on a diagnosis of PCOS (using the 1990 National Institutes of Health criteria), a self-reported race of either Caucasian or African-American, and a body mass index (BMI) higher than 25. We excluded patients taking glucophage, oral contraceptives, or lipid-lowering medications. Age, BMI, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, random triglycerides (TG), and oral glucose tolerance test measurements were collected and included in the analysis. African-American women with PCOS had higher HDL cholesterol levels (52.6 vs. 47.5 mg/dl, P = 0.019), lower non-HDL cholesterol (134.1 vs. 154.6 mg/dl, P = 0.046), and lower TG levels (97.5 vs. 168.2 mg/dl, P < 0.001) than Caucasian women. These differences could not be attributed to age, BMI, or differences in insulin resistance as determined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. African-American women with PCOS appear to have a more favorable lipid profile than Caucasian women with PCOS having higher HDL cholesterol, lower non-HDL cholesterol, and lower TG when BMI and insulin resistance are equal.

  9. Reference ranges for urinary concentrations and ratios of endogenous steroids, which can be used as markers for steroid misuse, in a Caucasian population of athletes.

    PubMed

    Van Renterghem, Pieter; Van Eenoo, Peter; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Delbeke, Frans T

    2010-02-01

    The detection of misuse with naturally occurring steroids is a great challenge for doping control laboratories. Intake of natural anabolic steroids alters the steroid profile. Thus, screening for exogenous use of these steroids can be established by monitoring a range of endogenous steroids, which constitute the steroid profile, and evaluate their concentrations and ratios against reference ranges. Elevated values of the steroid profile constitute an atypical finding after which a confirmatory IRMS procedure is needed to unequivocally establish the exogenous origin of a natural steroid. However, the large inter-individual differences in urinary steroid concentrations and the recent availability of a whole range of natural steroids (e.g. dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione) which each exert a different effect on the monitored parameters in doping control complicate the interpretation of the current steroid profile. The screening of an extended steroid profile can provide additional parameters to support the atypical findings and can give specific information upon the steroids which have been administered. The natural concentrations of 29 endogenous steroids and 11 ratios in a predominantly Caucasian population of athletes were determined. The upper reference values at 97.5%, 99% and 99.9% levels were assessed for male (n=2027) and female (n=1004) populations. Monitoring minor metabolites and evaluation of concentration ratios with respect to their natural abundances could improve the interpretation of the steroid profile in doping analysis.

  10. Do stigma and its psychosocial impact differ between Asian-born Chinese immigrants and Western-born Caucasians with head and neck cancer?

    PubMed

    Lebel, Sophie; Payne, Ada Y M; Mah, Kenneth; Irish, Jonathan; Rodin, Gary; Devins, Gerald M

    2016-07-01

    Stigma appears to influence emotional distress and well-being in cancer survivors, but cross-cultural differences have been ignored. Previous studies suggest that stigma may be especially relevant for survivors of Asian origin. However, their study designs (e.g. focused on female cancers, qualitative designs, and an absence of comparison groups) limit the strength of this conclusion. We hypothesized that (1) Asian-born Chinese immigrants (AI) would report more perceived cancer-related stigma than Western-born Caucasians (WBC); and (2) the impact of stigma on emotional distress and well-being would be greater in AI as compared to WBC. Head and neck cancer survivors (n = 118 AI and n = 404 WBC) completed measures of well-being, emotional distress, and a three-item indicator of stigma in structured interviews. The majority of respondents (59%) reported one or more indicators of stigma. Stigma correlated significantly with emotional distress (r = .13, p = .004) and well-being (r = -.09, p = .032). Contrary to our hypotheses, WBCs and AIs did not differ in reported stigma nor did we detect differences in its psychosocial impact. Stigma exerts a deleterious psychosocial impact on head and neck cancer survivors. It did not differ significantly between AI and WBC survivors.

  11. Race, weight, and correlates of binge eating in female college students.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Melissa A; Himes, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the correlates of race, weight status, and binge eating among 715 female undergraduate students (77% Caucasian; 13% African American) enrolled at an urban university. Approximately 21.7% of Caucasians and 36.8% of African-Americans (AA) were overweight/obese. Higher BMI was associated with BED, and severity of binge eating symptoms. After removing participants who endorsed compensatory behaviors ≥ 1×/week from the analyses, 8.4% of the sample met criteria for BED (2.4% of the AA and 9.9% of the Caucasian students) and 44% reported severe binge eating symptoms. AA students were less likely to have BED than Caucasian students and reported less severe binge eating symptomatology. For Caucasian students, mood, cognitive restraint, drive for thinness, and BMI all contributed significant individual variance in binge eating severity. For African Americans, mood, body image dissatisfaction, and drive for thinness were found to be unique contributors. For those meeting criteria for BED, retrospectively recalled predictors of binge eating included negative affect (e.g., self-anger, worry, guilt), but not hunger. Behavioral triggers for binge behavior differed by race, as well, with African American students retrospectively reporting lower levels of anxiety prior to bingeing. Results from this study suggest that there are racial differences in binge eating behaviors. Future studies are needed to examine differences in eating practices among racial groups (e.g., grazing, large portions, high fat food preparation) that may contribute to early onset weight gain and obesity. The results suggest the importance of sensitive tailored weight and disordered eating interventions for college women from diverse backgrounds.

  12. Environmental problems of resort towns of Caucasian Mineralnye Vody region during the anthropocene era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimenko, Natalia; Chalaya, Elena; Povolotckaia, Nina; Artamonova, Mariya; Senik, Irina; Slepykh, Viktor

    2017-04-01

    There has been studied the influence of ecological factors on rehabilitation properties of the atmospheric surface layer (ASL) in the mountain resorts of the Caucasian Mineralnye Vody Region (CMVR) according to the research methods [1] accepted in balneology. Taking into consideration the data of the long-term complex multiple-factor bioclimatic monitoring (PRIC FMBA, IFA RAS, SNP), it has been revealed: - the increase in frequency of inter-day variability of the integral index of weather pathogenicity (IIWP) in the range of 0,352,0). These signs are noted on the background of the continuing period of climate warming. At the present time the rehabilitation potential of ASL in the resorts of Caucasian Mineralnye Vody region is estimated within 2,08-2,68 points (max =3,0 points). Mountainous areas are more sensitive to anthropogenic impacts, changes of radiation mode and circulation modes. It was revealed that

  13. Female Reproductive System (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System A A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  14. Caucasian Families Exhibit Significant Linkage of Myopia to Chromosome 11p.

    PubMed

    Musolf, Anthony M; Simpson, Claire L; Moiz, Bilal A; Long, Kyle A; Portas, Laura; Murgia, Federico; Ciner, Elise B; Stambolian, Dwight; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E

    2017-07-01

    Myopia is a common visual disorder caused by eye overgrowth, resulting in blurry vision. It affects one in four Americans, and its prevalence is increasing. The genetic mechanisms that underpin myopia are not completely understood. Here, we use genotype data and linkage analyses to identify high-risk genetic loci that are significantly linked to myopia. Individuals from 56 Caucasian families with a history of myopia were genotyped on an exome-based array, and the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data were merged with microsatellite genotype data. Refractive error measures on the samples were converted into binary phenotypes consisting of affected, unaffected, or unknown myopia status. Parametric linkage analyses assuming an autosomal dominant model with 90% penetrance and 10% phenocopy rate were performed. Single variant two-point analyses yielded three significantly linked SNPs at 11p14.1 and 11p11.2; a further 45 SNPs at 11p were found to be suggestive. No other chromosome had any significant SNPs or more than seven suggestive linkages. Two of the significant SNPs were located in BBOX1-AS1 and one in the intergenic region between ORA47 and TRIM49B. Collapsed haplotype pattern two-point analysis and multipoint analyses also yielded multiple suggestively linked genes at 11p. Multipoint analysis also identified suggestive evidence of linkage on 20q13. We identified three genome-wide significant linked variants on 11p for myopia in Caucasians. Although the novel specific signals still need to be replicated, 11p is a promising region that has been identified by other linkage studies with a number of potentially interesting candidate genes. We hope that the identification of these regions on 11p as potential causal regions for myopia will lead to more focus on these regions and maybe possible replication of our specific linkage peaks in other studies. We further plan targeted sequencing on 11p for our most highly linked families to more clearly understand the

  15. A comparison of aesthetic proportions between the healthy Caucasian nose and the aesthetic ideal.

    PubMed

    Leong, Samuel C L; White, Paul S

    2006-01-01

    The aim of septorhinoplasty is to create a nose that is aesthetically pleasing to the patient and to maintain nasal function. Although a small number of population cohort studies have been performed on the ethnic nose, little is known of the aesthetics standards of nasal proportions in the general Caucasian population. The aim of this study was to establish parameters of the average nose in the healthy population and to compare them with those of the aesthetic ideals. Ethical approval was obtained to recruit a cohort of staff and students from the medical school. Two photographs were taken: anterior and right lateral. The following measurements were made: intercanthal width, alar width, length of the nose (nasion-pronasion length), naso-labial angle, nasal tip projection, naso-facial angle and naso-frontal angle. These parameters were compared with published aesthetic ideals. Aesthetic nasal proportions of 50 healthy Caucasians were examined from a cohort of 57 volunteers. Results showed that the average nose did not conform to neo-classical facial canons. The alar width (average 3.6 cm) was significantly wider than the intercanthal width (average 3.0 cm, p<0.05). The nasal width-length ratio was also greater suggesting that the cohort average was shorter and wider than the aesthetic ideal. The Baum ratio was 2.5:1, indicating that the average nasal tip was more projected that the aesthetic ideal (2.8:1). The naso-frontal and naso-facial angles are both more obtuse, and in profile the average nose overall appeared more prominent, as a result of the reduced forehead projection. The only parameter where there appeared to be consistency between the average and the ideal nose was the naso-labial angle. This study shows that many aesthetic parameters from a cohort of healthy subjects differ from the widely used aesthetic standards. Rhinoplasty surgeons should, therefore, give thought to the frame of reference used when discussing aesthetic objectives with their patients.

  16. Sheep mitochondrial DNA variation in European, Caucasian, and Central Asian areas.

    PubMed

    Tapio, Miika; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Ozerov, Mikhail; Cinkulov, Mirjana; Gonzarenko, Galina; Kiselyova, Tatyana; Murawski, Maciej; Viinalass, Haldja; Kantanen, Juha

    2006-09-01

    Three distinct mitochondrial maternal lineages (haplotype Groups A, B, and C) have been found in the domestic sheep. Group B has been observed primarily in European domestic sheep. The European mouflon carries this haplotype group. This could suggest that European mouflon was independently domesticated in Europe, although archaeological evidence supports sheep domestication in the central p