Science.gov

Sample records for 30-years field-scale recording

  1. 30-Year Satellite Record Reveals Contrasting Arctic and Antarctic Decadal Sea Ice Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Parkinson, C. L.; Vinnikov, K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    A 30-year satellite record of sea ice extents derived mostly from satellite microwave radiometer observations reveals that the Arctic sea ice extent decreased by 0.30+0.03 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per 10 yr from 1972 through 2002, but by 0.36 plus or minus 0.05 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per 10yr from 1979 through 2002, indicating an acceleration of 20% in the rate of decrease. In contrast, the Antarctic sea ice extent decreased dramatically over the period 1973-1977, then gradually increased. Over the full 30-year period, the Antarctic ice extent decreased by 0.15 plus or minus 0.08 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per 10 yr. The trend reversal is attributed to a large positive anomaly in Antarctic sea ice extent in the early 1970's, an anomaly that apparently began in the late 1960's, as observed in early visible and infrared satellite images.

  2. Trends in Stratospheric Water Vapor over Boulder, Colorado: Revelations of the 30-year Boulder Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, D. F.; Oltmans, S. J.; Voemel, H.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Davis, S. M.; Ray, E. A.; Hall, E.; Jordan, A.

    2010-12-01

    The NOAA frost point hygrometer (FPH) has made in situ, balloon-borne measurements of stratospheric water vapor over Boulder, Colorado, since 1980. The 30-year data record is divided into four periods of multiple-year water vapor trends, including two that span the well-examined but unattributed 1980-2000 period of stratospheric water vapor growth. Trends are determined for five 2-km stratospheric layers (16-26 km) utilizing weighted, piecewise regression analyses. Over the entire 30-year span stratospheric water vapor increased by an average of 1.0 ± 0.2 ppmv (27 ± 6%) with significant shorter-term variations along the way, including an abrupt decrease starting in mid-2000 followed by a significant increase starting in mid-2005. Water vapor growth during some of the trend periods strengthens with altitude, revealing contributions from at least one mechanism that strengthens with altitude, such as methane oxidation. However, though atmospheric methane abundance increased considerably during 1980-2010, additional methane oxidation in the NH midlatitude stratosphere below 26 km can account for at most 25% of the net stratospheric water vapor increase over the last three decades. Moving averages of water vapor mixing ratios over Boulder, Colorado, averaged in 2-km altitude layers. The averaging window was ±1 yr and the averaging threshold was a minimum of 12 data points. Black markers with colored vertical bars define the four trend periods for each altitude layer.

  3. NSIDC's passive microwave satellite record: The story behind 30 years of data across multiple satellite platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, D. J.; Brandt, M.; Savoie, M. H.; Stewart, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has been producing and distributing passive microwave snow and ice data sets from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) for over two decades. Aboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) platforms, SSM/I and SSMIS have been operating across eight different orbiting DMSP satellites since 1987, providing an invaluable 30 year record for snow and ice climate data studies. Each sensor has performed within or beyond its expected life cycle, ultimately resulting in a transition across platforms to continue the data record. On occasion the satellites have failed unexpectedly, requiring an unplanned need for science and data management to come together and adjust production code and services to get the data back online in a timely fashion. In recent years, this has become a greater importance as climate blogging sites have increased the visibility of near-real-time passive microwave products to communicate the current changes in the Polar Regions. This presentation summarizes the history and most recent activities surrounding satellite transitions, including the scientific assessment and development required in maintaining a streamlined data record across multiple sensors. In addition, we examine challenges in long-term provenance as well as the considerations and decisions made based on value added products utilizing these data, as well as cryospheric research and general public needs.

  4. Towards the development of a 30 year record of remotely sensed vegetation optical depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jeu, Richard A. M.; Holmes, Thomas R. H.; van der Werf, Guido

    2009-09-01

    The framework for the development of a 30 year global record of remotely sensed vegetation optical depth is presented. The vegetation data set is derived from passive microwave observations and spans the period from November 1978 through the end of 2008. Different satellite sensor observations (i.e. Nimbus-7 SMMR, DMSP SSM/I, TRMM TMI, and AQUA AMSR-E). are used in a radiative transfer model to derive vegetation optical depth. Vegetation optical depth can directly be related to vegetation water content and is a function of biomass. The retrieval model is described and the quality of the retrieved vegetation optical depth is discussed. The new dataset will be merged into one consistent global product for the entire period of data record. To explore the potential to use this new product for long term vegetation modeling, the product was compared to total biomass from the biogeochemical model CASA. The results indicate that the vegetation optical depth can be an important contribution to the derivation of biophysical properties like biomass. It can also increase the reliability of optical sensor derived vegetation indices, because the microwave vegetation optical depth can be derived under cloudy conditions. This unique feature could create the possibility to improve the temporal resolution of other biophysical data products. The entire vegetation density dataset will be made available for download by the general science community and could give a significant contribution in climate research.

  5. 30-Year Satellite Record Reveals Accelerated Arctic Sea Ice Loss, Antarctic Sea Ice Trend Reversal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.; Parkinson, C. L.; Vinnikov, K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Arctic sea ice extent decreased by 0.30 plus or minus 0.03 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per decade from 1972 through 2002, but decreased by 0.36 plus or minus 0.05 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per decade from 1979 through 2002, indicating an acceleration of 20% in the rate of decrease. In contrast to the Arctic, the Antarctic sea ice extent decreased dramatically over the period 1973-1977, then gradually increased, with an overall 30-year trend of -0.15 plus or minus 0.08 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per 10yr. The trend reversal is attributed to a large positive anomaly in Antarctic sea ice extent observed in the early 1970's.

  6. 30-Year Satellite Record Reveals Accelerated Arctic Sea Ice Loss, Antarctic Sea Ice Trend Reversal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.; Parkinson, C. L.; Vinnikov, K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Arctic sea ice extent decreased by 0.30 plus or minus 0.03 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per decade from 1972 through 2002, but decreased by 0.36 plus or minus 0.05 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per decade from 1979 through 2002, indicating an acceleration of 20% in the rate of decrease. In contrast to the Arctic, the Antarctic sea ice extent decreased dramatically over the period 1973-1977, then gradually increased, with an overall 30-year trend of -0.15 plus or minus 0.08 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per 10yr. The trend reversal is attributed to a large positive anomaly in Antarctic sea ice extent observed in the early 1970's.

  7. Validation of a 30+ year soil moisture record from multi-satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jeu, R.; Dorigo, W.; Wagner, W.; Chung, D.; Parinussa, R.; van der Werf, G.; Liu, Y.; Mittelbach, H.; Hirschi, M.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the ESA Climate Change Initiative soil moisture project a 30+ year consistent soil moisture dataset is currently in development by harmonizing retrievals from both passive and active microwave satellite observations. The harmonization of these datasets incorporates the advantage of both microwave techniques and spans the entire period from 1978 onwards. A statistical methodology based on scaling, ranking and blending was developed to address differences in sensor specifications to create one consistent dataset. A soil moisture dataset provided by a land surface model (GLDAS-1-Noah) was used to scale the different satellite-based products to the same range. The blending of the active and passive datasets was based on their respective performance, which is closely related to vegetation cover. While this approach imposes the absolute values of the land surface model dataset to the final product, it preserves the relative dynamics (e.g., seasonality, inter-annual variations) and trends of the original satellite derived retrievals. Different validation methods were performed to quantify the skill of the various soil moisture datasets at different temporal and spatial scales. In situ data from the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) were used to calculate the local correlation (both Pearson and Spearman) and Root Mean Square Difference between ground observations and the satellite retrievals for different climate regimes. In addition a triple collocation analysis was applied on the passive and active satellite products in order to analyze the error structures at a global scale for the different sensors. Furthermore, indirect proxies like tree ring width data were used to study the consistency of the inter-annual variability within the 30+ year dataset. The combination of these techniques revealed a strong dynamical behavior in data quality in both time and space. In the future this additional information on error dynamics could be used to further

  8. A 30+ Year AVHRR LAI and FAPAR Climate Data Record: Algorithm Description, Validation, and Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claverie, Martin; Matthews, Jessica L.; Vermote, Eric F.; Justice, Christopher O.

    2016-01-01

    In- land surface models, which are used to evaluate the role of vegetation in the context ofglobal climate change and variability, LAI and FAPAR play a key role, specifically with respect to thecarbon and water cycles. The AVHRR-based LAIFAPAR dataset offers daily temporal resolution,an improvement over previous products. This climate data record is based on a carefully calibratedand corrected land surface reflectance dataset to provide a high-quality, consistent time-series suitablefor climate studies. It spans from mid-1981 to the present. Further, this operational dataset is availablein near real-time allowing use for monitoring purposes. The algorithm relies on artificial neuralnetworks calibrated using the MODIS LAI/FAPAR dataset. Evaluation based on cross-comparisonwith MODIS products and in situ data show the dataset is consistent and reliable with overalluncertainties of 1.03 and 0.15 for LAI and FAPAR, respectively. However, a clear saturation effect isobserved in the broadleaf forest biomes with high LAI (greater than 4.5) and FAPAR (greater than 0.8) values.

  9. Assimilated total ozone record from 30 year of UV-VIS satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der A, Ronald; Allaart, Marc; Eskes, Henk

    2010-05-01

    For the period 1978-2008 an ozone record is created by assimilating all available total ozone observations from 11 different UV/VIS satellite instruments (TOMS-Nimbus, TOMS-EP, SBUV-7, -9a, -9d, -11, -16, GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2). These ozone observations are based on the latest and most accurate versions of the retrieval algorithms for these instruments. Using all available ground measurements from WOUDC in the period 1978-2008, the satellite observations are corrected for biases as function of solar zenith angle, viewing angle, time(trend), and stratospheric temperature. Subsequently the corrected satellite data is assimilated within the chemistry-transport model TM driven by state-of-the-art meteorological analyses. This resulted in a multi-sensor re-analysis (MSR) of global ozone for the period 1978-2008 in time steps of 6 hours. The MSR data set is checked by monitoring observation-minus-forecast differences from the data assimilation and by comparisons with ground-based data sets.

  10. A 30+ Year AVHRR LAI and FAPAR Climate Data Record: Algorithm Description, Validation, and Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claverie, Martin; Matthews, Jessica L.; Vermote, Eric F.; Justice, Christopher O.

    2016-01-01

    In- land surface models, which are used to evaluate the role of vegetation in the context ofglobal climate change and variability, LAI and FAPAR play a key role, specifically with respect to thecarbon and water cycles. The AVHRR-based LAIFAPAR dataset offers daily temporal resolution,an improvement over previous products. This climate data record is based on a carefully calibratedand corrected land surface reflectance dataset to provide a high-quality, consistent time-series suitablefor climate studies. It spans from mid-1981 to the present. Further, this operational dataset is availablein near real-time allowing use for monitoring purposes. The algorithm relies on artificial neuralnetworks calibrated using the MODIS LAI/FAPAR dataset. Evaluation based on cross-comparisonwith MODIS products and in situ data show the dataset is consistent and reliable with overalluncertainties of 1.03 and 0.15 for LAI and FAPAR, respectively. However, a clear saturation effect isobserved in the broadleaf forest biomes with high LAI (greater than 4.5) and FAPAR (greater than 0.8) values.

  11. The Impact of the Evolving Satellite Data Record on Reanalysis Water and Energy Fluxes During the Past 30 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Miller, T. L.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Chen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Retrospective analyses (reanalyses) use a fixed assimilation model to take diverse observations and synthesize consistent, time-dependent fields of state variables and fluxes (e.g. temperature, moisture, momentum, turbulent and radiative fluxes). Because they offer data sets of these quantities at regular space / time intervals, atmospheric reanalyses have become a mainstay of the climate community for diagnostic purposes and for driving offline ocean and land models. Of course, one weakness of these data sets is the susceptibility of the flux products to uncertainties because of shortcomings in parameterized model physics. Another issue, perhaps less appreciated, is the fact that the discreet changes in the evolving observational system, particularly from satellite sensors, may also introduce artifacts in the time series of quantities. In this paper we examine the ability of the NASA MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications) and other recent reanalyses to determine variability in the climate system over the satellite record ( the last 30 years). In particular we highlight the effect on reanalyses of discontinuities at the junctures of the onset of passive microwave imaging (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) in late 1987 as well as improved sounding and imaging with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit, AMSU-A, in 1998. We examine these data sets from two perspectives. The first is the ability to capture modes of variability that have coherent spatial structure (e.g. ENSO events and near-decadal coupling to SST changes) and how these modes are contained within trends in near global averages of key quantities. Secondly, we consider diagnostics that measure the consistency in energetic scaling in the hydrologic cycle, particularly the fractional changes in column-integrated water vapor versus precipitation as they are coupled to radiative flux constraints. These results will be discussed in the context of implications for science

  12. The Schauinsland CO2 record: 30 years of continental observations and their implications for the variability of the European CO2 budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M.; Graul, R.; Sartorius, H.; Levin, I.

    2003-10-01

    Since 1972, the German Environment Agency (UBA) has been measuring continuously CO2 concentration at Schauinsland station (southwest Germany, 1205 m asl). Because of its vicinity to biogenic and anthropogenic sources and sinks, the Schauinsland CO2 record shows considerable variability. In order to remove these disturbances and derive the large-scale representative "background" CO2 level for the respective area (southwest Germany) we perform rigorous data selection based on wind speed and time of day. During the past 30 years, the selected CO2 mixing ratios increased by 1.47 ppm per year, following the mean trend in midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The average seasonal cycle (peak to peak) amplitude has decreased slightly from 13.8 ± 0.6 ppm in the first decade (1972-1981) to 12.8 ± 0.7 ppm in the last two decades (1982-2001). This is opposite to other northern latitude sites and is attributed to the decrease of fossil fuel CO2 emissions in the catchment area (southwest Germany and France) and its respective change in the seasonal variation. Except for May and June, monthly mean CO2 mixing ratios at Schauinsland are higher by up to 8 ppm if compared to marine boundary layer air, mainly as a consequence of fossil fuel CO2 emissions in Europe. The CO2 measurements when combined with continuous 222Rn observations at the same site allow an estimate of the net CO2 flux in the catchment area of Schauinsland: Mean seasonal fluxes compare very well with estimates from a process-oriented biosphere model (SIB-2) as well as from an inverse modeling approach [, 2000]. Annual CO2 fluxes vary by more than a factor of 2, although anthropogenic fossil fuel CO2 emissions show interannual variations of only about 10%. The major part of the variability must therefore be associated to interannual changes of biospheric uptake and release, which are on the order of the total fossil fuel emissions in the same area. This has to be taken into account when reliably quantifying and

  13. The impact of ADHD and conduct disorder in childhood on adult delinquency: A 30 years follow-up study using official crime records

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few longitudinal studies have explored lifetime criminality in adults with a childhood history of severe mental disorders. In the present study, we wanted to explore the association between adult delinquency and several different childhood diagnoses in an in-patient population. Of special interest was the impact of disturbance of activity and attention (ADHD) and mixed disorder of conduct and emotions on later delinquency, as these disorders have been variously associated with delinquent development. Methods Former Norwegian child psychiatric in-patients (n = 541) were followed up 19-41 years after hospitalization by record linkage to the National Register of Criminality. On the basis of the hospital records, the patients were re-diagnosed according to ICD-10. The association between diagnoses and other baseline factors and later delinquency were investigated using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Results At follow-up, 24% of the participants had been convicted of criminal activity. In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, conduct disorder (RR = 2.0, 95%CI = 1.2-3.4) and hyperkinetic conduct disorder (RR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.6-4.4) significantly increased the risk of future criminal behaviour. Pervasive developmental disorder (RR = 0.4, 95%CI = 0.2-0.9) and mental retardation (RR = 0.4, 95%CI = 0.3-0.8) reduced the risk for a criminal act. Male gender (RR = 3.6, 95%CI = 2.1-6.1) and chronic family difficulties (RR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.5) both predicted future criminality. Conclusions Conduct disorder in childhood was highly associated with later delinquency both alone or in combination with hyperactivity, but less associated when combined with an emotional disorder. ADHD in childhood was no more associated with later delinquency than the rest of the disorders in the study population. Our finding strengthens the assumption that there is no direct association between ADHD and criminality. PMID:21481227

  14. A 30-year record of surface mass balance (1966-95) and motion and surface altitude (1975-95) at Wolverine Glacier, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayo, Lawrence R.; Trabant, Dennis C.; March, Rod S.

    2004-01-01

    Scientific measurements at Wolverine Glacier, on the Kenai Peninsula in south-central Alaska, began in April 1966. At three long-term sites in the research basin, the measurements included snow depth, snow density, heights of the glacier surface and stratigraphic summer surfaces on stakes, and identification of the surface materials. Calculations of the mass balance of the surface strata-snow, new firn, superimposed ice, and old firn and ice mass at each site were based on these measurements. Calculations of fixed-date annual mass balances for each hydrologic year (October 1 to September 30), as well as net balances and the dates of minimum net balance measured between time-transgressive summer surfaces on the glacier, were made on the basis of the strata balances augmented by air temperature and precipitation recorded in the basin. From 1966 through 1995, the average annual balance at site A (590 meters altitude) was -4.06 meters water equivalent; at site B (1,070 meters altitude), was -0.90 meters water equivalent; and at site C (1,290 meters altitude), was +1.45 meters water equivalent. Geodetic determination of displacements of the mass balance stake, and glacier surface altitudes was added to the data set in 1975 to detect the glacier motion responses to variable climate and mass balance conditions. The average surface speed from 1975 to 1996 was 50.0 meters per year at site A, 83.7 meters per year at site B, and 37.2 meters per year at site C. The average surface altitudes were 594 meters at site A, 1,069 meters at site B, and 1,293 meters at site C; the glacier surface altitudes rose and fell over a range of 19.4 meters at site A, 14.1 meters at site B, and 13.2 meters at site C.

  15. Lessons from 30 Years of Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, David C.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation takes a brief historical look at flight software over the past 30 years, extracts lessons learned and shows how many of the lessons learned are embodied in the Flight Software product line called the core Flight System (cFS). It also captures the lessons learned from developing and applying the cFS.

  16. MEDPREP--30 Years of Making a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Evelyn W.; McGlinn, Shirley; Rainey, Michael; Bardo, Harold R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Medical/Dental Education Preparatory Program (MEDPREP) of Southern Illinois University School of Medicine. Over the course of its 30-year history, 68 percent of students have been accepted to professional schools, with 92 percent being accepted to medical schools and attending 90 different medical schools in the country. Of those…

  17. Solid waste 30-year volume summary

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, O.J.; Armacost, L.L.; DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J.; Williams, N.C.

    1994-06-01

    A 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes to be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site is described in this report. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU/TRUM) waste that will require treatment, storage, and disposal at Hanford`s Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during the 30-year period from FY 1994 through FY 2023. The data used to complete this document were collected from onsite and offsite waste generators who currently, or are planning to, ship solid wastes to the Hanford Site. An analysis of the data suggests that over 300,000 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste will be managed at Hanford`s SWOC over the next 30 years. An extensive effort was made this year to collect this information. The 1993 solid waste forecast was used as a starting point, which identified approximately 100,000 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste to be sent to the SWOC. After analyzing the forecast waste volume, it was determined that additional waste was expected from the tank waste remediation system (TWRS), onsite decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities, and onsite remedial action (RA) activities. Data presented in this report establish a starting point for solid waste management planning. It is recognized that forecast estimates will vary (typically increasing) as facility planning and missions continue to change and become better defined, but the information presented still provides useful insight into Hanford`s future solid waste management requirements.

  18. A 30-Year Global Wave Hindcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrant, Tom; Hemer, Mark; Trenham, Claire; Greenslade, Diana

    2013-04-01

    Many Pacific Islands are vulnerable to impacts of waves through coastal inundation, coastal and beach erosion, wave driven lagoon circulation, disturbances to reef habitats etc. On steep continental shelves like Pacific island coral atolls, surface waves are the dominant contributor to coastal sea-level extremes via wave set-up. A recent review of the availability of modelled and observed wave data in the Pacific region noted the need for a high-quality multi-decadal wave climate data set. The absence of high temporal resolution spectral wave data was noted, with existing hindcast products assessed as being of inadequate spatial and temporal resolution in general. Wave hindcast resolution has historically been limited by the resolution of available winds. The recently completed National Centers for Environmental Prediction's (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) surface winds now provide a consistent product at 0.3°, hourly resolution over the past 30 years, providing a valuable source of forcing for wave hindcasting. As part of the Pacific-Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Program (PACCSAP), work is being carried out examining recent, existing and projected future ocean wave conditions with a focus on the Pacific region. As part of this work, a 30-year (1979-2009) global wave hindcast has been produced, using CFSR wind forcing. Details of this hindcast will be presented including an assessment of the quality of the data set using in-situ buoy and satellite altimeter data.

  19. Gallstone ileus 30 years status postcholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Zens, Tiffany; Liebl, R Scott

    2010-12-01

    Gallstone ileus is an uncommon cause of small bowel obstruction which occurs in patients with chronic cholecystitis and gallstones who develop a cholecystoenteric fistula. Although gallstone ileus is relatively rare, it has a substantial mortality rate due in part to patient comorbidities and delays in treatment. We describe the case of a 94-year-old woman who presented with nausea, vomiting, mild abdominal tenderness, leukocytosis, and a 2.5-cm obstruction in her small bowel. Even though this patient underwent a total cholecystectomy 30 years prior, a 2.5-cm gallstone was surgically removed from her ileum. This case illustrates the importance of including gallstone ileus in the differential diagnosis for patients who present with small bowel obstruction even decades postcholecystectomy.

  20. Test anxiety inventory: 30 years later.

    PubMed

    Szafranski, Derek D; Barrera, Terri L; Norton, Peter J

    2012-11-01

    Research suggests that test anxiety is associated with a number of maladaptive factors. The majority of test anxiety research includes the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) as a primary outcome variable. However, the TAI was normed on college undergraduates in 1980. The academic landscape has altered in a variety of ways in the past 30 years, which may result in out-of-date norms. This study examined changes in TAI scores in college undergraduates (n =437) as well as convergent validity with measures of trait anxiety and academic performance. Results indicated increases in TAI scores for females while holding constant for males. Additionally, females and males displayed positive correlations between the TAI and state-trait anxiety inventory, while only females displayed a significant negative correlation between the TAI and grade point average. Data provide evidence of changes in TAI scores. As a result, researchers should be careful when drawing conclusions based on original TAI norms, especially in the case of female undergraduates.

  1. Cognitive Systems Engineering: The Next 30 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is part of panel discussion on Cognitive Systems Engineering. The purpose of this panel is to discuss the challenges and future directions of Cognitive Systems Engineering for the next 30 years. I intended to present the work we have been doing with the Aviation Safety program and Space Human Factors Engineering project on Work Domain Analysis and some areas of Research Focus. Specifically, I intend to focus on the shift on the need to understand and model attention in mixed-initiative systems, the need for methods which can generate results to be used in trade-off decisions, and the need to account for a range of human behavior in the design.

  2. 1995 Solid Waste 30-year volume summary

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, O.J.; DeForest, T.J.; Templeton, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), provides a description of the annual low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed solid waste (TRU-TRUM) volumes expected to be managed by Hanford`s Solid Waste Central Waste Complex (CWC) over the next 30 years. The waste generation sources and waste categories are also described. This document is intended to be used as a reference for short- and long-term planning of the Hanford treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) activities over the next several decades. By estimating the waste volumes that will be generated in the future, facility planners can determine the timing of key waste management activities, evaluate alternative treatment strategies, and plan storage and disposal capacities. In addition, this document can be used by other waste sites and the general public to gain a better understanding of the types and volumes of waste that will be managed at Hanford.

  3. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: 30 years later.

    PubMed

    Lesur, O; Berthiaume, Y; Blaise, G; Damas, P; Deland, E; Guimond, J G; Michel, R P

    1999-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was first described about 30 years ago. Modern definitions and statements have recently been proposed to describe ARDS accurately, but none is perfect. Diffuse alveolar damage is the basic pathological pattern most commonly observed in ARDS, and the term includes permeability edema. The alveolar epithelium of the alveolar-capillary barrier is clearly a key component requiring repair, given its multipotent functional activity. Lung inflammation and neutrophil accumulation are essential markers of disease in ARDS, and a wide variety of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines have been described in the alveolar fluid and blood of patients. These molecules still have to prove their value as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers of ARDS. Supportive therapy in ARDS improved in the past decade; mechanical ventilation with lung protective strategies and patient positioning are gaining interest, but the indications for corticosteroids for ARDS are still debated. Nitric oxide may have a place in the treatment of one-third of patients. Novel approaches, such as surfactant replacement and liquid ventilation, may further improve supportive therapy. Innovative interventions may be on the horizon in treatments that help to resolve or modulate common pathways of ARDS, such as inflammation (eg, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor) or epithelial repair (eg, keratinocyte growth factor).

  4. Traumatic aortic rupture: 30 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Cindy, Malliet; Sabrina, Houthoofd; Kim, Daenens; Geert, Maleux; Inge, Fourneau

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate outcome differences in open surgical and endovascular treatment of traumatic aortic rupture (TAR) over a period of 30 years. We retrospectively reviewed the diagnostic workup and management of all patients and compared outcome before and since the era of endovascular therapy. Between 1980 and 2010, 72 patients with a mean age of 38 years (range, 14-76) were treated for TAR. Of these, 48 (67%) were treated by open surgery and the remaining 24 (33%) by thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). In the open surgery group, mortality was 16.7% and paraplegia occurred in 8.3% of patients, whereas mortality was 4.2% and no paraplegia occurred in the TEVAR group. Diagnostic workup consisted of chest X-ray and arteriography in the early period, whereas computed tomographic scan and transesophageal echography were preferred in the more recent period. Although our results could not reach statistical significance, mainly because of the gross oversizing of the open group in comparison with the TEVAR group, TEVAR has introduced a less invasive era in the treatment of TAR and has become the therapy of choice. The diagnostic workup has evolved from chest X-ray and arteriography to computed tomographic scanning and even transesophageal echography. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. 30 years of preventive dentistry--and 30 years into the future.

    PubMed

    Murray, John J; Steele, James G

    2003-11-01

    Preventive dentistry has had a major impact on the prevalence of dental caries and, to a lesser extent, periodontal disease since the 1970s. It should continue to have a positive effect on the oral health of the community in the future. The factors behind improvements seen in oral health are many and varied but include changes in public health policy, technology and commercial decisions made in the industrial sector. As oral health has improved, and tooth retention increased, the focus of preventive dentistry has widened to include all population groups, increasingly including older adults, and to include a wider range of disorders. The major issues relevant to preventive dentistry which have occurred over the last 30 years are discussed. The authors will speculate on the impact that the prevention of oral disease might have over the next 30 years.

  6. Prognosis 30 years after temporal lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Kathy; Theodore, William H

    2005-06-14

    To assess the long-term outcome after temporal lobectomy, the authors obtained information from 48 patients and families traced though the NIH Medical Records Department, Social Security, National Death Indices, and other sources. Preoperative evaluation, limited by current standards, was based mainly on interictal surface EEG. After a mean 29.9-year follow-up, 24 were seizure free, and 10 had died. Early seizure recurrence and invasive EEG studies predicted worse long-term outcome.

  7. Nars: Over 30 Years of Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulssen, H.

    2014-12-01

    It is fair to say that modern seismology steadily evolved from a handful key initiatives and innovations dating back to the early 1980s. (1) The transition from non-mobile, narrow band sensors with analogue recording (pre-1980s) to portable, broadband sensors with digital recorders paved the way to flexible deployments, enabling various array and regional studies with the same instrumentation. Here I mention just two initiatives: NARS, which was the first digital, mobile network of broadband stations deployed in western Europe (1983-1987), and USarray (2003- ), which is the biggest program of recent times. Presently, innovative data acquisition systems for the oceans are underway and they will allow future imaging of the "inaccessible" parts of the Earth. (2) In the 1980s seismological data centers were set up to facilitate data archiving and distribution. Since then, open data exchange (not a matter of course) and easy data retrieval have become standard. The impact of this has been phenomenal: most observational studies efficiently retrieve data from these main seismological data centers and the archived seismograms are used for various types of studies, carried out by different persons and groups. (3) Seismic tomography changed the face of seismological research. From travel time to waveform tomography, from ray theory to finite frequency tomography: new and improved tomographic techniques greatly enhanced our images (and understanding) of the Earth's interior. (4) Many of these developments would not have been possible without young, motivated, seismologists that were educated and stimulated by insightful supervisors. One person has had a major impact on all these fields. NARS in the title stands for Nolet greatly Advanced Research in Seismology.

  8. Oceanic Anoxic Events: 30 Years on

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkyns, H. C.

    2006-12-01

    1. Oceanic Anoxic Events are regional black-shale events Of course they are - because that is the nature of the definition! The recognition of Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Events in 1976 stemmed from the finding, by the Deep Sea Drilling Project, of black organic-rich shales from the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans that were of equal age to similar facies exposed in northern and southern Europe and recognized as early as 1891. However, when calibrated against high-resolution carbon-isotope curves, based on carbonate and organic matter, the most organic-rich and/or carbonate-poor sediments can be slightly diachronous, as a result of local depositional and diagenetic conditions. For this reason, the onset and the termination of an Oceanic Anoxic Event may be less ambiguously defined using characteristic peaks and inflections in the associated carbon- isotope curve. As well as the two major Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Events (early Aptian Selli Event; Cenomanian Turonian Bonarelli Event) that were clearly global in their effect, other events that apparently left a spatially more limited record include: Valanginian Weissert Event, Hauterivian Faraoni Event, Early Albian Paquier Event, Late Albian Breistroffer Event and a possible Santonian Coniacian Event. These events produced significant black-shale deposits primarily in the Atlantic Tethyan region. The only Jurassic OAE recognized to date is that of the early Toarcian. 2. Oceanic Anoxic Events were characterized by the widespread distribution of anoxic watermasses Indeed they were! The presence of delicate millimetre-scale laminations in the black shales deposited during Oceanic Anoxic Events implies a lack of bottom-dwelling fauna, generally attributed to anoxia. Furthermore, the presence, in Toarcian, Aptian and Cenomanian Turonian black shales, of molecular fossils derived from green sulphur bacteria, indicates that free hydrogen sulphide existed in the relatively shallow illuminated levels of the ocean during OAEs. An

  9. Silviculture: the next 30 years the past 30 years. Part II. The Pacific Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Tappeiner J.C. II; Knapp, W.H.; Wierman, C.A.; Atkinson, W.A.; Oliver, C.D.; King, J.E.; Zasada, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    Advances in forest practices during the past few decades have been made in the midst of public debate over the role of forestry. It is time to assess the state of the art of silviculture and to project its evolution for the next 30 years - to reinforce the use of sound practices now employed and to shed outdated concepts and practices. To a large extent, silviculture is driven by social, economic, and management considerations external to the forests. Recognition of this fact is a significant change since the 1950s. Silviculture is not only affected by species characteristics interacting with environmental variables but increasingly by markets, public attitudes, available capital, and skilled labor. Other factors include new technology in logging, forest products, and silviculture itself, but the status of silviculture need not be diminished. Foresters who can successfully produce stands of desired species composition, structure, and growth rates can positively affect markets, public attitudes, profitability, and wildlife populations. This profile of the Pacific Coast is based on discussions with private and public foresters, private landowners, and environmentalists. Although not all points could be substantiated by data, assertions key to the discussion are intended to be fair, logical, and provocative. 21 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  10. Uveitis in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa: 30 Years' Consecutive Data.

    PubMed

    Dutta Majumder, Parthopratim; Menia, Nitin; Roy, Rupak; Sen, Parveen; George, Amala E; Ganesh, Sudha K; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2017-09-29

    To describe the clinical pattern of uveitis in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) at a tertiary care eye hospital over a period of 30 years. The medical records of 32 eyes of 22 patients of RP with uveitis were included in this study. Collected data included age, subsets of uveitis, best corrected visual acuities (BCVA), detailed laboratory investigations, and treatment. Mean age at presentation was 53.4 ± 18.8 years, and mean age of diagnosis of RP was 39.2 ± 21.4 years. Uveitis was bilateral in 10 (45.5%) patients. The most common of uveitis in current study was anterior uveitis (56.2%), followed by intermediate uveitis (43.8%). Cataract developed in 12 (37.5%) eyes, and three eyes had raised intraocular pressure. Ten patients (45.5%) required oral steroid, and one patient required oral methotrexate. Uveitis in RP patients is rare, but not uncommon. Coexistence of these disorders might support the inflammatory pathway in etiology of RP.

  11. The effect of timber harvest on the Fool Creek watershed, 30 years later

    Treesearch

    C. A. Troendle; R. M. King

    1985-01-01

    The Fool Creek watershed at the Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado was harvested using a pattern of alternating clearcut and forested strips in 1956. Today, with almost 30 years of postharvest record, subtle impacts on the hydrology of the watershed can be detected that were not significant in the past. In addition to the depositional increases in the snowpack in the...

  12. Educational Co-operation in Asia and the Pacific: 30 Years of NIER's Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Ryo, Ed.; Numano, Taro, Ed.; Nagata, Yoshiyuki, Ed.

    The history of the regional cooperation program of the National Institute for Educational Research (NIER) is recorded in this document. Specifically, the report outlines the past 30 years of the program in Asia and the Pacific. Throughout those years, 93 seminars, workshops, and symposia have been organized. In addition, information about the…

  13. A 30-year study of homicide recidivism and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Golenkov, Andrei; Large, Matthew; Nielssen, Olav

    2013-12-01

    A second homicide by a released mentally ill person is a potentially avoidable tragedy that can reduce the prospects of conditional release for other mentally ill offenders. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and criminological features of single and recidivist homicide offenders with schizophrenia from the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation. Data were extracted from the criminal and clinical records of all people with schizophrenia who had been convicted of a homicide in the Chuvash Republic at any time between 1 January 1981 and 31 December 2010. Those convicted of a second homicide offence during the 30 years of the study were compared with those convicted of a single homicide. Sixteen (10.7%) of 149 homicide offenders with schizophrenia had committed a previous homicide. The 16 recidivists included nine offenders who were diagnosed with schizophrenia at the time of their first homicide (after January 1981), three who were diagnosed with schizophrenia only after the first homicide and four who had already been diagnosed with schizophrenia at the time of a pre-1981 homicide. Time at risk for recidivists and non-recidivists differed, but the average time back in the community for the non-recidivists just exceeded the average time to second homicide for the recidivists. All the recidivists were men. Living in a rural area and dissocial personality traits were associated with homicide recidivism. In the Chuvash republic, most of the repeat homicide offences by people with schizophrenia were committed by people residing in rural areas with less access to psychiatric services, which provides indirect evidence for the efficacy of ongoing treatment and supervision in preventing repeat homicides. This area of study is, however, limited by the small numbers of cases and the long follow-up required. International collaborative studies are indicated to provide a more accurate estimate of the rate of recidivist homicide in schizophrenia. Copyright

  14. Triple prosthetic valve dysfunction 30 years after surgery.

    PubMed

    Bonou, Maria; Papadimitraki, Eva D; Skiadas, John; Barbetseas, John

    2015-03-01

    Triple prosthetic valve operation carries a high peri-procedural risk and is associated with decreased long-term survival. Herein is reported the case of a 59-year-old female with a 30-year history of successful triple-valve replacement for rheumatic heart disease, who presented with symptomatic valvular dysfunction and rhythm disturbances. The patient was one of the few who had survived more than 30 years after triple-valve surgery. Illustrative echocardiograms and cinefluoroscopic images are provided, and issues regarding prosthetic valve dysfunction and rhythm disturbance management in operated patients are briefly discussed.

  15. 30 years of finite-gap integration theory.

    PubMed

    Matveev, Vladimir B

    2008-03-28

    The method of finite-gap integration was created to solve the periodic KdV initial problem. Its development during last 30 years, combining the spectral theory of differential and difference operators with periodic coefficients, the algebraic geometry of compact Riemann surfaces and their Jacobians, the Riemann theta functions and inverse problems, had a strong impact on the evolution of modern mathematics and theoretical physics. This article explains some of the principal historical points in the creation of this method during the period 1973-1976, and briefly comments on its evolution during the last 30 years.

  16. 7 CFR 625.12 - 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 30-year contracts. 625.12 Section 625.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., maintenance, and management of habitat and forest ecosystem functions and values. (b) For the duration of...

  17. 30 years later - landscape ecology: directions and approaches

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Risser; Louis R. Iverson

    2013-01-01

    To continue the reflections on the 30 year anniversary of the Allerton Park Workshop as initiated by Wu (2013), we present some reflections of the situation just before and developments after the workshop from two participants—one who was a chief organizer and synthesizer of the workshop as well as lead author of the subsequent document (and this piece), and...

  18. "JTPE": A 30-Year Retrospective of Published Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Jesse L.; Woods, Amelia M.; Daum, David N.; Ellison, Douglas; Trendowski, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    This case study presents an examination of 30 years of "Journal of Teaching in Physical Education" ("JTPE") research. The purpose of this study was to provide a retrospective view of "JTPE" and its contribution to the field of physical education. In this effort the current study employed citation analysis, co-author…

  19. Historical Lassa fever reports and 30-year clinical update.

    PubMed

    Macher, Abe M; Wolfe, Martin S

    2006-05-01

    Five cases of Lassa fever have been imported from West Africa to the United States since 1969. We report symptoms of the patient with the second imported case and the symptoms and long-term follow-up on the patient with the third case. Vertigo in this patient has persisted for 30 years.

  20. [The past 30 years of Chinese Journal of Biotechnology].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ning

    2015-06-01

    This review addresses the association of "Chinese Journal of Biotechnology" and the development of biotechnology in China in the past 30 years. Topics include relevant awards and industrialization, development of the biotechnology discipline, and well know scientists in biotechnology, as well as perspectives on the journal.

  1. Education and HIV/AIDS--30 Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggleton, Peter; Yankah, Ekua; Crewe, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Education has long been identified as having a key role to play in reducing HIV-related risk and vulnerability, and in mitigating the impact of the epidemic on affected individuals and communities. This article reflects on progress over a 30-year period with respect to older and more emergent forms of education concerning HIV and AIDS: treatment…

  2. Education and HIV/AIDS--30 Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggleton, Peter; Yankah, Ekua; Crewe, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Education has long been identified as having a key role to play in reducing HIV-related risk and vulnerability, and in mitigating the impact of the epidemic on affected individuals and communities. This article reflects on progress over a 30-year period with respect to older and more emergent forms of education concerning HIV and AIDS: treatment…

  3. "JTPE": A 30-Year Retrospective of Published Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Jesse L.; Woods, Amelia M.; Daum, David N.; Ellison, Douglas; Trendowski, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    This case study presents an examination of 30 years of "Journal of Teaching in Physical Education" ("JTPE") research. The purpose of this study was to provide a retrospective view of "JTPE" and its contribution to the field of physical education. In this effort the current study employed citation analysis, co-author…

  4. 7 CFR 625.12 - 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 30-year contracts. 625.12 Section 625.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., maintenance, and management of habitat and forest ecosystem functions and values. (b) For the duration of its...

  5. 7 CFR 625.12 - 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 30-year contracts. 625.12 Section 625.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., maintenance, and management of habitat and forest ecosystem functions and values. (b) For the duration of its...

  6. 7 CFR 625.12 - 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 30-year contracts. 625.12 Section 625.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., maintenance, and management of habitat and forest ecosystem functions and values. (b) For the duration of its...

  7. 1995 solid waste 30-year container volume summary

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, K.J.; DeForest, T.J.; Patridge, M.D.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes a 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes by container category. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU-TRUM) waste. These volumes and their associated container categories will be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site for storage, treatment, and disposal at Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during a 30-year period from FY 1995 through FY 2024. The data presented in this report establish a baseline for solid waste management both in the present and future. With knowledge of the volumes by container type, decisions on the facility handling and storage requirements can be adequately made. It is recognized that the forecast estimates will vary as facility planning and missions continue to change and become better defined; however, the data presented in this report still provide useful insight into Hanford`s future solid waste management requirements.

  8. The enduring legacy of Alma Ata: 30 years on.

    PubMed

    Exworthy, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The 1978 Alma Ata conference and declaration was a landmark in defining and providing a direction for primary healthcare. Despite the initial enthusiasm for Alma Ata, its impact appeared to have declined in the 1990s. However, in recent years, there has been a revitalisation of primary healthcare. This article reviews the Alma Ata conference and declaration, assesses its waxing and waning, and examines its recent revival. The paper draws conclusions about the relevance of Alma Ata, 30 years on.

  9. Transient Unexplained Shock in 30-year-old Trauma Patient.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Farzad; Ebrahimi Bakhtavar, Hanieh; Shahsavari Nia, Kavous; Mohammadi, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Shock as an inadequate tissue perfusion is one of the frequent causes of death in trauma patients. In this context, there are various reasons for hemodynamic instability and shock including hypovolemic (hemorrhagic), obstructive (cardiac tamponade, tension pneumothorax), cardiogenic, neurogenic, and rarely septic. In the present report, a 30-year-old trauma patient with full clinical signs and symptoms of shock referred while had unknown origin; it was finally recognized as anaphylactic shock.

  10. Transient Unexplained Shock in 30-year-old Trauma Patient

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Farzad; Ebrahimi Bakhtavar, Hanieh; Shahsavari Nia, Kavous; Mohammadi, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Shock as an inadequate tissue perfusion is one of the frequent causes of death in trauma patients. In this context, there are various reasons for hemodynamic instability and shock including hypovolemic (hemorrhagic), obstructive (cardiac tamponade, tension pneumothorax), cardiogenic, neurogenic, and rarely septic. In the present report, a 30-year-old trauma patient with full clinical signs and symptoms of shock referred while had unknown origin; it was finally recognized as anaphylactic shock. PMID:26495357

  11. Early Intervention and AAC: What a Difference 30 Years Makes.

    PubMed

    Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A; Barton-Hulsey, Andrea; Whitmore, Ani S

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of early intervention and AAC over the 30-year period since the founding of the journal Augmentative and Alternative Communication in 1985. It discusses the global context for early intervention and addresses issues pertaining to young children from birth to 6 years of age. It provides a narrative review and synthesis of the evidence base in AAC and early intervention. Finally, it provides implications for practice and future research directions.

  12. The prognosis of pediatric headaches--a 30-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Joseph M; Augustine, Haley F; Brna, Paula M; Digby, Alyson M

    2014-07-01

    Although headaches in childhood are common, there are few data available on their long-term prognosis. We have monitored a group of patients since diagnosis in 1983. Patients who were part of the 20-year follow-up study in 2003 were contacted, and data were collected using a standardized telephone interview. Details of headache characteristics and identified precipitants and alleviating factors were gathered. The most effective means of controlling the headaches were also recorded. Follow-up was achieved for 28 of 60 patients (47%). Over the 30 years since diagnosis, eight patients (29%) reported a complete resolution of headaches, including three whose headaches resolved between the 20- and 30-year follow-up studies. The type of headache varied over the 30-year time interval with only three patients maintaining the same headache type at all four time periods of 1983, 1993, 2003, and 2013. Only one patient used prescription medication as the primary method for controlling headaches. The most commonly used intervention was nonprescription analgesia, self-relaxation and/or hypnosis, and precipitant avoidance. Headaches persist in approximately 70% of children 30 years after diagnosis. Encouraging children to manage their headaches with simple analgesia and precipitant avoidance appears to have long-term benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Yield of mammography in selected patients age < or = 30 years.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, P A; Moore, E M; Carrillo, R; Goepfert, C J

    2001-03-15

    An outcomes analysis study was performed to quantify the benefit of directed diagnostic imaging of selected very young women (defined as < or = 30 years of age) in our population. Summary results are presented. Women's Imaging Services were queried for studies performed between April 1, 1997 and December 31, 1998 on women < or = 30 years of age. The authors' referral pathway mandates breast examination by a general surgeon or by the head of Women's Imaging before mammography in all such patients. Studies were excluded if there were reviews of scans performed at other sites. The resulting 142 mammograms were evaluated. Ninety percent of the 142 studies were within normal limits. Only 11 mammograms indicated any required action (7.8%), and only 5 of these merited biopsy. All biopsies revealed benign disease. No carcinomas were detected by biopsy or on clinical follow-up in this cohort of women. These values are congruent with the scarce literature on mammography in this population. The yield of mammography in the age < or = 30 years population is low. Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.

  14. [Pacemaker implantation in dogs: results of the last 30 years].

    PubMed

    François, L; Chetboul, V; Nicolle, A; Carlos, C; Borenstein, N; Pouchelon, J L

    2004-07-01

    Pacemaker implantation in veterinary practice is still not well known and remains uncommon. However, this technique is the only possible way to cure animals suffering from symptomatic bradycardia whose state does not improve with a medical treatment. In most cases, the use of pacemakers in veterinary medicine leads to the disappearance of the clinical and electrocardiographic signs. This retrospective study concerning the last 30 years draws up an evaluation of the improvements, advantages and drawbacks of this method. Moreover, this study allows the understanding of the evolution of pacemakers' use in veterinary cardiology.

  15. Enzymatic biofuel cells: 30 years of critical advancements.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Michelle; Abdellaoui, Sofiene; Minteer, Shelley D

    2016-02-15

    Enzymatic biofuel cells are bioelectronic devices that utilize oxidoreductase enzymes to catalyze the conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy. This review details the advancements in the field of enzymatic biofuel cells over the last 30 years. These advancements include strategies for improving operational stability and electrochemical performance, as well as device fabrication for a variety of applications, including implantable biofuel cells and self-powered sensors. It also discusses the current scientific and engineering challenges in the field that will need to be addressed in the future for commercial viability of the technology.

  16. Transdermal drug delivery: 30+ years of war and still fighting!

    PubMed

    Wiedersberg, Sandra; Guy, Richard H

    2014-09-28

    By any measure, transdermal drug delivery (TDD) is a successful controlled release technology. Over the last 30+ years, a steady flux of transdermal products have received regulatory approval and reached the market. For the right compounds, TDD is an effective and preferred route of administration; for others, delivery across the skin makes no sense at all. Currently, the "rules" that govern (passive) TDD feasibility are clearly understood, and research activity is focused on novel approaches that strive to subvert skin's excellent barrier function, and broaden the range of active species amenable to percutaneous administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cleft lip and palate surgery: 30 years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Cesar A

    2012-07-01

    Ten cleft lip and palate patients with complete unilateral (five patients) and bilateral (five patients) clefts were treated by a multidisciplinary team integrated by psychologists, surgeons, orthodontists, prosthodontists, pediatric dentists, and speech pathologists, to obtain ideal soft tissue and hard tissue continuity, facial symmetry, functional and esthetic dentitions, excellent nasal architecture, subtle, and hidden lip scars. No hypernasality and adequate social adaptation were found in the 30 years follow-up (20-30 years follow-up with an average of 25.5 years). The patients were treated in a pro-active fashion avoiding complications and related problems, executing the ideal surgical, dental, and speech therapy plan, based on a close follow-up over the entire period. Those patients treated at the right time required less surgeries and less salvaging maneuvers and presented complete dentitions with less dental prosthesis or dental implants and stable occlusions, than those who missed the ideal dental and surgical treatment opportunities. The focus of this article is the need of a close long-term follow-up to ensure an ideal patient's quality of life.

  18. Cleft lip and palate surgery: 30 years follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Cesar A.

    2012-01-01

    Ten cleft lip and palate patients with complete unilateral (five patients) and bilateral (five patients) clefts were treated by a multidisciplinary team integrated by psychologists, surgeons, orthodontists, prosthodontists, pediatric dentists, and speech pathologists, to obtain ideal soft tissue and hard tissue continuity, facial symmetry, functional and esthetic dentitions, excellent nasal architecture, subtle, and hidden lip scars. No hypernasality and adequate social adaptation were found in the 30 years follow-up (20-30 years follow-up with an average of 25.5 years). The patients were treated in a pro-active fashion avoiding complications and related problems, executing the ideal surgical, dental, and speech therapy plan, based on a close follow-up over the entire period. Those patients treated at the right time required less surgeries and less salvaging maneuvers and presented complete dentitions with less dental prosthesis or dental implants and stable occlusions, than those who missed the ideal dental and surgical treatment opportunities. The focus of this article is the need of a close long-term follow-up to ensure an ideal patient's quality of life. PMID:23483117

  19. Education and HIV/AIDS-30 years on.

    PubMed

    Aggleton, Peter; Yankah, Ekua; Crewe, Mary

    2011-12-01

    Education has long been identified as having a key role to play in reducing HIV-related risk and vulnerability, and in mitigating the impact of the epidemic on affected individuals and communities. This article reflects on progress over a 30-year period with respect to older and more emergent forms of education concerning HIV and AIDS: treatment education, education for HIV prevention, and education to encourage a positive and supportive community response. It points to a number of priorities for the future. These include analyzing more carefully different forms of HIV-related education, their consequences and effects, and identifying the specific effectivity of education in general and HIV-related education in particular in achieving positive outcomes. The potential of education to enable new ways of seeing, understanding, and hoping is stressed, as is the need to support education processes and systems that "think" faster than the epidemic.

  20. Structural patterns in Swedish health policy: a 30-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Saltman, Richard B

    2015-04-01

    This perspective reviews key institutional and organizational patterns in Swedish health care over the last 30 years, probing the roots of several complicated policy questions that concern present-day Swedish decision-makers. It explores in particular the ongoing structural tension between stability, on the one hand, and the necessary levels of innovation and dynamism demanded by the current period of major clinical, technological, economic, social and supranational (EU) change. Where useful, the article compares Swedish developments with those in the other three European Nordic countries as well as other northern European health systems. Sweden's health sector evolution can provide valuable insight for other countries into the complexity involved in re-thinking tradeoffs between policies that emphasize stability as against those that encourage innovation in health sector governance and provision.

  1. Massive transcranial parotid pleomorphic adenoma: recurrence after 30 years.

    PubMed

    Strub, Graham M; Georgolios, Alexandros; Graham, Robert S; Powers, Celeste N; Coelho, Daniel H

    2012-10-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma, also known as benign mixed tumor, is the most common tumor affecting the parotid gland and can reach massive size; however, intracranial invasion is rare. Recurrence of pleomorphic adenoma after excision is a well-known phenomenon and can present decades after resection of the primary tumor. Here we present the case of a 53-year-old man who presented to our clinic with ear fullness, otalgia, and hearing loss 30 years after undergoing total parotidectomy and external beam radiotherapy for pleomorphic adenoma. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a massive transcranial tumor invading the mastoid cavity, the dura of the posterior fossa, the fallopian and semicircular canals, the jugular foramen, the lateral infratemporal fossa skull base, the sigmoid and transverse sinuses, and the superior parapharyngeal region. Gross examination and histopathological studies confirmed that the mass was a recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Here we discuss the features of recurrent pleomorphic adenoma and review the current literature.

  2. What Has 30 Years of HIV Vaccine Research Taught Us?

    PubMed Central

    Esparza, José

    2013-01-01

    When HIV was discovered and established as the cause of AIDS in 1983–1984, many people believed that a vaccine would be rapidly developed. However, 30 years have passed and we are still struggling to develop an elusive vaccine. In trying to achieve that goal, different scientific paradigms have been explored. Although major progress has been made in understanding the scientific basis for HIV vaccine development, efficacy trials have been critical in moving the field forward. Major lessons learned are: the development of an HIV vaccine is an extremely difficult challenge; the temptation of just following the fashion should be avoided; clinical trials are critical, especially large-scale efficacy trials; HIV vaccine research will require long-term commitment; and sustainable collaborations are needed to accelerate the development of an HIV vaccine. Concrete actions must be implemented with the sense of urgency imposed by the severity of the AIDS epidemic. PMID:26344345

  3. Mortality risk after head injury increases at 30 years.

    PubMed

    Harris, Colin; DiRusso, Stephen; Sullivan, Tom; Benzil, Deborah L

    2003-11-01

    Age has long been recognized as a critical factor in predicting outcomes after head injury, with individuals older than 60 years predicted to have a worse outcome than those younger than 60. The object of this study was to determine the effect of age by decade of life beginning at birth in patients with head injuries of all levels of severity. The New York State Trauma Registry was searched for head injuries from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1995; the 13,908 cases found were placed into age groups by decade. Data were sought for each patient on demographics, Glasgow Coma Score, ICD-9 injury code, New Injury Severity Score (NISS), and mechanism of injury. These data were analyzed with chi-square and one-way ANOVA tests, with significance set at p < 0.05. The risk of dying was significantly increased in patients beginning at 30 years of age compared with those in the younger age groups, with the greatest increases occurring after age 60 (p < 0.001). For the population with available Glasgow Coma Score data (n = 12,844), the mortality rate for patients ages 0 to 30 was 10.9%, and for patients ages 31 to 50 was 12.4%. The mean Glasgow Coma Score for nonsurvivors ages 0 to 20 (3.9) and for nonsurvivors ages 31 to 50 (5.1) were significantly different, with a risk ratio of 1.3 (p < 0.001). The risk of dying for patients suffering head injuries increases as early as 30 years of age, making it necessary for health-care providers to consider increased monitoring and treatment for patients in this younger age group.

  4. VIP Data Explorer: A Tool for Exploring 30 years of Vegetation Index and Phenology Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto-munoz, A.; Didan, K.; Rivera-Camacho, J.; Yitayew, M.; Miura, T.; Tsend-Ayush, J.

    2011-12-01

    Continuous acquisition of global satellite imagery over the years has contributed to the creation of long term data records from AVHRR, MODIS, TM, SPOT-VGT and other sensors. These records account for 30+ years, as these archives grow, they become invaluable tools for environmental, resources management, and climate studies dealing with trends and changes from local, regional to global scale. In this project, the Vegetation Index and Phenology Lab (VIPLab) is processing 30 years of daily global surface reflectance data into an Earth Science Data Record of Vegetation Index and Phenology metrics. Data from AVHRR (N07,N09,N11 and N14) and MODIS (AQUA and TERRA collection 5) for the periods 1981-1999 and 2000-2010, at CMG resolution were processed into one seamless and sensor independent data record using various filtering, continuity and gap filling techniques (Tsend-Ayush et al., AGU 2011, Rivera-Camacho et al, AGU 2011). An interactive online tool (VIP Data Explorer) was developed to support the visualization, qualitative and quantitative exploration, distribution, and documentation of these records using a simple web 2.0 interface. The VIP Data explorer (http://vip.arizona.edu/viplab_data_explorer) can display any combination of multi temporal and multi source data, enable the quickly exploration and cross comparison of the various levels of processing of this data. It uses the Google Earth (GE) model and was developed using the GE API for images rendering, manipulation and geolocation. These ESDRs records can be quickly animated in this environment and explored for visual trends and anomalies detection. Additionally the tool enables extracting and visualizing any land pixel time series while showing the different levels of processing it went through. User can explore this ESDR database within this data explorer GUI environment, and any desired data can be placed into a dynamic "cart" to be ordered and downloaded later. More functionalities are planned and will be

  5. Statistical Analysis of 30 Years Rainfall Data: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvind, G.; Ashok Kumar, P.; Girish Karthi, S.; Suribabu, C. R.

    2017-07-01

    Rainfall is a prime input for various engineering design such as hydraulic structures, bridges and culverts, canals, storm water sewer and road drainage system. The detailed statistical analysis of each region is essential to estimate the relevant input value for design and analysis of engineering structures and also for crop planning. A rain gauge station located closely in Trichy district is selected for statistical analysis where agriculture is the prime occupation. The daily rainfall data for a period of 30 years is used to understand normal rainfall, deficit rainfall, Excess rainfall and Seasonal rainfall of the selected circle headquarters. Further various plotting position formulae available is used to evaluate return period of monthly, seasonally and annual rainfall. This analysis will provide useful information for water resources planner, farmers and urban engineers to assess the availability of water and create the storage accordingly. The mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation of monthly and annual rainfall was calculated to check the rainfall variability. From the calculated results, the rainfall pattern is found to be erratic. The best fit probability distribution was identified based on the minimum deviation between actual and estimated values. The scientific results and the analysis paved the way to determine the proper onset and withdrawal of monsoon results which were used for land preparation and sowing.

  6. Acute exercise and oxidative stress: a 30 year history

    PubMed Central

    Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey; Bloomer, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    The topic of exercise-induced oxidative stress has received considerable attention in recent years, with close to 300 original investigations published since the early work of Dillard and colleagues in 1978. Single bouts of aerobic and anaerobic exercise can induce an acute state of oxidative stress. This is indicated by an increased presence of oxidized molecules in a variety of tissues. Exercise mode, intensity, and duration, as well as the subject population tested, all can impact the extent of oxidation. Moreover, the use of antioxidant supplements can impact the findings. Although a single bout of exercise often leads to an acute oxidative stress, in accordance with the principle of hormesis, such an increase appears necessary to allow for an up-regulation in endogenous antioxidant defenses. This review presents a comprehensive summary of original investigations focused on exercise-induced oxidative stress. This should provide the reader with a well-documented account of the research done within this area of science over the past 30 years. PMID:19144121

  7. Changes in schoolgirls' body measurements during a 30 year period.

    PubMed

    Kaarma, Helje; Kasmel, Jaan; Koskel, Säde; Tiit, Ene-Margit

    2003-01-01

    Two data-sets containing the anthropometric measurements of Estonian schoolgirls aged 7-18 were analysed, one (set A) from the late sixties, size 1627 and the other (set K) from the late nineties, size 1546. In all data sets 8 measurements--three height, three breadth measures, chest circumference and mass--were measured using the same methodology, as well as BMI was calculated. The means of all the characteristics in age groups (size 100-150 individuals) were calculated and growth curves of means were approximated using polynomial least squares approximation. The maximal velocity points were found and the growth intensities in different body build groups were compared. It was proved that the usage of cross-sectional data for estimating growth curves is suitable for estimating the velocity of acceleration in different age groups. We found that the height of Estonian girls has increased during the last 30 years by about 4-5%, the breadth measurements--by about 1-2%, chest circumference up to 8% and BMI has decreased by 3-5%. The changes are quite modest in pre-puberty, most significant for girls aged 12-16 and smaller again for girls aged 17 and more. The maximal growth velocity has shifted for all characteristics to the earlier time. Comparison of different body build groups showed that the small girls of the sixties are quite similar to small girls in the nineties, but the differences are greater in the case of large and pycnomorphic girls.

  8. Pediatric tinea faciei in southern Spain: a 30-year survey.

    PubMed

    del Boz, Javier; Crespo, Vicente; de Troya, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Tinea faciei (TF) is a common clinical form of tinea in children that is frequently misdiagnosed and treated with corticosteroids. No large case series of TF focusing on children have been published. The aim of this study was to analyze the main epidemiologic, clinical, and microbiologic features of TF in children over a period of 30 years and compare these features with those of other tineas. We undertook a retrospective study of 818 cases of tinea in children at a referral hospital in southern Spain, diagnosed between 1977 and 2006, concentrating for this study on TF. Of the 73 cases of TF diagnosed, 50.7% were in girls. Most children (46.6%) were 4 to 9 years old. At the time of diagnosis, 29.2% of the cases had been treated with topical steroids. The most frequently isolated dermatophyte was Trichophyton mentagrophytes, which was isolated significantly more frequently in TF than in the other tineas. Cases of TF in children were not extremely unusual, emphasizing that TF must be considered in children with inflammatory facial eruptions. This consideration and the more-frequent use of mycologic tests can help achieve the correct diagnosis, when present.

  9. MAOA, abuse exposure and antisocial behaviour: 30-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fergusson, David M; Boden, Joseph M; Horwood, L John; Miller, Allison L; Kennedy, Martin A

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies have raised issues concerning the replicability of gene × environment (G × E) interactions involving the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene in moderating the associations between abuse or maltreatment exposure and antisocial behaviour. This study attempted to replicate the findings in this area using a 30-year longitudinal study that has strong resemblance to the original research cohort. To test the hypothesis that the presence of the low-activity MAOA genotype was associated with an increased response to abuse exposure. Participants were 398 males from the Christchurch Health and Development Study who had complete data on: MAOA promoter region variable number tandem repeat genotype; antisocial behaviour to age 30; and exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse. Regression models were fitted to five antisocial behaviour outcomes (self-reported property offending; self-reported violent offending; convictions for property/violent offending; conduct problems; hostility) observed from age 16 to 30, using measures of childhood exposure to sexual and physical abuse. The analyses revealed consistent evidence of G × E interactions, with those having the low-activity MAOA variant and who were exposed to abuse in childhood being significantly more likely to report later offending, conduct problems and hostility. These interactions remained statistically significant after control for a range of potentially confounding factors. Findings for convictions data were somewhat weaker. The present findings add to the evidence suggesting that there is a stable G × E interaction involving MAOA, abuse exposure and antisocial behaviour across the life course.

  10. Cardiorespiratory fitness and nutritional status of schoolchildren: 30-year evolution.

    PubMed

    Moraes Ferrari, Gerson Luis de; Bracco, Mario Maia; Matsudo, Victor K Rodrigues; Fisberg, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    To compare the changes in cardiorespiratory fitness in evaluations performed every ten years since 1978/1980, according to the nutritional status and gender of students in the city of Ilhabela, Brazil. The study is part of the Mixed Longitudinal Project on Growth, Development and Physical Fitness of Ilhabela. The study included 1,291 students of both genders, aged 10 to 11 years old. The study periods were: 1978/1980, 1988/1990, 1998/2000, and 2008/2010. The variables analyzed were: body weight, height, and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max - L.min-1 and mL.kg-1.min-1) performed using a submaximal progressive protocol on a cycle ergometer. Individuals were classified as normal weight and overweight according to curves proposed by the World Health Organization of body mass index for age and gender. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with three factors followed by the Bonferroni method were used to compare the periods. The number of normal weight individuals (61%) was higher than that of overweight. There was a significant decrease in cardiorespiratory fitness in both genders. Among the schoolchildren with normal weight, there was a decrease of 22% in males and 26% in females. In overweight schoolchildren, males showed a decrease of 12.7% and females, of 18%. During a 30-year analysis with reviews every ten years from 1978/1980, there was a significant decrease in cardiorespiratory fitness in schoolchildren of both genders, which cannot be explained by the nutritional status. The decline in cardiorespiratory fitness was greater in individuals with normal weight than in overweight individuals. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. NPY and Stress 30 Years Later: The Peripheral View

    PubMed Central

    Zukowska, Zofia

    2012-01-01

    Almost 30 years ago, neuropeptide Y (NPY) was discovered as a sympathetic co-transmitter and one of the most evolutionarily conserved peptides abundantly present all over the body. Soon afterward, NPY’s multiple receptors were characterized and cloned, and the peptide’s role in stress was first documented. NPY has proven to be pivotal for maintaining many stress responses. Most notably, NPY is known for activating long-lasting vasoconstriction in many vascular beds, including coronary arteries. More recently, NPY was found to play a role in stress-induced accretion of adipose tissue which many times can lead to detrimental metabolic changes. It is however due to its prominent actions in the brain, one of which is its powerful ability to stimulate appetite as well as its anxiolytic activities that NPY became a peptide of importance in neuroscience. In contrast, its actions in the rest of the body, including its role as a stress mediator, remained, surprisingly underappreciated and not well understood. Our research has focused on that other, “peripheral” side of NPY. In this review, we will discuss those actions of NPY on the cardiovascular system and metabolism, as they relate to adaptation to stress, and attempt to both distinguish NPY’s effects from and integrate them with the effects of the classical stress mediators, glucocorticoids, and catecholamines. To limit the bias of someone (ZZ) who has viewed the world of stress through the eyes of NPY for over 20 years, fresh insight (DH) has been solicited to more objectively assess NPY’s contributions to stress-related diseases and the body’s ability to adapt to stress. PMID:22271177

  12. Fatal electrocution in adults--a 30-year study.

    PubMed

    Wick, Regula; Gilbert, John D; Simpson, Ellie; Byard, Roger W

    2006-04-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken of all cases of death in adults (>16 years) due to electrocution which were autopsied at Forensic Science SA, Adelaide, Australia, over a 30-year period from 1973 to 2002. A total of 96 cases were identified with 87 males (91%) (mean age=41.6 years; range 17 to 86 years) and nine females (9%) (mean age=49.2 years; range 20 to 76 years). Deaths were due to accidents in 66 cases (69%; M:F = 63:3), suicides in 28 cases (29%; M:F=24:4) and homicides in two cases (2%). Both homicide victims were females, with females accounting for only 5% of the accidents and 14% of suicides. The number of accidental deaths increased until the early 1990s and then declined, whereas suicidal electrocutions were only found in the last 20 years of the study. Most deaths (N = 80; 83%) were due to low voltage circuits (<1000 volts), with deaths due to high voltages occurring in 15 cases (16%). One death was due to lightning (1%). While suicides were evenly distributed throughout the year, most accidental deaths occurred in late spring and summer (N = 42; 64%) with the lowest number of accidental deaths occurring in winter and early spring. This report demonstrates a significantly higher rate of electrocution deaths among males, with a summer predominance of accidental deaths, most likely due to increased outdoor activities in better weather. The reduction in cases over the last decade of the study may be a reflection of the success of workplace and domestic safety campaigns. Female electrocution suicides and electrocution homicides were rare events.

  13. A 30-Year Retrospective: Degrees of Difficulty in Decreasing LOS.

    PubMed

    Zander, Karen

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to avoid future revisionist history, the author offers a 30-year retrospective (1986-2016) on the evolution of strategies to reduce length of stay (LOS). She and her colleagues have been involved from the onset by developing tools such as critical paths, roles such as clinical case management, and operational systems for managing measureable outcome-driven care from the bedside to the boardroom. Acute care hospitals. The LOS for all inpatients has changed dramatically from 1970 (average LOS = 7.8 days) through solidly between 2005 and 2012 (average LOS = 4.5 days in 2012) despite a significant increase in the average age of hospital inpatients (; ). For patients 65 years and older, who comprised 38% of all inpatients, the decrease has been more drastic: from 12.6 days in 1970 to 5.5 days in 2005-2010 ().With the exception of hospitalists and case management staff, acute care hospitals have essentially doubled productivity without adding additional direct care full-time equivalents! Described in terms of "low-hanging" to "high-hanging" fruit, this article outlines the classic methods used to reduce LOS and concludes with some implications of LOS for health care reform. The U.S. health system could not have accomplished this feat without case managers and social workers. Acute care services should be very proud of their achievements and use their reputation to empower their work for the next frontier, which will be reducing cost per case, especially in risk contracts. Everything old seems new again.

  14. Drought Prediction in Iran during Next 30 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazanedari, L.; Zabol Abbasi, F.; Ghandhari, Sh.; Kouhi, M.; Malbousi, Sh.

    2009-09-01

    The effects of climate changes, especially due to increasing of greenhouse gasses, caused a lot of problems that affect different sections of society. One of the most important of these effects is the increasing of natural disasters such as flood, drought, tropical cyclones, raising sea level, dust storm, etc. Drought and flood are the most prevalent of these disasters in Iran. Because of the geographical location of Iran and the synoptic systems that affect this region, it is clear that dry is one of the characteristics of this region, and drought is one of the most important of natural disaster that affect this country. Drought affects the different sectors of society such as water resources, agriculture, industry, economy, health, etc therefore drought monitoring is necessary for planning in future. For this purpose, the climate data should be simulated for future period by using outputs of Atmospheric-Ocean General Circulation Model. In this paper precipitation data during 2010-2039 is simulated by downscaling via LARS-WG model. Then, drought situation is estimated according to DI and SPI, by using these data in Iran. The results of this study have showed that during next 30 years, drought conditions will be increase in Iran, and it confirms climate change event in this region. In addition, the most parts of Iran will experience severe and extreme drought in 2011, 2025, 2032, 2034, 2035, 2039, and among these years 2039 will have more critical drought situation. Keywords: Atmospheric General Circulation Models, Downscaling, LARS-WG, Drought, Decile Index, Standard Precipitation Index.

  15. MAOA, abuse exposure and antisocial behaviour: 30-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John; Miller, Allison L.; Kennedy, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies have raised issues concerning the replicability of gene × environment (G × E) interactions involving the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene in moderating the associations between abuse or maltreatment exposure and antisocial behaviour. This study attempted to replicate the findings in this area using a 30-year longitudinal study that has strong resemblance to the original research cohort. Aims To test the hypothesis that the presence of the low-activity MAOA genotype was associated with an increased response to abuse exposure. Method Participants were 398 males from the Christchurch Health and Development Study who had complete data on: MAOA promoter region variable number tandem repeat genotype; antisocial behaviour to age 30; and exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse. Results Regression models were fitted to five antisocial behaviour outcomes (self-reported property offending; self-reported violent offending; convictions for property/violent offending; conduct problems; hostility) observed from age 16 to 30, using measures of childhood exposure to sexual and physical abuse. The analyses revealed consistent evidence of G × E interactions, with those having the low-activity MAOA variant and who were exposed to abuse in childhood being significantly more likely to report later offending, conduct problems and hostility. These interactions remained statistically significant after control for a range of potentially confounding factors. Findings for convictions data were somewhat weaker. Conclusions The present findings add to the evidence suggesting that there is a stable G × E interaction involving MAOA, abuse exposure and antisocial behaviour across the life course. PMID:21628708

  16. Eighteen- to 30-year-olds more likely to link to hepatitis C virus care: an opportunity to decrease transmission.

    PubMed

    Young, K L; Huang, W; Horsburgh, C R; Linas, B P; Assoumou, S A

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection incidence among 18- to 30-year-olds is increasing and guidelines recommend treatment of active injection drug users to limit transmission. We aimed to : measure linkage to HCV care among 18- to 30-year-olds and identify factors associated with linkage; compare linkage among 18- to 30-year-olds to that of patients >30 years. We used the electronic medical record at an urban safety net hospital to create a retrospective cohort with reactive HCV antibody between 2005 and 2010. We report seroprevalence and demographics of seropositive patients, and used multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with linkage to HCV care. We defined linkage as having evidence of HCV RNA testing after reactive antibody. Thirty two thousand four hundred and eighteen individuals were tested, including 8873 between 18 and 30 years. The seropositivity rate among those ages 18-30 was 10%. In multivariate analysis, among those 18-30, diagnosis location (Outpatient vs Inpatient/ED) (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.28-2.49) and number of visits after diagnosis (OR 5.30, 95% CI 3.91-7.19) were associated with higher odds of linking to care. When we compared linkage in patients ages 18-30 to that among those older than 30, patients in the 18-30 years age group were more likely to link to HCV care than those in the older cohort even when controlling for gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, birthplace, diagnosis location and duration of follow-up. Eighteen- to 30-year-olds are more likely to link to HCV care than their older counterparts. During the interferon-free treatment era, there is an opportunity to prevent further HCV transmission in this population. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Recruiting Minority Geoscientists: A 30 Year Success Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpa, L.; Pavlis, T. L.; Hall, F.

    2003-12-01

    The University of New Orleans (UNO) is located in a city rich in diversity and industries that employ geoscientists. Thus, it is an ideal place to develop a strong diversity program in geology and geophysics. In 1974, Dr. Louis Fernandez received a grant from the NSF to formally develop a minority recruiting program. The focus of that initial program was a field trip for local minority high school students and that trip has gone continuously every year since then. It is still our best tool for recruiting outstanding minority students into our department. The initial NSF funding disappeared long ago and was replaced variously by support from private industry and creative use of departmental funds which kept the program alive through some lean funding years. As a result of this effort UNO has graduated more minority, particularly African-American, geoscientist than any other institution in the US for most of the past 30 years. The field trip is not the only reason for our success. Indeed, retaining and graduating students, regardless of their ethnicity, required a serious commitment to education on the part of our department. There are six universities in the city of New Orleans and several more within commuting distance from the city. Three of the six local universities are HBCU's with excellent reputations but, fortunately for us, no geoscience degree programs. There are several strong geoscience departments in the non-minority serving institutions in our area that attract many outstanding local students. To meet the competition, we have worked with local K-12 teachers, developed additional programs to interest local 7-12 students, and worked closely with our majors to keep them in the program and help them succeed once they are recruited. This has required a cohesive effort on the part of our faculty and students that is constantly changing to meet new demands as our department has expanded in size and developed its research activities sometimes at the expense of

  18. Short-term geriatric assessment units: 30 years later

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The increasing number of hospitalized elderly persons has greatly challenged decision makers to reorganize services so as to meet the needs of this clientele. Established progressively over the last 30 years, the short-term Geriatric Assessment Unit (GAU) is a specialized care program, now implemented in all the general hospital centres in Quebec. Within the scope of a broader reflection upon the appropriate care delivery for elderly patients in our demographic context, there is a need to revisit the role of GAU within the hospital and the continuum of care. The objective of this project is to describe the range of activities offered by Quebec GAU and the resources available to them. Methods In 2004, 64 managers of 71 GAU answered a mail questionnaire which included 119 items covering their unit's operation and resources in 2002-2003. The clinical and administrative characteristics of the clientele admitted during this period were obtained from the provincial database Med-Echo. The results were presented according to the geographical location of GAU, their size, their university academic affiliation, the composition of their medical staff, and their clinical care profile. Results Overall, GAU programs admitted 9% of all patients aged 65 years and older in the surveyed year. GAU patients presented one or more geriatric syndromes, including dementia. Based on their clientele, three distinct clinical care profiles of GAU were identified. Only 19% of GAU were focused on geriatric assessment and acute care management; 23% mainly offered rehabilitation care, and the others offered a mix of both types. Thus, there was a significant heterogeneity in GAU's operation. Conclusions The GAU is at the cutting edge of geriatric services in hospital centres. Given the scarcity of these resources, it would be appropriate to better target the clientele that may benefit from them. Standardizing and promoting GAU's primary role in acute care must be reinforced. In order to

  19. TORUS2015: The AGN unification scheme after 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, P.; Hoenig, S. F.

    2015-09-01

    The torus paradigm has proved to be remarkably successful at unifying the observed zoo of active galaxy (AGN) classes, despite having many manifest holes. The field is still data-driven with novel observational results at multiple wavelengths emerging rapidly. We are only now beginning to map out the structure of dusty gas feeding and obscuring AGN, and to model its evolution in galaxy growth. But these have also brought out several apparently contradictory results which must hold the key to future progress. As we celebrate 30 years of the paradigm, this is the perfect time to draw together our current knowledge and reassess the state of the field. This will be an international workshop at the University of Southampton, UK, with the objective of laying out the major challenges to the field and paving future research directions. Our hope is to facilitate plenty of informal discussions between multiwavelength observers and theorists, addressing some key issues: * What is the main driver in the unification scheme? What are the roles of orientation, mass accretion rate and feedback? * What is the nature and structure of gas and dust in the torus? Do we have a self-consistent picture across multiple wavelengths? * How critical is the role of the torus as an interface between small nuclear scales and large galactic scales? Does galaxy evolution necessarily require tori? * How close are we to self-consistently simulating nuclear activity including AGN feeding and nuclear star-formation? Workshop Rationale The three themes of accretion, orientation, and evolution will be covered through invited and solicited contributions. Different to other conferences, we are building each session around some key papers that have shaped the field or those with great future potential to do so. We specifically pit competing ideas against each other to help painting a realistic picture of the state-of-the-art. Each session will end with discussion rounds delving into important future

  20. Paracrinicity: The Story of 30 Years of Cellular Pituitary Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Denef, C

    2008-01-01

    Living organisms represent, in essence, dynamic interactions of high complexity between membrane-separated compartments that cannot exist on their own, but reach behaviour in co-ordination. In multicellular organisms, there must be communication and co-ordination between individual cells and cell groups to achieve appropriate behaviour of the system. Depending on the mode of signal transportation and the target, intercellular communication is neuronal, hormonal, paracrine or juxtacrine. Cell signalling can also be self-targeting or autocrine. Although the notion of paracrine and autocrine signalling was already suggested more than 100 years ago, it is only during the last 30 years that these mechanisms have been characterised. In the anterior pituitary, paracrine communication and autocrine loops that operate during fetal and postnatal development in mammals and lower vertebrates have been shown in all hormonal cell types and in folliculo-stellate cells. More than 100 compounds have been identified that have, or may have, paracrine or autocrine actions. They include the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and γ-aminobutyric acid, peptides such as vasoactive intestinal peptide, galanin, endothelins, calcitonin, neuromedin B and melanocortins, growth factors of the epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, nerve growth factor and transforming growth factor-β families, cytokines, tissue factors such as annexin-1 and follistatin, hormones, nitric oxide, purines, retinoids and fatty acid derivatives. In addition, connective tissue cells, endothelial cells and vascular pericytes may influence paracrinicity by delivering growth factors, cytokines, heparan sulphate proteoglycans and proteases. Basement membranes may influence paracrine signalling through the binding of signalling molecules to heparan sulphate proteoglycans. Paracrine/autocrine actions are highly context-dependent. They are turned on/off when hormonal outputs need to be adapted to changing demands of

  1. Synthesising 30 Years of Mathematical Modelling of Echinococcus Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Jo-An M.; Williams, Gail M.; Yakob, Laith; Clements, Archie C. A.; Barnes, Tamsin S.; McManus, Donald P.; Yang, Yu Rong; Gray, Darren J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Echinococcosis is a complex zoonosis that has domestic and sylvatic lifecycles, and a range of different intermediate and definitive host species. The complexities of its transmission and the sparse evidence on the effectiveness of control strategies in diverse settings provide significant challenges for the design of effective public health policy against this disease. Mathematical modelling is a useful tool for simulating control packages under locally specific transmission conditions to inform optimal timing and frequency of phased interventions for cost-effective control of echinococcosis. The aims of this review of 30 years of Echinococcus modelling were to discern the epidemiological mechanisms underpinning models of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis transmission and to establish the need to include a human transmission component in such models. Methodology/Principal Findings A search was conducted of all relevant articles published up until July 2012, identified from the PubMED, Web of Knowledge and Medline databases and review of bibliographies of selected papers. Papers eligible for inclusion were those describing the design of a new model, or modification of an existing mathematical model of E. granulosus or E. multilocularis transmission. A total of 13 eligible papers were identified, five of which described mathematical models of E. granulosus and eight that described E. multilocularis transmission. These models varied primarily on the basis of six key mechanisms that all have the capacity to modulate model dynamics, qualitatively affecting projections. These are: 1) the inclusion of a ‘latent’ class and/or time delay from host exposure to infectiousness; 2) an age structure for animal hosts; 3) the presence of density-dependent constraints; 4) accounting for seasonality; 5) stochastic parameters; and 6) inclusion of spatial and risk structures. Conclusions/Significance This review discusses the conditions under which these

  2. 30-Year Outcomes of Dental Implants Supporting Mandibular Fixed Dental Prostheses: A Retrospective Review of 4 Cases.

    PubMed

    Turkyilmaz, Ilser; Tözüm, Tolga F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to present the 30-year outcomes of 28 implants supporting mandibular screw-retained fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). Dental charts of the 4 patients were carefully reviewed, and it was noticed that they received 28 implants and 5 screw-retained FDPs in 1983 and 1984. The chief concerns raised by these patients were poor retention of their complete dentures and decreased masticatory function at the time of treatment planning. Each dental care they received was recorded in the last 30 years. Implant survival, radiographic, and prosthodontic examinations were performed. No implants were lost after 30 years, giving the implant a survival rate of 100%. The average marginal bone level was 2.6 ± 0.5 mm at the last recall appointment. Of the 5 FDPs delivered, 1 needed replacement, indicating a prosthesis survival rate of 80%. The patients needed 21 repairs such as replacement of denture teeth/gold screws and hard relining, and 19 adjustments such as occlusal adjustments and acrylic resin contouring, over 30 years. This clinical report shows that machined-surface dental implants can successfully support screw-retained fixed dental prostheses for over 30 years, making dental implants an important dental treatment alternative compared to the traditional prosthetic treatment methods.

  3. Changes in Tropical Cyclone Intensity Over the Past 30 Years: A Global and Dynamic Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Liguang; Wang, Bin; Braun, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    The hurricane season of 2005 was the busiest on record and Hurricane Katrina (2005) is believed to be the costliest hurricane in U. S. history. There are growing concerns regarding whether this increased tropical cyclone activity is a result of global warming, as suggested by Emanuel(2005) and Webster et al. (2005), or just a natural oscillation (Goldenberg et al. 2001). This study examines the changes in tropical cyclone intensity to see what were really responsible for the changes in tropical cyclone activity over the past 30 years. Since the tropical sea surface temperature (SST) warming also leads to the response of atmospheric circulation, which is not solely determined by the local SST warming, this study suggests that it is better to take the tropical cyclone activities in the North Atlantic (NA), western North Pacific (WNP) and eastern North Pacific (ENP) basins as a whole when searching for the influence of the global-scale SST warming on tropical cyclone intensity. Over the past 30 years, as the tropical SST increased by about 0.5 C, the linear trends indicate 6%, 16% and 15% increases in the overall average intensity and lifetime and the annual frequency. Our analysis shows that the increased annual destructiveness of tropical cyclones reported by Emanuel(2005) resulted mainly from the increases in the average lifetime and annual frequency in the NA basin and from the increases in the average intensity and lifetime in the WNP basin, while the annual destructiveness in the ENP basin generally decreased over the past 30 years. The changes in the proportion of intense tropical cyclones reported by Webster et a1 (2005) were due mainly to the fact that increasing tropical cyclones took the tracks that favor for the development of intense tropical cyclones in the NA and WNP basins over the past 30 years. The dynamic influence associated with the tropical SST warming can lead to the impact of global warming on tropical cyclone intensity that may be very

  4. A 30-Year Record of the Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric Methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teama, Doaa Galal

    Methane (CH4) is one of the most important greenhouse gases after water vapor and carbon dioxide due to its high concentration and global warming potential 25 times than that of CO2(based on a 100 year time horizon). Its atmospheric concentration has more than doubled from the preindustrial era due to anthropogenic activities such as rice cultivation, biomass burning, and fossil fuel production. However, the rate of increase of atmospheric CH4 (or the growth rate) slowed from 1980 until present. The main reason for this trend is a slowdown in the trend of CH 4sources. Measuring stable isotopes of atmospheric CH4 can constrain changes of CH4sources. The main goal of this work is to interpret the CH4 trend from 1978-2010 in terms of its sources using measurements of CH4 mixing ratio and its isotopes. The current work presents the measurements and analysis of CH4 and its isotopes (delta13C and deltaD) of four air archive sample sets collected by the Oregon Graduate Institute (OGI). CH4 isotope ratios (delta13C and deltaD) were measured by a continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer technique developed at PSU. The first set is for Cape Meares, Oregon which is the oldest and longest set and spans 1977-1999. The integrity of this sample set was evaluated by comparing between our measured CH4 mixing ratio values with those measured values by OGI and was found to be stable. Resulting CH4 seasonal cycle was evaluated from the Cape Meares data. The CH4 seasonal cycle shows a broad maximum during October-April and a minimum between July and August. The seasonal cycles of delta13C and deltaD have maximum values in May for delta13C and in July for deltaD and minimum values between September-October for delta13C and in October for deltaD. These results indicate a CH4 source that is more enriched January-May (e.g. biomass burning) and a source that is more depleted August-October (e.g. microbial). In addition to Cape Meares, air archive sets were analyzed from: South Pole (SPO), Samoa (SMO), Mauna Loa (MLO) 1992-1996. The presented deltaD measurements are unique measured values during these time periods at these stations. To obtain the long-term in isotopic CH4 from 1978-2010, other datasets of Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude sites are included with Cape Meares. These sites are Olympic Peninsula, Washington; Montana de Oro, California; and Niwot Ridge, Colorado. The seasonal cycles of CH4 and its isotopes from the composite dataset have the same phase and amplitudes as the Cape Meares site. CH4 growth rate shows a decrease over time 1978-2010 with three main spikes in 1992, 1998, and 2003 consistent with the literature from the global trend. CH4 lifetime is estimated to 9.7 yrs. The delta13C trend in the composite data shows a slow increase from 1978-1987, a more rapid rate of change 1987-2005, and a gradual depletion during 2005-2010. The deltaD trend in the composite data shows a gradual increase during 1978-2001 and decrease from 2001-2005. From these results, the global CH4 emissions are estimated and show a leveling off sources 1982-2010 with two large peak anomalies in 1998 and 2003. The global average delta13C and deltaD of CH 4 sources are estimated from measured values. The results of these calculations indicate that there is more than one source which controls the decrease in the global CH4 trend. From 1982-2001, delta13C and deltaD of CH4 sources becomes more depleted due to a decrease in fossil and/or biomass burning sources relative to microbial sources. From 2005-2010, delta 13C of CH4 sources returns to its 1981 value. There are two significant peaks in delta13C and deltaD of CH 4 sources in 1998 and 2003 due to the wildfire emissions in boreal areas and in Europe.

  5. Anti-Müllerian Hormone Levels in Chinese Women Younger Than 30 Years and 30 Years or Older and Correlated Biochemical Indices.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jieping; Wang, Jun; Chen, Yu; Ji, Yuqin; Xiong, Miao

    2017-01-01

    Anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) is considered an important marker of ovarian reserve; however, the exact function of AMH has yet to be determined. Our purpose was to investigate factors correlated with AMH levels in Chinese women. Healthy women were divided into 2 groups: aged younger than 30 years and 30 years or older. Anti-müllerian hormone levels and biochemical indices were compared between the groups. Eighty women younger than 30 and 29 women 30 years or older were included. The mean AMH level in women younger than 30 years was 8.2 ± 4.4 ng/mL (range, 0.1-17.2 ng/mL), and in those 30 years or older was 5.2 ± 4.3 ng/mL (range, 0.1-13.3 ng/mL). Half of women younger than 30 years had an AMH level above a median of 8.0 ng/mL (interquartile range, 4.9-11.2 ng/mL), whereas the median in those 30 years or older was 4.6 ng/mL (interquartile range, 1.3-8.5 ng/mL). In women younger than 30 years, calcium was positively correlated (P = 0.014) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was negatively correlated with AMH (P < 0.001). No correlations of calcium and SHBG with AMH were found in women 30 years or older, but a positive correlation between triglycerides and testosterone and AMH was noted (P = 0.020 and P = 0.007, respectively). Anti-müllerian hormone levels are positively or negatively correlated with testosterone, calcium, SHBG, and triglycerides in Chinese women.

  6. Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 years.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, Kerry

    2005-08-04

    Theory and modelling predict that hurricane intensity should increase with increasing global mean temperatures, but work on the detection of trends in hurricane activity has focused mostly on their frequency and shows no trend. Here I define an index of the potential destructiveness of hurricanes based on the total dissipation of power, integrated over the lifetime of the cyclone, and show that this index has increased markedly since the mid-1970s. This trend is due to both longer storm lifetimes and greater storm intensities. I find that the record of net hurricane power dissipation is highly correlated with tropical sea surface temperature, reflecting well-documented climate signals, including multi-decadal oscillations in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, and global warming. My results suggest that future warming may lead to an upward trend in tropical cyclone destructive potential, and--taking into account an increasing coastal population--a substantial increase in hurricane-related losses in the twenty-first century.

  7. Refining the extended circumflex scapular flap for neck burn reconstruction: A 30-year experience.

    PubMed

    Angrigiani, Claudio; Artero, Guillermo; Sereday, Carlos; Khouri, Roger K; French, Zachary P

    2017-09-01

    Neck burn sequelae remain a major challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. To achieve satisfactory functional and aesthetic results, the anterior neck aesthetic unit must be covered as a single unit. In cases where free flaps are required, harvesting a flap of sufficient size can cause major donor site morbidity. In 1994, we published our favorable 6-year experience of reconstructing neck burn sequelae with an extended circumflex scapular flap (ECSF). Since then, we have made several modifications to the technique, resulting in improved long-term functional and aesthetic results. Herein, we present our 30-year, 150-patient experience with the ECSF flap for the treatment of anterior neck burn sequelae. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 150 consecutive patients who underwent ECSF procedure for neck resurfacing performed or supervised by the senior author from 1986 to 2015. All cases were assessed for function, aesthetics, satisfaction, and complications. A total of 160 ECSFs were used in 150 patients. Ninety-nine patients were available for updated follow-up [1-30 years (mean, 15.3)]. At the last follow-up, 92 patients regained full range of motion, and 90 patients had acceptable cervicomental angle (<110°). The mean patient satisfaction score was 4.8/5. Nine flaps (5.6%) failed completely and were successfully replaced. Twenty-two patients (15%) had distal necrosis of the flap. Fifteen of these 22 patients underwent complementary flaps to replace the necrotic area, and all 15 patients regained full range of motion. For neck burn sequelae, the ECSF provides safe and effective long-term functional and aesthetic results with minimal donor site morbidity. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multi-year measurements of field-scale metolachlor volatilization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Volatilization is a critical pathway for herbicide loss from agricultural fields, and subsequent deposition downwind from the edge of the field. To better understand the volatilization process, field-scale turbulent volatilization fluxes of metolachlor (2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-metho...

  9. Thirteen year summary of field-scale herbicide volatilization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Once lost to the atmosphere, herbicide transport can result in unintended re-deposition to inhabited areas, streams, rivers, and lakes. To better understand factors governing herbicide volatilization and to determine its impact relative to other loss pathways, field-scale turbulent volatilization fl...

  10. Roadmap for Loess/Paleosol Magnetism After 30 Years of Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagroix, F.; Taylor, S. N.; Guyodo, Y. J. B.; Till, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last 30 years, loess and paleosol deposits have provided the scientific community a unique opportunity to study past climate and environmental change of the continents. Fluctuating magnetic susceptibility of glacial loess and interglacial soil deposits in China, and a few places elsewhere, have been correlated with the marine isotope stages and ice core records, illustrating the loess-climate connection. Furthermore, the logarithm of the magnetic susceptibility and other ferrimagnetism dependant concentration parameters in modern topsoil are found to be linearly related to modern rainfall records. But, the transfer function is site specific. Others have suggested that the relationship is more universal if precipitation and evapotranspiration are considered together. This said, major roadblocks remain for loess/paleosol magnetism to reach its full potential as a quantitative tool in climate and environmental studies. Reaching this full potential is impaired primarily because of the difficulty in identifying iron oxides and oxyhydroxides other than magnetite or maghemite in natural samples and (semi-)quantifying their concentration and grain size. This talk will present results obtained recently through research targeting loess and paleosol magnetism emphasising the need to further consider the following scientific questions. Which environmental and climate variables cause the change in magnetism in soils? How does magnetism evolve with time, quantitatively, when soils are buried under newly deposited loess and become paleosols? Can we overcome the imprecision of paleomagnetic dating inherent to our poor understanding of the magnetization acquisition process in loess and soils?

  11. A 35-40% Likelihood of a Highly Damaging Tokyo Earthquake in Next 30 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R. S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Bozkurt, S. B.

    2005-12-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105,000 lives. Reoccurrence of any of these shocks today would cost about one trillion dollars, of which perhaps 10% is insured. Fueled by Tokyo's rich data trove but hindered by its complexity, we carried out a new hazard assessment. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved in uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M~8 shocks in the past 7,000 years), historical shaking (10,000 intensity observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300,000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and the world's best geodetic array (150 GPS vectors spanning the past 10 years). We propose that a dislodged block of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath Tokyo, and controls much of Tokyo's seismic behavior for M≤7.5 shocks, including the damaging 1855 M~7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of frequency-magnitude curves, earthquakes similar to the Ansei-Edo event should be quite frequent (25-35% likelihood in an average 30-yr period), and so such events dominate the combined probabilities. In contrast, our renewal model for the great 1703 and 1923 type plate boundary shocks yields a ~1% probability for the next 30 yr, with a time-averaged 30-yr probability of ~8%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama for the next 30 years is 25%-40%, but how can it be validated? The long historical record in Kanto affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner, based almost exclusively on intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates for the spatial distribution of shaking, even for sites with few observations. The resulting probability of severe shaking over an average 30-yr period is ~35% in the Tokyo, Kawasaki

  12. Interim Solar Radiation Data Manual: 30-Year Statistics from the National Solar Radiation Data Base

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The 30-year (1961-1990) statistics contained in this document have been derived from the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). They outline solar radiation sources, as well as 30-year monthly and annual means of 5 solar radiation elements (three surface and two extraterrestrial) and 12 meteorological elements for 239 locations.

  13. Blastomycosis in children and adolescents: a 30-year experience from Manitoba.

    PubMed

    Fanella, Sergio; Skinner, Stuart; Trepman, Elly; Embil, John M

    2011-08-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis, a thermally dimorphic fungus endemic to areas of North America, causes a granulomatous infection which may affect any organ system. Since limited clinical data exist about pediatric blastomycosis, we conducted a retrospective review of medical records of pediatric patients with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of blastomycosis treated during a 30-year period at a tertiary care center. Thirty-four pediatric patients with blastomycosis were identified (20 [59%] male), with a mean age at diagnosis of 10 ± 5 years. Two patients were immunocompromised. Pulmonary disease was noted in 27 (79%) patients, and extrapulmonary disease was found in 13 (38%) patients (concurrent pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease, six patients), including five cases of central nervous system (CNS) disease. Delay in diagnosis was greater with extrapulmonary or central nervous system infections as compared with pulmonary blastomycosis. All patients received antifungal chemotherapy, with 19 (56%) patients receiving amphotericin B as initial therapy for 27.5 ± 17 days. Five patients required treatment in the intensive care unit. One patient died of non-Hodgkins lymphoma. Blastomycosis may occur in healthy children, including very young infants. Due to the frequency of extra-pulmonary disease, diagnosis may be difficult and frequently delayed, especially in cases of CNS infection. © 2011 ISHAM

  14. Causes of death in symptomatic cryoglobulinemia: 30 years of observation in a Department of Internal Medicine.

    PubMed

    Saccardo, E; Novati, P; Sironi, D; Castelnovo, L; Rinaldi, G; Monti, G

    2007-09-01

    Cryoglobulinemic Syn&come (CS) is a multi-systemic disease, and its fatal evolution can involve different organs. To describe the most frequent causes of death in CS, by researching different evolutions between older cases and those of the last 15 years. The data of 238 patients affected by symptomatic cryoglobulinemia followed by our Medicine Department in the last 30 years are recorded in a database. 54 are presently living and being followed, 70 (36F, 34M) have died. The type II/type III ratio is 5/4. We distinguish between two groups, the oldest, without any data on HCV, and the most recent who were tested for HCV. The follow-up ranges from 0.5 to 16 years. Liver diseases (25 cases, 9 with hepatic carcinomas), lymphomas and myeloproliferative diseases (12), and cardiovascular events (8) are the most reported causes of death. Sepsis, neurological syndromes, nephropathy, other malignancies and diffuse vasculitis are also reported. The median age at death was 67.2 years (58.4 in the oldest group, 71.9 in the other). Hepatic carcinomas are reported only after 1991. Cirrhosis complications are more frequent in patients affected by HCV. The increase in instrumental diagnostic ability and the improved survival of patients with cirrhosis account for the increase in patients with hepatic carcinomas. Improved treatment has resulted in a reduction of deaths from renal failure.

  15. [Spatial variability of soil phosphorus in field scale].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong; Liang, Wenju; Zhang, Yuge

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, the spatial variability of soil total P and Olsen-P at the depths of 0 approximately 10 and 10 approximately 20 cm in a field-scale was examined by using traditional statistics combined with geostatistics methods. A sampling grid of 30 m x 42 m including 49 pairs of soil sampling points was established in the Shenyang Experimental Station of Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The results showed that the variance coefficients were much higher for Olsen-P (46.56% approximately 56.42%) than for total P (11.68% approximately 13.33%). Both total P and Olsen-P in the two soil depths had strongly spatial structures and similar spatial correlation ranges. The parameters derived from best-fitted models showed that the spatial variability of both total P and Olsen-P was mainly affected by structural factors, with C/(C0 + C) being higher than 66% for all the variables. The kriging contour maps showed that both total P and Olsen-P in the two soil depths had similar spatial distribution patterns. A more precise sampling scheme could be made based on the spatial distribution pattern of test soil properties combined with traditional variance coefficients. To recognize the strong variability of soil Olsen-P in field-scale is of significance for better understanding the P cycling in farm ecosystems and for precise agriculture.

  16. Suicide in Scottish military veterans: a 30-year retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bergman, B P; Mackay, D F; Smith, D J; Pell, J P

    2017-07-01

    Although reassuring data on suicide risk in UK veterans of the 1982 Falklands conflict and 1991 Gulf conflict have been published, there have been few studies on long-term overall suicide risk in UK veterans. To examine the risk of suicide in a broad population-based cohort of veterans in Scotland, irrespect ive of length of service or exposure to conflict, in comparison with people having no record of military service. A retrospective 30-year cohort study of 56205 veterans born 1945-85 and 172741 matched non-veterans, using Cox proportional hazard models to compare the risk of suicide and fatal self-harm overall, by sex, birth cohort, length of service and year of recruitment. There were 267 (0.48%) suicides in the veterans compared with 918 (0.53%) in non-veterans. The difference was not statistically significant overall [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86-1.13]. The incidence was lower in younger veterans and higher in veterans aged over 40. Early service leavers were at non-significantly increased risk (adjusted HR 1.13; 95% CI 0.91-1.40) but only in the older age groups. Women veterans had a significantly higher risk of suicide than non-veteran women (adjusted HR 2.44; 95% CI 1.32-4.51, P < 0.01) and comparable risk to veteran men. Methods of suicide did not differ significantly between veterans and non-veterans, for either sex. The Scottish Veterans Health Study adds to the emerging body of evidence that there is no overall difference in long-term risk of suicide between veterans and non-veterans in the UK. However, female veterans merit further study.

  17. Congenital lobar emphysema: 30-year case series in two university hospitals*

    PubMed Central

    Cataneo, Daniele Cristina; Rodrigues, Olavo Ribeiro; Hasimoto, Erica Nishida; Schmidt, Aurelino Fernandes; Cataneo, Antonio José Maria

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the cases of patients with congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) submitted to surgical treatment at two university hospitals over a 30-year period. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of children with CLE undergoing surgical treatment between 1979 and 2009 at the Botucatu School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas or the Mogi das Cruzes University Hospital. We analyzed data regarding symptoms, physical examination, radiographic findings, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and postoperative follow-up. RESULTS: During the period studied, 20 children with CLE underwent surgery. The mean age at the time of surgery was 6.9 months (range, 9 days to 4 years). All of the cases presented with symptoms at birth or during the first months of life. In all cases, chest X-rays were useful in defining the diagnosis. In cases of moderate respiratory distress, chest CT facilitated the diagnosis. One patient with severe respiratory distress was misdiagnosed with hypertensive pneumothorax and underwent chest tube drainage. Only patients with moderate respiratory distress were submitted to bronchoscopy, which revealed no tracheobronchial abnormalities. The surgical approach was lateral muscle-sparing thoracotomy. The left upper and middle lobes were the most often affected, followed by the right upper lobe. Lobectomy was performed in 18 cases, whereas bilobectomy was performed in 2 (together with bronchogenic cyst resection in 1 of those). No postoperative complications were observed. Postoperative follow-up time was at least 24 months (mean, 60 months), and no late complications were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Although CLE is an uncommon, still neglected disease of uncertain etiology, the radiological diagnosis is easily made and surgical treatment is effective. PMID:24068262

  18. Modeling field scale unsaturated flow and transport processes

    SciTech Connect

    Gelhar, L.W.; Celia, M.A.; McLaughlin, D.

    1994-08-01

    The scales of concern in subsurface transport of contaminants from low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities are in the range of 1 to 1,000 m. Natural geologic materials generally show very substantial spatial variability in hydraulic properties over this range of scales. Such heterogeneity can significantly influence the migration of contaminants. It is also envisioned that complex earth structures will be constructed to isolate the waste and minimize infiltration of water into the facility. The flow of water and gases through such facilities must also be a concern. A stochastic theory describing unsaturated flow and contamination transport in naturally heterogeneous soils has been enhanced by adopting a more realistic characterization of soil variability. The enhanced theory is used to predict field-scale effective properties and variances of tension and moisture content. Applications illustrate the important effects of small-scale heterogeneity on large-scale anisotropy and hysteresis and demonstrate the feasibility of simulating two-dimensional flow systems at time and space scales of interest in radioactive waste disposal investigations. Numerical algorithms for predicting field scale unsaturated flow and contaminant transport have been improved by requiring them to respect fundamental physical principles such as mass conservation. These algorithms are able to provide realistic simulations of systems with very dry initial conditions and high degrees of heterogeneity. Numerical simulation of the movement of water and air in unsaturated soils has demonstrated the importance of air pathways for contaminant transport. The stochastic flow and transport theory has been used to develop a systematic approach to performance assessment and site characterization. Hypothesis-testing techniques have been used to determine whether model predictions are consistent with observed data.

  19. A scalable satellite-based crop yield mapper: Integrating satellites and crop models for field-scale estimation in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, M.; Singh, B.; Srivastava, A.; Lobell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    Food security will be challenged over the upcoming decades due to increased food demand, natural resource degradation, and climate change. In order to identify potential solutions to increase food security in the face of these changes, tools that can rapidly and accurately assess farm productivity are needed. With this aim, we have developed generalizable methods to map crop yields at the field scale using a combination of satellite imagery and crop models, and implement this approach within Google Earth Engine. We use these methods to examine wheat yield trends in Northern India, which provides over 15% of the global wheat supply and where over 80% of farmers rely on wheat as a staple food source. In addition, we identify the extent to which farmers are shifting sow date in response to heat stress, and how well shifting sow date reduces the negative impacts of heat stress on yield. To identify local-level decision-making, we map wheat sow date and yield at a high spatial resolution (30 m) using Landsat satellite imagery from 1980 to the present. This unique dataset allows us to examine sow date decisions at the field scale over 30 years, and by relating these decisions to weather experienced over the same time period, we can identify how farmers learn and adapt cropping decisions based on weather through time.

  20. Consumer perspectives and mental health reform movements in the United States: 30 years of first-person accounts.

    PubMed

    Gumber, Shinakee; Stein, Catherine H

    2013-09-01

    The present qualitative study examined 69 published first-person accounts written by adults diagnosed with schizophrenia from 1979-2010 within the historical context of the four major mental health movements in the United States. Content analysis techniques were used to identify major topics and overarching content categories in the first-person accounts written over the 30-year period. The frequency of topics in each content category was examined as a function of the decade and corresponding mental health movement in which accounts were published. Five overarching content categories emerged reflecting authors' conceptualizations of schizophrenia, their experiences with psychiatric hospitalization, medications, coping with social stigma, and achieving and maintaining valued social roles. Two summary categories emerged reflecting authors explicit views about what helped and what did not help in their experience of living with schizophrenia. With the exception of social stigma, frequency of topics within content categories did not change as a function of decade and corresponding mental health movement. Despite changes in mental health policies, treatment, and systems of care, the overall lack of significant differences in the content of first-person accounts across the 30-year period suggests an enduring nature to the experiences of individuals coping with schizophrenia. Implications of present findings for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Predictors of poor outcome after both column acetabular fractures: a 30-year retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Acetabular fractures are often combined with associated injuries to the hip joint. Some of these associated injuries seem to be responsible for poor long-term results and these injuries seem to affect the outcome independent of the quality of the acetabular reduction. The aim of our study was to analyze the outcome of both column acetabular fractures and the influence of osseous cofactors such as initial fracture displacement, hip dislocation, femoral head lesions and injuries of the acetabular joint surface. Methods A retrospective cohort study in patients with both column acetabular fractures treated over a 30 year period was performed. Patients with a follow-up of more than two years were invited for a clinical and radiological examination. Displacement was analyzed on initial and postoperative radiographs. Contusion and impaction of the femoral head was grouped. Injuries of the acetabular joint surface consisting of impaction, contusion and comminution were recorded. The Merle d’Aubigné Score was documented and radiographs were analysed for arthritis (Helfet classification), femoral head avascular necrosis (Ficat/Arlet classification) and heterotopic ossifications (Brooker classification). Results 115 patients were included in the follow up examination. Anatomic reduction (malreduction ≤ 1mm) was associated with a significantly better clinical outcome than nonanatomical reduction (p = 0.001). Initial displacement of more than 10mm (p = 0.031) and initial intraarticular fragments (p = 0.041) were associated with worse outcome. Other associated injuries, such as the presence of a femoral head dislocation, femoral head injuries and injuries to the acetabular joint surface showed no significant difference in outcome individually, but in fractures with more than two associated local injuries the risk for joint degeneration was significant higher (p < 0.001) than in cases with less than two of them. In the subgroup of

  2. Leadership and Change in Schools: Personal Reflections over the Last 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seashore, Karen R.

    2009-01-01

    The two fields of leadership studies and school change have increasingly converged over the last 30 years. This paper reviews the origins of the intersection, and the development of research themes in three areas: The role of leaders in shaping and using organizational culture, the agency of teachers in the change process, and the importance of…

  3. Factors in African Americans Pursuing Higher Education after Age 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Davetta A.

    2011-01-01

    Many African Americans are leaving high school prior to graduation and are entering college for the first time beyond the age of 30 years, a phenomenon that has an effect on school systems, the community, and society as a whole. The research problem addressed was the need to understand the experience of an increasing number of African Americans…

  4. Great Expectations: Creative Achievements of the Sociometric Stars in a 30-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrance, E. Paul

    2004-01-01

    The creative achievements and characteristics of a group of ten high school students identified as the most creative by their high school peers were compared to those of ten participants from the same group who had the greatest number of publicly recognized creative achievements approximately 30 years later (Sociometric Stars vs. Beyonders).…

  5. Philosophic Thinking in Social Work: An Analysis of 30 Years of "Social Work" Editorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Brawley, Emilia E.; Zorita, Paz M-B

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at 30 years of editorial perspectives and trends in social work as a profession through the analysis of editorials from the journal "Social Work." It identifies the wax and wane of philosophic (intellectual or scholarly) questions in social work thinking in the past three decades. It defines what philosophic thinking…

  6. Family Boundary Ambiguity: A 30-Year Review of Theory, Research, and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jason S.; Olson, Chad D.; Buckmiller, Nicolle

    2007-01-01

    Since its introduction 30 years ago, family boundary ambiguity (BA) has been a widely used construct in family stress research and clinical intervention. In this article, we present a comprehensive and interdisciplinary review of published research studies that have used BA as a primary variable. Our review identified 37 studies investigating BA…

  7. Recovering from 30 Years of War: Refugee Women and Children in Angola.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, New York, NY.

    After 30 years of war, Angola faces the challenge of creating a civil society. This report presents key findings of a visit to Angola, December 1-13, 1996, by the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. The report describes conditions facing women and children affected by war in Angola, addresses the return process of refugees from…

  8. Is 30 Years of Age Over-the-Hill for Outdoor Professionals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Liz

    2012-01-01

    The author is now 30 years old. For more than a decade, she has been paid to facilitate an array of outdoor-based programming with varying groups of participants. With such breadth of experience, she frequently feels like she is a valuable asset to the organizations for which she works. However, at recent staff training and trip preparation days,…

  9. Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm found after mitral valve replacement performed 30 years earlier.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Elena; Gato, Manuel; Ruiz, José Ramón

    2010-03-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle (LV) is a rare cardiac disease that occurs after myocardial infarction or cardiac surgery. Because patients frequently present with nonspecific symptoms, a high index of suspicion is needed to make the diagnosis. This report describes an unusual case demonstrating a large LV pseudoaneurysm after mitral valve replacement performed 30 years earlier.

  10. Bullying in Childhood, Externalizing Behaviors, and Adult Offending: Evidence from a 30-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the developmental processes linking childhood bullying to criminal offending in adulthood, using data from a 30-year longitudinal study. The linkages between bullying in childhood and three criminal offending outcomes in adulthood were estimated both before and after control for a range of confounding factors. A series of…

  11. Planting Misinformation in the Human Mind: A 30-Year Investigation of the Malleability of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2005-01-01

    The misinformation effect refers to the impairment in memory for the past that arises after exposure to misleading information. The phenomenon has been investigated for at least 30 years, as investigators have addressed a number of issues. These include the conditions under which people are especially susceptible to the negative impact of…

  12. 7 CFR 1467.8 - Compensation for easements and 30-year contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compensation for easements and 30-year contracts. 1467.8 Section 1467.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS...

  13. Bullying in Childhood, Externalizing Behaviors, and Adult Offending: Evidence from a 30-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the developmental processes linking childhood bullying to criminal offending in adulthood, using data from a 30-year longitudinal study. The linkages between bullying in childhood and three criminal offending outcomes in adulthood were estimated both before and after control for a range of confounding factors. A series of…

  14. Philosophic Thinking in Social Work: An Analysis of 30 Years of "Social Work" Editorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Brawley, Emilia E.; Zorita, Paz M-B

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at 30 years of editorial perspectives and trends in social work as a profession through the analysis of editorials from the journal "Social Work." It identifies the wax and wane of philosophic (intellectual or scholarly) questions in social work thinking in the past three decades. It defines what philosophic thinking…

  15. Studies Using Single-Subject Designs in Sport Psychology: 30 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, G. L.; Thompson, K.; Regehr, K.

    2004-01-01

    A prominent feature of behavior-analytic research has been the use of single-subject designs. We examined sport psychology journals and behavioral journals published during the past 30 years, and located 40 studies using single-subject designs to assess interventions for enhancing the performance of athletes and coaches. In this paper, we…

  16. Factors in African Americans Pursuing Higher Education after Age 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Davetta A.

    2011-01-01

    Many African Americans are leaving high school prior to graduation and are entering college for the first time beyond the age of 30 years, a phenomenon that has an effect on school systems, the community, and society as a whole. The research problem addressed was the need to understand the experience of an increasing number of African Americans…

  17. Physical Performance of Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A 30-Year Follow up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahtinen, Ulla; Rintala, Pauli; Malin, Antero

    2007-01-01

    Physical performance of Finnish adolescents (33 females, 44 males) with moderate intellectual disability (ID) was studied over a 30-year period. This study is an extension of Lahtinen's previous work on documenting the performance of individuals with intellectual disabilities over time. This study consisted of analyzing data from a total of four…

  18. Revisiting Public School/University Partnerships for Formal Leadership Development: A Brief 30-Year Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the Kansas State University Chair of the Department of Educational Leadership reviews the strong history of his department's university and public school partnerships and the impact these partnerships have had on leadership preparation programs. Almost 30 years ago, Kansas State University foresaw the power of partnerships with…

  19. Family Boundary Ambiguity: A 30-Year Review of Theory, Research, and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jason S.; Olson, Chad D.; Buckmiller, Nicolle

    2007-01-01

    Since its introduction 30 years ago, family boundary ambiguity (BA) has been a widely used construct in family stress research and clinical intervention. In this article, we present a comprehensive and interdisciplinary review of published research studies that have used BA as a primary variable. Our review identified 37 studies investigating BA…

  20. How will Climate Change Affect Agriculture over the Next 10-30 Years

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agriculture is dependent upon the climate resources of temperature, sunlight, precipitation, and carbon dioxide. Efficient production depends upon optimum conditions of temperature and water supply and changes in these climatic variables will affect plant and animal systems over the next 10- 30 year...

  1. Revisiting Public School/University Partnerships for Formal Leadership Development: A Brief 30-Year Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the Kansas State University Chair of the Department of Educational Leadership reviews the strong history of his department's university and public school partnerships and the impact these partnerships have had on leadership preparation programs. Almost 30 years ago, Kansas State University foresaw the power of partnerships with…

  2. Wind turbine wake meandering at the laboratory and field scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisel, Michael; Musa, Mirko; Hong, Jiarong; Guala, Michele

    2016-11-01

    Flow measurements were collected in the wake of the utility-scale (2.5MW) Eolos wind turbine using a ground-based light detection and ranging (LiDAR) wind profiler to identify the characteristics of wake meandering at the field scale. The investigation seeks to establish the influence of scale and atmospheric turbulence on wake meandering, which has been observed to leave a strong spectral signature on laboratory measurements in wind tunnel and channel flows. The experimental data include multiple test periods at various downstream distances within the turbine wake. Inflow conditions were assessed using a meteorological tower equipped with sonic anemometers. Additionally, an experiment was conducted in the Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel to provide a direct comparison for the utility-scale results and to reaffirm the findings of previous laboratory-scale investigations. Estimates of the wake and inflow one-dimensional velocity spectra were compared to determine whether wake meandering characteristics are present at both scales. An empirical correction to the velocity spectra of the LiDAR and a few options to extract a more local velocity signal are discussed to compensate for the inherent limitations of LiDAR in capturing turbulent fluctuations.

  3. Runoff Variability in Field-scale Catchments and the Implications for Rainffall-Runoff Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Shuster, W.

    2004-12-01

    In this study long-term rainfall runoff records for two agricultural catchments (ca. 0.5 ha) in the USDA - Agricultural Research Service North Appalachian Experimental Watershed (Coshocton, OH) network were used to address the inter-event and inter-catchment variability of field-scale runoff processes. Through analyses of flood frequency and flow duration, the adjacent fallowed watersheds (WS106 and WS121) were found to be similar in terms of annual flood peaks, but less so in terms of the distribution of their discharge rates. Further investigation was focused on event-scale variations of runoff response and whether these variations can be effectively captured by rainfall-runoff models, which included: a) TR-20 (a lumped model); b) EPA-SWMM (a semi-distributed model); and c) GSSHA (a grid-based, fully distributed model). Each model was used to simulate 41 selected runoff episodes recorded in each of the two catchments, and subsequently calibrated to yield parameter values that maximize the correlation between the simulated and observed runoff peaks. Our results indicate that, despite calibration, the hydrographs derived from all models deviated considerably from actual observations, and on the basis of inter-event fluctuations, which furthermore lacked a conspicuous dependence on the magnitude of runoff peaks. Our findings suggest that, in the absence of information on rainfall distribution and soil moisture, distributed models may not be superior to lumped ones in forecasting runoff responses of field scale catchments; and the correspondence between runoff mechanisms and model representations needs to be better understood and accounted for in order to limit the uncertainties of model predictions.

  4. Ciguatera incidence in the US Virgin Islands has not increased over a 30-year time period despite rising seawater temperatures.

    PubMed

    Radke, Elizabeth G; Grattan, Lynn M; Cook, Robert L; Smith, Tyler B; Anderson, Donald M; Morris, J Glenn

    2013-05-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most common marine food poisoning worldwide. It has been hypothesized that increasing seawater temperature will result in increasing ciguatera incidence. In St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, we performed an island-wide telephone survey (N = 807) and a medical record review of diagnosed ciguatera cases at the emergency department of the sole hospital and compared these data with comparable data sources collected in 1980. Annual incidence from both recent data sources remained high (12 per 1,000 among adults in the telephone survey). However, the combined data sources suggest that incidence has declined by 20% or more or remained stable over 30 years, whereas seawater temperatures were increasing. Illness was associated with lower education levels, higher levels of fish consumption, and having previous episodes of ciguatera; population shifts from 1980 to 2010 in these factors could explain an incidence decline of approximately 3 per 1,000, obscuring effects from rising seawater temperature.

  5. Geophysical monitoring of a field-scale biostimulation pilot project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, J.W.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Casey, C.C.

    2006-01-01

    The USGS conducted a geophysical investigation in support of a U.S. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Southern Division field-scale biostimulation pilot project at Anoka County Riverfront Park (ACP), downgradient of the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, Fridley, Minnesota. The goal of the pilot project is to evaluate subsurface injection of vegetable oil emulsion (VOE) to stimulate microbial degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. To monitor the emplacement and movement of the VOE and changes in water chemistry resulting from VOE dissolution and/or enhanced biological activity, the USGS acquired cross-hole radar zero-offset profiles, traveltime tomograms, and borehole geophysical logs during five site visits over 1.5 years. Analysis of pre- and postinjection data sets using petrophysical models developed to estimate VOE saturation and changes in total dissolved solids provides insights into the spatial and temporal distribution of VOE and ground water with altered chemistry. Radar slowness-difference tomograms and zero-offset slowness profiles indicate that the VOE remained close to the injection wells, whereas radar attenuation profiles and electromagnetic induction logs indicate that bulk electrical conductivity increased downgradient of the injection zone, diagnostic of changing water chemistry. Geophysical logs indicate that some screened intervals were located above or below zones of elevated dissolved solids; hence, the geophysical data provide a broader context for interpretation of water samples and evaluation of the biostimulation effort. Our results include (1) demonstration of field and data analysis methods for geophysical monitoring of VOE biostimulation and (2) site-specific insights into the spatial and temporal distributions of VOE at the ACP. ?? 2006 National Ground Water Association.

  6. Simulating Field-Scale Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics Using EPIC

    SciTech Connect

    Causarano, Hector J.; Shaw, Joey N.; Franzluebbers, A. J.; reeves, D. W.; Raper, Randy L.; Balkcom, Kipling S.; Norfleet, M. L.; Izaurralde, R Cesar

    2007-07-01

    Simulation models integrate our knowledge of soil organic C (SOC) dynamics and are useful tools for evaluating impacts of crop management on soil C sequestration; yet, they require local calibration. Our objectives were to calibrate the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model, and evaluate its performance for simulating SOC fractions as affected by soil landscape and management. An automated parameter optimization procedure was used to calibrate the model for a site-specific experiment in the Coastal Plain of central Alabama. The ability of EPIC to predict corn (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yields and SOC dynamics on different soil landscape positions (summit, sideslope and drainageway) during the initial period of conservation tillage adoption (5 years) was evaluated using regression and mean squared deviations. Simulated yield explained 88% of measured yield variation, with greatest disagreement on the sideslope position and highest agreement in the drainageway. Simulations explained approximately 1, 34 and 40% of the total variation in microbial biomass C (MBC), particulate organic C (POC) and total organic C (TOC), respectively. Lowest errors on TOC simulations (0-20 cm) were found on the sideslope and summit. We conclude that the automated parameterization was generally successful, although further work is needed to refine the MBC and POC fractions, and to improve EPIC predictions of SOC dynamics with depth. Overall, EPIC was sensitive to spatial differences in C fractions that resulted from differing soil landscape positions. The model needs additional refinement for accurate simulations of field-scale SOC dynamics affected by short-term management decisions.

  7. Numerical Simulation of nZVI at the Field Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, A. I.; Krol, M.; Sleep, B. E.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI) has been used at a number of contaminated sites over the last decade. At most of these sites, significant decreases in contaminant concentrations have resulted from the application of nZVI. However, limited work has been completed investigating nZVI mobility at the field-scale. In this study a three dimensional, three phase, finite difference numerical simulator (CompSim) was used to simulate nZVI and polymer transport in a variably saturated site. The model was able to accurately predict the field observed head data without parameter fitting. In addition, the numerical simulator estimated the amount of nZVI delivered to the saturated and unsaturated zones as well as the phase of nZVI (i.e., attached or aqueous phase). The simulation results showed that the injected slurry migrated radially outward from the injection well, and therefore nZVI transport was governed by injection velocity as well as viscosity of the injected solution. A suite of sensitivity analyses was performed to investigate the impact of different injection scenarios (e.g. different volume and injection rate) on nZVI migration. Simulation results showed that injection of a higher volume of nZVI delivered more iron particles at a given distance; however, not necessarily to a greater distance proportionate to the increase in volume. This study suggests that on-site synthesized nZVI particles are mobile in the subsurface and the numerical simulator can be a valuable tool for optimum design of nZVI applications.

  8. Geophysical monitoring of a field-scale biostimulation pilot project.

    PubMed

    Lane, John W; Day-Lewis, Frederick D; Casey, Clifton C

    2006-01-01

    The USGS conducted a geophysical investigation in support of a U.S. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Southern Division field-scale biostimulation pilot project at Anoka County Riverfront Park (ACP), down-gradient of the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, Fridley, Minnesota. The goal of the pilot project is to evaluate subsurface injection of vegetable oil emulsion (VOE) to stimulate microbial degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. To monitor the emplacement and movement of the VOE and changes in water chemistry resulting from VOE dissolution and/or enhanced biological activity, the USGS acquired cross-hole radar zero-offset profiles, travel-time tomograms, and borehole geophysical logs during five site visits over 1.5 years. Analysis of pre- and postinjection data sets using petrophysical models developed to estimate VOE saturation and changes in total dissolved solids provides insights into the spatial and temporal distribution of VOE and ground water with altered chemistry. Radar slowness-difference tomograms and zero-offset slowness profiles indicate that the VOE remained close to the injection wells, whereas radar attenuation profiles and electromagnetic induction logs indicate that bulk electrical conductivity increased down-gradient of the injection zone, diagnostic of changing water chemistry. Geophysical logs indicate that some screened intervals were located above or below zones of elevated dissolved solids; hence, the geophysical data provide a broader context for interpretation of water samples and evaluation of the biostimulation effort. Our results include (1) demonstration of field and data analysis methods for geophysical monitoring of VOE biostimulation and (2) site-specific insights into the spatial and temporal distributions of VOE at the ACP.

  9. Revisiting 30 years of Biofunctionalization and Surface Chemistry of Inorganic Nanoparticles for Nanomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, João; Dias, Jorge; Grazú, Valeria; Moros, Maria; Baptista, Pedro; De La Fuente, Jesús

    2014-07-01

    In the last 30 years we have assisted to a massive advance of nanomaterials in material science. Nanomaterials and structures, in addition to their small size, have properties that differ from those of larger bulk materials, making them ideal for a host of novel applications. The spread of nanotechnology in the last years has been due to the improvement of synthesis and characterization methods on the nanoscale, a field rich in new physical phenomena and synthetic opportunities. In fact, the development of functional nanoparticles has progressed exponentially over the past two decades. This work aims to extensively review 30 years of different strategies of surface modification and functionalization of noble metal (gold) nanoparticles, magnetic nanocrystals and semiconductor nanoparticles, such as quantum dots. The aim of this review is not only to provide in-depth insights into the different biofunctionalization and characterization methods, but also to give an overview of possibilities and limitations of the available nanoparticles.

  10. Revisiting 30 years of biofunctionalization and surface chemistry of inorganic nanoparticles for nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Conde, João; Dias, Jorge T.; Grazú, Valeria; Moros, Maria; Baptista, Pedro V.; de la Fuente, Jesus M.

    2014-01-01

    In the last 30 years we have assisted to a massive advance of nanomaterials in material science. Nanomaterials and structures, in addition to their small size, have properties that differ from those of larger bulk materials, making them ideal for a host of novel applications. The spread of nanotechnology in the last years has been due to the improvement of synthesis and characterization methods on the nanoscale, a field rich in new physical phenomena and synthetic opportunities. In fact, the development of functional nanoparticles has progressed exponentially over the past two decades. This work aims to extensively review 30 years of different strategies of surface modification and functionalization of noble metal (gold) nanoparticles, magnetic nanocrystals and semiconductor nanoparticles, such as quantum dots. The aim of this review is not only to provide in-depth insights into the different biofunctionalization and characterization methods, but also to give an overview of possibilities and limitations of the available nanoparticles. PMID:25077142

  11. Forecasting California's earthquakes: What can we expect in the next 30 years?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, Edward H.; Milner, Kevin R.; ,

    2008-01-01

    In a new comprehensive study, scientists have determined that the chance of having one or more magnitude 6.7 or larger earthquakes in the California area over the next 30 years is greater than 99%. Such quakes can be deadly, as shown by the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta and the 1994 magnitude 6.7 Northridge earthquakes. The likelihood of at least one even more powerful quake of magnitude 7.5 or greater in the next 30 years is 46%?such a quake is most likely to occur in the southern half of the State. Building codes, earthquake insurance, and emergency planning will be affected by these new results, which highlight the urgency to prepare now for the powerful quakes that are inevitable in California?s future.

  12. Recovery and reproduction of an Antarctic tardigrade retrieved from a moss sample frozen for over 30 years.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Megumu; Imura, Satoshi; Kanda, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Long-term survival has been one of the most studied of the extraordinary physiological characteristics of cryptobiosis in micrometazoans such as nematodes, tardigrades and rotifers. In the available studies of long-term survival of micrometazoans, instances of survival have been the primary observation, and recovery conditions of animals or subsequent reproduction are generally not reported. We therefore documented recovery conditions and reproduction immediately following revival of tardigrades retrieved from a frozen moss sample collected in Antarctica in 1983 and stored at -20 °C for 30.5 years. We recorded recovery of two individuals and development of a separate egg of the Antarctic tardigrade, Acutuncus antarcticus, providing the longest records of survival for tardigrades as animals or eggs. One of the two resuscitated individuals and the hatchling successfully reproduced repeatedly after their recovery from long-term cryptobiosis. This considerable extension of the known length of long-term survival of tardigrades recorded in our study is interpreted as being associated with the minimum oxidative damage likely to have resulted from storage under stable frozen conditions. The long recovery times of the revived tardigrades observed is suggestive of the requirement for repair of damage accrued over 30 years of cryptobiosis. Further more detailed studies will improve understanding of mechanisms and conditions underlying the long-term survival of cryptobiotic organisms.

  13. The measles epidemic trend over the past 30 years in a central district in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Shen, Bing; Xiong, JianJing; Lu, Yihan; Jiang, Qingwu

    2017-01-01

    Measles vaccination over the past 50 years has greatly reduced the incidence of measles. However, measles among migrants and the resulting changes in epidemiological characteristics have brought new challenges to the elimination of measles. We aim to describe the measles epidemic trend over the past 30 years in a central district in Shanghai, China. The present study was conducted in the Jing'an District, which is located in the center of Shanghai. Based on historical surveillance data of measles, we calculated the incidence of measles among local residents and migrants separately. Next, we classified all of the cases of the measles among local residents between 1984 and 2015 into 8 age groups and 5 birth cohorts. Finally, we calculated the measles incidence in each time period by the different age groups and birth cohorts, to understand the measles epidemic trend over past 30 years in the Jing'an District. A total of 103 cases of measles were reported from the Jing'an District, Shanghai, from 1984 to 2015. For infants less than 1 year of age and adults over 30 years of age, the incidence of measles continued to rise over the past 30 years. For a specific birth cohort, the incidence of measles after measles vaccination declined initially, and was then followed by a rebound. The incidence of measles in older adults and infants increased in some developed regions, which slows the process of measles elimination. This suggested that the population immunity against measles after measles vaccination would gradually reduce with time. We recommend supplemental immunization against measles in adults in order to reduce the immunity decline, especially for migrants.

  14. Cervical cancer screening among women aged 18-30 years - United States, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-01-04

    Screening women for cervical cancer can save lives. However, among young women, cervical cancer is relatively rare, and too-frequent screening can lead to high costs and adverse events associated with overtreatment. Before 2012, cervical cancer screening guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Cancer Society (ACS), and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) differed on age to start and how often to get screened for cervical cancer. In 2012, however, all three organizations recommended that 1) screening by Papanicolau (Pap) test should not be used for women aged <21 years, regardless of initiation of sexual activity, and 2) a screening interval of 3 years should be maintained for women aged 21-30 years. ACS and ACOG explicitly recommend against yearly screening. To assess trends in Pap testing before the new guidelines were introduced, CDC analyzed 2000-2010 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for women aged 18-30 years. CDC found that, among women aged 18-21 years, the percentage reporting never having been screened increased from 26.3% in 2000 to 47.5% in 2010, and the proportion reporting having had a Pap test in the past 12 months decreased from 65.0% to 41.5%. Among those aged 22-30 years, the proportion reporting having had a Pap test within the preceding 12 months decreased from 78.1% to 67.0%. These findings showed that Pap testing practices for young women have been moving toward the latest guidelines. However, the data also showed a concerning trend: among women aged 22-30 years, who should be screened every 3 years, the proportion who reported never having had a Pap test increased from 6.6% to 9.0%. More effort is needed to promote acceptance of the latest evidence-based recommendations so that all women receive the maximal benefits of cervical cancer screening.

  15. Growth and yield of a managed 30-year-old noble fir plantation.

    Treesearch

    Marshall D. Murray

    1988-01-01

    A thinned and fertilized noble fir plantation produced 3,450 cubic feet per acre 30 years after it was planted in western Washington. More than half of this volume was in trees with diameter at breast height of 10 inches and larger. Current annual increment the last 6 years was 295 cubic feet per acre. Ornamental boughs have been harvested annually for about a 15-year...

  16. Eumycetoma by Madurella mycetomatis with 30 years of evolution: therapeutic challenge.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Felipe Maurício Soeiro; Galhardo, Maria Clara Gutierrez; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Souza, Paulo Roberto Cotrim de; Coelho, Janice Mary Chicarino de Oliveira; Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi do

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of eumycetoma by Madurella mycetomatis on the buttocks and thighs in an adult immunocompetent patient, diagnosed after 30 years of clinical development. He was treated over four years with fluconazol and itraconazol associated with five times surgical excisions of subcutaneous nodules. At the eighth year of follow-up, one nodule recurred on the right infragluteal region, which was excised surgically and has remained asymptomatic ever since.

  17. 30 Years of NF-κB: A Blossoming of Relevance to Human Pathobiology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Lenardo, Michael J; Baltimore, David

    2017-01-12

    NF-κB was discovered 30 years ago as a rapidly inducible transcription factor. Since that time, it has been found to have a broad role in gene induction in diverse cellular responses, particularly throughout the immune system. Here, we summarize elaborate regulatory pathways involving this transcription factor and use recent discoveries in human genetic diseases to place specific proteins within their relevant medical and biological contexts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Studies using single-subject designs in sport psychology: 30 years of research

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Garry L.; Thompson, Kendra; Regehr, Kaleigh

    2004-01-01

    A prominent feature of behavior-analytic research has been the use of single-subject designs. We examined sport psychology journals and behavioral journals published during the past 30 years, and located 40 studies using single-subject designs to assess interventions for enhancing the performance of athletes and coaches. In this paper, we summarize that body of research, discuss its strengths and limitations, and identify areas for future research. PMID:22478434

  19. Prevalence of blindness and low vision of people over 30 years in the Wenchi district, Ghana, in relation to eye care programmes.

    PubMed

    Moll, A C; van der Linden, A J; Hogeweg, M; Schader, W E; Hermans, J; de Keizer, R J

    1994-04-01

    A population based survey on the prevalence of major blinding disorders was conducted in the Wenchi district in central Ghana between March and May 1991. In 10 villages, 1425 people of 30 years and older were screened, using the WHO eye examination record. The prevalence of bilateral blindness above 30 years proved to be 1.7% (best acuity < 3/60): the prevalence of low vision above 30 years was 2.0% (best visual acuity 6/18 to 3/60). The causes of blindness were determined as cataract (62.5%), onchocerciasis (12.5%), corneal opacity (non-trachomatous) (8.2%), refraction anomalies (4.2%), phthisis bulbi (4.2%), optic atrophy (4.2%), and vascular retinopathy (4.2%). In the Wenchi district, 1.0% of the population over the age of 30 years was found to need a cataract extraction because of blindness of both eyes. Another potential 1.0% needs a cataract extraction because of low vision. A minor second study (n = 149) was undertaken in the same district, but in a village in an area near the Black Volta river in which onchocerciasis is endemic. The prevalence of blindness (8.1%) and low vision (3.4%) caused by onchocerciasis and cataract both proved to be higher. The survey provided the basis for a preventive and curative eye care programme.

  20. Long term results (15-30 years) of surgical repair of aortic coarctation.

    PubMed Central

    Presbitero, P; Demarie, D; Villani, M; Perinetto, E A; Riva, G; Orzan, F; Bobbio, M; Morea, M; Brusca, A

    1987-01-01

    The late outcome in 226 patients who survived surgical repair of aortic coarctation was assessed 15-30 years after operation. Twenty six patients died during the follow up mainly from causes related to surgical repair or to associated cardiovascular anomalies. The survival rates of patients operated on between the ages of four and 20 years are 97%, 97%, 92% at 10, 20, and 30 years after operation. For patients operated on after the age of 20 the corresponding rates are 93%, 85%, and 68%. This difference is statistically significant from the fifteenth year of follow up onwards. The survival of patients operated on before the age of 20 is not significantly different from that of a comparable general Italian population. Recoarctation occurred in only 8% of patients who had end to end anastomosis, whereas it occurred in 35% of those who had other types of operation. Two thirds of the patients were hypertensive at the last visit. The actuarial curve shows that blood pressure was normal in most patients 5-10 years after operation, but 30 years after coarctation repair only 32% of patients are expected to be normotensive. Thus early repair of aortic coarctation appears to improve long term survival. Intervention in older patients and when blood pressure is high seem to be the most important predictors of late hypertension. PMID:3593616

  1. Dental visiting history between ages 13 and 30 years and oral health-related impact.

    PubMed

    Brennan, David S; Spencer, A John

    2014-06-01

    The aim was to assess the role of visit history factors between the age of 13 and 30 years on oral health-related impact. In 1988-89, n=7,673 South Australian school children aged 13 years were sampled with n=4,604 children (60.0%) and n=4,476 parents (58.3%) returning questionnaires. In 2005-06, n=632 baseline study participants responded (43.0% response of those traced and living in Adelaide). Oral health impact was measured at age 30 years using OHIP-14. Multivariate regression showed that OHIP scores were significantly higher (P<0.05) for those with episodes of relief of pain visits once (β=1.487) or two or more times (β=2.883), and episodes of extraction once (β=1.301) or two or more times (β=3.172). Higher positive dental visit attitude scores were associated with lower OHIP scores (β=-1.265), as were being male (β=-0.637), having a job (β=-1.555) and being tertiary educated (β=-0.632). History of adverse dental events between the age of 13 and 30 years such as episodes of relief of pain visits and episodes of extraction was associated with higher impact of oral health problems at age 30 suggesting a cumulative effect. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Gastric cancer in young people under 30 years of age: worse prognosis, or delay in diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    López-Basave, Horacio Noé; Morales-Vásquez, Flavia; Ruiz-Molina, Juan Manuel; Ñamendys-Silva, Silvio A; Vela-Sarmiento, Itzel; Ruan, Javier Melchor; Rosciano, Alejandro E Padilla; Calderillo-Ruiz, German; Díaz-Romero, Consuelo; Herrera-Gómez, Angel; Meneses-García, Abelardo A

    2013-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease with nonspecific early symptoms. Its incidence and prognosis in young patients has shown considerable variability. Purpose of the study Our objective was to retrospectively study patients from our institution aged <30 years with gastric carcinoma. The study was undertaken to describe the experience of gastric cancer in this population, and to demonstrate its specific clinical and pathological characteristics. Materials and methods We reviewed the cases of histologically confirmed gastric cancer between 1985 and 2006 at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología of Mexico (INCan); emphasis in our review was placed on clinical presentation, diagnostic and therapeutic intervention, pathology, and the results. Results Thirty cases of gastric carcinoma were reviewed. The patients’ median age was 27 years (range, 18–30 years) and the male:female ratio was 1:1. Conclusion Gastric cancer exhibits different behavior in patients aged, 30 years, but delay in diagnosis and the tumor’s behavior appear to be the most important factors in prognosis of the disease. PMID:23580357

  3. Long term outcome up to 30 years after the Mustard or Senning operation: a nationwide multicentre study in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Moons, P; Gewillig, M; Sluysmans, T; Verhaaren, H; Viart, P; Massin, M; Suys, B; Budts, W; Pasquet, A; De Wolf, D; Vliers, A

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess long term outcome of patients who underwent Mustard or Senning repair for transposition of the great arteries up to 30 years earlier. Design: Retrospective review of medical records. Setting: The six university hospitals in Belgium with paediatric cardiology departments. Patients: 339 patients were reviewed, of whom 124 underwent the Mustard procedure and 215 the Senning procedure. This represents almost the entire population of patients in Belgium with either simple or complex transposition. Main outcome measures: Mortality, morbidity, functional abilities, social integration. Results: Overall mortality was 24.2%. Early mortality (⩽ 30 days after surgery) accounted for 16.5%, late mortality for 7.7%. Actuarial survival of early survivors at 10, 20, and 30 years after surgery was 91.7%, 88.6%, and 79.3%, respectively. Patients in the Senning cohort had a slightly better survival rate than those in the Mustard cohort (NS). Baffle obstruction occurred more often after Mustard repair (15.3%) than after the Senning procedure (1.4%). Arrhythmia-free survival did not differ between the two cohorts, but was determined by the complexity of the transposition. Survivors of the Senning cohort had better functional status, and tended to engage in more sports activities. Conclusions: The long term outcome for patients surviving the Mustard or Senning operation was favourable in terms of late mortality, morbidity, functional, and social status. Overall mortality in the Senning cohort did not differ from the Mustard group, but Senning patients had better functional status, greater participation in sports activities, and fewer baffle related problems. PMID:14966055

  4. Interannual and long-term climate variability over the Zaire River Basin during the last 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazadi, Sanga-Ngoie; Kaoru, Fukuyama

    1996-09-01

    Climatological data records of temperature, rainfall, and number of rainy days provided by the Zaire Meteorological Agency (METTELSAT) at seven Zairian stations for the 1960-1992 period are analyzed for the first time since the 1970s. Our investigations focus on climate variability as related with environmental changes over the Zaire River Basin, which is climatologically and biogenetically one of the most important regions in the world. On the basis of the 30-year monthly mean climatologies, it is shown that the solar annual cycle dominates the seasonal changes of both the temperature and rainfall over this region. On the interannual time-scales, the variability of these climatic variables is characterized by (1) a 2-to 5-year oscillation strongly correlated to the southern oscillation index, thus to the ENSO phenomenon, and (2) a nearly 10-year oscillation (called here the quasi-decadal oscillation, QDO) with a very remarkable correlationship with the solar activity (sunspots number). On the long-term timescale, a remarkable decreasing trend in rainfall and number of rainy days, as well as increasing temperatures over the 30-year period, has been detected as the most dominant climatological features all over the basin. The magnitudes of temperature increase are by far larger than those reported in previous works for both the global mean and hemispherical mean warmings. We postulate that this trend of regional warming and desiccation from within the heart of the African rainforests is due to the increase in surface albedo, itself triggered by uncontrolled land-use policies and forests development over this area (logging, slash and burn, bushfire, fuelwood, farming, ranching, urbanization, etc.).

  5. Breast cancer in very young women (<30 years): Correlation of imaging features with clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical subtypes.

    PubMed

    An, Yeong Yi; Kim, Sung Hun; Kang, Bong Joo; Park, Chang Suk; Jung, Na Young; Kim, Ji Youn

    2015-10-01

    Early diagnosis of breast cancer in very young women (<30 years) is challenging and the characteristic imaging findings are not yet fully understood. We evaluated the imaging findings of breast cancer in very young women (<30 years) and to correlate them with clinicopathological features. A total of 50 surgically confirmed breast cancers were included in our retrospective study. The medical records were reviewed and the radiological features were analyzed according to the new 5th edition of the ACR BI-RADS lexicon. The breast cancers in our study population most commonly presented as a self-detected mass (74%), T2-3 stage (58%), histological grade III (52.3%) and ER-positive (80%) subtype. The most common finding was an irregular (87.5%) hyperdense (66.7%) mass with indistinct margins (50%) on mammography and an irregular (75.6%) indistinct (57.8%) hypoechoic/heterogeneous (77.8%) mass without a posterior acoustic feature (60%) on ultrasonography. MRI revealed an irregular shape (63.3%), irregular margins (43.3%), and heterogeneous enhancement (60%) with washout kinetics (69.4%). Mammographically, microcalcifications were correlated with the HER2-enriched type, and mass-type lesions were correlated with triple-negative cancer (p=0.04). An oval/round mass on ultrasound (p=0.005), rim enhancement (p=0.004) and intralesional T2 high signal intensity (p=0.04) on MRI were associated with the triple-negative type. On all imaging modalities, breast cancer in very young women usually presented as an irregular mass, and certain radiological features could be used for predicting the specific tumor type. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gamma-ray blazar BL Lacertae: the highest recorded cm/mm radio flux over the past 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamanavis, V.; Myserlis, I.; Fuhrmann, L.; Angelakis, E.; Nestoras, I.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Zensus, J. A.; Ungerechts, H.; Sievers, A.; Riquelme, D.

    2012-08-01

    We report on the recent flaring behavior of 2200+420 (BL Lacertae) at radio bands as observed by the F-GAMMA program. Recent activity: Radio observations performed with the Effelsberg 100-m and the IRAM 30-m telescopes reveal that BL Lacertae is currently in high state - the highest since the historical maximum of 1981 as observed by the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory (about 16 Jy at 14.5 GHz, e.g.

  7. Linking Land Surface Phenology and Growth Limiting Factor Shifts over the Past 30 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garonna, I.; Schenkel, D.; de Jong, R.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The study of global vegetation dynamics contributes to a better understanding of global change drivers and how these affect ecosystems and ecological diversity. Land-surface phenology (LSP) is a key response and feedback of vegetation to the climate system, and hence a parameter that needs to be accurately represented in terrestrial biosphere models [1]. However, the effects of climatic changes on LSP depend on the relative importance of climatic constraints in specific regions - which are not well understood at global scale. In this study, we analyzed a Phenology Reanalysis dataset [2] to evaluate shifts in three climatic drivers of phenology at global scale and over the last 30 years (1982-2012): incoming radiation, evaporative demand and minimum temperature. As a first step, we compared LAI as modeled from these three factors (LAIre) to remotely sensed observations of LSP (LAI3g, [3]) over the same time period. As a second step, we examined temporal trends in the climatic constraints at Start- and End- of the Growing Season. There was good agreement between phenology metrics as derived form LAI3g and LAIre over the last 30 years - thus providing confidence in the climatic constraints underlying the modeled data. Our analysis reveals inter-annual variation in the relative importance of the three climatic factors in limiting vegetation growth at Start- and End- of the Growing Season over the last 30 years. High northern latitudes, as well as northern Europe and central Asia, appear to have undergone significant changes in dominance between the three controls. We also find that evaporative demand has become increasingly limiting for growth in many parts of the world, in particular in South America and eastern Asia. [1] Richardson, A.D. et al. Global Change Biology 18, 566-584 (2012). [2] Stöckli, R. et al. J. Geophys. Res 116, G03020 (2011). [3] Zhu, Z. et al. Remote Sensing 5, 927-948 (2013).

  8. Necrotising pneumonia and bronchiectasis in a previously healthy 30-year-old man

    PubMed Central

    Blauvelt, David G; Castellanos, Angela; Stern, Theodore A; Puig, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a previously healthy 30-year-old man who presented with a necrotising pneumonia and bronchiectasis. His infectious workup revealed a Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. Since bronchiectasis and necrotising pneumonia are unusual findings in an otherwise healthy person, further investigation was pursued. His workup revealed non-classic cystic fibrosis (CF) and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). This case discusses the differential diagnosis of bronchiectasis, the diagnosis and treatment of ABPA, and the role of CF mutations in the pathogenesis of ABPA. PMID:25608981

  9. Solvent/detergent-treated plasma: a tale of 30 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Liumbruno, Giancarlo Maria; Marano, Giuseppe; Grazzini, Gioia; Capuzzo, Enrico; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    Solvent/detergent-treated plasma was licensed >30 years ago. It has several specific characteristics, the most important being the standardized content of clotting factors, the lack of antibodies implicated in transfusion-related acute lung injury pathogenesis and the very high level of safety against transfusion-related viral infections. Since 1992, many clinical studies have confirmed its safety and efficacy in a wide range of congenital and acquired bleeding disorders. After a brief analysis of the pharmaceutical characteristics of solvent/detergent plasma, this review will focus on the clinical experience with this virus-inactivated plasma.

  10. 30 years of Physics Education Research at the University of Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, Peter S.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, members of the UW Physics Education Group have examined student learning in courses serving a wide range of populations. Most of the focus has been on elementary, middle, and high school teachers and students in introductory university physics courses, but more recently, the effort has expanded to include physics majors in upper-division courses on quantum mechanics and electrodynamics. In general, the group has taken a practical approach that focuses on identifying instructional strategies that are effective at promoting conceptual understanding and student reasoning ability. Examples will be drawn from across these courses to illustrate common themes and connections.

  11. Pediatric Vascular Surgery Review with a 30-Year-Experience in a Tertiary Referral Center

    PubMed Central

    Min, Seung-Kee; Cho, Sungsin; Kim, Hyun-Young; Kim, Sang Joon

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric vascular disease is rare, and remains a big challenge to vascular surgeons. In contrast to adults, surgery for pediatric vascular disease is complicated by issues related to small size, future growth, and availability of suitable vascular conduit. During the last 30 years, 131 major vascular operations were performed in a tertiary referral center, Seoul National University Hospital, including aortoiliac aneurysm, acute or chronic arterial occlusion, renovascular hypertension, portal venous hypertension, trauma, tumor invasion to major abdominal vessels, and others. Herein we review on the important pediatric vascular diseases and share our clinical experiences on these rare diseases. PMID:28690995

  12. On the spatio-temporal dynamics of soil moisture at the field scale

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this paper, we review the state of the art of characterizing and analyzing spatio-temporal dynamics of soil moisture content at the field scale. We discuss measurement techniques that have become available in recent years and that provide unique opportunities to characterize field scale soil mois...

  13. Results of surgical correction of anorectal malformations. A 10-30 year follow-up.

    PubMed Central

    Iwai, N; Yanagihara, J; Tokiwa, K; Deguchi, E; Takahashi, T

    1988-01-01

    Of 119 patients with surgical correction of anorectal malformations, 47 who were 10-30 years of age were interviewed personally and had manometric studies to evaluate postoperative continence. This clinical study included not only long-term anorectal function but also sexual function. Patients with low type anomalies or with intermediate type anomalies were more likely to be continent, whereas patients with high type lesions had some problems with continence. However, only two of the 16 patients (12%) with high type anomalies were classified as having poor results. This rate is perhaps lower than might be expected. Thus, incontinent patients may become continent even if they were classified as having fecal incontinence before 6 years of age. Most patients who were 15-30 years of age had normal sexual function except for two females with irregular menstruation. These results indicate that achievement of fecal continence and sexual function in patients with high type anomalies treated by abdominoperineal rectoplasty depends on careful dissection as close as possible to the rectal wall and bringing the terminal bowel down exactly within the sling of the puborectal muscle. PMID:3341818

  14. Personality characteristics in childhood and outcomes in adulthood: findings from a 30 year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Newton-Howes, Giles; Horwood, John; Mulder, Roger

    2015-04-01

    Personality has been associated with a variety of outcomes in adulthood. Most of the literature related to mental state disorder and personality is cross sectional. Data from more than 900 participants of the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS) were examined. Extroversion and neuroticism were measured at 14 years old and social outcomes at age 30. The presence of mental state disorder between 18-30 years old was identified. Multiple potential confounders in childhood were included in the analysis. Neuroticism at fourteen was significantly correlated with multiple environmental exposures whereas extroversion had relatively few associations. Regression analysis found that neuroticism at 14 predicted depression, anxiety, suicidality and overall mental health problems at 30 as well as poor self-esteem but not relationship quality or wellbeing. Extroversion at 14 predicted alcohol and drug dependence and overall mental health problems, but also predicted improved social wellbeing, self-esteem and relationship quality at 30. In this analysis extroversion interacts with significantly fewer environmental factors than neuroticism in predicting adult outcomes. Neuroticism at 14 years predicts poorer mental health outcomes in adulthood. Extroversion in childhood may be a protective factor in the development of mental disorder other than alcohol use disorders. Extroverted adolescents have more positive social outcomes at 30 years. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  15. Chlorinated, brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in African Penguin eggs: 30 years since the previous assessment.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Govender, Danny; Underhill, Les; Polder, Anuschka

    2015-05-01

    The African Penguin population has drastically declined over the last 100 years. Changes in food availability due to over-fishing and other oceanographic changes seem to be major causes. However, it has also been 30 years since organic pollutants as a potential factor have been assessed. We analysed penguin eggs collected in 2011 and 2012 from two breeding colonies 640 km apart: Robben Island near Cape Town on the Atlantic Ocean coast, and Bird Island near Port Elizabeth on the Indian Ocean coast of South Africa. We quantified organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Compared to 30 years ago, concentrations of ΣDDT have remained about the same or slightly lower, while ΣPCBs declined almost four-fold. The use of DDT in malaria control is unlikely to have contributed. PFCs were detected in all eggs. Indications (non-significant) of eggshell thinning associated with ΣDDT and ΣPCB was found. It seems therefore that the concentrations of measured organic pollutants the African Penguin eggs are not contributing directly to its current demise, but concerns remain about thinner shells and desiccation. Effects of combinations of compounds and newer compounds cannot be excluded, as well as more subtle effects on reproduction, development, and behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Immunity against diphtheria 25-30 years after primary vaccination in childhood.

    PubMed

    Kjeldsen, K; Simonsen, O; Heron, I

    1985-04-20

    In Denmark primary vaccination against diphtheria is offered in the 5th, 6th, and 15th month of life with doses of 50 Lf. Only those doing military service are routinely revaccinated (with 12 1/2 Lf, given once). 403 persons offered primary vaccination 25-30 years ago were screened for diphtheria antitoxin titres by the use of neutralisation and haemagglutination tests. 19% of these (10% of the males and 26% of the females) were unprotected (less than 0.01 IU/ml). Among those not revaccinated 22% had antitoxin titres below protective level. This accords with the continuing decline of diphtheria antitoxin titre after vaccination. Among those revaccinated against diphtheria in adolescence 5% became unprotected. Thus, persons who were offered primary vaccination against diphtheria 25-30 years ago may be susceptible to diphtheria and its toxic complications. So may those revaccinated more than 10 years ago. Should diphtheria emerge in a community those who received their primary vaccination more than 2 years ago or revaccination more than 10 years ago ought to be revaccinated. Revaccination is also advisable for those travelling to countries with endemic diphtheria. Moreover, since 10% of the present population were unprotected against tetanus it seems advisable to increase the immunity against diphtheria and tetanus by routine revaccination with a combined diphtheria-tetanus vaccine. Only a documented history of vaccinations should be relied on when a decision is being made as to whether to carry out primary vaccination or revaccination.

  17. Lessons from 30 years' data of Korean end-stage renal disease registry, 1985-2015.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dong-Chan; Yun, Sung Ro; Lee, Seoung Woo; Han, Sang Woong; Kim, Won; Park, Jongha; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2015-09-01

    The Korean Society of Nephrology (KSN) launched a nationwide official survey program about dialysis therapy in 1985. Nowadays, the accumulated data for 30 years by this "Insan Prof. Min Memorial end-stage renal disease (ESRD) Registry" program have been providing the essential information for dialysis clinical practice, academic nephrology research, and health management policy. We reviewed 30 years of data to identify important changes and implications for the future improvement of dialysis therapy in Korea. Hemodialysis patients, especially diabetics and elderly patients have increased in number very rapidly during recent years in Korea. The Korean prevalence rate of ESRD patients was about 70% of the United States and about 50% of Japan according to the international comparisons in the annual data report of United States Renal Data System. The blood pressure control, anemia control, and dialysis adequacy have continuously improved year by year. The importance of calcium and phosphorus control has also been increasing because of the increase in long-term dialysis patients. In addition, chronic dialysis complications should be closely monitored and dialysis modifications, such as hemodiafiltration therapy, might be considered. Because of the increase of private clinics and nursing hospitals in dialysis practice, the role of dialysis specialists and continuing education are thought to be essential. For strict cost-effective dialysis control of increasing elderly, diabetic, and long-term dialysis patients, the KSN ESRD patient registration should be run by the KSN and health ministry in cooperation, in which the dialysis fee reimbursement should be accompanied.

  18. Sensory and nutritional quality of white rice after residential storage for up to 30 years.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Michelle A; Coons, Laura M; Engstrom, Eric E; Pang, Shintaro; Pahulu, Heather F; Ogden, Lynn V; Pike, Oscar A

    2014-05-01

    Rice is a staple food that may be packaged for long-term storage to ameliorate unpredictable circumstances such as crop failures and natural disasters. The sensory and nutritional quality of 18 samples of long grain white rice (11 regular, 7 parboiled) packaged in cans stored up to 30 years at ambient temperature in residential locations was evaluated. Hedonic scores for overall liking ranged from 5.6 to 6.6 (9-point scale) and all samples regardless of age scored above 5, "neither like nor dislike". All but one 30-year parboiled sample were considered acceptable for everyday use by greater than 50% of panelists, and for emergency use by over 88% of panelists. Thiamin concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 3.6 µg/g. Although vitamin stability appears to be limited, rice retains much of its sensory quality over time and the presence of minerals and other stable macronutrients may justify its inclusion in a long-term food storage regimen.

  19. Unusual 30-year durability of Hancock II porcine bioprosthesis in tricuspid position.

    PubMed

    Oumeiri, Bachar El; Eynden, Frédéric Vanden; Nooten, Guido Van

    2015-01-01

    We describe an unusual durability of a Hancock II porcine bioprosthesis in tricuspid position. Sustainability of bioprostheses is known to be limited especially in young patients. A 52-year old Caucasian woman with a history of multiple valve interventions. Her clinical presentation of dyspnoea and lower limb oedema led to the diagnosis of severe tricuspid valve stenosis and right heart failure, and was managed by the replacement of the tricuspid bioprosthesis by another bioprosthesis 30-years after the initial implantation. Calcification is the leading cause of bioprosthesis structural deterioration. This immune-induced phenomenon is more pronounced in young patients. Although several patient-related and valve-related factors influence the durability of a xenograft, unknown factors may be of some importance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a 30-year durability of tricuspid bioprosthesis in a young recipient. In the absence of extensive calcifications, pannus formation covering the whole prosthesis, peculiar hemodynamics and other unknown factors might have contributed to an extended durability in this young patient. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Preschoolers’ Delay of Gratification Predicts Their Body Mass 30 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Schlam, Tanya R.; Wilson, Nicole L.; Shoda, Yuichi; Mischel, Walter; Ayduk, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess whether preschoolers’ performance on a delay of gratification task would predict their body mass index (BMI) 30 years later. Study design In the late 1960s/early 1970s, 4-year-olds from a university-affiliated preschool completed the classic delay of gratification task. As part of a longitudinal study, a subset (N = 164, 57% women) completed a follow-up approximately 30 years later and self-reported their height and weight. Data were analyzed using hierarchical regression. Results Performance on the delay of gratification task accounted for a significant portion of variance in BMI (4%, p < .01), over and above the variance accounted for by sex alone (13%). Each additional minute a preschooler delayed gratification predicted a .2 point reduction in BMI in adulthood. Conclusions Delaying gratification longer at 4 years of age was associated with having a lower BMI three decades later. The study is, however, correlational, and it is therefore not possible to make causal inferences regarding the relation between delay duration and BMI. Identifying children with greater difficulty delaying gratification could help detect children at risk of becoming overweight or obese. Interventions that improve self-control in young children have been developed and might reduce children’s risk of becoming overweight while having positive effects on other outcomes important to society. PMID:22906511

  1. Preschoolers' delay of gratification predicts their body mass 30 years later.

    PubMed

    Schlam, Tanya R; Wilson, Nicole L; Shoda, Yuichi; Mischel, Walter; Ayduk, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether preschoolers' performance on a delay of gratification task would predict their body mass index (BMI) 30 years later. In the late 1960s/early 1970s, 4-year-olds from a university-affiliated preschool completed the classic delay of gratification task. As part of a longitudinal study, a subset (n = 164; 57% women) were followed up approximately 30 years later and self-reported their height and weight. Data were analyzed using hierarchical regression. Performance on the delay of gratification task accounted for a significant portion of variance in BMI (4%; P < .01), over and above the variance accounted for by sex alone (13%). Each additional minute that a preschooler delayed gratification predicted a 0.2-point reduction in BMI in adulthood. Longer delay of gratification at age 4 years was associated with a lower BMI 3 decades later. Because this study is correlational, it is not possible to make causal inferences regarding the relationship between delay duration and BMI. Identifying children with greater difficulty in delaying gratification could help detect children at risk of becoming overweight or obese. Interventions that improve self-control in young children have been developed and might reduce children's risk of becoming overweight and also have positive effects on other outcomes important to society. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Diagnostic and therapeutic proceedings in pregnancies with blood group incompatibility: A retrospective analysis over 30 years].

    PubMed

    Müller, T; Hofmann, J; Kristen, P; Dietl, J

    2002-01-01

    To examine the development during the past 30 years of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in pregnancies with blood group incompatibility. We evaluated 193 pregnancies with maternal red blood alloimmunisation treated at our hospital. At least one amniotic fluid spectrophotometry was performed. We observed a reduced average age of the patients, a reduced parity and an increase in the number of amniotic fluid examinations per pregnancy in the course of time. Amniotic fluid examinations tended to be performed earlier in pregnancy. Gestational time was reduced, the rate of spontaneous vaginal deliveries remained unchanged. The proportion of anti-D-alloimmunisation decreased in relation to other antigens and the severity of the cases increased (assessed according to the findings of the spectrophotometric amniotic fluid examinations performed while using the semiquantitative method of Liley). The haemoglobin values of the newborn, without intrauterine transfusions, were unchanged and the number of intrauterine deaths decreased. The rate of postnatal transfusions decreased dramatically, whereas the rate of phototherapeutic approaches increased. The spectrum of the antigens causing fetal haemolytic disease has changed during the last 30 years and so have the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

  3. Statistical Features of Deep-ocean Tsunamis Based on 30 Years of Bottom Pressure Observations in the Northeast Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fine, I.; Thomson, R.; Chadwick, W. W., Jr.; Davis, E. E.; Fox, C. G.

    2016-12-01

    We have used a set of high-resolution bottom pressure recorder (BPR) time series collected at Axial Seamount on the Juan de Fuca Ridge beginning in 1986 to examine tsunami waves of seismological origin in the northeast Pacific. These data are a combination of autonomous, internally-recording battery-powered instruments and cabled instruments on the OOI Cabled Array. Of the total of 120 tsunami events catalogued for the coasts of Japan, Alaska, western North America and Hawaii, we found evidence for 38 events in the Axial Seamount BPR records. Many of these tsunamis were not observed along the adjacent west coast of the USA and Canada because of the much higher noise level of coastal locations and the lack of digital tide gauge data prior to 2000. We have also identified several tsunamis of apparent seismological origin that were observed at coastal stations but not at the deep ocean site. Careful analysis of these observations suggests that they were likely of meteorological origin. Analysis of the pressure measurements from Axial Seamount, along with BPR measurements from a nearby ODP CORK (Ocean Drilling Program Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit) borehole and DART (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis) locations, reveals features of deep-ocean tsunamis that are markedly different from features observed at coastal locations. Results also show that the energy of deep-ocean tsunamis can differ significantly among the three sets of stations despite their close spatial spacing and that this difference is strongly dependent on the direction of the incoming tsunami waves. These deep-ocean observations provide the most comprehensive statistics possible for tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean over the past 30 years. New insight into the distribution of tsunami amplitudes and wave energy derived from the deep-ocean sites should prove useful for long-term tsunami prediction and mitigation for coastal communities along the west coast of the USA and Canada.

  4. Associations of education with 30 year life course blood pressure trajectories: Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Education is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease incidence in developed countries. Blood pressure may be an explanatory biological mechanism. However few studies have investigated educational gradients in longitudinal blood pressure trajectories, particularly over substantial proportions of the life course. Study objectives were to determine whether low education was associated with increased blood pressure from multiple longitudinal assessments over 30 years. Furthermore, we aimed to separate antecedent effects of education, and other related factors, that might have caused baseline differences in blood pressure, from potential long-term effects of education on post-baseline blood pressure changes. Methods The study examined 3890 participants of the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age 36.7 years, 52.0% females at baseline) from 1971 through 2001 at up to 7 separate examinations using multivariable mixed linear models. Results Mixed linear models demonstrated that mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) over 30 years was higher for participants with ≤12 vs. ≥17 years education after adjusting for age (3.26 mmHg, 95% CI: 1.46, 5.05 in females, 2.26 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.87, 3.66 in males). Further adjustment for conventional covariates (antihypertensive medication, smoking, body mass index and alcohol) reduced differences in females and males (2.86, 95% CI: 1.13, 4.59, and 1.25, 95% CI: -0.16, 2.66 mmHg, respectively). Additional analyses adjusted for baseline SBP, to evaluate if there may be educational contributions to post-baseline SBP. In analyses adjusted for age and baseline SBP, females with ≤12 years education had 2.69 (95% CI: 1.09, 4.30) mmHg higher SBP over follow-up compared with ≥17 years education. Further adjustment for aforementioned covariates slightly reduced effect strength (2.53 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.93, 4.14). Associations were weaker in males, where those with ≤12 years education had 1.20 (95% CI: -0.07, 2.46) mmHg higher SBP

  5. Associations of education with 30 year life course blood pressure trajectories: Framingham Offspring Study.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Eric B; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Xiao, Yongling; Lynch, John W

    2011-02-28

    Education is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease incidence in developed countries. Blood pressure may be an explanatory biological mechanism. However few studies have investigated educational gradients in longitudinal blood pressure trajectories, particularly over substantial proportions of the life course. Study objectives were to determine whether low education was associated with increased blood pressure from multiple longitudinal assessments over 30 years. Furthermore, we aimed to separate antecedent effects of education, and other related factors, that might have caused baseline differences in blood pressure, from potential long-term effects of education on post-baseline blood pressure changes. The study examined 3890 participants of the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age 36.7 years, 52.0% females at baseline) from 1971 through 2001 at up to 7 separate examinations using multivariable mixed linear models. Mixed linear models demonstrated that mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) over 30 years was higher for participants with ≤12 vs. ≥17 years education after adjusting for age (3.26 mmHg, 95% CI: 1.46, 5.05 in females, 2.26 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.87, 3.66 in males). Further adjustment for conventional covariates (antihypertensive medication, smoking, body mass index and alcohol) reduced differences in females and males (2.86, 95% CI: 1.13, 4.59, and 1.25, 95% CI: -0.16, 2.66 mmHg, respectively). Additional analyses adjusted for baseline SBP, to evaluate if there may be educational contributions to post-baseline SBP. In analyses adjusted for age and baseline SBP, females with ≤12 years education had 2.69 (95% CI: 1.09, 4.30) mmHg higher SBP over follow-up compared with ≥17 years education. Further adjustment for aforementioned covariates slightly reduced effect strength (2.53 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.93, 4.14). Associations were weaker in males, where those with ≤12 years education had 1.20 (95% CI: -0.07, 2.46) mmHg higher SBP over follow-up compared to

  6. 30-year changes in the nitrogen inputs to the Yangtze River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qinxue; Koshikawa, Hiroshi; Liu, Chen; Otsubo, Kuninori

    2014-11-01

    To understand both spatial and temporal changes in nitrogen inputs to the Yangtze River Basin (YRB), we collected decadal statistical data for 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010 at the county level and the annual statistical data for the period 1980-2010 at the provincial level of China. Based on these datasets, we estimated the nitrogen inputs, including the atmospheric deposition, synthetic N fertilizer, biological N fixation and recycling reactive N inputs, such as N from human waste and animal excrement, crop residue recycled as manure, and N emission from burning crop residue. The results showed that, geographically, the variation of the total amount of N input during the last 30 years (δN = N2010 - N1980) has increased about 0-50 kg ha-1 over most of the area of the YRB. Moreover, it has increased dramatically by about 50-300 kg ha-1 in the Sichuan Basin, the Han River Basin, the Poyang and Dongting lake basins, and the Yangtze Delta as well. Temporally, the total amount of N inputs to the whole YRB was approximately 16.4 Tg N in 2010, which was a 2.0-fold increase over 1980. It increased dramatically in the 1990s and then stabilized at a high level in the 2000s. The major N inputs were human and animal wastes as well as synthetic fertilizers, but they varied regionally. Animal waste was the major input to the water source regions, and its contribution percentage gradually decreased from upper to lower reaches. In contrast, the contribution of N fertilizer increased from upper to lower reaches, and became the major input to the middle and lower reaches. The total N inputs changed slightly in the upper reaches, but increased largely in the middle reaches in the last 30 years. However, in the lower reaches, it had increased remarkably before 2000, and then tended to decrease in the last decade. Finally, the atmospheric N deposition over the basin increased continuously in the last 30 years.

  7. DXA: 30years and counting: Introduction to the 30th anniversary issue.

    PubMed

    Michael Lewiecki, E; Binkley, Neil

    2016-12-18

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has a colorful history of development and evolution over the past 30years, from early predecessors that were cumbersome and limited in their clinical applications to current elegant instruments with a wide range of uses. DXA is used to diagnose osteoporosis, assess fracture risk, and monitor changes in bone mineral density (BMD). Non-BMD applications include vertebral fracture assessment, measurement of hip geometry, measurement of whole body tissue mass (i.e., bone, fat, and lean mass), abdominal aortic calcification detection and trabecular bone score measurement. This is an introduction to a special issue of this journal devoted to the celebration of the innovators in this field, the progress that has been made, and the challenges that remain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A case of lupus vulgaris with rare localization diagnosed 30 years after onset.

    PubMed

    Laudańska, H; Reduta, T; Zalewski, G; Chodynicka, B

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis (tuberculosis cutis) is one of the extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis, which may affect the skin only or co-exist with tuberculosis of other organs, particularly the lungs. We describe a case of lupus vulgaris in a 72-year-old male patient with a single lesion localized on his lower extremity, developing for 30 years before correct diagnosis and previously treated with topical steroids. Bacillus infection in other organs was not detected. Diagnosis of tuberculosis was made based on personal history, clinical picture, hypersensitivity to tuberculin, histopathology and polymerase chain reaction. A multidrug therapy with rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide resulted in regression of the lesion. The common lack of knowledge about the clinical picture of cutaneous tuberculosis causes its late diagnosis and treatment.

  9. [Enteric fever in Madrid. A review of the last 30 years].

    PubMed

    Cabello, Alfonso; Bayona, Juan Francisco; Fernández-Roblas, Ricardo; Fernández-Guerrero, Manuel; Ramos, José Manuel; de Górgolas, Miguel

    2013-05-01

    Our aim is analyze the epidemiological factors of enteric fever in Madrid (Spain) over the last 30 years. A retrospective review was conducted on cases of typhoid and paratyphoid fever studied in the Fundación Jiménez Díaz (Madrid) between 1980 and 2010. Two similar periods in time were studied (P1: 1980-1993; P2: 1994-2010). There was a total of 61 confirmed cases of enteric fever: 51 (84%) were typhoid and 10 were paratyphoid: 45 patients were native Spanish (40 belonging to P1) and 16 were immigrants (15 in P2, with 11 of them coming from the Indian sub-continent). Enteric fever must be present in the differential diagnosis of persistent fever without clear focus in immigrants, mainly from the Indian subcontinent, and travelers from endemic areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. 30 Years of radiotherapy service in Southern Thailand: workload vs resources.

    PubMed

    Phungrassami, Temsak; Funsian, Amporn; Sriplung, Hutcha

    2013-01-01

    To study the pattern of patient load, personnel and equipment resources from 30-years experience in Southern Thailand. This retrospective study collected secondary data from the Division of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology and the Songklanagarind Hospital Tumor Registry database, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, during the period of 1982-2012. The number of new patients who had radiation treatment gradually increased from 121 in 1982 to 2,178 in 2011. Shortages of all kinds of personnel were demonstrated as compared to the recommendations, especially in radiotherapy technicians. In 2011, Southern Thailand, with two radiotherapy centers, had 0.44 megavoltage radiotherapy machines (cobalt or linear accelerator) per million of population. This number is suboptimal, but could be managed cost-effectively by prolonging machine operating times during personnel shortages. This study identified a discrepancy between workload and resources in one medical school radiotherapy center in.

  11. First license round in 30 years sheds light on Cuba's geology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-26

    Cuba's first licensing round in 30 years is part of a privatization program aimed at reviving an economy that has been struggling since 1989 to make up for lost assistance from the former Soviet Union. Much of that help came in the form of subsidized crude oil and petroleum products. In February, state owned Cubapetroleo SA (Cupet) described oil and gas licensing terms during promotion presentations held in London and Calgary. US companies can't invest in Cuba due to a trade embargo. The country is offering production sharing contracts for 11 blocks - three offshore, seven onshore, and one onshore and off. Block sizes range from 1,400 sq km to 6,000 sq km. Contracts will have maximum terms of 25 years with exploration periods of 4 years. The state will take 11% of production and tax net profits at the rate of 30%. The paper also describes Cuba's oil production.

  12. End of Life Operations for LEO and GEO Satellites: 30 Years of Continuous Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fremeaux, Claire; Moussi, Aurelie; Vintenat, Lionel; Moulin, Michel

    2013-08-01

    CNES is celebrating in 2013 its 40th year of satellites operations with nearly 40 satellites cared for from Symphony 1 (1973) to Pleiades 1B (2012). Half of them reached its end of mission. Although they were not designed for it, CNES imagined, prepared and executed end-of life operations for geostationary and low earth orbit satellites, in accordance with its strong involvement at international level in favour of space activity sustainability and space debris mitigation. With increasing experience, efficiency and completeness of operations have strongly improved: optimization of resources, precise orbit and eccentricity management, collision risk concern, controlled fluidic and electric passivation, concern for degraded or emergency cases… This paper presents the evolution and improvement of end of life operations handled by CNES for 30 years, with a highlight on the last evolutions in the whole process since the French Space Act came into force.

  13. Psychology in the community: a community psychologist looks at 30 years in community mental health.

    PubMed

    Morgan, John R

    2008-01-01

    I review my 30 years in the community mental health field, emphasizing the personal and historical context that shaped this career. I especially highlight the origins of the values that guided significant career decisions, including family, neighborhood, religious and educational influences. The core guiding value was the belief that public service is both a privilege and an obligation, and that righting social injustice through such service is a noble calling. I trace the evolution of my thoughts and actions reflecting this value, from an early desire to "help children," through preparation to become a child psychologist, and ultimately to practice in a public community mental health setting and a career dedicated first to primary prevention and then to broader safety net services for those in need. I highlight a corresponding intellectual evolution as well, a progressive change in identity from "clinical psychologist in the community" to community psychologist.

  14. Treatment of rectal prolapse in children with cow milk injection sclerotherapy: 30-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Zganjer, Mirko; Cizmic, Ante; Cigit, Irenej; Zupancic, Bozidar; Bumci, Igor; Popovic, Ljiljana; Kljenak, Antun

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role and our experience of injection sclerotherapy with cow milk in the treatment of rectal prolapse in children. METHODS: In the last 30 years (1976-2006) we made 100 injections of sclerotherapy with cow milk in 86 children. In this study we included children who failed to respond to conservative treatment and we perform operative treatment. RESULTS: In our study we included 86 children and in all of the patients we perform cow milk injection sclerotherapy. In 95.3% (82 children) of patients sclerotherapy was successful. In 4 (4.7%) patients we had recurrent rectal prolapse where we performed operative treatment. Below 4 years we had 62 children (72%) and 24 older children (28%). In children who needed operative treatment we performed Thiersch operation and without any complications. CONCLUSION: Injection sclerotherapy with cow milk for treatment rectal prolapse in children is a simple and effective treatment for rectal prolapse with minimal complications. PMID:18205264

  15. [30-year-old Patient with suspected Marfan Syndrome and Progressive Gait disturbance].

    PubMed

    Balke, Maryam; Lehmann, Helmar C; Fink, Gereon R; Wunderlich, Gilbert

    2017-07-01

    History A 30-year-old man presented with a history of progressive muscle weakness, difficulty in concentrating, and a slender habitus since early childhood. Marfan syndrome was suspected since the age of 14. Examinations 13 years later he was examined by Marfan experts and by genetic testing and Marfan syndrome could not be confirmed. Further neurological examination revealed the suspected diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy type 1, which was confirmed by genetic testing. Treatment and course Similar to Marfan syndrome, myotonic dystrophy is a multisystemic disorder with the risk of cardiac arrythmias. It is necessary to provide an interdisciplinary care by neurologists, internists, ophthalmologists, speech therapists, and physiotherapists. Conclusion It is not enough to take the habitus as the principle sign to diagnose Marfan syndrome. Furthermore, it is essential to consider symptoms that are not typical for Marfan syndrome, such as cognitive deficiencies or progressive paresis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Relationship duration and mental health outcomes: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Sheree J; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John

    2011-01-01

    Marriage is known to be associated with improved mental health, but little research has examined whether the duration of a cohabiting relationship is associated with mental health. To examine the associations between relationship duration and mental health problems in a birth cohort of 30-year-olds. Associations between relationship duration and mental health were examined using a generalised estimating equation approach. Associations were adjusted for covariates, including prior mental health problems. Longer relationship duration was significantly associated with lower rates of depression, suicidal behaviour and substance abuse/dependence, even after adjustment for covariates. In most cases the associations did not vary with gender. Legal relationship status (legally or de facto married) was not significantly related to mental health once due allowance was made for relationship duration. Increasing relationship duration, but not legal relationship status, has a protective effect on mental health for men and women.

  17. Anorexia Nervosa: The Course of 15 Patients Treated From 20 to 30 Years Previously

    PubMed Central

    Farquharson, R. F.; Hyland, H. H.

    1966-01-01

    A follow-up study, after 20 to 30 years, of 15 patients with anorexia nervosa, formerly treated by the authors, revealed that only one patient failed to recover from the initial illness, and she ultimately became permanently incapacitated. Three patients have had neurotic symptoms periodically during the years following recovery, and one other became very thin in later life, but these four have been able to carry on fairly adequately for the most part. The remaining 10 patients have lived useful, well-adjusted lives, free of symptoms over the years. This study shows that despite the apparently severe emotional disturbances reflected in the marked physical changes that take place in young people suffering from this syndrome, a deep-rooted psychoneurotic or psychotic predisposition does not necessarily exist; the majority of the patients in this series recovered and remained well after relatively simple treatment. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:5902703

  18. Spousal Breadwinning Across 30 Years of Marriage and Husbands' Health: A Gendered Life Course Stress Approach.

    PubMed

    Springer, Kristen W; Lee, Chioun; Carr, Deborah

    2017-08-01

    Wives increasingly outearn their husbands, and gender relations theory suggests this arrangement may undermine men's well-being. We explore how long-term histories of spousal breadwinning may be associated with older men's self-rated mental and physical health, and risk of nine health diagnoses. Using 30 years of couple-level income data from the Health and Retirement Study ( n = 1,095 couples), we use latent class analyses to identify six classes that differ with respect to the timing and level of wife breadwinning. We link these classes to older husbands' later-life health. Classes that transitioned from husband breadwinning to wife breadwinning in early or later adulthood were associated with husbands' poorer overall physical health and risk of cardiometabolic and stress-related diseases. Patterns persist net of sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, health behaviors, and adolescent health. Violating cultural expectations, such as the masculinity ideal of male breadwinning, is associated with older men's poorer health.

  19. Recurrent diplopia over a 30-year period: natural history of a Lewis and Sumner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, Romain; Bouwyn, Jean Paul; Wallon, David; Bedat-Millet, Anne-Laure; Ahtoy, Patrick; Perot, Guillaume; Hannequin, Didier; Maltête, David

    2012-06-01

    We described the case of a patient with recurrent episodes of isolated diplopia over the last 30 years. On her last event, neurological examination revealed not only a right third and sixth cranial nerves involvement, but also a right peripheral facial palsy and a motor weakness on the left ulnar territory. Electrophysiological nerves motor conduction study revealed a conduction block on the left ulnar nerve and a less severe on the right ulnar nerve. Asymmetrical upper limb sensorimotor weakness combined with conduction block and cranial nerves palsy led to a diagnosis of Lewis and Sumner syndrome (LSS). This case is unusual by the presentation of the disease and is, to our knowledge the longer natural disease course of LSS reported. Moreover, it suggests that the recurrent diplopia variant may represent a separate entity with a good prognosis even in absence of invasive treatment.

  20. Rigid bronchoscopic management of acute respiratory failure in a 30-year-old woman

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Karan; Dhungana, Ashesh; Madan, Neha Kawatra; Mohan, Anant; Hadda, Vijay; Garg, Rakesh; Jain, Deepali; Guleria, Randeep

    2016-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman presented with a history of progressive shortness of breath, cough, and hoarseness. Stridor was audible on examination. Chest X-ray showed normal lung fields and contrast-enhanced computed tomography thorax showed lower tracheal occlusion with endoluminal growth. Diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy demonstrated multiple whitish glistening nodules over both vocal cords and lower tracheal occlusion by whitish nodular growth. In view of critical central airway obstruction, rigid bronchoscopy and excision of the lower tracheal growth were performed. Histopathological examination of the excised specimen demonstrated features of squamous papillomas. A diagnosis of respiratory papillomatosis was established. On follow-up surveillance bronchoscopy, there was a gradual spontaneous regression of the residual lesions, and the patient remains currently asymptomatic 1 year since the procedure. PMID:27891001

  1. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Aquatic Vegetation in Taihu Lake over the Past 30 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dehua; Lv, Meiting; Jiang, Hao; Cai, Ying; Xu, Delin; An, Shuqing

    2013-01-01

    It is often difficult to track the spatio-temporal variability of vegetation distribution in lakes because of the technological limitations associated with mapping using traditional field surveys as well as the lack of a unified field survey protocol. Using a series of Landsat remote sensing images (i.e. MSS, TM and ETM+), we mapped the composition and distribution area of emergent, floating-leaf and submerged macrophytes in Taihu Lake, China, at approximate five-year intervals over the past 30 years in order to quantify the spatio-temporal dynamics of the aquatic vegetation. Our results indicated that the total area of aquatic vegetation increased from 187.5 km2 in 1981 to 485.0 km2 in 2005 and then suddenly decreased to 341.3 km2 in 2010. Similarly, submerged vegetation increased from 127.0 km2 in 1981 to 366.5 km2 in 2005, and then decreased to 163.3 km2. Floating-leaf vegetation increased continuously through the study period in both area occupied (12.9 km2 in 1981 to 146.2 km2 in 2010) and percentage of the total vegetation (6.88% in 1981 to 42.8% in 2010). In terms of spatial distribution, the aquatic vegetation in Taihu Lake has spread gradually from the East Bay to the surrounding areas. The proportion of vegetation in the East Bay relative to that in the entire lake has decreased continuously from 62.3% in 1981, to 31.1% in 2005 and then to 21.8% in 2010. Our findings have suggested that drastic changes have taken place over the past 30 years in the spatial pattern of aquatic vegetation as well as both its relative composition and the amount of area it occupies. PMID:23823189

  2. Natural products as sources of new drugs over the 30 years from 1981 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Newman, David J; Cragg, Gordon M

    2012-03-23

    This review is an updated and expanded version of the three prior reviews that were published in this journal in 1997, 2003, and 2007. In the case of all approved therapeutic agents, the time frame has been extended to cover the 30 years from January 1, 1981, to December 31, 2010, for all diseases worldwide, and from 1950 (earliest so far identified) to December 2010 for all approved antitumor drugs worldwide. We have continued to utilize our secondary subdivision of a "natural product mimic" or "NM" to join the original primary divisions and have added a new designation, "natural product botanical" or "NB", to cover those botanical "defined mixtures" that have now been recognized as drug entities by the FDA and similar organizations. From the data presented, the utility of natural products as sources of novel structures, but not necessarily the final drug entity, is still alive and well. Thus, in the area of cancer, over the time frame from around the 1940s to date, of the 175 small molecules, 131, or 74.8%, are other than "S" (synthetic), with 85, or 48.6%, actually being either natural products or directly derived therefrom. In other areas, the influence of natural product structures is quite marked, with, as expected from prior information, the anti-infective area being dependent on natural products and their structures. Although combinatorial chemistry techniques have succeeded as methods of optimizing structures and have been used very successfully in the optimization of many recently approved agents, we are able to identify only one de novo combinatorial compound approved as a drug in this 30-year time frame. We wish to draw the attention of readers to the rapidly evolving recognition that a significant number of natural product drugs/leads are actually produced by microbes and/or microbial interactions with the "host from whence it was isolated", and therefore we consider that this area of natural product research should be expanded significantly.

  3. Gender trends in authorship in oral and maxillofacial surgery literature: A 30-year analysis.

    PubMed

    Nkenke, Emeka; Seemann, Rudolf; Vairaktaris, Elefterios; Schaller, Hans-Günter; Rohde, Maximilian; Stelzle, Florian; Knipfer, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a bibliometric analysis of the gender distribution of first and senior authorships in important oral and maxillofacial journals over the 30-year period from 1980 to 2010. Articles published in three representative oral and maxillofacial surgery journals were selected. The years 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010 were chosen as representative points in time for article selection. Original research, case reports, technical notes, and reviews were included in the analysis. Case reports and technical notes were pooled in one group. For each article, the gender of the first author as well as that of the senior author was determined, based on the inspection of their first name. The type of article was determined and the country of origin of the article was documented. A total 1412 articles were subjected to the data analysis. A significant increase in female authorship in oral and maxillofacial surgery could be identified over the chosen 30-year period. However, the number of publications by male authors was still significantly higher at all points of time, exceeding those of female authors by at least 3.8 fold in 2010. As there is a trend towards feminization of medicine and dentistry, the results of the present study may serve as the basis for further analysis of the current situation, and the identification of necessary actions to accelerate the closure of the gender gap in publishing in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunity of patients surviving 20 to 30 years after allogeneic or syngeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Storek, J; Joseph, A; Espino, G; Dawson, M A; Douek, D C; Sullivan, K M; Flowers, M E; Martin, P; Mathioudakis, G; Nash, R A; Storb, R; Appelbaum, F R; Maloney, D G

    2001-12-15

    The duration of immunodeficiency following marrow transplantation is not known. Questionnaires were used to study the infection rates in 72 patients surviving 20 to 30 years after marrow grafting. Furthermore, in 33 of the 72 patients and in 16 donors (siblings who originally donated the marrow) leukocyte subsets were assessed by flow cytometry. T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), markers of T cells generated de novo, were quantitated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunoglobulin G(2) (IgG(2)) and antigen-specific IgG levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Infections diagnosed more than [corrected] 15 years after transplantation occurred rarely. The average rate was 0.07 infections per patient-year (one infection every 14 years), excluding respiratory tract infections, gastroenteritis, lip sores, and hepatitis C. The counts of circulating monocytes, natural killer cells, B cells, CD4 T cells, and CD8 T cells in the patients were not lower than in the donors. The counts of TREC(+) CD4 T cells in transplant recipients younger than age 18 years (at the time of transplantation) were not different from the counts in their donors. In contrast, the counts of TREC(+) CD4 T cells were lower in transplant recipients age 18 years or older, even in those with no history of clinical extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease, compared with their donors. The levels of total IgG(2) and specific IgG against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae were similar in patients and donors. Overall, the immunity of patients surviving 20 to 30 years after transplantation is normal or near normal. Patients who received transplants in adulthood have a clinically insignificant deficiency of de novo-generated CD4 T cells, suggesting that in these patients the posttransplantation thymic insufficiency may not be fully reversible.

  5. Isotretinoin: dose, duration and relapse. What does 30 years of usage tell us?

    PubMed

    Rademaker, Marius

    2013-08-01

    With 30 years of clinical use, it is appropriate to review the use of isotretinoin. We now understand that retinoids influence cellular growth, differentiation, morphogenesis and apoptosis, inhibit tumour promotion and malignant cell growth, exert immuno-modulatory actions and alter cellular cohesiveness. This has expanded the indications of isotretinoin from just acne and rosacea to a wide range of inflammatory and malignant skin disorders. While the standard dose of 0.5 to 1 mg/kg per day for 4 months to a cumulative dose of 120-140 mg/kg per day has served us well in the management of acne vulgaris, there is emerging evidence that much lower dosages (as low as 5 mg/day) are just as effective but have significantly fewer adverse effects. Relapse of acne vulgaris continues to be a problem but we are beginning to recognise that this is related less to the cumulative dose and more to the length of sebaceous gland suppression. Other factors important for relapse include a macrocomedonal pattern of acne, smoking and age, both younger (under 14 years) and older (over 25 years). After 30 years of use, we now understand why isotretinoin is such an effective drug. Not only does it clear acne in almost all patients, long-term remission can be achieved in 70-80% of patients with a single course. Important changes in the use of isotretinoin include using a lower daily dose for a longer period of time. New indications continue to emerge, particularly as a potential treatment for both intrinsic and extrinsic (photo) aging. Teratogenicity however, remains a very significant concern.

  6. Lower incidence of plasma cell neoplasm is maintained in migrant Chinese to British Columbia: findings from a 30-year survey.

    PubMed

    Chan, Vicky; Song, Kevin; Mang, Oscar; Ip, Dennis K M; Au, Wing Y

    2011-12-01

    The etiology of plasma cell myeloma (PCM) is largely unknown. Its incidence varies widely in different ethnic groups. Migrant study may help determine the relative contributions of genetic versus environmental factors to PCM pathogenesis. We performed a retrospective review of the computerized records of all patients diagnosed with PCM between 1975 and 2004 in British Columbia (BC), and identified patients of Chinese ethnicity. This was compared with PCM incidence in Hong Kong (HK) Chinese. Age distributions of HK, BC and BC Chinese populations were obtained from the census departments to calculate world age-standardized rates (WASRs). The WASR of PCM over the 30-year period in BC Chinese was 1.64/100 000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.37-1.93). This was similar to the WASR observed in HK (1.78, 95% CI 1.73-1.83), with a standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of 0.91 (95% CI 0.74-1.10). The rate was much lower than that in the BC non-Chinese background population (WASR 3.59, 95% CI 3.50-3.68; SIR 0.46, 95% CI 0.38-0.56). The lower rates in BC Chinese were maintained across all years, both genders and in all age groups above 45 years. Our observations suggest a strong genetic component as the cause of differences in the ethnic predisposition to PCM.

  7. Beware of the B(e)all valve: mistaken valve identity, 30-year survival, and valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Topaz, On; Rutherford, Molly S; Mackey-Bojack, Shannon; Polkampally, Pritam R; Topaz, Allyne; Prinz, Andreas; Szentpetery, Szabolcs

    2010-01-01

    Effective management of patients after the implantation of mechanical cardiac valves includes correct recognition of each valve and its related complications. Herein, we present the case of a patient who had undergone implantation of a floating-disc Beall-Surgitool mitral valve in 1976 and developed multiple valve-related complications. Over 30 years and in multiple medical centers, the device was mistakenly assumed to be a "ball" valve. The correct identification of the prosthesis led to the recognition of valvular failure, and the patient underwent its replacement with an On-X bileaflet carbon valve. Pathologic and microscopic examination of the explanted Beall valve showed massive pannus formation that extended over the sewing cuff on the atrial and ventricular side, preventing complete disc closure; disrupted fabric coating of the sewing ring, with exposure of the underlying metal; and a marked inflammatory reaction. We report one of the longest intervals on record between the implantation and replacement of a Beall-Surgitool valve.

  8. Characterization and comparison of seismic signals emitted during field scale sheer box experiments and artificially induced landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yfantis, Georgios; Martinez Carvajal, Hernan Eduardo; Pytharouli, Stella; Lunn, Rebecca

    2014-05-01

    The identification and detection of landslide induced seismic signals, recorded by deployed seismometers on active landslides has been the subject of many studies. The most commonly faced problem is the uncertainty in identifying which of the recorded signals are representing a movement or a failure in the landslide's body. In this paper we present two novel experimental campaigns; 1) field scale laboratory experiments of a 65cm diameter sheer box, 2) artificially induced failure of two, two-meter high vertical soil slopes. Using a field scale sheer box we recorded seismic signals emitted during soil slippage events, a phenomenon observed at a landslide's failure plain. This was implemented by displacing, a few centimeters at a time (1-10cm), a concrete cylinder filled with soil along a corridor free from vegetation. The field scale sheer box methodology allows control over a large number of parameters that affect a landslide. For example, it is possible to control soil saturation thus simulating different rain events or control the stress field on the soil's slippage surface simulating displacement events at different depths. More than 40 displacement events were induced under four different loading conditions between 472kg to 829kg. All soil slippage events were recorded above the levels of background seismic noise. Repetition of the methodology under the same experimental conditions resulted in similar seismic signals allowing us to define a 'characteristic seismic response' for soils. In the second experimental campaign, two controlled landslides were experimentally induced by increasing the vertical load on top of a 2m soil scarp. We were able to detect from 1 to 10 centimeter wide crack propagations and displacements, and approximately 20x20x10cm to 100x50x20cm block failure events based on microseismic recordings, field notes, video recordings and displacement measurements of the landslide's crown that failed during the experiments. Direct correlation

  9. Spatiotemporal signature of methane venting from lake sediments: from lab to field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandella, B.; Pillsbury, L.; Weber, T.; Ruppel, C. D.; Hemond, H.; Juanes, R.

    2015-12-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, and the production and emission of methane from sediments in inland waters and shallow oceans both contributes to and may be exacerbated by climate change. In some of these shallow-water settings, methane fluxes are often controlled by episodic free-gas venting. The fraction of the methane released from the sediments that bypasses dissolution in the water column and reaches the atmosphere impacts the magnitude of the climate forcing, and this fraction depends critically on the mode and spatiotemporal characteristics of the bubble releases. Here, we present measurements of the episodicity, spacing and persistence of ebullition from the laboratory scale (1-50 cm) to the field scale (0.5-20 m). Field observations were made using a fixed-location Imagenex DeltaT 837B multibeam sonar, which was calibrated to quantify gas fluxes with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution (~0.5 m, 1 Hz). The field scale results show a pattern of short range spatiotemporal clustering (radius<2 m) in ebullition events that dissipates over time to a spatially homogenous process at the resolution of the sonar. The lack of persistent hotspots suggests a limited role for lateral methane transport within the sediments, and the spatiotemporal clustering implies a mechanism for triggering nearby aftershock ebullition episodes. The fine-scale (1-50 cm) experiment recorded ebullition from sediments that were dredged from the field site, reconstituted and incubated in the laboratory to generate methane. This experiment shows the degree of re-use of specific outlets, with implications for the scale of lateral methane transport and the role of hysteresis on sediment cohesion (healing of closed conduits). The details of the short range clustering process helps to identify the mechanism by which gas venting triggers nearby "aftershock" episodes of gas release. Taken together, these results point towards a better understanding of the microscale processes

  10. Assessing and modelling ecohydrologic processes at the agricultural field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    One of the primary goals of agricultural management is to increase the amount of crop produced per unit of fertilizer and water used. World record corn yields demonstrated that water use efficiency can increase fourfold with improved agronomic management and cultivars able to tolerate high densities. Planting crops with higher plant density can lead to significant yield increases, and increase plant transpiration vs. soil water evaporation. Precision agriculture technologies have been adopted for the last twenty years but seldom have the data collected been converted to information that led farmers to different agronomic management. These methods are intuitively appealing, but yield maps and other spatial layers of data need to be properly analyzed and interpreted to truly become valuable. Current agro-mechanic and geospatial technologies allow us to implement a spatially variable plan for agronomic inputs including seeding rate, cultivars, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, and water. Crop models are valuable tools to evaluate the impact of management strategies (e.g., cover crops, tile drains, and genetically-improved cultivars) on yield, soil carbon sequestration, leaching and greenhouse gas emissions. They can help farmers identify adaptation strategies to current and future climate conditions. In this paper I illustrate the key role that precision agriculture technologies (yield mapping technologies, within season soil and crop sensing), crop modeling and weather can play in dealing with the impact of climate variability on soil ecohydrologic processes. Case studies are presented to illustrate this concept.

  11. Experimental evidence for seismoelectric observations at field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzhauer, Julia; Yaramanci, Ugur

    2010-05-01

    In the past decades, seismoelectric has concentrated a growing interest as a promising tool for hydrogeophysical studies. Resulting from an electrokinetic coupling in porous saturated media traversed by an acoustic wave, this method could ultimately offer a direct access to various hydraulic parameters ranging from porosity to permeability or fluids conductivity. In some other aspects it also occasionally showed some ability to thin-layer resolution. Within the development of the new test-site Schillerslage with typical north-German geology, consisting of two shallow quaternary aquifers separated by a till layer over cretaceous marl, we tested the observability of the seismoelectric signal along with various conventional (seismic, georadar, geoelectric) and unconventional (magnetic resonance sounding -MRS, spectral induced polarisation -SIP) geophysical methods as well as boreholes analysis. The special focus was on the converted seismoelectric signal, an electromagnetic wave acting as a vertical dipole which should theoretically display on the seismoelectrogram as a horizontal arrival. This converted wave appears when the incident acoustic wave meets a hydraulic discontinuity affecting the pore space in any geometrical or chemical manner. This electromagnetic signal fades out rapidly, due to its dipole nature and its weakness, so that its relevance is restricted to the near surface characterisation. In the given setting, such a wave could either initiate at the water table or originate from an abrupt transition from sand to till. Decision was made to record both seismic and seismoelectric signal concomitantly. To allow the detection of the later signal, the field layout was gradually adjusted. Considering the source, hammer-seismic was chosen for its precision in near surface application and automatic trigger-techniques producing major disturbances in the first 10 ms of the seismoelectrogram were abandoned in favour of manual triggering. To avoid any further noise

  12. Use of Field-Scale Phytotechnology for Chlorinated Solvents, Metals, Explosives and Propellants, and Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    For this document, the US EPA collected information about 79 field-scale phytotechnology projects conducted throughout the US and Canada that involved treatment of soil and groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents, metals, explosives and...

  13. Free Delivery of a 30-YEAR Vegetation Product Archive by the Biopar Land Monitoring Core Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacholczyk, P.; Makhmara, H.; Lacaze, R. N.; Baret, F.; Weiss, M.; Verger, A.

    2012-12-01

    Geoland2 project is part of the GMES EU-lead initiative and intends to prepare, validate and demonstrate pre-operational service chains and products of the Land Monitoring Core Service. The BioPar Core Monitoring Service distributes through the Geoland 2 portal global products related to biophysical variables : the Leaf Area Index (LAI), the Fraction of green Vegetation Cover (FCover), the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR) and the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI). Long term global biophysical products are of great interest for earth science modeling applications and global change monitoring. Since end of 2011 a 12-year archive (1999-2011) of these biophysical vegetation products derived from SPOT/VEGETATION sensor, called GEOV1_VGT, is available and is continuously updated every ten days. Since this summer, a 20-year archive (1981-2000) of LAI, FAPAR and FCover biophysical vegetation products derived from the AVHRR long term data archive, called GEOV1_AVHRR, has been processed by CNES and is now available through the Geoland 2 portal. The LAI, FAPAR and FCover products issued from VGT and AVHRR data have the same characteristics (temporal resolution 10 days, global coverage) except for the spatial resolution (1/112° for VGT and 0.05° for AVHRR), with an overlap of two years (1999-2000). The evaluation of GEOV1_VGT and GEOV1_AVHRR archive indicates a very good agreement between the two datasets, including a similar level of accuracy in comparison with ground-based measurements made during the 1999-2000 overlap period. Despite that a more consistent 30-year global product at a lower resolution is very useful for communities studying carbon cycle, climate or water cycle. The last step, foreseen for this Autumn, is to process these two archives and to provide to the users a continuous 30-year vegetation product (called GEOV1_GCM) at 0.5° scale. Close to its end the BioPar project has provided demonstration products

  14. Natural Products as Sources of New Drugs over the 30 Years from 1981 to 2010†

    PubMed Central

    Newman, David J.; Cragg, Gordon M.

    2013-01-01

    This review is an updated and expanded version of the three prior reviews that were published in this journal in 1997, 2003 and 2007. In the case of all approved therapeutic agents, the time frame has been extended to cover the 30 years from January 1st 1981 to December 31st 2010 for all diseases world-wide, and from 1950 (earliest so far identified) to December 2010 for all approved antitumor drugs world-wide. We have continued to utilize our secondary subdivision of a “natural product mimic” or “NM” to join the original primary divisions, and have added a new designation “natural product botanical” or “NB” to cover those botanical “defined mixtures” that have now been recognized as drug entities by the FDA and similar organizations. From the data presented, the utility of natural products as sources of novel structures, but not necessarily the final drug entity, is still alive and well. Thus, in the area of cancer, over the time frame from around the 1940s to date, of the 175 small molecules, 131 or 74.8% are other than “S” (synthetic), with 85 or 48.6% actually being either natural products or directly derived there from. In other areas, the influence of natural product structures is quite marked with, as expected from prior information, the anti-infective area being dependent on natural products and their structures. Although combinatorial chemistry techniques have succeeded as methods of optimizing structures, and have been used very successfully in the optimization of many recently approved agents, we are only able to identify only one de novo combinatorial compound approved as a drug in this 30-year time frame. We wish to draw the attention of readers to the rapidly evolving recognition that a significant number of natural product drugs/leads are actually produced by microbes and/or microbial interactions with the “host from whence it was isolated”, and therefore we consider that this area of natural product research should be

  15. Factors driving mortality and growth at treeline: a 30-year experiment of 92 000 conifers.

    PubMed

    Barbeito, Ignacio; Dawes, Melissa A; Rixen, Christian; Senn, Josef; Bebi, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the interplay between environmental factors contributing to treeline formation and how these factors influence different life stages remains a major research challenge. We used an afforestation experiment including 92 000 trees to investigate the spatial and temporal dynamics of tree mortality and growth at treeline in the Swiss Alps. Seedlings of three high-elevation conifer species (Larix decidua, Pinus mugo ssp. uncinata, and Pinus cembra) were systematically planted along an altitudinal gradient at and above the current treeline (2075 to 2230 m above sea level [a.s.l.]) in 1975 and closely monitored during the following 30 years. We used decision-tree models and generalized additive models to identify patterns in mortality and growth along gradients in elevation, snow duration, wind speed, and solar radiation, and to quantify interactions between the different variables. For all three species, snowmelt date was always the most important environmental factor influencing mortality, and elevation was always the most important factor for growth over the entire period studied. Individuals of all species survived at the highest point of the afforestation for more than 30 years, although mortality was greater above 2160 m a.s.l., 50-100 m above the current treeline. Optimal conditions for height growth differed from those for survival in all three species: early snowmelt (ca. day of year 125-140 [where day 1 is 1 January]) yielded lowest mortality rates, but relatively later snowmelt (ca. day 145-150) yielded highest growth rates. Although snowmelt and elevation were important throughout all life stages of the trees, the importance of radiation decreased over time and that of wind speed increased. Our findings provide experimental evidence that tree survival and height growth require different environmental conditions and that even small changes in the duration of snow cover, in addition to changes in temperature, can strongly impact tree survival and

  16. Field-scale experiments reveal persistent yield gaps in low-input and organic cropping systems

    PubMed Central

    Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of production-system performance is largely based on observations at the experimental plot scale. Although yield gaps between plot-scale and field-scale research are widely acknowledged, their extent and persistence have not been experimentally examined in a systematic manner. At a site in southwest Michigan, we conducted a 6-y experiment to test the accuracy with which plot-scale crop-yield results can inform field-scale conclusions. We compared conventional versus alternative, that is, reduced-input and biologically based–organic, management practices for a corn–soybean–wheat rotation in a randomized complete block-design experiment, using 27 commercial-size agricultural fields. Nearby plot-scale experiments (0.02-ha to 1.0-ha plots) provided a comparison of plot versus field performance. We found that plot-scale yields well matched field-scale yields for conventional management but not for alternative systems. For all three crops, at the plot scale, reduced-input and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field scale, reduced-input yields were lower than conventional. For soybeans at the plot scale, biological and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field scale, biological yielded less than conventional. For corn, biological management produced lower yields than conventional in both plot- and field-scale experiments. Wheat yields appeared to be less affected by the experimental scale than corn and soybean. Conventional management was more resilient to field-scale challenges than alternative practices, which were more dependent on timely management interventions; in particular, mechanical weed control. Results underscore the need for much wider adoption of field-scale experimentation when assessing new technologies and production-system performance, especially as related to closing yield gaps in organic farming and in low-resourced systems typical of much of the developing world. PMID:28096409

  17. Field-scale experiments reveal persistent yield gaps in low-input and organic cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Robertson, G Philip

    2017-01-31

    Knowledge of production-system performance is largely based on observations at the experimental plot scale. Although yield gaps between plot-scale and field-scale research are widely acknowledged, their extent and persistence have not been experimentally examined in a systematic manner. At a site in southwest Michigan, we conducted a 6-y experiment to test the accuracy with which plot-scale crop-yield results can inform field-scale conclusions. We compared conventional versus alternative, that is, reduced-input and biologically based-organic, management practices for a corn-soybean-wheat rotation in a randomized complete block-design experiment, using 27 commercial-size agricultural fields. Nearby plot-scale experiments (0.02-ha to 1.0-ha plots) provided a comparison of plot versus field performance. We found that plot-scale yields well matched field-scale yields for conventional management but not for alternative systems. For all three crops, at the plot scale, reduced-input and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field scale, reduced-input yields were lower than conventional. For soybeans at the plot scale, biological and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field scale, biological yielded less than conventional. For corn, biological management produced lower yields than conventional in both plot- and field-scale experiments. Wheat yields appeared to be less affected by the experimental scale than corn and soybean. Conventional management was more resilient to field-scale challenges than alternative practices, which were more dependent on timely management interventions; in particular, mechanical weed control. Results underscore the need for much wider adoption of field-scale experimentation when assessing new technologies and production-system performance, especially as related to closing yield gaps in organic farming and in low-resourced systems typical of much of the developing world.

  18. Celebrating 30 years of science from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, Ian; Holland, Wayne S.; Friberg, Per

    2017-09-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) has been the world's most successful single-dish telescope at submillimetre wavelengths since it began operations in 1987. From the pioneering days of single-element photometers and mixers, through to the state-of-the-art imaging and spectroscopic cameras, the JCMT has been associated with a number of major scientific discoveries. Famous for the discovery of `SCUBA' galaxies, which are responsible for a large fraction of the far-infrared background, the JCMT has pushed the sensitivity limits arguably more than any other facility in this most difficult of wavebands in which to observe. Closer to home, the first images of huge discs of cool debris around nearby stars gave us clues to the evolution of planetary systems, further evidence of the importance of studying astrophysics in the submillimetre region. Now approaching the 30th anniversary of the first observations, the telescope continues to carry out unique and innovative science. In this review article, we look back on some of the major scientific highlights from the past 30 years.

  19. Surveillance of Infectious Diseases by the Sentinel Laboratory Network in Belgium: 30 Years of Continuous Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Muyldermans, Gaëtan; Ducoffre, Geneviève; Leroy, Mathias; Dupont, Yves; Quolin, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In 1983 the sentinel laboratory network was established because of the need to describe the epidemiological evolution of infectious diseases. During the study period of 30 years (1983–2013), microbiology laboratories reported on weekly basis the laboratory diagnosed cases for a selection of infectious diseases. This resulted in a large longitudinal laboratory based database allowing to provide trends over time and distribution by person and place. During this period, adaptations to data collection were made due to changes in diagnostic methods and public health priorities, introduction and application of digital revolution, and multiple reorganizations of the laboratories. Since the surveillance network is dynamic, it necessitates a continuous evaluation to ensure that, over time, it continues to be representative of the general epidemiological trends in the country. Secondly the aim is to examine the robustness and stability of this surveillance system. Here we demonstrated that the flexibility of the data collection methodology by the sentinel laboratory network is unique and that adaptations do not affect the capacity of the system to follow trends. Therefore, the surveillance by this network is representative of the current epidemiological situation in Belgium. To our knowledge, no such surveillance network with such a long-term follow-up and demonstrated stability for multiple infectious diseases in the general population was earlier described. Furthermore, expected trends due to the implementation of vaccination or other events were accurately detected. The collected data obtained from this network allows interesting comparisons with other national and international information sources. PMID:27571203

  20. Thyroid neoplasia risk is increased nearly 30 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Tronko, Mykola; Brenner, Alina V; Bogdanova, Tetiana; Shpak, Victor; Oliynyk, Valeriy; Cahoon, Elizabeth K; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Little, Mark P; Tereshchenko, Valeriy; Zamotayeva, Galyna; Terekhova, Galyna; Zurnadzhi, Lyudmila; Hatch, Maureen; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2017-10-15

    To evaluate risk of thyroid neoplasia nearly 30 years following exposure to radioactive iodine (I-131) from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident, we conducted a fifth cycle of thyroid screening of the Ukrainian-American cohort during 2012-2015, following four previous screening cycles started in 1998. We identified 47 thyroid cancers (TC) and 33 follicular adenomas (FA) among 10,073 individuals who were <18 years at the time of the accident and had a mean I-131 dose of 0.62 Gy. We found a significant I-131 dose response for both TC and FA, with an excess odd ratio per Gy of 1.36 (95% CI: 0.39-4.15) and 2.03 (95% CI: 0.55-6.69), respectively. The excess risk of malignant and benign thyroid neoplasia persists nearly three decades after exposure and underscores the importance of continued follow-up of this cohort to characterize long-term pattern of I-131 risk. © 2017 UICC.

  1. How are qualitative methods used in diabetes research? A 30-year systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hennink, Monique M; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Sekar, Swathi; Griswold, Emily P; Ali, Mohammed K

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to describe how qualitative methods are used in global research on diabetes and identify opportunities whereby qualitative methods could further benefit our understanding of the human experience of diabetes and interventions to address it. We conducted a systematic review of National Library of Medicine, EMBASE, and Web of Science electronic databases to identify original research articles that used qualitative methods to study diabetes between 1980 and 2011. We identified 554 eligible articles and categorised these by geographic region, year of publication, study population, study design, research question, qualitative data collection methods, and journal type. Results show low use of qualitative methods in diabetes research over the past 30 years. The majority of articles (75%) reported using substantive qualitative research, while mixed-methods research has remained underutilised. Eighty-five per cent of articles reported studies conducted in North America or Europe, with few studies in developing countries. Most articles reported recruiting clinic-based populations (58%). Over half (54%) of research questions focused on patient experience and 24% on diabetes management. Qualitative methods can provide important insights about socio-cultural aspects of disease to improve disease management. However, they remain underutilised for understanding the diabetes experience, especially in Africa and Asia and amongst non-clinic populations.

  2. The virtual brain: 30 years of video-game play and cognitive abilities

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Andrew J.; Patston, Lucy L. M.; Tippett, Lynette J.

    2013-01-01

    Forty years have passed since video-games were first made widely available to the public and subsequently playing games has become a favorite past-time for many. Players continuously engage with dynamic visual displays with success contingent on the time-pressured deployment, and flexible allocation, of attention as well as precise bimanual movements. Evidence to date suggests that both brief and extensive exposure to video-game play can result in a broad range of enhancements to various cognitive faculties that generalize beyond the original context. Despite promise, video-game research is host to a number of methodological issues that require addressing before progress can be made in this area. Here an effort is made to consolidate the past 30 years of literature examining the effects of video-game play on cognitive faculties and, more recently, neural systems. Future work is required to identify the mechanism that allows the act of video-game play to generate such a broad range of generalized enhancements. PMID:24062712

  3. Measuring currents in submarine canyons: technological and scientific progress in the past 30 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The development and application of acoustic and optical technologies and of accurate positioning systems in the past 30 years have opened new frontiers in the submarine canyon research communities. This paper reviews several key advancements in both technology and science in the field of currents in submarine canyons since the1979 publication of Currents in Submarine Canyons and Other Sea Valleys by Francis Shepard and colleagues. Precise placements of high-resolution, high-frequency instruments have not only allowed researchers to collect new data that are essential for advancing and generalizing theories governing the canyon currents, but have also revealed new natural phenomena that challenge the understandings of the theorists and experimenters in their predictions of submarine canyon flow fields. Baroclinic motions at tidal frequencies, found to be intensified both up canyon and toward the canyon floor, dominate the flow field and control the sediment transport processes in submarine canyons. Turbidity currents are found to frequently occur in active submarine canyons such as Monterey Canyon. These turbidity currents have maximum speeds of nearly 200 cm/s, much smaller than the speeds of turbidity currents in geological time, but still very destructive. In addition to traditional Eulerian measurements, Lagrangian flow data are essential in quantifying water and sediment transport in submarine canyons. A concerted experiment with multiple monitoring stations along the canyon axis and on nearby shelves is required to characterize the storm-trigger mechanism for turbidity currents.

  4. The virtual brain: 30 years of video-game play and cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Latham, Andrew J; Patston, Lucy L M; Tippett, Lynette J

    2013-09-13

    Forty years have passed since video-games were first made widely available to the public and subsequently playing games has become a favorite past-time for many. Players continuously engage with dynamic visual displays with success contingent on the time-pressured deployment, and flexible allocation, of attention as well as precise bimanual movements. Evidence to date suggests that both brief and extensive exposure to video-game play can result in a broad range of enhancements to various cognitive faculties that generalize beyond the original context. Despite promise, video-game research is host to a number of methodological issues that require addressing before progress can be made in this area. Here an effort is made to consolidate the past 30 years of literature examining the effects of video-game play on cognitive faculties and, more recently, neural systems. Future work is required to identify the mechanism that allows the act of video-game play to generate such a broad range of generalized enhancements.

  5. Treatment performances of French constructed wetlands: results from a database collected over the last 30 years.

    PubMed

    Morvannou, A; Forquet, N; Michel, S; Troesch, S; Molle, P

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 3,500 constructed wetlands (CWs) provide raw wastewater treatment in France for small communities (<5,000 people equivalent). Built during the past 30 years, most consist of two vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) in series (stages). Many configurations exist, with systems associated with horizontal flow filters or waste stabilization ponds, vertical flow with recirculation, partially saturated systems, etc. A database analyzed 10 years earlier on the classical French system summarized the global performances data. This paper provides a similar analysis of performance data from 415 full-scale two-stage VFCWs from an improved database expanded by monitoring data available from Irstea and the French technical department. Trends presented in the first study are confirmed, exhibiting high chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal rates (87%, 93% and 84%, respectively). Typical concentrations at the second-stage outlet are 74 mgCOD L(-1), 17 mgTSS L(-1) and 11 mgTKN L(-1). Pollutant removal performances are summarized in relation to the loads applied at the first treatment stage. While COD and TSS removal rates remain stable over the range of applied loads, the spreading of TKN removal rates increases as applied loads increase.

  6. 30 Years of APS Congressional Fellows: Looking Back and Looking Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    In 1973 AAAS launched a Congressional Fellows Program, and APS was one of three founding participants. Since then, APS has funded one or two Fellows annually to work with a Congressional Committee or on the personal staff of a Member of Congress. These fellows individually and collectively have had and continue to have a large impact in Washington. Six Fellows from different periods of the 30-year program, including a current Member of Congress, will present their views and assessments of the Fellowship program. They will address how it affected them, what it has done for the country and how APS should plan for the future. There will be ample time for questions and discussion. Panelists: Ben Cooper, Association of Oil Pipe Lines (Fellow, 1973-74) Rush Holt, Member, House of Representatives (Fellow, 1982-83) Jane Alexander, Office of Naval Research (Fellow, 1986-87) Duncan Moore, University of Rochester (Fellow, 1993-94) Peter Rooney, House Committee on Science (Fellow, 1997-98) Sherri Stephan, Senate Committee on Government Affairs (Fellow, 2000-01)

  7. Age of stratospheric air unchanged within uncertainties over the past 30years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Möbius, T.; Bönisch, H.; Schmidt, U.; Heinz, R.; Levin, I.; Atlas, E.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Sugawara, S.; Moore, F.; Hurst, D.; Elkins, J.; Schauffler, S.; Andrews, A.; Boering, K.

    2009-01-01

    The rising abundances of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is associated with an increase in radiative forcing that leads to warming of the troposphere, the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, and cooling of the stratosphere above. A secondary effect of increasing levels of greenhouse gases is a possible change in the stratospheric circulation, which could significantly affect chlorofluorocarbon lifetimes, ozone levels and the climate system more generally. Model simulations have shown that the mean age of stratospheric air is a good indicator of the strength of the residual circulation, and that this mean age is expected to decrease with rising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Here we use balloon-borne measurements of stratospheric trace gases over the past 30years to derive the mean age of air from sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and CO2 mixing ratios. In contrast to the models, these observations do not show a decrease in mean age with time. If models are to make valid predictions of future stratospheric ozone levels, and of the coupling between ozone and climate change, a correct description of stratospheric transport and possible changes in the transport pathways are necessary.

  8. Is SfM photogrammetry really the tool we've waited 30 years for?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Jim; Micheletti, Natan; Lane, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    SFM photogrammetry has evolved rapidly in the last few years, to the point where it is beginning to surpass terrestrial laser scanning for capturing 3-D models of natural surfaces. The ability to generate high resolution digital terrain models using just a consumer grade digital camera, or even a smart phone, is an important advance. The fact that this can be achieved at a range of scales and resolutions and from a variety of platforms, whilst using software which is freely available, appears almost incredible. This invited presentation seeks to place SfM photogrammetry in its proper historical context, by demonstrating just how rapidly techniques have evolved over the last 30 years. However, it is important to look forward and help ensure that future use is effective, even if spatial measurement expertise is limited. Consequently, the presentation will also demonstrate just how well-established lessons learnt in the past continue to remain important, particularly if accurate spatial data is desired. The application of SfM to a range of case studies will help to demonstrate the importance of scene geometry and accurate camera calibration and modelling. In addition, the establishment of external control remains critical for determining true change and the provision of independent checkpoints provides important verification of accuracies actually achieved. Recognition of these traditional photogrammetric principles and well-established practices should help ensure that expectations are both realistic and can be fulfilled, even for a new generation of non-expert users.

  9. Seasonal spatial heterogeneity of warming rates on the Tibetan Plateau over the past 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jianping; Li, Lun; Fang, Yongjie

    2015-06-01

    Based on temperature data from 79 meteorological stations, we estimate the warming rate by season on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) during 1984-2013. The warming rate was spatially heterogeneous across seasons over the past 30 years. The northern TP (NTP) experienced more warming than the southern TP (STP) (divided near 33°N) in all seasons. The greatest north-south difference in warming was 0.70 ± 0.11 °C for summer (June-August), while the smallest difference was 0.27 ± 0.14 °C for the cold season (November-April). Such seasonal and spatial heterogeneity in the warming rate is consistent with the seasonal precipitation patterns of the NTP and the STP. One possible cause for this phenomenon is that more precipitation occurs in the STP than in the NTP (especially for summer), accompanied by more low cloud cover, which may have slowed the warming rate. Our results imply that dry regions on the TP will possibly experience greater temperature increase than wet regions under future global warming, and this will be more prominent in summer.

  10. Celebrating 30 years of science from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope.

    PubMed

    Robson, Ian; Holland, Wayne S; Friberg, Per

    2017-09-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) has been the world's most successful single-dish telescope at submillimetre wavelengths since it began operations in 1987. From the pioneering days of single-element photometers and mixers, through to the state-of-the-art imaging and spectroscopic cameras, the JCMT has been associated with a number of major scientific discoveries. Famous for the discovery of 'SCUBA' galaxies, which are responsible for a large fraction of the far-infrared background, the JCMT has pushed the sensitivity limits arguably more than any other facility in this most difficult of wavebands in which to observe. Closer to home, the first images of huge discs of cool debris around nearby stars gave us clues to the evolution of planetary systems, further evidence of the importance of studying astrophysics in the submillimetre region. Now approaching the 30th anniversary of the first observations, the telescope continues to carry out unique and innovative science. In this review article, we look back on some of the major scientific highlights from the past 30 years.

  11. Recidivism Patterns Among Two Types of Juvenile Homicide Offenders: A 30-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, Norair; Heide, Kathleen M; Hummel, Erich V

    2016-07-01

    Although juvenile homicide has been a matter of concern in the United States since the 1980s, prior research has not addressed long-term recidivism patterns for convicted juvenile murderers. Furthermore, a prominent juvenile homicide typology had not previously been tested with U.S. offenders. The present study examined whether juvenile offenders who killed or attempted to kill during the commission of a crime differed from those who killed due to some type of conflict on pre-incarceration, incarceration, and post-incarceration variables. These offenders were sentenced to adult prison in the early 1980s. Follow-up data spanned 30 years. The results indicated that approximately 88% of released offenders have been rearrested. Analyses of pre-incarceration variables revealed that crime-oriented offenders were significantly more likely to commit the homicide offense using accomplices than conflict-oriented offenders, and the latter were significantly more likely to use a firearm during the homicide incident. The circumstances of the homicide, however, were not significantly related to any other pre-incarceration variables, release from prison, number of post-release arrests, and number of post-release violent offenses. The implications of the findings, their comparability to previous follow-up research on this typology, and avenues for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Seasonal spatial heterogeneity of warming rates on the Tibetan Plateau over the past 30 years

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jianping; Li, Lun; Fang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Based on temperature data from 79 meteorological stations, we estimate the warming rate by season on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) during 1984–2013. The warming rate was spatially heterogeneous across seasons over the past 30 years. The northern TP (NTP) experienced more warming than the southern TP (STP) (divided near 33°N) in all seasons. The greatest north-south difference in warming was 0.70 ± 0.11 °C for summer (June-August), while the smallest difference was 0.27 ± 0.14 °C for the cold season (November-April). Such seasonal and spatial heterogeneity in the warming rate is consistent with the seasonal precipitation patterns of the NTP and the STP. One possible cause for this phenomenon is that more precipitation occurs in the STP than in the NTP (especially for summer), accompanied by more low cloud cover, which may have slowed the warming rate. Our results imply that dry regions on the TP will possibly experience greater temperature increase than wet regions under future global warming, and this will be more prominent in summer. PMID:26114895

  13. Primary breast lymphoma: 30 years of experience with diagnosis and treatment at a single medical center.

    PubMed

    Radkani, Pejman; Joshi, Devendra; Paramo, Juan C; Mesko, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    In our retrospective study covering the past 30 years at a tertiary cancer care institution, we review 30 patients with primary breast lymphoma (stage I or II) and analyze the different treatment modalities. All 30 patients had unilateral disease, and the median age was 67.5 years. Two patients refused treatment and, hence, were excluded from our study. Of the 28 remaining patients, 11 (39%) were treated with a single treatment modality, and 17 (61%) underwent different combinations of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Seventeen patients underwent a surgical resection as the primary modality or as part of a multimodality therapy. Seven patients (25%) experienced a local or distal recurrence of the disease. Of these 7 patients, 6 underwent surgery as the primary treatment or as part of a combined treatment modality, and 1 underwent radiation therapy only. Eighteen patients (64%) died during the follow-up period ranging from 6 to 230 months, but only 5 of these 18 patients (28% [18% of all patients]) died of disease-specific causes. Of the 2 patients who were only treated with chemotherapy, 1 had primary breast lymphoma that never went into remission. In our study, surgery as the primary modality therapy or as part of a multimodality therapy for primary breast lymphoma is associated with a higher rate of treatment failure, whereas a combination of chemotherapy and local radiation therapy provides the best results. However, because our sample size is small, for such a rare neoplasm, definitive treatment recommendations are difficult to determine.

  14. [A case of intestinal tuberculosis with perianal fistula diagnosed after 30 years].

    PubMed

    Cheon, Ji Hyun; Moon, Won; Park, Seun Ja; Park, Moo In; Kim, Sung Eun; Choi, Youn Jung; Kim, Jong Bin; Kwon, Hye Jung

    2013-12-01

    Tuberculosis can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. However, anorectal tuberculosis has rarely been reported. A 46-years-old male presented with abdominal pain and perianal discharge of 30 years' duration. The patient had received operations for anal fistula and inflammation three times. Although he had been taking mesalazine for the past three years after being diagnosed with Crohn's disease, his symptoms persisted. Colonoscopy performed at our hospital revealed cicatricial change of ileocecal valve and diffuse ulcer scar with mild luminal narrowing of the ascending, transverse, and descending colon without active lesions. Multiple large irregular active ulcers were observed in the distal sigmoid and proximal rectum. An anal fistula opening with much yellowish discharge and background ulcer scar was observed in the anal canal. However, cobble-stone appearance and pseudopolyposis were not present. Therefore, we clinically diagnosed him as having intestinal tuberculosis with anal fistula and prescribed antituberculosis medications. Follow-up colonoscopy performed 3 months later showed much improved multiple large irregular ulcers in the distal sigmoid colon and proximal rectum along with completely resolved anal fistula without evidence of pus discharge.

  15. Improved outcomes of renal transplantation from cardiac death donors: a 30-year single center experience.

    PubMed

    Tojimbara, T; Fuchinoue, S; Iwadoh, K; Koyama, I; Sannomiya, A; Kato, Y; Nanmoku, K; Kai, K; Nakajima, I; Toma, H; Teraoka, S

    2007-03-01

    Outcomes of renal transplantation from donation after cardiac death (DCD) donors over 30 years were analyzed. Between 1975 and 2004, 256 renal transplantations from DCD donors were performed. The recipients were divided into four groups according to a time period as follows: 1975-1979 (Group 1; n = 18), 1980-1989 (Group 2; n = 81), 1990-1999 (Group 3; n = 84) and 2000-2004 (Group 4; n = 73). Of the 256 transplanted kidneys from DCD donors, 38 (15%) functioned immediately after transplantation. The incidence of delayed graft function (DGF) was 72%. Warm ischemic time and total ischemic time were 7.4 +/- 9.4 min and 11.9 +/- 5.6 h, respectively. The overall graft survival rates at 1, 5 and 10 years were 80%, 72% and 53%, respectively. Graft survival rates in each group have continually improved over time (5-year graft survival; 23% vs. 64% vs. 74% vs. 91%, respectively). However, there was no significant difference in graft survival rates between the groups of patients who survived with a functioning graft for more than 1 year. A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed acute rejection and donor age to be independently associated with graft outcome. DCD donors are a valuable source of kidneys for transplantation with promising long-term outcomes.

  16. Chornobyl 30 years later: Radiation, pregnancies, and developmental anomalies in Rivne, Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Wertelecki, Wladimir; Chambers, Christina D; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Zymak-Zakutnya, Natalya; Sosyniuk, Zoriana; Lapchenko, Serhiy; Ievtushok, Bogdana; Akhmedzhanova, Diana; Komov, Oleksandr

    2017-01-01

    In the 30 years since the Chornobyl nuclear power plant disaster, there is evidence of persistent levels of incorporated ionizing radiation in adults, children and pregnant women in the surrounding area. Measured levels of Cesium-137 vary by region, and may be influenced by dietary and water sources as well as proximity to nuclear power plants. Since 2000, comprehensive, population-based birth defects monitoring has been performed in selected regions of Ukraine to evaluate trends and to generate hypotheses regarding potential causes of unexplained variations in defect rates. Significantly higher rates of microcephaly, neural tube defects, and microphthalmia have been identified in selected regions of Ukraine collectively known as Polissia compared to adjacent regions collectively termed non-Polissia, and these significantly higher rates were evident particularly in the years 2000-2009. The Polissia regions have also demonstrated higher mean whole body counts of Cesium-137 compared to values in individuals residing in other non-Polissia regions. The potential causal relationship between persistent ionizing radiation pollution and selected congenital anomaly rates supports the need for a more thorough, targeted investigation of the sources of persistent ionizing radiation and the biological plausibility of a potential teratogenic effect.

  17. [Spatiotemporal variation of soil pH in Guangdong Province of China in past 30 years].

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhi-Xing; Wang, Jing; Chai, Min; Chen, Ze-Peng; Zhan, Zhen-Shou; Zheng, Wu-Ping; Wei, Xiu-Guo

    2011-02-01

    Based on the 1980s' soil inventory data and the 2002-2007 soil pH data of Guangdong Province, the spatiotemporal variation of soil pH in the Province in past 30 years was studied. In the study period, the spatial distribution pattern of soil pH in the Province had less change (mainly acidic), except that in Pearl River Delta and parts of Qingyuan and Shaoguan (weak alkaline). The overall variation of soil pH was represented as acidification, with the average pH value changed from 5.70 to 5.44. Among the soil types in the Province, alluvial soil had an increased pH, lateritic red soil, paddy soil, and red soil had a large decrement of pH value, and lime soil was most obvious in the decrease of pH value and its area percentage. The soil acidification was mainly induced by soil characteristics, some natural factors such as acid rain, and human factors such as unreasonable fertilization and urbanization. In addition, industrialization and mining increased the soil pH in some areas.

  18. A glimpse into 30 years of struggle against prostitution by the women's liberation movement in Norway.

    PubMed

    Strøm, Agnete

    2009-11-01

    The Women's Front of Norway has worked against prostitution for 30 years. In 2008 a law criminalizing the purchase of a sexual act was passed in Norway. This article describes the struggle and the main actors in lobbying for the law. In the 1980s, we raised awareness of prostitution and trafficking in women in a study of the pornography industry, and targeted sex tourist agencies organizing trips to the Philippines and Thailand. In the 1990s, our members in trade unions got their unions to take a stand against prostitution and against legalizing prostitution as "work". In 2006, the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions Congress supported a law criminalizing the buyer of a sexual act; this had a strong impact on the centre-left coalition Government. We invited leaders of the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women to Norway to meet parliamentarians and trade unionists, and kept up the pressure. From the start, the focus was on ensuring that the situation for women in prostitution was ameliorated. Our demands have been for better social services and job training. Street prostitution, especially in Oslo, has been curbed, and a growth in the indoor market has not been reported. Our next task is participating in the awareness campaign "Buying Sex is not a Sport" in connection with the Soccer World Cup, South Africa, 2010.

  19. Quality research in radiation oncology: a self-improvement initiative 30 years ahead of its time?

    PubMed

    Wilson, J Frank; Owen, Jean

    2005-12-01

    The quality of cancer care in the United States should be better than it is. Society has demanded improvement, but much work remains to be done to define and measure both the current quality of care and the steps needed to optimize such care. Various public and private organizations are directing early efforts toward attempts to determine the quality of selected oncology services as a first step in a broad-based quality improvement process. In contrast, the ACR Patterns of Care Study (PCS) for over 30 years has relied on exemplary voluntary engagement by American radiation oncologists in critical self-assessment and self-improvement as a highly effective pathway to improved practice quality. This article provides an overview of the documented historical and recent impact of PCS research findings on practice and describes the deliberate adaptation of the PCS identity and methodology to the quality-sensitive national environment with the new project name Quality Research in Radiation Oncology. The article concludes with a discussion of the rationale for continuing this unique quality improvement initiative and some of the challenges to this imperative that are being faced.

  20. A 30 year old man with an acute presentation of a cerebellopontine angle lesion.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Nancy; Berthelet, France; Bojanowski, Michel W

    2013-03-01

    Schwannomas are slow-growing tumors with symptoms manifesting progressively. We report the case of a patient who manifested a sudden loss of consciousness as clinical presentation of an intracranial schwannoma with no acute hemorrhage or hydrocephalus. A 30-year-old male presented comatose and posturing. Cerebral CT revealed an extra-axial lesion with a heterogeneous enhancement and a cystic component located on the right cerebellopontine angle (CPA), displacing the brain stem. No acute hemorrhage or hydrocephalus was documented. Through a retrosigmoid suboccipital craniotomy, an extended subtotal tumor resection was performed. The patient experienced no functional hearing impairment and resumed his daily-life activities 3 months after surgery. Histopathological examination was compatible with a benign schwannoma. An exuberant lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate was found in many areas, signing the presence of an unusual inflammatory reaction with adjacent important intratumoral edema. We propose that the exuberant inflammatory infiltrate and the associated intratumoral edema acted as determining elements in the increase of mass effect and sudden clinical deterioration.

  1. Paraganglioma, neuroblastoma, and a SDHB mutation: Resolution of a 30-year-old mystery.

    PubMed

    Schimke, R Neil; Collins, Debra L; Stolle, Catherine A

    2010-06-01

    Familial paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma (PGL/PCC) is genetically heterogenous with mutations in three of the four subunits of the heterotetrameric mitochondrial complex II enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) being causally responsible for the majority of cases. In addition to PGL/PCC an array of non-paraganglial tumors have been described in affected individuals. We present a 30-year follow-up on the family of a deceased patient who synchronously developed malignant neuroblastoma (NBL), PCC, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Other family members with late onset disease have come to our attention, and molecular study revealed a mutation in the SDHB gene. Despite the embryologic relationship, NBL has been seen in only two previous patients with familial PGL/PCC, both with deletions of the SDHB gene. Review of the literature suggests the lack of a reported association between NBL and familial PGL/PCC may be an ascertainment bias. We further suggest that study of the SDH genes in NBL survivors who develop secondary solid tumors, particularly RCC, may correct this bias, and provide for more effective and comprehensive tumor screening in this patient population.

  2. The SLC28 (CNT) and SLC29 (ENT) nucleoside transporter families: a 30-year collaborative odyssey.

    PubMed

    Young, James D

    2016-06-15

    Specialized nucleoside transporter (NT) proteins are required for passage of nucleosides and hydrophilic nucleoside analogues across biological membranes. Physiologic nucleosides serve as central salvage metabolites in nucleotide biosynthesis, and nucleoside analogues are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cancer and antiviral diseases. The nucleoside adenosine modulates numerous cellular events via purino-receptor cell signalling pathways. Human NTs are divided into two structurally unrelated protein families: the SLC28 concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) family and the SLC29 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family. Human CNTs are inwardly directed Na(+)-dependent nucleoside transporters found predominantly in intestinal and renal epithelial and other specialized cell types. Human ENTs mediate bidirectional fluxes of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides down their concentration gradients and are ubiquitously found in most, possibly all, cell types. Both protein families are evolutionarily old: CNTs are present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes; ENTs are widely distributed in mammalian, lower vertebrate and other eukaryote species. This mini-review describes a 30-year collaboration with Professor Stephen Baldwin to identify and understand the structures and functions of these physiologically and clinically important transport proteins.

  3. [Repeat bypass surgery for intracranial hemorrhage 30 years after indirect bypass for moyamoya disease].

    PubMed

    Hori, Satoshi; Kashiwazaki, Daina; Akioka, Naoki; Hamada, Hideo; Kuwayama, Naoya; Kuroda, Satoshi

    2014-04-01

    A 39-year-old man had been diagnosed with moyamoya disease and underwent a bilateral encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis(EDAS)intervention at the age of 9 years. During the 30 years after his bilateral EDAS, he experienced no cerebrovascular events. However, at age 39, he suddenly presented with mild consciousness disturbance and vomiting and was transferred to a local hospital. Brain CT showed an intracerebral hemorrhage associated with ventricular hematoma. He was referred to our hospital for further investigation and treatment. Cerebral angiography showed faint collaterals through the site of the bilateral EDAS and development of basal moyamoya vessels. SPECT showed decreased cerebral blood flow(CBF)and cerebrovascular reactivity(CVR)in the right frontal lobe. We diagnosed him with delayed cerebral hemorrhage due to delayed rupturing of fragile moyamoya vessels after indirect bypass. The patient underwent a repeat bypass surgery(STA-MCA anastomosis and encephalo-duro-myo-arterio-pericranial synangiosis;EDMAPS)on the right side. He showed improvement in cerebral hemodynamics after surgery, and has since remained free from cerebrovascular events. Hemorrhagic events occurring a very long time after indirect bypass surgery in pediatric-onset moyamoya disease are rare. In such cases, a lifelong follow-up strategy may be necessary. Repeat bypass surgery may be a powerful tool to prevent such hemorrhagic events.

  4. The behavioral pharmacology of anorexigenic drugs in nonhuman primates: 30 years of progress

    PubMed Central

    Foltin, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    Comparatively few studies over the past 30 years have used pharmacological manipulations as a means of understanding processes underlying feeding behavior of nonhuman primates. In the 1970s and early 1980s, four laboratories provided data on the anorexigenic effects of a range of drugs on rhesus monkeys and baboons, and a fifth laboratory studied the effects of neuropeptides on feeding behavior of baboons. There were differences in the way anorexigenic drugs altered eating topography, and those that increased dopamine levels had greater abuse liability than those that increased serotonin levels. Studies in the 1980s and 1990s used foraging models and principles of behavioral economics to understand food–drug interactions. Experimenter-given anorexigenic drugs did not function as economic substitutes for food. Recent studies have examined the effects of a range of drugs on consumption of highly palatable food and model diet-induced obesity. Although some drugs, including stimulants, N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists, and a cannabinoid antagonist increased the latency to standard food consumption, there was little evidence for a selective effect of any drug on highly palatable food consumption. Results obtained in nonhuman primates did not always confirm those observed in rodents. Future studies looking at sex differences and social factors may provide insight into factors related to human obesity. PMID:22772334

  5. Chiropractic management of a 30-year-old patient with Parsonage-Turner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this case report is to describe the chiropractic management of a patient presenting with right arm paralysis and a diagnosis of Parsonage-Turner syndrome. Clinical Features After receiving nerve entrapment release surgery, a 30-year-old man presented with a right arm contracture, atrophy, and weakness with general paralysis of the forearm and index finger of 6 weeks' duration. Intervention and Outcome The patient was provided chiropractic care that included high-velocity/low-amplitude spinal manipulation based upon applied kinesiology manual muscle testing, soft tissue trigger point therapy, exercises, and stretches. The patient demonstrated improvement in range of motion after the first treatment session. By the eighth treatment, he was able to fully straighten his arm. Three years later, the patient reported that he was able to do mountain climbing and that his arm was fully functional and pain-free. Conclusion For this patient, chiropractic care seemed to be successful in relieving his right arm paralysis and restoring normal arm movement. PMID:22654689

  6. Disability-Free Life Expectancy Over 30 Years: A Growing Female Disadvantage in the US Population

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Douglas A.; Spillman, Brenda C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine changes in active life expectancy in the United States over 30 years for older men and women (aged ≥ 65 years). Methods. We used the 1982 and 2004 National Long Term Care Survey and the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study to estimate age-specific mortality and disability rates, the overall chances of survival and of surviving without disability, and years of active life for men and women. Results. For older men, longevity has increased, disability has been postponed to older ages, disability prevalence has fallen, and the percentage of remaining life spent active has increased. However, for older women, small longevity increases have been accompanied by even smaller postponements in disability, a reversal of a downward trend in moderate disability, and stagnation of active life as a percentage of life expectancy. As a consequence, older women no longer live more active years than men, despite their longer lives. Conclusions. Neither a compression nor expansion of late-life disability is inevitable. Public health measures directed at older women to postpone disability may be needed to offset impending long-term care pressures related to population aging. PMID:26985619

  7. Development of the psychotherapy supervisor: review of and reflections on 30 years of theory and research.

    PubMed

    Watkins, C Edward

    2012-01-01

    The psychotherapy supervisor's development (i.e., the unfolding process of growth in being and becoming a supervisor) has long been considered a substantive issue in clinical supervision. Theory and clinical wisdom suggest that supervisors' level of development can have a significant and far-reaching impact on the supervision experience, potentially affecting supervisory alliance formation, in-session conceptualization and strategy utilization, and even the outcomes experienced by both supervisees and patients. Consensus seems to be that there is a critical need for empirical study of psychotherapy supervisor development. But with a generation of theory and research on psychotherapy supervisor development behind us, what do we know (or not know); where does this area of inquiry stand today, and what do we need to know about supervisor development going forward? In this paper, I attempt to address those questions. I examine the last 30-year period (approximately) of supervisor development theory, measurement, and quantitative and qualitative study; provide a contemporary status report of sorts on this subject; and identify some important matters for research and practical consideration. Despite a generation of inquiry, the psychotherapy supervisor still remains the largely unknown party in the supervision experience. But that long-standing reality can be changed, some possibilities for doing so are presented, and the promise of supervisor development study is seen to be an ever-inviting hope that awaits realization.

  8. 30 Years on Selected Issues in the Prevention of HIV among Persons Who Inject Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Des Jarlais, D. C.; Pinkerton, S.; Hagan, H.; Guardino, V.; Feelemyer, J.; Cooper, H.; Hatzatkis, A.; Uuskula, A.

    2013-01-01

    After 30 years of extensive research on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among persons who inject drugs (PWID), we now have a good understanding of the critical issues involved. Following the discovery of HIV in 1981, epidemics among PWID were noted in many countries, and consensus recommendations for interventions for reducing injection related HIV transmission have been developed. While high-income countries have continued to develop and implement new Harm Reduction programs, most low-/middle-income countries have implemented Harm Reduction at very low levels. Modeling of combined prevention programming including needle exchange (NSP) and antiretroviral therapy (ARV) suggests that NSP be given the highest priority. Future HIV prevention programming should continue to provide Harm Reduction programs for PWID coupled with interventions aimed at reducing sexual transmission. As HIV continues to spread in low- and middle-income countries, it is important to achieve and maintain high coverage of Harm Reduction programs in these locations. As PWID almost always experience multiple health problems, it will be important to address these multiple problems within a comprehensive approach grounded in a human rights perspective. PMID:23840957

  9. No association between mean telomere length and life stress observed in a 30 year birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Jodczyk, Sarah; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Pearson, John F; Kennedy, Martin A

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres are specialised structures that cap the ends of chromosomes. They shorten with each cell division and have been proposed as a marker of cellular aging. Previous studies suggest that early life stressors increase the rate of telomere shortening with potential impact on disease states and mortality later in life. This study examined the associations between telomere length and exposure to a number of stressors that arise during development from the antenatal/perinatal period through to young adulthood. Participants were from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS), a New Zealand longitudinal birth cohort which has followed participants from birth until age 30. Telomere length was obtained on DNA from peripheral blood samples collected from consenting participants (n = 677) at age 28-30, using a quantitative PCR assay. These data were assessed for associations with 26 measures of life course adversity or stress which occurred prior to 25 years of age. No associations were found between telomere length measured at age 28-30 years and life course adversity or stress for specific measures and for the summary risk scores for each developmental domain. The correlations were very small ranging from -0.06 to 0.06 with a median of 0.01, and none were statistically significant. Our results in this well-studied birth cohort do not support prior reports of such associations, and underscore the need for more extensive replication of proposed links between stress and telomere biology in larger cohorts with appropriate phenotypic data.

  10. Primary health care development: where is Nepal after 30 years of Alma Ata Declaration?

    PubMed

    Karkee, R; Jha, N

    2010-01-01

    The year 2008 has witnessed the global conversation to return to tenets of Alma-Ata and to review its 30 years of journey. We reviewed Nepal's journey on Primary Health Care development: policy formulation, structure development, progress and constraints. Though Nepal has institutionalised the PHC approach in health policy, strategy and health care delivery system, this has not been effectively translated into actions, and the results are mixed. Nepal has gained impressive achievements in selective primary health care markers: 45.43% maternal mortality and 62.34% child mortality reduction during 1990-2005. But gain in comprehensive health care markers is not impressive: 18.7% Skilled Birth Attendant (4% in poorest quintile and 45% in richest quintile), 39% having access to improved sanitation and 55.7% of females are literate as compared to males. Socio-political environment until recently was not favourable for comprehensive primary health care, allowing limited health sector decentralisation and community empowerment. Health activities were focussed more on selective health care strategy in the form of disease control, immunisation, vitamin A supplementation, oral rehydration solution use and contraceptive use. Nepal's rural hilly geography posed great challenge on logistic supply, communication and retention of health workers rendering public health centres of low quality with negative perceptions of consumers. Nepal is on the pathway to build equitable comprehensive primary health care.

  11. Sex differences in sub-clinical psychosis--results from a community study over 30 years.

    PubMed

    Rössler, Wulf; Hengartner, Michael P; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Haker, Helene; Angst, Jules

    2012-08-01

    Sex differences in schizophrenia have long been reported. They are found within almost all aspects of the disease, from incidence and prevalence, age of onset, symptomatology, and course to its psycho-social outcome. Many sex-related hypotheses have been developed about the biology, psychology, or sociology of that disease. A further approach to study sex differences would be to examine such differences in sub-clinical psychotic states as well. If factors related to full-blown psychosis were equally meaningful over the entire psychosis continuum, we should expect that "true" sex differences could also be identified in sub-clinical psychosis. Here, we studied sex differences in sub-clinical psychosis within a community cohort in Zurich, Switzerland. This population was followed for over 30 years and included males and females between the ages of 20/21 and 49/50. We applied two different measures of sub-clinical psychosis representing schizotypal signs and schizophrenia nuclear symptoms. Using cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, we found no significant sex differences in sub-clinical psychosis over time with respect to age of onset, symptomatology, course, or psycho-social outcome. Thus it appears that sex differences in psychosis manifest themselves at the high end of the continuum (full-blown schizophrenia) rather than within the sub-threshold range. Possibly males and females have separate thresholds for certain symptoms because they are differently vulnerable or exposed to various risk factors. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Posttraumatic stress disorder among Israeli ex-prisoners of war 18 and 30 years after release.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Zahava; Dekel, Rachel

    2005-08-01

    The psychological responses to captivity were measured in a sample of former prisoners of war (POWs) 18 and 30 years after release from captivity. 209 Israeli veterans of the 1973 Yom Kippur War (103 ex-POWs and 106 controls) who had taken part in a previous study conducted in 1991 participated in the current study conducted in 2003. The study assessed current rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), changes in PTSD over time, and the contribution of captivity severity (objective and subjective), sociode-mographic variables, and psychological appraisal and coping with captivity to predicting PTSD using standardized self-report questionnaires. Twenty-three percent of the ex-POWs met PTSD criteria and were 10 times more likely than controls to experience deterioration in their psychological condition in the 12-year interval between the 2 assessments. Almost 20% of ex-POWs who did not meet PTSD criteria in 1991 met criteria in the current assessment, in comparison to almost 1% of the controls. Current PTSD was predicted by younger age at the time of captivity, by loss of emotional control and higher subjective appraisal of suffering in captivity, and by a greater number of PTSD symptoms in the 1991 assessment. It is important to follow up and offer treatment to former POWs. Special attention should be paid to those who lost emotional control in captivity and to those who felt that the conditions of their captivity were severe.

  13. Celebrating 30 years of science from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Ian; Friberg, Per

    2017-01-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) has been the world’s most successful single-dish telescope at submillimetre wavelengths since it began operations in 1987. From the pioneering days of single-element photometers and mixers, through to the state-of-the-art imaging and spectroscopic cameras, the JCMT has been associated with a number of major scientific discoveries. Famous for the discovery of ‘SCUBA’ galaxies, which are responsible for a large fraction of the far-infrared background, the JCMT has pushed the sensitivity limits arguably more than any other facility in this most difficult of wavebands in which to observe. Closer to home, the first images of huge discs of cool debris around nearby stars gave us clues to the evolution of planetary systems, further evidence of the importance of studying astrophysics in the submillimetre region. Now approaching the 30th anniversary of the first observations, the telescope continues to carry out unique and innovative science. In this review article, we look back on some of the major scientific highlights from the past 30 years. PMID:28989775

  14. Disability-Free Life Expectancy Over 30 Years: A Growing Female Disadvantage in the US Population.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Vicki A; Wolf, Douglas A; Spillman, Brenda C

    2016-06-01

    To examine changes in active life expectancy in the United States over 30 years for older men and women (aged ≥ 65 years). We used the 1982 and 2004 National Long Term Care Survey and the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study to estimate age-specific mortality and disability rates, the overall chances of survival and of surviving without disability, and years of active life for men and women. For older men, longevity has increased, disability has been postponed to older ages, disability prevalence has fallen, and the percentage of remaining life spent active has increased. However, for older women, small longevity increases have been accompanied by even smaller postponements in disability, a reversal of a downward trend in moderate disability, and stagnation of active life as a percentage of life expectancy. As a consequence, older women no longer live more active years than men, despite their longer lives. Neither a compression nor expansion of late-life disability is inevitable. Public health measures directed at older women to postpone disability may be needed to offset impending long-term care pressures related to population aging.

  15. Valproic acid malabsorption in 30 year-old female patient - Case study.

    PubMed

    Jopowicz, Anna; Piechal, Agnieszka; Kurkowska-Jastrzębska, Iwona

    Valproic acid (VPA) is used in epilepsy treatment and as a stabilizer in bipolar affective disorder for over 40 years. Although, the pharmacokinetic properties of valproic acid are well known, it is often forgotten that the formulation of the drug significantly influences its gastrointestinal absorption. We are describing the case of 30 year-old female patient, diagnosed at the age of 13 with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Complete ineffectiveness of the treatment was caused by malabsorption of sodium valproate and valproic acid in the patient. The change of the drug formulation resulted in a several times higher bioavailability of the drug and a partial improvement of the patient's clinical condition. Low concentration of valproic acid after administration the slow-released tablets are usually observed. However, a low bioavailability beside the bad compliance should be considered when the minimal level is extremely low during therapy. It is known that form of the drug, beside presence of food and its components, as well as gastrointestinal tract condition or interactions with other drugs can influence the drug level. Modification of the formulation of the drug may lead to improvement of absorption and increase its effectiveness. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  16. From Energy Audits to Home Performance: 30 Years of Articles in Home Energy Magazine

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan

    2014-08-11

    Home Energy Magazine has been publishing articles about residential energy efficiency for 30 years. Its goal has been to disseminate technically reliable and neutral information to the practitioners, that is, professionals in the business of home energy efficiency. The articles, editorials, letters, and advertisements are a kind of window on the evolution of energy conservation technologies, policies, and organizations. Initially, the focus was on audits and simple retrofits, such as weatherstripping and insulation. Instrumentation was sparse sometimes limited to a ruler to measure depth of attic insulation and a blower door was exotic. CFLs were heavy, awkward bulbs which might, or might not, fit in a fixture. Saving air conditioning energy was not a priority. Solar energy was only for the most adventurous. Thirty years on, the technologies and business have moved beyond just insulating attics to the larger challenge of delivering home performance and achieving zero net energy. This shift reflects the success in reducing space heating energy and the need to create a profitable industry by providing more services. The leading edge of the residential energy services market is becoming much more sophisticated, offering both efficiency and solar systems. The challenge is to continue providing relevant and reliable information in a transformed industry and a revolutionized media landscape.

  17. International Standards for Properties and Performance of Advanced Ceramics - 30 years of Excellence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Michael G.; Salem, Jonathan A.; Helfinstine, John; Quinn, George D.; Gonczy, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties/performance of brittle bodies (e.g., advanced ceramics and glasses) can be difficult to measure correctly unless the proper techniques are used. For three decades, ASTM Committee C28 on Advanced Ceramics, has developed numerous full-consensus standards (e.g., test methods, practices, guides, terminology) to measure various properties and performance of a monolithic and composite ceramics and coatings that, in some cases, may be applicable to glasses. These standards give the "what, how, how not, why, why not, etc." for many mechanical, physical, thermal, properties and performance of advanced ceramics. Use of these standards provides accurate, reliable, repeatable and complete data. Involvement in ASTM Committee C28 has included users, producers, researchers, designers, academicians, etc. who write, continually update, and validate through round robin test programmes, more than 45 standards in the 30 years since the Committee's inception in 1986. Included in this poster is a pictogram of the ASTM Committee C28 standards and how to obtain them either as i) individual copies with full details or ii) a complete collection in one volume. A listing of other ASTM committees of interest is included. In addition, some examples of the tangible benefits of standards for advanced ceramics are employed to demonstrate their practical application.

  18. Leatherback nests increasing significantly in Florida, USA; trends assessed over 30 years using multilevel modeling.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kelly; Sims, Michelle; Meylan, Anne; Witherington, Blair; Brost, Beth; Crowder, Larry B

    2011-01-01

    Understanding population status for endangered species is critical to developing and evaluating recovery plans mandated by the Endangered Species Act. For sea turtles, changes in abundance are difficult to detect because most life stages occur in the water. Currently, nest counts are the most reliable way of assessing trends. We determined the rate of growth for leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) nest numbers in Florida (USA) using a multilevel Poisson regression. We modeled nest counts from 68 beaches over 30 years and, using beach-level covariates (including latitude), we allowed for partial pooling of information between neighboring beaches. This modeling approach is ideal for nest count data because it recognizes the hierarchical structure of the data while incorporating variables related to survey effort. Nesting has increased at all 68 beaches in Florida, with trends ranging from 3.1% to 16.3% per year. Overall, across the state, the number of nests has been increasing by 10.2% per year since 1979. Despite being a small population (probably < 1000 individuals), this nesting population may help achieve objectives in the federal recovery plan. This exponential growth rate mirrors trends observed for other Atlantic populations and may be driven partially by improved protection of nesting beaches. However, nesting is increasing even where beach protection has not been enhanced. Climate variability and associated marine food web dynamics, which could enhance productivity and reduce predators, may be driving this trend.

  19. A decision-tree-based method for reconstructing disturbance history in the Russia boreal forests over 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D.; Loboda, T. V.

    2012-12-01

    The boreal forest is one of the largest biomes on Earth and carries crucial significance in numerous aspects. Located in the high latitude region of the Northern Hemisphere, it is predicted that the boreal forest is subject to the highest level of influence under the changing climate, which may impose profound impacts on the global carbon and energy budget. Of the entire boreal biome, approximately two thirds consists of the Russian boreal forest, which is also the largest forested zone in the world. Fire and logging have been the predominant disturbance types in the Russian boreal forest, which accelerate the speed of carbon release into the atmosphere. To better understand these processes, records of past disturbance are in great need. However, there has been no comprehensive and unbiased multi-decadal record of forest disturbance in this region. This paper illustrates a method for reconstructing disturbance history in the Russia boreal forests over 30 years. This method takes advantage of data from both Landsat, which has a long data record but limited spatial coverage, and the Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS), which has wall-to-wall spatial coverage but limited period of observations. We developed a standardized and semi-automated approach to extract training and validation data samples from Landsat imagery. Landsat data, dating back to 1984, were used to generate maps of forest disturbance using temporal shifts in Disturbance Index through the multi-temporal stack of imagery in selected locations. The disturbed forests are attributed to logging or burning causes by means of visual examination. The Landsat-based disturbance maps are then used as reference data to train a decision tree classifier on 2003 MODIS data. This classifier utilizes multiple direct MODIS products including the BRDF-adjusted surface reflectance, a suite of vegetation indices, and land surface temperature. The algorithm also capitalizes on seasonal variability in class

  20. Contrasting population trends of piscivorous seabirds in the Pribilof Islands: A 30-year perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrd, G.V.; Schmutz, J.A.; Renner, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Pribilof Islands provide nesting habitat for one of the largest concentrations of piscivorous seabirds in the North Pacific region. Pribilof breeding populations of black-legged and red-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla and Rissa brevirostris), and common and thick-billed murres (Uria aalge and Uria lomvia) are supported by a highly productive marine food web. Productivity and temperature in this area are influenced by winter sea ice that frequently reaches its maximum extent near the Pribilofs. Although St. George and St. Paul islands, the two largest of the Pribilof group, are situated only 60 km apart, St. George is within 25 km of the shelf break, but St. Paul is approximately 90 km away. In contrast, the local contribution of sea ice-edge productivity in the spring is frequently closer to St. Paul than to St. George. Central place foraging piscivorous seabirds nesting at St. Paul and St. George are likely differentially affected by the relative contributions of the shelf break and ice-edge environments based on juxtaposition. Within the past decade or so, sea ice in the Bering Sea has failed to reach the vicinity of the Pribilofs in some years, and predictions of warming in the future suggest the possibility that direct effects of the ice on the immediate Pribilof environment will be reduced. To evaluate the response of kittiwakes and murres on the two islands to conditions in their foraging environments, we examined population trends over the past 30 years based on data from the seabird monitoring program conducted by the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge and others. Spatial differences in trends have been more consistent than differences among species, with populations at St. Paul having more enduring declines than those at St. George. At St. George, black-legged kittiwakes and common murres have remained stable. Red-legged kittiwakes and thick-billed murres both declined, but began to rebound in the late 1980s, such that in 2005 population

  1. Contrasting population trends of piscivorous seabirds in the Pribilof Islands: A 30-year perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrd, G. Vernon; Schmutz, Joel A.; Renner, Heather M.

    2008-08-01

    The Pribilof Islands provide nesting habitat for one of the largest concentrations of piscivorous seabirds in the North Pacific region. Pribilof breeding populations of black-legged and red-legged kittiwakes ( Rissa tridactyla and Rissa brevirostris), and common and thick-billed murres ( Uria aalge and Uria lomvia) are supported by a highly productive marine food web. Productivity and temperature in this area are influenced by winter sea ice that frequently reaches its maximum extent near the Pribilofs. Although St. George and St. Paul islands, the two largest of the Pribilof group, are situated only 60 km apart, St. George is within 25 km of the shelf break, but St. Paul is approximately 90 km away. In contrast, the local contribution of sea ice-edge productivity in the spring is frequently closer to St. Paul than to St. George. Central place foraging piscivorous seabirds nesting at St. Paul and St. George are likely differentially affected by the relative contributions of the shelf break and ice-edge environments based on juxtaposition. Within the past decade or so, sea ice in the Bering Sea has failed to reach the vicinity of the Pribilofs in some years, and predictions of warming in the future suggest the possibility that direct effects of the ice on the immediate Pribilof environment will be reduced. To evaluate the response of kittiwakes and murres on the two islands to conditions in their foraging environments, we examined population trends over the past 30 years based on data from the seabird monitoring program conducted by the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge and others. Spatial differences in trends have been more consistent than differences among species, with populations at St. Paul having more enduring declines than those at St. George. At St. George, black-legged kittiwakes and common murres have remained stable. Red-legged kittiwakes and thick-billed murres both declined, but began to rebound in the late 1980s, such that in 2005 population

  2. A survey of health care and disease in geriatric horses aged 30 years or older.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Joanne L; McGowan, Catherine M; Clegg, Peter D; Chandler, Keith J; Pinchbeck, Gina L

    2012-04-01

    This study reports on aspects of preventive health care and on the prevalence of disease in geriatric (≥30 years old) horses and ponies in North-West England and North Wales. Of 128 questionnaires mailed to horse owners, 87 useable responses were received and 69 horses were subject to veterinary examination. Of the animals examined, 16% were underweight with body condition scores (BCS)<2/5, and 10% were overweight (BCS>3/5). This contrasted with the owner responses that reported 23% of the animals surveyed to be underweight and only 3% to be overweight. When assessed at trot, 77% of the horses were lame on at least one limb, with 97% having a reduced range of motion in at least one joint. Only 16% of these animals were reported by owners to have been lame within the previous 12 months. Owner-reported changes to hair coat were significantly associated with hirsutism or abnormal moulting detected at clinical examination (39%). At least one ophthalmic lesion was identified in all of the horses and ponies examined and 17% of owners reported that their animal had experienced visual problems within the previous year. Although dental abnormalities were detected in all animals where an oral examination was performed, only 42% of owners reported that their horse suffered from a known dental disorder. In general, despite a high prevalence of disease detected in these geriatric animals and with the majority having multiple abnormalities at clinical examination, there was under-reporting/under-recognition of these health problems by owners.

  3. Epidemiology, economics, and ethics in the NICU: reflections from 30 years of neonatology practice.

    PubMed

    Meadow, William

    2007-12-01

    Over the past 30 years, I have noted 4 epidemiological points, each of which, I believe, must inform future conversations between neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) physicians, parents, and policy makers. First, there are no credible arguments against NICU care that rely on invoking cost or distributive justice. NICU dollars are remarkably well targeted to children who will ultimately survive to be discharged, as opposed to die in the NICU. If any rationing arguments are to be made, then they should be directed against sick adults in intensive care units. Second, the vast majority of infants admitted to the NICU, even infants sick enough to require mechanical ventilation, will survive to be discharged home-and every caretaker knows this, every day. Again, these findings stand in sharp contrast to adult patients in intensive care, where discordant predictions of survival are the norm, not the exception. Third, medical caretakers are remarkably poor at predicting which infants will die in the NICU, using either serial illness severity algorithms or serial intuitions. Nearly half of all babies predicted to die in the NICU by either strategy will survive to be discharged nonetheless. Fourth, and finally, medical caretakers seem remarkably good at identifying burdensome outcomes (either death or survival with permanent serious neurological disability) while babies are still sick enough that an alternative (ie, withdrawal of the ventilator) is ethically possible. Only 5% of ventilated extremely low birth weight babies receiving ventilation who are predicted to die before NICU discharge will be alive and neurologically unscathed at 2 years of age.

  4. 30 years of upper air soundings on board of R/V POLARSTERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driemel, Amelie; Loose, Bernd; Grobe, Hannes; Sieger, Rainer; König-Langlo, Gert

    2016-06-01

    The research vessel and supply icebreaker POLARSTERN is the flagship of the Alfred-Wegener-Institut in Bremerhaven (Germany) and one of the infrastructural pillars of German Antarctic research. Since its commissioning in 1982, POLARSTERN has conducted 30 campaigns to Antarctica (157 legs, mostly austral summer), and 29 to the Arctic (94 legs, northern summer). Usually, POLARSTERN is more than 300 days per year in operation and crosses the Atlantic Ocean in a meridional section twice a year. The first radiosonde on POLARSTERN was released on the 29 December 1982, 2 days after POLARSTERN started on its maiden voyage to the Antarctic. And these daily soundings have continued up to the present. Due to the fact that POLARSTERN has reliably and regularly been providing upper air observations from data sparse regions (oceans and polar regions), the radiosonde data are of special value for researchers and weather forecast services alike. In the course of 30 years (29 December 1982 to 25 November 2012) a total of 12 378 radiosonde balloons were started on POLARSTERN. All radiosonde data can now be found at König-Langlo (2015, doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.810000). Each data set contains the directly measured parameters air temperature, relative humidity and air pressure, and the derived altitude, wind direction and wind speed. 432 data sets additionally contain ozone measurements.Although more sophisticated techniques (meteorological satellites, aircraft observation, remote-sensing systems, etc.) have nowadays become increasingly important, the high vertical resolution and quality of radiosonde data remains paramount for weather forecasts and modelling approaches.

  5. Spatial and temporal dynamics of agricultural residue resources in the last 30 years in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanli; Zhang, Peidong; Yang, Xutong; Xu, Xiaoning

    2016-12-01

    The availability and distribution of biomass resources are important for the development of the bioenergy industry in a region. Biomass resources are abundant in China; however, the raw material is severely deficient, which makes the Chinese bioenergy industry an embarrassment and a contradiction. Unclear reserves and distribution and changing trends of biomass resources are the reason for this situation. A collection coefficient model of Chinese agricultural residue resources was established and the spatial and temporal pattern dynamics of agricultural residue resources in the last 30 years were analyzed. The results show that agricultural residue resources increased in stages from 1978 to 2011, including a rapid increase from 1978 to 1999, a significant fall from 2000 to 2004, and a slow increase from 2004 to 2011. Crops straw and livestock manure are the main ingredients of agricultural residue resources with proportions of 53-59% and 31-38%, respectively. However, the former has gradually decreased, while the latter is increasing. This mainly resulted from the strategic reorganization of the Chinese agriculture structure and the rapid development of large-scale livestock breeding and agricultural mechanization. Large regional differences existed in Chinese agricultural residue resources, and three distribution types formed, including resource-rich areas in North China, Northeast and Inner Mongolia, resource-limited areas in Central and Southwest China, and resource-poor areas along Northwest and Southeast coasts. This pattern is a reverse of the distributions of climatic conditions, water resources, economic development, human resources, and technological levels. Finally, it can be predicted that livestock manure and biomass conversion technology at low temperature will play increasingly significant roles in bioenergy industry development. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Trends in Pulmonary Hypertension Over a Period of 30 Years: Experience From a Single Referral Centre.

    PubMed

    Quezada Loaiza, Carlos Andrés; Velázquez Martín, María Teresa; Jiménez López-Guarch, Carmen; Ruiz Cano, María José; Navas Tejedor, Paula; Carreira, Patricia Esmeralda; Flox Camacho, Ángela; de Pablo Gafas, Alicia; Delgado Jiménez, Juan Francisco; Gómez Sánchez, Miguel Ángel; Escribano Subías, Pilar

    2017-04-25

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular dysfunction and death. Despite scientific advances, is still associated with high morbidity and mortality. The aim is to describe the clinical approach and determine the prognostic factors of patients with PAH treated in a national reference center over 30 years. Three hundred and seventy nine consecutive patients with PAH (January 1984 to December 2014) were studied. Were divided into 3 periods of time: before 2004, 2004-2009 and 2010-2014. Prognostic factors (multivariate analysis) were analyzed for clinical deterioration. Median age was 44 years (68.6% women), functional class III-IV: 72%. An increase was observed in more complex etiologies in the last period of time: Pulmonary venooclusive disease and portopulmonary hypertension. Upfront combination therapy significantly increased (5% before 2004 vs 27% after 2010; P < .05). Multivariate analysis showed prognostic significance in age, sex, etiology and combined clinical variables as they are independent predictors of clinical deterioration (P < .05). Survival free from death or transplantation for the 1st, 3rd and 5th year was 92.2%, 80.6% and 68.5% respectively. The median survival was 9 years (95% confidence interval,, 7.532-11.959) CONCLUSIONS: The PAH is a heterogeneous and complex disease, the median survival free from death or transplantation in our series is 9 years after diagnosis. The structure of a multidisciplinary unit PAH must adapt quickly to changes that occur over time incorporating new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. A 30-year history of earthquake crisis communication in California and lessons for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, L.

    2015-12-01

    The first statement from the US Geological Survey to the California Office of Emergency Services quantifying the probability of a possible future earthquake was made in October 1985 about the probability (approximately 5%) that a M4.7 earthquake located directly beneath the Coronado Bay Bridge in San Diego would be a foreshock to a larger earthquake. In the next 30 years, publication of aftershock advisories have become routine and formal statements about the probability of a larger event have been developed in collaboration with the California Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (CEPEC) and sent to CalOES more than a dozen times. Most of these were subsequently released to the public. These communications have spanned a variety of approaches, with and without quantification of the probabilities, and using different ways to express the spatial extent and the magnitude distribution of possible future events. The USGS is re-examining its approach to aftershock probability statements and to operational earthquake forecasting with the goal of creating pre-vetted automated statements that can be released quickly after significant earthquakes. All of the previous formal advisories were written during the earthquake crisis. The time to create and release a statement became shorter with experience from the first public advisory (to the 1988 Lake Elsman earthquake) that was released 18 hours after the triggering event, but was never completed in less than 2 hours. As was done for the Parkfield experiment, the process will be reviewed by CEPEC and NEPEC (National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council) so the statements can be sent to the public automatically. This talk will review the advisories, the variations in wording and the public response and compare this with social science research about successful crisis communication, to create recommendations for future advisories

  8. Review of Maternal Mortality in Ethiopia: A Story of the Past 30 Years

    PubMed Central

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is one of the six countries which have contributed to more than 50% of all maternal deaths across the world. This country has adopted the millennium development goals (MDGs) including reducing the maternal mortality by three-quarter, and put improvement in maternal health as one of the health sector development program (HSDP) performance indicators. The purpose of this study was to review the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Ethiopia in the past 30 years using available literature. Methods A computer based literature search in the databases of MEDLINE, PubMed, HINARI, EBASE, MEASURE DHS, The Cochrane Library, Google Search and Google Scholar was carried out. Manual search for local articles that are not available electronically in full document were also conducted. Eighteen data sources (3 nationally representative surveys, 2 secondary data analyses, 5 small scale community based studies, and 8 hospital based studies) were included in the review. The results of this review are presented in the form of line and stock graphs. Results The national maternal mortality trend estimated by the central statistics agency of Ethiopia, The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, WHO and other UN agencies showed inconsistent results. Similarly, although there were marked variations in the 95% confidence intervals among individual studies, the small scale community based and hospital based studies have shown that there has been no significant change in maternal mortality over the last three decades. A 22-year cohort analysis from Atat Hospital is the only evidence that demonstrated a very significant drop in maternal mortality among mothers who were kept in the maternity waiting area before the onset of labor. Conclusion Although the MDG and HSDP envisaged significant improvement in maternal health by this time, this review has shown that the performances are still far from the target. The multisectoral huge investment by the Ethiopian Government is a

  9. CT imaging, then and now: a 30-year review of the economics of computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Stockburger, Wayne T

    2004-01-01

    The first computed tomography (CT) scanner in the US was installed in June 1973 at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. By the end of 1974, 44 similar systems had been installed at medical facilities around the country. Less than 4 years after the introduction of CT imaging in the US, at least 400 CT systems had been installed. The practice of pneumoencephalography was eliminated. The use of nuclear medicine brain scans significantly diminished. At the time, CT imaging was limited to head studies, but with the introduction of contrast agents and full body CT systems the changes in the practice of medicine became even more significant. CT imaging was hailed by the US medical community as the greatest advance in radiology since the discovery of x-rays. But the rapid spread of CT systems, their frequency of use, and the associated increase in healthcare costs combined to draw the attention of decision-makers within the federal and state governments, specifically to establish policies regarding the acquisition and use of diagnostic technologies. Initially, CT imaging was limited to neurological applications, but in the 30 years since its inception, capabilities and applications have been expanded as a result of the advancements in technology and software development. While neurological disorders are still a common reason for CT imaging, many other medical disciplines (oncology, emergency medicine, orthopedics, etc.) have found CT imaging to be the definitive tool for diagnostic information. As such, the clinical demand for CT imaging has steadily increased. Economically, the development of CT imaging has been one of success, even in the face of governmental action to restrict its acquisition and utilization by healthcare facilities. CTimaging has increased the cost of healthcare, but in turn has added unquantifiable value to the practice of medicine in the US.

  10. Multiscale structure of the MJO revealed from 30-year satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, K.; Kiladis, G. N.; Dias, J.; Nasuno, T.

    2015-12-01

    How the intangible convective envelope of the MJO is made up of organized deep convection has been of particular interest, because it is the key to understand the physics and dynamics of the MJO from the viewpoint of multiscale interactions. We explored the multiscale convective structure of the MJO using 30-year (1983.7-2013) high-resolution satellite date taking advantage of the spatio-temporal wavelet transform (STWT), which is able to localize the space-time spectral characteristics of cloudiness in both space and time. Namely, the multiscale structure of the MJO can be interpreted in terms of a sum of a variety of so-called convectively coupled equatorial waves (CCEWs). It is found that a range of CCEWs tend to be enhanced in the MJO convective envelope, whereas the types of CCEWs with characteristic space-time scales vary seasonally, geographically, and even from event to event. It is thus difficult to find a universal multiscale structure of the MJO, although there is a tendency for the MJO to prefer certain types of CCEWs including Kelvin waves and n=1 westward inertio-gravity (WIG) waves. Within the MJO convective envelope, those waves tend to be enhanced by as large as 100 % compared to the climatological values and Kelvin waves tend to have much slower phase speed of about 9 m s-1 or less (i.e., equivalent depth of ~8 m) as opposed to the climatological mean values (equivalent depths of 25-90 m) and n=1 WIG waves tend to have 2 day periodicity. Such strong modulation effect, however, is less pronounced over the Maritime continent. The historical database we created will be useful to place the convective systems of the MJO during the CINDY/DYNAMO and the future YMC field campaigns in the historical context.

  11. [Tubulo-villous rectal tumours. Results of surgical resection in relation to histotype (30 years' experience)].

    PubMed

    Carditello, Antonio; Milone, Antonino; Paparo, Domenica; Anastasi, Giuliana; Mollo, Francesco; Stilo, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    Adenomas of the rectum are frequently found during endoscopic examination. We report on our 30 years of experience with the treatment of tubulo-villous adenomas based on histotype. Between 1971 and 2001, 104 villous tumours of the rectum were treated surgically. The patients' average age was 65 years. These were sessile tumours in 69% of cases, pedunculated in 17.5% and flowing tumours in 13.5%. The mean tumour size was 3 cm. They were associated with colon cancer in 15% of cases and with polyadenoma in 10%. They were located in the rectum within 0 to 6 cm of the anal margin in half the cases. These tumours were treated by local excision in 74 cases and by wide excision in 30 cases. The malignant potential of the tumours was 30%, including 10% invasive malignancy. There were no surgical fatalities, but a 6% medical fatality rate was registered. There was a 20% complication rate related to the surgical technique. Twenty patients were lost to follow-up. Out of 84 villous tumours, monitored over a mean survival period of 6.5 years, there were 24 recurrences: 18 underwent endoscopic excision and in 6 cases a wide resection. The various tumour resection techniques and the operative indications of variable difficulty are presented. It would seem, at present, that total resection of the rectum with a colo-anal anastomosis is the best treatment for large flowing villous tumours occupying almost the entire rectum. Thorough preoperative examination and the mastering of various surgical procedures should allow the most suitable choice of treatment for each individual case.

  12. Acute obstruction by Pannus in patients with aortic medtronic-hall valves: 30 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Ellensen, Vegard Skalstad; Andersen, Knut Sverre; Vitale, Nicola; Davidsen, Einar Skulstad; Segadal, Leidulf; Haaverstad, Rune

    2013-12-01

    Acute dysfunction of mechanical aortic valve prostheses is a life-threatening adverse event. Pannus overgrowth, which is fibroelastic hyperplasia originating from the periannular area, is one cause of dysfunction. The aim of this study was to determine the annual incidence of readmittance resulting from acute obstruction caused by pannus during 30 years of observation in patients with Medtronic-Hall aortic valve prostheses and to analyze the risk factors associated with pannus development. From 1982 to 2004, 1,187 patients in our department underwent aortic valve replacement with Medtronic-Hall mechanical monoleaflet valve prostheses. As of December 31, 2012, 27 of these patients (2.3%) had presented with acute valve dysfunction caused by pannus obstruction. The annual incidence of pannus was 0.7 per 1,000. The median time from the primary operation to prosthetic dysfunction was 11.1 years (range, 1.2 to 26.8 years). Of the 20 patients who underwent reoperation, 2 died. Seven patients died before reoperation. Women had a higher risk for the development of obstructing pannus, and patients with pannus obstruction were younger. Valve size was not an independent risk factor. Women and younger patients are at higher risk for pannus development. When acute dysfunction by pannus is suspected in a mechanical aortic valve, an immediate echocardiogram and an emergency aortic valve replacement should be carried out because of the potential of a fatal outcome. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Dynamics of major forest vegetations in Tiantong National Forest Park during the last 30 years].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang-Yang; Guo, Chun-Zi; Ni, Jian

    2014-06-01

    The study of vegetation succession and development is not only one of the hot spots of modern ecology, but also a key issue of the sustainable development of human society, especially under the circumstances of climate change and anthropogenic disturbance. A comparison of forest communities in the Tiantong National Forest Park (TNFP) in Zhejiang Province, eastern China from 1982 to 2012 was performed. Six forests in the park were investigated, including the typical evergreen broadleaved forest (EBLF, three sub-associations), evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest (EDBLMF), evergreen conifer forest (ECF) and bamboo forest (BF). Data from two field investigations in 1982 and 2012, respectively, were used to analyze the changes of species composition, community structure and species diversity during the past 30 years. The spatial pattern and community structure of the forest vegetation in the TNFP did not obviously change. The spatial distribution of plant communities did not significantly shifted. The proportion of young trees and individuals in small diameters increased. The regeneration status of communities was healthy and the natural regeneration ability of communities was enhanced. The species diversity of the TNFP forests showed an increasing trend in the tree layer and a decreasing trend in the shrub and herb layers. Meanwhile, the evergreen component increased. Along with the changed climate, forest vegetation in the TNFP was developing towards the forward succession. Species diversity, especially the trees, increased with the increase of temperature. This demonstrated that, on one hand, forest vegetation in Tiantong had been well protected; on the other hand, there was a potential positive relationship between the EBLF succession and climate change.

  14. Transition to parenthood and substance use disorders: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fergusson, David M; Boden, Joseph M; John Horwood, L

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the associations between the transition to parenthood and substance use disorders from ages 18 to 30 in a New Zealand birth cohort. Outcomes included: DSM-IV criteria for: (a) alcohol abuse/dependence (AAD) and (b) illicit substance abuse/dependence. The study also used measures transition to parenthood during the period 18-30 years; and observed covariate factors including: family socio-economic status; family functioning; childhood abuse exposure; childhood personal and behavioural characteristics; and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. Data were analysed using repeated measures generalised estimating equation models, and conditional fixed effects regression modelling to control for confounding. Gender interactions were examined using moderated regression analyses. Those who became parents had unadjusted odds of substance use disorder outcomes that were approximately 50% lower than those who had not become parents. Adjustment of the associations for both: (a) observed confounding factors and (b) non-observed fixed effects; strengthened the associations between parenthood status and substance use disorders. Custodial parents had odds of substance use disorders that were 57-78% lower than those who did not become parents after adjusting for non-observed fixed effects. Additional analyses suggested these effects were confined to custodial parents only. There was also evidence for gender×parenthood status interactions for AAD, with the effects of parenthood on AAD being stronger for females. The results suggest that the transition to custodial parenthood may result in reduced risks of substance use disorder, particularly amongst female cohort members. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High methane emissions dominate annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2015-02-01

    Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration is scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated bog sites 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 ± 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 ± 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of the three greenhouse gases, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22 up to 51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), while highest rates were found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in water table, we conclude that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of this grass species and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, the mixed soil material can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not limited to a short-term period.

  16. Childhood self-control and adult outcomes: results from a 30-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fergusson, David M; Boden, Joseph M; Horwood, L John

    2013-07-01

    A study by Moffitt et al. reported pervasive associations between childhood self-control and adult outcomes. The current study attempts to replicate the findings reported by Moffitt et al., adjusting these results for the confounding influence of childhood conduct problems. Data were gathered from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a longitudinal birth cohort studied to age 30 years. Self-control during ages 6 to 12 years was measured analogously to that in Moffitt et al., using parent-, teacher-, and self-report methods. Outcome measures to age 30 included criminal offending, substance use, education/employment, sexual behavior, and mental health. Associations between self-control and outcomes were adjusted for possible confounding by gender, socioeconomic status (SES), IQ, and childhood conduct problems (ages 6-10). In confirmation of the findings of Moffitt et al., all outcomes except major depression were significantly (p < .05) associated with childhood self-control. Adjustment for gender, SES, and IQ reduced to some extent the magnitude of the associations. However, adjustment for childhood conduct disorder further reduced the magnitude of many of these associations, with only 4 of the 14 outcomes remaining statistically significantly (p < .05) associated with self-control. After adjustment for gender, SES, IQ, and conduct problems, those individuals who scored higher in self-control had lower odds of violent offending and welfare dependence, were more likely to have obtained a university degree, and had higher income levels. The findings from this study suggest that observed linkages between a measure of childhood self-control and outcomes in adulthood were largely explained by the correlated effects of childhood conduct problems, SES, IQ, and gender. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Posttraumatic stress disorder and mortality among U.S. Army veterans 30 years after military service.

    PubMed

    Boscarino, Joseph A

    2006-04-01

    Research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be associated with later medical morbidity. To assess this, we examined all-cause and cause-specific mortality among a national random sample of U.S. Army veterans with and without PTSD after military service. We used Cox proportional hazards regressions to examine the causes of death among 15,288 male U.S. Army veterans 16 years after completion of a telephone survey, approximately 30 years after their military service. These men were included in a national random sample of veterans from the Vietnam War Era. Our analyses adjusted for race, Army volunteer status, Army entry age, Army discharge status, Army illicit drug abuse, intelligence, age, and, additionally -- for cancer mortality -- pack-years of cigarette smoking. Our findings indicated that adjusted postwar mortality for all-cause, cardiovascular, cancer, and external causes of death (including motor vehicle accidents, accidental poisonings, suicides, homicides, injuries of undetermined intent) was associated with PTSD among Vietnam Theater veterans (N = 7,924), with hazards ratios (HRs) of 2.2 (p < 0.001), 1.7 (p = 0.034), 1.9 (p = 0.018), and 2.3 (p = 0.001), respectively. For Vietnam Era veterans with no Vietnam service (N = 7,364), PTSD was associated with all-cause mortality (HR = 2.0, p = 0.001). PTSD-positive era veterans also appeared to have an increase in external-cause mortality as well (HR = 2.2, p = 0.073). Our study suggests that Vietnam veterans with PTSD may be at increased risk of death from multiple causes. The reasons for this increased mortality are unclear but may be related to biological, psychological, or behavioral factors associated with PTSD and warrant further investigation.

  18. Combined splenectomy and nephrectomy for trauma: morbidity, mortality, and outcomes over 30 years.

    PubMed

    Ball, Chad G; Feliciano, David V; Mattox, Kenneth L

    2010-03-01

    : Spleen and kidney injuries carry mortality rates of 23% and 26%, respectively. When the magnitude of injury mandates simultaneous splenectomy and left nephrectomy, outcomes are unknown. The goals were to (1) identify the incidence of early morbidity and mortality among these patients and (2) compare these outcomes with those from the era preceding damage control and abdominal compartment syndrome therapies. : Injured patients who underwent a concurrent splenectomy and left nephrectomy at Grady Memorial Hospital (GMH, 1995-2007) were compared with those at Ben Taub (BT, 1978-1987). : Thirty-five and 30 patients underwent concurrent splenectomy and left nephrectomy at BT and GMH, respectively. Demographics, mortality (43% and 53%), and morbidity (79% and 81%) at BT and GMH were similar over a 3-decade span (p > 0.05). Deaths were typically due to refractory hemorrhage within 24 hours of admission to both centers (73% and 56%, p > 0.05). Despite advances in antimicrobials and drainage, 38% and 33% of patients developed a left subphrenic abscess. Associated injury pattern, splenic and renal injury grade, and blood loss were also consistent across centers (p > 0.05). More GMH patients presented with blunt mechanisms (33% vs. 14%) and associated injuries (4.1 vs. 2.4 per patient, p < 0.05). : The overall mortality associated with concurrent splenectomy and left nephrectomy approximates 43% to 53%. This has not changed despite a nearly 30-year timeframe and is still primarily related to refractory hemorrhagic shock. The complication rate of 80% is also consistent and is predominantly composed of left subphrenic abscesses and multiorgan failure.

  19. Behaviour of the low degree terms of the Earth gravity field over the last 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biancale, R.; Lemoine, J.-M.; Reinquin, F.; Deleflie, F.; Ramillien, G.; Gégout, P.

    2012-04-01

    The GRACE mission has revealed since 2002 the recent evolution of the Earth's gravity field with a resolution down to 400 km, equivalent to degree and order 50 in spherical harmonics. Precise orbit computation for altimetric satellites can obviously gain by applying these variations, which are classically given, as in recent EIGEN models, as drifts and periodic terms (yearly and semi-yearly). However extrapolating these variations to pre-GRACE periods, mainly the drifts, can be problematic for orbit computation performances on former altimetric satellites. One option is to analyse older satellite data, in particular SLR data on geodetic satellites, in order to assess the very low degree variations of the gravity field and compare it to the GRACE determination. This can be done over the last 30 years, using for instance the Lageos and Lageos-2, Starlette and Stella satellites. The spherical harmonic degrees that can be accessed in this way are degrees 2 to 4. Additional information on degree 2 can be derived from the analysis of the Earth orientation parameters, pole coordinates and length of day (LOD), which have been observed over a long period with great accuracy by astrometric, satellite geodetic and extra-galactic means. Once corrected for atmospheric and oceanic load and velocity variations, the pole coordinates will principally bring information on the C(2,1) and S(2,1) coefficients, while the LOD will principally be connected with the C(2,0). Combining these two approaches allows a better observation of the temporal evolution of the gravity field over a long time span and a more realistic modelling of it for the precise orbit computation of past altimeter missions.

  20. Cotton dust, endotoxin and cancer mortality among the Shanghai textile workers cohort: a 30-year analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, S C; Mehta, A J; Hang, J Q; Eisen, E A; Dai, H L; Zhang, H X; Su, L; Christiani, D C

    2013-01-01

    Background Although occupational exposure to cotton dust and endotoxin is associated with adverse respiratory health, associations with cancer are unclear. We investigated cancer mortality in relation to cotton dust and endotoxin exposure in the Shanghai textile workers cohort. Methods We followed 444 cotton textile and a reference group of 467 unexposed silk workers for 30 years (26 777 person-years). HRs for all cancers combined (with and without lung cancer) and gastrointestinal cancer were estimated in Cox regression models as functions of cotton textile work and categories of cumulative exposure (low, medium, high), after adjustment for covariates including pack-years smoked. Different lag years accounted for disease latency. Results Risks of mortality from gastrointestinal cancers and all cancers combined, with the exclusion of lung cancer, were increased in cotton workers relative to silk workers. When stratified by category of cumulative cotton exposure, in general, risks were greatest for 20-year lagged medium exposure (all cancers HR=2.7 (95% CI 1.4 to 5.2); cancer excluding lung cancer HR=3.4 (1.7–7.0); gastrointestinal cancer HR=4.1 (1.8–9.7)). With the exclusion of lung cancer, risks of cancer were more pronounced. When stratified by category of cumulative endotoxin exposure, consistent associations were not observed for all cancers combined. However, excluding lung cancer, medium endotoxin exposure was associated with all cancers and gastrointestinal cancer in almost all lag models. Conclusions Cotton dust may be associated with cancer mortality, especially gastrointestinal cancer, and endotoxin may play a causative role. Findings also indirectly support a protective effect of endotoxin on lung cancer. PMID:23828454

  1. 30-year International Pediatric Craniofacial Surgery Partnership: Evolution from the “Third World” Forward

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jordan W.; Skirpan, Jan; Stanek, Beata; Kowalczyk, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Background: Craniofacial diseases constitute an important component of the surgical disease burden in low- and middle-income countries. The consideration to introduce craniofacial surgery into such settings poses different questions, risks, and challenges compared with cleft or other forms of plastic surgery. We report the evolution, innovations, and challenges of a 30-year international craniofacial surgery partnership. Methods: We retrospectively report a partnership between surgeons at the Uniwersytecki Szpital Dzieciecy in Krakow, Poland, and a North American craniofacial surgeon. We studied patient conditions, treatment patterns, and associated complications, as well as program advancements and limitations as perceived by surgeons, patient families, and hospital administrators. Results: Since partnership inception in 1986, the complexity of cases performed increased gradually, with the first intracranial case performed in 1995. In the most recent 10-year period (2006–2015), 85 patients have been evaluated, with most common diagnoses of Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, and single-suture craniosynostosis. In the same period, 55 major surgical procedures have been undertaken, with LeFort III midface distraction, posterior vault distraction, and frontoorbital advancement performed most frequently. Key innovations have been the employment of craniofacial distraction osteogenesis, the use of Internet communication and digital photography, and increased understanding of how craniofacial morphology may improve in the absence of surgical intervention. Ongoing challenges include prohibitive training pathways for pediatric plastic surgeons, difficulty in coordinating care with surgeons in other institutions, and limited medical and material resources. Conclusion: Safe craniofacial surgery can be introduced and sustained in a resource-limited setting through an international partnership. PMID:27200233

  2. Alma-Ata 30 years on: revolutionary, relevant, and time to revitalise.

    PubMed

    Lawn, Joy E; Rohde, Jon; Rifkin, Susan; Were, Miriam; Paul, Vinod K; Chopra, Mickey

    2008-09-13

    In this paper, we revisit the revolutionary principles-equity, social justice, and health for all; community participation; health promotion; appropriate use of resources; and intersectoral action-raised by the 1978 Alma-Ata Declaration, a historic event for health and primary health care. Old health challenges remain and new priorities have emerged (eg, HIV/AIDS, chronic diseases, and mental health), ensuring that the tenets of Alma-Ata remain relevant. We examine 30 years of changes in global policy to identify the lessons learned that are of relevance today, particularly for accelerated scale-up of primary health-care services necessary to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, the modern iteration of the "health for all" goals. Health has moved from under-investment, to single disease focus, and now to increased funding and multiple new initiatives. For primary health care, the debate of the past two decades focused on selective (or vertical) versus comprehensive (horizontal) delivery, but is now shifting towards combining the strengths of both approaches in health systems. Debates of community versus facility-based health care are starting to shift towards building integrated health systems. Achievement of high and equitable coverage of integrated primary health-care services requires consistent political and financial commitment, incremental implementation based on local epidemiology, use of data to direct priorities and assess progress, especially at district level, and effective linkages with communities and non-health sectors. Community participation and intersectoral engagement seem to be the weakest strands in primary health care. Burgeoning task lists for primary health-care workers require long-term human resource planning and better training and supportive supervision. Essential drugs policies have made an important contribution to primary health care, but other appropriate technology lags behind. Revitalisng Alma-Ata and learning from three

  3. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus antibody in a population aged 0-30 years in Shanghai, China: implications for hepatitis A immunization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Yuan, Z; Zhao, Q; Chen, G; Xu, B

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to determine current seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibody in subjects aged 0-30 years in Shanghai. A total of 5515 subjects were recruited through random clustering sampling in 2009. Basic clinical and demographic information and records of HAV vaccination were acquired by questionnaire interviews and review of immunization records. Serum samples were collected and tested for anti-HAV IgM and total anti-HAV. The overall seroprevalence of total anti-HAV was 52·9%. Subjects aged 20-24 years had the lowest (34·4%) anti-HAV seropositivity and subjects aged 5-9 years had the highest (74·6%) positivity. Seroprevalence was significantly greater in subjects from suburban areas than in subjects from urban areas. Subjects who had HAV immunizations had significantly greater seropositivity for total anti-HAV. Previous hepatitis A immunization policies had a significant impact on the presence of anti-HAV seroprevalence in a population aged 0-30 years from Shanghai.

  4. An application to model traffic intensity of agricultural machinery at field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, Katja; Kuhwald, Michael; Duttmann, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    Several soil-pressure-models deal with the impact of agricultural machines on soils. In many cases, these models were used for single spots and consider a static machine configuration. Therefore, a statement about the spatial distribution of soil compaction risk for entire working processes is limited. The aim of the study is the development of an application for the spatial modelling of traffic lanes from agricultural vehicles including wheel load, ground pressure and wheel passages at the field scale. The application is based on Open Source software, application and data formats, using python programming language. Minimum input parameters are GPS-positions, vehicles and tires (producer and model) and the tire inflation pressure. Five working processes were distinguished: soil tillage, manuring, plant protection, sowing and harvest. Currently, two different models (Diserens 2009, Rücknagel et al. 2015) were implemented to calculate the soil pressure. The application was tested at a study site in Lower Saxony, Germany. Since 2015, field traffic were recorded by RTK-GPS and used machine set ups were noted. Using these input information the traffic lanes, wheel load and soil pressure were calculated for all working processes. For instance, the maize harvest in 2016 with a crop chopper and one transport vehicle crossed about 55 % of the total field area. At some places the machines rolled over up to 46 times. Approximately 35 % of the total area was affected by wheel loads over 7 tons and soil pressures between 163 and 193 kPa. With the information about the spatial distribution of wheel passages, wheel load and soil pressure it is possible to identify hot spots of intensive field traffic. Additionally, the use of the application enables the analysis of soil compaction risk induced by agricultural machines for long- and short-term periods.

  5. Changes in physical fitness and nutritional status of schoolchildren in a period of 30 years (1980-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze and compare the changes in physical fitness according to the nutritional status and gender of schoolchildren during a period of 30 years (1980-2010). Methods: Four cross-sectional evaluations were performed every 10 years in a period of 30 years from 1978 to 1980 (baseline), 1988-1990 (10 years), 1998-2000 (20 years) and 2008-2010 (30 years). The sample consisted of 1291 schoolchildren (188 in baseline, 307 in 10 years; 375 in 20 years; 421 in 30 years) of 10 and 11 years old. The variables assessed were: body weight (kg), height (cm), upper limb strength (ULS; kg), lower limb strength (LLS; cm), agility (seconds) and velocity (seconds). Schoolchildren were classified as normal weight and overweight according to World Health Organization reference of body mass index for age and gender. Comparisons among periods applied ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test, with a significance level set at of p<0.01. Variation between baseline and 30 years was assessed by the percentage delta. Seven different percentile values were presented for each variable. Results: In eutrophic boys and girls, mean values of ULS (−16.7%; −3.2%), agility (−1.5%; −1.6%) decreased significantly after 30 years (p<0.001). In the overweight boys and girls, only the average ULS (−15.5%; −12.5%) decreased significantly over time (p<0.001). After 30 years, the ULS percentile changed in boys. Conclusions: The decline in physical fitness was greater in schoolchildren with normal weight than in those with overweight. PMID:26298653

  6. Pre-Hypertension among Young Adults (20–30 Years) in Coastal Villages of Udupi District in Southern India: An Alarming Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Veena G.; Kulkarni, Muralidhar M.; Kamath, Asha; Shivalli, Siddharudha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction According to Joint National Committee-7 (JNC-7) guidelines, a systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 120 to 139 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 80 to 89 mm Hg is considered as pre-hypertension. Existing evidence suggest that the cardiovascular morbidities are increasing among pre-hypertensive individuals compared to normal. Objective To assess the magnitude and factors associated with pre-hypertension among young adults (20–30 years) in coastal villages of Udupi Taluk (an area of land with a city or town that serves as its administrative centre and usually a number of villages), Udupi District, Karnataka state, India. Design Community based cross sectional study Setting 6 (out of total 14) coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India. Sample 1,152 young adults (age group: 20–30 years) selected by stratified random sampling in 6 coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India Method A semi structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the details on socio-demographic variables, dietary habits, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of hypertension and stress levels. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were recorded according to standard protocols. Serum cholesterol was measured in a sub sample of the study population. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify the independent correlates of pre-hypertension among young adults (20–30 years). Main Outcome Measures Prevalence, Odds ratio (OR) and adjusted (adj) OR for pre-hypertension among young adults (20–30 years). Results The prevalence of pre-hypertension in the study population was 45.2% (95%CI: 42.4–48). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age group of 25–30 years (adj OR: 4.25, 95% CI: 2.99–6.05), white collared (adj OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.08–4.85) and skilled occupation (adj OR: 3.24, 95% CI: 1.64–6.42), students (adj OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.22–4.95), using refined cooking oil

  7. Pre-Hypertension among Young Adults (20-30 Years) in Coastal Villages of Udupi District in Southern India: An Alarming Scenario.

    PubMed

    Kini, Sanjay; Kamath, Veena G; Kulkarni, Muralidhar M; Kamath, Asha; Shivalli, Siddharudha

    2016-01-01

    According to Joint National Committee-7 (JNC-7) guidelines, a systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 120 to 139 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 80 to 89 mm Hg is considered as pre-hypertension. Existing evidence suggest that the cardiovascular morbidities are increasing among pre-hypertensive individuals compared to normal. To assess the magnitude and factors associated with pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years) in coastal villages of Udupi Taluk (an area of land with a city or town that serves as its administrative centre and usually a number of villages), Udupi District, Karnataka state, India. Community based cross sectional study. 6 (out of total 14) coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India. 1,152 young adults (age group: 20-30 years) selected by stratified random sampling in 6 coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India. A semi structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the details on socio-demographic variables, dietary habits, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of hypertension and stress levels. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were recorded according to standard protocols. Serum cholesterol was measured in a sub sample of the study population. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify the independent correlates of pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years). Prevalence, Odds ratio (OR) and adjusted (adj) OR for pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years). The prevalence of pre-hypertension in the study population was 45.2% (95%CI: 42.4-48). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age group of 25-30 years (adj OR: 4.25, 95% CI: 2.99-6.05), white collared (adj OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.08-4.85) and skilled occupation (adj OR: 3.24, 95% CI: 1.64-6.42), students (adj OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.22-4.95), using refined cooking oil (adj OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.29-0.95), extra salt in meals (adj OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.52-3.99), salty

  8. Capturing field-scale variability in crop performance across a regional-scale climosequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, E. S.; Poggio, M.; Anderson, T. R.; Gasch, C.; Yourek, M. A.; Ward, N. K.; Magney, T. S.; Brown, D. J.; Huggins, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    With the increasing availability of variable rate technology for applying fertilizers and other agrichemicals in dryland agricultural production systems there is a growing need to better capture and understand the processes driving field scale variability in crop yield and soil water. This need for a better understanding of field scale variability has led to the recent designation of the R. J. Cook Agronomy Farm (CAF) (Pullman, WA, USA) as a United States Department of Agriculture Long-Term Agro-Ecosystem Research (LTAR) site. Field scale variability at the CAF is closely monitored using extensive environmental sensor networks and intensive hand sampling. As investigating land-soil-water dynamics at CAF is essential for improving precision agriculture, transferring this knowledge across the regional-scale climosequence is challenging. In this study we describe the hydropedologic functioning of the CAF in relation to five extensively instrumented field sites located within 50 km in the same climatic region. The formation of restrictive argillic soil horizons in the wetter, cooler eastern edge of the region results in the development of extensive perched water tables, surface saturation, and surface runoff, whereas excess water is not an issue in the warmer, drier, western edge of the region. Similarly, crop and tillage management varies across the region as well. We discuss the implications of these regional differences on field scale management decisions and demonstrate how we are using proximal soil sensing and remote sensing imagery to better understand and capture field scale variability at a particular field site.

  9. Physicochemical heterogeneity controls on uranium bioreduction rates at the field scale.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Gawande, Nitin; Kowalsky, Michael B; Steefel, Carl I; Hubbard, Susan S

    2011-12-01

    It has been demonstrated in laboratory systems that U(VI) can be reduced to immobile U(IV) by bacteria in natural environments. The ultimate efficacy of bioreduction at the field scale, however, is often challenging to quantify and depends on site characteristics. In this work, uranium bioreduction rates at the field scale are quantified, for the first time, using an integrated approach. The approach combines field data, inverse and forward hydrological and reactive transport modeling, and quantification of reduction rates at different spatial scales. The approach is used to explore the impact of local scale (tens of centimeters) parameters and processes on field scale (tens of meters) system responses to biostimulation treatments and the controls of physicochemical heterogeneity on bioreduction rates. Using the biostimulation experiments at the Department of Energy Old Rifle site, our results show that the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity and solid phase mineral (Fe(III)) play a critical role in determining the field-scale bioreduction rates. Due to the dependence on Fe-reducing bacteria, field-scale U(VI) bioreduction rates were found to be largely controlled by the abundance of Fe(III) minerals at the vicinity of the injection wells and by the presence of preferential flow paths connecting injection wells to down gradient Fe(III) abundant areas.

  10. Pichia anomala J121: a 30-year overnight near success biopreservation story.

    PubMed

    Schnürer, Johan; Jonsson, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Thirty years ago, the ascomycetous yeast Pichia anomala strain J121 was isolated from moist wheat grain stored under conditions of restricted air access. Early observations indicated that an inverse relationship existed between mould and P. anomala colony forming units in grain. This yeast strain was later found to have strong antifungal properties in laboratory, pilot and farm studies with high-moisture wheat under malfunctioning airtight storage. P. anomala had the highest inhibitory activity of 60 yeast species evaluated against the mould Penicillium roqueforti. It also demonstrated strong inhibitory effects against certain Gram-negative bacteria. P. anomala J121 possesses a number of physiological characteristics, i.e. capacity to grow under low pH, low water activity and low oxygen tension and ability to use a wide range of carbon and nitrogen sources, enabling it to act as an efficient biopreservative agent. The biocontrol effect in grain was enhanced by addition of glucose, mainly through formation of the volatile antimicrobial ethyl acetate. Animal feeding trials with P. anomala J121 inoculated grains, fed to chickens and beef cattle, demonstrated that mould control observed in vitro in small scale laboratory experiments could be extended to large scale farm trials. In addition, no adverse effects on animal weight gain, feed conversion, health or behaviour were observed. We have now studied P. anomala J121 biology, ecology and grain preservation ability for 30 years. Over this period, more than 40 scientific publications and five PhD theses have been written on different aspects of this yeast strain, extending from fundamental research on metabolism, genetics and molecular biology, all the way to practical farm-scale level. In spite of the well documented biopreservative ability of the yeast, it has to date been very difficult to create the right constellation of technical, agricultural and biotechnical industries necessary to reach a commercial launch of a

  11. [Chronic renal failure: unexpected late sequela of pulmonary tuberculosis after 30 years].

    PubMed

    Zümrütdal, Ayşegül; Yıldız, Ismail; Ozelsancak, Rüya; Canpolat, Tuba

    2011-04-01

    Tuberculosis-related chronic granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis (GTN) and chronic renal dysfunction as a consequence of GTN is a rarely seen clinical condition, with a few case reports in the literature. In this report, a case with end stage renal failure as an unexpected late extrapulmonary sequela of tuberculosis has been presented. A 60 years old female patient was admitted to hospital with the complaints of fever, malaise and nausea. Her history revealed that she had pulmonary tuberculosis 30 years ago and received antituberculosis therapy for nine months. The laboratory results on admission were as follows: blood urea nitrogen 90 mg/dl, serum creatinine 9 mg/dl, sodium 116 mEq/L, potassium 6.6 mEq/L, albumine 2.9 g/dl, hemoglobin, 8.4 g/dl, white blood cell count 10.800/mm3, C-reactive protein 187 mg/L and erythrocyte sedimentation rate 110 mm/hour. Urinalysis showed 8.1 g/L protein, 10-12 leukocytes, 1-2 erythrocytes, while 24-hours urinalysis yielded proteinuria with 8 ml/minutes creatinine clearance value. Urine and blood cultures of the patient revealed neither bacteria or mycobacteria. PPD skin test was negative. Acid-resistant bacilli (ARB) were not detected in sequential urine samples obtained on three consecutive days. Since sputum samples could not be obtained, diagnostic procedures for sputum were not performed. Abdomen ultrasonography yielded bilateral edema and grade II echogenity in kidneys. Computed tomography of the chest showed bilateral pulmonary nodules, chronic sequela lesions, pleural scarring and calcifications, as well as minimal interstitial infiltrate. Transthoracic lung biopsy showed chronic inflammation and fibrosis, while amyloid was negative. Renal biopsy showed GTN with central caseified necrosis and granulomas, multinuclear giant cells, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Amyloid was negative and ARB were not detected in renal biopsy sample. Definitive diagnosis was achieved by the demonstration of Mycobacterium

  12. Surgical repair of supravalvular aortic stenosis in children with williams syndrome: a 30-year experience.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Tyson A; d'Udekem, Yves; Brizard, Christian P; Wheaton, Gavin; Weintraub, Robert G; Konstantinov, Igor E

    2015-04-01

    Williams syndrome is an uncommon genetic disorder associated with supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) in childhood. We reviewed outcomes of children with Williams syndrome who underwent repair of SVAS during a 30-year period at a single institution. Between 1982 and 2012, 28 patients with Williams syndrome were operated on for SVAS. Mean age at operation was 5.2 years (range, 3 months to 13 years), and mean weight at operation was 18.6 kg (range, 4.1 to 72.4 kg). Associated cardiac lesions in 11 patients (39.3%) were repaired at the time of the SVAS repair. The most common associated cardiac lesion was main pulmonary artery stenosis (8 of 28 [28%]). A 3-patch repair was performed in 10 patients, a Doty repair in 17, and a McGoon repair in 1 (3.6%). There were no early deaths. Follow-up was 96% complete (27 of 28). Overall mean follow-up was 11.2 years (range, 1 month to 27.3 years). Mean follow-up was 5 years (range, 1 month to 14.3 years) for the 3-patch repair patients and 14.7 years (range, 6 weeks to 27 years) for the Doty repair patients. Of the 17 Doty patients, there were 4 (24%) late deaths, occurring at 6 weeks, 3.5 years, 4 years, and 16 years after the initial operation. There were no late deaths in the 3-patch repair patients. Overall survival was 86% at 5, 10, and 15 years after repair. Survival was 82% at 5, 10 and 15 years for the Doty repair patients. Overall, 6 of 27 patients (22%) patients required late reoperation at a mean of 11.2 years (range, 3.6 to 23 years). No 3-patch repair patients required reoperation. Overall freedom from reoperation was 91% at 5 years and 73% at 10 and 15 years. Freedom from reoperation for the Doty repair patients was 93% at 5 years and 71% at 10 and 15 years. Surgical repair of SVAS in children Williams syndrome has excellent early results. However, significant late mortality and morbidity warrants close follow-up. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  13. Eco-region dependent lengthening of vegetation period over the past 30 years in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garonna, I.; De Jong, R.; De Wit, A.; Mücher, C. A.; Schmid, B.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Land Surface Phenology (LSP) is the most direct representation of intra-annual dynamics of vegetated land surfaces as observed from satellite observations. As such, LSP plays a key role in understanding the terrestrial carbon budget, as well as the response of terrestrial ecosystems to environmental change. Various studies have highlighted significant increases in vegetation activity over time (i.e. greening) over Europe in recent decades (e.g. Stöckli and Vidale, 2004), associated both with climatic changes and with large-scale human interventions including land-use change (de Jong et al., 2013). In this study, we characterize LSP changes in Europe's eco-regions for the last 30 years. We used the latest version of the 8-km Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index dataset (third generation, or NDVI-3g) to retrieve LSP metrics for Europe for the last three decades (1982-2011). Each year of NDVI data was processed using the Harmonic Analysis of Time Series (HANTS) algorithm, producing smooth NDVI annual profiles on a pixel-by-pixel basis. In order to derive LSP metrics for each year, namely Start, End and Length of Growing Season, we selected the Midpoint-pixel local threshold method, based on the White et al. (2009) inter-comparison. A landscape-based stratification, using the European Landscape Classification (LANMAP) (Mücher et al., 2010) allowed us to examine LSP characteristics and trends for the different European eco-regions. We demonstrate significant shifts in LSP metrics over the study period, with a general lengthening of the growing season in Europe of approximately 0.4 days year-1. LSP trends varied significantly between eco-regions, and we discuss potential reasons for these spatially diverse trends. de Jong, R., et al. (2013), Spatial relationship between climatologies and changes in global vegetation activity, Global Change Biology, 19(6), 1953-1964. Mücher, C. A., J. A. Klijn, D. M. Wascher, and

  14. A 30-year bibliometric analysis of research coverage on HIV and AIDS in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Mugomeri, Eltony; Bekele, Bisrat S; Mafaesa, Mamajoin; Maibvise, Charles; Tarirai, Clemence; Aiyuk, Sunny E

    2017-03-21

    Given the well documented undesired impacts of HIV/AIDS globally, there is a need to create a statistical inventory of research output on HIV/AIDS. This need is particularly important for a country such as Lesotho, whose HIV/AIDS prevalence is one of the highest globally. Research on HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa continues to trail behind that of other regions, especially those of the developed countries. Lesotho, a sub-Saharan country, is a developing country with lower research output in this area when longitudinally compared to other countries. This study reviewed the volume and scope of the general research output on HIV/AIDS in Lesotho and assessed the coverage of the national research agenda on HIV/AIDS, making recourse to statistical principles. A bibliometric review of studies on HIV/AIDS retrieved from the SCOPUS and PubMed databases, published within the 30-year period between 1985 and 2016, was conducted. The focus of each of the studies was analysed and the studies were cross-matched with the national research agenda in accordance with bibliometric methodologies. In total, 1280 studies comprising 1181 (92.3%) journal articles, 91 (7.1%) books and 8 (0.6%) conference proceedings were retrieved. By proportion, estimation of burden of infection (40.7%) had the highest research volume, while basic (5.5%) and preventive measures (24.4%) and national planning (29.4%) had the lowest. Out of the total studies retrieved, only 516 (40.3%) matched the national research agenda. Research on maternal and child health quality of care, viral load point-of-care devices, and infant point-of-care diagnosis had hardly any publications in the high priority research category of the agenda. Notwithstanding a considerable research output on HIV/AIDS for Lesotho, there is insufficient coverage of the national research agenda in this research area. The major research gaps on general research output are in basic and preventive measures as well as national planning. There is also

  15. Contextual learning and context effects during infancy: 30 years of controversial research revisited.

    PubMed

    Revillo, D A; Cotella, E; Paglini, M G; Arias, C

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 30years a considerable number of reports have explored learning about context during infancy in both humans and rats. This research was stimulated by two different theoretical frameworks. The first, known as the neuromaturational model, postulates that learning and behavior are context-independent during early ontogeny, a hypothesis based on the idea that contextual learning is dependent on the hippocampal function, and that this brain structure does not reach full maturity until late in infancy. The second theoretical framework views infants not as immature organisms, but rather as perfectly matured ones, given that their behavioral and cognitive capacities allow them to adapt appropriately to the demands of their specific environment in accordance with their maturational level. This model predicts significant ontogenetic variations in learning and memory due to developmental differences in what is perceived and attended to during learning episodes, which can result in ontogenetic differences in contextual learning depending on the specific demands of the task. The present manuscript reviews those studies that have examined potential developmental differences in contextual learning and context effects in rats. The reviewed results show that, during infancy, context can exert a similar influence over learning and memory as that described for the adult rat. Moreover, in some cases, contextual learning and context effects were greater in infants than in adults. In contrast, under other experimental conditions, no evidence of contextual learning or context effects was observed. We analyzed the procedural factors of these studies with the aim of detecting those that favor or impede contextual learning during infancy, and we discussed whether existing empirical evidence supports the claim that the functionality of the hippocampus is a limiting factor for this type of learning during infancy. Finally, conclusions from human research into contextual learning

  16. Parkinson's disease progression at 30 years: a study of subthalamic deep brain-stimulated patients.

    PubMed

    Merola, Aristide; Zibetti, Maurizio; Angrisano, Serena; Rizzi, Laura; Ricchi, Valeria; Artusi, Carlo A; Lanotte, Michele; Rizzone, Mario G; Lopiano, Leonardo

    2011-07-01

    Clinical findings in Parkinson's disease suggest that most patients progressively develop disabling non-levodopa-responsive symptoms during the course of the disease. Nevertheless, several heterogeneous factors, such as clinical phenotype, age at onset and genetic aspects may influence the long-term clinical picture. In order to investigate the main features of long-term Parkinson's disease progression, we studied a cohort of 19 subjects treated with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation after >20 years of disease, reporting clinical and neuropsychological data up to a mean of 30 years from disease onset. This group of patients was characterized by an early onset of disease, with a mean age of 38.63 years at Parkinson's disease onset, which was significantly lower than in the other long-term subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation follow-up cohorts reported in the literature. All subjects were regularly evaluated by a complete Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, a battery of neuropsychological tests and a clinical interview, intended to assess the rate of non-levodopa-responsive symptom progression. Clinical data were available for all patients at presurgical baseline and at 1, 3 and 5 years from the subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation surgical procedure, while follow-up data after >7 years were additionally reported in a subgroup of 14 patients. The clinical and neuropsychological performance progressively worsened during the course of follow-up; 64% of patients gradually developed falls, 86% dysphagia, 57% urinary incontinence and 43% dementia. A progressive worsening of motor symptoms was observed both in 'medication-ON' condition and in 'stimulation-ON' condition, with a parallel reduction in the synergistic effect of 'medication-ON/stimulation-ON' condition. Neuropsychological data also showed a gradual decline in the performances of all main cognitive domains, with an initial involvement of executive functions, followed by the impairment

  17. High methane emissions dominated annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2015-07-01

    Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus potentially implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration are scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated sites of a bog ecosystem 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 ± 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 ± 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of CO2, CH4 and N2O, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22-51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), with highest rates found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in the water table, we assume that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of purple moor grass and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, mixed soil material due to peat extraction and refilling can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not inevitably limited to a short-term period.

  18. 30-year lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer state over Tomsk (Western Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, Vladimir V.; Burlakov, Vladimir D.; Nevzorov, Aleksei V.; Pravdin, Vladimir L.; Savelieva, Ekaterina S.; Gerasimov, Vladislav V.

    2017-02-01

    There are only four lidar stations in the world which have almost continuously performed observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer (SAL) state over the last 30 years. The longest time series of the SAL lidar measurements have been accumulated at the Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) since 1973, the NASA Langley Research Center (Hampton, Virginia) since 1974, and Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany) since 1976. The fourth lidar station we present started to perform routine observations of the SAL parameters in Tomsk (56.48° N, 85.05° E, Western Siberia, Russia) in 1986. In this paper, we mainly focus on and discuss the stratospheric background period from 2000 to 2005 and the causes of the SAL perturbations over Tomsk in the 2006-2015 period. During the last decade, volcanic aerosol plumes from tropical Mt. Manam, Soufrière Hills, Rabaul, Merapi, Nabro, and Kelut and extratropical (northern) Mt. Okmok, Kasatochi, Redoubt, Sarychev Peak, Eyjafjallajökull, and Grímsvötn were detected in the stratosphere over Tomsk. When it was possible, we used the NOAA HYSPLIT trajectory model to assign aerosol layers observed over Tomsk to the corresponding volcanic eruptions. The trajectory analysis highlighted some surprising results. For example, in the cases of the Okmok, Kasatochi, and Eyjafjallajökull eruptions, the HYSPLIT air mass backward trajectories, started from altitudes of aerosol layers detected over Tomsk with a lidar, passed over these volcanoes on their eruption days at altitudes higher than the maximum plume altitudes given by the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program. An explanation of these facts is suggested. The role of both tropical and northern volcanic eruptions in volcanogenic aerosol loading of the midlatitude stratosphere is also discussed. In addition to volcanoes, we considered other possible causes of the SAL perturbations over Tomsk, i.e., the polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) events and smoke plumes from strong forest fires. At least

  19. Social media: the key to health information access for 18- to 30-year-old college students.

    PubMed

    Prybutok, Gayle; Ryan, Sherry

    2015-04-01

    This work examines where 18- to 30-year-old college students seek health information on the Internet and how they determine site and message credibility. Using a qualitative methodology, five focus groups were conducted with 18- to 30-year-old college students, and transcripts were analyzed with MaxQDA text analysis software. The study revealed that 18- to 30-year-old college students have Internet health information source preferences, reasons for seeking health information on the Internet, and message design factors that improve their perception of site and message credibility. We conclude that the Internet and social media show great promise as effective health communication channels for 18- to 30-year-old college students and confirm that preferred Internet/social media sites can be utilized by health educators to present important risk management/disease prevention information to 18- to 30-year-old college students. In addition, message design factors can lend credibility to both sites and the health information delivered there.

  20. Adult neurobehavioral outcome of hyperbilirubinemia in full term neonates-a 30 year prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hokkanen, Laura; Launes, Jyrki; Michelsson, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Background. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (HB) may cause severe neurological damage, but serious consequences are effectively controlled by phototherapy and blood exchange transfusion. HB is still a serious health problem in economically compromised parts of the world. The long term outcome has been regarded favorable based on epidemiological data, but has not been confirmed in prospective follow-up studies extending to adulthood. Methods. We studied the long term consequences of HB in a prospective birth cohort of 128 HB cases and 82 controls. The cases are part of a neonatal at-risk cohort (n = 1196) that has been followed up to 30 years of age. HB cases were newborns ≥ 2500 g birth weight and ≥ 37 weeks of gestation who had bilirubin concentrations > 340 µmol/l or required blood exchange transfusion. Subjects with HB were divided into subgroups based on the presence (affected HB) or absence (unaffected HB) of diagnosed neurobehavioral disorders in childhood, and compared with healthy controls. Subjects were seen at discharge, 5, 9 and 16 years of life and parent's and teacher's assessments were recorded. At 30 years they filled a questionnaire about academic and occupational achievement, life satisfaction, somatic and psychiatric symptoms including a ADHD self-rating score. Cognitive functioning was tested using ITPA, WISC, and reading and writing tests at 9 years of life. Results. Compared to controls, the odds for a child with HB having neurobehavioral symptoms at 9 years was elevated (OR = 4.68). Forty-five per cent of the HB group were affected by cognitive abnormalities in childhood and continued to experience problems in adulthood. This was apparent in academic achievement (p < 0.0001) and the ability to complete secondary (p < 0.0001) and tertiary (p < 0.004) education. Also, the subgroup of affected HB reported persisting cognitive complaints e.g., problems with reading, writing and mathematics. Childhood symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity (p < 0

  1. A 30-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study of Hyperactive Boys with Conduct Problems: Adult Criminality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterfield, James H.; Faller, Katherine J.; Crinella, Francis M.; Schell, Anne M.; Swanson, James M.; Homer, Louis D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the official arrest records for a large number of hyperactive boys (N = 179), most with conduct problems, and 75 control boys; to examine childhood IQ, socioeconomic status, and parent reports of childhood hyperactivity and conduct problems for their contribution to criminal behavior in adulthood; and to compare adult outcome…

  2. A 30-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study of Hyperactive Boys with Conduct Problems: Adult Criminality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterfield, James H.; Faller, Katherine J.; Crinella, Francis M.; Schell, Anne M.; Swanson, James M.; Homer, Louis D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the official arrest records for a large number of hyperactive boys (N = 179), most with conduct problems, and 75 control boys; to examine childhood IQ, socioeconomic status, and parent reports of childhood hyperactivity and conduct problems for their contribution to criminal behavior in adulthood; and to compare adult outcome…

  3. Timing of longleaf seedling release from over topping hardwoods: A look 30 years later

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer

    1985-01-01

    Significant differences in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) growth among early and delayed seedling release treatments were recorded at age 10, but these differences had disappeared upon reexamination at age 31.A study begun in 1949 included six release treatments: complete seedling release from overtopping hardwoods at ages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 years,...

  4. [Changes in physical fitness and nutritional status of schoolchildren in a period of 30 years (1980-2010)].

    PubMed

    de Moraes Ferrari, Gerson Luis; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-12-01

    To analyze and compare the changes in physical fitness according to the nutritional status and gender of schoolchildren during a period of 30 years (1980-2010). Four cross-sectional evaluations were performed every 10 years in a period of 30 years from 1978 to 1980 (baseline), 1988-1990 (10 years), 1998-2000 (20 years) and 2008-2010 (30 years). The sample consisted of 1,291 schoolchildren (188 in baseline, 307 in 10 years; 375 in 20 years; 421 in 30 years) of 10 and 11 years old. The variables assessed were: body weight (kg), height (cm), upper limb strength (ULS; kg), lower limb strength (LLS; cm), agility (seconds) and velocity (seconds). Schoolchildren were classified as normal weight and overweight according to World Health Organization reference of body mass index for age and gender. Comparisons among periods applied ANOVA folled by Bonferroni test, with a significance level set at of p<0.01. Variation between baseline and 30 years was assessed by the percentage delta. Seven different percentile values were presented for each variable. In eutrophic boys and girls, mean values of ULS (-16.7%; -3.2%), agility (-1.5%; -1.6%) decreased significantly after 30 years (p<0,001). In the overweight boys and girls, only the average ULS (-15.5%; -12.5%) decreased significantly over time (p<0,001). After 30 years, the ULS percentile changed in boys. the decline in physical fitness was greater in schoolchildren with normal weight than in those with overweight. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. A 30-year perspective on psychosocial issues in lung cancer: how lung cancer "Came out of the Closet".

    PubMed

    Weiss, Talia; Weinberger, Mark; Schwerd, Arielle M; Holland, Jimmie

    2012-11-01

    Psychological responses to lung cancer have changed over the past 30 years as perceptions of the disease have changed. Previously seen as a fatal diagnosis, it is now regarded as a cancer whose treatment is increasingly effective as the science of the disease advances. The stigma of smoking is diminishing as more is learned about genetic factors and as more nonsmokers are diagnosed. Support groups are now widely available. The increasing social support and greater knowledge of lung cancer provide a more supportive environment in which patients cope with lung cancer today compared with 30 years ago. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. 30 years later: Social Representations about AIDS and sexual practices of rural towns residents.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Francisca Marina de Souza Freire; Santos, José Anderson Galdino; Loredanna, Stedile; Araújo, Eunice; Saldanha, Ana Alayde Werba; Silva, Josevânia da

    2016-06-01

    In the 30 years of the AIDS pandemic in Brazil, it is recognized the HIV virus internalization of the phenomenon as a challenge to care and current health policies. In this sense, it aimed to verify sex practices and social representations that rural towns residents have about the disease. Attended by 789 people, men and women, between 18 and 90 years old, residents in 41 towns with fewer than 11,000 inhabitants in the state of Paraiba / Brazil. Data were collected by a questionnaire and the free association of words test. The results showed low concern about disease, perception of invulnerability to HIV infection and not using condoms during sexual intercourse, and confidence in the major reason related partner. Also showed endure derogatory and stereotypical representations, revealing that still persist in rural areas, beliefs and representations concerning the beginning of the epidemic. From these findings, it is possible to point out deficiencies in the care provided by the health services in these localities, which may result in increased vulnerability of this population to diseases, so there is the need to intensify information campaigns and intervention. The results reveal the existence of three different types of modes of learning health literacy skills in informal context: : i) learning that takes place in action, in achieving daily tasks; ii) learning processes that result from problem solving; iii) learning that occurs in an unplanned manner, resulting from accidental circumstances and, in some cases, devoid of intentionality. Nos 30 anos da pandemia da Aids no Brasil, reconhece-se o fenômeno da interiorização do vírus HIV como um desafio ao cuidado e às politicas de saúde atuais. Neste sentido, objetivou-se conhecer práticas sexuais e as representações sociais que residentes de cidades rurais têm acerca da doença. Participaram 789 pessoas, homens e mulheres, entre 18 e 90 anos de idade, residentes em 41 cidades com menos de 11.000 habitantes

  7. Terrestrial cosmogenic 3He: where are we 30 years after its discovery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blard, Pierre-Henri; Pik, Raphaël; Farley, Kenneth A.; Lavé, Jérôme; Marrocchi, Yves

    2016-04-01

    It is now 30 years since cosmogenic 3He has been detected for the first time in a terrestrial sample (Kurz, 1986). 3He is now a widely used geochemical tool in many fields of Earth sciences: volcanology, tectonics, paleoclimatology. 3He has the advantage to have a high "production rate" to "detection limit" ratio, allowing surfaces as young as hundred of years to be dated. Although its nuclear stability implies several limitations, it moreover represents a useful alternative to 10Be in mafic environments. This contribution is a review of the progresses that have been accomplished since this discovery, and discuss strategies to improve both the accuracy and the precision of this geochronometer. 1) Measurement of cosmogenic 3He Correction of magmatic 3He. To estimate the non-cosmogenic magmatic 3He, Kurz (1986) invented a two steps method involving crushing of phenocrysts (to analyze the isotopic ratio of the magmatic component), followed by a subsequent melting of the sample, to extract the remaining components, including the cosmogenic 3He: 3Hec = 3Hemelt -4Hemelt x (3He/4He)magmatic (1) Several studies suggested that the preliminary crushing may induce a loss of cosmogenic 3He (Hilton et al., 1993; Yokochi et al., 2005; Blard et al., 2006), implying an underestimate of the cosmogenic 3He measurement. However, subsequent work did not replicate these observations (Blard et al., 2008; Goerhing et al., 2010), suggesting an influence of the used apparatus. An isochron method (by directly melting several phenocrysts aliquots) is an alternative to avoid the preliminary crushing step (Blard and Pik, 2008). Atmospheric contamination. Protin et al. (in press) provides robust evidences for a large and irreversible contamination of atmospheric helium on silicate surfaces. This unexpected behavior may reconcile the contrasted observations about the amplitude of crushing loss. This undesirable atmospheric contamination is negligible if grain fractions smaller than 150 mm are

  8. The long-term outcome of delinquent children: a 30-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Remschmidt, Helmut; Walter, Reinhard

    2010-05-01

    This study reports the results of a longitudinal study of unselected samples of German delinquent children, stratified by frequency of offences recorded before and after the age of criminal responsibility (14 years). A total of 256 young adults (mean age, 22 years), juvenile offenders and control non-offenders, were assessed using the following: a standardized interview regarding family, child development and life history; a multidimensional personality inventory (the Freiburg Personality Inventory, FPI); a version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale; a self-report questionnaire on the delinquency for which the subject was not apprehended during childhood; and a questionnaire concerning parental child-rearing style. The subsequent criminal records of subjects were followed over the next 20 years. It was possible to define three outcome groups (non-offenders, persisters and desisters), which differed in many respects. The outcome was significantly predicted by several variables. Psychosocial risk variables were the most effective predictors, followed by personality variables and childhood delinquency for which the subject had not been apprehended. The distinction between early-onset and late-onset delinquency as a predictor of adult criminality proved valid only if non-apprehended childhood offending was taken into account. The implications of the study for preventive intervention are discussed.

  9. A retrospective study of admission trends of koalas to a rehabilitation facility over 30 years.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Joanna E; Dhand, Navneet K; Krockenberger, Mark B; Higgins, Damien P

    2013-01-01

    To identify threats to the survival of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in coastal New South Wales, Australia, we compared 3,781 admission records of koalas, admitted between 1 January 1975 and 31 December 2004 to a koala rehabilitation facility on the midnorthern coast of New South Wales, against local wild population demographics, with the use of multinomial logistic regression and chi-square analyses. Trauma, the most frequent reason for admission, affected young and male animals more frequently than other groups. Seasonal differences in the probability of males presenting as trauma cases suggest behavioral factors as an important risk factor for this group. An increasing probability of koalas presenting as a result of motor vehicle accident since 1985 strongly supports the enhanced action of local authorities to pursue traffic-calming strategies if urban koala populations are to be maintained in this area. Koalas with clinical signs of chlamydiosis made up the second most frequent admission group, and these animals were more likely to be aged. This study highlights the potential usefulness of wildlife rehabilitation centers in detailing threats to local wildlife populations, provided record keeping is efficient and focused, and the role of such studies in providing evidence for focusing threat-mitigation efforts. Continual community engagement by koala researchers is important to ensure that maximum benefit is obtained from activities of special interest groups.

  10. Longitudinal Pathways between Maternal Mental Health in Infancy and Offspring Romantic Relationships in Adulthood: A 30-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal pathways between maternal mental health in infancy and offspring romantic relationship outcomes in adulthood were examined using a 30-year prospective longitudinal study of 196 mothers and their children. Structural equation modeling revealed that maternal mental health at 30 months was related to offspring relationship status and…

  11. Interrelations of green oak leaf roller population and common oak: results of 30-year monitoring and mathematical modeling

    Treesearch

    V. V. Rubtsov; I. A. Utkina

    2003-01-01

    Long-term monitoring followed by mathematical modeling was used to describe the population dynamics of the green oak leaf roller Tortrix viridana L. over a period of 30 years and to study reactions of oak stands to different levels of defoliation. The mathematical model allows us to forecast the population dynamics of the green oak leaf roller and...

  12. Using Conference Submission Data to Uncover Broad Trends in Language Teaching: A Case Study of One Conference over 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Submissions to conferences can provide rich material for analysing characteristics and trends within a conference's history and that of similar conferences, as well as the associated field at large. The present study uses data gathered over 30 years from a language teachers' conference in Japan (JALT National) to expound upon patterns related to…

  13. Longitudinal Pathways between Maternal Mental Health in Infancy and Offspring Romantic Relationships in Adulthood: A 30-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal pathways between maternal mental health in infancy and offspring romantic relationship outcomes in adulthood were examined using a 30-year prospective longitudinal study of 196 mothers and their children. Structural equation modeling revealed that maternal mental health at 30 months was related to offspring relationship status and…

  14. Examining the Factors That Influence Students' Science Learning Processes and Their Learning Outcomes: 30 Years of Conceptual Change Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jing-Wen; Yen, Miao-Hsuan; Liang, Jia-Chi; Chiu, Mei-Hung; Guo, Chorng-Jee

    2016-01-01

    This study used content analysis to examine the most studied conceptual change factors that influence students' science learning processes and their learning outcomes. The reviewed research included empirical studies published since Posner et al. proposed their conceptual change model 30 years ago (from 1982 to 2011). One hundred sixteen SSCI…

  15. Examining the Factors That Influence Students' Science Learning Processes and Their Learning Outcomes: 30 Years of Conceptual Change Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jing-Wen; Yen, Miao-Hsuan; Liang, Jia-Chi; Chiu, Mei-Hung; Guo, Chorng-Jee

    2016-01-01

    This study used content analysis to examine the most studied conceptual change factors that influence students' science learning processes and their learning outcomes. The reviewed research included empirical studies published since Posner et al. proposed their conceptual change model 30 years ago (from 1982 to 2011). One hundred sixteen SSCI…

  16. Early lessons from commercial thinning in a 30-year-old Sitka Spruce-Western Hemlock forest.

    Treesearch

    Sarah E. Greene; William H. Emmingham

    1986-01-01

    A commercial thinning study was undertaken in a 30-year-old stand, pre-commercially thinned at 15 years of age, at Cascade Head Experimental Forest on the Oregon coast. Measurements obtained after three different thinning treatments are presented and include stand volume, basal area, current growth rate, scar damage, crown ratio, and sapwood radius. Method of...

  17. The Public Acceptance of Voluntary Childlessness in the Netherlands: From 20 to 90 Per Cent in 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noordhuizen, Suzanne; de Graaf, Paul; Sieben, Inge

    2010-01-01

    Within a relatively short period of 30 years, public acceptance of voluntary childlessness has increased enormously in the Netherlands. In this paper, we address two research questions, which we answer with data from 13 waves of the repeated cross-sectional survey Cultural Change in the Netherlands (CCN, 1965-1996). First, we investigate to what…

  18. Sharpening landsat thermal infrared imagery for mapping evapotranspiration at field scale

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thermal infrared (TIR) imagery provides estimates of land-surface temperature (LST) that can be used for mapping land surface energy fluxes and evapotranspiration (ET). For the ET mapping at the field scale, TIR data are required at relatively fine pixel resolution similar to the resolution of Land...

  19. Field-scale fluorescence fingerprinting of biochar-borne dissolved organic carbon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biochar continues to receive worldwide enthusiasm as means of augmenting recalcitrant organic carbon in agricultural soils. Realistic biochar amendment rate (typically less than 1 wt%) in the field scale, and loss by sizing, rain, and other transport events demand reliable methods to quantify the r...

  20. Is No-Tillage Enough? A Field-Scale Watershed Assessment of Conservation Effects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    No-tillage and contour strip cropping are two conservation practices recommended by the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). Our objective was to quantify the effects of those practices after imposing them on deep loess soils in two field-scale watersheds in western Iowa. Hydrology, soil f...

  1. Flow pathways and sediment trapping in a field-scale vegetative filter

    Treesearch

    M. J. Helmers; D. E. Eisenhauer; Mike G. Dosskey; T. G. Franti; J. M. Brothers; M. C. McCullough

    2005-01-01

    Vegetative filters (VF) are a best management practive installed in many areas to control sediment movement to water bodies. It is commonly assumed that runoff proceeds perpendicularly across a VF as sheet flow. However, there is little research information on natural pathways of water movement and performance of field-scale VF. The objectives of this study were: (1)...

  2. Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography at the Field Scale: Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, D.; Barrash, W.; Cardiff, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The use of sinusoidal or periodic testing for field-scale tomography of aquifer parameters (conductivity / storativity) is a novel, minimally-invasive method for aquifer characterization between boreholes. Previous results have demonstrated the effectiveness of this method, which we name Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography (OHT), through both numerical and laboratory experiments. However, implementation and analysis of field-scale OHT testing has not been achieved to-date, and thus the technique remains unproven for application in real-world aquifers. We present an evaluation of OHT at the field scale here through application at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site (BHRS), a field-scale (~20m diameter x 20m thickness) research site. Through Bayesian inversion, we assess issues such as data quality impacts and resolution of obtained tomographic images. We discuss issues associated with both data collection and data processing, and based on our experiences suggest a workflow for OHT performance at other field sites. The advantages of OHT, relative to "traditional" hydraulic tomography with constant rate pumping tests, include the ability to test across a range of stimulation frequencies (obtaining increased heterogeneity information), very high signal-to-noise ratios. Additionally, we examine the impact of nonlinear effects - such as water table boundary conditions - and their impact on OHT analysis algorithms.

  3. Critical role of preferential flow in field-scale pathogen transport and retention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A stream tube model was applied to simulate pathogen transport and fate in the subsurface at the field scale. Local-scale transport within each stream tube was described deterministically using analytic solutions for pathogen transport and fate in a single or dual permeability porous medium. Import...

  4. FIELD-SCALE EVALUATION OF IN SITU COSOLVENT FLUSHING FOR ENCHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive, field-scale evaluation of in situ cosolvent flushing for enhanced remediation of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL)-contaminated aquifers was performed in a hydraulically isolated test cell (about 4.3 m x 3.6 m) constructed at a field site at Hill Air Force Base, Uta...

  5. Exploring the use of multi-sensor data fusion for daily evapotranspiration mapping at field scale

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Modern practices of water management in agriculture can significantly benefit from accurate mapping of crop water consumption at field scale. Assuming that actual evapotranspiration (ET) is the main water loss in land hydrological balance, remote sensing data represent an invaluable tool for water u...

  6. FIELD-SCALE STUDIES: HOW DOES SOIL SAMPLE PRETREATMENT AFFECT REPRESENTATIVENESS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples from field-scale studies are very heterogeneous and can contain large soil and rock particles. Oversize materials are often removed before chemical analysis of the soil samples because it is not practical to include these materials. Is the extracted sample representativ...

  7. FIELD-SCALE STUDIES: HOW DOES SOIL SAMPLE PRETREATMENT AFFECT REPRESENTATIVENESS ? (ABSTRACT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples from field-scale studies are very heterogeneous and can contain large soil and rock particles. Oversize materials are often removed before chemical analysis of the soil samples because it is not practical to include these materials. Is the extracted sample representativ...

  8. Improving crop condition monitoring at field scale by using optimal Landsat and MODIS images

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Satellite remote sensing data at coarse resolution (kilometers) have been widely used in monitoring crop condition for decades. However, crop condition monitoring at field scale requires high resolution data in both time and space. Although a large number of remote sensing instruments with different...

  9. FIELD-SCALE EVALUATION OF IN SITU COSOLVENT FLUSHING FOR ENCHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive, field-scale evaluation of in situ cosolvent flushing for enhanced remediation of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL)-contaminated aquifers was performed in a hydraulically isolated test cell (about 4.3 m x 3.6 m) constructed at a field site at Hill Air Force Base, Uta...

  10. Design and validation of field-scale anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure for small farms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Six field-scale (FS) digesters were designed, constructed, and tested using a plug-flow design used by millions of farmers in developing countries and reconfigured for a temperate climate. Digester efficiency was analyzed based on methane (CH4) production, volatile solids (VS) reduction, inoculum to...

  11. FIELD-SCALE STUDIES: HOW DOES SOIL SAMPLE PRETREATMENT AFFECT REPRESENTATIVENESS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples from field-scale studies are very heterogeneous and can contain large soil and rock particles. Oversize materials are often removed before chemical analysis of the soil samples because it is not practical to include these materials. Is the extracted sample representativ...

  12. FIELD-SCALE STUDIES: HOW DOES SOIL SAMPLE PRETREATMENT AFFECT REPRESENTATIVENESS ? (ABSTRACT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples from field-scale studies are very heterogeneous and can contain large soil and rock particles. Oversize materials are often removed before chemical analysis of the soil samples because it is not practical to include these materials. Is the extracted sample representativ...

  13. Testing the Wisconsin P index with year-round, field-scale runoff monitoring

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Wisconsin Phosphorus Index (WPI) is one of several P indexes in the US that uses equations to describe actual P loss processes and estimate field-scale dissolved P (DP) and particulate P (PP) loss risk in units that can be directly compared to measurements. The WPI calculations use soil P concen...

  14. Tobacco control advocacy in Australia: reflections on 30 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Chapman, S; Wakefield, M

    2001-06-01

    Australia has one of the world's most successful records on tobacco control. The role of public health advocacy in securing public and political support for tobacco control legislation and policy and program support is widely acknowledged and enshrined in World Health Organization policy documents yet is seldom the subject of analysis in the public health policy research literature. Australian public health advocates tend to not work in settings where evaluation and systematic planning are valued. However, their day-to-day strategies reveal considerable method and grounding in framing theory. The nature of media advocacy is explored, with differences between the conceptualization of routine "programmatic" public health interventions and the modus operandi of media advocacy highlighted. Two case studies on securing smoke-free indoor air and banning all tobacco advertising are used to illustrate advocacy strategies that have been used in Australia. Finally, the argument that advocacy should emanate from communities and be driven by them is considered.

  15. Trends in food consumption over 30 years: evidence from a British birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Pot, G K; Prynne, C J; Almoosawi, S; Kuh, D; Stephen, A M

    2015-07-01

    As populations are ageing, more emphasis is placed on healthy ageing. Over the past decades, food consumption patterns and food availability have also changed drastically, and therefore this study aimed to describe these changes in an ageing population. Food consumption of participants from the Medical Research Council National Survey on Health and Development, a British birth cohort study, was assessed using a 5-day estimated food records at 60-64 years (2006-11), 53 years (1999), 43 years (1989) and 36 years (1982). Only those who recorded ⩾3 days at all four time points were included in the analyses, n=989 (n=438 men and n=551 women); trends were tested using the Friedman test. Consumption of white bread, whole milk, fats and oils, meat and meat products, alcoholic drinks, coffee, sugar, preserves and confectionery decreased (P<0.001), whereas consumption of wholemeal and granary bread, semi-skimmed milk, fish and fruit and vegetables increased (P<0.001) over time. These observed changes in food consumption reflect a healthier diet, for example, replacement of white bread by granary and wholemeal bread, lower consumption of red and processed meats, somewhat higher consumption of fish, higher consumption of vegetables and lower consumption of coffee. This could partly be because of ageing of the cohort or compliance with dietary recommendations, facilitated by greater availability of healthier foods, such as semi-skimmed milk and wholegrain bread, in the UK. The changes in food consumption in this British birth cohort over the past three decades are encouraging and reflect a healthier diet in the later years.

  16. Does Chernobyl-derived radiation impact the developmental stability of Asellus aquaticus 30years on?

    PubMed

    Fuller, Neil; Smith, Jim T; Nagorskaya, Liubov L; Gudkov, Dmitri I; Ford, Alex T

    2017-01-15

    Effects of long-term, environmentally relevant doses of radiation on biota remain unclear due to a lack of studies following chronic exposure in contaminated environments. The 1986 Chernobyl accident dispersed vast amounts of radioactivity into the environment which persists to date. Despite three decades of research, impacts of the incident on non-human organisms continues to be contested within the scientific literature. The present study assessed the impact of chronic radiation exposure from Chernobyl on the developmental stability of the model aquatic isopod, Asellus aquaticus using fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as an indicator. Fluctuating asymmetry, defined as random deviations from the expected perfect bilateral symmetry of an organism, has gained prominence as an indicator of developmental stability in ecotoxicology. Organisms were collected from six lakes along a gradient of radionuclide contamination in Belarus and the Ukraine. Calculated total dose rates ranged from 0.06-27.1μGy/h. Fluctuating asymmetry was assessed in four meristic and one metrical trait. Significant differences in levels of pooled asymmetry were recorded between sample sites independent of sex and specific trait measured. However, there was no correlation of asymmetry with radiation doses, suggesting that differences in asymmetry were not attributed to radionuclide contamination and were driven by elevated asymmetry at a single site. No correlation between FA and measured environmental parameters suggested a biotic factor driving observed FA differences. This study appears to be the first to record no evident increase in developmental stability of biota from the Chernobyl region. These findings will aid in understanding the response of organisms to chronic pollutant exposure and the long term effects of large scale nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima.

  17. Trends in food consumption over 30 years: evidence from a British birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pot, Gerda K; Prynne, Celia J; Almoosawi, Suzana; Kuh, Diana; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    Background As populations are ageing, more emphasis is placed on healthy ageing. Over the past decades, food consumption patterns and food availability have also changed drastically and therefore this study aimed to describe these changes in an ageing population. Subjects/Methods Food consumption of participants from the MRC National Survey on Health and Development (NSHD), a British birth cohort study, was assessed using a 5 day estimated food records at 60-64y (2006-11), 53y (1999), 43y (1989), and 36y (1982). Only those who recorded ≥ 3 days at all four time points were included in the analyses, n=989 (n=438 men and n=551 women); trends were tested using the Friedman test. Results Consumption of white bread, whole milk, fats and oils, meat and meat products, alcoholic drinks, coffee, and sugar, preserves and confectionery decreased (p<0.001) whilst consumption of wholemeal and granary bread, semi-skimmed milk, fish, and fruit and vegetables increased (p<0.001) over time. These observed changes in food consumption reflect a healthier diet, e.g. replacement of white bread by granary and wholemeal bread, lower consumption of red and processed meats, somewhat higher consumption of fish, higher consumption of vegetables, and lower consumption of coffee. This could partly be due to ageing of the cohort or compliance with dietary recommendations, facilitated by greater availability of healthier foods, such as semi-skimmed milk and wholegrain bread, in the UK. Conclusions The changes in food consumption in this British birth cohort over the past three decades are encouraging and reflect a healthier diet in the later years. PMID:25351642

  18. Cleft lip and Palate: A 30-year Epidemiologic Study in North-East of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kianifar, Hamidreza; Hasanzadeh, Nadia; Jahanbin, Arezoo; Ezzati, Atefeh; Kianifar, Homa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cleft lip and palate are among the most common congenital anomalies worldwide. This study was conducted in order to explore the incidence and related factors of cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) among live births in Mashhad, North-Eastern Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, records of 28,519 infants born between March 1982 and March 2011 at three major hospitals in Mashhad were screened for oral clefts. Clinical and demographic factors relating to diagnosed cases, including birth date, gender, birth weight, maternal age, number of pregnancies, type and side of cleft and presence of other congenital anomalies were recorded for analysis. Results: The overall incidence of CL/P was 1.9 per 1,000 live births. Cleft lip associated with cleft palate (CLP) was the most prevalent type of cleft (50%), followed by isolated cleft lip (35.2%) and isolated cleft palate (14.8%). A total of 92.6% of oral clefts were bilateral and 5.5% were located on the right side. In addition, clefts were found to be more common in male than female births (male/female ratio=2.3). The rate of associated congenital anomalies in CL/P newborns was 37%. No significant differences were observed in the incidence of oral clefts across three decades of study; except for CLP which was significantly more prevalent between 2002–2011 (P=0.027). There were no significant differences with regard to season of birth, associated anomalies or maternal age of affected newborns in the three time periods of the study. Furthermore, maternal age and number of pregnancies were not significantly different among the three types of cleft (P=0.43 and P=0.91, respectively). Although the mean birth weight of patients affected with isolated cleft palate was considerably lower than that of the other two types of cleft, the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.05). Conclusion: This study indicates a frequency of CL/P close to the findings in East Asian countries and higher than

  19. Observations and modeling of fjord sedimentation during the 30 year retreat of Columbia Glacier, AK

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Katherine B; Hallet, Bernard; Pratt, Thomas L.; O'Neel, Shad

    2016-01-01

    To explore links between glacier dynamics, sediment yields and the accumulation of glacial sediments in a temperate setting, we use extensive glaciological observations for Columbia Glacier, Alaska, and new oceanographic data from the fjord exposed during its retreat. High-resolution seismic data indicate that 3.2 × 108 m3 of sediment has accumulated in Columbia Fjord over the past three decades, which corresponds to ~5 mm a−1 of erosion averaged over the glaciated area. We develop a general model to infer the sediment-flux history from the glacier that is compatible with the observed retreat history, and the thickness and architecture of the fjord sediment deposits. Results reveal a fivefold increase in sediment flux from 1997 to 2000, which is not correlated with concurrent changes in ice flux or retreat rate. We suggest the flux increase resulted from an increase in the sediment transport capacity of the subglacial hydraulic system due to the retreat-related steepening of the glacier surface over a known subglacial deep basin. Because variations in subglacial sediment storage can impact glacial sediment flux, in addition to changes in climate, erosion rate and glacier dynamics, the interpretation of climatic changes based on the sediment record is more complex than generally assumed.

  20. Educational and occupational outcomes of childhood cancer survivors 30 years after diagnosis: a French cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Agnes; Berger, Claire; Auquier, Pascal; Michel, Gérard; Fresneau, Brice; Sètchéou Allodji, Rodrigue; Haddy, Nadia; Rubino, Carole; Vassal, Gilles; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Thouvenin-Doulet, Sandrine; Casagranda, Léonie; Pacquement, Hélène; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Oberlin, Odile; Guibout, Catherine; de Vathaire, Florent

    2016-04-26

    Although survival from childhood cancer has increased, little is known on the long-term impact of treatment late effects on occupational attainment or work ability. A total of 3512 five-year survivors treated before the age of 19 years in 10 French cancer centres between 1948 and 2000 were identified. Educational level, employment status and occupational class of survivors were assessed by a self-reported questionnaire. These outcome measures were compared with sex-age rates recorded in the French population, using indirect standardisation. Paternal occupational class was also considered to control for the role of survivors' socioeconomic background on their achievement. Multivariable analyses were conducted to explore clinical characteristics associated with the outcomes. A total of 2406 survivors responded to the questionnaire and survivors aged below 25 years were included in the current analysis. Compared with national statistics adjusted on age and sex, male survivors were more likely to be college graduates (39.2% vs 30.9% expected; P<0.001). This higher achievement was not observed either for leukaemia or central nervous system (CNS) tumour survivors. Health-related unemployment was higher for survivors of CNS tumour (28.1% vs 4.3%; P<0.001) but not for survivors of other diagnoses. Survivors of non-CNS childhood cancer had a similar or a higher occupational class than expected. Survivors treated for CNS tumour or leukaemia, especially when treatment included cranial irradiation, might need support throughout their lifespan.

  1. Educational and occupational outcomes of childhood cancer survivors 30 years after diagnosis: a French cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Agnes; Berger, Claire; Auquier, Pascal; Michel, Gérard; Fresneau, Brice; Sètchéou Allodji, Rodrigue; Haddy, Nadia; Rubino, Carole; Vassal, Gilles; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Thouvenin-Doulet, Sandrine; Casagranda, Léonie; Pacquement, Hélène; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Oberlin, Odile; Guibout, Catherine; de Vathaire, Florent

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although survival from childhood cancer has increased, little is known on the long-term impact of treatment late effects on occupational attainment or work ability. Methods: A total of 3512 five-year survivors treated before the age of 19 years in 10 French cancer centres between 1948 and 2000 were identified. Educational level, employment status and occupational class of survivors were assessed by a self-reported questionnaire. These outcome measures were compared with sex–age rates recorded in the French population, using indirect standardisation. Paternal occupational class was also considered to control for the role of survivors' socioeconomic background on their achievement. Multivariable analyses were conducted to explore clinical characteristics associated with the outcomes. Results: A total of 2406 survivors responded to the questionnaire and survivors aged below 25 years were included in the current analysis. Compared with national statistics adjusted on age and sex, male survivors were more likely to be college graduates (39.2% vs 30.9% expected; P<0.001). This higher achievement was not observed either for leukaemia or central nervous system (CNS) tumour survivors. Health-related unemployment was higher for survivors of CNS tumour (28.1% vs 4.3% P<0.001) but not for survivors of other diagnoses. Survivors of non-CNS childhood cancer had a similar or a higher occupational class than expected. Conclusions: Survivors treated for CNS tumour or leukaemia, especially when treatment included cranial irradiation, might need support throughout their lifespan. PMID:27115571

  2. From C/Mrkos to P/Halley: 30 years of cometary spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arpigny, C.; Dossin, F.; Woszczyk, A.; Donn, B.; Rahe, J.; Wyckoff, Susan

    1991-01-01

    An Atlas of Cometary Spectra was compiled, as a sequel to the well-known Atlas published by Swings and Haser in 1956. The new atlas comprises some 400 reproductions of cometary spectra secured in the world's largest observatories during the three decades or so from the passage of comet Mrkos 1957 V, for which the very first high-dispersion spectrum was obtained, to the return of Halley's comet. The illustrations refer to 40 different comet apparitions; they are grouped into a set of 186 loose 11 x 14 in. plates, while the texts, comments, and relevant data are given in a separate booklet. The main purpose of this atlas is to show in detail the tremendous progress which was achieved in cometary spectroscopy during the period covered, essentially thanks to the use of high-resolution coude spectrographs and large telescopes, the considerable extension of the observed wavelength range, and the advent of electronic detectors. It is divided into two parts. Part 1, which contains about two-thirds of the selected material, presents photographic spectra, while electronically recorded spectra covering the vacuum ultraviolet, through the optical, infrared, and radio regions appear in Part 2.

  3. Lessons learned in otologic surgery: 30 years of malpractice cases in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ruhl, Douglas S; Hong, Steven S; Littlefield, Philip D

    2013-09-01

    To analyze malpractice litigation trends to better understand the causes and outcomes of suits involving otologic surgeries to prevent future litigation and improve physician awareness. Court records of legal trials from 1983 to 2012 were obtained from 2 major computerized databases-WESTLAW and LexisNexis. Data were compiled on the demographics of the defendant, plaintiff, use of otolaryngologists/otologists as expert witnesses, nature of injury, type of surgery, legal allegations, verdicts, and judgments. Fifty-eight unique cases met inclusion criteria and were selected for review. The most common surgeries that went to trial were mastoidectomy (48%), ossiculoplasty (21%), and tympanoplasty (16%). Eleven (19%) of the cases were resolved through a settlement before a verdict was reached. Verdicts in favor of the plaintiffs (31%) were awarded an average of $1,131,189. The most common alleged injuries were hearing loss (45%) and facial nerve injury (38%). Of the cases found in favor of the plaintiff, the most common reasons cited were improper performance of the surgery (50%), failure to properly diagnose and treat (33%), and inadequate informed consent and delay in diagnosis (22% each). Case outcomes involving pediatric patients were not significantly different than those of adults (p = 0.34); however, adults received higher financial awards on average ($1 million versus $232,000; p < 0.0003). Obtaining an appropriate diagnosis, thoroughly discussing all options and potential risks, presenting realistic expectations, and executing the surgery correctly are crucial to patient care. Understanding the reasons surgeons go to trial may assist in mitigating risk for potential lawsuits.

  4. Probing the past 30 year phenology trend of US deciduous forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, X.; Unger, N.; Keenan, T. F.; Zhang, X.; Vogel, C. S.

    2015-04-01

    Phenology is experiencing dramatic changes over deciduous forests in the US. Estimates of trends in phenology on the continental scale are uncertain, however, with studies failing to agree on both the magnitude and spatial distribution of trends in spring and autumn. This is due to the sparsity of in situ records, uncertainties associated with remote sensing data, and the regional focus of many studies. It has been suggested that reported trends are a result of recent temperature changes, though multiple processes are thought to be involved and the nature of the temperature forcing remains unknown. To date, no study has directly attributed long-term phenological trends to individual forcings across the US through integrating observations with models. Here, we construct an extensive database of ground measurements of phenological events across the US, and use it to calibrate and evaluate a suite of phenology models. The models use variations of the accumulative temperature summation, with additional chilling requirements for spring phenology and photoperiod limitation for autumn. Including a chilling requirement or photoperiod limitation does not improve model performance, suggesting that temperature change, especially in spring and autumn, is the dominant driver of the observed trend during the past 3 decades. Our results show that phenological trends are not uniform over the contiguous US, with a significant advance of 0.34 day yr-1 for the spring budburst in the East, a delay of 0.15 day yr-1 for the autumn dormancy onset in the Northeast and West, but no evidence of change elsewhere. Relative to the 1980s, the growing season in the 2000s is extended by about 1 week (3-4%) in the East, New England, and the upper Rocky Mountains forests. These results help reconcile conflicting reports of phenological trends in the literature, and directly attribute observed trends to long-term changes in temperature.

  5. Probing the past 30-year phenology trend of US deciduous forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, X.; Unger, N.; Keenan, T. F.; Zhang, X.; Vogel, C. S.

    2015-08-01

    Phenology is experiencing dramatic changes over deciduous forests in the USA. Estimates of trends in phenology on the continental scale are uncertain, however, with studies failing to agree on both the magnitude and spatial distribution of trends in spring and autumn. This is due to the sparsity of in situ records, uncertainties associated with remote sensing data, and the regional focus of many studies. It has been suggested that reported trends are a result of recent temperature changes, though multiple processes are thought to be involved and the nature of the temperature forcing remains unknown. To date, no study has directly attributed long-term phenological trends to individual forcings across the USA through integrating observations with models. Here, we construct an extensive database of ground measurements of phenological events across the USA, and use it to calibrate and evaluate a suite of phenology models. The models use variations of the accumulative temperature summation, with additional chilling requirements for spring phenology and photoperiod limitation for autumn. Including a chilling requirement or photoperiod limitation does not improve model performance, suggesting that temperature change, especially in spring and autumn, is likely the dominant driver of the observed trend during the past 3 decades. Our results show that phenological trends are not uniform over the contiguous USA, with a significant advance of 0.34 day yr-1 for the spring budburst in the east, a delay of 0.15 day yr-1 for the autumn dormancy onset in the northeast and west, but no evidence of change elsewhere. Relative to the 1980s, the growing season in the 2000s is extended by about 1 week (3-4 %) in the east, New England, and the upper Rocky Mountains forests. Additional sensitivity tests show that intraspecific variations may not influence the predicted phenological trends. These results help reconcile conflicting reports of phenological trends in the literature, and

  6. Suicide and deliberate self-harm in Oxford University students over a 30-year period.

    PubMed

    Hawton, Keith; Bergen, Helen; Mahadevan, Su; Casey, Deborah; Simkin, Sue

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether rates of suicide and self-harm in university students differ from those in other young people. We obtained information on Oxford University students who died by suicide or presented to hospital following deliberate self-harm (DSH) between 1976 and 2006 from official records and a General Hospital monitoring system in Oxford. Rates of suicide and self-harm in the students and in other young people in the general population were calculated from university, local and national population figures. Forty-eight Oxford University students (32 males and 16 females) died by suicide. Most (N = 42) were aged 18-25 years. The suicide rate did not differ from that of other people in this age group in England and Wales (SMR 105.4; 95% CI 75.2, 143.4). There was evidence of clustering of methods of suicide over time. During the same period, 602 students (383 females and 219 males) presented to the General Hospital following DSH. Most (90.7%) were aged 15-24 years, in which age group rates of DSH (per 100,000) during term-time were lower than in other young people in Oxford City (females: 206.5 vs. 285.6, z = -5.03, p < 0.001; males: 75.9 vs. 111.2, z = -4.35; p < 0.001). There was an excess of student DSH episodes in the main exam term. Contrary to earlier findings and popular belief, suicide rates in Oxford University students do not differ from those in other young people. Rates of DSH are significantly lower than in other young people. Risk of DSH may increase around the time of examinations.

  7. Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer: 30-Year Experience in a Single Institution in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Jingu, Keiichi; Tanabe, Takaya; Nemoto, Kenji; Ariga, Hisanori; Umezawa, Rei; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Ken; Koto, Masashi; Sugawara, Toshiyuki; Kubozono, Masaki; Shimizu, Eiji; Abe, Keiko; Yamada, Shogo

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze retrospectively the results of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) with or without external beam radiotherapy ({+-} EBRT) for localized pancreatic cancer in the past three decades and to analyze prognostic factors by multivariate analysis. Methods and Materials: Records for 322 patients with pancreatic cancer treated by IORT {+-} EBRT in Tohoku University Hospital between 1980 and 2009 were reviewed. One hundred ninety-two patients who had no distant organ metastases or dissemination at the time of laparotomy were enrolled in the present study. Results: Eighty-three patients underwent gross total resection (R0: 48 patients, R1: 35 patients), and 109 patients underwent only biopsy or palliative resection. Fifty-five patients underwent adjuvant EBRT, and 124 underwent adjuvant chemotherapy. The median doses of IORT and EBRT were 25 and 40 Gy, respectively. The median follow-up period was 37.5 months. At the time of the analysis, 166 patients had disease recurrence, and 35 patients had local failure. The 2-year local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) rates were 71.0% and 16.9%, respectively. Comparison of the results for each decade showed that OS was significantly improved decade by decade (2-year: 25.0% vs. 18.8% vs. 4.2%, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that degree of resection (R0-1 vs. R2, hazard ratio = 1.97, p = 0.001) and adjuvant chemotherapy (yes vs. no, hazard ratio = 1.54, p = 0.028) had significant impacts on OS. Late gastrointestinal morbidity of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 grade 4 or 5 was observed in four patients. Conclusion: Excellent local control for pancreatic cancer with few cases of severe late toxicity was achieved by using IORT. OS of patients with pancreatic cancer treated by IORT {+-} EBRT improved significantly decade by decade. Multivariate analysis showed that degree of resection and adjuvant chemotherapy had significant impacts on OS.

  8. Working on binaries at the R. M. Aller Observatory. The last 30 years (and the near future)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Docobo, J. A.

    2011-07-01

    We performed exhaustive work during the past 30 years in the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Santiago de Compostela (called Ramón María Aller since 1981). In this communication, I explain all the necessary efforts made to obtain the current high level status of investigation (particularly on double and multiple stars), teaching, and scientific dissemination. The projects for the near future are also mentioned.

  9. Optimal field-scale groundwater remediation using neural networks and the genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, L.L.; Dowla, F.U.; Johnson, V.M.

    1993-05-01

    We present a new approach for field-scale nonlinear management of groundwater remediation. First, an artificial neural network (ANN) is trained to predict the outcome of a groundwater transport simulation. Then a genetic algorithm (GA) searches through possible pumping realizations, evaluating the fitness of each with a prediction from the trained ANN. Traditional approaches rely on optimization algorithms requiring sequential calls of the groundwater transport simulation. Our approach processes the transport simulations in parallel and ``recycles`` the knowledge base of these simulations, greatly reducing the computational and real-time burden, often the primary impediment to developing field-scale management models. We present results from a Superfund site suggesting that such management techniques can reduce cleanup costs by over a hundred million dollars.

  10. Field Scale Spatial Modelling of Surface Soil Quality Attributes in Controlled Traffic Farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenette, Kris; Hernandez-Ramirez, Guillermo

    2017-04-01

    The employment of controlled traffic farming (CTF) can yield improvements to soil quality attributes through the confinement of equipment traffic to tramlines with the field. There is a need to quantify and explain the spatial heterogeneity of soil quality attributes affected by CTF to further improve our understanding and modelling ability of field scale soil dynamics. Soil properties such as available nitrogen (AN), pH, soil total nitrogen (STN), soil organic carbon (SOC), bulk density, macroporosity, soil quality S-Index, plant available water capacity (PAWC) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (Km) were analysed and compared among trafficked and un-trafficked areas. We contrasted standard geostatistical methods such as ordinary kriging (OK) and covariate kriging (COK) as well as the hybrid method of regression kriging (ROK) to predict the spatial distribution of soil properties across two annual cropland sites actively employing CTF in Alberta, Canada. Field scale variability was quantified more accurately through the inclusion of covariates; however, the use of ROK was shown to improve model accuracy despite the regression model composition limiting the robustness of the ROK method. The exclusion of traffic from the un-trafficked areas displayed significant improvements to bulk density, macroporosity and Km while subsequently enhancing AN, STN and SOC. The ability of the regression models and the ROK method to account for spatial trends led to the highest goodness-of-fit and lowest error achieved for the soil physical properties, as the rigid traffic regime of CTF altered their spatial distribution at the field scale. Conversely, the COK method produced the most optimal predictions for the soil nutrient properties and Km. The use of terrain covariates derived from light ranging and detection (LiDAR), such as of elevation and topographic position index (TPI), yielded the best models in the COK method at the field scale.

  11. Field-Scale Effective Matrix Diffusion Coefficient for FracturedRock: Results From Literature Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Quanlin; Liu, Hui Hai; Molz, Fred J.; Zhang, Yingqi; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2005-03-28

    Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solutetransport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey onthe effective matrix diffusion coefficient, Dem, a key parameter fordescribing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty fieldtracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selectedfor study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale Dem valueswere calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature orby reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed dataindicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor FD(defined as the ratio of Dem to the lab-scale matrix diffusioncoefficient [Dem]of the same tracer) is generally larger than one,indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the fieldis comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at therock-core scale. This larger value could be attributed to the manymass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous,fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend towardsystematic increase in the emDFmDDF value with observation scale,indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely tobe statistically scale dependent. The FD value ranges from 1 to 10,000for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the FD valuevaries by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differingdegrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition,the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivitygenerally increases with observation scale, which is consistent withprevious studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusioncoefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications forassessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transportevents in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal and contaminantremediation.

  12. Epilepsy-Related Mortality is Low in Children: A 30 Year Population-Based Study in Olmsted County, MN

    PubMed Central

    Nickels, Katherine C.; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Wirrell, Elaine C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Epilepsy is a common childhood neurologic disorder, affecting 0.5 to1% of children. Increased mortality occurs due to progression of underlying disease, seizure-related accidents, suicide, status epilepticus, aspiration during seizures, and sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Previous studies show mortality rates of 2.7 to 6.9 per 1000 person-years (Berg et al., 2004, Sillanpaa & Shinnar, 2010). Potential risk factors include poor seizure control, intractable epilepsy, status epilepticus, tonic-clonic seizures, mental retardation, and remote symptomatic cause of epilepsy (Berg et al., 2004, Sillanpaa & Shinnar, 2010, Walczak et al., 2001). Few population-based studies of mortality and SUDEP in childhood-onset epilepsy have been published. The purpose of this study is to report mortality and SUDEP from a 30 year population-based cohort of children with epilepsy. Methods The Medical Diagnostic Index of the Rochester Epidemiology Project was searched for all codes related to seizure and convulsion in children living in Olmsted County, Minnesota and of ages birth through 17 years from 1980 through 2009. The medical records of these children were reviewed to identify all those with new-onset epilepsy, and to abstract other baseline and follow-up information. Potential risk factors including seizure type, epilepsy syndrome, history of status epilepticus, the presence and severity of neurologic impairment, and epilepsy outcome was reviewed. Epilepsy outcome was characterized by seizure frequency, number of anti-seizure medications (AEDs) used, and number of AEDs failed due to lack of efficacy, and epilepsy intractability at 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 years after epilepsy onset. We followed all children through their most recent visit to determine vital status, cause of death, and whether autopsy was performed. Key Findings From 1980 to 2009, there were 467 children age birth through 17 years diagnosed with epilepsy while residents of Olmsted County, MN

  13. A compartmentalized solute transport model for redox zones in contaminated aquifers--2, Field-scale simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abrams , Robert H.; Loague, Keith

    2000-01-01

    This paper, the second of two parts [see Abrams and Loague, this issue], reports the field-scale application of COMPTRAN (compartmentalized solute transport model) for simulating the development of redox zones. COMPTRAN is fully developed and described in the companion paper. Redox zones, which are often delineated by the relative concentrations of dissolved oxygen, have been observed around the globe. The distribution of other redox-sensitive species is affected by redox zonation. At the U.S. Geological Survey's Cape Cod research site, an anoxic zone containing high concentrations of dissolved iron has been observed. Field data were abstracted from the Cape Cod site for the one-dimensional and two-dimensional COMPTRAN simulations reported in this paper. The purpose of the concept-development simulations was to demonstrate that the compartmentalized approach reported by Abrams et al. [1998] can be linked with a solute transport model to simulate field-scale phenomena. The results presented in this paper show that COMPTRAN successfully simulated the development of redox zones at the field scale, including trends in pH and alkalinity. Thermodynamic constraints were used to prevent lower-energy redox reactions from occurring under infeasible geochemical conditions without imposing equilibrium among all redox species. Empirical methods of reaction inhibition were not needed for the simulations conducted for this study. COMPTRAN can be extended easily to include additional compartments and reactions and is capable of handling complex velocity fields in more than one dimension.

  14. A physical scaling model for aggregation and disaggregation of field-scale surface soil moisture dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Richa; Govindaraju, Rao S

    2015-07-01

    Scaling relationships are needed as measurements and desired predictions are often not available at concurrent spatial support volumes or temporal discretizations. Surface soil moisture values of interest to hydrologic studies are estimated using ground based measurement techniques or utilizing remote sensing platforms. Remote sensing based techniques estimate field-scale surface soil moisture values, but are unable to provide the local-scale soil moisture information that is obtained from local measurements. Further, obtaining field-scale surface moisture values using ground-based measurements is exhaustive and time consuming. To bridge this scale mismatch, we develop analytical expressions for surface soil moisture based on sharp-front approximation of the Richards equation and assumed log-normal distribution of the spatial surface saturated hydraulic conductivity field. Analytical expressions for field-scale evolution of surface soil moisture to rainfall events are utilized to obtain aggregated and disaggregated response of surface soil moisture evolution with knowledge of the saturated hydraulic conductivity. The utility of the analytical model is demonstrated through numerical experiments involving 3-D simulations of soil moisture and Monte-Carlo simulations for 1-D renderings-with soil moisture dynamics being represented by the Richards equation in each instance. Results show that the analytical expressions developed here show promise for a principled way of scaling surface soil moisture.

  15. Integration of Hard and Soft Data to Characterize Field-Scale Hydraulic Properties for Flow and Transport Studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field-scale flow and transport studies are frequently conducted to assess and quantify a variety of environmental and agricultural scenarios. The utility of field-scale flow and transport studies, however, is frequently limited by our inability to characterize the heterogeneous distribution of hydr...

  16. Association between breastfeeding and intelligence, educational attainment, and income at 30 years of age: a prospective birth cohort study from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; de Mola, Christian Loret; Quevedo, Luciana; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Gigante, Denise P; Gonçalves, Helen; Barros, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Breastfeeding has clear short-term benefits, but its long-term consequences on human capital are yet to be established. We aimed to assess whether breastfeeding duration was associated with intelligence quotient (IQ), years of schooling, and income at the age of 30 years, in a setting where no strong social patterning of breastfeeding exists. Methods A prospective, population-based birth cohort study of neonates was launched in 1982 in Pelotas, Brazil. Information about breastfeeding was recorded in early childhood. At 30 years of age, we studied the IQ (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd version), educational attainment, and income of the participants. For the analyses, we used multiple linear regression with adjustment for ten confounding variables and the G-formula. Findings From June 4, 2012, to Feb 28, 2013, of the 5914 neonates enrolled, information about IQ and breastfeeding duration was available for 3493 participants. In the crude and adjusted analyses, the durations of total breastfeeding and predominant breastfeeding (breastfeeding as the main form of nutrition with some other foods) were positively associated with IQ, educational attainment, and income. We identified dose-response associations with breastfeeding duration for IQ and educational attainment. In the confounder-adjusted analysis, participants who were breastfed for 12 months or more had higher IQ scores (difference of 3·76 points, 95% CI 2·20–5·33), more years of education (0·91 years, 0·42–1·40), and higher monthly incomes (341·0 Brazilian reals, 93·8–588·3) than did those who were breastfed for less than 1 month. The results of our mediation analysis suggested that IQ was responsible for 72% of the effect on income. Interpretation Breastfeeding is associated with improved performance in intelligence tests 30 years later, and might have an important effect in real life, by increasing educational attainment and income in adulthood. Funding Wellcome Trust

  17. Association between breastfeeding and intelligence, educational attainment, and income at 30 years of age: a prospective birth cohort study from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Loret de Mola, Christian; Quevedo, Luciana; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Gigante, Denise P; Gonçalves, Helen; Barros, Fernando C

    2015-04-01

    Breastfeeding has clear short-term benefits, but its long-term consequences on human capital are yet to be established. We aimed to assess whether breastfeeding duration was associated with intelligence quotient (IQ), years of schooling, and income at the age of 30 years, in a setting where no strong social patterning of breastfeeding exists. A prospective, population-based birth cohort study of neonates was launched in 1982 in Pelotas, Brazil. Information about breastfeeding was recorded in early childhood. At 30 years of age, we studied the IQ (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd version), educational attainment, and income of the participants. For the analyses, we used multiple linear regression with adjustment for ten confounding variables and the G-formula. From June 4, 2012, to Feb 28, 2013, of the 5914 neonates enrolled, information about IQ and breastfeeding duration was available for 3493 participants. In the crude and adjusted analyses, the durations of total breastfeeding and predominant breastfeeding (breastfeeding as the main form of nutrition with some other foods) were positively associated with IQ, educational attainment, and income. We identified dose-response associations with breastfeeding duration for IQ and educational attainment. In the confounder-adjusted analysis, participants who were breastfed for 12 months or more had higher IQ scores (difference of 3·76 points, 95% CI 2·20-5·33), more years of education (0·91 years, 0·42-1·40), and higher monthly incomes (341·0 Brazilian reals, 93·8-588·3) than did those who were breastfed for less than 1 month. The results of our mediation analysis suggested that IQ was responsible for 72% of the effect on income. Breastfeeding is associated with improved performance in intelligence tests 30 years later, and might have an important effect in real life, by increasing educational attainment and income in adulthood. Wellcome Trust, International Development Research Center (Canada), CNPq

  18. Esimation of field-scale thermal conductivities of unsaturatedrocks from in-situ temperature data

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Tsang, Yvonne W.; Birkholzer, Jens T.

    2006-06-26

    A general approach is presented here which allows estimationof field-scale thermal properties of unsaturated rock using temperaturedata collected from in situ heater tests. The approach developed here isused to determine the thermal conductivities of the unsaturated host rockof the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The DST wasdesigned to obtain thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical (THMC)data in the unsaturated fractured rock of Yucca Mountain. Sophisticatednumerical models have been developed to analyze these THMC data. However,though the objective of those models was to analyze "field-scale" (of theorder of tens-of-meters) THMC data, thermal conductivities measured from"laboratory-scale" core samples have been used as input parameters.While, in the absence of a better alternative, using laboratory-scalethermal conductivity values in field-scale models can be justified, suchapplications introduce uncertainties in the outcome of the models. Thetemperature data collected from the DST provides a unique opportunity toresolve some of these uncertainties. These temperature data can be usedto estimate the thermal conductivity of the DST host rock and, given thelarge volume of rock affected by heating at the DST, such an estimatewill be a more reliable effective thermal conductivity value for fieldscale application. In this paper, thus, temperature data from the DST areused to develop an estimate of the field-scale thermal conductivityvalues of the unsaturated host rock of the DST. An analytical solution isdeveloped for the temperature rise in the host rock of the DST; and usinga nonlinear fitting routine, a best-fit estimate of field-scale thermalconductivity for the DST host rock is obtained. Temperature data from theDST show evidence of two distinct thermal regimes: a zone below boiling(wet) and a zone above boiling (dry). Estimates of thermal conductivityfor both the wet and dry zones are obtained in this paper. Sensitivity ofthese estimates

  19. 30 Years Retrospective Review of Tuberculosis Cases in a Tuberculosis Dispensary in Bursa/Nilufer, Turkey (1985–2014): Changes of Epidemics*

    PubMed Central

    Pala, Kayıhan; Gerçek, Harika; Taş, Tuncay Aydin; Çakir, Rukiye; Özgüç, Sedef; Yildiz, Timur

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiological and clinical aspects of patients who applied to the Bursa Nilufer Tuberculosis Dispensary by investigating the trends in epidemics over three decades. Method In this retrospective observational study, the records of all tuberculosis cases (1630 patients) treated in the last 30 years (1985–2014) at the Bursa Nilufer Tuberculosis Dispensary were examined and statistically analyzed. Results Males comprised 65.2% of the patients. The ages of the patients ranged from 1 to 87 years, and the mean age was 37.4 (95% CI: 36.6–38.2). Among the cases, 86.7% were new infections and 74.1% were pulmonary tuberculosis. In the last decade, the education level, the percentage of patients who had received a BCG vaccination, the proportion of women and active employees among them increased (p<0.05), while it decreased among men (p<0.05). Clinical symptoms accompanying TB such as weakness, anorexia, weight loss, and cough, decreased to a statistically significant degree (p<0.05). In the last decade, the mortality rate was 3.6% and increased compared with previous decades (p<0.05). Mortality was higher among patients who were elderly, male, did not have a BCG scar or had a chronic disease (p<0.05). Conclusion This study adds information about the change of TB epidemics in Turkey in the last 30 years. Further studies are needed to determine the risk factors associated with tuberculosis mortality and to evaluate the effectiveness control programs of this disease. PMID:27872739

  20. Flood Dynamics in the Sacramento Valley over the Last 30 Years: When and Where Were the Rest Stops for Shorebirds during Spring Migration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer-Smith, D.; Swenson, J. J.; Reiter, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland dependent migratory shorebirds continue to suffer population declines, largely due to loss of habitat. A better understanding of the variability of flooded resting and feeding sites is needed over the large areas traveled by these birds, particularly in inland areas subject to cyclical droughts. We analyzed habitat availability patterns in the Sacramento Valley, an internationally important shorebird stopover site, using low cloud cover scenes during spring migration (February - June) from the 30-year Landsat Climate Data Record. We found that a simple band 5 threshold efficiently delineated open water over the past thirty years of surface reflectance data (Landsat 4-8). A random forest model for flooded and non-flooded regions (AUC = 0.9997444) and ROC optimization were used to determine the best threshold for the analysis. Using the time series of classifications, we assessed historical flooded habitat availability within each two week period during spring over the past 30 years. Flood irrigated agriculture on private lands represents the largest potential habitat area and consistently provides habitat at the early and late stages of migration. Rice alone represents five times the area of herbaceous wetlands and has a comparable probability of inundation as this wetland type in early spring (0.3). Flood extent is most restricted during the peak of spring migration when birds most need the habitat, which is limited primarily to federal and state managed lands (average 0.78 probability of inundation). The timing of drying and reflooding in agricultural fields could strongly influence habitat availability in the valley during the spring.

  1. Optimal sampling and sample preparation for NIR-based prediction of field scale soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knadel, Maria; Peng, Yi; Schelde, Kirsten; Thomsen, Anton; Deng, Fan; Humlekrog Greve, Mogens

    2013-04-01

    The representation of local soil variability with acceptable accuracy and precision is dependent on the spatial sampling strategy and can vary with a soil property. Therefore, soil mapping can be expensive when conventional soil analyses are involved. Visible near infrared spectroscopy (vis-NIR) is considered a cost-effective method due to labour savings and relative accuracy. However, savings may be offset by the costs associated with number of samples and sample preparation. The objective of this study was to find the most optimal way to predict field scale total organic carbon (TOC) and texture. To optimize the vis-NIR calibrations the effects of sample preparation and number of samples on the predictive ability of models with regard to the spatial distribution of TOC and texture were investigated. Conditioned Latin hypercube sampling (cLHs) method was used to select 125 sampling locations from an agricultural field in Denmark, using electromagnetic induction (EMI) and digital elevation model (DEM) data. The soil samples were scanned in three states (field moist, air dried and sieved to 2 mm) with a vis-NIR spectrophotometer (LabSpec 5100, ASD Inc., USA). The Kennard-Stone algorithm was applied to select 50 representative soil spectra for the laboratory analysis of TOC and texture. In order to investigate how to minimize the costs of reference analysis, additional smaller subsets (15, 30 and 40) of samples were selected for calibration. The performance of field calibrations using spectra of soils at the three states as well as using different numbers of calibration samples was compared. Final models were then used to predict the remaining 75 samples. Maps of predicted soil properties where generated with Empirical Bayesian Kriging. The results demonstrated that regardless the state of the scanned soil, the regression models and the final prediction maps were similar for most of the soil properties. Nevertheless, as expected, models based on spectra from field

  2. Trends in the annual incidence rates of narcotics felons arrested over the last 30 years in metropolitan Bursa, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akgoz, Semra; Akkaya, Cengiz; Berkay, Fugen; Turkmen, Nursel; Kan, Ismet; Kirli, Selcuk

    2007-07-01

    Illegal substance use is a serious problem all over the world. In order to effectively combat substance abuse it is important that both the particular features of drug users and the culture-specific risk factors that go along with drug abuse be identified. The present study was carried out in Bursa, Turkey, in order to document annual changes in the frequency of felons arrested of narcotics offenses and to establish the socio-demographics of these narcotics felons. Among the 2,230 narcotics felons reviewed, 24.3% had been charged with drug dealing but not consumption (profit-driven felons [PDFs]), 19.0% were narcotics felons charged with both dealing and consumption ([hard core drug users HCDUs]), and 56.7% were narcotics felons charged only with consumption and possession (not so hard core drug users [NHCDUs]). The NHCDUs were younger (< 30 years) than both the HCDUs and PDFs, while most of the PDFs and HCDUs were married. Despite the fact that the male/female ratio of the Bursa population was nearly 1:1 for the past 30 years, 93.0%, 95.0% and 96.0% of the PDFs, HCDUs, and NHCDUs, respectively, were male. It was also found that the most commonly used illicit substance in Bursa over this period of time was cannabis. Over the course of the 30-year period examined, the annual incidence rate of narcotics felons arrested increased from 0.4257 per 10,000 to 1.2389 per 10,000. Determining the socio-demographic characteristics of HCDUs and NHCDUs would be useful in preventing substance use before substance users become addicted.

  3. Familial cortical myoclonic tremor and epilepsy: Description of a new South African pedigree with 30 year follow up.

    PubMed

    van Coller, Riaan; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; Schutte, Clara; van der Meyden, C H

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study were to report the index case of a South African family with cortical myoclonic tremor and epilepsy, to describe the pedigree with the clinical findings and results of additional investigations, and to report the unique follow-up evaluation of affected and unaffected family members after 30 years. The index case led to evaluation of the clinical files of patients from 1978/1979 and clinical assessment and investigation of patients from this cohort as well as newly identified family members. Patients were examined clinically; cortical myoclonic tremor severity was scored by using the Fahn-Tolosa- Marin-Tremor Rating Scale and the Myoclonus Rating Scale. Cortical origin of myoclonus was proven. Statistical analyses were done to assess the impact of cortical myoclonic tremor on quality of life. Clinical data was available for 23 patients. Increase in cortical myoclonic tremor and age showed a statistically significant correlation with worsening of the sub-score for Quality of Life (FTMTRS) and myoclonus rating scale. After 30 years eleven of fourteen patients could be followed up. Progression of cortical myoclonic tremor severity was noted but epilepsy control was adequate with all patients reporting less than two seizures per year. No clinical features of neurodegeneration were found. We describe the initial presentation and 30 year follow-up of a four generation South African family with FCMTE. The unique long term follow up of this pedigree supports previous findings that the condition does not cause additional progressive neurological deterioration and quality of life is mostly influenced by worsening of the cortical myoclonic tremor with age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tertiary resurfacing after one of the first free flaps in Europe, a reflection on 30 years of microsurgical progress.

    PubMed

    Hart, A M; Tollan, C J; Dabernig, J; Acland, R; Taggart, I

    2007-01-01

    Free flaps have been used for over 30 years. During this period, improved anatomical understanding has increased donor options and available pedicle lengths, permitting safer, single-stage reconstructions with simpler anastomoses. Refinements, such as perforator flaps in particular, have greatly improved donor morbidity, recipient site cosmesis, and the ability to replace 'like with like' while retaining options for innervation. This case highlights the evolution from one of Europe's first free tissue transfers, effectively a perforator flap, through the advent of free muscle flaps to the current generation of contourable perforator flaps. Free flap transfer has become increasingly sophisticated, safer, and more predictable, yet the potential quality of reconstructive outcome has changed little.

  5. Debates to personal conclusion in peripheral nerve injury and reconstruction: A 30-year experience at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital.

    PubMed

    Chuang, David Chwei-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the science and management of peripheral nerve injuries over the past 40 years. Yet there are many questions and few answers. The author, with 30 years of experience in treating them at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, addresses debates on various issues with personal conclusions. These include: (1) Degree of peripheral nerve injury, (2) Timing of nerve repair, (3)Technique of nerve repair, (4) Level of brachial plexus injury,(5) Level of radial nerve injury,(6) Traction avulsion amputation of major limb, (7) Proximal Vs distal nerve transfers in brachial plexus injuries and (8) Post paralysis facial synkinesis.

  6. Cockcroft--30 Years On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Barbara; Cross, Kath; Knights, George

    2012-01-01

    The report "Mathematics Counts" or, in what became common parlance, the "Cockcroft" report was an unusual government report on a significant aspect of the school curriculum. Unusual because the author, William Cockcroft produced a set of ideas to which teachers of mathematics could relate and respond. It was said by one…

  7. Evaluating the capabilities of watershed-scale models in estimating sediment yield at field-scale.

    PubMed

    Sommerlot, Andrew R; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Woznicki, Sean A; Giri, Subhasis; Prohaska, Michael D

    2013-09-30

    Many watershed model interfaces have been developed in recent years for predicting field-scale sediment loads. They share the goal of providing data for decisions aimed at improving watershed health and the effectiveness of water quality conservation efforts. The objectives of this study were to: 1) compare three watershed-scale models (Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), Field_SWAT, and the High Impact Targeting (HIT) model) against calibrated field-scale model (RUSLE2) in estimating sediment yield from 41 randomly selected agricultural fields within the River Raisin watershed; 2) evaluate the statistical significance among models; 3) assess the watershed models' capabilities in identifying areas of concern at the field level; 4) evaluate the reliability of the watershed-scale models for field-scale analysis. The SWAT model produced the most similar estimates to RUSLE2 by providing the closest median and the lowest absolute error in sediment yield predictions, while the HIT model estimates were the worst. Concerning statistically significant differences between models, SWAT was the only model found to be not significantly different from the calibrated RUSLE2 at α = 0.05. Meanwhile, all models were incapable of identifying priorities areas similar to the RUSLE2 model. Overall, SWAT provided the most correct estimates (51%) within the uncertainty bounds of RUSLE2 and is the most reliable among the studied models, while HIT is the least reliable. The results of this study suggest caution should be exercised when using watershed-scale models for field level decision-making, while field specific data is of paramount importance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating the impact of field-scale management strategies on sediment transport to the watershed outlet.

    PubMed

    Sommerlot, Andrew R; Pouyan Nejadhashemi, A; Woznicki, Sean A; Prohaska, Michael D

    2013-10-15

    Non-point source pollution from agricultural lands is a significant contributor of sediment pollution in United States lakes and streams. Therefore, quantifying the impact of individual field management strategies at the watershed-scale provides valuable information to watershed managers and conservation agencies to enhance decision-making. In this study, four methods employing some of the most cited models in field and watershed scale analysis were compared to find a practical yet accurate method for evaluating field management strategies at the watershed outlet. The models used in this study including field-scale model (the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2 - RUSLE2), spatially explicit overland sediment delivery models (SEDMOD), and a watershed-scale model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool - SWAT). These models were used to develop four modeling strategies (methods) for the River Raisin watershed: Method 1) predefined field-scale subbasin and reach layers were used in SWAT model; Method 2) subbasin-scale sediment delivery ratio was employed; Method 3) results obtained from the field-scale RUSLE2 model were incorporated as point source inputs to the SWAT watershed model; and Method 4) a hybrid solution combining analyses from the RUSLE2, SEDMOD, and SWAT models. Method 4 was selected as the most accurate among the studied methods. In addition, the effectiveness of six best management practices (BMPs) in terms of the water quality improvement and associated cost were assessed. Economic analysis was performed using Method 4, and producer requested prices for BMPs were compared with prices defined by the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP). On a per unit area basis, producers requested higher prices than EQIP in four out of six BMP categories. Meanwhile, the true cost of sediment reduction at the field and watershed scales was greater than EQIP in five of six BMP categories according to producer requested prices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  9. Palladium Catalysis in Horizontal-Flow Treatment Wells: Field-Scale Design and Laboratory Study

    SciTech Connect

    Munakata, N; Cunningham, J A; Reinhard, M; Ruiz, R; Lebron, C

    2002-03-01

    This paper discusses the field-scale design and associated laboratory experiments for a new groundwater remediation system that combines palladium-catalyzed hydrodehalogenation with the use of dual horizontal-flow treatment wells (HFTWs). Palladium (Pd) catalysts can treat a wide range of halogenated compounds, often completely and rapidly dehalogenating them. The HFTW system recirculates water within the treatment zone and provides the opportunity for multiple treatment passes, thereby enhancing contaminant removal. The combined Pd/HFTW system is scheduled to go on line in mid-2002 at Edwards Air Force Base in southeastern California, with groundwater contaminated with 0.5 to 1.5 mg/L of trichloroethylene (TCE). Laboratory work, performed in conjunction with the field-scale design, provided reaction rates for field-scale design and information on long-term catalyst behavior. The apparent first-order reaction rate constant for TCE was 0.43/min, corresponding to a half-life of 1.6 min. Over the long term (1 to 2 months), the reaction rate decreased, indicating catalyst deactivation. The data show three distinct deactivation rates: a slow rate of 0.03/day over approximately the first month, followed by faster deactivation at 0.16 to 0.19/day. The final, fastest deactivation (0.55/day) was attributed to an artifact of the laboratory setup, which caused unnaturally high sulfide concentrations through bacterial reduction of sulfate to sulfide, a known catalyst poison. Sodium hypochlorite recovered the catalyst activity, and is expected to maintain activity in the field with periodic pulses to regenerate the catalyst and control growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria.

  10. Estimating field scale root zone soil moisture using the cosmic-ray neutron probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, A. M.; Helgason, W. D.; Ireson, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Many practical hydrological, meteorological and agricultural management problems require estimates of soil moisture with an areal footprint equivalent to "field scale", integrated over the entire root zone. The cosmic-ray neutron probe is a promising instrument to provide field scale areal coverage, but these observations are shallow and require depth scaling in order to be considered representative of the entire root zone. A study to identify appropriate depth-scaling techniques was conducted at a grazing pasture site in central Saskatchewan, Canada over a two year period. Area-averaged soil moisture was assessed using a cosmic-ray neutron probe. Root zone soil moisture was measured at 21 locations within the 5002 m2 area, using a down-hole neutron probe. The cosmic-ray neutron probe was found to provide accurate estimates of field scale surface soil moisture, but accounted for less than 40 % of the seasonal change in root zone storage due to its shallow measurement depth. The root zone estimation methods evaluated were: (1) the coupling of the cosmic-ray neutron probe with a time stable neutron probe monitoring location, (2) coupling the cosmic-ray neutron probe with a representative landscape unit monitoring approach, and (3) convolution of the cosmic-ray neutron probe measurements with the exponential filter. The time stability method provided the best estimate of root zone soil moisture (RMSE = 0.004 cm3 cm-3), followed by the exponential filter (RMSE = 0.012 cm3 cm-3). The landscape unit approach, which required no calibration, had a negative bias but estimated the cumulative change in storage reasonably. The feasibility of applying these methods to field sites without existing instrumentation is discussed. It is concluded that the exponential filter method has the most potential for estimating root zone soil moisture from cosmic-ray neutron probe data.

  11. Estimating field-scale root zone soil moisture using the cosmic-ray neutron probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Amber M.; Helgason, Warren D.; Ireson, Andrew M.

    2016-04-01

    Many practical hydrological, meteorological, and agricultural management problems require estimates of soil moisture with an areal footprint equivalent to field scale, integrated over the entire root zone. The cosmic-ray neutron probe is a promising instrument to provide field-scale areal coverage, but these observations are shallow and require depth-scaling in order to be considered representative of the entire root zone. A study to identify appropriate depth-scaling techniques was conducted at a grazing pasture site in central Saskatchewan, Canada over a 2-year period. Area-averaged soil moisture was assessed using a cosmic-ray neutron probe. Root zone soil moisture was measured at 21 locations within the 500 m × 500 m study area, using a down-hole neutron probe. The cosmic-ray neutron probe was found to provide accurate estimates of field-scale surface soil moisture, but measurements represented less than 40 % of the seasonal change in root zone storage due to its shallow measurement depth. The root zone estimation methods evaluated were: (a) the coupling of the cosmic-ray neutron probe with a time-stable neutron probe monitoring location, (b) coupling the cosmic-ray neutron probe with a representative landscape unit monitoring approach, and (c) convolution of the cosmic-ray neutron probe measurements with the exponential filter. The time stability method provided the best estimate of root zone soil moisture (RMSE = 0.005 cm3 cm-3), followed by the exponential filter (RMSE = 0.014 cm3 cm-3). The landscape unit approach, which required no calibration, had a negative bias but estimated the cumulative change in storage reasonably. The feasibility of applying these methods to field sites without existing instrumentation is discussed. Based upon its observed performance and its minimal data requirements, it is concluded that the exponential filter method has the most potential for estimating root zone soil moisture from cosmic-ray neutron probe data.

  12. Laboratory and pilot field-scale testing of surfactants for environmental restoration of chlorinated solvent DNAPLs

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.E.; Fountain, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    This project is composed of two phases and has the objective of demonstrating surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) as a practical remediation technology at DOE sites with ground water contaminated by dense, non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), in particular, chlorinated solvents. The first phase of this project, Laboratory and Pilot Field Scale Testing, which is the subject of the work so far, involves (1) laboratory experiments to examine the solubilization of multiple component DNAPLs, e.g., solvents such as perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), by dilute surfactant solutions, and (2) a field test to demonstrate SEAR technology on a small scale and in an existing well.

  13. Field-scale effective matrix diffusion coefficient for fractured rock: results from literature survey.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Quanlin; Liu, Hui-Hai; Molz, Fred J; Zhang, Yingqi; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S

    2007-08-15

    Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solute transport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey on the effective matrix diffusion coefficient, D(m)(e), a key parameter for describing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty field tracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selected for the study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale D(m)(e) values were calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature, or by reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. The reanalysis was conducted for the selected tracer tests using analytic or semi-analytic solutions for tracer transport in linear, radial, or interwell flow fields. Surveyed data show that the scale factor of the effective matrix diffusion coefficient (defined as the ratio of D(m)(e) to the lab-scale matrix diffusion coefficient, D(m), of the same tracer) is generally larger than one, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the field is comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at the rock-core scale. This larger value can be attributed to the many mass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous, fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate, on average trend toward systematic increase in the scale factor with observation scale. This trend suggests that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely to be statistically scale-dependent. The scale-factor value ranges from 0.5 to 884 for observation scales from 5 to 2000 m. At a given scale, the scale factor varies by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differing degrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different geologic sites. In addition, the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivity generally increases with observation scale, which is consistent with previous studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusion coefficient (and dispersivity

  14. FIELD-SCALE EFFECTIVE MATRIX DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT FOR FRACTURED ROCK:RESULTS FROM LITERATURE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Q. Zhou; Hui-Hai Liu; F.J. Molz; Y. Zhang; G.S. Bodvarsson

    2005-04-08

    Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solute transport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey on the effective matrix diffusion coefficient, D{sub m}{sup e}, a key parameter for describing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty field tracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selected for the study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale D{sub m}{sup e} values were calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature or by reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed data indicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor F{sub D} (defined as the ratio of D{sub m}{sup e} to the lab-scale matrix diffusion coefficient [D{sub m}] of the same tracer) is generally larger than one, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the field is comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at the rock-core scale. This larger value can be attributed to the many mass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous, fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend toward systematic increase in the F{sub D} value with observation scale, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely to be statistically scale dependent. The F{sub D} value ranges from 1 to 10,000 for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the F{sub D} value varies by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differing degrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition, the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivity generally increases with observation scale, which is consistent with previous studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusion coefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications for assessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transport events in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal

  15. Determining the soil hydraulic conductivity by means of a field scale internal drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severino, Gerardo; Santini, Alessandro; Sommella, Angelo

    2003-03-01

    Spatial variations of water content in large extents soils (vadose zone) are highly affected by the natural heterogeneity of the porous medium. This implies that the magnitude of the hydraulic properties, especially the conductivity, varies in an irregular manner with scale. Determining mean values of hydraulic properties will not suffice to accurately quantify water flow in the vadose zone. At field scale proper field measurements have to be carried out, similar to standard laboratory methods that also characterize the spatial variability of the hydraulic properties. Toward this aim an internal drainage test has been conducted at Ponticelli site near Naples (Italy) where water content and pressure head were monitored at 50 locations of a 2×50 m 2 plot. The present paper illustrates a method to quantify the mean value and the spatial variability of the hydraulic parameters needed to calibrate the soil conductivity curve at field scale (hereafter defined as field scale hydraulic conductivity). A stochastic model that regards the hydraulic parameters as random space functions (RSFs) is derived by adopting the stream tube approach of Dagan and Bresler (1979). Owing to the randomness of the hydraulic parameters, even the water content θ will be a RSF whose mean value (hereafter termed field scale water content) is obtained as an ensemble average over all the realizations of a local analytical solution of Richards' equation. It is shown that the most frequent data collection should be carried out in the initial stage of the internal drainage experiment, when the most significant changes in water content occur. The model parameters are obtained by a standard least square optimization procedure using water content data at a certain depth (z=30 cm) for several times ( t=5, 24, 48, 96, 144, 216, 312, 408, 576, 744, 912 h). The reliability of the proposed method is then evaluated by comparing the predicted water content with observations at different depths ( z=45, 60, 75

  16. Changes in greening in the high Arctic: insights from a 30 year AVHRR max NDVI dataset for Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickers, Hannah; Arild Høgda, Kjell; Solbø, Stian; Rune Karlsen, Stein; Tømmervik, Hans; Aanes, Ronny; Hansen, Brage B.

    2016-10-01

    Satellite-aided studies of vegetation cover, biomass and productivity are becoming increasingly important for monitoring the effects of a changing climate on the biosphere. With their large spatial coverage and good temporal resolution, space-borne instruments are ideal to observe remote areas over extended time periods. However, long time series datasets with global coverage have in many cases too low spatial resolution for sparsely vegetated high latitude areas. This study has made use of a newly developed 30 year 1 km spatial resolution dataset from 1986 to 2015, provided by the NOAA AVHRR series of satellites, in order to calculate the annual maximum NDVI over parts of Svalbard (78°N). This parameter is indicative of vegetation productivity and has therefore enabled us to study long-term changes in greening within the Inner Fjord Zone on Svalbard. In addition, local meteorological data are available to link maximum NDVI values to the temporal behavior of the mean growing season (summer) temperature for the study area. Over the 30 year period, we find positive trends in both maximum NDVI (average increase of 29%) and mean summer temperature (59%), which were significantly positively correlated with each other. This suggests a temporal greening trend mediated by summer warming. However, as also recently reported for lower latitudes, the strength of the year-to-year correlation between maximum NDVI and mean summer temperature decreased, suggesting that the response of vegetation to summer warming has not remained the same over the entire study period.

  17. Statistical estimation of extreme ocean waves over the eastern Canadian shelf from 30-year numerical wave simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lanli; Sheng, Jinyu

    2015-11-01

    Reliable estimation of extreme ocean surface gravity waves is important for many scientific and practical issues. In this study, WAVEWATCHIII is used to simulate wave conditions over the eastern Canadian shelf (ECS) for the 30-year period, 1979-2008. The wave model is forced by the 6-hourly winds and ice cover taken from the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR). A parametric vortex is inserted into the CFSR winds to better represent surface winds associated with tropical storms or hurricanes. The model performance in simulating the bulk significant wave height is assessed by comparing model results with wave observations at 12 buoy stations over the ECS. The peaks-over-threshold method is used to estimate the extreme significant wave heights from 30-year wave simulations. The estimated extreme waves with the 50-year return period over the ECS feature large wave heights of more than 12 m in the offshore deep waters and about 8-12 m over the open shelf waters of the ECS. By comparison, the 50-year extreme waves are moderate and 7 m or less in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and inner Gulf of Maine.

  18. Association between Birth Interval and Cardiovascular Outcomes at 30 Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Devakumar, D.; Hallal, P. C.; Horta, B. L.; Barros, F. C.; Wells, J. C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth interval is an important and potentially modifiable factor that is associated with child health. Whether an association exists with longer-term outcomes in adults is less well known. Methods Using the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, the association of birth interval with markers of cardiovascular health at 30 years of age was examined. Multivariable linear regression was used with birth interval as a continuous variable and categorical variable, and effect modification by gender was explored. Results Birth interval and cardiovascular data were present for 2,239 individuals. With birth interval as a continuous variable, no association was found but stratification by gender tended to show stronger associations for girls. When compared to birth intervals of <18 months, as binary variable, longer intervals were associated with increases in height (1.6 cm; 95% CI: 0.5, 2.8) and lean mass (1.7 kg; 95% CI: 0.2, 3.2). No difference was seen with other cardiovascular outcomes. Conclusions An association was generally not found between birth interval and cardiovascular outcomes at 30 years of age, though some evidence existed for differences between males and females and for an association with height and lean mass for birth intervals of 18 months and longer. PMID:26890250

  19. A perspective on 30 years of progress in ambient noise: Source mechanisms and the characteristics of the sound field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cato, Douglas H.

    2012-11-01

    The last 30 years has seen substantial progress in ocean ambient noise research, particularly in understanding the mechanisms of sound generation by the sources of ambient noise, the way in which the noise field is affected by sound propagation, and improvements in quantifying the relationship between noise and environmental parameters. This has led to significant improvements in noise prediction. Activity was probably strongest in the 1980s and 1990s, as evident, for example, in the Sea Surface Sound conferences and their published proceedings (four over 10 years). Although much of the application has been to sonar, there has also been interest in using ambient noise to measure properties of the environment and in its significance to marine life. There have been significant changes in the ambient noise itself over the last 30 years. The contribution from human activities appears to have increased, particularly that due to increases in shipping numbers. Biological noise has also increased with the significant increases in populations of some whale species following the cessation of broad scale whaling in the 1960s and early 1970s. Concern about the effects of noise on marine animals as well as the way they exploit the noise has led to renewed interest in ambient noise.

  20. Airborne electromagnetics supporting salinity and natural resource management decisions at the field scale in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresswell, Richard G.; Mullen, Ian C.; Kingham, Rob; Kellett, Jim; Dent, David L.; Jones, Grant L.

    2007-05-01

    Airborne geophysics has been used at the catchment scale to map salt stores, conduits and soil variability, but few studies have evaluated its usefulness as a land management tool at the field scale. We respond to questions posed by land managers with: (1) comparison of airborne and ground-based electromagnetic surveys in the Lower Balonne catchment, Queensland, and (2) comparison with historical and anecdotal knowledge of landscape response in the country around Jamestown in mid-South Australia. In the Lower Balonne, direct comparison between ground electromagnetic survey (EM) and airborne electromagnetics (AEM) showed a strong relationship for both the absolute values and spatial patterns of conductivity. The penetration of AEM to greater than 100 m is valuable in defining hydrological barriers. In the Jamestown area, AEM conductivity corresponded well with specific outbreaks of salinity and observed variability in crop response; local inconsistencies at the ground surface could be resolved when sub-surface data were considered. AEM can provide valuable information at the field scale that is relevant to salinity management. Farmers can have confidence in any of these techniques (historical information, EM and AEM) and they may directly compare or integrate the results.

  1. Field-scale roles of density, temperature, nitrogen, and predation on aphid population dynamics.

    PubMed

    de Valpine, Perry; Rosenheim, Jay A

    2008-02-01

    Robust analyses of noisy, stage-structured, irregularly spaced, field-scale data incorporating multiple sources of variability and nonlinear dynamics remain very limited, hindering understanding of how small-scale studies relate to large-scale population dynamics. We used a novel, complementary Bayesian and frequentist state-space model analysis to ask how density, temperature, plant nitrogen, and predators affect cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii) population dynamics in weekly data from 18 field-years and whether estimated effects are consistent with small-scale studies. We found clear roles of density and temperature but not of plant nitrogen or predators, for which Bayesian and frequentist evidence differed. However, overall predictability of field-scale dynamics remained low. This study demonstrates stage-structured state-space model analysis incorporating bottom-up, top-down, and density-dependent effects for within-season (nearly continuous time), nonlinear population dynamics. The analysis combines Bayesian posterior evidence with maximum-likelihood estimation and frequentist hypothesis testing using average one-step-ahead residuals.

  2. In-situ determination of field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients: Performance, simulation and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobile, Michael; Widdowson, Mark; Stewart, Lloyd; Nyman, Jennifer; Deeb, Rula; Kavanaugh, Michael; Mercer, James; Gallagher, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Better estimates of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) mass, its persistence into the future, and the potential impact of source reduction are critical needs for determining the optimal path to clean up sites impacted by NAPLs. One impediment to constraining time estimates of source depletion is the uncertainty in the rate of mass transfer between NAPLs and groundwater. In this study, an innovative field test is demonstrated for the purpose of quantifying field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients (klN) within a source zone of a fuel-contaminated site. Initial evaluation of the test concept using a numerical model revealed that the aqueous phase concentration response to the injection of clean groundwater within a source zone was a function of NAPL mass transfer. Under rate limited conditions, NAPL dissolution together with the injection flow rate and the radial distance to monitoring points directly controlled time of travel. Concentration responses observed in the field test were consistent with the hypothetical model results allowing field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients to be quantified. Site models for groundwater flow and solute transport were systematically calibrated and utilized for data analysis. Results show klN for benzene varied from 0.022 to 0.60 d- 1. Variability in results was attributed to a highly heterogeneous horizon consisting of layered media of varying physical properties.

  3. Hydrologic and pollutant removal performance of stormwater biofiltration systems at the field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatt, Belinda E.; Fletcher, Tim D.; Deletic, Ana

    2009-02-01

    SummaryBiofiltration systems are a recommended and increasingly popular technology for stormwater management; however there is a general lack of performance data for these systems, particularly at the field scale. The objective of this study was to investigate the hydrologic and pollutant removal performance of three field-scale biofiltration systems in two different climates. Biofilters were shown to effectively attenuate peak runoff flow rates by at least 80%. Performance assessment of a lined biofilter demonstrated that retention of inflow volumes by the filter media, for subsequent loss via evapotranspiration, reduced runoff volumes by 33% on average. Retention of water was found to be most influenced by inflow volumes, although only small to medium storms could be assessed. Vegetation was shown to be important for maintaining hydraulic capacity, because root growth and senescence countered compaction and clogging. Suspended solids and heavy metals were effectively removed, irrespective of the design configuration, with load reductions generally in excess of 90%. In contrast, nutrient retention was variable, and ranged from consistent leaching to effective and reliable removal, depending on the design. To ensure effective removal of phosphorus, a filter medium with a low phosphorus content should be selected. Nitrogen is more difficult to remove because it is highly soluble and strongly influenced by the variable wetting and drying regime that is inherent in biofilter operation. The results of this research suggest that reconfiguration of biofilter design to manage the deleterious effects of drying on biological activity is necessary to ensure long term nitrogen removal.

  4. Evaluation of Ageratum conyzoides in field scale constructed wetlands (CWs) for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Tilak, A S; Wani, Suhas P; Datta, A; Patil, M D; Kaushal, M; Reddy, K R

    2017-05-01

    Ageratum conyzoides were evaluated in field scale subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CWs) to quantify its nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake and compare with wetland plants (Pistia stratiotes, Typha latifolia and Canna indica). The two-field scale subsurface flow CWs, located in the International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics, received wastewater from an urban colony. The CW1 and CW2 had the same dimensions (length:10 m, width:3 m, total depth:1.5 m and sand and gravel:1 m), similar flow rates (3 m(3)/d), hydraulic loading rates (HLRs-10 cm/d) and hydraulic retention time (HRT-5 days) from July 2014-August 2015. The vegetation in both CWs consisted of Pistia stratiotes, Typha latifolia, Canna indica, and Ageratum conyzoides, respectively. The CW1 (% reduction with respect to concentrations) reduced total suspended solids (TSS) (68%), NH4-N (26%), NO3-N (30%), soluble reactive P (SRP) (20%), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (45%) and fecal coliforms (71%), while the CW2 (%-reduction with respect to concentrations) reduced TSS (63%), NH4-N (32%), NO3-N (26%), SRP (35%), COD (39%) and fecal coliforms (70%). Ageratum conyzoides can be used in combination with Pistia stratiotes, Typha latifolia and Canna indica to enhance removal of excessive N, P and fecal coliforms from domestic wastewater.

  5. In-situ determination of field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients: Performance, simulation and analysis.

    PubMed

    Mobile, Michael; Widdowson, Mark; Stewart, Lloyd; Nyman, Jennifer; Deeb, Rula; Kavanaugh, Michael; Mercer, James; Gallagher, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Better estimates of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) mass, its persistence into the future, and the potential impact of source reduction are critical needs for determining the optimal path to clean up sites impacted by NAPLs. One impediment to constraining time estimates of source depletion is the uncertainty in the rate of mass transfer between NAPLs and groundwater. In this study, an innovative field test is demonstrated for the purpose of quantifying field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients (kl(N)) within a source zone of a fuel-contaminated site. Initial evaluation of the test concept using a numerical model revealed that the aqueous phase concentration response to the injection of clean groundwater within a source zone was a function of NAPL mass transfer. Under rate limited conditions, NAPL dissolution together with the injection flow rate and the radial distance to monitoring points directly controlled time of travel. Concentration responses observed in the field test were consistent with the hypothetical model results allowing field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients to be quantified. Site models for groundwater flow and solute transport were systematically calibrated and utilized for data analysis. Results show kl(N) for benzene varied from 0.022 to 0.60d(-1). Variability in results was attributed to a highly heterogeneous horizon consisting of layered media of varying physical properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biodiversity conservation in Swedish forests: ways forward for a 30-year-old multi-scaled approach.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Lena; Perhans, Karin

    2010-12-01

    A multi-scaled model for biodiversity conservation in forests was introduced in Sweden 30 years ago, which makes it a pioneer example of an integrated ecosystem approach. Trees are set aside for biodiversity purposes at multiple scale levels varying from individual trees to areas of thousands of hectares, with landowner responsibility at the lowest level and with increasing state involvement at higher levels. Ecological theory supports the multi-scaled approach, and retention efforts at every harvest occasion stimulate landowners' interest in conservation. We argue that the model has large advantages but that in a future with intensified forestry and global warming, development based on more progressive thinking is necessary to maintain and increase biodiversity. Suggestions for the future include joint planning for several forest owners, consideration of cost-effectiveness, accepting opportunistic work models, adjusting retention levels to stand and landscape composition, introduction of temporary reserves, creation of "receiver habitats" for species escaping climate change, and protection of young forests.

  7. Suggestive eyewitness identification procedures and the Supreme Court's reliability test in light of eyewitness science: 30 years later.

    PubMed

    Wells, Gary L; Quinlivan, Deah S

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court's ruling concerning suggestive eyewitness identification procedures (Manson v. Braithwaite, 1977, 432 U.S. 98) has not been revisited by the Court in the intervening 30+ years. Meanwhile, scientific studies of eyewitnesses have progressed and DNA exonerations show that mistaken identification is the primary cause of convictions of the innocent. We analyzed the two-inquiry logic in Manson in light of eyewitness science. Several problems are discussed. Ironically, we note that suggestive identification procedures (determined in the first inquiry) boost the eyewitnesses' standing on three of the five criteria (used in the second inquiry) that are used to decide whether the suggestive procedures were a problem. The net effect undermines safeguards intended by the Court and destroys incentives to avoid suggestive procedures.

  8. Factors controlling peat chemistry and vegetation composition in Sudbury peatlands after 30 years of pollution emission reductions.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Sophie E; Watmough, Shaun A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this research was to assess factors controlling peat and plant chemistry, and vegetation composition in 18 peatlands surrounding Sudbury after more than 30 years of large (>95%) pollution emission reductions. Sites closer to the main Copper Cliff smelter had more humified peat and the surface horizons were greatly enriched in copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni). Copper and Ni concentrations in peat were significantly correlated with that in the plant tissue of Chamaedaphne calyculata. The pH of peat was the strongest determining factor for species richness, diversity, and community composition, although percent vascular plant cover was strongly negatively correlated with surface Cu and Ni concentrations in peat. Sphagnum frequency was also negatively related to peat Cu and Ni concentrations indicating sites close to Copper Cliff smelter remain adversely impacted by industrial activities.

  9. [Antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children and adolescents: lessons learned in 30 years of the epidemic].

    PubMed

    Bazin, Gabriela Ricordi; Gaspar, Mariza Curto Saavedra; Silva, Nicole Carvalho Xavier Micheloni da; Mendes, Carolina da Costa; Oliveira, Cora Pichler de; Bastos, Leonardo Soares; Cardoso, Claudete Aparecida Araújo

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate antiretroviral therapy in children and adolescents with AIDS. We selected 247 abstracts published from 1983 to 2013, collected from the PubMed and LILACS databases. Sixty-nine articles were selected. Attention to research in the pediatric age bracket in 30 years of the epidemic is explained by the age group's immunological characteristics, since AIDS progresses faster in children than in adults. Recent studies focus on the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy before the onset of symptoms. Early introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy has been implemented effectively and safely in populations with limited resources, leading to significantly improved survival. The current challenge is to manage a chronic disease with acute complications. New studies should focus on population specificities and identify the individual needs of pediatric patients.

  10. Effect size and power in assessing moderating effects of categorical variables using multiple regression: a 30-year review.

    PubMed

    Aguinis, Herman; Beaty, James C; Boik, Robert J; Pierce, Charles A

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted a 30-year review (1969-1998) of the size of moderating effects of categorical variables as assessed using multiple regression. The median observed effect size (f(2)) is only .002, but 72% of the moderator tests reviewed had power of .80 or greater to detect a targeted effect conventionally defined as small. Results suggest the need to minimize the influence of artifacts that produce a downward bias in the observed effect size and put into question the use of conventional definitions of moderating effect sizes. As long as an effect has a meaningful impact, the authors advise researchers to conduct a power analysis and plan future research designs on the basis of smaller and more realistic targeted effect sizes.

  11. Is there a need for conservative surgery in DDH adult patients? Lessons learned after 30 years experience.

    PubMed

    Flecher, X; Aubaniac, J M; Parratte, S; Argenson, J N

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to set out our thirty-year experience in conservative surgical management of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in the young adult, using either periacetabular or intertrochanteric osteotomies. All the patients have the same radiographic assessment which allows evaluating the lateral center edge angle, the obliquity of the acetabular roof by the HTE and the anterior centre edge angle. According to the Hip Study Group classification, hips were classified as average DDH when VCE and VCA are between 25 degrees and 21 degrees, severe between 20 degrees and 5 degrees and extreme below 5 degrees. The study of the articular congruency is conducted through the surgical profile evaluating the S/FH ratio (S=projected acetabulum surface, FH=1/2 projected femoral head surface) and recentring radiographs by abduction. The presence of osteoarthritis is evaluated according to Tonnis. An additional CT-scan with intraarticular injection may actually be realized. No hip arthroscopy was performed. Several original modifications have been realized, including a single intrapelvian approach allowing all the cuts and a modification of the ischial cut ("2/3 PAO") in order to leave the posterior horn attached to the ischium when the S/FH ratio is below 3/4. The femoral posterior head coverage is then not modified whereas the periacetabular fragment is moved anteriorly. In our experience, PAO is an effective procedure for patients under 30 years of age without intraarticular damage and with average or severe DDH, to avoid a total hip arthroplasty in the future. For patients over 30 years old with a beginning of osteoarthritis or extreme DDH, it seems reasonable to avoid a major operation and maybe to consider less invasive techniques to delay a total hip arthroplasty.

  12. Air quality in the megacity of São Paulo: Evolution over the last 30 years and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Kumar, Prashant; de Freitas, Edmilson Dias; Ynoue, Rita Yuri; Martins, Jorge; Martins, Leila D.; Nogueira, Thiago; Perez-Martinez, Pedro; de Miranda, Regina Maura; Albuquerque, Taciana; Gonçalves, Fabio Luiz Teixeira; Oyama, Beatriz; Zhang, Yang

    2017-06-01

    We present a comprehensive review of published results from the last 30 years regarding the sources and atmospheric characteristics of particles and ozone in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP). During the last 30 years, many efforts have been made to describe the emissions sources and to analyse the primary and secondary formation of pollutants under a process of increasing urbanisation in the metropolitan area. From the occurrence of frequent violations of air quality standards in the 1970s and 1980s (due to the uncontrolled air pollution sources) to a substantial decrease in the concentrations of the primary pollutants, many regulations have been imposed and enforced, although those concentrations do not yet conform to the World Health Organization guidelines. The greatest challenge currently faced by the São Paulo State Environmental Protection Agency and the local community is controlling secondary pollutants such as ozone and fine particles. Understanding the formation of these secondary pollutants, by experimental or modelling approaches, requires the description of the atmospheric chemical processes driven by biofuel, ethanol and biodiesel emissions. Exposure to air pollution is the cause of many injuries to human health, according to many studies performed not only in the region but also worldwide, and affects susceptible populations such as children and the elderly. The MASP is the biggest megacity in the Southern Hemisphere, and its specifics are important for other urban areas that are facing the challenge of intensive growth that puts pressure on natural resources and worsens the living conditions in urban areas. This text discusses how imposing regulations on air quality and emission sources, mainly related to the transportation sector, has affected the evolution of pollutant concentrations in the MASP.

  13. Associations of Linear Growth and Relative Weight Gain in Early Life with Human Capital at 30 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Victora, Cesar G; de Mola, Christian Loret; Quevedo, Luciana; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Gigante, Denise P; Motta, Janaina Vieira Dos Santos; Barros, Fernando C

    2017-03-01

    To assess the associations of birthweight, nutritional status and growth in childhood with IQ, years of schooling, and monthly income at 30 years of age. In 1982, the 5 maternity hospitals in Pelotas, Brazil, were visited daily and 5914 live births were identified. At 30 years of age, 3701 subjects were interviewed. IQ, years of schooling, and income were measured. On average, their IQ was 98 points, they had 11.4 years of schooling, and the mean income was 1593 reais. After controlling for several confounders, birthweight and attained weight and length/height for age at 2 and 4 years of age were associated positively with IQ, years of years of schooling, and income, except for the association between length at 2 years of age and income. Conditional growth analyses were used to disentangle linear growth from relative weight gain. Conditional length at 2 years of age ≥1 SD score above the expected value, compared with ≥1 SD below the expected, was associated with an increase in IQ (4.28 points; 95% CI, 2.66-5.90), years of schooling (1.58 years; 95% CI, 1.08-2.08), and monthly income (303 Brazilian reais; 95% CI, 44-563). Relative weight gain, above what would be expected from linear growth, was not associated with the outcomes. In a middle-income setting, promotion of linear growth in the first 1000 days of life is likely to increase adult IQ, years of schooling, and income. Weight gain in excess of what is expected from linear growth does not seem to improve human capital. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evolution of induction chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer over the last 30 years: A surgical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, Elizabeth; Rivera, Caroline; Mordant, Pierre; Gibault, Laure; Dujon, Antoine; Foucault, Christophe; Le Pimpec-Barthes, Françoise; Riquet, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background Induction chemotherapy (ICT) is supposed to reduce the risk of micrometastatic progression and improve resectability of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, best indications for ICT strategy remain unclear in published meta-analyses. Based on this observation, an evaluation of daily practice is of importance. Therefore, we reviewed indications and efficacy time trends in our 30-year series. Methods A database including all patients with NSCLC who underwent surgical resection in two French centers from 1980 to 2009 (n = 5563) was prospectively set and retrospectively reviewed. The indications, clinical and pathologic response rates, and overall survival of ICT patients (n = 732) were analyzed during three successive time-periods: P1 from 1980 to 1989, P2 from 1990 to 1999, and P3 from 2000 to 2009. Results The proportion of patients who benefited from ICT increased over time, from 2.8% (n = 35) in P1 to 12.5% (n = 274) in P2, and 20.2% (n = 423) in P3. Indications evolved over time with more N2 patients (n = 211; 49.8%) and less initially unresectable patients (n = 72; 17%) in P3. The clinical response rate between P1 and P2 increased. Five and 10-year survival rates of ICT patients were 35.2% and 21.5%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, time-period, age, type of resection, histology, and pathologic response to chemotherapy were significant prognostic factors. Conclusions Our report on the off-trial use of induction therapy during the last 30 years demonstrates an increased use of ICT, a progressive focus on N2 disease, and improved response rates. PMID:26557911

  15. Detection of macropore flow at field scales using electrical resistivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moysey, S. M.

    2008-12-01

    Even though macropores make up a very small portion of the pore space in a soil, their high connectivity allows them to carry large fluxes of flow to the subsurface. As a result, macropores can be a critical factor in determining groundwater recharge and contaminant transport. Despite their importance, there is a lack of field-scale methodologies for detecting the existence and activation of macropores in watersheds. The connectivity that makes macropores good conductors of fluid flow suggests that they may also be good conductors of electrical current when filled with water and could therefore be monitored using electrical resistivity measurements. To test this hypothesis and evaluate whether the resulting electrical response could be detected with field-scale dipole-dipole resistivity measurements this work combines hydrologically- driven equivalent medium models with anisotropic 3D numerical models of electrical current flow. The equivalent medium models are based on a dual-domain concept where the bulk electrical conductivity of the soil matrix is governed by water content and pore-water solute concentration, whereas macropore conductivity is directly related to the solute concentration of the filling fluid. Therefore, vertical and horizontal electrically conductivity values have dynamic responses depending on the soil saturation characteristics, evaporation and precipitation history, and activation of macropore flow. The resulting equivalent bulk electrical conductivity for the dual-domain is then used in a numerical model to determine the apparent resistivity response for a dipole-dipole array located on the ground surface. For conditions typical of watersheds near Clemson, i.e., runoff TDS values of about 50mg/L, the results of the model indicate that apparent resistivity measurements drop by 40% when macroporosity represents only 0.5% of the sample volume and by 80% when macroporosity is increased to 5% of the sample volume. This result represents the

  16. Field-Scale Inhibition and Recovery of Atmospheric-Methane Oxidation in Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroth, M. H.; Dax, A.; Genter, F.; Henneberger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Aerobic methane (CH4) oxidation in upland soils is the only known terrestrial sink for atmospheric CH4. It is mediated by methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) that possess a high-affinity form of the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO), allowing utilization of CH4 at near-atmospheric, low concentrations (≤ 1.9 µL/L). As cultivation attempts for high-affinity MOB have shown little success to date, there remains much speculation regarding their functioning in different environmental systems. For quantification of microbial functions at the field scale, inhibition experiments are often used as a control and to verify that observed substrate turnover is microbially mediated. Targeting MMO, several compounds have been proposed as inhibitors of CH4 oxidation. However, previous inhibition experiments were mostly conducted in systems dominated by low-affinity MOB, which mediate CH4 oxidation at elevated CH4 concentrations. On the contrary, inhibition experiments targeting high-affinity MOB are scare, particularly at the field scale. We present results of field-scale experiments to investigate effectiveness of and recovery from inhibition of atmospheric CH4 oxidation using the competitive inhibitors CH3F and CH2F2, as well as the non-competitive inhibitor C2H2. The latter is of particular interest, because C2H2 irreversibly binds to MMO, requiring de-novo synthesis of MMO for recovery of CH4 oxidation activity. Experiments were conducted during both winter and summer seasons in a sandy soil. Atmospheric CH4 oxidation was quantified in regular intervals at reference and treatment locations using the soil-profile method with concurrent measurements of soil-water contents and -temperature. Whereas C2H2 inhibition was highly effective in both seasons, the time required for recovery to the level of the reference location was much shorter during the summer experiment (~1 mo compared with 4 mo during winter). Our data provide new insights into the physiology of high-affinity MOB.

  17. The Effect of Fluid Properties on Field-Scale Anion Transport During Intermittent Unsaturated Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, A.; Gee, G. W.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2001-12-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments suggest that the properties of hypersaline fluids may influence transport behavior, to extent of finger formation, though an interaction between fluid and hydraulic properties. Yet, the importance of these mechanisms to field-scale transport is largely unknown, thereby limiting the accuracy of contaminant transport predictions. To assess the importance of these interactions in field-scale solute transport, tank leaks were simulated by performing a series of injections, using solute-free and hypersaline waters, in two consecutive years. Starting in May 2000, five 4000-L injections of Columbia River water were made with no-flow periods occurring every 3-5 days. The third injection contained 1000 ppm of Br- and a suite of isotopic tracers. In May 2001, the experiment was repeated with five 4000-L injections of saturated sodium thiosulfate containing 2500 ppm of Cl- with no-flow periods occurring every 3-5 days. Water content distributions were measured by neutron probe in 32 wells (18 m deep) arranged in a concentric pattern extending to 16 m in diameter. Water extracts from soil cores were analyzed for anions including Fl-, Cl-, Br-, NO3{-}, PO42-, SO42-, and S2O32-. Differences in the location of the wetting and solute fronts were apparent with the magnitude dependent on fluid constitution. Resident concentration profiles were generally asymmetric with a large mass occurring at 5-7 m, and a smaller mass at 10-12 m. Fine-textured layers at 6 and 11 m caused a substantial increase in lateral solute convection and confined longitudinal spreading to 12 m, except at one location where solute was detected at 16 m. The locations of multiple peaks were coincident with the finer-textured lenses, emphasizing the need to consider local-scale textural discontinuities in conceptual models of field-scale transport at the Hanford Site. Results show no evidence of fingering due to fluid properties. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated for

  18. Precipitation Climate Data Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. R.; Prat, O.; Vasquez, L.

    2015-12-01

    Five precipitation CDRs are now or soon will be transitioned to NOAA's CDR program. These include the PERSIANN data set, which is a 30-year record of daily adjusted global precipitation based on retrievals from satellite microwave data using artificial neural networks. The AMSU-A/B/Hydrobundle is an 11-year record of precipitable water, cloud water, ice water, and other variables. CMORPH (the NOAA Climate Prediction Center Morphing Technique) is a 17-year record of daily and sub-daily adjusted global precipitation measured from passive microwave and infrared data at high spatial and temporal resolution. GPCP (the Global Precipitation Climatology Project) is an approximately 30-year record of monthly and pentad adjusted global precipitation and a 17-year record of daily adjusted global precipitation. The NEXRAD Reanalysis is a 10-year record of high resolution NEXRAD radar based adjusted CONUS-wide hourly and daily precipitation. This study provides an assessment of the existing and transitioned long term precipitation CDRs and includes the verification of the five precipitation CDRs using various methods including comparison with in-situ data sets and trend analysis. As all of the precipitation related CDRs are transitioned, long term analyses can be performed. Comparisons at varying scales (hourly, daily and longer) of the precipitation CDRs with in-situ data sets are provided as well as a first look at what could be an ensemble long term precipitation data record.

  19. Inverse modeling for field-scale hydrologic and transport parameters of fractured basalt

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, S.O.

    1995-12-01

    A large-scale test of infiltration into a thick sequence Of fractured Snake River Plain basalts was performed during the summer of 1994 on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Monitoring of moisture and tracer movement during this test provided a set of quantitative measurements from which to obtain a field-scale hydrologic description of the fractured basalts. An inverse modeling study using these quantitative measurements was performed to obtain the representative hydrologic description. This report describes the results of the inverse modeling study and includes the background and motivation for conducting the infiltration test; a brief overview of the infiltration test; descriptions of the calibration targets chosen for the simulation study, the simulation model, and the model implementation; and the simulation results with comparisons to hydrologic and tracer breakthrough data obtained from the infiltration test.

  20. 300 Area Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFRC) Field Site Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, Mark D.

    2008-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has established the 300 Area Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (300 Area IFRC) on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) within the Office of Science. The project is funded by the Environmental Remediation Sciences Division (ERSD). The purpose of the project is to conduct research at the 300 IFRC to investigate multi-scale mass transfer processes associated with a subsurface uranium plume impacting both the vadose zone and groundwater. The management approach for the 300 Area IFRC requires that a Field Site Management Plan be developed. This is an update of the plan to reflect the installation of the well network and other changes.

  1. Simulation of unsaturated flow and nonreactive solute transport in a heterogeneous soil at the field scale

    SciTech Connect

    Rockhold, M L

    1993-02-01

    A field-scale, unsaturated flow and solute transport experiment at the Las Cruces trench site in New Mexico was simulated as part of a blind'' modeling exercise to demonstrate the ability or inability of uncalibrated models to predict unsaturated flow and solute transport in spatially variable porous media. Simulations were conducted using a recently developed multiphase flow and transport simulator. Uniform and heterogeneous soil models were tested, and data from a previous experiment at the site were used with an inverse procedure to estimate water retention parameters. A spatial moment analysis was used to provide a quantitative basis for comparing the mean observed and simulated flow and transport behavior. The results of this study suggest that defensible predictions of waste migration and fate at low-level waste sites will ultimately require site-specific data for model calibration.

  2. Investigation of flow and solute transport at the field scale through heterogeneous deformable porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ching-Min; Yeh, Hund-Der

    2016-09-01

    This work describes an investigation of the spatial statistical structure of specific discharge field and solute transport process of a nonreactive solute at the field scale through a heterogeneous deformable porous medium. The flow field is driven by a vertical gradient in the excess pore water pressure induced by a step increase in load applied on the upper part of a finite-thickness aquifer. The non-stationary spectral representation is adopted to characterize the spatial covariance of the specific discharge field necessary for the development of the solute particle trajectory statistics using the Lagrangian formalism. We show that the statistics of the specific discharge and particle trajectory derived herein are non-stationary and functions of the coefficient of soil compressibility, μ. The effect of μ on the relative variation of specific discharge and the solute particle trajectory statistics are analyzed upon evaluating our expressions.

  3. Field scale fluxes and uncertainties of CO2 and energy from a managed pasture in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Robert; Hill, Tim; Chocholek, Mel; Blei, Emanuel; Williams, Mat

    2016-04-01

    A field campaign of eddy covariance measurements was conducted to determine the field scale trace gas and energy exchanges of a representative managed pasture in south west Scotland. To better fit the parent projects goal of multi-scale uncertainty, multiply flux systems were deployed in an attempt to quantify temporal and spatial variability of fluxes from a quasi-uniform site. We briefly discuss the hurdles encountered when synthesizing multiple measurement systems into a coherent dataset and reflect on what this analysis would imply when interpreting singular flux datasets. Data from the campaign provide information on flux estimates with run specific uncertainties over a complete harvest cycle of the pasture. Initial estimates suggest a net uptake of 2 micromol m-2 sec-1 over the 6 week period between harvests. Uncertainties of this estimate and the environmental dependence of uncertainties of half hour estimates will also be presented.

  4. Are female monarch butterflies declining in eastern North America? Evidence of a 30-year change in sex ratios at Mexican overwintering sites.

    PubMed

    Davis, Andrew K; Rendón-Salinas, Eduardo

    2010-02-23

    Every autumn the entire eastern North American population of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergoes a spectacular migration to overwintering sites in the mountains of central Mexico, where they form massive clusters and can number in the millions. Since their discovery, these sites have been extensively studied, and in many of these studies, monarchs were captured and sexes recorded. In a recent effort to compile the sex ratio data from these published records, a surprising trend was found, which appears to show a gradual decline in proportion of females over time. Sex ratio data from 14 collections of monarchs, all spanning 30 years and totaling 69 113 individuals, showed a significant negative correlation between proportion of females and year (r = -0.69, p = 0.007). Between 1976 and 1985, 53 per cent of overwintering monarchs were female, whereas in the last decade, 43 per cent were female. The relationship was significant with and without weighting the analyses by sampling effort. Moreover, analysis of a recent three-year dataset of sex ratios revealed no variation among nine separate colonies, so differences in sampling location did not influence the trend. Additional evidence from autumn migration collections appears to confirm that proportions of females are declining, and also suggests the sex ratio is shifting on breeding grounds. While breeding monarchs face a number of threats, one possibility is an increase in prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, which recent evidence shows affects females more so than males. Further study will be needed to determine the exact cause of this trend, but for now it should be monitored closely.

  5. Are female monarch butterflies declining in eastern North America? Evidence of a 30-year change in sex ratios at Mexican overwintering sites

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Andrew K.; Rendón-Salinas, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Every autumn the entire eastern North American population of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergoes a spectacular migration to overwintering sites in the mountains of central Mexico, where they form massive clusters and can number in the millions. Since their discovery, these sites have been extensively studied, and in many of these studies, monarchs were captured and sexes recorded. In a recent effort to compile the sex ratio data from these published records, a surprising trend was found, which appears to show a gradual decline in proportion of females over time. Sex ratio data from 14 collections of monarchs, all spanning 30 years and totaling 69 113 individuals, showed a significant negative correlation between proportion of females and year (r = −0.69, p = 0.007). Between 1976 and 1985, 53 per cent of overwintering monarchs were female, whereas in the last decade, 43 per cent were female. The relationship was significant with and without weighting the analyses by sampling effort. Moreover, analysis of a recent three-year dataset of sex ratios revealed no variation among nine separate colonies, so differences in sampling location did not influence the trend. Additional evidence from autumn migration collections appears to confirm that proportions of females are declining, and also suggests the sex ratio is shifting on breeding grounds. While breeding monarchs face a number of threats, one possibility is an increase in prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, which recent evidence shows affects females more so than males. Further study will be needed to determine the exact cause of this trend, but for now it should be monitored closely. PMID:19776062

  6. Aeration of the teuftal landfill: Field scale concept and lab scale simulation.

    PubMed

    Ritzkowski, Marco; Walker, Beat; Kuchta, Kerstin; Raga, Roberto; Stegmann, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Long lasting post-closure care (PCC) is often the major financial burden for operators of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. Beside costs for the installation and maintenance of technical equipment and barriers, in particular long term treatment of leachate and landfill gas has to be paid from capital surplus. Estimations based on laboratory experiments project time periods of many decades until leachate quality allows for direct discharge (i.e. no need for further purification). Projections based on leachate samples derived from the last 37years for 35 German landfills confirm these assumption. Moreover, the data illustrate that in particular ammonium nitrogen concentrations are likely to fall below limit values only after a period of 300years. In order to avoid long lasting PCC the operator of Teuftal landfill, located in the Swiss canton Bern, decided to biologically stabilize the landfill by means of a combined in situ aeration and moisturization approach. In December 2014 the aeration started at a landfill section containing approximately 30% of the total landfill volume. From summer 2016 onwards the remaining part of the landfill will be aerated. Landfill aeration through horizontal gas and leachate drains is carried out for the first time in field scale in Europe. The technical concept is described in the paper. Parallel to field scale aeration, investigations for the carbon and nitrogen turnover are carried out by means of both simulated aerated landfills and simulated anaerobic landfills. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that aeration is capable to enhance, both carbon mobilization and discharge via the gas phase. This effect comes along with a significant increase in bio-stabilization of the waste organic fraction, which positively affects the landfill emission behavior in the long run. In terms of leachate pollution reduction it could be demonstrated that the organic load decrease fast and widely independent of the adjusted aeration

  7. Field-scale modeling of subsurface tile-drained soils using an equivalent-medium approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlier, Jean Philippe; Kao, Cyril; Ginzburg, Irina

    2007-07-01

    SummaryResearch conducted for the last 35 years has shown that subsurface drainage has a significant impact on hydrology and contaminant transport. This can be observed at the field-scale and also at the watershed scale. Impacts are always associated with modifying otherwise natural flow paths. Most computer model representations of drainage have been drawn at the field-scale. These models require relatively precise data that are usually unavailable when simulating hydrology and water quality in large watersheds. We believe that in this case drainage representation should be simplified and yet closely match observations. As a first step towards incorporating drainage systems into large-scale hydrological models, we propose an equivalent representation of drains buried in a soil profile by using a homogeneous anisotropic porous medium without drains. This representation is based on a "self-consistent" approach and on geometrical considerations. Simplification is such that calculating the equivalent hydraulic conductivity requires only information on the main length and spacing of the tile drains and not on their precise location. This approach also provides a much simpler discretisation of the domain because of the absence of internal boundary conditions on the drainage pipes. Compared to other methods that have simplified drainage representation in existing watershed models, it requires no parameter fitting. Two alternatives to the method are presented: in the first one, the soil profile equipped with the actual drain pipes is represented by an equivalent, horizontally layered system with no pipes; in the second, the layered system has been replaced with an equivalent homogeneous profile. The efficiency of these approaches was tested against a classical representation of tile drains using the SWMS 3D code, which solves the Richards equation for a typical drained plot configuration. The equivalent-medium approach appears to give satisfying results for global water

  8. Assessing field-scale migration of mobile radionuclides at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Rose, T P; Smith, D K; Moran, J E; Zavarin, M

    2006-09-26

    Numerous long-lived radionuclides, including {sup 99}Tc (technetium) and {sup 129}I (iodine), are present in groundwater at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a result of 828 underground nuclear weapons tests conducted between 1951 and 1992. We synthesize a body of groundwater data collected on the distribution of a number of radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I), which are presumably mobile in the subsurface and potentially toxic to down-gradient receptors, to assess their migration at NTS, at field scales over distances of hundreds of meters and for durations of more than thirty years. Qualitative evaluation of field-scale migration of these radionuclides in the saturated zone provides an independent approach to validating their presumably conservative transport in the performance assessment of the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, which is located on the western edge of NTS. The analyses show that the interaction of {sup 3}H with a solid surface via an isotopic exchange with clay lattice hydroxyls may cause a slight delay in the transport of {sup 3}H. The transport of {sup 14}C could be retarded by its isotopic exchange with carbonate minerals, and the exchange may be more pronounced in the alluvial aquifer. In particular, {sup 99}Tc may not necessarily exist as a mobile and conservative species {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}, as commonly assumed for NTS groundwater. This is corroborated with recent in situ redox potential measurements, both across and near Yucca Mountain, showing that groundwater at multiple locations is not oxidizing. Speciation of iodine and its associated reactivity and mobility is also complex in the groundwater at the NTS and deserves further attention. The assumption of no retardation for the transport of {sup 99}Tc (especially) and {sup 129}I, used at the performance assessment of Yucca Mountain repository, is probably overly conservative and results in unrealistically high estimated doses for

  9. Testing the Addition of Topographic Features for Field Scale Infiltration Excess Water Quality Modeling in SWAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collick, A.; Easton, Z. M.; Kleinman, P. J. A.; Sommerlot, A.; White, M. J.; Harmel, D.; Fuka, D.

    2014-12-01

    Watershed planners and managers need reliable tools that can capture the spatial and temporal complexity of agricultural landscapes, and water quality models are increasingly relied upon to represent P loss from agricultural watersheds. While a significant amount of modeling work has attempted to incorporate factors controlling P loss (e.g. representing solubility, manure types, timing and application type), these models still typically require significant calibration and are thus difficult to apply meaningfully in areas without copious data with which to calibrate. This is partially because these models were never really intended as field scale tools, while we are trying to use them to define different hydrologic pathways, area weighted potential energy (slopes and saturated conductivities), and the resulting lag time of P in different transport states. The movement of water within the landscape as surface (or near-surface) storm runoff and interflow is driven by gravity, topography, contributing area and soil and landuse characteristics, which play roles in concentrating water flows. Soil surveys have played a key role in the development of pedology and spatially derived pedon soil maps have become valuable datasets for natural resource management. Unfortunately, the soil surveys, commonly available at ~1:20,000 scale, are not designed to provide the high-resolution models of the soil continuum required in field scale environmental modeling applications and site specific crop and water quality management. The goal of this project is to test a methodology designed initially for representing saturation excess hydrology in the SWAT model to incorporate topographic attributes, and resulting spatially explicit soil morphology, that are missing from standard SWAT model initializations.

  10. Field-scale infiltration dynamics inferred from continuous gravity monitoring during sprinkling experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, M.; Guntner, A.; Mikolaj, M.; Blume, T.; Schröder, S.

    2016-12-01

    Continuous gravity monitoring allows for direct observation of mass changes associated with hydrological flow processes in the subsurface at the field scale. The integral nature of the observed quantity, however, may hinder the accurate attribution of the location of the observed hydrological masses. This study explores the capabilities of a superconducting gravimeter (iGrav) for observing field-scale infiltration dynamics and for estimating governing hydraulic parameters under controlled conditions. For this purpose, a sprinkling experiment was set up at a grassland site, using 8 sprinklers arranged symmetrically in the close vicinity of the iGrav. The instrument itself was placed on a pillar at 80cm above the terrain surface in a small field enclosure with a footprint of less than one square meter to increase its sensitivity for water storage in its direct surroundings. Three sprinkling experiments, covering a range of antecedent hydrological conditions, were carried out for 6 hours each with intensities of about 10 to 15 mm/hour, leading to gravity variations in the order of 20 nm/s². Complementary observations resulted from vertical profiles of soil moisture sensors, additional near-surface soil moisture sensors, tipping buckets and sprinkling intensity measurements. To further constrain the vertical moisture distribution in time, time-lapse electric resistivity tomography (ERT) was employed with two profiles crossing the sprinkling area and one outside as a reference profile. With a combined hydrological and gravitational model, different infiltration scenarios are simulated and compared to the observed gravity change. The best fit scenario is then validated with the ERT derived images of the advancing wetting front. The results show that continuous high-precision gravity monitoring in the field in combination with a simple sprinkling experiment and ERT can contribute important knowledge to water infiltration characteristics and improve soil parameter

  11. Field-scale forward modelling of a shallow marine carbonate ramp: the Upper Jurassic Arab Formation (onshore Abu Dhabi - UAE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchionda, Elisabetta; Deschamps, Rémy; Nader, Fadi H.; Ceriani, Andrea; Di Giulio, Andrea; Lawrence, David; Morad, Daniel J.

    2017-04-01

    The stratigraphic record of a carbonate system is the result of the interplay of several local and global factors that control the physical and the biological responses within a basin. Conceptual models cannot be detailed enough to take into account all the processes that control the deposition of sediments. The evaluation of the key controlling parameters on the sedimentation can be investigated with the use of stratigraphic forward models, that permit dynamic and quantitative simulations of the sedimentary basin infill. This work focuses on an onshore Abu Dhabi field (UAE) and it aims to provide a complete picture of the stratigraphic evolution of Upper Jurassic Arab Formation (Fm.). In this study, we started with the definition of the field-scale conceptual depositional model of the Formation, resulting from facies and well log analysis based on five wells. The Arab Fm. could be defined as a shallow marine carbonate ramp, that ranges from outer ramp deposits to supratidal/evaporitic facies association (from bottom to top). With the reconstruction of the sequence stratigraphic pattern and several paleofacies maps, it was possible to suggest multiple directions of progradations at local scale. Then, a 3D forward modelling tool has been used to i) identify and quantify the controlling parameters on geometries and facies distribution of the Arab Fm.; ii) predict the stratigraphic architecture of the Arab Fm.; and iii) integrate and validate the conceptual model. Numerous constraints were set during the different simulations and sensitivity analyses were performed testing the carbonate production, eustatic oscillations and transport parameters. To verify the geological consistency the 3D forward modelling has been calibrated with the available control points (five wells) in terms of thickness and facies distribution.

  12. Genotype diversity and molecular evolution of noroviruses: A 30-year (1982-2011) comprehensive study with children from Northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Jones Anderson Monteiro; Bandeira, Renato da Silva; Oliveira, Darleise de Souza; Dos Santos, Liann Filiphe Pereira; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol

    2017-01-01

    A chronologically comprehensive 30-year study was conducted that involved children living in Belém, in the Amazon region of Northern Brazil, who participated in eight different studies from October 1982 to April 2011. The children were followed either in the community or in health units and hospitals in order to identify the norovirus genotypes involved in infections during this time. A total of 2,520 fecal specimens were obtained and subjected to RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing for regions A, B, C, D and P2 of the viral genome. An overall positivity of 16.9% (n = 426) was observed, and 49% of the positive samples were genotyped (208/426), evidencing the presence of several genotypes as follows: Polymerase gene (GI.P4, GII.Pa, GII.Pc, GII.Pe, GII.Pg, GII.Pj, GII.P3, GII.P4, GII.P6, GII.P7, GII.P8, GII.P12, GII.P13, GII.P14, GII.P21, GII.P22), and VP1 gene (GI.3, GI.7, GII.1, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, GII.7, GII.8, GII.10, GII.12, GII.14, GII.17, GII.23). The GII.P4/GII.4 genotype determined by both open reading frames (ORFs) (partial polymerase and VP1 genes) was found for 83 samples, and analyses of the subdomain P2 region showed 10 different variants: CHDC (1970s), Tokyo (1980s), Bristol_1993, US_95/96, Kaiso_2003, Asia_2003, Hunter_2004, Yerseke_2006a, Den Haag_2006b (subcluster "O") and New Orleans_2009. Recombination events were confirmed in 47.6% (n = 20) of the 42 samples with divergent genotyping by ORF1 and ORF2 and with probable different breakpoints within the viral genome. The evolutionary analyses estimated a rate of evolution of 1.02 x 10-2 and 9.05 x 10-3 subs./site/year using regions C and D from the VP1 gene, respectively. The present research shows the broad genetic diversity of the norovirus that infected children for 30 years in Belém. These findings contribute to our understanding of noroviruses molecular epidemiology and viral evolution and provide a baseline for vaccine design.

  13. The Sea of Japan and Its Unique Chemistry Revealed by Time-Series Observations over the Last 30 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamo, T.; Nakayama, N.; Takahata, N.; Sano, Y.; Zhang, J.; Yamazaki, E.; Taniyasu, S.; Yamashita, N.

    2014-02-01

    Chemical tracers in seawater, as well as physical parameters such as temperature and salinity, have been measured to better characterize the dynamics of water convection and its spatiotemporal changes in the Sea of Japan (also called the Japan Sea), a semi-closed, hyperoxic marginal sea (maximum depth: ˜3,800 m) in the northwestern corner of the Pacific Ocean. Repeated conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) observations and measurements of dissolved oxygen, for more than 30 years, have confirmed that the bottom layer of the Japan Sea, with a thickness of ˜1 km below the boundary at a depth of ˜2,500 m, is characterized by vertical homogeneity with fluctuations of potential temperature and dissolved oxygen of <0.001°C and <0.5 μmol kg-1, respectively. The timescale of the abyssal circulation in the Japan Sea has been estimated to be 100-300 years, using 14C and other chemical tracers. Stable isotope analyses for dissolved He, O2 and CH4 have given us information on their unique geochemical cycles in the Japan Sea. Profiles of the short-lived radioisotope 222Rn just above the sea bottom have brought new insights into the short-term lateral water movement with a timescale of several days in the Japan Sea bottom water. It is of special concern that the gradual deoxygenation and warming of the bottom water over the last 30 years have resulted in an ˜10% decrease in dissolved oxygen and ˜0.04°C increase in potential temperature, suggesting a change of the deep convection system in the Japan Sea. The temporal changes in the vertical profiles of tritium from 1984 to 1998 have suggested a shift of the abyssal circulation pattern from a ``total (overall) convection mode" to a ``shallow (partial) convection mode". It is likely that the global warming since the last century has hindered the formation of dense surface seawater and its ability to sink down to the bottom, isolating the bottom layer from the deep convection loop that is indispensable as the source of

  14. Evolution of the Urban Heat Island of the city of Bologna (Italy) in the last 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Francesca; Gaspari, Nicola; Piana, Stefano; Rossi Pisa, Paola

    2010-05-01

    The Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon is the air temperature difference between the urban area and the surrounding agricultural area of a city, due to the anthropic activities and different surfaces typical of the town. This phenomenon has been documented for many cities with different population, topography and climate (Chandler, 1962 and Oke, 1982 among the first), and has been quantified in many areas (see as an example for Italy Agnese et al, 2008). Many causes contribute to the UHI, such as different heat capacities of vegetated surfaces as compared to buildings and paving materials; different absorption due to canopy geometry; anthropogenic heat sources and so on. (for example see Camilloni and Barros, 1997) What is not so easy to find in literature is the study of the evolution of this phenomenon with time. UHI could be improved by changes in the town behaviour (increase in car traffic or winter-heating/summer-cooling), reduced by the enlargement of the suburb area, arriving to include the rural meteorological stations, or mitigated by the general growth of air temperature due to global warming. In this work, results from the analysis of two 30 years time series air temperature data are presented. The first data set comes from an agrometeorological station sited in the Botanical garden of the University of Bologna, in the centre of the town (44° 30' 05"N, 11° 21' 18" E). The second agrometeorological station is sited in the experimental farm of the University of Bologna in Cadriano (44° 33' 03" N, 11° 24' 36" E), 9 km from the first and outside of the town boundaries. Both data series range from 1978 to 2007 and are measured by mechanical thermoigrometers. Detailed information about instruments and data treatment are available in Matzneller et al. (2009). Results show an increasing trend in both stations for air maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures, more evident in the rural data. The mean UHI is of about 1.3 ± 0.7 °C as an average on the 30

  15. Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average Daily Minimum Temperature, 1971-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents thecatchment-average for the 30-year (1971-2000) average daily minimum temperature in Celsius multiplied by 100 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data were the United States Average Monthly or Annual Minimum Temperature, 1971 - 2000 raster data set produced by the PRISM Group at Oregon State University. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  16. A 30-year follow-up of the effects of child abuse and neglect on obesity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Tyrone; Widom, Cathy S

    2009-10-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been implicated as a risk factor for adult obesity. We describe the first prospective assessment of adult obesity in individuals with documented histories of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect and a matched comparison group in a 30-year follow-up. Using a prospective cohort design, children with court substantiated cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11 years) from a Midwest county during 1967-1971 (n=410) were matched with children without histories of abuse or neglect on age, sex, race/ethnicity and approximate family social class (n=303) and followed up and assessed at mean age 41. Outcome measures include BMI and obesity assessed in 2003-2004 as part of a medical status examination and interview. Childhood physical abuse predicted significantly higher BMI scores in adulthood (beta=0.14, P<0.05), even controlling for demographic characteristics, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption (beta=0.16, P<0.01). Childhood sexual abuse (beta=0.07, not significant) and neglect (beta=0.02, not significant) were not significant predictors of adult BMI scores. These results demonstrate the long-term impact of childhood physical abuse on weight into adulthood and suggest that physically abused children may be at risk for other adverse health outcomes associated with increased weight. Health professionals need to understand this risk for physically abused children and researchers should identify and evaluate strategies for effective interventions.

  17. Stain and dye stability over a 30-year period: a comparison of certified dye powders by the Biological Stain Commission.

    PubMed

    Penney, D P; Frank, M; Fagan, C; Willis, C

    2009-02-01

    The Biological Stain Commission (BSC) Assay Laboratory has received numerous inquiries during the past several years regarding the long-term stability of stain and dye powders, particularly since packaging requirements call for expiration dates on reagents. We have conducted a study to examine the long-term stability of selected dye powders. We used the standard procedures of the BSC for testing biological stains for certification to give an indication of the long-term chemical stability as well as staining performance of the dye powders. An earlier study by Emmel and Stotz examined the stability of various dye powders after a five-year storage period. The present study is a follow-up project covering the same dyes after storage for 30 years. The dye samples chosen for the study are the same samples used in the five-year storage period study and give comparative results for all three time periods. The results of this study affirm the generally held speculation that dye powders are stable for many years and thus have a substantial shelf-life.

  18. 30 Years of dental research in Australia and India: a comparative analysis of published peer review literature.

    PubMed

    Madan, Charu; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2012-01-01

    A sustained program of research is an integral part of human-kind's efforts to improve oral health. In addition, dental research is a vital part of the development of a strong and prosperous dental education system and has been one of the three pillars of the higher education sector (Research, Education and Service) for a very long time. This study aims to examine the last 30 years of peer review published dental literature in both, Australia and India, and to define the trends in publication over that time. This study used the Pubmed database using a set of core dental words for the years 1980 to 2009. Detailed analysis of the year-by-year rates of publication was done using Microsoft Excel. India is on a near exponential upward growth while Australia through the latter half of the last decade has been more stable in output. State-wise breakdown in both countries shows that the proportions are more consistent for Australia, but for India, a major number of publications can be traced to three states. It is expected that dental research in Australia will grow in the coming decade as the new dental schools embed their educational programs and mature to develop strong research profiles. However, India is becoming a significant force in the published peer review dental research literature, and is growing at a very rapid rate.

  19. Proximity to food establishments and body mass index in the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort over 30 years.

    PubMed

    Block, Jason P; Christakis, Nicholas A; O'Malley, A James; Subramanian, S V

    2011-11-15

    Existing evidence linking residential proximity to food establishments with body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) has been inconclusive. In this study, the authors assessed the relation between BMI and proximity to food establishments over a 30-year period among 3,113 subjects in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort living in 4 Massachusetts towns during 1971-2001. The authors used novel data that included repeated measures of BMI and accounted for residential mobility and the appearance and disappearance of food establishments. They calculated proximity to food establishments as the driving distance between each subject's residence and nearby food establishments, divided into 6 categories. The authors used cross-classified linear mixed models to account for time-varying attributes of individuals and residential neighborhoods. Each 1-km increase in distance to the closest fast-food restaurant was associated with a 0.11-unit decrease in BMI (95% credible interval: -0.20, -0.04). In sex-stratified analyses, this association was present only for women. Other aspects of the food environment were either inconsistently associated or not at all associated with BMI. Contrary to much prior research, the authors did not find a consistent relation between access to fast-food restaurants and individual BMI, necessitating a reevaluation of policy discussions on the anticipated impact of the food environment on weight gain.

  20. Exposure to parental separation in childhood and later parenting quality as an adult: evidence from a 30-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Myron D; John Horwood, L; Fergusson, David M; Woodward, Lianne J

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has documented that exposure to parental separation/divorce during childhood can be associated with long-term consequences into adulthood. This study sought to extend this literature by examining associations between childhood exposure to parental separation/divorce and later parenting behavior as an adult in a New Zealand birth cohort. Data were drawn from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS), a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1,265 children born in 1977 in Christchurch, New Zealand. Information about exposure to parental separation and divorce was gathered annually from birth to 15 years. At the 30-year follow-up, all cohort members who had become parents (biological or nonbiological) were assessed on several parenting dimensions (sensitivity, warmth, overreactivity, inconsistency, quality of child management, and physical punishment). The analyses showed that exposure to more frequent parental separation in childhood and adolescence was associated with lower levels of parental sensitivity and warmth, greater overreactivity, and an increased use of physical punishment as a parent, after controlling for a wide range of family socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and individual child characteristics. The findings suggest that as exposure to parental separation increases, so does the likelihood of experiencing multiple developmental challenges in childhood and adolescence. As an adult, these life-course experiences can have small but significant associations with the quality of parenting behavior. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  1. Large Salt Dust Storms Follow a 30-Year Rainfall Cycle in the Mar Chiquita Lake (Córdoba, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Bucher, Enrique H; Stein, Ariel F

    2016-01-01

    Starting in 2006, a new source of intense salt dust storms developed in Mar Chiquita (Córdoba, Argentina), the largest saline lake in South America. Storms originate from vast mudflats left by a 30-year expansion-retreat cycle of the lake due to changes in the regional rainfall regime. The annual frequency of salt dust storms correlated with the size of the salt mudflats. Events were restricted to the coldest months, and reached up to 800 km from the source. Occurrence of dust storms was associated with specific surface colors and textures easily identifiable in satellite images. High-emission surfaces were characterized by the presence of sodium sulfate hydrous/anhydrous crystals (mirabilite and thenardite), and a superficial and variable water table, which may result in the periodic development of a characteristic "fluffy" surface derived from salt precipitation-dissolution processes. HYSPLIT model simulation estimates a deposition maximum near the sources (of about 2.5 kg/ha/yr), and a decreasing trend from the emission area outwards, except for the relative secondary maximum modeled over the mountain ranges in southern Bolivia and northern Argentina due to an orographic effect. The 2009 total deposition of salt dust generated in Mar Chiquita was estimated at 6.5 million tons.

  2. Changes in the area of inland lakes in arid regions of central Asia during the past 30 years.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jie; Chen, Xi; Li, Junli; Yang, Liao; Fang, Hui

    2011-07-01

    Inland lakes are major surface water resource in arid regions of Central Asia. The area changes in these lakes have been proved to be the results of regional climate changes and recent human activities. This study aimed at investigating the area variations of the nine major lakes in Central Asia over the last 30 years. Firstly, multi-temporal Landsat imagery in 1975, 1990, 1999, and 2007 were used to delineate lake extents automatically based on Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) threshold segmentation, then lake area variations were detailed in three decades and the mechanism of these changes was analyzed with meteorological data and hydrological data. The results indicated that the total surface areas of these nine lakes had decreased from 91,402.06 km(2) to 46,049.23 km(2) during 1975-2007, accounting for 49.62% of their original area of 1975. Tail-end lakes in flat areas had shrunk dramatically as they were induced by both climate changes and human impacts, while alpine lakes remained relatively stable due to the small precipitation variations. With different water usage of river outlets, the variations of open lakes were more flexible than those of other two types. According to comprehensive analyses, different types of inland lakes presented different trends of area changes under the background of global warming effects in Central Asia, which showed that the increased human activities had broken the balance of water cycles in this region.

  3. A 30-Year-Old Female Found to Have a Couvelaire Uterus With Placenta Accreta During Planned Cesarean Delivery.

    PubMed

    Uwagbai, Omici N; Wittich, Arthur C

    2017-03-01

    A case of Couvelaire uterus with placenta accreta found during scheduled repeat low transverse Cesarean section will be discussed within this article. First described in the 1900s, Couvelaire syndrome, also known as uteroplacental apoplexy, is a rare form of nonfatal placenta abruption complication. The case involves a 30-year-old gravida 3 para 2 otherwise healthy female with an uncomplicated pregnancy and two previous cesarean deliveries without complication. She received routine prenatal care. During her pregnancy, she did not experience any symptoms such as vaginal bleeding or abdominal pain. After delivering a healthy female, there were several unsuccessful attempts to remove the placenta from the uterus. Upon inspection, the uterus was found have dark purple patches with ecchymosis and indurations, diagnostic of Couvelaire uterus. Furthermore, there was high clinical suspicion for placenta accreta as the 30-minute mark approached without placenta detachment. A telephonic emergency review with the wet desk radiologist of the 18-week ultrasound revealed high suspicion for placenta accreta. A Cesarean hysterectomy was performed for prevention of significant hemorrhage. This case report may be the first documented association of Couvelaire uterus with placenta accreta. Providers should be vigilant in monitoring for antenatal bleeding, timing of placenta separation, and postpartum hemorrhage.

  4. Organizing Principles of Human Cortical Development--Thickness and Area from 4 to 30 Years: Insights from Comparative Primate Neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Amlien, Inge K; Fjell, Anders M; Tamnes, Christian K; Grydeland, Håkon; Krogsrud, Stine K; Chaplin, Tristan A; Rosa, Marcello G P; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2016-01-01

    The human cerebral cortex undergoes a protracted, regionally heterogeneous development well into young adulthood. Cortical areas that expand the most during human development correspond to those that differ most markedly when the brains of macaque monkeys and humans are compared. However, it remains unclear to what extent this relationship derives from allometric scaling laws that apply to primate brains in general, or represents unique evolutionary adaptations. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the relationship only applies to surface area (SA), or also holds for cortical thickness (CT). In 331 participants aged 4 to 30, we calculated age functions of SA and CT, and examined the correspondence of human cortical development with macaque to human expansion, and with expansion across nonhuman primates. CT followed a linear negative age function from 4 to 30 years, while SA showed positive age functions until 12 years with little further development. Differential cortical expansion across primates was related to regional maturation of SA and CT, with age trajectories differing between high- and low-expanding cortical regions. This relationship adhered to allometric scaling laws rather than representing uniquely macaque-human differences: regional correspondence with human development was as large for expansion across nonhuman primates as between humans and macaque.

  5. Proximity to Food Establishments and Body Mass Index in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort Over 30 Years

    PubMed Central

    Block, Jason P.; Christakis, Nicholas A.; O’Malley, A. James; Subramanian, S. V.

    2011-01-01

    Existing evidence linking residential proximity to food establishments with body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) has been inconclusive. In this study, the authors assessed the relation between BMI and proximity to food establishments over a 30-year period among 3,113 subjects in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort living in 4 Massachusetts towns during 1971–2001. The authors used novel data that included repeated measures of BMI and accounted for residential mobility and the appearance and disappearance of food establishments. They calculated proximity to food establishments as the driving distance between each subject’s residence and nearby food establishments, divided into 6 categories. The authors used cross-classified linear mixed models to account for time-varying attributes of individuals and residential neighborhoods. Each 1-km increase in distance to the closest fast-food restaurant was associated with a 0.11-unit decrease in BMI (95% credible interval: −0.20, −0.04). In sex-stratified analyses, this association was present only for women. Other aspects of the food environment were either inconsistently associated or not at all associated with BMI. Contrary to much prior research, the authors did not find a consistent relation between access to fast-food restaurants and individual BMI, necessitating a reevaluation of policy discussions on the anticipated impact of the food environment on weight gain. PMID:21965186

  6. HIV-1 Immunogen: an overview of almost 30 years of clinical testing of a candidate therapeutic vaccine.

    PubMed

    Graziani, Gina M; Angel, Jonathan B

    2016-07-01

    Although current antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed HIV infection into a chronic, manageable disease, ART does not cure HIV infection. Furthermore, the majority of the world's infected individuals live in resource-limited countries in which access to ART is limited. Thus, the development of an effective therapeutic HIV vaccine would be an invaluable treatment alternative. Developed by the late Dr. Jonas Salk, HIV-1 Immunogen (Remune®) is a candidate therapeutic vaccine that has been studied in thousands of HIV-infected individuals in more than a dozen clinical trials during almost three decades. This Drug Evaluation, which summarizes the results of these trials that have shown the vaccine to be safe and immunogenic, also discusses the contradictory and controversial conclusions drawn from the phases 2, 2/3 and 3 trials that assessed the clinical efficacy of this vaccine. Given the lack of unequivocal clinical benefits of HIV-1 Immunogen despite almost 30 years of extensive testing, it does not appear, in our view, that this vaccine is a clinically effective immunotherapy. However, inclusion of this vaccine in the newly proposed 'Kick/Shock and Kill' strategy for HIV eradication, or use as a prophylactic vaccine, could be considered for future trials.

  7. Large Salt Dust Storms Follow a 30-Year Rainfall Cycle in the Mar Chiquita Lake (Córdoba, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Ariel F.

    2016-01-01

    Starting in 2006, a new source of intense salt dust storms developed in Mar Chiquita (Córdoba, Argentina), the largest saline lake in South America. Storms originate from vast mudflats left by a 30-year expansion-retreat cycle of the lake due to changes in the regional rainfall regime. The annual frequency of salt dust storms correlated with the size of the salt mudflats. Events were restricted to the coldest months, and reached up to 800 km from the source. Occurrence of dust storms was associated with specific surface colors and textures easily identifiable in satellite images. High-emission surfaces were characterized by the presence of sodium sulfate hydrous/anhydrous crystals (mirabilite and thenardite), and a superficial and variable water table, which may result in the periodic development of a characteristic “fluffy” surface derived from salt precipitation-dissolution processes. HYSPLIT model simulation estimates a deposition maximum near the sources (of about 2.5 kg/ha/yr), and a decreasing trend from the emission area outwards, except for the relative secondary maximum modeled over the mountain ranges in southern Bolivia and northern Argentina due to an orographic effect. The 2009 total deposition of salt dust generated in Mar Chiquita was estimated at 6.5 million tons. PMID:27258088

  8. Changes in the management and survival rates of patients with oral cancer: a 30-year single-institution study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the management and 5-year survival rates of patients with oral cancer in our department over a 30-year period. Materials and Methods We investigated the patient distributions, treatment methods, method of neck dissection according to cancer stage, and 5-year survival rates for 700 oral cancer patients over the periods of 1982–1996 (256 patients), 1999–2006 (248 patients), and 2007–2011 (196 patients). Results Stage IV patients were the largest group in all of the time periods evaluated. Although surgery and radiotherapy were the most common methods in all periods (over 50%), the prevalence of patients who underwent concomitant chemoradiotherapy increased from 7.0% to 16.2%. The use of radical neck dissection decreased from 43.0% to 5.3%, while conservative surgical methods increased from 24.1% to 76.3%. Lastly, the overall 5-year survival rate increased from 31.6% to 63.5% during the study period. Conclusion Although the 5-year survival rate reached the same level as that of other developed countries during the course of our study, most patients continue to come to the hospital with stage IV disease. In order to increase the 5-year survival rate of oral carcinoma, it may be necessary to improve public education and social efforts relevant to early diagnosis. PMID:26904492

  9. Clinical phenotypes of autoimmune polyendocrinopathycandidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy seen in the Northern Ireland paediatric population over the last 30 years.

    PubMed

    Millar, Sarinda; Carson, Dennis

    2012-09-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), also known as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with a variable and evolving phenotypic course. It is caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. APECED syndrome is diagnosed clinically by the presence of 2 from 3 major criteria; chronic mucocutaneous candidasis, primary hypoparathyroidism and primary adrenocortical insufficiency. Many of the patients develop all three before the age of 20 years. There is also a wide spectrum of other associated conditions including endocrine and non endocrine manifestations. This paper reviews the clinical phenotypes seen in the paediatric population of Northern Ireland during the last 30 years detailed from a retrospective review of clinical notes. Eight patients were identified with APECED and all patients were found to be homozygous for the c.964dell3 mutation. A wide clinical variation is apparent within APECED syndrome. Paediatricians should be vigilant of the diagnosis when they encounter any of the features described and consider the future development of associated diseases. In confirmed APECED syndrome, clinical and laboratory investigation is essential to initiate early treatment in the patient and other affected members of the family.

  10. Clinical phenotypes of autoimmune polyendocrinopathycandidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy seen in the Northern Ireland paediatric population over the last 30 years.

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Sarinda; Carson, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), also known as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with a variable and evolving phenotypic course. It is caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. APECED syndrome is diagnosed clinically by the presence of 2 from 3 major criteria; chronic mucocutaneous candidasis, primary hypoparathyroidism and primary adrenocortical insufficiency. Many of the patients develop all three before the age of 20 years. There is also a wide spectrum of other associated conditions including endocrine and non endocrine manifestations. This paper reviews the clinical phenotypes seen in the paediatric population of Northern Ireland during the last 30 years detailed from a retrospective review of clinical notes. Eight patients were identified with APECED and all patients were found to be homozygous for the c.964dell3 mutation. A wide clinical variation is apparent within APECED syndrome. Paediatricians should be vigilant of the diagnosis when they encounter any of the features described and consider the future development of associated diseases. In confirmed APECED syndrome, clinical and laboratory investigation is essential to initiate early treatment in the patient and other affected members of the family. PMID:23620608

  11. Post-traumatic stress disorder moderates the relation between documented childhood victimization and pain 30 years later.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Karen G; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    Cross-sectional designs and self-reports of maltreatment characterize nearly all the literature on childhood abuse or neglect and pain in adulthood, limiting potential for causal inference. The current study describes a prospective follow up of a large cohort of individuals with court-documented early childhood abuse or neglect (n=458) and a demographically matched control sample (n=349) into middle adulthood (mean age 41), nearly 30 years later, comparing the groups for risk of adult pain complaints. We examine whether Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) mediates or moderates risk of pain. Assessed prospectively across multiple pain measures, physically and sexually abused and neglected individuals generally showed a significant (p<.05) but notably small (η(2)=.01) increased risk of pain symptoms in middle adulthood. Although PTSD was associated with both childhood victimization (p<.01) and risk of middle adulthood pain (p<.001), it did not appear to mediate the relationship between victimization and pain. However, across all pain outcomes other than medically unexplained pain, PTSD robustly interacted with documented childhood victimization to predict adult pain risk: Individuals with both childhood abuse/neglect and PTSD were at significantly increased risk (p<.001, η(2) generally=.05-.06) of pain. After accounting for the combined effect of the two factors, neither childhood victimization nor PTSD alone predicted pain risk. Findings support a view that clinical pain assessments should focus on PTSD rather than make broad inquiries into past history of childhood abuse or neglect.

  12. Field-Scale Stable-Isotope Probing of Active Methanotrophs in a Landfill-Cover Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroth, M. H.; Henneberger, R.; Chiri, E.

    2012-12-01

    The greenhouse gas methane (CH4) is an important contributor to global climate change. While its atmospheric concentration is increasing, a large portion of produced CH4 never reaches the atmosphere, but is consumed by aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB). The latter are ubiquitous in soils and utilize CH4 as sole source of energy and carbon. Among other methods, MOB may be differentiated based on characteristic phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). Stable-isotope probing (SIP) on PLFA has been widely applied to identify active members of MOB communities in laboratory incubation studies, but results are often difficult to extrapolate to the field. Thus, novel field-scale approaches are needed to link activity and identity of MOB in their natural environment. We present results of field experiments in which we combined PLFA-SIP with gas push-pull tests (GPPTs) to label active MOB at the field-scale while simultaneously quantifying CH4 oxidation activity. During a SIP-GPPT, a mixture of reactive (here 13CH4, O2) and non-reactive tracer gases (e.g., Ar, Ne, He) is injected into the soil at a location of interest. Thereafter, gas flow is reversed and the gas mixture diluted with soil air is extracted from the same location and sampled periodically. Rate constants for CH4 oxidation can be calculated by analyzing breakthrough curves of 13CH4 and a suitable non-reactive tracer gas. SIP-GPPTs were performed in a landfill-cover soil, and feasibility of this novel approach was tested at several locations along a gradient of MOB activity and soil temperature. Soil samples were collected before and after SIP-GPPTs, total PLFA were extracted, and incorporation of 13C in the polar lipid fraction was analyzed. Potential CH4 oxidation rates derived from SIP-GPPTs were similar to those derived from regular GPPTs (using unlabeled CH4) performed at the same locations prior to SIP-GPPTs, indicating that application of 13CH4 did not adversely affect bacterial CH4 oxidation rates. Rates

  13. Soil management effects on infiltration and runoff at field scale in a hillslope vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddoccu, Marcella; Ferraris, Stefano; Pitacco, Andrea; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2016-04-01

    The soil management which is adopted in the vineyard's inter-rows has a great influence on soil hydraulic properties, and, consequently, on runoff and soil erosion processes at field scale. The cultivation of soil in the vineyard's inter-rows with tillage, as well as the tractor traffic, is known to expose the soil to degradation and compaction, reducing water infiltration and holding capacity and favouring runoff. On the other side, the use of grass cover in the inter-row is one of the most common and effective soil management practices adopted in order to reduce runoff and soil erosion in vineyards. The effects of inter-rows' soil management on soil hydrological properties was evaluated in two vineyard field-scale plots. The experiment was conducted from October, 2012 to November, 2014, in the Alto Monferrato vine-growing area (Piedmont, NW Italy). A total of 80 infiltration tests were carried out in two vineyards plots, which inter-rows were managed with conventional tillage and grass cover, respectively. Furthermore, a dataset of 29 rainfall-runoff events covering a wide range of topsoil characteristics was collected in the two plots, along with soil water content monitoring, measurements and sampling of runoff in order to determine the sediment yield. For 3 events 1-min rainfall intensity data has been obtained from an optical disdrometer installed near the plots. The datasets were analysed in order to identify correlations between rainfall characteristics, soil properties and field-scale response in terms of runoff and soil erosion, at event temporal scale. The study shows that the soil tillage increased the hydraulic conductivity only for a short period after its execution. However, in summer, just a month after tillage execution, the topsoil was compacted and showed very low hydraulic conductivity, thus summer storms with 10-min intensities greater than 20 mm h-1 were able to cause hortonian runoff and high soil losses, up to 5.7 Mg ha-1 for a single event

  14. Investigation into the Horizontal Spatial Variability of Dew at Field-Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlandson, T. L.; Hornbuckle, B. K.; Patton, J.; Russell, E.; Seier, K.; Spoth, K.

    2009-12-01

    The occurrence of free moisture on a crop canopy, whether in the form of intercepted precipitation or dew, has implications for both plant disease development and sensing of soil moisture by microwave remote sensing. In agriculture, the duration of leaf wetness can impact disease development, and with microwave remote sensing, free water on the canopy can influence the detection of soil moisture by increasing or decreasing the measured brightness temperature, depending on the canopy being investigated. Research has been conducted on the variability of dew vertically within a crop canopy; however the horizontal spatial variability of dew at the field scale had not yet been examined. We conducted a study in a maize field during the growing season of 2009 to investigate variations in dew duration and amount at 4 locations in a 1km2 with varying topography and soil characteristics. At each of the four sites, two leaf wetness sensors were installed at both 1/3- and 2/3-canopy height, providing insight into variations in dew duration between the four locations. Above canopy temperature and relative humidity were measured, in addition to in-canopy temperature and relative humidity, measured at half-canopy height. Soil moisture was measured continuously at each of the four locations. Physical samples were taken 11 times during the months of July and August, 2009. Sampling began at sunrise, and was conducted 3 times at each measurement location at both 1/3- and 2/3-canopy height. In addition to samples taken at sunrise, on three occasions, samples were taken at sunset, 11pm and 3am in order to monitor the progression of dew development. A sample at three of the locations occurred at the end of August to determine how dew varies at each location by taking simultaneous measurements. Leaf area index (LAI) was measured throughout the growing season at 1/3- and 2/3-canopy height at each measurement location. This information was utilized to investigate how dew measurements taken

  15. Three-Dimensional Flow Fields and Bedform Migration in a Field-Scale Meandering Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozarek, J. L.; Palmsten, M. L.; Calantoni, J.; Khosronejad, A.; Sotiropoulos, F.

    2012-12-01

    The St. Anthony Falls Laboratory Outdoor StreamLab (OSL) at the University of Minnesota was constructed in 2008 as field-scale sand bed meandering stream channel within a vegetated floodplain. This state-of-the-art facility provides the unique opportunity to investigate physical, chemical, and biological stream and floodplain processes in a controlled outdoor environment with laboratory-quality measurement capabilities. The research presented here summarizes results from several experiments conducted in the OSL examining the effect of three-dimensional (3-D) flow fields on sediment transport and bedform development. Specifically, we examined bedform dimensions and flow fields in two scenarios 1) in the vicinity immobile rock structures, and 2) on the quasi-equilibrium bar that formed on the inner bank of a meander. A combination of methods were used for each study to determine the rate of scour hole formation, quasi-equilibrium bed elevation and variation in bed elevation, and bedform size and spacing. Bed topography data were collected at 1 cm resolution under live-bed conditions using a downward looking sonar probe attached to a mobile data acquisition (DAQ) cart. At each DAQ station, repeat scans were collected giving insight into the 3-dimensionality of bedforms in a meandering channel with and without rock structures. Supplementary data were collected at transects under two flow and sediment conditions (280 L/s and 6 kg/min and 199 L/s and 4 kg/min, for water and sediment, respectively) using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) and a profiling ADV to measure 3-D flow fields and concurrent velocity and bed elevation data. These data were used in conjunction with data from optical remote sensing of bedform migration in the OSL to provide a validation dataset for a high-resolution 3-D hydro-morphodynamic model that is being used to simulate flow and sediment transport processes in meandering channels with embedded rock structures (Khosronejad et al. Adv. in

  16. Recent trends in global methane emissions inferred from 30-years of surface CH4 and δ13C-CH4 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, S.; Butenhoff, C. L.; Rice, A. L.; Lofdahl, D. B.; Khalil, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Quantitative understanding of the global CH4 budget is important in order to predict future contributions of global warming and to develop effective strategies for its mitigation. After a decade-long period of decreasing growth rates, atmospheric CH4 concentrations have risen in recent years raising concerns about its long-term stability. Despite much study there is no clear consensus about the causes of this increase. Some bottom-up inventories suggest that fugitive emissions from the fossil fuel industry may be increasing though there are considerable uncertainties in these estimates due in part to the variable nature of this source. To better understand the changing budget of atmospheric CH4, we performed a time-dependent retrieval of CH4 fluxes spanning nearly 30 years using global surface and isotopic CH4 measurements. An earlier inversion from our group suggested that fugitive fossil fuel emissions increased from 2000-2008, contributing to the recent rise. Here we extend this study to year 2015 using the most recent NOAA Global Monitoring Division (GMD) CH4 measurements and available δ13C -CH4 data along with a higher resolution version of the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem (2ox2.5o). The higher resolution grid allowed us to extract more information from the observations due to the improved ability of the model to simulate CH4 at each station and the decreased need to aggregate neighboring stations. This in turn increased the error reduction between the a priori and posterior emissions leading to more accurate estimates of the retrieved fluxes and improved understanding of the drivers underlying the current atmospheric record.

  17. Attempts at Estimating the Hydraulic Conductivity With Induced Polarisation at the Field Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoerdt, A.; Binot, F.; Blaschek, R.; Druiventak, A.; Kemna, A.; Kreye, P.; Zisser, N.

    2008-12-01

    Hydraulic conductivity is an essential parameter for groundwater management and for estimation of aquifer vulnerability. Physical considerations and laboratory measurements suggest that hydraulic conductivity might be estimated from complex electrical conductivity, measured with the spectral induced polarisation (SIP) method. In order to test this idea under field conditions, we carried out SIP measurements at four hydrogeological test sites. The areas cover a lithological spectrum from gravel to silt. At each site, hydraulic conductivity was estimated from the real and imaginary conductivity resulting from 2-D inversion. We applied empirical equations using only one frequency, typically around 1 Hz. The results were compared with k- values obtained from grain size analyses and pump tests. Data from each site were reduced to a few values only to facilitate an overall evaluation. The IP-determined values tend to be too large, display considerable scatter, and only a weak correlation with hydrogeologic data. Two main factors seem to be important: first, the assumption that imaginary conductivity is independent of groundwater salinity, does not hold. Second, the accuracy of phase measurements of complex conductivity is not sufficient, in particular if phases are small. This is severe, because small phase shifts may produce unrealistically large k-values. Our results suggest that existing models with their simplifying assumptions might have to be modified and extended before they lead to substantial improvements when routinely applied at the field scale.

  18. Field-Scale Migration of 99Tc and 129I at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Smith, D K

    2004-03-29

    The groundwater at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) contains many long-lived radionuclides, including {sup 99}Tc (technetium) and {sup 129}I (iodine), as a result of 828 underground nuclear weapons tests conducted between 1951 and 1992. We synthesized a body of data collected on the distribution of {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I in groundwater to assess their migration at NTS, at field scales over distances of hundreds of meters and for durations up to forty years and under hydrogeologic conditions very similar to the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain. The results of our study show that Tc does not necessarily exist as a mobile and conservative species TcO{sub 4}{sup -}, as has been commonly assumed. This conclusion is corroborated by recent in situ redox potential measurements, which show that groundwaters at multiple locations of the NTS are not oxidizing, and mobility of reduced Tc species (TcO{sub 2} {center_dot} nH{sub 2}O) is greatly decreased. Speciation of iodine and its associated reactivity is also complex in the groundwater at the NTS, and its effect on the mobility of iodine should be the subject of future studies.

  19. Long-term tritium transport through field-scale compacted soil liner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toupiol, C.; Willingham, T.W.; Valocchi, A.J.; Werth, C.J.; Krapac, I.G.; Stark, T.D.; Daniel, D.E.

    2002-01-01

    A 13-year study of tritium transport through a field-scale earthen liner was conducted by the Illinois State Geological Survey to determine the long-term performance of compacted soil liners in limiting chemical transport. Two field-sampling procedures (pressure-vacuum lysimeter and core sampling) were used to determine the vertical tritium concentration profiles at different times and locations within the liner. Profiles determined by the two methods were similar and consistent. Analyses of the concentration profiles showed that the tritium concentration was relatively uniformly distributed horizontally at each sampling depth within the liner and thus there was no apparent preferential transport. A simple one-dimensional analytical solution to the advective-dispersive solute transport equation was used to model tritium transport through the liner. Modeling results showed that diffusion was the dominant contaminant transport mechanism. The measured tritium concentration profiles were accurately modeled with an effective diffusion coefficient of 6 ?? 10-4 mm2/s, which is in the middle of the range of values reported in the literature.

  20. Control of trichloroethylene plume migration using a biobarrier system: a field-scale study.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Y C; Wang, S Y; Chang, Y M; Chen, S H; Kao, C M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this field-scale study was to evaluate the effectiveness of controlling trichloroethylene (TCE) plume migration using the polycolloid substrate (PS) biobarrier. The developed PS (containing soybean oil, lactate and surfactants) could release substrate to enhance the TCE dechlorination. In this study, a biobarrier comprising PS injection wells was installed. Injection wells were installed at 5-m intervals, and approximately 15 L of PS was injected into each well. Results show that TCE concentrations in the injection wells dropped from an average of 87 μg/L to below 1 μg/L after 35 days of PS injection. The total organic carbon concentrations in the injection wells increased from an average of 2.1-543 mg/L after 30 days of PS injection. The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) values dropped from an average of 1.6 mg/L to below 0.1 mg/L and from 124 mv to -14 mv after 20 days of injection, respectively. The DO and ORP remained in anaerobic conditions during the remaining 100 days of the operational period. TCE degradation by-products were observed in groundwater samples during the operational period. This reveals that the addition of PS could effectively enhance the reductive dechlorinating of TCE.

  1. Restoration of a Mediterranean forest after a fire: bioremediation and rhizoremediation field-scale trial

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro-Tobías, Paloma; Fernández, Matilde; Niqui, José Luis; Solano, Jennifer; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan-Luis; Roca, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    Forest fires pose a serious threat to countries in the Mediterranean basin, often razing large areas of land each year. After fires, soils are more likely to erode and resilience is inhibited in part by the toxic aromatic hydrocarbons produced during the combustion of cellulose and lignins. In this study, we explored the use of bioremediation and rhizoremediation techniques for soil restoration in a field-scale trial in a protected Mediterranean ecosystem after a controlled fire. Our bioremediation strategy combined the use of Pseudomonas putida strains, indigenous culturable microbes and annual grasses. After 8 months of monitoring soil quality parameters, including the removal of monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as vegetation cover, we found that the site had returned to pre-fire status. Microbial population analysis revealed that fires induced changes in the indigenous microbiota and that rhizoremediation favours the recovery of soil microbiota in time. The results obtained in this study indicate that the rhizoremediation strategy could be presented as a viable and cost-effective alternative for the treatment of ecosystems affected by fires. PMID:25079309

  2. Field Scale Transport of Chromate in Groundwater From Cooling Tower Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladding, S. M.; Hunt, J. R.

    2007-12-01

    Chromate (Cr(VI)) was used extensively in evaporative cooling systems to prevent corrosion and scale formation. Waters from the cooling systems were discharged to ponds that were intended as evaporation ponds, but there were instances where the wastewaters infiltrated into the soil and released chromate to groundwater. Cooling tower discharges containing chromate also have elevated salt concentrations compared to the ambient groundwater because of the intended evaporative cooling process. Density driven flow and emplacement of contaminated brines should thus be expected. This conceptual model is being evaluated by the analysis of field data at two natural gas compressor facilities in the deserts of southeastern California. These facilities continuously released chromate containing water to unlined evaporation ponds for more than a decade, and subsequent investigations have identified groundwater plumes containing chromate. At one site, extensive remediation over a 15 year period has limited the plume migration but has not reduced groundwater concentrations. At the other site, density-stratified flow is observed. While there are uncertainties in the amounts released, the data available at these sites suggest that remedial approaches based on groundwater extraction are not effective in removing the source of chromate contamination from emplaced pockets of highly concentrated cooling tower discharge. Long term data sets collected during site investigations and remediation are valuable sources of data on field scale transport of highly mobile contaminants such as chromate.

  3. Field scale simulation of axial hydrokinetic turbines in a natural marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawdhary, Saurabh; Angelidis, Dionysios; Shen, Lian; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2016-11-01

    Commercialization of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy technologies is still in the development stage. Existing technologies need fundamental research to enable efficient energy extraction from identified MHK sites. We propose a large eddy simulation (LES)-based framework to investigate the site-specific flow dynamics past MHK arrays in a real-life marine environment. To this end, we use advanced computational tools developed at the Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL) to resolve the vast range of scales present in the flow. The new generation unstructured Cartesian flow solver, coupled with a sharp interface immersed boundary method for 3D incompressible flows, is used to numerically investigate New York City's East River, where an array of MHK turbines is to be deployed as part of the Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy (RITE) Project. Multi-resolution simulations on locally refined grids are used to simulate the flow in a section of the East River with detailed river bathymetry and inset turbines at field scale. The results are analyzed in terms of the wake recovery, overall wake dynamics, and the power produced by the turbines. These results will help develop design guidelines for the site-specific turbine array configuration. This work was supported by NSF Grant IIP-1318201.

  4. Restoration of a Mediterranean forest after a fire: bioremediation and rhizoremediation field-scale trial.

    PubMed

    Pizarro-Tobías, Paloma; Fernández, Matilde; Niqui, José Luis; Solano, Jennifer; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan-Luis; Roca, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    Forest fires pose a serious threat to countries in the Mediterranean basin, often razing large areas of land each year. After fires, soils are more likely to erode and resilience is inhibited in part by the toxic aromatic hydrocarbons produced during the combustion of cellulose and lignins. In this study, we explored the use of bioremediation and rhizoremediation techniques for soil restoration in a field-scale trial in a protected Mediterranean ecosystem after a controlled fire. Our bioremediation strategy combined the use of Pseudomonas putida strains, indigenous culturable microbes and annual grasses. After 8 months of monitoring soil quality parameters, including the removal of monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as vegetation cover, we found that the site had returned to pre-fire status. Microbial population analysis revealed that fires induced changes in the indigenous microbiota and that rhizoremediation favours the recovery of soil microbiota in time. The results obtained in this study indicate that the rhizoremediation strategy could be presented as a viable and cost-effective alternative for the treatment of ecosystems affected by fires. © 2014 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Effect of temperature on methane production from field-scale anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Osman A; Mulbry, Walter; Lansing, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    Temperature is a critical factor affecting anaerobic digestion because it influences both system heating requirements and methane production. Temperatures of 35-37°C are typically suggested for manure digestion. In temperate climates, digesters require a considerable amount of additional heat energy to maintain temperatures at these levels. In this study, the effects of lower digestion temperatures (22 and 28°C), on the methane production from dairy digesters were evaluated and compared with 35°C using duplicate replicates of field-scale (FS) digesters with a 17-day hydraulic retention time. After acclimation, the FS digesters were operated for 12weeks using solids-separated manure at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.4kgVSm(-3)d(-1) and then for 8weeks using separated manure amended with manure solids at an OLR of 2.6kgVSm(-3)d(-1). Methane production values of the FS digesters at 22 and 28°C were about 70% and 87%, respectively, of the values from FS digesters at 35°C. The results suggest that anaerobic digesters treating dairy manure at 28°C were nearly as efficient as digesters operated at 35°C, with 70% of total methane achievable at 22°C. These results are relevant to small farms interested in anaerobic digestion for methane reduction without heat recovery from generators or for methane recovery from covered lagoon digesters.

  6. Relationship between Dehalococcoides DNA in ground water and rates of reductive dechlorination at field scale.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoxia; Wilson, John T; Kampbell, Donald H

    2006-09-01

    Certain strains of Dehalococcoides bacteria can dechlorinate chlorinated ethylenes to harmless products. This study was conducted to determine if there is a valid association between the density of Dehalococcoides DNA in ground water and the observed rates of reductive dechlorination at field scale. Dehalococcoides DNA in water from monitoring wells was determined using the quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) with DNA primer set specific for Dehalococcoides organisms. Dechlorination rate constants were extracted from field data using the BIOCHLOR software. Of the six conventional plumes surveyed, "generally useful" rates of dechlorination (greater than or equal to 0.3 per year) of cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) along the flow path were observed at three sites where Dehalococcoides DNA was detected, and little attenuation of cis-DCE and VC occurred at two sites where Dehalococcoides DNA was not detected. At the two sites where there was no net direction of ground water flow, the relationship between the density of Dehalococcoides DNA in ground water and the trend in concentrations of chlorinated ethylenes over time in monitoring wells was not so consistent as that observed for the conventional plumes. A comparison of our study to a field study performed by Lendvay and his coworker indicated that monitoring wells did not efficiently sample the Dehalococcoides organisms in the aquifer.

  7. Field-scale evaluation of enhanced aquifer remediation using in-situ alcohol flushing

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P.S.C.; Annable, M.D.; Hatfield, K.H.; Graham, W.D.; Wood, A.L.; Enfield, C.

    1995-09-01

    In-situ flushing of soils and aquifers contaminated with a variety of fuels and oils (e.g., gasoline, diesel, jet fuels, solvents, degreasers, coal tar, creosote, etc.) is based on enhanced mobilization and/or solubilization of the entrapped residual oils. The former technique involves immiscible displacement of oil macroemulsions, ganglia, blobs, and banks, whereas the latter technique is based on enhanced solubilization of the oil constituents and their miscible displacement. Results from lab-scale and field-scale evaluations of in-situ flushing with water-alcohol mixtures for enhanced solubilization of residual oils will be discussed. Emphasis of the presentation will be on the data collected during a recently completed field test of the in-situ cosolvent flushing technology, which was conducted at the Hill Air Force Base, utah, to remediate a shallow, unconfined aquifer contaminated with jet fuel and chlorinated solvents. As a part of this field test, studies were also conducted to evaluate the use of partitioning tracers (methyl alcohols) for quantifying the residual oils present at the site prior to and after cosolvent flushing. Criteria for performance assessment as well as the technological, regulatory, and economic factors governing full-scale applications for aquifer remediation will be discussed.

  8. Field-Scale Soil Moisture Mapping Using RapidEye Satellite Imagery and Distributed Hydrologic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yourek, M. A.; Brooks, E. S.; Magney, T. S.; Anderson, T. R.; Brown, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    In the dryland cropping region of the Pacific Northwest there is a growing need for tools which capture the spatial variability in soil moisture and crop response within a field. Soil moisture distribution within a field often reflects the spatial variability in underlying soil properties and is often well correlated with crop yield patterns. With improved modeling and management tools that capture this field-scale spatial variability, nitrogen fertilizer prescription maps can be developed which optimize nitrogen-use efficiency and profit while minimizing nitrous oxide emissions and nitrate leaching losses. In this project we use high spatial resolution (5 meter) vegetation indices calculated from RapidEye visual, near infrared, and red-edge wavebands to capture changes in crop response throughout the growing season. The late season drying/senescence patterns are compared to simulated soil moisture patterns from a grid-based distributed hydrologic model and apparent soil electrical conductivity patterns measured using an EM38 sensor. Observed soil moisture, surface runoff and surface saturation patterns are compared to model predictions in two ~10 ha field catchments, each having distinct soil properties, climates and topography. We investigate the use of vegetation indices from RapidEye imagery to identify characteristic soil structural patterns as a way to improve both dry and wet season soil moisture predictions.

  9. Temporal Changes in Microbial Metabolic Characteristics in Field-Scale Biopiles Composed of Aged Oil Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Fasheng; Guo, Guanlin; Wang, Shijie; Boronin, Alexander; Wang, Qunhui

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Disposal of oil sludge, a hazardous waste, is currently a prevalent environmental issue. In this study, two field-scale biopiles were constructed to explore the temporal changes of microbial metabolic characteristics during the biotreatment of aged oil sludge. Bulking agent was mixed thoroughly with oily sludge to form a treated pile. The BIOLOG™ system was used to analyze the community level physiological parameters, including microbial metabolic activity, diversity, and variance. In comparison with the control, the community level physiological parameters of the treated pile were dramatically improved. Microbial metabolic activity of the treated pile was improved by 25.06% calculated from the maximums during the treatment. Microbial diversity index (Shannon index) ranges were improved from 1.64–3.02 (control pile) to 2.34–3.14 (treated pile). The numbers of petroleum-degrading bacteria and the total heterotrophic bacteria were correlated with the environmental temperature, and microbial metabolic characteristics in the treated pile revealed the distinctive carbon resources selection with the addition of cotton stalk. Temporal microbial metabolic characteristics, which have important effect on bioremediation, were revealed in this study. PMID:25228785

  10. Field-Scale Distributed Wireless Network for Monitoring Dynamic Hydrologic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, C. S.; Crupper, J.; Brown, D. J.; Cobos, D. R.; Campbell, G. S.; Uberuaga, D.; Huggins, D. R.; Smith, J. L.; Gill, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    Measuring and monitoring field-scale hydrology is important to understanding the fate of water in the vadoze zone, especially in concert with pedological information. Historically, single point measurements of hydrologic and pedological information have been straightforward to obtain, while monitoring widely distributed locations over time has been more challenging, both in expense and labor. As radios have become more available, distributed wireless networks have been developed and constructed to meet this need. However, there remain relatively few commercially available, inexpensive, and simple options. The objective of this study was to test the viability of a distributed wireless network to monitor soil parameters (moisture, temperature, and electrical conductivity) across a growing season on the 36.5 hectare Cook Agronomy Farm in Eastern Washington. Using landscape analysis, 12 representative sites were selected using a stratified random procedure and sensors were installed at 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 cm depths. Radio frequency wireless transmitters linked sensors to a central data station where data were made available anywhere in the world via a cell modem link. Data were analyzed to show relationships between soil features, crop type, and water use. Results show that a system can be assembled from commercially available components with excellent reliability across all communication links. Data from the system showed correlations between water use, directly sampled static soil features and crop type.

  11. Temporal Changes in Microbial Metabolic Characteristics in Field-Scale Biopiles Composed of Aged Oil Sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Fasheng; Guo, Guanlin; Wang, Shijie; Boronin, Alexander; Wang, Qunhui

    2014-09-01

    Disposal of oil sludge, a hazardous waste, is currently a prevalent environmental issue. In this study, two field-scale biopiles were constructed to explore the temporal changes of microbial metabolic characteristics during the biotreatment of aged oil sludge. Bulking agent was mixed thoroughly with oily sludge to form a treated pile. The BIOLOG™ system was used to analyze the community level physiological parameters, including microbial metabolic activity, diversity, and variance. In comparison with the control, the community level physiological parameters of the treated pile were dramatically improved. Microbial metabolic activity of the treated pile was improved by 25.06% calculated from the maximums during the treatment. Microbial diversity index (Shannon index) ranges were improved from 1.64-3.02 (control pile) to 2.34-3.14 (treated pile). The numbers of petroleum-degrading bacteria and the total heterotrophic bacteria were correlated with the environmental temperature, and microbial metabolic characteristics in the treated pile revealed the distinctive carbon resources selection with the addition of cotton stalk. Temporal microbial metabolic characteristics, which have important effect on bioremediation, were revealed in this study.

  12. Field-scale relationships among soil properties and shallow groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Derby, Nathan E; Korom, Scott F; Casey, Francis X M

    2013-01-01

    It is important to understand the link between land surface/soil properties and shallow groundwater quality. To that end, soil properties and near-water-table groundwater chemistry of a shallow, unconfined aquifer were measured on a 100-m grid on a 64-ha irrigated field in southeastern North Dakota. Soil properties and hydrochemistry were compared via multivariate analysis that included product-moment correlations and factor analysis/principal component analysis. Topographic low areas where the water table was in close proximity to the soil surface generally had higher apparent electrical conductivity (ECa ) and higher percent silt and clay than higher positions on the landscape. The majority of the groundwater was characterized by Ca- and Mg-HCO3 type water and was associated with topographic high areas with lower ECa and net groundwater recharge. Small topographic depressions were areas of higher ECa (net groundwater discharge) where salts that precipitated via evapotranspiration and evaporative discharge dissolved and leached to the groundwater during short-term depression-focused recharge events. At this site, groundwater quality and soil ECa were related to surface topography. High-resolution topography and EC(a) measurements are necessary to characterize the land surface/soil properties and surficial groundwater quality at the field-scale and to delineate areas where the shallow groundwater is most susceptible to contamination.

  13. Early stages of pedogenesis at the bottom of a 30-year-old artificial depression under semidesert conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, T. A.; Tolpeshta, I. I.; Sizemskaya, M. L.; Sapanov, M. K.; Kolesnikov, A. V.

    2013-08-01

    Initial soils that developed at the bottom of an artificial hollow 30 × 40 m in size and 3 m in depth have been studied. The hollow was dug on a plot with a predominance of solonetzic complexes in the soil cover on the territory of the Dzhanybek Research Station in 1979. A soil with a shallow but clearly differentiated profile composed of a litter, a humus-accumulative W horizon leached from carbonates, and an underlying C1ca horizon with a high content of dispersed carbonates formed in the hollow over 30 years. The total thickness of these horizons is 7-10 cm. The morphology of the profile corresponds to the slightly alkaline humus-accumulative calcareous soil type of the order of immature soils in the current classification of Russian soils. The soil-sediment layer to a depth of >80 cm contains little soluble salts, predominantly sulfates; the content of exchangeable Na does not exceed 1 meq/100 g. Groundwater of calcium sulfate composition occurs at a depth of ˜3.8 m. These features, together with additional moistening by low-saline melt water, ensure favorable conditions for the spontaneous propagation and development of herbaceous, shrubby, and woody plants in the bottoms of artificial hollows. The development of a soil profile is accompanied by the depletion of the clay fraction from the upper W horizon, presumably due to the predominant removal of smectite minerals. In the upper W horizon, transformations of layered aluminosilicates takes place: it involves the formation of illites from smectites and from smectitic layers in illite-smectite mixed-layered minerals and partial vermiculitization of chlorites. The technology used upon the excavation of the hollow can be recommended for growing woody-shrubby plants on soils of the solonetzic complex in the clay semidesert during a relatively short time period.

  14. Genetic monitoring reveals temporal stability over 30 years in a small, lake-resident brown trout population.

    PubMed

    Charlier, J; Laikre, L; Ryman, N

    2012-10-01

    Knowledge of the degree of temporal stability of population genetic structure and composition is important for understanding microevolutionary processes and addressing issues of human impact of natural populations. We know little about how representative single samples in time are to reflect population genetic constitution, and we explore the temporal genetic variability patterns over a 30-year period of annual sampling of a lake-resident brown trout (Salmo trutta) population, covering 37 consecutive cohorts and five generations. Levels of variation remain largely stable over this period, with no indication of substructuring within the lake. We detect genetic drift, however, and the genetically effective population size (N(e)) was assessed from allele-frequency shifts between consecutive cohorts using an unbiased estimator that accounts for the effect of overlapping generation. The overall mean N(e) is estimated as 74. We find indications that N(e) varies over time, but there is no obvious temporal trend. We also estimated N(e) using a one-sample approach based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) that does not account for the effect of overlapping generations. Combining one-sample estimates for all years gives an N(e) estimate of 76. This similarity between estimates may be coincidental or reflecting a general robustness of the LD approach to violations of the discrete generations assumption. In contrast to the observed genetic stability, body size and catch per effort have increased over the study period. Estimates of annual effective number of breeders (N(b)) correlated with catch per effort, suggesting that genetic monitoring can be used for detecting fluctuations in abundance.

  15. Overall decrease in the susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis to antimicrobials over the past 30 years in France.

    PubMed

    Gautier-Bouchardon, Anne V; Ferré, Séverine; Le Grand, Dominique; Paoli, Agnès; Gay, Emilie; Poumarat, François

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma (M.) bovis is frequently implicated in respiratory diseases of young cattle worldwide. Today, to combat M. bovis in Europe, only antimicrobial therapy is available, but often fails, leading to important economical losses. The antimicrobial susceptibility of M. bovis is not covered by antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks. The objectives of this study were to identify resistances that were acquired over the last 30 years in France and to determine their prevalence within contemporary strains. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values of 12 antimicrobials, considered active on M. bovis, were compared, using an agar dilution method, between 27 and 46 M. bovis isolates respectively obtained in 1978-1979 and in 2010-2012 from 73 distinct respiratory disease outbreaks in young cattle all over France. For eight antimicrobials, resistances were proven to be acquired over the period and expressed by all contemporary strains. The increase of the MIC value that inhibited 50% of the isolates (MIC50) was: i) substantial for tylosin, tilmicosin, tulathromycin and spectinomycin, from 2 to >64, 2 to >128, 16 to 128 and 4 to >64 µg/mL, respectively, ii) moderate for enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, marbofloxacin and oxytetracycline, from 0.25 to 0.5, 0.25 to 0.5, 0.5 to 1, 32 to >32 µg/mL, respectively. No differences were observed for gamithromycin, tildipirosin, florfenicol and valnemulin with MIC50 of 128, 128, 8, <0.03 µg/mL, respectively. If referring to breakpoint MIC values published for respiratory bovine pathogens, all contemporary isolates would be intermediate in vivo for fluoroquinolones and resistant to macrolides, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin and florfenicol.

  16. Overall Decrease in the Susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis to Antimicrobials over the Past 30 Years in France

    PubMed Central

    Gautier-Bouchardon, Anne V.; Ferré, Séverine; Le Grand, Dominique; Paoli, Agnès; Gay, Emilie; Poumarat, François

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma (M.) bovis is frequently implicated in respiratory diseases of young cattle worldwide. Today, to combat M. bovis in Europe, only antimicrobial therapy is available, but often fails, leading to important economical losses. The antimicrobial susceptibility of M. bovis is not covered by antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks. The objectives of this study were to identify resistances that were acquired over the last 30 years in France and to determine their prevalence within comtemporary strains. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values of 12 antimicrobials, considered active on M. bovis, were compared, using an agar dilution method, between 27 and 46 M. bovis isolates respectively obtained in 1978–1979 and in 2010–2012 from 73 distinct respiratory disease outbreaks in young cattle all over France. For eight antimicrobials, resistances were proven to be acquired over the period and expressed by all contemporary strains. The increase of the MIC value that inhibited 50% of the isolates (MIC50) was: i) substantial for tylosin, tilmicosin, tulathromycin and spectinomycin, from 2 to >64, 2 to >128, 16 to 128 and 4 to >64 µg/mL, respectively, ii) moderate for enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, marbofloxacin and oxytetracycline, from 0.25 to 0.5, 0.25 to 0.5, 0.5 to 1, 32 to >32 µg/mL, respectively. No differences were observed for gamithromycin, tildipirosin, florfenicol and valnemulin with MIC50 of 128, 128, 8, <0.03 µg/mL, respectively. If referring to breakpoint MIC values published for respiratory bovine pathogens, all contemporary isolates would be intermediate in vivo for fluoroquinolones and resistant to macrolides, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin and florfenicol. PMID:24503775

  17. Parent material and vegetation influence soil microbial community structure following 30-years of rock weathering and pedogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yarwood, Stephanie; Wick, Abbey; Williams, Mark; Daniels, W Lee

    2015-02-01

    The process of pedogenesis and the development of biological communities during primary succession begin on recently exposed mineral surfaces. Following 30 years of surface exposure of reclaimed surface mining sites (Appalachian Mountains, USA), it was hypothesized that microbial communities would differ between sandstone and siltstone parent materials and to a lesser extent between vegetation types. Microbial community composition was examined by targeting bacterial and archaeal (16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)) and fungal (internal transcribed spacer (ITS)) genes and analyzed using Illumina sequencing. Microbial community composition significantly differed between parent materials and between plots established with tall fescue grass or pitch x loblolly pine vegetation types, suggesting that both factors are important in shaping community assembly during early pedogenesis. At the phylum level, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria differed in relative abundance between sandstone and siltstone. The amount of the heavy fraction carbon (C) was significantly different between sandstone (2.0 mg g(-1)) and siltstone (5.2 mg g(-1)) and correlated with microbial community composition. Soil nitrogen (N) cycling was examined by determining gene copy numbers of ureC, archaeal amoA, and bacterial amoA. Gene quantities tended to be higher in siltstone compared to sandstone but did not differ by vegetation type. This was consistent with differences in extractable ammonium (NH4 (+)) concentrations between sandstone and siltstone (16.4 vs 8.5 μg NH4 (+)-N g(-1) soil), suggesting that nitrification rates may be higher in siltstone. Parent material and early vegetation are important determinants of early microbial community assembly and could be drivers for the trajectory of ecosystem development over longer time scales.

  18. Evolution of Corneal Graft Survival Over a 30-Year Period and Comparison of Surgical Techniques: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Bidaut-Garnier, Mélanie; Monnet, Elisabeth; Prongué, Aurélien; Montard, Romain; Gauthier, Anne-Sophie; Desmarets, Maxime; Mariet, Anne-Sophie; Ratajczak, Charlène; Binda, Delphine; Saleh, Maher; Delbosc, Bernard

    2016-03-01

    To compare graft survival between 3 10-year periods and according to surgical techniques performed in the last years. Cohort study. setting: Regional center (Besançon University Hospital, France). All 1132 patients operated on between 1983 and 2014. Graft and patient baseline characteristics, risk factors for failure, surgical procedures, and postoperative corneal status were collected. Five-year survival rate in the whole cohort; 1-year and 3-year survival rates, respectively, among 88 patients with endothelial dystrophy (ED) or postoperative bullous keratopathy (PBK) operated on using endothelial lamellar keratoplasty (ELK) or penetrating keratoplasty (PK), and among 56 patients with keratoconus operated on using anterior lamellar keratoplasty (ALK) or PK. Between the 1983-1993 and the 2004-2014 periods, overall 5-year graft survival rate increased from 61.4% to 76.5% (P = .0004). The main prognostic factors were preoperative diagnosis, graft endothelial density, and postoperative lens status. After adjusting for these factors, difference in survival rates was no longer significant (hazard ratio 0.90 for the second and 1.17 for the third period, compared to the first, P = .4191). Only 1 graft failure, after PK, occurred among the 56 patients with keratoconus. Among the 88 patients with ED or PBK, the 1-year graft survival was higher with PK (90.6%) than with ELK (60.8%) (P = .0025) but no significance remained after adjustment (hazard ratio 3.22, P = .1304). Despite numerous changes in graft procedures and surgical techniques, no noticeable improvement in graft survival was found during the last 30 years while taking into account other prognostic factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The importance of standardized treatment in high-grade osteosarcoma: 30 years of experience from a hospital-based database.

    PubMed

    Aggerholm-Pedersen, Ninna; Maretty-Nielsen, Katja; Keller, Johnny; Baerentzen, Steen; Schrøder, Henrik; Jørgensen, Peter Holmberg; Hansen, Bjarne Hauge; Nielsen, Ole Steen; Safwat, Akmal

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of high-grade osteosarcoma remains a major challenge in orthopedic oncology as no major breakthrough in overall survival has occurred in the past 20 years. Due to the rarity of the disease, comparing the results of a single institution to best standard practice needs the establishment of clinical databases. The aim of this study was to report the cumulative 30-years' experience of a single institution and to assess the incidence, survival and prognostic factors of high-grade osteosarcoma using a recently validated, hospital-based database, representing all citizens living in western Denmark, the Aarhus Sarcoma Registry. Between 1979 and 2008, 169 patients were treated at the Sarcoma Centre of Aarhus University Hospital for high-grade osteosarcoma. The incidence was calculated as a WHO age-standardized incidence per million per year. The endpoint was overall survival, analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank. Possible prognostic factors were analyzed by the uni- and multivariate Cox proportional hazard method. The incidence of high-grade osteosarcoma in western Denmark from 1979 to 2008 was 2.7/million inhabitants/year. The five-year overall survival was 42% (95% CI 34; 49) for the whole cohort of patients with high-grade osteosarcoma and 54% (95% CI 43; 64) for patients with localized disease treated with wide excision and chemotherapy. For patients treated with curative intent, no soft tissue extension, treatment with sufficient surgical margin and standard chemotherapy, as well as a high degree of necrosis after chemotherapy were all independent prognostic factors for overall survival. The data from this hospital-based, validated database confirms the relevance of the known prognostic factors of high-grade osteosarcoma and emphasizes the importance of adequate surgical margins and chemotherapy.

  20. Motives for and barriers to physical activity in twin pairs discordant for leisure time physical activity for 30 years.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, S; Leskinen, T; Morris, T; Alen, M; Kaprio, J; Liukkonen, J; Kujala, U

    2012-02-01

    Long-term persistent physical activity is important in the prevention of chronic diseases, but a large number of people do not participate in physical activity to obtain health benefits. The purpose of this study was to examine the motives and perceived barriers to long-term engagement in leisure time physical activity. Same-sex twin pairs (N=16, mean age 60) discordant for physical activity over 30 years were identified from the Finnish Twin Cohort. We evaluated participants' physical activity motivation with the 73-item Recreational Exercise Motivation Measure and assessed barriers to physical activity with a 25-item questionnaire. The characteristics of physical activity motivation and perceived barriers between the active and inactive co-twins were analysed using paired tests. Motives related to the sub-dimensions of enjoyment and physical fitness and psychological state were the most important reasons for participation in physical activity among all the twin individuals analysed. The sub-dimensions mastery (p=0.018, Cohen's d=0.76), physical fitness (p=0.029, Cohen's d=0.69), and psychological state (p=0.039, Cohen's d=0.65) differed significantly between active and inactive co-twins. More than half of the participants reported no reasons for not being physically active. If reasons existed, participation in physical activity was deterred mostly by pain and various health problems. This study found no differences in perceived barriers between active and inactive co-twins. We conclude from our results that the main factors promoting persistent leisure time physical activity were participants' wish to improve or maintain their physical skills or techniques, a feeling that exercise would improve their mental and physical health and that they found the activity enjoyable. This study helps us understand the importance of the role of motives and the minor role of perceived barriers for engagement in persistent physical activity.

  1. Impact of Renal Replacement Therapy in Childhood on Long-Term Socioprofessional Outcomes: A 30-year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Tjaden, Lidwien A; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Jager, Kitty J; Groothoff, Jaap W

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate socioprofessional outcomes after 30 years of renal replacement therapy (RRT) and explore predictors of these outcomes. The cohort comprised all Dutch patients, born before 1979, who started RRT at age <15 years in 1972-1992. Outcomes including family life, educational attainment, and professional life were obtained in 2000 and 2010 in 80 out of 152 survivors. Participants also completed the Course of Life Questionnaire in 2000, which retrospectively assessed the achievement of developmental milestones while growing up. Socioprofessional outcomes in 2010 were compared with the age-matched general population and with outcomes obtained in 2000. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify determinants of socioprofessional outcomes. Mean age and time on RRT in 2010 were 40.6 years (range 32.1-52.4) and 28.9 years (range 18.1-39.7), respectively. Patients were less likely to be employed (62.5% vs 81.0%) and have children (28.8% vs 64.8%) compared with the age-matched general population. Comorbidities, dialysis, short stature, and fewer milestones on autonomy were associated with adverse outcomes. Compared with 2000, in 2010 more patients lived with a partner (68.8% vs 43.0%), and more patients had completed a high level educational degree (22.5% vs 13.9%). However, more patients were unable to work on medical grounds in 2010 (36.3% vs 16.3%). Survivors of pediatric end-stage renal disease may gain social autonomy and optimal educational attainment at an older age compared with their general population counterparts. Awareness among health care professionals of the potential of these children and tailored psychosocial interventions might improve socioprofessional development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal dysfunction following severe burns: A summary of recent 30-year clinical experience

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Shi-Chu; Zhu, Shi-Hui; Xia, Zhao-Fan; Lu, Wei; Wang, Guang-Qing; Ben, Dao-Feng; Wang, Guang-Yi; Cheng, Da-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To sum up the recent 30-year experience in the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal dysfunction in severe burn patients, and propose practicable guidelines for the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction. METHODS: From 1980 to 2007, a total of 219 patients with large area and extraordinarily large area burns (LAB) were admitted, who were classified into three stages according the therapeutic protocols used at the time: Stage 1 from 1980 to 1989, stage 2 from 1990 to 1995, and stage 3 from 1996 to 2007. The occurrence and mortality of GI dysfunction in patients of the three stages were calculated and the main causes were analyzed. RESULTS: The occurrence of stress ulcer in patients with LAB was 8.6% in stage 1, which was significantly lower than that in stage 1 (P < 0.05). No massive hemorrhage from severe stress ulcer and enterogenic infections occurred in stages 2 and 3. The occurrence of abdominal distension and stress ulcer and the mortality in stage 3 patients with extraordinarily LAB was 7.1%, 21.4% and 28.5%, respectively, which were significantly lower than those in stage 1 patients (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), and the occurrence of stress ulcer was also significantly lower than that in stage 2 patients (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Comprehensive fluid resuscitation, early excision of necrotic tissue, staged food ingestion, and administration of specific nutrients are essential strategies for preventing gastrointestinal complications and lowering mortality in severely burned patients. PMID:18506931

  3. Childhood family income and life outcomes in adulthood: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Sheree J; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John

    2012-06-01

    The aims of this study were to use data gathered over the course of a 30-year longitudinal study to examine the linkages between economic circumstances in childhood and subsequent developmental outcomes spanning educational achievement; economic circumstances; crime; mental health; and teenage pregnancy. All of these outcomes have been linked with childhood economic conditions and it is frequently argued that reducing income inequalities will mitigate psychosocial risks of children reared in families facing economic hardship. Alternatively it may be suggested that the associations between childhood family economic circumstances and later outcomes are mediated by individual, family and social factors that are correlated with low family income and contribute to later outcomes. To examine these issues, data were drawn from a birth cohort of New Zealand children born in 1977 and followed to age 30. Declining childhood family income was associated with a range of negative outcomes in adulthood, including: lower educational achievement; poorer economic circumstances; higher rates of criminal offending; higher rates of mental health problems; and higher rates of teenage pregnancy. After covariate adjustment, childhood family income remained significantly associated with educational achievement and economic circumstances, but was no longer significantly associated with the mental health, offending and teenage pregnancy outcomes. These findings suggest that, after due allowance has been made for social, family and individual contextual factors, low family income during childhood is associated with a range of educational and economic disadvantages in adulthood but is not directly related to increased risks of crime, mental health problems or teen pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The thermal comfort and its changes in the 31 provincial capital cities of mainland China in the past 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Xiaoli; Li, Rui; Cubasch, Ulrich; Cao, Wenting

    2017-04-01

    The thermal comfort and its changes in the 31 provincial capital cities of mainland China in the past 30 years were comprehensively evaluated using the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) indicators. The PET and UTCI values were highly correlated with each other and presented similar thermal comfort pattern, although their sensitivities might differ slightly. The results showed that these cities covered, respectively, 4-8 and 6-8 thermal comfort classes of the PET and UTCI scale. On the whole, the annual cumulative number of pleasant days was more than 160 days/year. In terms of seasonal variations in thermal comfort conditions, the 31 provincial capital cities in mainland China can be classified into 5 types, which are, respectively, characterized by pleasant summer and severe cold winter (type-I); pleasant spring, autumn, winter, and severe hot summer (type-II); pleasant spring and autumn, slightly pleasant summer, and cold winter (type-III); pleasant spring and autumn, hot stress summer, and slightly cold winter (type-IV); and pleasant spring, summer, autumn, and cool winter (type-V). Type-II cities are rare winter resorts, while type-I cities are natural summer resorts. Type-V cities are the year round pleasant resorts. In the past three decades, the cities in mainland China had experienced increasing pleasant duration in late winter and early spring and intensifying heat stress in summer. The reduction in annual cumulative number of cold stress days in higher latitude/altitude cities outweighed the increase in duration of heat stress in subtropical cities. These may provide some references for urban planning and administration in mainland China.

  5. PREVALENCE OF UNCORRECTED REFRACTIVE ERRORS IN ADULTS AGED 30 YEARS AND ABOVE IN A RURAL POPULATION IN PAKISTAN.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Ayesha S; Jadoon, Milhammad Zahid; Akram, Mohammad; Awan, Zahid Hussain; Azam, Mohammad; Safdar, Mohammad; Nigar, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Uncorrected refractive errors are a leading cause of visual disability globally. This population-based study was done to estimate the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors in adults aged 30 years and above of village Pawakah, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. It was a cross-sectional survey in which 1000 individuals were included randomly. All the individuals were screened for uncorrected refractive errors and those whose visual acuity (VA) was found to be less than 6/6 were refracted. In whom refraction was found to be unsatisfactory (i.e., a best corrected visual acuity of <6/6) further examination was done to establish the cause for the subnormal vision. A total of 917 subjects participated in the survey (response rate 92%). The prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors was found to be 23.97% among males and 20% among females. The prevalence of visually disabling refractive errors was 6.89% in males and 5.71% in females. The prevalence was seen to increase with age, with maximum prevalence in 51-60 years age group. Hypermetropia (10.14%) was found to be the commonest refractive error followed by Myopia (6.00%) and Astigmatism (5.6%). The prevalence of Presbyopia was 57.5% (60.45% in males and 55.23% in females). Poor affordability was the commonest barrier to the use of spectacles, followed by unawareness. Cataract was the commonest reason for impaired vision after refractive correction. The prevalence of blindness was 1.96% (1.53% in males and 2.28% in females) in this community with cataract as the commonest cause. Despite being the most easily avoidable cause of subnormal vision uncorrected refractive errors still account for a major proportion of the burden of decreased vision in this area. Effective measures for the screening and affordable correction of uncorrected refractive errors need to be incorpora'ted into the health care delivery system.

  6. 30 years of change in understory plant communities along the Tanana River, Alaska: Revisiting the concept of turning points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, T. N.; Lloyd, A. H.; Ruess, R. W.; Viereck, L. A.; Charlton, B. A.

    2008-12-01

    In interior Alaska, the most productive forests occur along the floodplain of the glacially fed Tanana River. The Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (BCEF) is located approximately 20 km southwest of Fairbanks, Alaska and was established in 1963 to include representative floodplain forests along the Tanana River. Both the sequence and the mechanisms of succession have been relatively well studied along the Tanana River, where biological and physical "turning points" are hypothesized to be the main proponents of plant community succession. However, prior research has concentrated almost exclusively on four dominant woody taxa: willows, thin-leaf alder, balsam poplar, and white spruce. Comparatively little is known about successional changes in the understory taxa, including shrubs, herbaceous vascular plants, and nonvascular mosses and lichens. Long-term monitoring in BCEF not only provides a unique opportunity to investigate the relationships between vegetation and climate over a 30-year period, but also increases our knowledge and understanding about floodplain successional dynamics. Here, we analyze vegetation and climate data collected since 1977 located in the BCEF at the Bonanza Creek Long-Term Ecological Research (BNZ- LTER) site in order to address the following questions: 1) Are there identifiable understory turning points that mirror the overstory changes in succession? 2) Have changes in climate been manifested in unexpected understory vegetation changes? When examining understory vegetation, we found that the sites established in the 1970s rarely follow the traditional succesional paradigm. In addition, we found changes in functional abundance and diversity in late succesional stands that could indicate vegetation patterns related to associated changes in climate.

  7. Phenolic compositions of 50 and 30 year sequences of Australian red wines: the impact of wine age.

    PubMed

    McRae, Jacqui M; Dambergs, Robert G; Kassara, Stella; Parker, Mango; Jeffery, David W; Herderich, Markus J; Smith, Paul A

    2012-10-10

    The phenolic composition of red wine impacts upon the color and mouthfeel and thus quality of the wine. Both of these characteristics differ depending on the age of a wine, with the purple of young wines changing to brick red and the puckering or aggressive astringency softening in older wines. This study investigated the color parameters, tannin concentrations and tannin composition of a 50 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon wines from a commercial label as well as 30 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wines from a separate commercial label to assess the impact of wine age on phenolic composition and concentration. The wine color density in wines of 40 to 50 years old was around 5 AU compared with 16 AU of wine less than 12 months old, which correlated well with the concentration of non-bleachable pigments and pigmented polymers. Conversely, the anthocyanin concentrations in 10 year old wines were substantially lower than that of recently bottled wines (around 100 mg/L compared with 627 mg/L, respectively), adding further evidence that non-bleachable pigments including pigmented polymers play a much larger role in long-term wine color than anthocyanins. No age-related trend was observed for tannin concentration, indicating that the widely noted softer astringency of older red wines cannot necessarily be directly related to lower concentrations of soluble wine tannin and is potentially a consequence of changes in tannin structure. Wine tannins from older wines were generally larger than tannins from younger wines and showed structural changes consistent with oxidation.

  8. Genetic monitoring reveals temporal stability over 30 years in a small, lake-resident brown trout population

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, J; Laikre, L; Ryman, N

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the degree of temporal stability of population genetic structure and composition is important for understanding microevolutionary processes and addressing issues of human impact of natural populations. We know little about how representative single samples in time are to reflect population genetic constitution, and we explore the temporal genetic variability patterns over a 30-year period of annual sampling of a lake-resident brown trout (Salmo trutta) population, covering 37 consecutive cohorts and five generations. Levels of variation remain largely stable over this period, with no indication of substructuring within the lake. We detect genetic drift, however, and the genetically effective population size (Ne) was assessed from allele-frequency shifts between consecutive cohorts using an unbiased estimator that accounts for the effect of overlapping generation. The overall mean Ne is estimated as 74. We find indications that Ne varies over time, but there is no obvious temporal trend. We also estimated Ne using a one-sample approach based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) that does not account for the effect of overlapping generations. Combining one-sample estimates for all years gives an Ne estimate of 76. This similarity between estimates may be coincidental or reflecting a general robustness of the LD approach to violations of the discrete generations assumption. In contrast to the observed genetic stability, body size and catch per effort have increased over the study period. Estimates of annual effective number of breeders (Nb) correlated with catch per effort, suggesting that genetic monitoring can be used for detecting fluctuations in abundance. PMID:22828900

  9. Ecosystem sentinels for climate change? Evidence of wetland cover changes over the last 30 years in the tropical Andes

    PubMed Central

    Dangles, Olivier; Rabatel, Antoine; Kraemer, Martin; Zeballos, Gabriel; Soruco, Alvaro; Jacobsen, Dean; Anthelme, Fabien

    2017-01-01

    While the impacts of climate change on individual species and communities have been well documented there is little evidence on climate-mediated changes for entire ecosystems. Pristine alpine environments can provide unique insights into natural, physical and ecological response to climate change yet broad scale and long-term studies on these potential ‘ecosystem sentinels’ are scarce. We addressed this issue by examining cover changes of 1689 high-elevation wetlands (temporarily or perennial water-saturated grounds) in the Bolivian Cordillera Real, a region that has experienced significant warming and glacier melting over the last 30 years. We combined high spatial resolution satellite images from PLEIADES with the long-term images archive from LANDSAT to 1) examine environmental factors (e.g., glacier cover, wetland and watershed size) that affected wetland cover changes, and 2) identify wetlands’ features that affect their vulnerability (using habitat drying as a proxy) in the face of climate change. Over the (1984–2011) period, our data showed an increasing trend in the mean wetland total area and number, mainly related to the appearance of wet grassland patches during the wetter years. Wetland cover also showed high inter-annual variability and their area for a given year was positively correlated to precipitation intensities in the three months prior to the image date. Also, round wetlands located in highly glacierized catchments were less prone to drying, while relatively small wetlands with irregularly shaped contours suffered the highest rates of drying over the last three decades. High Andean wetlands can therefore be considered as ecosystem sentinels for climate change, as they seem sensitive to glacier melting. Beyond the specific focus of this study, our work illustrates how satellite-based monitoring of ecosystem sentinels can help filling the lack of information on the ecological consequences of current and changing climate conditions, a

  10. Ecosystem sentinels for climate change? Evidence of wetland cover changes over the last 30 years in the tropical Andes.

    PubMed

    Dangles, Olivier; Rabatel, Antoine; Kraemer, Martin; Zeballos, Gabriel; Soruco, Alvaro; Jacobsen, Dean; Anthelme, Fabien

    2017-01-01

    While the impacts of climate change on individual species and communities have been well documented there is little evidence on climate-mediated changes for entire ecosystems. Pristine alpine environments can provide unique insights into natural, physical and ecological response to climate change yet broad scale and long-term studies on these potential 'ecosystem sentinels' are scarce. We addressed this issue by examining cover changes of 1689 high-elevation wetlands (temporarily or perennial water-saturated grounds) in the Bolivian Cordillera Real, a region that has experienced significant warming and glacier melting over the last 30 years. We combined high spatial resolution satellite images from PLEIADES with the long-term images archive from LANDSAT to 1) examine environmental factors (e.g., glacier cover, wetland and watershed size) that affected wetland cover changes, and 2) identify wetlands' features that affect their vulnerability (using habitat drying as a proxy) in the face of climate change. Over the (1984-2011) period, our data showed an increasing trend in the mean wetland total area and number, mainly related to the appearance of wet grassland patches during the wetter years. Wetland cover also showed high inter-annual variability and their area for a given year was positively correlated to precipitation intensities in the three months prior to the image date. Also, round wetlands located in highly glacierized catchments were less prone to drying, while relatively small wetlands with irregularly shaped contours suffered the highest rates of drying over the last three decades. High Andean wetlands can therefore be considered as ecosystem sentinels for climate change, as they seem sensitive to glacier melting. Beyond the specific focus of this study, our work illustrates how satellite-based monitoring of ecosystem sentinels can help filling the lack of information on the ecological consequences of current and changing climate conditions, a common and

  11. Irreversible airway obstruction in adulthood after bronchiolitis in infancy: evidence from a 30-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Backman, Katri; Piippo-Savolainen, Eija; Ollikainen, Hertta; Koskela, Heikki; Korppi, Matti

    2014-01-01

    Lower respiratory infections in infancy may be associated with lung function deficits in adulthood. Our aim was to evaluate lung function, with a special focus on irreversible airway obstruction, thirty years after bronchiolitis or pneumonia in infancy. In 1981-1982, 83 children under two years of age were hospitalized for bronchiolitis and 44 for pneumonia at Kuopio University Hospital, Finland. In 2010, 47 bronchiolitis patients, 22 pneumonia patients and 138 controls attended the study, including spirometry before (pre-BD) and after bronchodilatation (post-BD). The measured indices were forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), that were presented as % of predicted value (FVC% and FEV1%). FEV1/FVC was presented as both absolute FVC/FEV1-ratio and % of predicted (FEV1/FVC%). Irreversible airway obstruction was defined as post-BD FEV1/FVC% below 88% of predicted (FEV1/FVC% <88%) according to Finnish reference values or FEV1/FVC-ratio below fifth percentile (FEV1/FVC <5th percentile), according to Global Lung Function Initiative reference values. All lung function indices were lower in former bronchiolitis patients and pre- and post-BD FEV1% in pneumonia patients, compared to controls. 21% of bronchiolitis (OR, 95%CI; 5.59, 1.72-18.21) and 9% of pneumonia patients (2.24, 0.34-13.56) had FEV1/FVC% <88% compared to controls (4%). Likewise 7 (15%) of bronchiolitis (7.07, 1.33-37.22) and 1 (5%) of pneumonia patients (1.73, 0.12-24.77) had FEV1/FVC <5th percentile compared to controls 2 (1%). Evidence of reduced lung function was present 30 years after hospitalization for bronchiolitis or pneumonia in infancy. Irreversible airway obstruction after severe bronchiolitis in infancy suggests permanent, structural alterations in airways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Treatment outcomes, quality of life, and impact of hemophilia on young adults (aged 18-30 years) with hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Witkop, Michelle; Guelcher, Christine; Forsyth, Angela; Hawk, Sarah; Curtis, Randall; Kelley, Laureen; Frick, Neil; Rice, Michelle; Rosu, Gabriela; Cooper, David L

    2015-12-01

    The Hemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities (HERO) initiative assessed psychosocial issues reported by people with moderate to severe hemophilia and was led by a multidisciplinary international advisory board. This analysis reports data from young adult respondents (aged 18-30 years), including both US and overall global (including US respondents) results, and investigates treatment outcomes, quality of life, and impacts of hemophilia on relationships. More young adults in HERO received prophylaxis than on-demand treatment, although a majority reported not using factor products exactly as prescribed, and 50% of global respondents and 26% of US respondents reported issues with access to factor replacement therapy in the previous 5 years. Many young adults with hemophilia reported comorbidities, including bone/skeletal arthritis, chronic pain, and viral infections, and nearly half of young adults reported anxiety/depression. Most reported pain interference with daily activities in the past 4 weeks, although a majority reported participating in lower-risk activities and approximately half in intermediate-risk activities. Most young adults were very or quite satisfied with the support of partners/spouses, family, and friends, although roughly one-third reported that hemophilia affected their ability to develop close relationships with a partner. A majority of young adults reported that hemophilia has had a negative impact on employment, and 62% of global respondents and 78% of US respondents were employed at least part-time. Together these data highlight the psychosocial issues experienced by young adults with hemophilia and suggest that increased focus on these issues may improve comprehensive care during the transition to adulthood.

  13. Impaired social cognition 30 years after hemispherectomy for intractable epilepsy: the importance of the right hemisphere in complex social functioning.

    PubMed

    Fournier, N M; Calverley, K L; Wagner, J P; Poock, J L; Crossley, M

    2008-04-01

    Clinical research with individuals following hemispherectomy typically quantifies the success of surgical outcomes by focusing primarily on the achievement of seizure control and the preservation of general brain functions, such as movement, sensation, language, and memory. In addition to these outcomes, careful study of individuals following hemispherectomy also has the potential to contribute to our understanding of functional brain asymmetries involving other complex cognitive behaviors. In this study, we report preliminary evidence for the lateralization of social perception. We administered a series of neuropsychological tests that were developed to assess emotional recognition and the formation of social inferences and advanced social cognitive judgments, as they occur in everyday situations, to two adult participants who underwent complete anatomic left- or right-sided hemispherectomy. Our results show that despite a 30-year postsurgical period of recovery and consistent and high levels of family support and social engagement, distinct cognitive profiles are still evident between our right- and left-sided participants. In particular, participant S.M., who underwent an anatomic right hemispherectomy, showed the most severe impairments in identifying negative emotional expressions and conversational exchanges involving lies and sarcasm and in "mentalizing" the intent of others. In contrast, participant J.H., who underwent an anatomic left hemispherectomy was highly skilled interpersonally, despite evident language-related limitations, and showed only mild difficulties when asked to identify emotional expressions involving disgust and anger. These results suggest that the right hemisphere plays a particularly important role in social cognitive functioning and reasoning. Further examination of the extent of social perceptual difficulties prior to and following surgical intervention for epilepsy may guide the development of effective social skills training

  14. Carbon Sources and Sinks of North America as Affected by Major Drought Events During the Past 30 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekonnen, Z. A.; Grant, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    The North American (NA) terrestrial biosphere has been a long-term carbon sink but impacts of climate extremes such as drought on ecosystem carbon exchange remained largely uncertain. Here, changes in biospheric carbon fluxes with recent climate change and impacts of the major droughts of the past 30 years on continental carbon cycle across NA were studied using a comprehensive mathematical process model, ecosys. In test of these model responses at continental scale, the spatial anomalies from long-term (1980 - 2010) means in modeled leaf area indices (LAI), fully prognostic in the model, during major drought events in 1988 and 2002 agreed well with those in AVHRR NDVI (geographically weighted regression, R2 = 0.84 in 1988, 0.71 in 2002). NA modeled net ecosystem productivity (NEP) declined by 92% (0.50 Pg C yr-1) and 90% (0.49 Pg C yr-1) from the long-term mean (+0.54 Pg C yr-1), in 1988 and 2002 respectively. These significant drops in NEP offset 28% of the long-term carbon gains from the long-term mean over the last three decades. Although, the long-term average modeled terrestrial carbon sink was estimated to offset ~30% of the fossil fuel emissions of NA, only 0.03 and 3.2% were offset in 1988 and 2002 leaving almost all fossil fuel emissions to the atmosphere. These major drought events that may be associated to frequent occurrences of El Niño-Southern Oscillation, controlled much of the continental scale interannual variability and mainly occurred in parts of the Great Plains, southwest US and northern Mexico. Although stronger carbon sinks were modeled in northern ecosystems as a result of greater gross primary productivity with longer growing season, projected increases in frequency and intensity of drought could enhance carbon release hence may reduce net carbon sink of the continent.

  15. Satellite derived 30-year trends in terrestrial frozen and non-frozen seasons and associated impacts to vegetation and atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Kimball, J. S.; McDonald, K. C.; Glassy, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Approximately 66 million km2 (52.5 %) of the global vegetated land area experiences seasonally frozen temperatures as a major constraint to ecosystem processes. The freeze-thaw (F/T) status of the landscape as derived from satellite microwave remote sensing is closely linked to surface energy budget and hydrological activity, vegetation phenology, terrestrial carbon budgets and land-atmosphere trace gas exchange. We utilized a seasonal threshold algorithm based temporal change classification of 37GHz frequency, vertically polarized brightness temperatures (Tb) from the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) pathfinder and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) to classify daily F/T status for all global land areas where seasonal frozen temperatures are a major constraint to ecosystem processes. A temporally consistent, long-term (30 year) daily F/T record was created by pixel-wise correction of the SMMR Tb record based on empirical analyses of overlapping SMMR and SSM/I measurements acquired during 1987. The resulting combined F/T record was validated against in situ temperature measurements from the global weather station network and applied to quantify regional patterns and trends in timing and length of frozen and non-frozen seasons. The F/T results were compared against other surrogate measures of biosphere activity including satellite AVHRR (GIMMS) based vegetation greenness (NDVI) and atmospheric CO2 concentrations over northern (>50N) land areas. The resulting F/T record showed mean annual classification accuracies of 91 (+/-1.0) and 84 (+/- 0.9) percent for PM and AM overpass retrievals relative to in situ weather station records. The F/T record showed significant (P=0.008) long-term trends in non-frozen period (0.207 days/yr) that were largely driven by earlier onset of spring thaw (-0.121 days/yr) and a small, delayed trend the arrival of the frozen period (0.107 days/yr). These results coincide with 0.025 C/yr warming trends in

  16. Hydrologic Triggering of Shallow Landslides in a Field-scale Flume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. E.; Iverson, R. M.; Iverson, N. R.; Brien, D. L.; Lahusen, R. G.; Logan, M.

    2006-12-01

    Hydrologic Triggering of Shallow Landslides in a Field-scale Flume Mark E. Reid, Richard M. Iverson, Neal R. Iverson, Dianne L. Brien, Richard G. LaHusen, and Mathew Logan Shallow landslides are often triggered by pore-water pressure increases driven by 1) groundwater inflow from underlying bedrock or soil, 2) prolonged moderate-intensity rainfall or snowmelt, or 3) bursts of high-intensity rainfall. These shallow failures are difficult to capture in the field, limiting our understanding of how different water pathways control failure style or timing. We used the field-scale, USGS debris-flow flume for 7 controlled landslide initiation experiments designed to examine the influence of different hydrologic triggers and the role of soil density, relative to critical state, on failure style and timing. Using sprinklers and/or groundwater injectors, we induced failure in a 0.65m thick, 2m wide, 6m3 prism of loamy sand on a 31° slope, placed behind a retaining wall. We monitored ~50 sensors to measure soil deformation (tiltmeters & extensometers), pore pressure (tensiometers and transducers), and soil moisture (TDR probes). We also extracted soil samples for laboratory estimates of porosity, shear strength, saturated hydraulic conductivity at differing porosities, unsaturated moisture retention characteristics, and compressibility. Experiments with loose soil all resulted in abrupt failure along the concrete flume bed with rapid mobilization into a debris flow. Each of the 3 water pathways, however, resulted in slightly different pore-pressure fields at failure and different times to failure. For example, groundwater injection at the flume bed led to a saturated zone that advanced upward, wetting over half the soil prism before pressures at the bed were sufficient to provoke collapse. With moderate-intensity surface sprinkling, an unsaturated wetting front propagated downward until reaching the bed, then a saturated zone built upward, with the highest pressures at the

  17. Field Scale Groundwater Nitrate Loading Model for the Central Valley, California, 1945-Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, T.; Dzurella, K.; Bell, A.; Kourakos, G.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic groundwater nitrate contamination in the Central Valley aquifer system, California, is widespread, with over 40% of domestic wells in some counties exceeding drinking water standards. Sources of groundwater nitrate include leaky municipal wastewater systems, municipal wastewater recharge, onsite wastewater treatment (septic) systems, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, animal farming, application of organic waste materials (sludge, biosolids, animal manure) to agricultural lands, and synthetic fertilizer. At the site or field scale, nitrogen inputs to the landscape are balanced by plant nitrogen uptake and harvest, atmospheric nitrogen losses, surface runoff of nitrogen, soil nitrogen storage changes, and leaching to groundwater. Irrigated agriculture is a dominant player in the Central Valley nitrogen cycle: The largest nitrogen fluxes are synthetic fertilizer and animal manure applications to cropland, crop nitrogen uptake, and groundwater nitrogen losses. We construct a historic field/parcel scale groundwater nitrogen loading model distinguishing urban and residential areas, individual animal farming areas, leaky wastewater lagoons, and approximately 50 different categories of agricultural crops. For non-agricultural landuses, groundwater nitrate loading is based on reported leaching values, animal population, and human population. For cropland, groundwater nitrate loading is computed from mass balance, taking into account diverse and historically changing management practices between different crops. Groundwater nitrate loading is estimated for 1945 to current. Significant increases in groundwater nitrate loading are associated with the expansion of synthetic fertilizer use in the 1950s to 1970s. Nitrate loading from synthetic fertilizer use has stagnated over the past 20 years due to improvements in nutrient use efficiency. However, an unbroken 60 year exponential increase in dairy production until the late 2000s has significantly impacted the

  18. Regional-Scale Salt Tectonics Modelling: Bench-Scale Validation and Extension to Field-Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crook, A. J. L.; Yu, J. G.; Thornton, D. A.

    2010-05-01

    extension of a previously published approach (Crook et al., 2006a, 2006b) that focused on predictive modelling of structure evolution in 2-D sandbox experiments, and in particular two extensional sand box experiments that exhibit complex fault development including a series of superimposed crestal collapse graben systems (McClay, 1990) . The formulation adopts a finite strain Lagrangian method, complemented by advanced localization prediction algorithms and robust and efficient automated adaptive meshing techniques. The sediment is represented by an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model based on extended critical state concepts, which enables representation of the combined effect of mechanical and chemical compaction. This is achieved by directly coupling the evolution of the material state boundary surface with both the mechanically and chemically driven porosity change. Using these procedures the evolution of the geological structures arises naturally from the imposed boundary conditions without the requirement of seeding using initial imperfections. Simulations are presented for regional bench-scale models based on the analogue experiments presented by Fort et al. (2004), together with additional insights provided by the numerical models. It is shown that the behaviour observed in both the extensional and compressional zones of these analogue models arises naturally in the finite element simulations. Extension of these models to the field-scale is then discussed and several simulations are presented to highlight important issues related to practical field-scale numerical modelling.

  19. Ambient Heat and Sudden Infant Death: A Case-Crossover Study Spanning 30 Years in Montreal, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, William D.; Smargiassi, Audrey; Kosatsky, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Background Climate change may lead to more severe and extreme heat waves in the future, but its potential impact on sudden infant death—a leading cause of infant mortality—is unclear. Objectives We sought to determine whether risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is elevated during hot weather. Methods We undertook a case-crossover analysis of all sudden infant deaths during warm periods in metropolitan Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from 1981 through 2010. Our analysis included a total of 196 certified cases of SIDS, including 89 deaths at 1–2 months of age, and 94 at 3–12 months. We estimated associations between maximum outdoor temperatures and SIDS by comparing outdoor temperatures on the day of or day before a SIDS event with temperatures on control days during the same month, using cubic splines to model temperature and adjusting for relative humidity. Results Maximum daily temperatures of ≥ 29°C on the same day were associated with 2.78 times greater odds of sudden infant death relative to 20°C (95% CI: 1.64, 4.70). The likelihood of sudden death increased steadily with higher temperature. Associations were stronger for infants 3–12 months of age than for infants 1–2 months of age, with odds ratios of 3.90 (95% CI: 1.87, 8.13) and 1.73 (95% CI: 0.80, 3.73), respectively, for 29°C compared with 20°C on the day of the event. Conclusions High ambient temperature may be a novel risk factor for SIDS, especially at ≥ 3 months of age. Climate change and the higher temperatures that result may account for a potentially greater proportion of sudden infant deaths in the future. Citation Auger N, Fraser WD, Smargiassi A, Kosatsky T. 2015. Ambient heat and sudden infant death: a case-crossover study spanning 30 years in Montreal, Canada. Environ Health Perspect 123:712–716; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307960 PMID:25748025

  20. The impact of economic austerity and prosperity events on suicide in Greece: a 30-year interrupted time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C; Kastanaki, Anastasia E; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Tzougas, John; Kranioti, Elena F; Theodorakis, Pavlos N; Carr, Brendan G; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To complete a 30-year interrupted time-series analysis of the impact of austerity-related and prosperity-related events on the occurrence of suicide across Greece. Setting Greece from 1 January 1983 to 31 December 2012. Participants A total of 11 505 suicides, 9079 by men and 2426 by women, occurring in Greece over the study period. Primary and secondary outcomes National data from the Hellenic Statistical Authority assembled as 360 monthly counts of: all suicides, male suicides, female suicides and all suicides plus potentially misclassified suicides. Results In 30 years, the highest months of suicide in Greece occurred in 2012. The passage of new austerity measures in June 2011 marked the beginning of significant, abrupt and sustained increases in total suicides (+35.7%, p<0.001) and male suicides (+18.5%, p<0.01). Sensitivity analyses that figured in undercounting of suicides also found a significant, abrupt and sustained increase in June 2011 (+20.5%, p<0.001). Suicides by men in Greece also underwent a significant, abrupt and sustained increase in October 2008 when the Greek recession began (+13.1%, p<0.01), and an abrupt but temporary increase in April 2012 following a public suicide committed in response to austerity conditions (+29.7%, p<0.05). Suicides by women in Greece also underwent an abrupt and sustained increase in May 2011 following austerity-related events (+35.8%, p<0.05). One prosperity-related event, the January 2002 launch of the Euro in Greece, marked an abrupt but temporary decrease in male suicides (−27.1%, p<0.05). Conclusions This is the first multidecade, national analysis of suicide in Greece using monthly data. Select austerity-related events in Greece corresponded to statistically significant increases for suicides overall, as well as for suicides among men and women. The consideration of future austerity measures should give greater weight to the unintended mental health consequences that may follow and the public

  1. The impact of economic austerity and prosperity events on suicide in Greece: a 30-year interrupted time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    Branas, Charles C; Kastanaki, Anastasia E; Michalodimitrakis, Manolis; Tzougas, John; Kranioti, Elena F; Theodorakis, Pavlos N; Carr, Brendan G; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2015-02-02

    To complete a 30-year interrupted time-series analysis of the impact of austerity-related and prosperity-related events on the occurrence of suicide across Greece. Greece from 1 January 1983 to 31 December 2012. A total of 11 505 suicides, 9079 by men and 2426 by women, occurring in Greece over the study period. National data from the Hellenic Statistical Authority assembled as 360 monthly counts of: all suicides, male suicides, female suicides and all suicides plus potentially misclassified suicides. In 30 years, the highest months of suicide in Greece occurred in 2012. The passage of new austerity measures in June 2011 marked the beginning of significant, abrupt and sustained increases in total suicides (+35.7%, p<0.001) and male suicides (+18.5%, p<0.01). Sensitivity analyses that figured in undercounting of suicides also found a significant, abrupt and sustained increase in June 2011 (+20.5%, p<0.001). Suicides by men in Greece also underwent a significant, abrupt and sustained increase in October 2008 when the Greek recession began (+13.1%, p<0.01), and an abrupt but temporary increase in April 2012 following a public suicide committed in response to austerity conditions (+29.7%, p<0.05). Suicides by women in Greece also underwent an abrupt and sustained increase in May 2011 following austerity-related events (+35.8%, p<0.05). One prosperity-related event, the January 2002 launch of the Euro in Greece, marked an abrupt but temporary decrease in male suicides (-27.1%, p<0.05). This is the first multidecade, national analysis of suicide in Greece using monthly data. Select austerity-related events in Greece corresponded to statistically significant increases for suicides overall, as well as for suicides among men and women. The consideration of future austerity measures should give greater weight to the unintended mental health consequences that may follow and the public messaging of these policies and related events. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  2. Climatic effects of 30 years of landscape change over the Greater Phoenix, Arizona, region: 1. Surface energy budget changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Georgescu, M.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Weaver, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is part 1 of a two-part study that evaluates the climatic effects of recent landscape change for one of the nation's most rapidly expanding metropolitan complexes, the Greater Phoenix, Arizona, region. The region's landscape evolution over an approximate 30-year period since the early 1970s is documented on the basis of analyses of Landsat images and land use/land cover (LULC) data sets derived from aerial photography (1973) and Landsat (1992 and 2001). High-resolution, Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), simulations (2-km grid spacing) are used in conjunction with consistently defined land cover data sets and associated biophysical parameters for the circa 1973, circa 1992, and circa 2001 time periods to quantify the impacts of intensive land use changes on the July surface temperatures and the surface radiation and energy budgets for the Greater Phoenix region. The main findings are as follows: since the early 1970s the region's landscape has been altered by a significant increase in urban/suburban land area, primarily at the expense of decreasing plots of irrigated agriculture and secondarily by the conversion of seminatural shrubland. Mean regional temperatures for the circa 2001 landscape were 0.12??C warmer than the circa 1973 landscape, with maximum temperature differences, located over regions of greatest urbanization, in excess of 1??C. The significant reduction in irrigated agriculture, for the circa 2001 relative to the circa 1973 landscape, resulted in dew point temperature decreases in excess of 1??C. The effect of distinct land use conversion themes (e.g., conversion from irrigated agriculture to urban land) was also examined to evaluate how the most important conversion themes have each contributed to the region's changing climate. The two urbanization themes studied (from an initial landscape of irrigated agriculture and seminatural shrubland) have the greatest positive effect on near-surface temperature, increasing maximum daily

  3. Therapeutic management changes and mortality rates over 30 years in ventricular septal rupture complicating acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Morillon-Lutun, Sophie; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine; Mewton, Nathan; Farhat, Fadi; Bresson, Didier; Girerd, Nicolas; Desebbe, Olivier; Henaine, Roland; Kirkorian, Gilbert; Bonnefoy-Cudraz, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that the decrease in ventricular septal rupture (VSR) incidence after acute myocardial infarction is related to the improvement of reperfusion strategies. Our main objective was to explore the influence of therapeutic management changes on post-infarct VSR patient outcomes in a single reference center over a period of 30 years. We analyzed therapeutic management strategies and mortality rates in 228 patients with VSR after acute myocardial infarction admitted from 1981 to 2010. Patients were classified in 3 successive decades. There were no significant differences in clinical characteristics of patients with VSR at admission among those decades. Overall, surgery was performed in 159 patients (71.9%), primary transcatheter VSR closure was attempted in 5 patients (2.2%), and 64 patients (27.6%) were managed medically. Independent predictors of in-hospital mortality were VSR surgical repair (odds ratio [OR] 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1 to 0.7, p = 0.008), cardiogenic shock (OR 6.06, 95% CI 2.8 to 13.1, p <0.0001), and Killip class on admission (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.1 to 9.9, p = 0.02). We found a significant 1-year mortality reduction between the first and second decades (hazard ratio 0.48, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.80; p = 0.005), with no significant change in the last decade (p = 0.2). This change was related to a systematic referral to surgical repair and shorter delays to VSR surgery (5.2 ± 6.3 vs 1.9 ± 3.2 days from first to second decade; p = 0.012). In conclusion, surgical repair remains the only significant efficient therapy to reduce mortality in patients with VSR (p <10(-3)). In-hospital prognosis remains disappointing. This contrasts with the favorable long-term outcome of patients who survive the perioperative period and are discharged from hospital. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 30 Year Patterns of Mortality in Tobago, West Indies, 1976-2005: Impact of Glucose Intolerance and Alcohol Intake

    PubMed Central

    Molokhia, Mariam; Nitsch, Dorothea; Patrick, Alan Leslie; McKeigue, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine the main predictors of all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality in a rural West Indian population in Plymouth, Tobago over 30 years. Methods Questionnaire survey for CV risk factors and alcohol consumption patterns administered at baseline in 1976 with 92.5% response rate. 831/832 patients were followed up until 2005 or death. Results Hypertension (>140/90 mm Hg) was prevalent in 48% of men and 44% of women, and 21% of men and 17% of women had diabetes. Evidence showed most predictors for all cause and cardiovascular mortality having the main effects at ages <60 years, (p-value for interaction<0.01) but no risk factors having sex-specific effects on mortality. The main predictors of all-cause mortality at age <60 years in the fully adjusted model were high sessional alcohol intake (hazard ratio (HR) 2.04, 95% CI 1.10-3.80), severe hypertension >160/95 mm Hg (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.09-2.60), diabetes (HR 3.28, 95% CI 1.89-5.69), and BMI (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.07). The main predictors of cardiovascular mortality were similar in the fully adjusted model: high sessional alcohol intake (HR 2.47 95% CI 1.10-5.57), severe hypertension (HR 2.78 95% CI 1.56-4.95), diabetes (HR 3.68 95% CI 1.77-7.67) and additionally LVH, (HR 5.54 95% CI 1.38-22.26), however BMI did not show independent effects. For men, high sessional alcohol intake explains 27% of all cause mortality, and 40% of cardiovascular mortality at age <60 yrs. In adults aged <60 years, the attributable risk fraction for IGT/Diabetes and all cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality is 28% in women vs. 11% in men, and 22% in women vs. 6% in men respectively. Conclusions In this Afro-Caribbean population we found that a major proportion of deaths are attributable to high sessional alcohol intake (in males), diabetes, and hypertension and these risk factors primarily operate in those below 60 years. PMID:21283617

  5. Evaluating the demographic buffering hypothesis with vital rates estimated for Weddell seals from 30years of mark-recapture data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rotella, J.J.; Link, W.A.; Chambert, T.; Stauffer, G.E.; Garrott, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    1.Life-history theory predicts that those vital rates that make larger contributions to population growth rate ought to be more strongly buffered against environmental variability than are those that are less important. Despite the importance of the theory for predicting demographic responses to changes in the environment, it is not yet known how pervasive demographic buffering is in animal populations because the validity of most existing studies has been called into question because of methodological deficiencies. 2.We tested for demographic buffering in the southern-most breeding mammal population in the world using data collected from 5558 known-age female Weddell seals over 30years. We first estimated all vital rates simultaneously with mark-recapture analysis and then estimated process variance and covariance in those rates using a hierarchical Bayesian approach. We next calculated the population growth rate's sensitivity to changes in each of the vital rates and tested for evidence of demographic buffering by comparing properly scaled values of sensitivity and process variance in vital rates. 3.We found evidence of positive process covariance between vital rates, which indicates that all vital rates are affected in the same direction by changes in annual environment. Despite the positive correlations, we found strong evidence that demographic buffering occurred through reductions in variation in the vital rates to which population growth rate was most sensitive. Process variation in vital rates was inversely related to sensitivity measures such that variation was greatest in breeding probabilities, intermediate for survival rates of young animals and lowest for survival rates of older animals. 4.Our work contributes to a small but growing set of studies that have used rigorous methods on long-term, detailed data to investigate demographic responses to environmental variation. The information from these studies improves our understanding of life

  6. Numerical Analysis of Thermal Remediation in 3D Field-Scale Fractured Geologic Media.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Falta, Ronald W; Murdoch, Lawrence C

    2015-01-01

    Thermal methods are promising for remediating fractured geologic media contaminated with volatile organic compounds, and the success of this process depends on the coupled heat transfer, multiphase flow, and thermodynamics. This study analyzed field-scale removal of trichloroethylene (TCE) and heat transfer behavior in boiling fractured geologic media using the multiple interacting continua method. This method can resolve local gradients in the matrix and is less computationally demanding than alternative methods like discrete fracture-matrix models. A 2D axisymmetric model was used to simulate a single element of symmetry in a repeated pattern of extraction wells inside a large heated zone and evaluate effects of parameter sensitivity on contaminant recovery. The results showed that the removal of TCE increased with matrix permeability, and the removal rate was more sensitive to matrix permeability than any other parameter. Increasing fracture density promoted TCE removal, especially when the matrix permeability was low (e.g., <10(-17) m(2)). A 3D model was used to simulate an entire treatment zone and the surrounding groundwater in fractured material, with the interaction between them being considered. Boiling was initiated in the center of the upper part of the heated region and expanded toward the boundaries. This boiling process resulted in a large increase in the TCE removal rate and spread of TCE to the vadose zone and the peripheries of the heated zone. The incorporation of extraction wells helped control the contaminant from migrating to far regions. After 22 d, more than 99.3% of TCE mass was recovered in the simulation. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  7. Modelling field scale water partitioning using on-site observations in sub-Saharan rainfed agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makurira, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2009-08-01

    Smallholder rainfed farming systems generally realise sub-optimal crop yields which are largely attributed to dry spell occurrences during crop growth stages. However, with improved farming practices, it seems possible to significantly increase yield levels even with little and highly variable rainfall. The presented results follow research conducted in the Makanya catchment in northern Tanzania where gross rainfall amounts to less than 400 mm/season which is insufficient to support staple food crops (e.g. maize). Alternative cultivation techniques such as runoff harvesting and in-field micro-storage structures are compared. These techniques aim to reduce soil and nutrient loss from the field but, more importantly, promote in-field infiltration and water retention. Water balance components have been observed in order to study water partitioning processes under different cultivation techniques. Based on rainfall, soil evaporation, transpiration, runoff and soil moisture measurements, a water balance model has been developed to simulate soil moisture variations over the growing season. It appears that about 50% of the diverted water leaves the root zone through deep percolation. Modelling shows that during the field trials the average productive transpiration flow ranged between 1.1-1.4 mm d-1 in the trial plots compared to 0.7-1.0 mm d-1 under traditional tillage practice. Productive transpiration processes accounted for 23-29% while losses to deep percolation accounted for 33-48% of the available water. Conclusions from the research are that the innovations tested are effective in enhancing soil moisture retention at field scale and that diversions allow crop growth moisture conditions to be attained with early rains. It is also concluded that there is more scope for efficient utilisation of the diverted runoff water if storage structures could be installed to regulate water flow to the root zone when required.

  8. Project Overview: Successful Field-Scale in SITU Thermal NAPL Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Butherus, Michael; Ingle, David S.; Juhlin, Randall; Daniel, Joseph; none,

    2004-10-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) successfully completed a field-scale remediation to remove non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) from the subsurface at the Northeast Site on the Young-Rainey Science, Technology, and Research (STAR) Center, Largo, Florida. The Young-Rainey STAR Center is a former DOE facility that was previously known as the Pinellas Plant and the Pinellas STAR Center. The remediation project encompassed an area of 10,000 ft2 and depths extending to 35 ft below ground surface. Prior to the remediation, DOE evaluated technologies that had the potential to remove NAPLs from the subsurface at the site. Because of site conditions (clay lenses and an underlying clay layer that were thought to be contaminated), steam injection and electrical heating were considered to be the only technologies that had the potential to remove these NAPLs. In July 2001, DOE’s contractor awarded a subcontract for removal of NAPLs from a portion of the Northeast Site. The technologies used for remediation were a combination of steam-enhanced extraction and Electro-Thermal Dynamic Stripping Process, an electrical resistive heating technology. Construction of the remediation system was completed in September 2002. Remedial operations began immediately after construction, and active heating ended in February 2003. After operations were completed, confirmatory sampling was conducted during a 6-month period to verify the level of cleanup achieved. Additional confirmatory sampling was conducted 18 months after operations ended. Analytical results of the confirmatory sampling showed that NAPL concentrations were reduced significantly below the required cleanup goals and, in most cases, below the regulatory maximum contaminant levels. Lessons learned relative to the design, construction, operation, confirmatory sampling approach, and subcontracting could benefit managers of similar remediation projects.

  9. Saline tracer visualized with three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography: Field-scale spatial moment analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singha, Kamini; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    Cross-well electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used to monitor the migration of a saline tracer in a two-well pumping-injection experiment conducted at the Massachusetts Military Reservation in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. After injecting 2200 mg/L of sodium chloride for 9 hours, ERT data sets were collected from four wells every 6 hours for 20 days. More than 180,000 resistance measurements were collected during the tracer test. Each ERT data set was inverted to produce a sequence of 3-D snapshot maps that track the plume. In addition to the ERT experiment a pumping test and an infiltration test were conducted to estimate horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity values. Using modified moment analysis of the electrical conductivity tomograms, the mass, center of mass, and spatial variance of the imaged tracer plume were estimated. Although the tomograms provide valuable insights into field-scale tracer migration behavior and aquifer heterogeneity, standard tomographic inversion and application of Archie's law to convert electrical conductivities to solute concentration results in underestimation of tracer mass. Such underestimation is attributed to (1) reduced measurement sensitivity to electrical conductivity values with distance from the electrodes and (2) spatial smoothing (regularization) from tomographic inversion. The center of mass estimated from the ERT inversions coincided with that given by migration of the tracer plume using 3-D advective-dispersion simulation. The 3-D plumes seen using ERT exhibit greater apparent dispersion than the simulated plumes and greater temporal spreading than observed in field data of concentration breakthrough at the pumping well.

  10. Modeling field-scale cosolvent flooding for DNAPL source zone remediation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hailian; Falta, Ronald W

    2008-02-19

    A three-dimensional, compositional, multiphase flow simulator was used to model a field-scale test of DNAPL removal by cosolvent flooding. The DNAPL at this site was tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and the flooding solution was an ethanol/water mixture, with up to 95% ethanol. The numerical model, UTCHEM accounts for the equilibrium phase behavior and multiphase flow of a ternary ethanol-PCE-water system. Simulations of enhanced cosolvent flooding using a kinetic interphase mass transfer approach show that when a very high concentration of alcohol is injected, the DNAPL/water/alcohol mixture forms a single phase and local mass transfer limitations become irrelevant. The field simulations were carried out in three steps. At the first level, a simple uncalibrated layered model is developed. This model is capable of roughly reproducing the production well concentrations of alcohol, but not of PCE. A more refined (but uncalibrated) permeability model is able to accurately simulate the breakthrough concentrations of injected alcohol from the production wells, but is unable to accurately predict the PCE removal. The final model uses a calibration of the initial PCE distribution to get good matches with the PCE effluent curves from the extraction wells. It is evident that the effectiveness of DNAPL source zone remediation is mainly affected by characteristics of the spatial heterogeneity of porous media and the variable (and unknown) DNAPL distribution. The inherent uncertainty in the DNAPL distribution at real field sites means that some form of calibration of the initial contaminant distribution will almost always be required to match contaminant effluent breakthrough curves.

  11. Field-scale prediction of enhanced DNAPL dissolution based on partitioning tracers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Annable, Michael D; Jawitz, James W

    2013-09-01

    The equilibrium streamtube model (EST) has demonstrated the ability to accurately predict dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) dissolution in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. Here the model is applied to predict DNAPL dissoluti