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Sample records for 300-mwe utility boiler

  1. Improved NOx emissions and combustion characteristics for a retrofitted down-fired 300-MWe utility boiler.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengqi; Ren, Feng; Chen, Zhichao; Liu, Guangkui; Xu, Zhenxing

    2010-05-15

    A new technique combining high boiler efficiency and low-NO(x) emissions was employed in a 300MWe down-fired boiler as an economical means to reduce NO(x) emissions in down-fired boilers burning low-volatile coals. Experiments were conducted on this boiler after the retrofit with measurements taken of gas temperature distributions along the primary air and coal mixture flows and in the furnace, furnace temperatures along the main axis and gas concentrations such as O(2), CO and NO(x) in the near-wall region. Data were compared with those obtained before the retrofit and verified that by applying the combined technique, gas temperature distributions in the furnace become more reasonable. Peak temperatures were lowered from the upper furnace to the lower furnace and flame stability was improved. Despite burning low-volatile coals, NO(x) emissions can be lowered by as much as 50% without increasing the levels of unburnt carbon in fly ash and reducing boiler thermal efficiency.

  2. Combustion characteristics and NOx emissions of two kinds of swirl burners in a 300-MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.Q.; Jing, J.P.; Chen, Z.C.; Ren, F.; Xu, B.; Wei, H.D.; Ge, Z.H.

    2008-07-01

    Measurements were performed in a 300-MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler. Enhanced ignition-dual register (EI-DR) burners and centrally fuel rich (CFR) swirl coal combustion burners were installed in the bottom row of the furnace during experiments. Local mean concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and NOx gas species, gas temperatures, and char burnout were determined in the region of the two types of burners. For centrally fuel rich swirl coal combustion burners, local mean CO concentrations, gas temperatures and the temperature gradient are higher and mean concentrations of O{sub 2} and NOx along the jet flow direction in the burner region are lower than for the enhanced ignition-dual register burners. Moreover, the mean O{sub 2} concentration is higher and the gas temperature and mean CO concentration are lower in the side wall region. For centrally fuel rich swirl coal combustion burners in the bottom row, the combustion efficiency of the boiler increases from 96.73% to 97.09%, and NOx emission decreases from 411.5 to 355 ppm at 6% O{sub 2} compared to enhanced ignition-dual register burners and the boiler operates stably at 110 MWe without auxiliary fuel oil.

  3. Operational Status of 300MWe CFB Boiler in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. F.; Mi, J. H.; Hao, J. H.; Yang, S.; Huang, H. T.; Ji, H. M.; Lu, J. F.; Yue, G. X.

    China has the largest number of 300MW circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers in the word within, built in a short period of several years. Now, there are 13 CFB units in operating and other about 50 CFB boilers under construction or will be under construction soon. Summarization and analysis of the operational performance of the 300MWe CFB units are conducted. The reliability, economy and emission of these unite are introduced. The problems in these units are summarized. Some advices for improvement and future research are given.

  4. Operation Experience and Performance of the First 300MWe CFB Boiler Developed by DBC in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Q.; Zheng, X. S.; Zhou, Q.; Nie, L.; Liu, T. S.; Hu, X. K.; Lu, J. F.

    In this paper, general layout, design, operational experience and performance of the first 300MWe circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler that developed by Dongfang Boiler Group Co., Ltd China, are introduced. The furnace was with large width-depth ratio. The problems occurred during in commissioning were analyzed and the corresponding modifications were presented. Cold-state experiment and operation experience showed that both fluidization quality and circulating flow rate meet the designated value in the frunace. The imbalance of circulating material flow caused by asymmetric layout of three cyclones was very limited. Heating surfaces were safe except wing wall superheater located in upper part of the furnace was overheated at low load. After commissioning, the boiler was correspondingly modified and its performance was excellent.

  5. The heat transfer coefficients of the heating surface of 300 MWe CFB boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haibo; Zhang, Man; Lu, Qinggang; Sun, Yunkai

    2012-08-01

    A study of the heat transfer about the heating surface of three commercial 300 MWe CFB boilers was conducted in this work. The heat transfer coefficients of the platen heating surface, the external heat exchanger (EHE) and cyclone separator were calculated according to the relative operation data at different boiler loads. Moreover, the heat transfer coefficient of the waterwall was calculated by heat balance of the hot circuit of the CFB boiler. With the boiler capacity increasing, the heat transfer coefficients of these heating surface increases, and the heat transfer coefficient of the water wall is higher than that of the platen heating surface. The heat transfer coefficient of the EHE is the highest in high boiler load, the heat transfer coefficient of the cyclone separator is the lowest. Because the fired coal is different from the design coal in No.1 boiler, the ash content of the fired coal is much lower than that of the design coal. The heat transfer coefficients which calculated with the operation data are lower than the previous design value and that is the reason why the bed temperature is rather high during the boiler operation in No.1 boiler.

  6. Heat Balance Analysis of Baima's 300 MWe CFB Boiler in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J. Y.; Lu, X. F.; Yin, G.; Liu, H. Z.

    By analyzing the 336-hour performance testing period operation parameters and the actual measurement data at the scene, this paper took a study of the heat balance on Baima's 300MWe CFB boiler. Through calculating and by the use of DL/T964-2005 standard in China, the efficiency of this boiler under the Ml load was 91.9089%. The result was very close to the manufacture's assurance efficiency. In all the heat loss, the value of dissipated heat loss calculated in this paper was about 0.63%, which was higher than the manufacture's provided value 0.25%. Besides analyzed the reason, it was discussed about the influence factors of CFB boiler's dissipated heat loss in this paper, including the radiation areas and the out-surface temperature. Additionally, when calculated the heat loss due to the physical heat of bottom ash, the selection of output ash temperature was important. It was discussed in paper about how to choose different output temperatures for different types of ash coolers.

  7. Heat Transfer Coefficient Distribution in the Furnace of a 300MWe CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P.; Lu, J. F.; Yang, H. R.; Zhang, J. S.; Zhang, H.; Yue, G. X.

    Properly understanding and calculating the distributions of heat flux and heat transfer coefficient (α) in the furnace is important in designing a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler, especially with supercritical parameters. Experimental study on the heat transfer in a commercial 300MWe CFB boiler was conducted. The α from the bed to the water wall was measured by the finite element method (FEM), at five different heights. The influence of suspension density and bed temperature on α was analyzed. It was found that the pressure difference between the inlet and exit of the three cyclones, and the chamber pressure of the corresponding loop seal were not equal. The results indicated the suspension solid density was non-uniform in the cross section at a certain height. Consequently, the distributions of heat flux and α in the horizontal plane in the furnace was non-uniform. The furnace can divided into three sections according to the arrangement of the platen superheaters hanging in the upper CFB furnace. In each section, the heat flux near the center showed increasing trend.

  8. Study of Gas Solid Flow Characteristics in Cyclone Inlet Ducts of A300Mwe CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J. Y.; Lu, X. F.; Lai, J.; Liu, H. Z.

    Gas solid flow characteristics in cyclone's inlet duct of a 300MW CFB boiler were studied in a cold circulating fluidized bed (CFB) experimental setup according to a 410t/h CFB boiler with a scale of 10∶1. Tracer particles were adopted in the experiment and their motion trajectories in the two kinds of cyclone's inlet ducts were photographed by a high-speed camera. By analyzing the motion trajectories of tracer particles, acceleration performance of particle phases in the two inlet ducts was obtained. Results indicate that the acceleration performance of particles in the long inlet duct is better than that in the short inlet duct, but the pressure drop of the long inlet duct is higher. Meanwhile, under the same operating conditions, both the separation efficiency and the pressure drop of the cyclone are higher when the cyclone is connected with the long inlet duct. Figs 11, Tabs 4 and refs 10.

  9. Experience from the 300 MWe CFB Demontration Plant in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauvillé, P.; Semedard, J.-C.; Darling, S.

    This paper will describe the background and current status of the 300MWe CFB Demonstration Project located at the Baima Power Plant in Sichuan Province. This project was the first 300MWe class CFB in China and the first project built under the Transfer of Technology from Alstom. The plant entered commercial operation in early 2006. The fuel is a high-ash anthracite which has presented significant challenges in terms of higher-than-expected ash content and top size. While this fuel has been problematic for the adjacent suspension-fired boilers, performance in the CFB boiler has been excellent, with low carbon content in the ash, low turndown and low emissions. Key boiler performance parameters will be described along with a comparison of design and actual performance and the operational experience will be addressed. Finally, the paper will describe Alstom's process for scaling the CFB technology from 300MWe to 600MWe, and our supercritical CFB design.

  10. Design of a large-scale CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, S.; Li, S.

    1997-12-31

    Many CFB boilers sized 100--150 MWe are in operation, and several others sized 150--250 MWe are in operation or under construction. The next step for CFB technology is the 300--400 MWe size range. This paper will describe Foster Wheeler`s large-scale CFB boiler experience and the design for a 300 MWe CFB boiler. The authors will show how the design incorporates Foster Wheeler`s unique combination of extensive utility experience and CFB boiler experience. All the benefits of CFB technology which include low emissions, fuel flexibility, low maintenance and competitive cost are now available in the 300--400 MWe size range.

  11. Evaluation of Two 300 MWe Fourth Generation Pb-Bi Reactor System Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Laurence F.; Khuram Khan, M.; Williams, Wesley; Mynatt, F.R.

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of two 300 MWe modular Pb-Bi cooled reactor system concepts that can be field assembled from components shipped on standard rail cars or on trucks. Thus, the largest components must be smaller than 12' x 12' x 80' (3.66 m x 3.66 m x 24.4 m) and should weigh no more than 80 tons. One of these systems utilizes a cylindrical two-loop containment vessel for the core and the other is a slab design. The fuel for both designs consists of standard-sized metallic IFR fuel in 17 x 17 square array assemblies with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.15. The coolant outlet temperature is limited by current material technology, which is estimated to be 550 C. The primary coolant inlet temperature is selected to be 350 C. This is well above the melting temperature of Pb-Bi, and it is expected to be sufficiently high to limit transient-induced thermal stresses to acceptable values. Coolant flow rates through the core and external piping are below 1 m/s. The results from neutronics calculations include power distributions, reactivity coefficients, and fuel depletion, and results from heat transfer calculations include temperatures and flow rates at various locations in the primary and secondary systems. The neutronic design calculations are accomplished by using a discrete ordinate transport code and a cross section processing system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Two-dimensional flux distributions are obtained with the DOORS system, and ORIGEN-S, coupled with KENO, is used for time-dependent depletion calculations. The thermal-hydraulic design of the core consists of heat transfer and fluid flow calculation for an average channel. The inlet and outlet temperatures, along with the fuel centerline temperature, are determined in conjunction with core flow rates, pumping power, and total power output. This is accomplished by using a lumped parameter steady-state model with a spreadsheet and by using a one-dimensional time-dependent model

  12. Design and experience with utility-scale CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, S.L.; Hennenfent, M.

    1995-12-31

    Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers have been in operation for many years in industrial steam and power generation applications, primarily in the 50-100 MWe range. In the past few years, however, several utility-scale CFB boilers have entered service. The scale-up of the Foster Wheeler Pyropower, Inc. CFB boilers has proceeded smoothly, and today FWPI CFB boilers up to 180 MWe are in operation, two 235 MWe boilers are now under construction, and other large units are in the design stage.

  13. Ultra-Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler Conceptual Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen Fan; Steve Goidich; Archie Robertson; Song Wu

    2006-06-30

    Electric utility interest in supercritical pressure steam cycles has revived in the United States after waning in the 1980s. Since supercritical cycles yield higher plant efficiencies than subcritical plants along with a proportional reduction in traditional stack gas pollutants and CO{sub 2} release rates, the interest is to pursue even more advanced steam conditions. The advantages of supercritical (SC) and ultra supercritical (USC) pressure steam conditions have been demonstrated in the high gas temperature, high heat flux environment of large pulverized coal-fired (PC) boilers. Interest in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion, as an alternative to PC combustion, has been steadily increasing. Although CFB boilers as large as 300 MWe are now in operation, they are drum type, subcritical pressure units. With their sizes being much smaller than and their combustion temperatures much lower than those of PC boilers (300 MWe versus 1,000 MWe and 1600 F versus 3500 F), a conceptual design study was conducted herein to investigate the technical feasibility and economics of USC CFB boilers. The conceptual study was conducted at 400 MWe and 800 MWe nominal plant sizes with high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal used as the fuel. The USC CFB plants had higher heating value efficiencies of 40.6 and 41.3 percent respectively and their CFB boilers, which reflect conventional design practices, can be built without the need for an R&D effort. Assuming construction at a generic Ohio River Valley site with union labor, total plant costs in January 2006 dollars were estimated to be $1,551/kW and $1,244/kW with costs of electricity of $52.21/MWhr and $44.08/MWhr, respectively. Based on the above, this study has shown that large USC CFB boilers are feasible and that they can operate with performance and costs that are competitive with comparable USC PC boilers.

  14. NOx Control for Utility Boiler OTR Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Hamid Farzan

    2003-12-31

    Under sponsorship of the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), and Fuel Tech teamed together to investigate an integrated solution for NO{sub x} control. The system is comprised of B and W's DRB-4Z{trademark} ultra low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NOxOUT{reg_sign}, a urea-based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology. Development of the low-NO{sub x} burner technology has been a focus in B and W's combustion program. The DRB-4Z{trademark} burner is B and W's newest low-NO{sub x} burner capable of achieving very low NO{sub x}. The burner is designed to reduce NO{sub x} by controlled mixing of the fuel and air. Based on data from several 500 to 600 MWe boilers firing PRB coal, NOx emissions levels of 0.15 to 0.20 lb/ 106 Btu have been achieved from the DRB-4Z{trademark} burners in combination with overfire air ports. Although NOx emissions from the DRB-4Z{trademark} burner are nearing the Ozone Transport Rule (OTR) level of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/106 Btu, the utility boiler owners can still benefit from the addition of an SNCR and/or SCR system in order to comply with the stringent NO{sub x} emission levels facing them. Large-scale testing is planned in B and W's 100-million Btu/hr Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) that simulates the conditions of large coal-fired utility boilers. The objective of the project is to achieve a NO{sub x} level below 0.15 lb/106 Btu (with ammonia slip of less than 5 ppm) in the CEDF using PRB coal and B and W's DRB-4Z{trademark} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner in combination with dual zone overfire air ports and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}. During this period B and W prepared and submitted the project management plan and hazardous substance plan to DOE. The negotiation of a subcontract for Fuel Tech has been started.

  15. Utilization of silt as CFB boiler fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Herb, B.; Tsao, T.R.; Bickley, D.

    1994-12-31

    Bituminous silt represents an enormous source of discarded energy that is polluting the environment. Although bituminous silt is a potential opportunity fuel for circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers, handling problems and uncertainties about the impact of this fuel on CFB boiler performance and operating economics have prevented its use. Under sponsorship of the Pennsylvania Energy Development Authority, five different technologies having the potential to process silt into CFB boiler fuel were evaluated. The technologies evaluated include: washing, pelletizing, thermal drying, mulling and flaking. The desired goal was to process the silt into a form that can be fed to CFB boilers using conventional coal handling equipment and combusted in an environmentally acceptable manner. Criteria were developed for the product characteristics that are desired and tests were run to evaluate the technical feasibility of each silt processing technology. Based on these test results, the design and cost bases for a commercial silt processing facility were developed for each technology capable of achieving the desired product characteristics. As a result of considering both engineering and economic factors, the technology that best meets the objectives for use of processed silt as CFB boiler fuel was selected for further demonstration testing. This paper will present the results of this project up through the selection of the best silt processing technology.

  16. Explosion in boiler closes Arkansas utility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-23

    A major boiler explosion Aug. 11 that seriously injured one worker at the Independence Unit 2 coal-fired powerplant in Newark, Ark., caused extensive damage that will keep the plant closed for several months. The plant is owned by Arkansas Power Light Co., Little Rock. Officials are still trying to determine cause and are assessing damage, though they expect the boiler can be repaired. Etienne Senac, plant manager, says the explosion [open quotes]puffed out[close quotes] but did not rupture the 271-ft-tall boiler and also buckled several buck stays, which hold the boiler to a steel superstructure. The accident took place at 8:30 a.m. as the 842-Mw unit was operating close to full capacity. Senac says the concussion knocked down workers standing 50 ft from the boiler. The explosion pushed ash and molten material out of the bottom of the unit, causing a small fire. One contract worker was seriously burned and hospitalized. Four AP L workers received minor burns.

  17. CFD investigation on the flow and combustion in a 300 MWe tangentially fired pulverized-coal furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaldi, Nawel; Chouari, Yoldoss; Mhiri, Hatem; Bournot, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The characteristics of the flow, combustion and temperature in a 300 MWe tangentially fired pulverized-coal furnace are numerically studied using computational fluid dynamics. The mathematical model is based on a Eulerian description for the continuum phase and a Lagrangian description for coal particles. The combustion reaction scheme was modeled using eddy dissipation concept. The application of a proper turbulence model is mandatory to generate accurate predictions of flow and heat transfer during combustion. The current work presents a comparative study to identify the suitable turbulence model for tangentially fired furnace problem. Three turbulence models including the standard k-ɛ model, the RNG k-ɛ model and the Reynolds Stress model, RSM are examined. The predictions are compared with the published experimental data of Zheng et al. (Proc Combust Inst 29: 811-818, 2002). The RNG k-ɛ model proves to be the most suitable turbulence model, offering a satisfactory prediction of the velocity, temperature and species fields. The detailed results presented in this paper may enhance the understanding of complex flow patterns and combustion processes in tangentially fired pulverized-coal furnaces.

  18. NOx Control for Utility Boiler OTR Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Hamid Farzan; Jennifer L. Sivy

    2005-07-30

    Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group (B&W) and Fuel Tech, Inc. (Fuel Tech) teamed to evaluate an integrated solution for NO{sub x} control comprised of B&W's DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}, a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology, capable of meeting a target emission limit of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu. In a previous project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), promising results were obtained with this technology from large-scale testing in B&W's 100-million Btu/hr Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) which simulates the conditions of large coal-fired utility boilers. Under the most challenging boiler temperatures at full load conditions, NO{sub x} emissions of 0.19 lb/10{sup 6} Btu were achieved firing Powder River Basin coal while controlling ammonia slip to less than 5 ppm. At a 40 million Btu/hr firing rate, NO{sub x} emissions were as low as 0.09 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. Improved performance with this system was proposed for this new program with injection at full load via a convective pass multiple nozzle lance (MNL) in front of the superheater tubes or in the convective tube bank. Convective pass lances represent the current state-of-the-art in SNCR and needed to be evaluated in order to assess the full potential of the combined technologies. The objective of the program was to achieve a NO{sub x} level below 0.15 lb/10{sup 6} Btu (with ammonia slip of less than 5 ppm) in the CEDF using PRB coal and B&W's DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner in combination with dual zone overfire air ports and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign} System. Commercial installations of B&W's low-NO{sub x} burner, in combination with overfire air ports using PRB coal, have demonstrated a NO{sub x} level of 0.15 to 0.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu under staged combustion conditions. The proposed goal of the combustion system (no SNCR) for this project is a NO

  19. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-04-01

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.

  20. Pyroflow CFB boiler meets the dynamic challenges of utility operation

    SciTech Connect

    Chelian, P.K.; Hickey, M.; Utt, J.

    1995-12-31

    Large size CFB units supplied to utilities are required to respond rapidly and accurately to the system load demand signals. These units are designed to receive demand signals from load demand computers (economic dispatch systems), and by various types of feed forward controls to achieve the desired level of generation in a minimum amount of time, with minimum upset to the steam conditions. Pyropower Corporation supplied a 165 MWe net capacity CFB boiler to the Nova Scotia Power Inc., Point Aconi Station. This boiler was subjected to a number of tests to demonstrate the dynamic response of the boiler. The tests included minor and major load rejections as well as rapid increase and decrease of load. One of the tests was to demonstrate the ability to reject from full load to the house load and operate for eight hours. This report summarizes the experience of these tests, which leads to the conclusion that CFB boilers, when properly designed and tuned, are capable of meeting the present day challenges of dynamic response in dispatch mode of operation. This paper also draws references from other large size Pyroflow CFB units that are operating in cycling modes to address the capabilities of the CFB boilers related to rapid load variation.

  1. Bridging the experience gap: Burning tires in a utility boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Denhof, D.

    1993-03-01

    For many communities, a solution to waste tire management problems may be no farther than the nearest coal-fired utility or industrial boiler. Sending waste tires to be used as a fuel in existing boilers is one way communities can prevent tires from creating problems in landfills, or from growing into nuisances and potentially dangerous stockpiles while waiting for recycling markets to develop. For utilities, using tire-derived fuel can help control fuel costs and conserve coal. When the State of Wisconsin sought alternatives to disposing of waste tires in its landfills, Wisconsin Power & Light came forward to meet the challenge. Now, the electric utility is shredding and burning more than 1 million tires a year at its coal-fired generating station in southern Wisconsin.

  2. Bio-mass utilization in high pressure cogeneration boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koundinya, Sandeep; Maria Ambrose Raj, Y.; Sreeram, K.; Divakar Shetty A., S.

    2017-07-01

    Coal is widely used all over the world in almost all power plants. The dependence on coal has increased enormously as the demand for electricity has reached its peak. Coal being a non-renewable source is depleting fast. We being the engineers, it's our duty to conserve the natural resources and optimize the coal consumption. In this project, we have tried to optimize the bio-mass utilization in high pressure cogeneration boiler. The project was carried in Seshasayee Paper and Boards Limited, erode related to Boiler No:10 operating at steam pressure of 105 kscg and temperature of 510°C. Available bio-mass fuels in and around the mill premises are bagasse, bagasse pith, cane trash and chipper dust. In this project, we have found out the coal equivalent replacement by the above bio-mass fuel(s) to facilitate deciding on the optimized quantity of coal that can be replaced by biomass without modifying the existing design of the plant. The dominant fuel (coal) which could be displaced with the substitute biomass fuel had been individually (biomass) analyzed.

  3. The critical issues of Indian coal fired utility boiler operation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyal, A.; Roy, C.

    1998-07-01

    The operational experience of 26 pulverized coal fired utility units--14 x 200/210 MW and 12 x 500 MW of 5 plants of National Thermal Power Corporation has been reviewed. The operational problems included--excessive superheater and reheater spray, high metal temperature, excessive tube failure, low life of grinding elements, clinkering/slagging despite using non-slagging coal and high back end temperature. As a result, the turbine heat rate increased by over 1% and the plant load factor was around 60%. A detailed investigation carried out by means of FrameTrack, a state of the art boiler model, revealed off design heat adsorption by both the radiant and convective zones due to the under size furnace design. This arose from the vendors' inadequate experience of the unique slow burning characteristics of inertinite rich and highly abrasive Indian coal. The grinding element material was modified and the heat transfer surfaces were adjusted in accordance with the heat adsorption profiles of the individual units to suit the individual coal quality. These resulted in significant improvement in the operation of the units with respect to the grinding element life, spray requirement, plant load factor and heat rate. Guidelines were devised for coal specific boiler design and bid evaluation protocol. These are of value to the owners and the vendors alike for future use.

  4. Critical issues of Indian coal fired utility boiler operation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyal, A.; Roy, C.

    1998-04-01

    The operational experience of 26 pulverized coal fired utility units- 14 x 200/210 MW and 12 x 500 MW of 5 plants of National Thermal Power Corporation has been reviewed. The operational problems included - excessive superheater and reheater spray, high metal temperature, excessive tube failure, low life of grinding elements, clinkering/slagging despite using non-slagging coal and high back end temperature. As a result, the turbine heat rate increased by over 1% and the plant load factor was around 60%. A detailed investigation carried out by means of `FlameTrack`, a state of the art boiler model, revealed `off design` heat absorption by both the radiant and convective zones due to the under size furnace design. This arose from the vendors` inadequate experience of the unique `slow` burning characteristics of inertinite rich and highly abrasive Indian coal. The grinding element material was modified and the heat transfer surfaces were adjusted in accordance with the heat absorption profiles of the individual units to suit the individual coal quality. These resulted in significant improvement in the operation of the units with respect to the grinding element life, spray requirement, plant load factor and heat rate. Guidelines were devised for coal specific boiler design and bid evaluation protocol. These are of value to the owners and the vendors alike for future use.

  5. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Joseph Rabovitser; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to ready technology for full-scale commercial deployment to meet the market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies. Over half of the electric power generated in the U.S. is produced by coal combustion, and more than 80% of these units utilize PC combustion technology. Conventional measures for NOx reduction in PC combustion processes rely on combustion and post-combustion modifications. A variety of combustion-based NO{sub x} reduction technologies are in use today, including low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), flue gas recirculation (FGR), air staging, and natural gas or other fuel reburning. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are post-combustion techniques. NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness from these technologies ranges from 30 to 60% and up to 90-93% for SCR. Typically, older wall-fired PC burner units produce NO{sub x} emissions in the range of 0.8-1.6 lb/million Btu. Low-NO{sub x} burner systems, using combinations of fuel staging within the burner and air staging by introduction of overfire air in the boiler, can reduce NO{sub x} emissions by 50-60%. This approach alone is not sufficient to meet the desired 0.15 lb/million Btu NO{sub x} standard with a range of coals and boiler loads. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on overfire air can lead to increased slagging and corrosion in furnaces, particularly with higher-sulfur coals, when LNBs are operated at sub-stoichiometric conditions to reduce fuel-derived NOx in the flame. Therefore, it is desirable

  6. Computational prediction of tube erosion in coal fired power utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.E.; Fletcher, C.A.J.; Behnia, M.

    1999-10-01

    Erosion of boiler tubes causes serious operational problems in many pulverized coal-fired utility boilers. A new erosion model has been developed in the present study for the prediction of boiler tube erosion. The Lagrangian approach is employed to predict the behavior of the particulate phase. The results of computational prediction of boiler tube erosion and the various parameters causing erosion are discussed in this paper. Comparison of the numerical predictions for a single tube erosion with experimental data shows very good agreement.

  7. Systematic Field Study of NO(x) Emission Control Methods for Utility Boilers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartok, William; And Others

    A utility boiler field test program was conducted. The objectives were to determine new or improved NO (x) emission factors by fossil fuel type and boiler design, and to assess the scope of applicability of combustion modification techniques for controlling NO (x) emissions from such installations. A statistically designed test program was…

  8. Systematic Field Study of NO(x) Emission Control Methods for Utility Boilers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartok, William; And Others

    A utility boiler field test program was conducted. The objectives were to determine new or improved NO (x) emission factors by fossil fuel type and boiler design, and to assess the scope of applicability of combustion modification techniques for controlling NO (x) emissions from such installations. A statistically designed test program was…

  9. Nitrogen oxides emission control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ravi K; Hall, Robert E; Khan, Sikander; Culligan, Kevin; Lani, Bruce W

    2005-09-01

    Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done to use them more effectively. Furthermore, the paper discusses recent developments in NOx controls. The popular primary control technologies in use in the United States are low-NOx burners and overfire air. Data reflect that average NOx reductions for specific primary controls have ranged from 35% to 63% from 1995 emissions levels. The secondary NOx control technologies applied on U.S. coal-fired utility boilers include reburning, selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Thirty-six U.S. coal-fired utility boilers have installed SNCR, and reported NOx reductions achieved at these applications ranged from 15% to 66%. Recently, SCR has been installed at >150 U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. Data on the performance of 20 SCR systems operating in the United States with low-NOx emissions reflect that in 2003, these units achieved NOx emission rates between 0.04 and 0.07 lb/10(6) Btu.

  10. Ash chemistry aspects of straw and coal-straw co-firing in utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Frandsen, F.J.; Nielsen, H.P.; Hansen, L.A.; Hansen, P.F.B.; Andersen, K.H.

    1998-12-31

    Deposits formed in straw-fired grate-boilers showed significant amounts of KCl (40--80% (w/w)) and KCl-coated Ca-Si-rich particles. CFB co-firing of straw and coal caused deposits in the convective pass containing predominantly K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (50--60% (w/w)) with small amounts of KCl close to the metal surface. In pulverized coal-straw co-fired boilers, deposits almost free of KCl were found. Most of the potassium in these deposits is derived from K-Al-Si-rich fly ash particles and the rest occurs as K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The presence of K-Al-Si-rich fly ash particles indicates that solid residue quality and reuse of fly ash in cement and concrete production rather than deposit formation may be of concern when utilizing straw in pulverized fuel boilers. This paper provides a review of Danish experiences with high-temperature ash deposit formation in the following full-scale utility boilers: Slagelse CHP (31 MWth), Haslev CHP (23 MWth) and Rudkoebing CHP (10.7 MWth), all straw-fired grate-boilers; Grenaa CHP (80 MWth), a coal-straw co-fired Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler; and the Midtkraft-Studstrup Power Station, Unit 1 (380 MWth), a coal-straw co-fired PF-boiler.

  11. Estimation of NO{sub x} emissions from pulverized coal-fired utility boilers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D.J.; Smouse, S.M.

    1995-05-01

    The formation of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) during pulverized-coal combustion in utility boilers is governed by many factors, including the boiler`s design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties. Presently, no simple, reliable method is publicly available to estimate NO{sub x} emissions from any coal-fired boiler. A neural network back-propagation algorithm was previously developed using a small data set of boiler design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties for tangentially fired boilers. This initial effort yielded sufficient confidence in the use of neural network data analysis techniques to expand the data base to other boiler firing modes. A new neural network-based algorithm has been developed for all major pulverized coal-firing modes (wall, opposed-wall, cell, and tangential) that accurately predicts NO{sub x} emissions using 11 readily available data inputs. A sensitivity study, which was completed for all major input parameters, yielded results that agree with conventional wisdom and practical experience. This new algorithm is being used by others, including the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). EPRI has included the algorithm in its new software for making emissions compliance decisions, the Clean Air Technology Workstation.

  12. MENU OF NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

  13. MENU OF NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

  14. NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

  15. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

  16. CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM U.S. COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from U.S. coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary or secondary control technologies. Primary technologies reduce the amount of NOx pr...

  17. DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT INJECTION TECHNOLOGY ON A TANGENTIALLY COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER (YORKTOWN LIMB DEMONSTRATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes activities conducted and results achieved in an EPA-sponsored program to demonstrate Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology on a tangentially fired coal-burning utility boiler, Virginia Power's 180-MWe Yorktown Unit No. 2. his successfully d...

  18. APPENDIX C. PRELIMINARY ESTIMATES OF COSTS OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This appendix describes the development of a preliminary assessment of the performance and cost of mercury emission control technologies for utility boilers. It is to supplement an EPA examination of the co-benefits of potential pollution control options for the electric power in...

  19. PRELIMINARY PERFORMANCE AND COST ESTIMATES OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory


    The paper discusses preliminary performance and cost estimates of mercury emission control options for electric utility boilers. Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, EPA had to determine whether mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants should be regulated. To a...

  20. PRELIMINARY PERFORMANCE AND COST ESTIMATES OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory


    The paper discusses preliminary performance and cost estimates of mercury emission control options for electric utility boilers. Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, EPA had to determine whether mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants should be regulated. To a...

  1. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME III. FIELD EVALUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...

  2. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME III. FIELD EVALUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...

  3. DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT INJECTION TECHNOLOGY ON A TANGENTIALLY COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER (YORKTOWN LIMB DEMONSTRATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes activities conducted and results achieved in an EPA-sponsored program to demonstrate Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology on a tangentially fired coal-burning utility boiler, Virginia Power's 180-MWe Yorktown Unit No. 2. his successfully d...

  4. APPENDIX C. PRELIMINARY ESTIMATES OF COSTS OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This appendix describes the development of a preliminary assessment of the performance and cost of mercury emission control technologies for utility boilers. It is to supplement an EPA examination of the co-benefits of potential pollution control options for the electric power in...

  5. CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM U.S. COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from U.S. coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary or secondary control technologies. Primary technologies reduce the amount of NOx pr...

  6. Study of the possibility of thermal utilization of contaminated water in low-power boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Proskurin, Y. V.; Zaichenko, M. N.

    2017-09-01

    The utilization of water contaminated with oil products is a topical problem for thermal power plants and boiler houses. It is reasonable to use special water treatment equipment only for large power engineering and industry facilities. Thermal utilization of contaminated water in boiler furnaces is proposed as an alternative version of its utilization. Since there are hot-water fire-tube boilers at many enterprises, it is necessary to study the possibility of thermal utilization of water contaminated with oil products in their furnaces. The object of this study is a KV-GM-2.0 boiler with a heating power of 2 MW. The pressurized burner developed at the Moscow Power Engineering Institute, National Research University, was used as a burner device for supplying liquid fuel. The computational investigations were performed on the basis of the computer simulation of processes of liquid fuel atomization, mixing, ignition, and burnout; in addition, the formation of nitrogen oxides was simulated on the basis of ANSYS Fluent computational dynamics software packages, taking into account radiative and convective heat transfer. Analysis of the results of numerical experiments on the combined supply of crude oil and water contaminated with oil products has shown that the thermal utilization of contaminated water in fire-tube boilers cannot be recommended. The main causes here are the impingement of oil droplets on the walls of the flame tube, as well as the delay in combustion and increased emissions of nitrogen oxides. The thermal utilization of contaminated water combined with diesel fuel can be arranged provided that the water consumption is not more than 3%; however, this increases the emission of nitrogen oxides. The further increase in contaminated water consumption will lead to the reduction of the reliability of the combustion process.

  7. Utilization of CFB fly ash for construction applications

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.E.; Sellakumar, K.; Bland, A.E.

    1999-07-01

    Disposal in landfills has been the most common means of handling ash in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler power plants. Recently, larger CFB boilers with generating capacities up to 300 MWe are currently being planned, resulting in increased volumes and disposal cost of ash by-product. Studies have shown that CFB ashes do not pose environmental concerns that should significantly limit their potential utilization. Many uses of CFB ash are being investigated by Foster Wheeler, which can provide more cost-effective ash management. Construction applications have been identified as one of the major uses for CFB ashes. Typically, CFB ash cannot be used as a cement replacement in concrete due to its unacceptably high sulfur content. However, CFB ashes can be used for other construction applications that require less stringent specifications including soil stabilization, road base, structural fill, and synthetic aggregate. In this study, potential construction applications were identified for fly ashes from several CFB boilers firing diverse fuels such as petroleum coke, refuse derived fuel (RDF) and coal. The compressive strength of hydrated fly ashes was measured in order to screen their potential for use in various construction applications. Based on the results of this work, the effects of both ash chemistry and carbon content on utilization potential were ascertained. Actual beneficial uses of ashes evaluated in this study are also discussed.

  8. NOx EMISSIONS PRODUCED WITH COMBUSTION OF POWDER RIVER BASIN COAL IN A UTILITY BOILER

    SciTech Connect

    John S. Nordin; Norman W. Merriam

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this report is to estimate the NOx emissions produced when Powder River Basin (PRB) coal is combusted in a utility boiler. The Clean Air Act regulations specify NOx limits of 0.45 lb/mm Btu (Phase I) and 0.40 lb/mm Btu (Phase II) for tangentially fired boilers, and 0.50 lb/mm 13tu (Phase II) and 0.46 lb/mm Btu (Phase II) for dry-bottom wall-fired boilers. The Clean Air Act regulations also specify other limits for other boiler types. Compliance for Phase I has been in effect since January 1, 1996. Compliance for Phase II goes into effect on January 1, 2000. Emission limits are expressed as equivalent NO{sub 2} even though NO (and sometimes N{sub 2}O) is the NOx species emitted during combustion. Regulatory agencies usually set even lower NOx emission limits in ozone nonattainment areas. In preparing this report, Western Research Institute (WRI) used published test results from utilities burning various coals, including PRB coal, using state-of-the art control technology for minimizing NOx emissions. Many utilities can meet Clean Air Act NOx emission limits using a combination of tight combustion control and low-NOx burners and by keeping furnaces clean (i.e., no slag buildup). In meeting these limits, some utilities also report problems such as increased carbon in their fly ash and excessive furnace tube corrosion. This report discusses utility experience. The theory of NOx emission formation during coal combustion as related to coal structure and how the coal is combusted is also discussed. From this understanding, projections are made for NOx emissions when processed PRB coal is combusted in a test similar to that done with other coals. As will be shown, there are a lot of conditions for achieving low NOx emissions, such as tight combustion control and frequent waterlancing of the furnace to avoid buildup of deposits.

  9. Cyclone performance; The key to feed utilization in circulating fluidized bed boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, T.R.; Herb, B.E.; Lewnard, J.J.; Wang, S.I. )

    1992-01-01

    High utilization of coal and limestone feedstock in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustors is critical to minimize operating costs and solid waste generation. Pilot-scale test results typically indicate 50% calcium utilization (Ca/S = 1:1) and greater than 99% carbon burnout. Recent performance data taken for Stockton CFB indicates that a large fraction of the unburned carbon and unreacted limestone escapes the boiler with the fly ash particles smaller than 100 {mu}m in size. This observation was explained by the short residence times of fine particles in the CFB boiler. An analysis of the CFB system suggests that this problem is caused by the inability of the cyclone to capture smaller particles and return them to the boiler to be more completely utilized. This paper reports that a sensitivity study revealed that feedstock utilization is sensitive to cyclone grade efficiency for small particle sizes. in addition, the results show how bed particle size, fly-bottom ash split, solids recirculation rate, and heat transfer in CFB's are affected by cyclone performance.

  10. Low No sub x /SO sub x burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.; Martin, L.; Smith, J.

    1991-05-01

    The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative's (SIPC's) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC's Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner's SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.

  11. NO{sub x} controls for coal-fired utility boilers in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Eskinazi, D.; Tavoulareas, E.S.

    1995-12-01

    Increasing environmental pressures worldwide, including East Central Europe are placing greater emphasis on NO{sub x} emission controls in utility power plants. Western Europe, Japan and the U.S. have significant experience in applying NO{sub x} controls, especially in boilers firing hard coal. Some countries in Europe (i.e., Germany and Austria), have gained experience in applying NO{sub x} controls in boilers firing low-rank coal. This experience can be applied to East Central European countries in providing the basis for planning NO{sub x} control projects, suggesting cost-effective solutions, and providing lessons learned. However, while the experience is generally applicable to East Central European countries, differences in boiler design, operation and coal characteristics also need to be considered. This paper begins with a comparison of the NO{sub x} regulations, identifies the key NO{sub x} control technologies and the worldwide experience with them, and discusses the achievable NO{sub x} reduction, O&M impacts, and retrofit costs for each technology. Emphasis is placed on retrofit applications for existing boilers, because new coal-fired power plants are not expected to be built for the next 5-10 years. This paper also focuses on technologies with relatively low cost and operational simplicity: combustion system tuning/optimization. low-NO{sub x} burners (LNB), overfire air (OFA), selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and reburning.

  12. Validation of Coal Combustion Model by Using Experimental Data of Utility Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kenji; Taniguchi, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Hironobu; Sakata, Taro; Kudo, Kazuhiko

    Applicability of a coal combustion model was validated by comparing its predictions with experimental data of utility boilers. The coal combustion model had gasification and NOx reaction submodels and it was developed by using a small drop-tube-furnace (coal feed rate 0.6kg/h). A turbulence combustion simulation program was developed by introducing the coal combustion model. The program was validated by comparing its predictions with 23 sets of experimental results which contained different plant, load and coal data. The temperature difference between simulated and experimental results was within 30°C at the furnace exit. The decreasing characteristic of coal burnout with increasing load was well predicted. The NOx emission difference between simulated and experimental results was less than 15%. The coal combustion model was judged applicable to utility boilers.

  13. Utilization of Navy-Generated Waste Oils as Boiler Fuel-Economic Analysis and Laboratory Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    01M i AI . 5 PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER CLABORATORY TESTS 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS, 1 1. CONTROLLING OF FICE N AME AND ADDRESS...generated waste oils is reported. Estimates show that between 5 % and 1 3% of the Navy boiler fuel requirements (excluding coal) may be met by...Waste Oils 2. Combustion I. Z0838-01-002 I Feasibility of utilizing Navy-generated waste oils is reported. Estimates show that between 5 % and 13% of

  14. ASSESSMENT OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REDUCING EMISSIONS OF SO2 AND NOX FROM EXISTING COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews information and estimated costs on 15 emissioncontrol technology categories applicable to existing coal-fired electric utility boilers. he categories include passive controls such as least emission dispatching, conventional processes, and emerging technologies ...

  15. ASSESSMENT OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REDUCING EMISSIONS OF SO2 AND NOX FROM EXISTING COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews information and estimated costs on 15 emissioncontrol technology categories applicable to existing coal-fired electric utility boilers. he categories include passive controls such as least emission dispatching, conventional processes, and emerging technologies ...

  16. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This Public Design Report provides available nonproprietary design information on the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} Burner Retrofit of Utility Cyclone Boilers project. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project, the organization of the project, and the role of the funding parties are discussed. An overview of the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner, the cyclone boiler and the Southern Illinois Power Cooperative host site is presented. A detailed nonproprietary description of the individual process steps, plant systems, and resulting performance then follows. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions and requirements are given for each unit. The plant demonstration program and start up provisions, the environmental considerations and control, monitoring and safety factors that are considered are also addressed.

  17. Utilization of ventilation air methane as a supplementary fuel at a circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler.

    PubMed

    You, Changfu; Xu, Xuchang

    2008-04-01

    Ventilation air methane (VAM) accounts for 60-80% of the total emissions from coal mining activities in China, which is of serious greenhouse gas concerns as well as a waste of valuable fuel sources. This contribution evaluates the use of the VAM utilization methods as a supplementary fuel at a circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler. The paper describes the system design and discusses some potential technical challenges such as methane oxidation rate, corrosion, and efficiency. Laboratory experimentation has shown that the VAM can be burnt completely in circulated fluidized bed furnaces, and the VAM oxidation does not obviously affect the boiler operation when the methane concentration is less than 0.6%. The VAM decreased the incomplete combustion loss for the circulating fluidized bed combustion furnace. The economic benefit from the coal saving insures that the proposed system is more economically feasible.

  18. METHANE DE-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2003-07-30

    During the current quarter, pilot-scale testing with the modified air nozzle version of the PC burner was completed with PRB coal at the Riley Power Inc. (RPI) test facility. A total of 8 different burner configurations were tested utilizing various burner air nozzle arrangements in place of the burner air channels. It was found that with the arrangements tested, a stable flame could not be maintained at coal feed rates above 100 lb/h. While it is felt that the air nozzle approach can ultimately be used effectively, in the interest of holding to the current project schedule it was decided to proceed with the balance of the project using the air channel design. The pilot-scale PC burner was therefore restored to the air-channel configuration and benchmark testing with PRB coal to confirmed previous operating results. A series of tests was then conducted with PRB and West Virginia caking coal to evaluate modifications to the gas combustor configuration and operation for improved performance with caking coal. Continuous operation was achieved with caking coal up to 50 lb/h vs. the full load target of 150 lb/h. Impingement and deposition of partially devolatilized coal occurred at various points within the combustor when the caking coal feed was increased above 50 lb/h. The 100 MMBtu/h commercial-scale prototype design was started with coal burner design input from both RPI and VTI. Based on typical burner installation layout considerations, it was that the preheat combustor should be oriented horizontally on the axial centerline of the coal burner. Accordingly, work was begun to relocate the pilot gas combustor to this orientation so that the pilot results with caking coal will be directly applicable to the preferred 100 MMBtu design. Inspection and repair of the 100 MMBtu/h Coal Burner Test Facility (CBTF) was initiated by RPI and as of 6/30, this activity was 70% complete.

  19. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2003-09-30

    During the current quarter, pilot-scale testing with the modified air nozzle version of the PC burner was completed with PRB coal at the Riley Power Inc. (RPI) test facility. A total of 8 different burner configurations were tested utilizing various burner air nozzle arrangements in place of the burner air channels. It was found that with the arrangements tested, a stable flame could not be maintained at coal feed rates above 100 lb/h. While it is felt that the air nozzle approach can ultimately be used effectively, in the interest of holding to the current project schedule it was decided to proceed with the balance of the project using the air channel design. The pilot-scale PC burner was therefore restored to the air-channel configuration and benchmark testing with PRB coal to confirmed previous operating results. A series of tests was then conducted with PRB and West Virginia caking coal to evaluate modifications to the gas combustor configuration and operation for improved performance with caking coal. Continuous operation was achieved with caking coal up to 50 lb/h vs. the full load target of 150 lb/h. Impingement and deposition of partially devolatilized coal occurred at various points within the combustor when the caking coal feed was increased above 50 lb/h. The 100 MMBtu/h commercial-scale prototype design was continued with coal burner design input from both RPI and VTI. Based on typical burner installation layout considerations, it was decided that the preheat combustor should be oriented horizontally on the axial centerline of the coal burner. Accordingly, the pilot gas combustor was changed to this orientation so that the pilot results with caking coal will be directly applicable to the preferred 100 MMBtu design. Testing with caking coal in the horizontal pilot combustor achieved feed rates up to 126 lb/h, although some deposition and LOI issues remain. Several promising approaches to further improve operation with caking coal were identified. NOx

  20. Effect of a condensation utilizer on the operation of steam and hot-water gas-fired boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionkin, I. L.; Ragutkin, A. V.; Roslyakov, P. V.; Supranov, V. M.; Zaichenko, M. N.; Luning, B.

    2015-05-01

    Various designs for condensation utilizers of the low-grade heat of furnace gases that are constructed based on an open-type heat exchanger are considered. Computational investigations are carried out for the effect of the condensation utilizer with tempering and moistening of air on the operation of steam and hot-water boilers burning natural gas. The investigations are performed based on the predeveloped adequate calculating models of the steam and hot-water boilers in a Boiler Designer program complex. Investigation results for TGM-96B and PTVM-120 boilers are given. The enhancement of the operation efficiency of the condensation utilizer can be attained using a design with tempering and moistening of air supplied to combustion that results in an insignificant increase in the temperature of waste gases. This has no effect on the total operation efficiency of the boiler and the condenser unit, because additional losses with waste gases are compensated owing to the operation of the last. The tempering and moistening of air provide a substantial decrease in the temperature in the zone of active combustion and shortening the nitrogen oxide emission. The computational investigations show that the premoistening of air supplied to combustion makes the technical and economic efficiency of boilers operating with the Condensation Utilizer no worse.

  1. Mercury Emission and Removal of a 135MW CFB Utility Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Y. F.; Zhuo, Y. Q.; Wang, Y. J.; Zhang, L.; Yang, L. G.; Zhao, C. S.

    To evaluate characteristic of the mercury emission and removal from a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler, a representative 135 MW CFB utility boiler was selected to take the onsite measurement of mercury concentrations in feeding coal, bottom ash, fly ash and flue gas using the US EPA recommended Ontario Hydro Method (OHM). The results show that particulate mercury is of majority in flue gas of the CFB boiler. Mercury removal rate of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) reaches 98%. Mercury emission concentration in stack is only 0.062μg/Nm3, and the mass proportion of mercury in bottom ash is less than 1%. It was found that the fly ashes were highly adsorptive to flue gas mercury because of its higher unburned carbon content. Adsorption effect is related to carbon pore structural properties of fly ash and temperature of flue gas. However mercury adsorption capacity by fly ash can not be improved any more when unburned carbon content in fly ash increases further.

  2. Selection of stainless steel tubes to minimize hot corrosion in utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Fujikawa, H.; Makiura, H.

    1982-12-01

    Austenitic stainless steel tubes of AISI 304, 316, 321, and 347 types are sometimes exposed to severe hot corrosion environments in superheaters and reheaters of utility boilers. Hot corrosion depends on the existence of V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ in the oil-fired boilers, and of Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ in the coal-fired boilers. Among various kinds of ash corrosions, the alkali sulphate-side corrosion has been mainly studied. Type 347 steel better resistance to alkali sulphate-side corrosion than 304, 316, and 321 steels. Alloying with Nb was more effective than Mo or Ti. A (Cr, Fe, Ni)-spinel oxide layer with little ash content formed at the scale-metal interface in 347 steel. In field tests, 347 tubes have maintained good resistance to both fire-side and steam-side corrosion for five years. However, 321 tubes were removed after three years of service, because of severe fire-side corrosion.

  3. RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) Utilization in a Navy Stoker Coal-Fired Boiler.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    boiler "-" Indian Head Naval Ordnance Center T--ee Combustion Engineeriig, 165 MBtu/hr boilers ".* * CB Camp LeJuene Four Riley Stoker, 114 MBtu/hr boilers...held in standby * CB Camp Lejuene Four Riley S,oker, 114 MBtu/hr boilers Note: Boileis are overaged * Bremerton Sub Base One Ke-aler, 60 MBtu/hr boiler

  4. Structure and Performance of a 600MWe Supercritical CFB Boiler with Water Cooled Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Nie, L.; Hu, X. K.; Yue, G. X.; Li, W. K.; We, Y. X.; Lu, J. F.; Che, D. F.

    The circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology is one of the approved clean combustion technologies, and the power supply efficiency can be improved combining with the supercritical technology. A 600MWe supercritical CFB boiler is introduced in this paper. This boiler is designed based on the success of 300 MWe CFB boilers, which has a single furnace with three cyclones without external heat exchangers. There are twin furnaces and twin air distributors in the boiler. The water walls of the twin furnace above dense bed combines to a common fence wall with some channels to balance the pressure of the two furnaces. The smooth tubes are adopted in membrane water wall with mixing header. Six cyclones are located beside the furnace as well as six loopseals and six external heat exchangers. The hydrodynamic characteristic of water wall is available with the modeling prediction. And the performance of the 600MWe supercritical CFB boiler is also investigated.

  5. Simultaneous boiler optimization of efficiency, emission, and reliability utilizing neural network modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.S.; Poston, J.

    1996-07-01

    Boiler performance optimization includes the preservation of efficiency, emission, capacity, and reliability. Competitive pressures require cost reduction and environmental compliance. It is a challenge for utility personnel to balance these requirements and to achieve specific company goals. Unfortunately, these requirements often demand tradeoffs. The Clean Air Act Amendment requires Utilities to reduce NO{sub x} emission. NO{sub x} emission reduction has often been accomplished by installation of new low NO{sub x} burners. Boiler tuning for NO{sub x} control can be used as an alternative to low NO{sub x} burner installation. A PC-based computer software program was developed to assist the tuning process. This software, System Optimization Analysis Program (SOAP), is a neural network based code which uses the self-adaptation learning process, with an adaptive filter added for data noise control. SOAP can use historical data as the knowledge base and it provides a fast optimal solution to adaptive control problems. SOAP was tested at several fossil plants. The tests were primarily for NO{sub x} reduction, but the performance parameters were optimized simultaneously.

  6. Feasible experimental study on the utilization of a 300 MW CFB boiler desulfurizating bottom ash for construction applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, X.F.; Amano, R.S.

    2006-12-15

    CFB boiler ash cannot be used as a cement replacement in concrete due to its unacceptably high sulfur content. The disposal in landfills has been the most common means of handling ash in circulating fluidized bed boiler power plants. However for a 300 MW CFB boiler power plant, there will be 600,000 tons of ash discharged per year and will result in great volumes and disposal cost of ash byproduct. It was very necessary to solve the utilization of CFB ash and to decrease the disposal cost of CFB ash. The feasible experimental study results on the utilization of the bottom ashes of a 300 MW CFB boiler in Baima power plant in China were reported in this paper. The bottom ashes used for test came from the discharged bottom ashes in a 100 MW CFB boiler in which the anthracite and limestone designed for the 300 MW CFB project was burned. The results of this study showed that the bottom ash could be used for cementitious material, road concrete, and road base material. The masonry cements, road concrete with 30 MPa compressive strength and 4.0 MPa flexural strength, and the road base material used for base courses of the expressway, the main road and the minor lane were all prepared with milled CFB bottom ashes in the lab. The better methods of utilization of the bottom ashes were discussed in this paper.

  7. Impact of unique properties of Indian coal on operation of utility boilers: Investors to note

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyal, A.; Roy, C.

    1998-07-01

    The operational experience of 26 pulverized coal fired utility units--14{times}200/210MW and 12{times}500 MW of 5 plants of National Power Corporation has been reviewed. The operational problems included--excessive superheater and reheater spray, high metal temperature, excessive tube failure, low life of grinding elements, clinkering/slagging despite using non-slagging coal and high back end temperature. As a result, the turbine heat rate increased by over 1% and the plant load factor was around 60%. A detailed investigation carried out by means of FlameTrack, a state of the art boiler model, revealed off design heat absorption by both the radiant and convective zones due to the under size furnace design. This arose from the vendor's inadequate experience of unique slow burning characteristics of inertinite rich and highly abrasive Indian coal. The grinding element material was modified and the heat transfer surfaces were adjusted in accordance with the heat absorption profiles of individual units to suit the individual coal quality. These resulted in significant improvement in the operation of the units with respect to the grinding element life, spray requirement, plant load factor and heat rate. Guidelines were devised for coal specific boiler design and bid evaluation protocol. These are of value to the owners and the vendors alike for future use.

  8. Development of advanced NO sub x control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Newhall, J.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1991-12-23

    Hybrid technologies for reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired utility boilers may offer greater levels of NO{sub x} control than the sum of the individual technologies, leading to more cost effective emissions control strategies. Energy and Environmental Research Corporation had developed a hybrid NO{sub x} control strategy involving two proprietary concepts which has the potential to meet the US Department of Energy's goal at a significant reduction in cost compared to existing technology. The process has been named CombiNO{sub x}. CombiNO{sub x} is the integration of three separate NO control technologies: (1) Gas Reburning, (2) CO-Promoted Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction, and (3) Methanol Injection/NO{sub 2} Scrubbing.

  9. Technical and economic feasibility of utilizing apple pomace as a boiler feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Apple pomace or presscake, was evaluated for suitability as a boiler feedstock for Michigan firms processing apple juice. Based upon the physical and chemical characteristics of pomace, handling/direct combustion systems were selected to conform with operating parameters typical of the industry. Fresh pomace flow rates of 29,030 and 88,998 kg/day (64,000 and 194,000 lb/day) were considered as representative of small and large processors, respectively, and the material was assumed to be dried to 15% moisture content (wet basis) prior to storage and combustion. Boilers utilizing pile-burning, fluidized-bed-combustion, and suspension-firing technologies were sized for each flow rate, resulting in energy production of 2930 and 8790 kW (10 and 30 million Btu/h), respectively. A life-cycle cost analysis was performed giving Average Annual Costs for the three handling/combustion system combinations (based on the Uniform Capital Recovery factor). An investment loan at 16% interest with a 5-year payback period was assumed. The break-even period for annual costs was calculated by anticipated savings incurred through reduction of fossil-fuel costs during a 5-month processing season. Large processors, producing more than 88,998 kg pomace/day, could economically convert to a suspension-fired system substituting for fuel oil, with break-even occurring after 4 months of operation of pomace per year. Small processors, producing less than 29,030 kg/day, could not currently convert to pomace combustion systems given these economic circumstances. A doubling of electrical-utility costs and changes in interest rates from 10 to 20% per year had only slight effects on the recovery of Average Annual Costs. Increases in fossil-fuel prices and the necessity to pay for pomace disposal reduced the cost-recovery period for all systems, making some systems feasible for small processors. 39 references, 13 figures, 10 tables.

  10. A bottom-up method to develop pollution abatement cost curves for coal-fired utility boilers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper illustrates a new method to create supply curves for pollution abatement using boiler-level data that explicitly accounts for technology costs and performance. The Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) model is used to estimate retrofit costs for five different NO...

  11. A bottom-up method to develop pollution abatement cost curves for coal-fired utility boilers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper illustrates a new method to create supply curves for pollution abatement using boiler-level data that explicitly accounts for technology costs and performance. The Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) model is used to estimate retrofit costs for five different NO...

  12. Fluidized bed retrofit study of CE-VUX type boiler at the Jamestown Board of Public Utilities, Carlson Station, Jamestown, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the design and economic analysis for retrofitting a boiler at the Jamestown Municipal Utility to an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor capable of burning high sulfur coal and industrial waste in an environmentally acceptable manner. Schedules and a cost breakdown were developed for the atmospheric fluidized bed retrofit, with various industrial wastes evaluated as boiler fuels and conclusions drawn as to the overall economic feasibility of boiler conversions involving occasional combustion of industrial waste.

  13. Combining support vector regression and ant colony optimization to reduce NOx emissions in coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Ligang Zheng; Hao Zhou; Chunlin Wang; Kefa Cen

    2008-03-15

    Combustion optimization has recently demonstrated its potential to reduce NOx emissions in high capacity coal-fired utility boilers. In the present study, support vector regression (SVR), as well as artificial neural networks (ANN), was proposed to model the relationship between NOx emissions and operating parameters of a 300 MW coal-fired utility boiler. The predicted NOx emissions from the SVR model, by comparing with that of the ANN-based model, showed better agreement with the values obtained in the experimental tests on this boiler operated at different loads and various other operating parameters. The mean modeling error and the correlation factor were 1.58% and 0.94, respectively. Then, the combination of the SVR model with ant colony optimization (ACO) to reduce NOx emissions was presented in detail. The experimental results showed that the proposed approach can effectively reduce NOx emissions from the coal-fired utility boiler by about 18.69% (65 ppm). A time period of less than 6 min was required for NOx emissions modeling, and 2 min was required for a run of optimization under a PC system. The computing times are suitable for the online application of the proposed method to actual power plants. 37 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Development of advanced NO sub x control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Newhall, J.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1992-01-16

    Hybrid technologies for reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired utility boilers may offer greater levels of NO{sub x} control than the sum of the individual technologies, leading to more cost effective emissions control strategies. CombiNO{sub x} is an integration of modified reburning, promoted selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and methanol injection to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired flue gas. The first two steps, modified reburning and promoted SNCR are linked. It was shown previously that oxidation of CO in the presence of a SNCR agent enhances the NO reduction performance. Less reburning than is typically done is required to generate the optimum amount of CO to promote the SNCR agent. If the reburn fuel is natural gas this may result in a significant cost savings over typical reburning. Injection of methanol into the flue gas has been shown at laboratory scale to convert NO to NO{sub 2} which may subsequently be removed in a wet scrubber. The overall objective of this program is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the CombiNOx process at a large enough scale and over a sufficiently broad range of conditions to provide all of the information needed to conduct a full-scale demonstration in a coal fired utility boiler. The specific technical goals of this program are: 70% NO{sub x} reduction at 20% of the cost of selective catalytic reduction; NO{sub x} levels at the stack of 60 ppm for ozone non-attainment areas; demonstrate coal reburning; identify all undesirable by-products of the process and their controlling parameters; demonstrate 95% NO{sub 2} removal in a wet scrubber. During this reporting period, experimental work was initiated at both the laboratory and pilot scale in the Fundamental Studies phase of the program. The laboratory scale work focused on determining whether or not the NO{sub 2} formed by the methanol injection step can be removed in an SO{sub 2} scrubber.

  15. Low No{sub x}/SO{sub x} burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Baseline test report: Issue A

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.; Martin, L.; Smith, J.

    1991-05-01

    The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative`s (SIPC`s) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC`s Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner`s SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.

  16. Corrosion/erosion detection of boiler tubes utilizing pulsed infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bales, Maurice J.; Bishop, Chip C.

    1995-05-01

    This paper discusses a new technique for locating and detecting wall thickness reduction in boiler tubes caused by erosion/corrosion. Traditional means for this type of defect detection utilizes ultrasonics (UT) to perform a point by point measurement at given intervals of the tube length, which requires extensive and costly shutdown or `outage' time to complete the inspection, and has led to thin areas going undetected simply because they were located in between the sampling points. Pulsed infrared imaging (PII) can provide nearly 100% inspection of the tubes in a fraction of the time needed for UT. The IR system and heat source used in this study do not require any special access or fixed scaffolding, and can be remotely operated from a distance of up to 100 feet. This technique has been tried experimentally in a laboratory environment and verified in an actual field application. Since PII is a non-contact technique, considerable time and cost savings should be realized as well as the ability to predict failures rather than repairing them once they have occurred.

  17. The Hopkins repowering project a utility scale circulating fluidized bed boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkworth, G.S. ); Hobday, J.M. ); Mazur, K.S. ); Goldich, S.J. ); Sturdevant, B.L. and Associates, Denver, CO )

    1991-01-01

    The existing boiler at the City of Tallahassee's 250 MW Hopkins Station Unit 2 fires natural gas and No. 6 fuel oil. In November 1990, the City and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) signed an agreement to repower the existing Unit 2 with a single circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler, as part of DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program. The CFB boiler, which will be fired with Eastern Bituminous coal, will be approximately twice the capacity of currently operating CFB boilers. This paper outlines objectives of the project and its participants. It will highlight significant technological and environmental issues and addresses the following subjects. Historical perspective of the project; The project organization; Project scope, schedule and cost; and Permitting and environmental issues.

  18. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Cyclone furnaces operate with high excess air and at high temperature. The heat release during combustion is very high and as a result the boiler volume is much smaller than would be found in a conventional pc-fired system. The Marion Unit 1 boiler, at the level of the cyclone entry, has a small cross-section; about 5-feet in depth and about 20-feet in width. A boiler schematic showing the LNS Burner and relative location of the superheater region and overfire air ports is shown in Figure 1. The LNS Burner's combustion process is fundamentally different from that of the cyclone, and the combustion products are also different. The LNS Burner products enter the boiler as hot, fuel-rich gases. Additional overfire air must be added to complete this combustion step with care taken to avoid the formation of thermal NO{sub x}. If done correctly, S0{sub 2} is controlled and significant NO{sub x} reductions are achieved. Because of the small boiler volume, flow modelling was found to be necessary to insure that adequate mixing of LNS Burner combustion products with air can be accomplished to achieve NO{sub x} emissions goals. Design requirements for the air injection system for the Marion boiler were developed using FLUENT, a commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. A series of runs were made to obtain a design for final air injection that met the process design goals as closely as possible.

  19. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Public design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This Public Design Report provides available nonproprietary design information on the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} Burner Retrofit of Utility Cyclone Boilers project. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project, the organization of the project, and the role of the funding parties are discussed. An overview of the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner, the cyclone boiler and the Southern Illinois Power Cooperative host site is presented. A detailed nonproprietary description of the individual process steps, plant systems, and resulting performance then follows. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions and requirements are given for each unit. The plant demonstration program and start up provisions, the environmental considerations and control, monitoring and safety factors that are considered are also addressed.

  20. Controlling fine particulate and acid mist emissions from a residual oil fired utility boiler with an EDV{trademark} system

    SciTech Connect

    Olen, K.R.; Vincent, H.B.; Jones, G.

    1995-06-01

    Florida Power & Light Company (FPL), in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Belco Technologies Corporation, evaluated the performance of an EDV system to remove fine particulate and acid mist from untreated flue gas from a residual oil-fired utility boiler. The cosponsored project was carried out using a full-scale EDV module in a slip stream from one of the 400 MW wall-fired boilers at FPL`s Sanford Plant. Particulate, acid gas and chemical analytical data are presented, and used to illustrate the effects of operating variables on EDV performance. EDV system efficiencies of 90% were achieved, which resulted in controlled particulate and SO{sub 3} emissions of less than 10 mg/Nm{sup 3} (0.0065 lbs/10{sup 6}Btu) and 1 ppmv, respectively.

  1. Synergistic Utilization of Coal Fines and Municipal Solid Waste in Coal-Fired Boilers. Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    V. Zamansky; P. Maly; M. Klosky

    1998-06-12

    A feasibility study was performed on a novel concept: to synergistically utilize a blend of waste coal fines with so-called E-fuel for cofiring and reburning in utility and industrial boilers. The E-fuel is produced from MSW by the patented EnerTech's slurry carbonization process. The slurry carbonization technology economically converts MSW to a uniform, low-ash, low-sulfur, and essentially chlorine-free fuel with energy content of about 14,800 Btu/lb.

  2. Mercury speciation and distribution in a 660-megawatt utility boiler in Taiwan firing bituminous coals.

    PubMed

    Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Lee, Hsiu-Hsia; Hwang, Jyh-Feng; Chen, Wang

    2010-05-01

    Mercury speciation and distribution in a 660-MW tangential-fired utility boiler in Taiwan burning Australian and Chinese bituminous coal blends was investigated. Flue gases were simultaneously sampled at the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) inlet, the SCR outlet, the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, and the stack. Samplings of coal, lime, bottom ash/slag, fly ash, and gypsum slurry were also conducted. Results indicated that flue gases at the inlet to SCR contained a great potion of particle-bound mercury (Hg(p)), 59-92% of the total mercury. Removal of mercury was not observed for the SCR system. However, repartitioning of mercury species across the SCR occurred that significantly increased the portion of elemental mercury (Hg0) to up to 29% and oxidized mercury (Hg2+) to up to 33% in the SCR outlet gas. Overreporting of Hg(p) at the inlet of SCR may cause the observed repartitioning; the high ammonia/nitric oxide circumstance in the SCR unit was also speculated to cause the mercury desorption from ash particles and subsequent reentrance into the gas phase. ESP can remove up to 99% of Hg(p), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) can remove up to 84% of Hg2+. Mercury mass balances were calculated to range between 81 and 127.4%, with an average of 95.7% wherein 56-82% was in ESP fly ash, 8.7-18.6% was retained in the FGD gypsum, and 6.2-26.1% was emitted from the stack. Data presented here suggest that mercury removal can be largely enhanced by increasing the conversion of Hg0 into Hg(p) and Hg2+.

  3. [The utility boiler low NOx combustion optimization based on ANN and simulated annealing algorithm].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Qian, Xinping; Zheng, Ligang; Weng, Anxin; Cen, Kefa

    2003-11-01

    With the developing restrict environmental protection demand, more attention was paid on the low NOx combustion optimizing technology for its cheap and easy property. In this work, field experiments on the NOx emissions characteristics of a 600 MW coal-fired boiler were carried out, on the base of the artificial neural network (ANN) modeling, the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm was employed to optimize the boiler combustion to achieve a low NOx emissions concentration, and the combustion scheme was obtained. Two sets of SA parameters were adopted to find a better SA scheme, the result show that the parameters of T0 = 50 K, alpha = 0.6 can lead to a better optimizing process. This work can give the foundation of the boiler low NOx combustion on-line control technology.

  4. DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT INJECTION TECHNOLOGY ON A WALL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER (EDGEWATER LIMB DEMONSTRATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the full-scale demonstration of Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology on the coal-fired, 105 MW, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station. eveloped as a technology aimed at moderate levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen ...

  5. DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT INJECTION TECHNOLOGY ON A WALL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER (EDGEWATER LIMB DEMONSTRATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the full-scale demonstration of Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology on the coal-fired, 105 MW, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station. eveloped as a technology aimed at moderate levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen ...

  6. Estimation of low-potential heat recuperation efficiency of smoke fumes in a condensation heat utilizer under various operation conditions of a boiler and a heating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionkin, I. L.; Ragutkin, A. V.; Luning, B.; Zaichenko, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    For enhancement of the natural gas utilization efficiency in boilers, condensation heat utilizers of low-potential heat, which are constructed based on a contact heat exchanger, can be applied. A schematic of the contact heat exchanger with a humidifier for preheating and humidifying of air supplied in the boiler for combustion is given. Additional low-potential heat in this scheme is utilized for heating of the return delivery water supplied from a heating system. Preheating and humidifying of air supplied for combustion make it possible to use the condensation utilizer for heating of a heat-transfer agent to temperature exceeding the dewpoint temperature of water vapors contained in combustion products. The decision to mount the condensation heat utilizer on the boiler was taken based on the preliminary estimation of the additionally obtained heat. The operation efficiency of the condensation heat utilizer is determined by its structure and operation conditions of the boiler and the heating system. The software was developed for the thermal design of the condensation heat utilizer equipped by the humidifier. Computation investigations of its operation are carried out as a function of various operation parameters of the boiler and the heating system (temperature of the return delivery water and smoke fumes, air excess, air temperature at the inlet and outlet of the condensation heat utilizer, heating and humidifying of air in the humidifier, and portion of the circulating water). The heat recuperation efficiency is estimated for various operation conditions of the boiler and the condensation heat utilizer. Recommendations on the most effective application of the condensation heat utilizer are developed.

  7. Economic comparison of fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators for particulate control on coal-fired utility boilers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cukor, P. M.; Chapman, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The uncertainties and associated costs involved in selecting and designing a particulate control device to meet California's air emission regulations are considered. The basic operating principles of electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters are discussed, and design parameters are identified. The size and resulting cost of the control device as a function of design parameters is illustrated by a case study for an 800 MW coal-fired fired utility boiler burning a typical southwestern subbituminous coal. The cost of selecting an undersized particulate control device is compared with the cost of selecting an oversized device.

  8. Combined incineration of industrial wastes with in-plant residues in fluidized-bed utility boilers--decision relevant factors.

    PubMed

    Ragossnig, Arne M; Lorber, Karl E

    2005-10-01

    In Austria more than 50% of the high-calorific industrial residues and wastes generated are utilized for energy recovery in industrial utility boilers. This study investigated full-scale trials of combined incineration of in-plant residues with various industrial wastes. These trials were carried out in order to learn how the alternatively used fuel influences the incineration process itself as well as the quantity and quality of the various incineration products. The currently used fuel, which consisted of in-plant residues as well as externally acquired waste wood and the refuse-derived fuel (RDF) mixtures used during the full-scale trials are characterized in terms of material composition as well as chemical and physical parameters. An input-output mass balance for the incineration plant (two fluidized bed combustion units, 20 and 30 MW, respectively) has been established, based on the data collected during the full-scale incineration trials. Furthermore, pollutant concentrations in the off-gas as well as the solid incineration residue are reported. It is not only the pollutant content but also a variety of other internal as well as external factors that have to be considered if a company is to decide whether or not to thermally utilize specific waste types. Therefore a strengths and weaknesses profile for several types of waste and the specific industrial boiler is also presented.

  9. Development of a low NO{sub x} combustion system for a roof-fired utility boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Bionda, J.P.; Glickert, R.W.; Hallo, A.; Gretz, G.F.

    1995-12-31

    Duquesne Light Company operates three roof-fired utility boilers at its Elrama Power Station in Elrama, Pennsylvania. These units are required to comply with the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments. Specifically, they need to reduce the emission rate of nitric oxide (NO{sub x}) to less than 0.50 lb/MBtu by May 31, 1995. Energy Systems Associates (ESA) was contracted to design a low NO{sub x} retrofit system for these units. Preliminary testing was performed to establish a baseline for NO{sub x}, CO and flyash carbon. A computational furnace model was utilized to evaluate various low NO{sub x} burner and separated overfire air (SOFA) designs. ``Proof of Concept`` field testing validated the low NO{sub x} burner design effectiveness. The SOFA system design was finalized and installed. This paper describes the development, design, and results of the Elrama low NO{sub x} retrofit system. The results of this project should be of interest to utilities evaluating low NO{sub x} retrofit technologies for roof-fired boilers.

  10. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    C. Jean Bustard

    2003-12-01

    ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) has successfully completed a research and development program granted by the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to develop a family of non-toxic flue gas conditioning agents to provide utilities and industries with a cost-effective means of complying with environmental regulations on particulate emissions and opacity. An extensive laboratory screening of potential additives was completed followed by full-scale trials at four utility power plants. The developed cohesivity additives have been demonstrated on a 175 MW utility boiler that exhibited poor collection of unburned carbon in the electrostatic precipitator. With cohesivity conditioning, opacity spiking caused by rapping reentrainment was reduced and total particulate emissions were reduced by more than 30%. Ammonia conditioning was also successful in reducing reentrainment on the same unit. Conditioned fly ash from the process is expected to be suitable for dry or wet disposal and for concrete admixture.

  11. Studies of the fate of sulfur trioxide in coal-fired utility boilers based on modified selected condensation methods.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yan; Zhou, Hongcang; Jiang, Wu; Chen, Chien-Wei; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2010-05-01

    The formation of sulfur trioxide (SO(3)) in coal-fired utility boilers can have negative effects on boiler performance and operation, such as fouling and corrosion of equipment, efficiency loss in the air preheater (APH), increase in stack opacity, and the formation of PM(2.5). Sulfur trioxide can also compete with mercury when bonding with injected activated carbons. Tests in a lab-scale reactor confirmed there are major interferences between fly ash and SO(3) during SO(3) sampling. A modified SO(3) procedure to maximize the elimination of measurement biases, based on the inertial-filter-sampling and the selective-condensation-collecting of SO(3), was applied in SO(3) tests in three full-scale utility boilers. For the two units burning bituminous coal, SO(3) levels starting at 20 to 25 ppmv at the inlet to the selective catalytic reduction (SCR), increased slightly across the SCR, owing to catalytic conversion of SO(2) to SO(3,) and then declined in other air pollutant control device (APCD) modules downstream to approximately 5 ppmv and 15 ppmv at the two sites, respectively. In the unit burning sub-bituminous coal, the much lower initial concentration of SO(3) estimated to be approximately 1.5 ppmv at the inlet to the SCR was reduced to about 0.8 ppmv across the SCR and to about 0.3 ppmv at the exit of the wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD). The SO(3) removal efficiency across the WFGD scrubbers at the three sites was generally 35% or less. Reductions in SO(3) across either the APH or the dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in units burning high-sulfur bituminous coal were attributed to operating temperatures being below the dew point of SO(3).

  12. An evaluation of micronized coal reburning for nitrogen oxide emissions reduction in pulverized coal-fired electric utility boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelo, Joseph Gerard

    Recent increases in the prices of imported fuels and increases in the cost of natural gas have underscored the need to consider other sources of energy for electric production in the United States. Our most abundant fuel source is coal, however the use of coal brings with it a set of environmental problems. This dissertation presents an investigation into the use of micronized coal reburning. This technology may provide a cost-effective solution to the requirements to reduce NOx emissions from pulverized coal-fired electric generating stations. This research effort evaluated the use of micronized coal as a reburning fuel to lower nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers. The research effort included: (1) an investigation of all available literature on the subject, (2) planning and supervision of a number of baseline and parametric tests on a full-scale coal fired utility boiler. The testing was carried out on the former NYSEG generating unit, Milliken 1. Milliken Unit 1 is a 150 MW coal-fired electric utility boiler located in Lansing, NY on the eastern shore of Cayuga Lake, (3) development of a model to predict NOx emissions from a coal-fired boiler, and (4) completion of a conceptual design for a micronized coal reburning system. The original plan of the research effort was to include a full-scale micronized coal reburn installation and subsequent modeling and testing. However, in 1998 the deregulation of the electric utility industry in New York caused the focus of the dissertation to be narrowed. The test site, Milliken Station was sold to another entity, and the installation of the micronized coal reburn system was cancelled. The following conclusions were drawn from the research: (1) Testing showed that nitrogen oxide production was significantly influenced by changes in controllable boiler operating parameters. (2) The predictive model for baseline nitrogen oxide production was fairly accurate in estimating NOx emissions. The model had an average

  13. The potential of pulse-jet baghouses for utility boilers. Part 2: Performance of pulse-jet fabric filter pilot plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, C. ); Cushing, K.M. ); Chang, R.L. )

    1992-09-01

    Pulse-jet fabric filters (PJFFs) are widely used in U.S. industrial boiler applications and in utility and industrial boilers abroad. Their small size and reduced cost relative to more conventional reverse-gas baghouses makes the use of PJFFs appear to be an attractive particulate control option for utility boilers. This paper (Part 2 of a three-part series) summarizes the results of pilot PJFF studies sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute at different utility sites in the United States. The purpose of these tests is to evaluate PJFF performance for U.S. fossil-fuel fired applications. These data are also used to corroborate the results of a recent worldwide survey of PJFF user experience, as described in Part 1 of this series. Part 3 will provide a cost comparison of PJFFs to other particulate control options such as electrostatic precipitators and reverse-gas baghouses. 30 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Fundamental studies of the mechanisms of slag deposit formation: Studies on initiation, growth and sintering in the formation of utility boiler deposits: Topical technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Tangsathitkulchai, M.; Austin, L.G.

    1986-03-01

    Three laboratory-scale devices were utilized to investigate the mechanisms of the initiation, growth and sintering process involved in the formation of boiler deposits. Sticking apparatus investigations were conducted to study deposit initiation by comparing the adhesion behavior of the ash drops on four types of steel-based heat exchanger materials under the conditions found in a utility boiler and an entrained slagging gasifier. In addition, the adhesion behavior of the ash drops on a reduced steel surface were investigated. All the ash drops studied in this investigation were produced from bituminous coals.

  15. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, June--September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

  16. Demonstration of SCR technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, W.S.; Maxwell, J.D.; Healy, E.C.; Hardman, R.R.; Baldwin, A.L.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the completed Innovative Clean Coal Technology project which demonstrated SCR technology for reduction of flue gas NO{sub x} emissions from a utility boiler burning US high-sulfur coal. The project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, managed and co-funded by Southern Company Services, Inc. on behalf of the Southern Company, and also co-funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and Ontario Hydro. The project was located at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit 5 (a 75 MW tangentially-fired boiler burning US coals that had a sulfur content ranging from 2.5--2.9%), near Pensacola, Florida. The test program was conducted for approximately two years to evaluate catalyst deactivation and other SCR operational effects. The SCR test facility had nine reactors: three 2.5 MW (5,000 scfm), and operated on low-dust flue gas. The reactors operated in parallel with commercially available SCR catalysts obtained from suppliers throughout the world. Long-term performance testing began in July 1993 and was completed in July 1995. A brief test facility description and the results of the project are presented in this paper.

  17. Investigation of flow inside pulverized coal (PC) pipes against coal particle size and air flow rate for a utility boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrangaraju, Savithry K.; Munisamy, Kannan M.; Apparao, Rucgnes

    2017-04-01

    This study mainly focuses on investigation on effect coal particle size on flow inside pulverized coal pipes for a utility boiler. The flow that is analyzed here will be the wall shear stress. The objective of the study is to determine the effect of coal particle size and effect of air flow rate on the wall shear stress of pulverized coal pipes. The individual wall shear stress which is computed as area weighted average of the pulverized coal pipes that is studied is compared and analyzed. There are total of 28 pulverized coal pipes in the power plant that is chosen as case study. The study is divided into two parts mainly the effect of coal particle size on the wall shear stress and the other is effect of air flow rate on the wall shear stress. In both configurations the wall shear stress is computed as area weighted average. Prior to simulation the file that is used to study the wall shear stress is modified using Gambit to improve results. The individual wall shear stress of all pipes coming out of a particular mill is observed after contours are developed using CFD tool like Ansys fluent. Parameters like coal flow rate and coal velocity are set in the simulation and results are generated Based on contours and developed graph from the simulation, the effect of both configuration is studied and the range of particle size and range of air flow rate which is suitable for the optimum operation of boiler is suggested.

  18. Waste fuel utilization in existing boilers on US naval bases. Final report for period ending Sep 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hollander, H.I.; Broderick, J.E.; Klett, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The 1976 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act encourages the recovery of material and energy from waste to the maximum extent practicable at federal facilities while complying with state and local requirements. The Navy's solid waste research project is designed to identify and develop cost effective alternatives for meeting RCRA requirements. Additionally to reduce Navy dependence on dwindlying supplies of natural gas and fuel oil, the Navy has issued guidelines concering the construction of intermediate and larger boiler plants requiring the capability to burn solid forms of fuel including waste derived fuels as well as coal. This report provides perspective on the ramifications of firing solid forms of waste derived fuel, separately or in combination with conventional fossil fuels for existing or new installations. The report is divided into two parts, the first part presents a general discussion of typical characteristics of proposed waste fuels and the potential of utilizing these fuels in existing Navy boilers. The second part is a case study addressing a typical installation and assesses the changes, capital costs and potential problem areas that may be encountered in accommodating waste fuel firing.

  19. Simulation on an optimal combustion control strategy for 3-D temperature distributions in tangentially pc-fired utility boiler furnaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi-fen; Zhou, Huai-chun

    2005-01-01

    The control of 3-D temperature distribution in a utility boiler furnace is essential for the safe, economic and clean operation of pc-fired furnace with multi-burner system. The development of the visualization of 3-D temperature distributions in pc-fired furnaces makes it possible for a new combustion control strategy directly with the furnace temperature as its goal to improve the control quality for the combustion processes. Studied in this paper is such a new strategy that the whole furnace is divided into several parts in the vertical direction, and the average temperature and its bias from the center in every cross section can be extracted from the visualization results of the 3-D temperature distributions. In the simulation stage, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code served to calculate the 3-D temperature distributions in a furnace, then a linear model was set up to relate the features of the temperature distributions with the input of the combustion processes, such as the flow rates of fuel and air fed into the furnaces through all the burners. The adaptive genetic algorithm was adopted to find the optimal combination of the whole input parameters which ensure to form an optimal 3-D temperature field in the furnace desired for the operation of boiler. Simulation results showed that the strategy could soon find the factors making the temperature distribution apart from the optimal state and give correct adjusting suggestions.

  20. Indian coal fired utility boiler operation -- its critical issues and their resolution: A role model for IPPs

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyal, A.; Chandan, R.

    1998-12-31

    The operational experience of 26 pulverized coal fired utility units -- 14 x 200/210 MW and 12 x 500 MW of 5 plants of National Thermal Power Corporation has been reviewed. The operational problems included--excessive superheater and reheater spray, high metal temperature, excessive tube failure, low life of grinding elements, clinkering/slagging despite using non-slagging coal and high back end temperature. As a result, the turbine heat rate increased by over 1% and the plant load factor was around 60%. A detailed investigation carried out by means of Flame Track, a state of the art boiler model, revealed off design heat absorption by both the radiant and convective zones due to the under size furnace design. This arose from the vendors inadequate experience of the unique slow burning characteristics of inertinite rich and highly abrasive Indian coal. The grinding element material was modified and the heat transfer surfaces were adjusted in accordance with the heat absorption profiles of the individual units to suit the individual coal quality. These resulted in significant improvement in the operation of the units with respect to the grinding element life, spray requirement, plant load factor and heat rate. Guidelines were devised for coal specific boiler design and bid evaluation protocol. These are of value to the owners and the vendors alike for future use.

  1. Boiler control systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, J.

    2005-07-01

    The book provides in-depth coverage on how to safely and reliably control the firing of a boiler. Regardless of the capacity or fuel, certain fundamental control systems are required for boiler control. Large utility systems are more complex due to the number of burners and the overall capacity and equipment. This book covers engineering details on control systems and provides specific examples of boiler control including configuration and tuning. References to requirements are based on the 2004 NFPA 85 along with other ISA standards. Detailed chapters cover: Boiler fundamentals including piping and instrument diagrams (P&IDs) and a design basis checklist; Control of boilers, from strategies and bumpless transfer to interlock circuitry and final control elements; Furnace draft; Feedwater; Coal-fired boilers; Fuel and air control; Steam temperature; Burner management systems; Environment; and Control valve sizing. 2 apps.

  2. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    C. Jean Bustard; Kenneth E. Baldrey; Richard Schlager

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. Preliminary testing has identified a class of common deliquescent salts that effectively control flyash resistivity on a variety of coals. A method to evaluate cohesive properties of flyash in the laboratory has been selected and construction of an electrostatic tensiometer test fixture is underway. Preliminary selection of a variety of chemicals that will be screened for effect on flyash cohesion has been completed.

  3. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, progress was made in obtaining an industry partner for a long-term demonstration and in technology transfer activities. Engineering and equipment procurement activities related to the long-term demonstration were also completed.

  4. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, installation of a liquid flue gas conditioning system was completed at the American Electric Power Conesville Plant, Unit 3. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Two cohesivity-specific additive formulations, ADA-44C and ADA-51, will be evaluated. In addition, ammonia conditioning will also be compared.

  5. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2000-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions have begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During the second reporting quarter for this project, design and development is continuing on an electrostatic tensiometer to measure cohesion of flyash layers. A dedicated test fixture to automate flyash electrical resistivity testing is also underway. Ancillary instrumentation to control gas humidification within these test fixtures is also under construction.

  6. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, further laboratory-screening tests of additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of flyash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a multi-cell laboratory flyash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. Also during this quarter chemical formulation testing was undertaken to identify stable and compatible resistivity/cohesivity liquid products.

  7. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During the third reporting quarter, the electrostatic tensiometer for laboratory determination of flyash cohesivity was completed. Modifications were made to this method to improve repeatability. In addition, a new multi-cell laboratory flyash resistivity furnace was completed. Also during this quarter an agreement was reached for the initial field trial of the new additives at the City of Ames, Iowa Municipal Power Plant.

  8. Retrofit costs for lime/limestone FGD and lime spray drying at coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Emmel, T.E.; Jones, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The paper gives results of a research program the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 controls to existing coal-fired utility boilers. The costs of retrofitting conventional lime/limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (L/LS FGD) and lime spray drying (LSD) FGD at 100-200 coal-fired power plants are being estimated under this program. The retrofit capital cost estimating procedures used for L/LS FGD and LSD FGD make two cost adjustments to current procedures used to estimate FGD costs: cost adders (for items not normally included in FGD system costs; e.g., demolition and relocation of existing facilities) and cost multipliers (to adjust capital costs for site access, congestion, and underground obstructions).

  9. Capacity mapping for optimum utilization of pulverizers for coal fired boilers - article no. 032201

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, C.

    2008-09-15

    Capacity mapping is a process of comparison of standard inputs with actual fired inputs to assess the available standard output capacity of a pulverizer. The base capacity is a function of grindability; fineness requirement may vary depending on the volatile matter (VM) content of the coal and the input coal size. The quantity and the inlet will change depending on the quality of raw coal and output requirement. It should be sufficient to dry pulverized coal (PC). Drying capacity is also limited by utmost PA fan power to supply air. The PA temperature is limited by air preheater (APH) inlet flue gas temperature; an increase in this will result in efficiency loss of the boiler. The higher PA inlet temperature can be attained through the economizer gas bypass, the steam coiled APH, and the partial flue gas recirculation. The PS/coal ratioincreases with a decrease in grindability or pulverizer output and decreases with a decrease in VM. The flammability of mixture has to be monitored on explosion limit. Through calibration, the PA flow and efficiency of conveyance can be verified. The velocities of coal/air mixture to prevent fallout or to avoid erosion in the coal carrier pipe are dependent on the PC particle size distribution. Metal loss of grinding elements inversely depends on the YGP index of coal. Variations of dynamic loading and wearing of grinding elements affect the available milling capacity and percentage rejects. Therefore, capacity mapping in necessary to ensure the available pulverizer capacity to avoid overcapacity or undercapacity running of the pulverizing system, optimizing auxiliary power consumption. This will provide a guideline on the distribution of raw coal feeding in different pulverizers of a boiler to maximize system efficiency and control, resulting in a more cost effective heat rate.

  10. On the Necessity of Changes in the Strategy of Utilization Ship Boiler Technical Condition Maintenance in the Aspect of LNG Applied as Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamkiewicz, Andrzej; Zeńczak, Wojciech

    2017-03-01

    Heavy oils (HFO fuels) used on ships play a part in degradation of technical condition of heat exchange surfaces of utilization boilers especially on the exhaust gas side. Presence of sulphur in these fuels is the main factor favouring degradation. The upper limit for sulphur content in the fuel used outside the SECA areas equal to 3.5% is currently in force, at least until the year 2020 or 2025. The recommended by classification societies overhauls of utilization boilers are, therefore characterized by a specially chosen strategy thanks to which it is possible to maintain their appropriate technical condition. The requirement to use fuels with low sulphur content (LSFO), which are significantly more expensive than MDO fuels, in the areas of controlled sulphur emissions also led to a further introduction of alternative fuels, such as methanol and above all liquefied natural gas (LNG), onto ships. That is especially valid for the ship owners whose vessels e.g. ferries sail mainly within SCECA This article analyses the consequences of the introduced fuel change on utilization boiler maintenance. A change in the technical condition maintenance strategy for utilization boilers has been suggested.

  11. Research on Flow Non-Uniformity in Main Circulation Loop of a CFB Boiler with Multiple Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Yang, H. R.; Liu, Q.; Zhang, H.; Wu, Y. X.; Yue, G. X.; Wang, Y. Z.

    Maldistribution of gas-solid tow-phase flow field in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) can cause a series of problems, such as thermal deviation, wear of water walls, etc. In this study, a cold model CFB facility, which was scaled down from a commercial 300MWe CFB boiler with three cyclones placed in an array, was built up and a series of experiments were conducted the flow non-uniformity. The results showed that in CFB boiler with multiple cyclones, the distribution of bed material in the circulation loops is different and uncertain. The gas-solid two-phase flow in the furnace is unbiased, even the circulating rates in the circulation loops are different. The circulating rate in the middle loop is larger than that in the side loops. The difference is less than 10%.

  12. Preliminary estimates of performance and cost of mercury emission control technology applications on electric utility boilers: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, R.K.; Staudt, J.E.; Jozewicz, W.

    2005-07-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has recently proposed a reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. There are two broad approaches under development to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utility boilers. (1) powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection; and (2) multipollutant control, in which Hg capture is enhanced in existing and new sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) control devices. To help inform the recent EPA rulemaking proposal, estimates of performance levels and related costs associated with the above mercury control approaches were developed. This work presents these estimates. Estimates of cost for PAC injection range from 0.003 to 3.096 mills/kWb. In general, the higher costs are associated with the plants using spray dryers and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) or plants using hot-side ESPs, which represent a minority of power plants. Excluding these plants, cost estimates range between 0.003 and 1.903 mills/kWh. At the low end of the cost ranges, 0.003 mills/kWb, it is assumed that no additional control technologies are needed, but mercury monitoring will be necessary. In these cases, high mercury removal may be the result of the type of NOx and SO{sub 2} control measures currently used, such as combinations of selective catalytic reduction and wet flue gas desulfurization or spray drier absorbers with fabric filters on bituminous coal-fired boilers. Because mercury control approaches are under development at present, cost and performance estimates are preliminary and are expected to be refined as mercury control technologies are matured to commercial status. Factors that may affect the performance of these technologies include speciation of mercury in flue gas, the characteristics of the sorbent, and the type(s) of PM, NOx, and SO, controls used.

  13. Development of advanced NO[sub x] control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.; Pont, J.N.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1993-03-04

    The complete CombiNO[sub x], process has now been demonstrated at a level that is believed to be representative of a full-scale boiler in terms of mixing capabilities. A summary of the results is displayedin Figure 5-1. While firing Illinois Coal on the Reburn Tower, Advanced Reburning was capable of reducing NO[sub x], by 83 percent. The injection of methanol oxidized 50--58 percent of the existing NO to N0[sub 2]. Assuming that 85 percent of the newly formed N0[sub 2] can be scrubbed in a liquor modified wet-limestone scrubber, the CombiNO[sub x], process has been shown capable of reducing NO[sub 2], by 90--91 percent in a large pilot-scale coal-fired furnace. There is still uncertainty regarding the fate of the N0[sub 2] formed with methanol injection. Tests should be conducted to determine whether the reconversion is thermodynamic or catalytic, and what steps can be taken (such as quench rate) to prevent it from happening.

  14. Configuring the EPRI plant monitoring workstation for boiler section cleanliness at Texas Utilities`s Martin Lake Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Cona, C.; Ulvog, P.

    1995-06-01

    T.U. Electric`s Martin Lake plant has a history of boiler slagging which is characteristic of the Texas lignite used as fuel. Using the capabilities of EPRI`s Plant Monitoring Workstation (PMW) and enhanced performance monitoring instrumentation, Martin Lake has developed an on-line boiler cleanliness model that can be used to manage sootblowing. Testing of the model has been very positive, showing good correlation between blowers operated and cleanliness obtained. potential applications of this model are for (1) testing the effectiveness of revised combustion strategies and (2) development of an automatic sootblowing system. These two areas could result in heat rate improvements. This paper discusses how the PMW models were configured to represent Martin Lake`s boilers and the results of on-line tests. Critical to this technique is the calculation of boiler gas flow. A somewhat unique feature of Martin Lake`s model is the calculation of boiler gas flow based on the induction draft (ID) fan horsepower. Most boiler gas flow calculations are based on stack gas flow which would have been inaccurate because of the wet scrubbers and stack gas reheat on this unit. Using the ID fan horsepower to derive boiler gas flow has application in boiler efficiency calculations as well.

  15. CWS co-firing on two cyclone-fired electric utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, R.A.; Carson, W.R.; DeSollar, R.; Brown, R.A.

    1997-07-01

    Coal water slurry (CWS) Co-firing is of interest to electric utilities for several reasons. Studies have shown that there are some two billion tons of coal in coal pond impoundments throughout the Eastern/Midwestern United States with an additional 50 million tons being added each year. The use of such coal pond fines can provide utilities with a fuel that is potentially lower in cost than currently contracted supply coal. A CWS fuel used for co-firing in a cyclone-fired unit requires only minimal processing for this type of unit can handle high ash coals. CWS Co-firing in a cyclone might also be done in such a way to reduce NO{sub x} emissions. Further, certain utilities operate their own coal preparation plants. By removing coal fines from preparation plant impoundments, more landfill volume becomes available. This paper describes a demonstration of CWS combustion on a 33 MWe cyclone-fired unit.

  16. Environmental assessment of utility boiler combustion modification NO/sub x/ controls: Volume 2. Appendices. Final report, March 1977-May 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, K.L.; Waterland, L.R.; Castaldini, C.; Chiba, Z.; Higginbotham, E.B.

    1980-04-01

    The report gives results of an evaluation of combustion modification techniques for coal-, oil-, and gas-fired utility boilers, with repect to NOx control reduction effectiveness, operational impact, thermal efficiency impact, capital and annualized operating costs, and effect on emissions of pollutants other than NOx. For gas- and oil-fired boilers, 30 to 60% NOx reductions are achievable with the combined use of staged combustion, flue gas recirculation and low excess air at an annualized cost of $0.50 to $3.00/kW-yr. For retrofit control of existing coal-fired boilers, low NOx burners and/or staged combustion yields a 30 to 60% NOx reduction at an annualized cost of $0.40 to $1.20/kW-yr. For new sources, modified furnace design with low NOx burners and/or overfire air can achieve emission levels of 260 to 170 ng/J (40 to 60% reduction). Detailed emission tests on a 200 MW coal-fired boiler showed that changes in trace specie emissions due to combustion modifications were small compared to the benefit of reduced NOx emissions.

  17. Environmental assessment of utility boiler combustion modification NO/sub x/ controls: Volume 1. Technical results. Final report, March 1977-May 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, K.J.; Waterland, L.R.; Castaldini, C.; Chiba, Z.; Higginbotham, E.B.

    1980-04-01

    The report gives results of an evaluation of combustion modification techniques for coal-, oil-, and gas-fired utility boilers, with respect to NOx control reduction effectiveness, operational impact, thermal efficiency impact, capital and annualized operating costs, and effect on emissions of pollutants other than NOx. For gas- and oil-fired boilers, 30 to 60% NOx reductions are achievable with the combined use of staged combustion, flue gas recirculation, and low excess air at an annualized operating costs, of $0.50 to $3.00/kW-yr. For retrofit control of existing coal-fired boilers, low NOx burners and/or staged combustion yields a 30 to 60% NOx reduction at an annualized cost of $0.40 to $1.20/kW-yr. For new sources, modified furnace design with low NOx burners and/or overfire air can achieve emission levels of 260 to 170 ng/J (40 to 60% reduction). Detailed emission tests on a 200 MW coal-fired boiler showed that changes in trace specie emissions due to combustion modifications were small compared to the benefit of reduced NOx emissions.

  18. Combustion modification Nox controls for utility boilers. Volume I: tangential coal-fired unit field test. Final report Jul 78-Jul 79

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, E.B.; Goldberg, P.M.

    1981-07-01

    The report gives results of an environmental assessment field testing program on a tangential-coal-fired utility boiler. The aim of the program was to measure multimedia emissions changes as a result of applying combustion modification NOx control. Emissions of trace elements, organic materials, sulfur species, SO2, NOx, CO, and particulate matter were measured. These emissions were compared under normal and low-NOx operating conditions. Source operating data were also analyzed so that changes in operating parameters and efficiency could be assessed. The test were conducted on TVA's Kingston Steam Plant, Unit 6, a 180-MW, pulverized-coal, tangentially fired, electric utility boiler with a rated capacity of 582 Mg/hr (1.28 million lb/hr) steam. Burners-out-of-service and biased-burner firing were used for NOx control.

  19. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During the fourth reporting quarter, laboratory-screening tests of more than 20 potential additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of flyash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a new multi-cell laboratory flyash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. An initial field trial of three additive formulations was also conducted at the City of Ames, Iowa Municipal Power Plant.

  20. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2003-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, two cohesivity-specific additive formulations, ADA-44C and ADA-51, were evaluated in a full-scale trial at the American Electric Power Conesville plant. Ammonia conditioning was also evaluated for comparison. ADA-51 and ammonia conditioning significantly reduced rapping and non-rapped particulate re-entrainment based on stack opacity monitor data. Based on the successful tests to date, ADA-51 will be evaluated in a long-term test.

  1. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2003-07-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. This quarterly report summarizes project activity for the period April-June, 2003. In this period there was limited activity and no active field trials. Results of ash analysis from the AEP Conesville demonstration were received. In addition, a site visit was made to We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant and a proposal extended for a flue gas conditioning trial with the ADA-51 cohesivity additive. It is expected that this will be the final full-scale evaluation on the project.

  2. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, installation of a flue gas conditioning system was completed at PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. Performance testing was underway. Results will be detailed in the next quarterly and subsequent technical summary reports. Also in this quarter, discussions were initiated with a prospective long-term candidate plant. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning has been proposed here, but there is interest in liquid additives as a safer alternative.

  3. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, further laboratory-screening tests of additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of fly ash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a multi-cell laboratory fly ash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. Also during this quarter chemical formulation testing was undertaken to identify stable and compatible resistivity/cohesivity liquid products.

  4. IAPCS: A COMPUTER MODEL THAT EVALUATES POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The IAPCS model, developed by U.S. EPA`s Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory and made available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, can be used by utility companies, architectural and engineering companies, and regulatory agencies at all l...

  5. EPA DETERMINATION STUDIES ON THE CONTROL OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTION EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to determine whether the regulation of hazardous air pollution (HAP) emissions from electric utility generating plants is necessary. This determination is to be made on or before December 15, 2000. It focuses primarily on the nee...

  6. IAPCS: A COMPUTER MODEL THAT EVALUATES POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The IAPCS model, developed by U.S. EPA`s Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory and made available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, can be used by utility companies, architectural and engineering companies, and regulatory agencies at all l...

  7. CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides additional information on mercury (Hg) emissions control following the release of "Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units--Final Report to Congress" in February 1998. Chapters 1-3 describe EPA's December 2000 de...

  8. CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides additional information on mercury (Hg) emissions control following the release of "Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units--Final Report to Congress" in February 1998. Chapters 1-3 describe EPA's December 2000 de...

  9. Emission control from stationary power sources (process evaluation and environmental assessment of coal-fired utility boiler NO/sub x/ control technologies)

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, K.J.; Waterland, L.R.; Chiba, Z.; Higginbotham, E.B.; Bowen, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    A process evaluation and environmental assessment of combustion modification techniques for controlling nitrogen oxides emissions from coal-fired utility boilers was performed. The assessment indicates that specific combustion modification techniques are cost-effective means of controlling such emissions. Preferred techniques include staged combustion firing by overfire air injection, and the use of new burner and furnace designs, both coupled with low excess air firing. (2 diagrams, 27 references, 9 tables)

  10. Emission control from stationary power sources (environmental assessment field testing: effects of NO/sub x/ controls applied to a tangential coal-fired utility boiler)

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, E.B.; Waterland, L.R.; Mason, H.B.; Hall, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    A field testing program was conducted to measure changes in multimedia emissions from a tangential coal-fired utility boiler as a result of applying combustion modification nitrogen oxides control. Emissions of trace elements, organic materials, sulfur species, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides were measured. Particulate and sulfur species emissions were not affected by combustion modification. Organic material emissions increased slightly, and some trace element partitioning occurred. (6 diagrams, 8 references, 16 tables)

  11. Development of advanced NO sub x control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Newhall, J.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1991-12-23

    Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) is currently conducting a test program to develop an advanced NO{sub x} control method utilizing reburning, promoted selective noncatalytic agent injection. The study will consist of fundamental and process testing over a large enough range of operating parameters to significantly reduce the risk of a full scale demonstration project. The test plan for the fundamental testing phase of the program is presented here.

  12. Utilization of coal-water fuels in fire-tube boilers. Final report, October 1990--August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, T.; Melick, T.; Morrison, D.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this DOE sponsored project was to successfully fire coal-water slurry in a fire-tube boiler that was designed for oil/gas firing and establish a data base that will be relevant to a large number of existing installations. Firing slurry in a fire-tube configuration is a very demanding application because of the extremely high heat release rates and the correspondingly low furnace volume where combustion can be completed. Recognizing that combustion efficiency is the major obstacle when firing slurry in a fire-tube boiler, the program was focused on innovative approaches for improving carbon burnout without major modifications to the boiler. The boiler system was successfully designed and operated to fire coal-water slurry for extended periods of time with few slurry related operational problems. The host facility was a 3.8 million Btu/hr Cleaver-Brooks fire-tube boiler located on the University of Alabama Campus. A slurry atomizer was designed that provided outstanding atomization and was not susceptible to pluggage. The boiler was operated for over 1000 hours and 12 shipments of slurry were delivered. The new equipment engineered for the coal-water slurry system consisted of the following: combustion air and slurry heaters; cyclone; baghouse; fly ash reinjection system; new control system; air compressor; CWS/gas burner and gas valve train; and storage tank and slurry handling system.

  13. Circulating fluidized-bed boilers: Enhancing reagent utilization while maintaining proper SO{sub 2} removal

    SciTech Connect

    Dubose, R.E.; Ray, D.M.; Wofford, J.; Buecker, B.

    1997-12-31

    Unit performance, and related operation and maintenance costs, for circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustors are very dependent on the sorbent selected for SO{sub 2} removal. Limestone is the typical reagent of choice, but variations in quality can have a dramatic impact on the reaction efficiency. This paper discusses the results of full-scale tests and subsequent use of a high-quality sorbent in the two CFBs serving the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The tests were necessary because of the desire to optimize performance based on the economics of limestone utilization and ash disposal. It was considered, also, that the reagent in use prior to the tests was not very reactive and caused ash handling problems. Project organizers used the full-scale tests to examine the effects of sorbent quality and grind size on the efficiency of the process. The tests indicated that reagent consumption would be reduced by 50% or more with the new sorbent. Plant personnel verified this conclusion when they began feeding the new reagent on a permanent basis. Reagent usage and ash production significantly decreased and have remained low in the three years since the change was made. The results outlined in this paper clearly indicate the large impact that reagent quality has on CFB operation. For present and prospective CFB managers, these results can justify the search for, and use of, limestone sorbents that might otherwise be considered too expensive or too distant from the plant. 39 figs.

  14. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2002-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, performance testing of flue gas conditioning was completed at the PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. The product tested, ADA-43, was a combination resistivity modifier with cohesivity polymers. The product was effective as a flue gas conditioner. However, ongoing problems with in-duct deposition resulting from the flue gas conditioning were not entirely resolved. Primarily these problems were the result of difficulties encountered with retrofit of an existing spray humidification system. Eventually it proved necessary to replace all of the original injection lances and to manually bypass the PLC-based air/liquid feed control. This yielded substantial improvement in spray atomization and system reliability. However, the plant opted not to install a permanent system. Also in this quarter, preparations continued for a test of the cohesivity additives at the American Electric Power Conesville Plant, Unit 3. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning is employed here on one unit, but there is interest in liquid cohesivity additives as a safer alternative.

  15. Combustion characteristics and NO formation for biomass blends in a 35-ton-per-hour travelling grate utility boiler.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengqi; Zhao, Wei; Li, Ruiyang; Wang, Zhenwang; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Guangbo

    2009-04-01

    Measurements were taken for a 35-ton-per-hour biomass-fired travelling grate boiler. Local mean concentrations of O(2), CO, SO(2) and NO gas species and gas temperatures were determined in the region above the grate. For a 28-ton-per-hour load, the mass ratios of biomass fly ash and boiler slag were 42% and 58%, the boiler efficiency was 81.56%, and the concentrations of NO(x) and SO(2) at 6% O(2) were 257 and 84 mg/m(3). For an 18-ton-per-hour load, the fuel burning zone was nearer to the inlet than it was for the 28-ton-per-hour load, and the contents of CO and NO in the fuel burning zone above the grate were lower.

  16. Basic design studies for a 600 MWe CFB boiler (270b, 2 x 600 C)

    SciTech Connect

    Bursi, J.M.; Lafanechere, L.; Jestin, L.

    1999-07-01

    Commercial CFB boilers are currently available in the 300 MWe equivalent range for use with international coal. Retrofitting of Provence 4 with a 250 MWe CFB boiler was an important step in CFB development. In light of the results obtained from two large French units--Emile Huchet 4 (125 MWe) and Provence 4 (250 MWe)--this paper focuses on the main technical points which are currently being studied in relation to the basic design of a 600 MWe CFB boiler, a project that has been undertaken by EDF. The general aim of this project is to demonstrate the competitiveness of a CFB boiler compared with a PF boiler. The main areas of focus in the design of this large CFB boiler with advanced steam conditions are described. These points are subjected to particular analysis from a design standpoint. The objective is to prepare the precise specifications needed to ensure a product which is optimized in terms of quality/cost or service/cost. Due to the present lack of theoretical understanding of the refined and complex two-phase flow, design is a challenge which has to be based on reliable and comprehensive data obtained from large plants in commercial operation. This will ensure that the advantages of CFB which arise from the hydrodynamics within the circulation loop are maintained. The major goals of maintaining good particle residence time and concentration in the furnace are described. Misunderstanding of CFB furnace bottom conditions is also pointed out, with cost reduction and better NO{sub x} capture certainly among the major new targets in relation to bottom furnace design. General problems associated with the heat exchanger arrangement, principally those linked to high steam conditions and, especially, the vaporization system, are discussed. Once again, comparison with PF in this area showed that CFB boilers appear more competitive. Finally, the main area in which there is a need for sharing of CFB experience among CFB users is pointed out.

  17. Integrated air-pollution control for coal-fired utility boilers: a computer model approach for design and cost-estimating

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, G.E.; Laseke, B.A.; Ponder, T.C.; Milliken, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes the Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS), a computerized program that can be used to estimate the cost and performance of pre-combustion, in situ, and post-combustion air-pollution-control configurations in pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers of 100 to 1000 MW. Modular program design and flexible parameter files allow the user to alter the design and cost basis of any control technology, optimize the emission/cost output, and identify least-cost control alternatives. Physical and chemical characteristics of the flue gas are calculated by material balance and reported in an emission-reduction summary. The program tracks changes in gas temperature, pressure, and volume; fly ash and alkalinity; gaseous pollutants and components; moisture content; and reagent recycling. Capital and annual cost estimates are presented in standardized format for easy comparison with other estimates. Control technologies include physical coal cleaning, limestone injection multistage burners (LIMB), low-NOx burners or overfire air ports, spray humidification, dry sorbent injection, dry scrubbing, limestone flue-gas desulfurization, electrostatic precipitators, and fabric filters. Integrated combinations of these can be optimized both for existing boilers and for new boilers.

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment... 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator ALABAMA... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant Unit...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment... 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator ALABAMA... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant Unit...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment... 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator ALABAMA... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant Unit...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment... 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator ALABAMA... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant Unit...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CORP. KENTUCKY COLEMAN C3 BIG RIVERS ELEC CORP. KENTUCKY EW BROWN 1 KENTUCKY UTL CO. KENTUCKY GREEN... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant...

  3. Design and research of retrofitting PC boiler into CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.P.; Lu, J.D.; Huang, L.; Liu, H.; Lin, Z.; Liu, D.C.

    1997-12-31

    In China, there are a large number of aged pulverized coal (PC) boilers at aging utility power plants. Many of them are beyond their reasonable working life or in a condition of unreliable operation, low combustion efficiency, and serious air pollution. It is very important and urgent to retrofit the aged PC boilers, and repower the aging utility power plants in China. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers have been developed rapidly, and paid great attention to in China. There are many striking advantages to retrofit an aged boiler with a CFB boiler. The retrofitting is suitable to meet the needs of effective utilization of low-grade coal, reducing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions and repowering an aging power plant. The cost is much lower than that of building a new CFB unit. The National Laboratory of Coal Combustion (NLCC) has always paid great attention to studying and developing CFB combustion technology in connection with Chinese national conditions, and has evolved distinguishing technology features of its own. This paper introduces a new design concept of retrofitting PC boiler into Pi ({Pi}-shaped) CFB boiler with downward exhaust cyclone, and relevant research work and results of design and calculation.

  4. Variations of emission characterization of PAHs emitted from different utility boilers of coal-fired power plants and risk assessment related to atmospheric PAHs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruwei; Liu, Guijian; Zhang, Jiamei

    2015-12-15

    Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) represent important source of atmospheric PAHs, however, their emission characterization are still largely unknown. In this work, the concentration, distribution and gas-particle partitioning of PM10- and gas-phase PAHs in flue gas emitted from different coal-fired utility boilers were investigated. Moreover, concentration and distribution in airborne PAHs from different functional areas of power plants were studied. People's inhalatory and dermal exposures to airborne PAHs at these sites were estimated and their resultant lung cancer and skin cancer risks were assessed. Results indicated that the boiler capacity and operation conditions have significant effect on PAH concentrations in both PM10 and gas phases due to the variation of combustion efficiency, whereas they take neglected effect on PAH distributions. The wet flue gas desulphurization (WFGD) takes significant effect on the scavenging of PAH in both PM10 and gas phases, higher scavenging efficiency were found for less volatile PAHs. PAH partitioning is dominated by absorption into organic matter and accompanied by adsorption onto PM10 surface. In addition, different partitioning mechanism is observed for individual PAHs, which is assumed arising from their chemical affinity and vapor pressure. Risk assessment indicates that both inhalation and dermal contact greatly contribute to the cancer risk for CFPP workers and nearby residents. People working in workshop are exposed to greater inhalation and dermal exposure risk than people living in nearby vicinity and working office.

  5. Improving combustion characteristics and NO(x) emissions of a down-fired 350 MW(e) utility boiler with multiple injection and multiple staging.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Min; Li, Zhengqi; Xu, Shantian; Zhu, Qunyi

    2011-04-15

    Within a Mitsui Babcock Energy Limited down-fired pulverized-coal 350 MW(e) utility boiler, in situ experiments were performed, with measurements taken of gas temperatures in the burner and near the right-wall regions, and of gas concentrations (O(2) and NO) from the near-wall region. Large combustion differences between zones near the front and rear walls and particularly high NO(x) emissions were found in the boiler. With focus on minimizing these problems, a new technology based on multiple-injection and multiple-staging has been developed. Combustion improvements and NO(x) reductions were validated by investigating three aspects. First, numerical simulations of the pulverized-coal combustion process and NO(x) emissions were compared in both the original and new technologies. Good agreement was found between simulations and in situ measurements with the original technology. Second, with the new technology, gas temperature and concentration distributions were found to be symmetric near the front and rear walls. A relatively low-temperature and high-oxygen-concentration zone formed in the near-wall region that helps mitigate slagging in the lower furnace. Third, NO(x) emissions were found to have decreased by as much as 50%, yielding a slight decrease in the levels of unburnt carbon in the fly ash.

  6. Development of advanced NO{sub x} control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, September 26--December 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Newhall, J.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1991-12-23

    Hybrid technologies for reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired utility boilers may offer greater levels of NO{sub x} control than the sum of the individual technologies, leading to more cost effective emissions control strategies. Energy and Environmental Research Corporation had developed a hybrid NO{sub x} control strategy involving two proprietary concepts which has the potential to meet the US Department of Energy`s goal at a significant reduction in cost compared to existing technology. The process has been named CombiNO{sub x}. CombiNO{sub x} is the integration of three separate NO control technologies: (1) Gas Reburning, (2) CO-Promoted Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction, and (3) Methanol Injection/NO{sub 2} Scrubbing.

  7. EVALUATION OF INTERNALLY STAGED COAL BURNERS AND SORBENT JET AERODYNAMICS FOR COMBINED SO2/NOX CONTROL IN UTILITY BOILERS; VOLUME 2. TESTING IN A 100 MILLION BTU/HR EXPERIMENTAL FURNACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report givesresults of100 million Btu/hr (29 MWt) experimental furnace to explore methods for achieving effective S02 removal in a coalfired utility boiler using calcium-based sorbents, through appropriate selection of injection location and injector design/operating paramete...

  8. EVALUATION OF INTERNALLY STAGED COAL BURNERS AND SORBENT JET AERODYNAMICS FOR COMBINED SO2/NOX CONTROL IN UTILITY BOILERS; VOLUME 2. TESTING IN A 100 MILLION BTU/HR EXPERIMENTAL FURNACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report givesresults of100 million Btu/hr (29 MWt) experimental furnace to explore methods for achieving effective S02 removal in a coalfired utility boiler using calcium-based sorbents, through appropriate selection of injection location and injector design/operating paramete...

  9. Fluidized-bed retofit study of C-E VUX-type boiler at the Jamestown Board of Public Utilities Carlson Station, Jamestown, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The objectives of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of retrofitting an existing coal-fired industrial steam generator with a fluidized bed combustion system. This included establishing a preliminary design in sufficient detail to develop a cost estimate associated with all major hardware additions and changes. The unit selected as a basis for this study is a Combustion Engineering VUX type steam generator rated for 150,000 lbs/hr steam. The unit is located at the Jamestown, New York, Carlson Station. As a preliminary step in the feasibility evaluation a site survey was conducted to determine suitability based on existing structures, open area, accessibility, and boiler condition. An evaluation and preliminary design was developed incorporating the fluidized bed into the existing furnace area, detailing all pressure part requirements. Design requirements were established for auxiliary systems and components. The incineration of industrial wastes generated by the local industry was investigated. Provisions for firing both solid and liquid industrial waste were incorporated into the retrofit design. Environmental consideration for both coal and waste firing have been identified. The results of the feasibility study showed that industrial boilers of the type studied can be retrofitted with a coal-fired fluidized bed combustion system achieving the desired performance and meeting the environmental requirements. The retrofit also provided for the utilization of industrial waste as a supplemental fuel source and the disposing of such waste in an environmentally acceptable manner. The cost of the retrofit was estimated to be $55.17 per lb of steam in 1980 dollars.

  10. Development of advanced NO{sub x} control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, April 1--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Newhall, J.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1992-01-16

    Hybrid technologies for reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired utility boilers may offer greater levels of NO{sub x} control than the sum of the individual technologies, leading to more cost effective emissions control strategies. CombiNO{sub x} is an integration of modified reburning, promoted selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and methanol injection to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired flue gas. The first two steps, modified reburning and promoted SNCR are linked. It was shown previously that oxidation of CO in the presence of a SNCR agent enhances the NO reduction performance. Less reburning than is typically done is required to generate the optimum amount of CO to promote the SNCR agent. If the reburn fuel is natural gas this may result in a significant cost savings over typical reburning. Injection of methanol into the flue gas has been shown at laboratory scale to convert NO to NO{sub 2} which may subsequently be removed in a wet scrubber. The overall objective of this program is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the CombiNOx process at a large enough scale and over a sufficiently broad range of conditions to provide all of the information needed to conduct a full-scale demonstration in a coal fired utility boiler. The specific technical goals of this program are: 70% NO{sub x} reduction at 20% of the cost of selective catalytic reduction; NO{sub x} levels at the stack of 60 ppm for ozone non-attainment areas; demonstrate coal reburning; identify all undesirable by-products of the process and their controlling parameters; demonstrate 95% NO{sub 2} removal in a wet scrubber. During this reporting period, experimental work was initiated at both the laboratory and pilot scale in the Fundamental Studies phase of the program. The laboratory scale work focused on determining whether or not the NO{sub 2} formed by the methanol injection step can be removed in an SO{sub 2} scrubber.

  11. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O&M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO{sub x} removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system.

  12. 16 CFR Appendix G7 to Part 305 - Boilers (Oil)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Boilers (Oil) G7 Appendix G7 to Part 305... RULEâ) Appendix G7 to Part 305—Boilers (Oil) Type Range of annual fuel utilization efficiencies (AFUEs) Low High Oil Boilers Manufactured Before the Compliance Date of DOE Regional Standards for...

  13. 16 CFR Appendix G8 to Part 305 - Boilers (Electric)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Boilers (Electric) G8 Appendix G8 to Part... LABELING RULEâ) Appendix G8 to Part 305—Boilers (Electric) Type Range of annual fuel utilization efficiencies (AFUEs) Low High Electric Boilers 100 100...

  14. 16 CFR Appendix G6 to Part 305 - Boilers (Gas)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Boilers (Gas) G6 Appendix G6 to Part 305... RULEâ) Appendix G6 to Part 305—Boilers (Gas) Type Range of annual fuel utilization efficiencies (AFUEs) Low High Gas (Except Steam) Boilers Manufactured Before the Compliance Date of DOE Regional...

  15. Influence of staged-air on airflow, combustion characteristics and NO(x) emissions of a down-fired pulverized-coal 300 MW(e) utility boiler with direct flow split burners.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengqi; Kuang, Min; Zhang, Jia; Han, Yunfeng; Zhu, Qunyi; Yang, Lianjie; Kong, Weiguang

    2010-02-01

    Cold airflow experiments were conducted to investigate the aerodynamic field in a small-scale furnace of a down-fired pulverized-coal 300 MW(e) utility boiler arranged with direct flow split burners enriched by cyclones. By increasing the staged-air ratio, a deflected flow field appeared in the lower furnace; larger staged-air ratios produced larger deflections. Industrial-sized experiments on a full-scale boiler were also performed at different staged-air damper openings with measurements taken of gas temperatures in the burner region and near the right-side wall, wall heat fluxes, and gas components (O(2), CO, and NO(x)) in the near-wall region. Combustion was unstable at staged-air damper openings below 30%. For openings of 30% and 40%, late ignition of the pulverized coal developed and large differences arose in gas temperatures and heat fluxes between the regions near the front and rear walls. In conjunction, carbon content in the fly ash was high and boiler efficiency was low with high NO(x) emission above 1200 mg/m(3) (at 6% O(2) dry). For fully open dampers, differences in gas temperatures and heat fluxes, carbon in fly ash and NO(x) emission decreased yielding an increase in boiler efficiency. The optimal setting is fully open staged-air dampers.

  16. Reducing NOx Emissions for a 600 MWe Down-Fired Pulverized-Coal Utility Boiler by Applying a Novel Combustion System.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lun; Fang, Qingyan; Lv, Dangzhen; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Yiping; Chen, Gang; Duan, Xuenong; Wang, Xihuan

    2015-11-03

    A novel combustion system was applied to a 600 MWe Foster Wheeler (FW) down-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler to solve high NOx emissions, without causing an obvious increase in the carbon content of fly ash. The unit included moving fuel-lean nozzles from the arches to the front/rear walls and rearranging staged air as well as introducing separated overfire air (SOFA). Numerical simulations were carried out under the original and novel combustion systems to evaluate the performance of combustion and NOx emissions in the furnace. The simulated results were found to be in good agreement with the in situ measurements. The novel combustion system enlarged the recirculation zones below the arches, thereby strengthening the combustion stability considerably. The coal/air downward penetration depth was markedly extended, and the pulverized-coal travel path in the lower furnace significantly increased, which contributed to the burnout degree. The introduction of SOFA resulted in a low-oxygen and strong-reducing atmosphere in the lower furnace region to reduce NOx emissions evidently. The industrial measurements showed that NOx emissions at full load decreased significantly by 50%, from 1501 mg/m3 (O2 at 6%) to 751 mg/m3 (O2 at 6%). The carbon content in the fly ash increased only slightly, from 4.13 to 4.30%.

  17. CFB boiler at Gardanne (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Jaud, P.; Jacquet, L.; Delot, P.; Bayle, F.

    1995-06-01

    Among the new Clean Coal Technologies, {open_quotes}Circulating Fluidized Bed{close_quotes} is one of the most promising. Today, the largest project in commissioning`s the 250 MWe Provence CFB boiler, located near MARSEILLE in the south of France. At such a size, the CFB technique has now reached a capacity corresponding to thermal power plants operated by utilities. This new unit is a very important step towards larger size i.e. 400 MWe and greater. The SO{sub 2} emissions of this CFB boiler are guaranteed to be less than 400 mg / Nm{sup 3} at 6% O{sub 2} with the ratio of Ca/S lower than 3 while total sulfur in local coal used can reach 3.68 %. The purpose of the Provence project was to replace the existing pulverized coal boiler unit 4, commissioned in 1967, of the Provence power plant, with a new CFB boiler while reusing most of the existing equipment. The new boiler has been ordered from GEC ALSTHOM STEIN INDUSTREE (GASI) by Electricite de France (EDF) on behalf of the SOPROLIF consortium. Architect Engineering and construction management was performed by EDF jointly with Charbonnages de France (CdF: the French Coal Board). The 250 MWe CFB boiler is of the superheat-reheat type. The first firing of the boiler is due in April 1995. The poster session will describe the progress in the construction of the plant and provides technical details of the new boiler and auxiliaries.

  18. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    Cyclone furnaces operate with high excess air and at high temperature. The heat release during combustion is very high and as a result the boiler volume is much smaller than would be found in a conventional pc-fired system. The Marion Unit 1 boiler, at the level of the cyclone entry, has a small cross-section; about 5-feet in depth and about 20-feet in width. A boiler schematic showing the LNS Burner and relative location of the superheater region and overfire air ports is shown in Figure 1. The LNS Burner`s combustion process is fundamentally different from that of the cyclone, and the combustion products are also different. The LNS Burner products enter the boiler as hot, fuel-rich gases. Additional overfire air must be added to complete this combustion step with care taken to avoid the formation of thermal NO{sub x}. If done correctly, S0{sub 2} is controlled and significant NO{sub x} reductions are achieved. Because of the small boiler volume, flow modelling was found to be necessary to insure that adequate mixing of LNS Burner combustion products with air can be accomplished to achieve NO{sub x} emissions goals. Design requirements for the air injection system for the Marion boiler were developed using FLUENT, a commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. A series of runs were made to obtain a design for final air injection that met the process design goals as closely as possible.

  19. Exploiting the On-Campus Boiler House.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Donald R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Shows how a university utility building ("boiler house") is used in a chemical engineering course for computer simulations, mathematical modeling and process problem exercises. Student projects involving the facility are also discussed. (JN)

  20. Exploiting the On-Campus Boiler House.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Donald R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Shows how a university utility building ("boiler house") is used in a chemical engineering course for computer simulations, mathematical modeling and process problem exercises. Student projects involving the facility are also discussed. (JN)

  1. Boiler tube failure reduction program

    SciTech Connect

    Lamping, G.A. ); Jonas, O. ); Niebo, R.J. )

    1991-08-01

    Boiler tube failures are generally recognized as the major cause of forced outages of fossil power generating units for US electric utilities. In almost all cases of serious availability losses, the boiler tube failures are repeat in nature and result in multiple forced outages. Primary factors influencing repeat, rather than random, tube failures are usually found to result from not following state-of-the-art operating, maintenance and/or engineering practices, lack of proper tube failure analysis, wrong choice of corrective/preventive action or solution, and lack of a tube failure reporting and monitoring system. A proven way to prevent costly repeat failures is to implement a formalized Boiler Tube Failure Prevention Program that is supported by senior management and focuses attention and resources on operating, maintenance and engineering controllable parameters that influence repeat tube failures. This report describes such a program, implemented at sixteen utilities under EPRI Research Project RP 1890-7, Boiler Tube Failure Reduction Program.'' Results are presented for ten utilities that began the program in the summer of 1986 with over four years of participation, and for six additional utilities from June of 1988 through December 1990. Both sets of utilities have produced remarkable improvements, the most tangible being substantial reductions in equivalent availability factor losses due to BTF of between 1.5 to 4.5%. Failure mechanism data submitted to the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) over the project term has also made it possible to delineate the leading BTF mechanisms causing problems for the participating utilities. Corrosion fatigue, fly ash erosion and high temperature creep accounted for over 28% of the total reported. 3 figs.

  2. Design considerations of B&W internal circulation CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Kavidass, S.; Belin, F.; James, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Worldwide, the use of Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) boiler technology is rapidly increasing due to the ability to burn low grade fuels while meeting the required NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO, VOC, and particulate emissions requirements. The CFB boiler can produce steam economically for process and electric power generation. This paper discusses various aspects of Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) internal recirculation circulating fluidized-bed (IR-CFB) boiler design including fuel, boiler process parameters, and emissions. The B&W CFB boiler is unique in design. It utilizes proven impact-type particle separators (U-beams) with in-furnace solids recirculation recirculation. The paper describes the methodology for setting up process parameters, heat duty, boiler design, including auxiliary equipment selection and advantages. The paper also updates the ongoing IR-CFB boiler contracts.

  3. Influence of the overfire air ratio on the NO(x) emission and combustion characteristics of a down-fired 300-MW(e) utility boiler.

    PubMed

    Ren, Feng; Li, Zhengqi; Chen, Zhichao; Fan, Subo; Liu, Guangkui

    2010-08-15

    Down-fired boilers used to burn low-volatile coals have high NO(x) emissions. To find a way of solving this problem, an overfire air (OFA) system was introduced on a 300 MW(e) down-fired boiler. Full-scale experiments were performed on this retrofitted boiler to explore the influence of the OFA ratio (the mass flux ratio of OFA to the total combustion air) on the combustion and NO(x) emission characteristics in the furnace. Measurements were taken of gas temperature distributions along the primary air and coal mixture flows, average gas temperatures along the furnace height, concentrations of gases such as O(2), CO, and NO(x) in the near-wall region and carbon content in the fly ash. Data were compared for five different OFA ratios. The results show that as the OFA ratio increases from 12% to 35%, the NO(x) emission decreases from 1308 to 966 mg/Nm(3) (at 6% O(2) dry) and the carbon content in the fly ash increases from 6.53% to 15.86%. Considering both the environmental and economic effect, 25% was chosen as the optimized OFA ratio.

  4. NO sub x control for industrial boilers utilizing the NOxOUT process firing gas or oil, gas and fiberfuel or oil and fiberfuel

    SciTech Connect

    Confuorto, N. ); Sommerlad, R.E. ); Hofmann, J. ); Karpeles, R.S.; Zinsky, L.P. )

    1992-01-01

    As a result of recent legislation Garden State Paper Co., Inc., (GSP) a major producer of recycled newspaper, was required to develop a new disposal technique for its by-product fiber fines and deinking residuals sludge. The system chosen was not an alternative disposal technique but rather one that results in recycle as a recovered fuel in its own boilers. In order not to turn a water pollution solution into an air pollution problem, severe air emissions controls were employed. The recycled sludge after drying, known as Fiberfuel, will be burned in two GSP boilers in new burners. These burners have the capability of burning Fiberfuel in combination with gas or oil, and gas or oil alone. In order to minimize NO{sub x} emissions the two boilers were equipped with low-NO{sub x} burners and the NOxOUT Process, the first such commercial application of this process with Fiberfuel. This paper focuses on the successful design, implementation, and test plans of the NOxOUT with the various fuel combinations.

  5. Waste heat recovery boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Taiji Inui, H.; Makoto Sasaki, M.

    1984-08-21

    A waste heat recovery boiler for generating steam by utilizing a flue gas discharged from a gas turbine as a heat source comprises an economizer for preheating feedwater by the flue gas, an evaporator for evaporating the preheated feedwater, and a superheater for generating a steam for driving a steam prime mover by heating the evaporated feedwater. The economizer, the evaporator and the superheater are successively arranged in the direction from a downstream side to an upstream side of flue gas passage. The evaporator itself is divided into two sections and an apparatus for removing NO /SUB x/ is provided in a space between the divided two sections of the evaporator in the flue gas passage to remove NO /SUB x/ from the flue gas. An NO /SUB x/ concentration of a flue gas discharged from a combined cycle power plant including the gas turbine can be stably abated at any of full and partial loads.

  6. A relevant study on characteristic parameters of coal combustion and boiler structure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Wun, Y.; Lu, F.

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes over 40 power plant coal-fired utility boilers with capacities of more than 200MW and 300MW for its coal particle combustion characteristics, boiler structural parameters and actual condition of boiler performance. Two kinds of parameters of coal particle combustion characteristic and boiler structure are given. They are pulverized coal air jets ignition stability index (Mw), coal-ash slagging index (Mz), coal burn-out index (Mj) as well as boiler structural stability index (Lw), boiler structural slagging index (Lz), boiler structural burn-out index (Lj). The relevant relations between them of Mw-Lw, Mz-Lz and Mj-Lj are set up by interpolation function. This paper also describes a boiler design predicting expert system, with which the design parameters of power plant coal-fired utility boilers with large capacity may be calculated based on coal characteristics parameters and the boiler`s performance be predicted to guarantee power plant coal-fired utility boilers` stable combustion, less slagging and higher combustion efficiency. According to its application to an actual power plant coal-fired utility boiler, the result of prediction is accurate and reliable.

  7. Chemical cleaning clears San Miguel's boiler tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Buecker, B.; Wofford, J. ); Magel, R. )

    1994-06-01

    This article describes chemical cleaning of the San Miguel Electric Cooperative (SMEC) boiler, an opposed-fired, natural circulation, reheat unit. At maximum continuous rating, steam flow is 3,054,000 lb/hr at a pressure of 2,925 psig. The superheater and reheater design temperatures are both 1,005 F. Boiler volume is 69,000 gallons. The Unit 1 boiler had not been cleaned since 1980, its original start-up date. Tube sample analyses indicated deposit densities ranging from 12 to 26 grams/ft[sup 2]. Utility boiler tubes will, over time, accumulate an internal layer of iron oxides and other deposits that inhibit flow and heat transfer, even with well-controlled water chemistry. Tube deposits can speed up corrosion, cause tube overheating, and be a precursor to tube failure. Deposits can influence such phenomena as phosphate hideout, and reduce boiler efficiency. For many utility boilers, a periodic cleaning is necessary to remove internal deposits before they can cause serious problems. Regardless of the benefits, chemical cleanings often make plant managers, engineers, and operators anxious because the process has been known to cause equipment damage or extend the length of an outage.

  8. 51. BOILER ROOM. SMALL BOILER ON LEFT OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. BOILER ROOM. SMALL BOILER ON LEFT OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURE, WITH INDUCTION MOTORS. HARTLEY BOILER, MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA, ON RIGHT. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  9. 33. BOILER HOUSE FURNACE AND BOILER Close view of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. BOILER HOUSE - FURNACE AND BOILER Close view of the Dorward Engineering Company furnace and boiler which provided steam to the cooking retorts in the adjacent room. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  10. Boiler saves pollution problem

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, J.A.

    1981-02-01

    Monarch Furniture Industries, High Point, N.C. replaced their old locomotive-type boiler in 1978 with a multifuel boiler system from Energy Systems, Inc. of Chattanooga. The system burns the company's wood wastes, supplemented with low-cost coal in winter. It generates 17,250 lbs. per hour of steam, gives a much cleaner burn than the old boiler, and has a calculated payback period of 1.67 years.

  11. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from high sulfur coal-fired utility boilers at Plant Crist SCR test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, W.S.; Maxwell, J.D.; Baldwin, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the status of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project to demonstrate SCR technology for reduction of NOx emissions from flue gas of utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, managed and co- funded by Southern Company Services, Inc. on behalf of the Southern Company, and also co-funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and Ontario Hydro; and is located at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit 5 (75 MW tangentially-fired boiler burning U.S. coals that have a sulfur content near 3.0%), near Pensacola, Florida. The test program is being conducted for approximately two years to evaluate catalyst deactivation and other SCR operational effects. The SCR test facility has nine reactors: three 2.5 MW (5000 scfm), and six 0.2 MW(400 scfm). Eight reactors operate on high-dust flue gas, while the ninth reactor operates on low-dust flue gas using a slip stream at the exit of the host unit`s hot side precipitator. The reactors operate in parallel with commercially available SCR catalysts obtained from vendors throughout the world. Long-term performance testing began in July 1993. A general test facility description and the results from three parametric test sequences and long term test data through December 1994 are presented in this paper.

  12. Specification considerations for a circulating fluidized bed boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, E.H.; Surabian, M. )

    1988-01-01

    The circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler is gradually gaining acceptance in both the industrial and utility sectors for electric power generation. Boiler steaming capacity in CFBs has increased to over a million pounds per hour in the most recent units. Many CFB units commisioned during the last few years worldwide have had difficult and extended start-up periods, but this experience has provided a good base of feedback for future units. There has been widespread use of the same criteria for a conventional pulverized coal or stoker boiler to specify the CFB boiler. This paper examines the unique design aspects of a CFB boiler and provides suggestions in the areas where specific requirements should be included in the specification of the boiler and its related systems. Areas examined include fuel handling area, burner systems, the combustor, cyclone and solids recirculation equipment, convention pass, the design and installation of refractories, fans and blowers, bed ash removal system, and particulate control equipment.

  13. Operating experience of Pyroflow boilers in a 250 MWe unit

    SciTech Connect

    Chelian, P.K.; Hyvarinen, K.

    1995-12-31

    The Cedar Bay Cogeneration project is a 250 MWe unit owned and operated by US Generating Company. This plant has one turbine rated at 250 MWe net which is supplied by three Pyroflow CFB boilers that operate in parallel while supplying a paper mill with steam on an uninterruptible basis. Compared to similar size CFB boilers the Cedar Bay boilers have certain unique features. First, these are reheat boilers which must continue to supply process steam even when the steam turbine is down. Second, the SO{sub 2} control operates at a very low Ca/S molar ratio by optimizing the process conditions and flyash reinjection. Third, the NO{sub x} reduction process utilizes aqueous ammonia injection. This paper presents the operating data at full load in terms of boiler efficiency, and the ability to limit gaseous emissions with minimum limestone and ammonia usage. Unique features relating to the multiple boiler installation are also discussed.

  14. Design considerations of B&W internal circulation CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Kavidass, S.; Alexander, K.C.

    1995-12-31

    Worldwide, the use of Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) boiler technology is rapidly increasing due to the ability to burn low grade fuels while meeting the required NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO, VOC, and particulate emissions requirements. The CFB boiler can produce steam economically for process and electric power generation. This paper discusses various aspects of Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) internal recirculation circulating fluidized-bed (IR-CFB) boiler design including fuel, boiler process parameters, and emissions. The B&W CFB boiler is unique in design. It utilizes proven impact-type particle separators (U-beams) with in-furnace solids recirculation. The paper describes the methodology for setting up process parameters, heat duty, boiler design, including auxiliary equipment selection and advantages.

  15. Compartment B3, boiler room; showing boiler facing of boiler #5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment B-3, boiler room; showing boiler facing of boiler #5 aft to forward from passing room B-25. (030A) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Design of a 350 MWe CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, S.L.; Li, X.

    1997-12-31

    Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers have been in operation for many years in industrial steam and power generation applications, primarily in the 50--100 MWe size range. Recently, several utility-scale CFB boilers have entered service and several others are under construction, in the 150--250 MWe size range. The next step for CFB technology is the 350 MWe size range. This paper will describe Foster Wheeler`s utility CFB experience, scale-up philosophy and the major design features of the 350 MWe CFB design.

  17. Assessment of physical workload in boiler operations.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; Braga, Camila Soares; Campos, Julio César Costa; Souza, Amaury Paulo de; Minette, Luciano José; Sensato, Guilherme Luciano; Moraes, Angelo Casali de; Silva, Emília Pio da

    2012-01-01

    The use of boiler wood-fired is fairly common equipment utilized in steam generation for energy production in small industries. The boiler activities are considered dangerous and heavy, mainly due to risks of explosions and the lack of mechanization of the process. This study assessed the burden of physical labor that operators of boilers are subjected during the workday. Assessment of these conditions was carried out through quantitative and qualitative measurements. A heart rate monitor, a wet-bulb globe thermometer (WBGT), a tape-measure and a digital infrared camera were the instruments used to collect the quantitative data. The Nordic Questionnaire and the Painful Areas Diagram were used to relate the health problems of the boiler operator with activity. With study, was concluded that the boiler activity may cause pains in the body of intensity different, muscle fatigue and diseases due to excessive weight and the exposure to heat. The research contributed to improve the boiler operator's workplace and working conditions.

  18. Combustion modification Nox controls for utility boilers. Volume III: residual oil wall-fired unit field test. Final report Jul 78-Jul 79

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, J.W.; Higginbotham, E.B.

    1981-07-01

    The report gives methods and results of an environmental assessment test program at Pacific Gas and Electric's Moss Landing Power Plant, Unit 6. The aim of the program was to measure changes in emissions as a result of applying NOx controls. Emissions of trace elements, organic materials, sulfur species, particulate matter, CO/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, NOx, and CO were measured. These emissions, under as-designed and controlled (for NOx) operating conditions, were compared. Source operating data were also analyzed so that changes in operating parameters and efficiency could be assessed. Two degrees of NOx control were tested: the highest level, corresponding to present boiler operation, consisted of burners-out-of-service and flue gas recirculation (FGR) to the windbox; and the other, representing an intermediate degree of control, consisted of only FGR to the windbox.

  19. 68. 1911 BOILER HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH. BOILERS ARE CA. 1945. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. 1911 BOILER HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH. BOILERS ARE CA. 1945. SPACE HEATING BOILER S REPLACED ORIGINAL 8 VERTICAL HIGH PRESSURE STEAM POWER BOILERS. THE ORIGINAL SHEET METAL FLUE IS IN THE UPPER CENTER. - Boston Manufacturing Company, 144-190 Moody Street, Waltham, Middlesex County, MA

  20. 39. (Credit JTL) Interior of boiler room looking east; boiler ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. (Credit JTL) Interior of boiler room looking east; boiler casing in background, boiler feedwater pumps and feedwater heater in middle ground; hot well on columns in left foreground. Steam lines from boilers to high service engines pass overhead. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  1. Drying Milk With Boiler Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Considerable energy saved in powdered-milk industry. Only special requirement boiler fired with natural gas or other clean fuel. Boiler flue gas fed to spray drier where it directly contacts product to be dried. Additional heat supplied by auxillary combustor when boiler output is low. Approach adaptable to existing plants with minimal investment because most already equipped with natural-gas-fired boilers.

  2. Drying Milk With Boiler Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Considerable energy saved in powdered-milk industry. Only special requirement boiler fired with natural gas or other clean fuel. Boiler flue gas fed to spray drier where it directly contacts product to be dried. Additional heat supplied by auxillary combustor when boiler output is low. Approach adaptable to existing plants with minimal investment because most already equipped with natural-gas-fired boilers.

  3. South and west elevations of Bright Angel boiler house. Red ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South and west elevations of Bright Angel boiler house. Red Horse log cabin visible in background. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  4. 29. NORTHWEST VIEW OF BOILER FEEDWATER CHEMICAL REACTION TANKS, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. NORTHWEST VIEW OF BOILER FEEDWATER CHEMICAL REACTION TANKS, WITH FORMER GENERAL OFFICE BUILDING IN BACKGROUND. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  5. Development of advanced NO{sub x} control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers. Quarterly technical progress report No. 8, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.; Pont, J.N.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1993-03-04

    The complete CombiNO{sub x}, process has now been demonstrated at a level that is believed to be representative of a full-scale boiler in terms of mixing capabilities. A summary of the results is displayed in Figure 5-1. While firing Illinois Coal on the Reburn Tower, Advanced Reburning was capable of reducing NO{sub x}, by 83 percent. The injection of methanol oxidized 50--58 percent of the existing NO to N0{sub 2}. Assuming that 85 percent of the newly formed N0{sub 2} can be scrubbed in a liquor modified wet-limestone scrubber, the CombiNO{sub x}, process has been shown capable of reducing NO{sub 2}, by 90--91 percent in a large pilot-scale coal-fired furnace. There is still uncertainty regarding the fate of the N0{sub 2} formed with methanol injection. Tests should be conducted to determine whether the reconversion is thermodynamic or catalytic, and what steps can be taken (such as quench rate) to prevent it from happening.

  6. Benchmarking boiler tube failures - Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, J.; Oldani, R.; von Behren, D.

    2005-10-01

    Boiler tube failures continue to be the leading cause of downtime for steam power plants. That should not be a surprise; a typical steam generator has miles of tubes that operate at high temperatures and pressures. Are your experiences comparable to those of your peers? Could you learn something from tube-leak benchmarking data that could improve the operation of your plant? The Electric Utility Cost Group (EUCG) recently completed a boiler-tube failure study that is available only to its members. But Power magazine has been given exclusive access to some of the results, published in this article. 4 figs.

  7. Optimal load allocation of multiple fuel boilers.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Alex C; Du, Yan Yi

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for optimally allocating a set of multiple industrial boilers that each simultaneously consumes multiple fuel types. Unlike recent similar approaches in the utility industry that use soft computing techniques, this approach is based on a second-order gradient search method that is easy to implement without any specialized optimization software. The algorithm converges rapidly and the application yields significant savings benefits, up to 3% of the overall operating cost of industrial boiler systems in the examples given and potentially higher in other cases, depending on the plant circumstances. Given today's energy prices, this can yield significant savings benefits to manufacturers that raise steam for plant operations.

  8. Fluidized-bed boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Makansi, J.; Schwieger, B.

    1982-08-01

    Discusses atmospheric fluidized-bed (AFB) boilers with regard to designs available, manufacturers involved, and operating experience. Proven fuel flexibility and satisfactory SO/sub 2/ control without scrubbers make AFB boilers a viable option for industrial steam generation worldwide. Technical concepts on which AFB application is based are a departure from the more familiar methods of burning solid fuels. Behind US thrust for AFB development is the need to burn coal within pollution regulations.

  9. Coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO sub x control demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    It is the objective of the Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NO{sub x} Control Project to fully establish that the cola reburning clean coal technology offers cost-effective alternatives to cyclone operating electric utilities for overall oxides of nitrogen control. The project will evaluate the applicability of the reburning technology for reducing NO{sub x} emissions in full scale cyclone-fired boilers which use coal as a primary fuel. The performance goals while burning coal are: (1) Greater than 50 percent reduction in NO{sub x} emissions, as referenced to the uncontrolled (baseline) conditions at full load. (2) No serious impact on cyclone combustor operation, boiler efficiency or boiler fireside performance (corrosion and deposition), or boiler ash removal system performance.

  10. Guidelines on fossil boiler field welding

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, G.G. )

    1993-01-01

    Welding is a key maintenance activity in the repair and replacement of critical boiler pressure-part components. Unless trained welders use qualified procedures and documented practices, significant delays to outages may result from defective weld repairs, and future weld-related failures may cause costly outages. To address these issues, a comprehensive guideline on field-welding practices for fossil-fired boilers has been developed. It can assist utilities in establishing in-house welding programs. Welding practices used by utilities, boiler manufacturers, and repair organizations were critically reviewed and utilized in the preparation of a step-by-step guideline for repairs to, and replacement, of boiler tubes, headers, and drums. A set of Road Maps, and their accompanying written descriptions, guide the user through each step in every phase of the complete weld repair process. Additionally, the guideline discusses in detail: weld repair management, welder performance qualification and training, repair decision evaluation, defect removal and joint preparation, repair methods for thin and thick sections, welding procedure variables, materials and specifications, failure and root-cause analysis, inspection, and testing.

  11. 4. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BOILER ROOM, LOWER LEVEL, BOILERS, FROM SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BOILER ROOM, LOWER LEVEL, BOILERS, FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER OF ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Heating Plant, North of B Street & West of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. Interior view of boiler house looking south. Boiler units are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of boiler house looking south. Boiler units are on left. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  13. 42. BOILER HOUSE FOURTH FLOOR, FORCED DRAFT FANS ABOVE BOILERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. BOILER HOUSE FOURTH FLOOR, FORCED DRAFT FANS ABOVE BOILERS (SEE DRAWING Nos. 10 & 11 OF 13) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  14. INTERIOR, SECOND LEVEL, SHOWING BOILERS. BOILER AT LEFT HAS REPLACED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR, SECOND LEVEL, SHOWING BOILERS. BOILER AT LEFT HAS REPLACED BURNERS. CAMERA FACING NORTH. - New Haven Rail Yard, Central Steam Plant and Oil Storage, Vicinity of Union Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  15. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BOILER HOUSE FROM SOUTHWEST. THE BOILER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BOILER HOUSE FROM SOUTHWEST. THE BOILER HOUSE WAS USED FOR HEATING THE MILL; HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER FOR PRODUCTION WAS PURCHASED FROM THE COLUMBUS LIGHT & POWER COMPANY. NORTH END OF 1924 MILL TO RIGHT, c. 1970 WINDOWLESS WEAVE ROOM ADDITION TO LEFT. - Stark Mill, Boiler House, 117 Corinth Road, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  16. Super Boiler: First Generation, Ultra-High Efficiency Firetube Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a first-generation ultra-high-efficiency, ultra-low emissions, compact gas-fired package boiler (Super Boiler), and formulate a long-range RD&D plan for advanced boiler technology out to the year 2020.

  17. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-01-01

    This Topical Report outlines guidelines and key considerations for design and operation of pulverized coal-fired boilers for oxy-combustion. The scope addressed includes only the boiler island, not the entire oxy-fired CO{sub 2} capture plant. These guidelines are primarily developed for tangential-fired boilers and focus on designs capable of dual air and oxy-fired operation. The guidelines and considerations discussed are applicable to both new units and existing boiler retrofits. These guidelines are largely based on the findings from the extensive 15 MW{sub th} pilot testing and design efforts conducted under this project. A summary level description is provided for each major aspect of boiler design impacted by oxy-combustion, and key considerations are discussed for broader application to different utility and industrial designs. Guidelines address the boiler system arrangement, firing system, boiler thermal design, ducting, materials, control system, and other key systems.

  18. Old boilers to profitable use with local biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hankala, J.

    1998-07-01

    To convert an old plant is often an economically advantageous alternative for a new boiler. The most important sources of biomass in industrial countries are residues from forestry, industry and agriculture. Sludges and wastes from industry, communities and households also contain useful energy. Still in many places there are existing power plants which can be converted to burn biofuels with low investment costs. An efficient and proven way is to convert an existing boiler to fluidized bed combustion (FBC) or use atmospheric circulating fluidized bed biofuel gasification connected to an existing boiler. Modern Fluidized Bed Combustion and Gasification gives us a possibility to burn biomass, sludges and many kinds of wastes in an efficient way with low emissions. Fluidized bed technologies are divided into bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) solutions. When making a boiler conversion to fluidized bed combustion, lower furnace of an existing boiler is converted and fuel receiving, handling and transportation system is installed. In many cases most of the existing boiler heating surfaces and a majority of the existing auxiliary equipment can be utilized. The circulating fluidized bed gasifier consists of the inside refractory-lined steel vessel, where fuel is gasified in a hot fluidized gas solid particle suspension. In the gasifier, the biofuels will be converted to combustible gas at atmospheric pressure at the temperature 800--900 C. The hot gas from the gasifier will be cooled down to 650--750 C in the air preheater. The hot gas is led directly to separate burners, which are located in the existing boiler furnace. The gas is burned in the boiler and replaces a part of the coal used in the boiler. Typical fuels for the FBC-boilers are wet fuels such as bark, wood waste, peat and sludges. These fuels normally contain 40--70% water.

  19. Natural gas use for pollution control: Review of data bases for utility and industrial boilers. Topical report, October 1986-May 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, M.F.; Meyer, C.J.

    1987-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to review a number of publicly available data bases for identifying potential utility and industrial candidates for gas combustion technologies. Examples are provided to show that this information might be useful when combined with a specific set of existing or proposed combustion sources control programs for SO2, NOx, and particulate matter. Section 2 reviews a number of data bases that can be used to identify specific utility/industrial candidates for gas technologies; Section 3 provides examples of how data bases can be used in regional analyses of opportunities for gas technologies in air quality management programs. Example listings are provided in the appendices to this report.

  20. Development of advanced NO{sub x} control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, January 1--March 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Newhall, J.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1991-12-23

    Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) is currently conducting a test program to develop an advanced NO{sub x} control method utilizing reburning, promoted selective noncatalytic agent injection. The study will consist of fundamental and process testing over a large enough range of operating parameters to significantly reduce the risk of a full scale demonstration project. The test plan for the fundamental testing phase of the program is presented here.

  1. Innovative boiler master design improves system response

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, G.; Baker, B.; Jones, R.J.

    2007-02-15

    A quick and nimble boiler distributed control system can end up moving at the speed of molasses in winter after a low-NOx retrofit. In one utility fleet, several units, despite being equipped with a modern DCS, were experiencing firing system time lags and degraded dynamic loading capability. Swinging steam pressures and opacity excursions were forcing operators to constantly remove the unit from the load dispatch. Following a discussion of the new boiler control strategy, this article presents three studies detailing its installation at four coal-fired units owned and operated by the Kentucky Utilities (KU) subsidiary of E.ON US. The 495-MW Unit 3 of E.W. Brown Generating Station; the 75-MW Unit 3 of Tyrone Generating Station and the 75-MW Unit 3 and 100-MW Unit 4 of Green River Generating Station. Coal-fired plants produce about 95% of Kentucky's total generation. 4 figs.

  2. Fluidized-bed boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Makansi, J.; Schwieger, B.

    1982-08-01

    This report reviews the current state of atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion. The fundamentals of fluidized-bed combustion and design considerations are first discussed. Tables provide details of manufacturers, worldwide, and of the boilers now installed. Eight plants in various countries and burning a variety of fuels, are described more fully.

  3. Optimising boiler performance.

    PubMed

    Mayoh, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Soaring fuel costs continue to put the squeeze on already tight health service budgets. Yet it is estimated that combining established good practice with improved technologies could save between 10% and 30% of fuel costs for boilers. Paul Mayoh, UK technical manager at Spirax Sarco, examines some of the practical measures that healthcare organisations can take to gain their share of these potential savings.

  4. Update of operating experience of B and W IR-CFB coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Belin, F.; Kavidass, S.; Maryamchik, M.; Walker, D.J.; Mandal, A.K.; Price, C.E.

    1999-07-01

    This paper updates the operating experience of two Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) coal-fired, internal recirculation circulating fluidized-bed (IR-CFB) boilers. The first boiler is located at Southern Illinois University (SIU) in Carbondale, Illinois, USA, and is designed for 35 MW{sub th} output for cogeneration application, utilizing high sulfur, low ash Illinois coal. The second boiler is located at Kanoria Chemicals and Industries in Renukoot, India, and is designed for 81 MW{sub th} output for captive power requirement, firing high ash, low sulfur coal. This boiler was supplied by Thermax B and W Ltd., a joint venture company of B and W and Thermax of India. The choice of CFB technology was based on its fuel flexibility, cost effectiveness and environmental benefits for solid fuels. Based on the broad experience in designing utility and industrial boilers for operation worldwide, B and W has developed a cost effective and compact atmospheric pressure IR-CFB boiler. The B and W IR-CFB boiler design is distinctive in its use of U-beam particle separators. Worldwide, B and W offers IF-CFB boilers up to 175 MW{sub th}, both reheat and non-reheat, and is pursuing units up to 350 MW{sub th}. This paper reviews the general description of each IR-CFB boiler, design and performance aspects, as well as overall operating experiences. The boiler availabilities including maintenance aspects and emissions data will be presented.

  5. Development and Demonstration of a Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    Burns & McDonnell Engineering Company, in collaboration with Frito-Lay, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, CPL Systems, Inc., Alpha Boilers, and Kansas State University will demonstrate use of a biomass boiler in the food processing industry. The 60,000 lb/hr innovative biomass boiler system utilizing a combination of wood waste and tire-derived fuel (TDF) waste will offset all natural gas consumption at Frito-Lay's Topeka, Kansas, processing facility.

  6. Boiler modeling optimizes sootblowing

    SciTech Connect

    Piboontum, S.J.; Swift, S.M.; Conrad, R.S.

    2005-10-01

    Controlling the cleanliness and limiting the fouling and slagging of heat transfer surfaces are absolutely necessary to optimize boiler performance. The traditional way to clean heat-transfer surfaces is by sootblowing using air, steam, or water at regular intervals. But with the advent of fuel-switching strategies, such as switching to PRB coal to reduce a plant's emissions, the control of heating surface cleanliness has become more problematic for many owners of steam generators. Boiler modeling can help solve that problem. The article describes Babcock & Wilcox's Powerclean modeling system which consists of heating surface models that produce real-time cleanliness indexes. The Heat Transfer Manager (HTM) program is the core of the system, which can be used on any make or model of boiler. A case study is described to show how the system was successfully used at the 1,350 MW Unit 2 of the American Electric Power's Rockport Power Plant in Indiana. The unit fires a blend of eastern bituminous and Powder River Basin coal. 5 figs.

  7. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  8. A vision for reducing boiler tube failures

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, B. )

    1992-03-01

    This paper reports that the boiler tube failure (BTF) problem still ranks as the number one equipment problem in fossil power plants. According to the North American Electric Reliability Council, BTF has been in this position in North America for the 28 years that reliability statistics have been kept. Currently BTF represents about 3-4% of lost availability. Previous analysis has indicated that a disturbing feature of these failures is that most of them are repeats. They occur on the same tube, same material, or in the same boiler section over and over again. Assessing the multifunctional nature of BTF, it became apparent in 1985 that the only way to prevent forced outages due to repeat tube failure problems was to implement a formalized, company-wide BTF prevention program. Thus, in a parallel effort to the root cause determinations, 16 utilities demonstrated such an approach over a four-year period and achieved remarkable availability improvements.

  9. Interior view of boiler house looking north. Boiler units are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of boiler house looking north. Boiler units are on right. HAER Engineer/Historian Donald C. Jackson on right is interviewing Garry Dobbins concerning operation of the facility. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  10. Small boiler uses waste coal

    SciTech Connect

    Virr, M.J.

    2009-07-15

    Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

  11. NOx Controls For Existing Utility Boilers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  12. Comparion of Mercury Emissions Between Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler and Pulverized Coal Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. J.; Duan, Y. F.; Zhao, C. S.

    Mercury emissions between a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) utility boiler and two pulverized coal (PC) boilers equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP) were in situ measured and compared. The standard Ontario Hydro Method (OHM) was used to sample the flue gas before and after the ESP. Various mercury speciations such as Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp in flue gas and total mercury in fly ashes were analyzed. The results showed that the mercury removal rate of the CFB boiler is nearly 100%; the mercury emission in stack is only 0.028 g/h. However, the mercury removal rates of the two PC boilers are 27.56% and 33.59% respectively, the mercury emissions in stack are 0.80 and 51.78 g/h respectively. It concluded that components of the ESP fly ashes especially their unburnt carbons have remarkable influence on mercury capture. Pore configurations of fine fly ash particles have non-ignored impacts on mercury emissions.

  13. Biomass cofiring in full-sized coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Plasynski, S.I.; Costello, R.; Hughes, E.; Tillman, D.

    1999-07-01

    Biomass cofiring represents one alternative for reducing greenhouse gas emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil sources. Realizing this opportunity, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), a field site of the Department of Energy (DOE), along with the EPRI, initiated a Program around two-years ago to research the feasibility of coal-fired boilers in cofiring of biomass and other waste-derived fuels. The cooperative agreement between FETC and EPRI includes cofiring at six different electric utility sites and one steam generation site. Boilers include wall-fired, tangential, cyclone, and stokers ranging in size from 15 to 500 MWe. Biomass consisting of wood (usually) and switchgrass (in two cases) will be the fuel, and pulp and plastics may be used in some waste-derived fuels cofiring tests. This paper will focus only on the biomass cofired tests in electric utility boilers.

  14. Factors affecting stress assisted corrosion cracking of carbon steel under industrial boiler conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dong

    Failure of carbon steel boiler tubes from waterside has been reported in the utility boilers and industrial boilers for a long time. In industrial boilers, most waterside tube cracks are found near heavy attachment welds on the outer surface and are typically blunt, with multiple bulbous features indicating a discontinuous growth. These types of tube failures are typically referred to as stress assisted corrosion (SAC). For recovery boilers in the pulp and paper industry, these failures are particularly important as any water leak inside the furnace can potentially lead to smelt-water explosion. Metal properties, environmental variables, and stress conditions are the major factors influencing SAC crack initation and propagation in carbon steel boiler tubes. Slow strain rate tests (SSRT) were conducted under boiler water conditions to study the effect of temperature, oxygen level, and stress conditions on crack initation and propagation on SA-210 carbon steel samples machined out of boiler tubes. Heat treatments were also performed to develop various grain size and carbon content on carbon steel samples, and SSRTs were conducted on these samples to examine the effect of microstructure features on SAC cracking. Mechanisms of SAC crack initation and propagation were proposed and validated based on interrupted slow strain tests (ISSRT). Water chemistry guidelines are provided to prevent SAC and fracture mechanics model is developed to predict SAC failure on industrial boiler tubes.

  15. Demonstration of coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control. Appendix, Book 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Based on the industry need for a pilot-scale cyclone boiler simulator, Babcock Wilcox (B&W) designed, fabricated, and installed such a facility at its Alliance Research Center (ARC) in 1985. The project involved conversion of an existing pulverized coal-fired facility to be cyclone-firing capable. Additionally, convective section tube banks were installed in the upper furnace in order to simulate a typical boiler convection pass. The small boiler simulator (SBS) is designed to simulate most fireside aspects of full-size utility boilers such as combustion and flue gas emissions characteristics, fireside deposition, etc. Prior to the design of the pilot-scale cyclone boiler simulator, the various cyclone boiler types were reviewed in order to identify the inherent cyclone boiler design characteristics which are applicable to the majority of these boilers. The cyclone boiler characteristics that were reviewed include NO{sub x} emissions, furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) carbon loss, and total furnace residence time. Previous pilot-scale cyclone-fired furnace experience identified the following concerns: (1) Operability of a small cyclone furnace (e.g., continuous slag tapping capability). (2) The optimum cyclone(s) configuration for the pilot-scale unit. (3) Compatibility of NO{sub x} levels, carbon burnout, cyclone ash carryover to the convection pass, cyclone temperature, furnace residence time, and FEGT.

  16. Exergy analysis on industrial boiler energy conservation and emission evaluation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Henan

    2017-06-01

    Industrial boiler is one of the most energy-consuming equipments in china, the annual consumption of energy accounts for about one-third of the national energy consumption. Industrial boilers in service at present have several severe problems such as small capacity, low efficiency, high energy consumption and causing severe pollution on environment. In recent years, our country in the big scope, long time serious fog weather, with coal-fired industrial boilers is closely related to the regional characteristics of high strength and low emissions [1]. The energy-efficient and emission-reducing of industry boiler is of great significance to improve China’s energy usage efficiency and environmental protection. Difference in thermal equilibrium theory is widely used in boiler design, exergy analysis method is established on the basis of the first law and second law of thermodynamics, by studying the cycle of the effect of energy conversion and utilization, to analyze its influencing factors, to reveal the exergy loss of location, distribution and size, find out the weak links, and a method of mining system of the boiler energy saving potential. Exergy analysis method is used for layer combustion boiler efficiency and pollutant emission characteristics analysis and evaluation, and can more objectively and accurately the energy conserving potential of the mining system of the boiler, find out the weak link of energy consumption, and improve equipment performance to improve the industrial boiler environmental friendliness.

  17. 30 CFR 56.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boilers. 56.13030 Section 56.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges, pressure...

  18. 30 CFR 56.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 56.13030 Section 56.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges, pressure...

  19. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with...

  20. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with...

  1. 30 CFR 56.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boilers. 56.13030 Section 56.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges, pressure...

  2. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with...

  3. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known,...

  4. 30 CFR 57.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boilers. 57.13030 Section 57.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges,...

  5. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known,...

  6. 30 CFR 57.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boilers. 57.13030 Section 57.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges,...

  7. 30 CFR 56.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boilers. 56.13030 Section 56.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges, pressure...

  8. 30 CFR 56.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boilers. 56.13030 Section 56.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges, pressure...

  9. 30 CFR 57.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boilers. 57.13030 Section 57.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges,...

  10. 30 CFR 57.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 57.13030 Section 57.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges,...

  11. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with...

  12. 30 CFR 57.13030 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boilers. 57.13030 Section 57.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges,...

  13. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with...

  14. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known,...

  15. BFGoodrich boiler project tests CFB potential in Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-11-01

    By converting from natural gas to high-sulfur coal, a process industry or utility can cut fuel costs from 50 to 80%. The BFGoodrich plant in Henry, IL will make such a conversion using a new CFB (circulating fluidized bed) boiler to burn local coal. The project is being partially funded - and closely watched - by the Illinois Department of Energy.

  16. Startup, shutdown and malfunction plans coming for large industrial boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Kasarabada, A.N.

    2007-08-15

    The US Boiler MACT (maximum achievable control technology) regulations (codified under 40 CFR Part 63) in its current form requires existing large coal-fired industrial and utility boilers (under 25 MW) to meet emission limits for particulate matter or total selected metals, mercury and hydrogen chloride, as well as other operational limits. The MACT provision also requires affected facilities to develop startup, shutdown and malfunction plans (SSMP). The original date for Boiler MACT compliance for existing units had been 13 September 2007. However, on 8 June the US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia issued an order effectively killing all existing MACT rules for industrial boilers. The Court instructed the US EPA to rewrite two sets of regulations. (Prior to April 2006 the MACT general provisions said the SSMPs needed to be 'developed and implemented'.) It seems unlikely that any new revision of the Boiler MACT by the EPA will take effect before mid-2008. Regardless of which direction the MACT rule is headed, now is the time to be prepared to comply with the SSMP requirements. The article sets out recommended steps for developing an effective SSMP.

  17. Plasma-supported coal combustion in boiler furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Lavrishcheva, Y.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2007-12-15

    Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmentally friendly low-rank coal combustion. This paper presents Plasma Fuel Systems that increase the burning efficiency of coal. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free start-up of coal-fired boilers and stabilization of a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burners, and burning all types of power-generating coal. Also, numerical modeling results of a plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler are discussed in this paper. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air/fuel mixture plasma activation: ignition and combustion. A I-D kinetic code PLASMA-COAL calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures, and velocities of the treated coal/air mixture in a burner incorporating a plasma source. The I-D simulation results are initial data for the 3-D-modeling of power boiler furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma-activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated.

  18. Study on Combustion Characteristics of Lignite in a CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, J.; Zou, T. S.; Wu, J. X.; Jiang, C.; Gao, J. L.; Wu, J.; Su, D.; Song, D. Y.

    The shortage of coal promotes the lignite utility in power plant because of the rapid economy development recently. However, lignite is high in moisture content as well as volatile content and low in calorific value. It is very difficult to burn in traditional pulverized coal fired boiler. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler is an alternative with low pollutant emission. Some CFB boilers are built and put into commercial operation in Northeast China and East Inner Mongolia where lignite is abundant. The operation experiences of these boilers are introduced in this paper. The effect of coal particle size on bottom ash ratio, combustion efficiency, thermal efficiency, pollution emission, and ash deposits in convective heating surface were investigated. It was found that for the lignite fired CFB boiler, the largest coal particle size should be 20 to 40mm to maintain bed material balance. But the bottom ash only shares less than 10% of the total ash. Due to high volatile content in the lignite, the combustion efficiency could achieve more than 99%. Meanwhile, NOx emission was relative low and satisfied national environment protection requirement. It is suggested that flue gas velocity in convective heating surface should be ranged in a certain scope to prevent ash deposit and erosion.

  19. Chemical corrosion potential in boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Bairr, D.L.; McDonough, C.J.

    1998-12-31

    Misuse or abuse of chelants has long been recognized as a potential corrosion problem in boilers. In recent years all polymer chemical treatment programs have been introduced and although they are much more benign even all polymer programs must be properly designed and controlled. Under extreme conditions a similar corrosion potential exists. This paper discusses the potential for chelant or polymer corrosion in boilers and the proper safeguards. Case histories are presented.

  20. Boiler-turbine life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Natzkov, S.; Nikolov, M.

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  1. Study to reduce the cost of bimetallic boiler tubes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sponseller, D.L.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes a new method of producing low-alloy steel boiler tubes, clad with stainless steel. In this method the two metals are united directly in the casting stage by centrifugal casting; the hollow bimetallic casting is then cut into billets that are hot extruded. By this method, high-quality clad tubes can be produced at markedly lower cost than by the conventional method of producing clad tubes. This brings the cost down to a level where clad tubes can be considered for applications, such as the following, in U.S. electric utility boilers: (1) High-corrosion areas of existing coal-fired boilers, in both steam-generating tubes and superheaters. (2) Future boilers designed to achieve higher efficiency levels (i.e., ultra supercritical boilers operating at higher pressures and temperatures). (3) The steam-generating tubes of Syngas coolers of integrated coal gasification/electric power generating plants.

  2. USA B and W`s IR-CFB coal-fired boiler operating experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Kavidass, S.; Maryamchik, M.; Kanoria, M.; Price, C.S.

    1998-12-31

    This paper updates operating experience of two Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) coal-fired, internal recirculation circulating fluidized-bed (IR-CFB) boilers. The first boiler is located at Southern Illinois University (SIU) in Carbondale, Illinois and is designed for 35 MWt output for cogeneration application, utilizing high sulfur, low ash Illinois coal. The second boiler is located at Kanoria Chemicals and Industries Ltd. (KCIL) in Renukoot, India and is designed for 81 MWt output for captive power requirements, firing high ash, low sulfur coal. This boiler was supplied by Thermax B and W (TBW) Ltd., a joint venture company of B and W and Thermax in India. The CFB technology is selected for these two units based on the fuel and environmental considerations. This paper discusses the various aspects of the two IR-CFB boilers` design features, performance, and operating experience including emissions.

  3. Forced-flow once-through boilers. [structural design criteria/aerospace environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.; Gray, V. H.; Gutierrez, O. A.

    1975-01-01

    A compilation and review of NASA-sponsored research on boilers for use in spacecraft electrical power generation systems is presented. Emphasis is on the heat-transfer and fluid-flow problems. In addition to space applications, much of the boiler technology is applicable to terrestrial and marine uses such as vehicular power, electrical power generation, vapor generation, and heating and cooling. Related research areas are discussed such as condensation, cavitation, line and boiler dynamics, the SNAP-8 project (Mercury-Rankine cycle), and conventional terrestrial boilers (either supercritical or gravity-assisted liquid-vapor separation types). The research effort was directed at developing the technology for once-through compact boilers with high heat fluxes to generate dry vapor stably, without utilizing gravity for phase separations. A background section that discusses, tutorially, the complex aspects of the boiling process is presented. Discussions of tests on alkali metals are interspersed with those on water and other fluids on a phenomenological basis.

  4. Alloy 33 weld overlay extends boiler tube life and saves money

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, L.; Clark, G.; Ossenberg-Engels, A.

    2007-09-15

    Low-NOx burners installed in coal-fired utility boilers cause problems with boiler tube cracking. Materials with increased corrosion resistance such as the new Alloy 33 should be more resistant to this type of 'circumferential cracking'. Alloy 33 is cheaper and has lower nickel and molybdenum content than the traditional Alloy 622 and 625. The article describes extensive corrosion testing experiments carried out by ThyssenKrupp VDM on Alloy 33 and Alloy 622. In the lab, in environments representative of coal-fired boilers operating under low-NOx combustion conditions, Alloy 33 was found to be better than Alloy 622. Field tests compared Alloy 33 and Alloy 622 in two supercritical tangentially-fired boilers and one tangentially-fired high pressure drum boiler. After up to 23 months of exposure there was no evidence of cracks and only slight evidence of corrosion in Alloy 33. 1 fig., 2 tabs., 2 photos.

  5. Successful experience with limestone and other sorbents for combustion of biomass in fluid bed power boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, D.R.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents the theoretical and practical advantages of utilizing limestone and other sorbents during the combustion of various biomass fuels for the reduction of corrosion and erosion of boiler fireside tubing and refractory. Successful experiences using a small amount of limestone, dolomite, kaolin, or custom blends of aluminum and magnesium compounds in fluid bed boilers fired with biomass fuels will be discussed. Electric power boiler firing experience includes bubbling bed boilers as well as circulating fluid bed boilers in commercial service on biomass fuels. Forest sources of biomass fuels fired include wood chips, brush chips, sawmill waste wood, bark, and hog fuel. Agricultural sources of biomass fuels fired include grape vine prunings, bean straw, almond tree chips, walnut tree chips, and a variety of other agricultural waste fuels. Additionally, some urban sources of wood fuels have been commercially burned with the addition of limestone. Data presented includes qualitative and quantitative analyses of fuel, sorbent, and ash.

  6. Guidelines on fossil boiler field welding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, G.G.

    1993-01-01

    Welding is a key maintenance activity in the repair and replacement of critical boiler pressure-part components. Unless trained welders use qualified procedures and documented practices, significant delays to outages may result from defective weld repairs, and future weld-related failures may cause costly outages. To address these issues, a comprehensive guideline on field-welding practices for fossil-fired boilers has been developed. It can assist utilities in establishing in-house welding programs. Welding practices used by utilities, boiler manufacturers, and repair organizations were critically reviewed and utilized in the preparation of a step-by-step guideline for repairs to, and replacement, of boiler tubes, headers, and drums. A set of Road Maps, and their accompanying written descriptions, guide the user through each step in every phase of the complete weld repair process. Additionally, the guideline discusses in detail: weld repair management, welder performance qualification and training, repair decision evaluation, defect removal and joint preparation, repair methods for thin and thick sections, welding procedure variables, materials and specifications, failure and root-cause analysis, inspection, and testing.

  7. 46 CFR 61.05-10 - Boilers in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Boilers in service. 61.05-10 Section 61.05-10 Shipping... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-10 Boilers in service. (a) Each boiler, including superheater, reheater, economizer, auxiliary boiler, low-pressure heating boiler, and unfired steam...

  8. 46 CFR 61.05-10 - Boilers in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Boilers in service. 61.05-10 Section 61.05-10 Shipping... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-10 Boilers in service. (a) Each boiler, including superheater, reheater, economizer, auxiliary boiler, low-pressure heating boiler, and unfired steam...

  9. 46 CFR 61.05-10 - Boilers in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boilers in service. 61.05-10 Section 61.05-10 Shipping... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-10 Boilers in service. (a) Each boiler, including superheater, reheater, economizer, auxiliary boiler, low-pressure heating boiler, and unfired steam...

  10. 46 CFR 61.05-10 - Boilers in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Boilers in service. 61.05-10 Section 61.05-10 Shipping... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-10 Boilers in service. (a) Each boiler, including superheater, reheater, economizer, auxiliary boiler, low-pressure heating boiler, and unfired steam...

  11. 46 CFR 61.05-10 - Boilers in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers in service. 61.05-10 Section 61.05-10 Shipping... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-10 Boilers in service. (a) Each boiler, including superheater, reheater, economizer, auxiliary boiler, low-pressure heating boiler, and unfired steam...

  12. Boiler using combustible fluid

    DOEpatents

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  13. Program to Train Boiler Operators Developed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This program initiated by Nalco Chemical, a major supplier of chemicals for boiler feedwater treatment, uses texts, audiovisual aids, and hands-on experience and is designed to boost the efficiency of boiler operators. (BB)

  14. Boiler for generating high quality vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, V. H.; Marto, P. J.; Joslyn, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Boiler supplies vapor for use in turbines by imparting a high angular velocity to the liquid annulus in heated rotating drum. Drum boiler provides a sharp interface between boiling liquid and vapor, thereby, inhibiting the formation of unwanted liquid droplets.

  15. Program to Train Boiler Operators Developed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This program initiated by Nalco Chemical, a major supplier of chemicals for boiler feedwater treatment, uses texts, audiovisual aids, and hands-on experience and is designed to boost the efficiency of boiler operators. (BB)

  16. New controls spark boiler efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Engels, T. )

    1993-09-01

    Monsanto's NutraSweet plant in University Park, IL, produces aspartame, the patented NutraSweet artificial sweetener product. Until recently, boiler control was managed by a '60s-era Fireye jackshaft system in which air and natural gas were mechanically linked with an offset to compensate for oxygen trim. The interlocking devices on the Fireye system were becoming obsolete, and the boiler needed a new front end retrofitted for low emissions. In order to improve boiler control efficiency, we decided to modernize and automate the entire boiler control system. We replaced the original jackshaft system, and installed a Gordon-Piet burner system, including gas valves, air dampers, blowers, and burner. The upgrade challenges included developing a control strategy and selecting and implementing a process control system. Since our plant has standardized on the PROVOX process management information system from Fisher Controls (now Fisher-Rosemount Systems) to support most of our process, it was a natural and logical choice for boiler controls as well. 2 figs.

  17. Boiler Tube Corrosion Characterization with a Scanning Thermal Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Jacobstein, Ronald; Reilly, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Wall thinning due to corrosion in utility boiler water wall tubing is a significant operational concern for boiler operators. Historically, conventional ultrasonics has been used for inspection of these tubes. Unfortunately, ultrasonic inspection is very manpower intense and slow. Therefore, thickness measurements are typically taken over a relatively small percentage of the total boiler wall and statistical analysis is used to determine the overall condition of the boiler tubing. Other inspection techniques, such as electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT), have recently been evaluated, however they provide only a qualitative evaluation - identifying areas or spots where corrosion has significantly reduced the wall thickness. NASA Langley Research Center, in cooperation with ThermTech Services, has developed a thermal NDE technique designed to quantitatively measure the wall thickness and thus determine the amount of material thinning present in steel boiler tubing. The technique involves the movement of a thermal line source across the outer surface of the tubing followed by an infrared imager at a fixed distance behind the line source. Quantitative images of the material loss due to corrosion are reconstructed from measurements of the induced surface temperature variations. This paper will present a discussion of the development of the thermal imaging system as well as the techniques used to reconstruct images of flaws. The application of the thermal line source coupled with the analysis technique represents a significant improvement in the inspection speed and accuracy for large structures such as boiler water walls. A theoretical basis for the technique will be presented to establish the quantitative nature of the technique. Further, a dynamic calibration system will be presented for the technique that allows the extraction of thickness information from the temperature data. Additionally, the results of the application of this technology to actual water wall

  18. Fluidized-bed boilers keep Chinese industry running on marginal fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, B.

    1983-03-01

    More than 2000 atmospheric fluidized-bed (afb) boilers are in operation in the People's Republic of China, many burning oil shale, char from coal gasification and lignite. The extensive use of this form of combustion derives from the need for the means to utilize very poor quality fuels, particularly in the industrialized south of the country. Afb boilers are available off-the-shelf in sizes up to 70,000 lb/h; larger units have been built. Conversion of conventional coal-fired boilers is also practiced.

  19. ECUT energy data reference series: boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Chockie, A.D.; Johnson, D.R.

    1984-09-01

    Information on the population and fuel consumption of water-tube, fire-tube and cast iron boilers is summarized. The use of each boiler type in the industrial and commercial sector is examined. Specific information on each boiler type includes (for both 1980 and 2000) the average efficiency of the boiler, the capital stock, the amount of fuel consumed, and the activity level as measured by operational load factor.

  20. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications. Task 4 - Testing in Alstom's 15 MWth Boiler Simulation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs; Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF); Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools; Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems; Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost; and, Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project is scheduled for completion by April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a matrix of

  1. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of a high temperature medium such as steam, or... that employees are working in the boilers shall be hung in a conspicuous location in the engine...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of a high temperature medium such as steam, or... that employees are working in the boilers shall be hung in a conspicuous location in the engine...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of a high temperature medium such as steam, or... employees are working in the boilers shall be hung in a conspicuous location in the engine room. This...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of a high temperature medium such as steam, or... that employees are working in the boilers shall be hung in a conspicuous location in the engine...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of a high temperature medium such as steam, or... employees are working in the boilers shall be hung in a conspicuous location in the engine room. This...

  6. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    DOEpatents

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J.

    2012-12-25

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  7. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    DOEpatents

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J

    2013-07-30

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  8. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known, shall... known or the name of the steam locomotive owner if a new number is assigned. Safety Relief Valves ...

  9. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known, shall... known or the name of the steam locomotive owner if a new number is assigned. Safety Relief Valves ...

  10. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Techology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: • Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs. • Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF). • Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools. • Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems. • Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost. • Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project completion date was April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a

  11. SNAP-8 refractory boiler development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    Performance and endurance tests of the SNAP-8, SN-1 refractory metal boiler are described. The tests were successful and indicated that the boiler heat transfer area could be reduced significantly primarily because of the wetting characteristics of mercury on tantalum in a contaminant-free environment. A continuous endurance test of more than 10,000 hours was conducted without noticeable change in the thermal performance of the boiler. A conclusion of the metallographic examination of the boiler following the endurance test was that expected boiler life would be of the order of 40,000 hours at observed corrosion rates.

  12. Technology assessment: Municipal solid waste as a utility fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neparstek, M. I.; Cymny, G. A.

    1982-05-01

    This study updates a 1974 EPRI technology assessment of municipal solid waste (MSW) as a utility fuel. An independent and consistent assessment of the development status and conceptual design and economics is presented for the following refuse-to-electricity technologies; mass burning of MSW in a dedicated boiler; preparation of coarse RDF and firing in a dedicated boiler; preparation of wet RDF and firing in a dedicated boiler; preparation of fluff RDF and cofiring with coal in a utility boiler; and preparation of dust RDF and cofiring with coal in a utility boiler. The generated steam is used to drive a turbine-generator and produce electricity. Utility ownership and financing are assumed for the coal-fired power plant used for RDF cofiring and the turbine generators driven by refuse-generated steam. Municipal ownership is assumed for the RDF preparation facilities and the MSW mass burning and RDF-fired dedicated boilers.

  13. Development of a reburning boiler process model

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.T.

    1992-01-30

    The overall objective of this program is to integrate EER's expertise in boiler reburning performance evaluation into a package of analytical computer tools. Specific objectives of the program are to develop a computational capability with the following features: (1) can be used to predict the impact of gas reburning application on thermal conditions in the boiler radiant furnace, and on overall boiler performance; (2) can estimate gas reburning NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness based on specific reburning configurations and furnace/boiler configurations; (3) can be used as an analytical tool to evaluate the impact of boiler process parameters (e.g., fuel switching and changes in boiler operating conditions) on boiler thermal performance; (4) is adaptable to most boiler designs (tangential and wall fire boilers) and a variety of fuels (solid, liquid, gaseous and slurried fuels); (5) is sufficiently user friendly to be exercisable by engineers with a reasonable knowledge of boilers, and with reasonable computer skills. Here, user friendly'' means that the user will be guided by computer codes during the course of setting up individual input files for the boiler performance model.

  14. Alternate Materials for Recovery Boiler Superheater Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, James R; Kish, Joseph; Singbeil, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The ever escalating demands for increased efficiency of all types of boilers would most sensibly be realized by an increase in the steam parameters of temperature and pressure. However, materials and corrosion limitations in the steam generating components, particularly the superheater tubes, present major obstacles to boiler designers in achieving systems that can operate under the more severe conditions. This paper will address the issues associated with superheater tube selection for many types of boilers; particularly chemical recovery boilers, but also addressing the similarities in issues for biomass and coal fired boilers. It will also review our recent study of materials for recovery boiler superheaters. Additional, more extensive studies, both laboratory and field, are needed to gain a better understanding of the variables that affect superheater tube corrosion and to better determine the best means to control this corrosion to ultimately permit operation of recovery boilers at higher temperatures and pressures.

  15. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings

    2001-07-27

    This is the third Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. A Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) design has been developed for a cyclone fired utility boiler in which a field test of RRI will be performed later this year. Initial evaluations of RRI for PC fired boilers have been performed. Calibration tests have been developed for a corrosion probe to monitor waterwall wastage. Preliminary tests have been performed for a soot model within a boiler simulation program. Shakedown tests have been completed for test equipment and procedures that will be used to measure soot generation in a pilot scale test furnace. In addition, an initial set of controlled experiments for ammonia adsorption onto fly ash in the presence of sulfur have been performed that indicates the sulfur does enhance ammonia uptake.

  16. Overview and status of first 25 MW(e) IR-CFB boiler in India

    SciTech Connect

    Kavidass, S.; Bakshi, V.K.; Diwakar, K.K.

    1997-12-31

    The Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) internal recirculation CFB (IR-CFB) boiler is unique in design. Worldwide, B and W offers IR-CFB boilers up to 150 MW(e) both reheat and non-reheat, and is pursuing units up to 300 MW(e). This paper discusses an overview and status of the construction, commissioning, initial start-up operation and milestones of the ongoing 25 MW(e) IR-CFB boiler project at Kanoria Chemicals and Industries Ltd., Renukoot, India. This IR-CFB boiler is designed, supplied and installed by Thermax Babcock and Wilcox Ltd. (TBW), a joint venture company of the B and W and Thermax in India. The boiler parameters are, steam flow of 29.2 kg/s (23,420 lbs/hr), 6.4 MPa (925 psig), and 485 C (905 F) with feedwater temperature of 180 C (356 F). The boiler will utilize high-ash content (> 45%), subbituminous coal with a heating value of 3,500 KCal/kg (6,300 Btu/lb). This paper also discusses the various aspects of the boiler design, performance, auxiliary equipment, advantages and initial start-up operating performance.

  17. The Provence 250 MWe unit: The largest CFB boiler ready for operation

    SciTech Connect

    Jaud, P.; Jacquet, L.; Piedfer, O.; Jestin, L.

    1995-12-31

    Today, the largest Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) project approaching operation is the 250 MWe Provence CFB boiler, located in the south of France. At such a size, the CFB technique has now reached a capacity corresponding to thermal power plants operated by utilities. This new unit, with a pant leg design, is also a very important step towards larger size i.e. 400 MWe and greater. The purpose of the Provence project was to replace the existing pulverized coal boiler unit 4, commissioned in 1967, of the Provence/Gardanne power plant, with a new CFB boiler while reusing most of the existing equipment. The 250 MWe boiler is of the superheat-reheat type, 1,050 F--1,050 F, firing local high-sulfur subbituminous coal with the possibility of co-firing high viscosity fuel oil (with a high sulfur content) up to a 50%--50% energy ratio. The first firing of the boiler is due in May 1995. This paper describes the progress in the construction of the plant and provides technical details of the new boiler and auxiliaries. Also presented is the associated R and D program designed to give a thorough evaluation of this boiler with a view to the design of larger CFBs in the future.

  18. Cleaning of boiler heating surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Maidanik, M. N.; Vasil'ev, V. V.

    2006-09-15

    Basic methods and facilities for the external cleaning of the heating surfaces of boilers designed for the combustion of low-grade solid fuels are discussed. Water and steam blastings, which are the basic means of cleaning furnace shields, and semi-radiative and convective heating surfaces have the greatest range of application.

  19. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure...

  20. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure...

  1. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure...

  2. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure...

  3. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure...

  4. New source performance standards for industrial boilers. Volume 1. Analysis of fuel use implications

    SciTech Connect

    Placet, M.; Heller, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the Industrial Fuel Choice Analysis Model (IFCAM) led to several concerns: first, the retirement rate used in the model seems to overestimate retirement levels, thus overstating the potential for coal penetration in the industrial sector. Also, the coal transportation rate is assumed to increase by 15% between 1978 and 1985 and remain constant thereafter. In light of recent rate increase approvals the expected price escalation of labor and materials used in railroad expansion, the currently assumed rail rate escalators seem too low. Additionally, the model does not deal with the issue of substitution of small boiler combinations for large boilers. Both promulgation and enforcement may provide incentives for installation of small boiler combinations. For IFCAM to reflect this phenomenon, alternative assumptions and model modifications are suggested. Fuel price projections, the capacity utilization distribution, boiler size distribution, and translation of costs into model algorithms are considered.

  5. Computational Model of Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Power Station Boiler Considering Desulphurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hu; Li, Shaohua; Lai, Fusheng; Wang, Bin

    the problem was that computational model of CO2 emission of the power plant boiler was affected by the gypsum - Limestone Wet Flue Gas Desulphurization computational model was rebulided on burning equation. Using gypsum - Limestone WFGD coal-fired utility boiler was calculated and analyzed by a new calculation model. The results showed that the new computational model was applicable to calculation of CO2 emission of the power plant boiler. Adoptive gypsum - Limestone WFGD was more 2(1-η) SO2 than with dry FGD. In the case of operating conditions with 100% load, greenhouse gas emission of the power plant boiler was calculated. Emission was more 8.41t than with dry FGD each hour.

  6. Coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control demonstration. Quarterly report No. 7, October, November, and December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Haggard, R.W. Jr.

    1991-12-31

    It is the objective of the Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NOx Control Project to fully establish that the coal reburning clean coal technology offers cost-effective alternatives to cyclone operating electric utilities for overall oxides of nitrogen control. The project will evaluate the applicability of the reburning technology for reducing NOx emissions in full scale cyclone-fired boilers which use coal as a primary fuel. The performance goals while burning coal are: (1) Greater than 50 percent reduction in NOx emissions, as referenced to the uncontrolled (baseline) conditions at full load. (2) No serious impact on cyclone combustor operation, boiler efficiency or boiler fireside performance (corrosion and deposition), or boiler ash removal system performance.

  7. Coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control demonstration. Quarterly report No. 6, July--September, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    It is the objective of the Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NO{sub x} Control Project to fully establish that the cola reburning clean coal technology offers cost-effective alternatives to cyclone operating electric utilities for overall oxides of nitrogen control. The project will evaluate the applicability of the reburning technology for reducing NO{sub x} emissions in full scale cyclone-fired boilers which use coal as a primary fuel. The performance goals while burning coal are: (1) Greater than 50 percent reduction in NO{sub x} emissions, as referenced to the uncontrolled (baseline) conditions at full load. (2) No serious impact on cyclone combustor operation, boiler efficiency or boiler fireside performance (corrosion and deposition), or boiler ash removal system performance.

  8. 5. North/northwest elevations of boiler stack and boiler room. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. North/northwest elevations of boiler stack and boiler room. Note tires on roof to reduce impact of brick work falling from stack. - Lowe Mill, Eighth Avenue, Southwest, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  9. BOILER HOUSE, 1948 ADDITION, INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, BOILER 1A. VACANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILER HOUSE, 1948 ADDITION, INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, BOILER 1-A. VACANT SPACES WERE THE LOCATION OF A SUPPLEMENTAL OIL BURNER. VIEW FROM SOUTH - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  10. LPT. Low power test (TAN641) interior. Boiler room with boilers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LPT. Low power test (TAN-641) interior. Boiler room with boilers installed. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. Date: November 21, 1957. INEEL negative no. 57-5884 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  12. Energy storage-boiler tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, T. A.; Nemecek, J. J.; Simmons, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Activities performed in an effort to demonstrate heat of fusion energy storage in containerized salts are reported. The properties and cycle life characteristics of a eutectic salt having a boiling point of about 385 C (NaCl, KCl, Mg Cl2) were determined. M-terphenyl was chosen as the heat transfer fluid. Compatibility studies were conducted and mild steel containers were selected. The design and fabrication of a 2MWh storage boiler tank are discussed.

  13. Boiler Stack Gas Heat Recovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    Based upon "economic analysis of available options, three cost- effective methods of recovering waste heat were identified: the conventional economizer...upon economic analysis of available options, three cost- effective methods of Continued DO I IA.N1 1473 EDITION OF I NOV AS IS OBSOLETE S Y C O OF...energy loss in a boiler is attributable to the hot flue gas leaving the stack. Thus, the most effective method to save fuel is to recover as much

  14. 6. VIEW WESTINTERIOR OF BOILER SHOP SECTION OF THE BETHLEHEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW WEST-INTERIOR OF BOILER SHOP SECTION OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD BLACKSMITH SHOP/BOILER SHOP. - Bethlehem Steel Company Shipyard, Blacksmith Shop-Boiler Shop, 1201-1321 Hudson Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  15. 2. VIEW SOUTHWESTNORTH ELEVATION OF BOILER SHOP SECTION OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHWEST-NORTH ELEVATION OF BOILER SHOP SECTION OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD BLACKSMITH SHOP/BOILER SHOP. - Bethlehem Steel Company Shipyard, Blacksmith Shop-Boiler Shop, 1201-1321 Hudson Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  16. 7. VIEW EASTINTERIOR OF BOILER SHOP SECTION OF THE BETHLEHEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW EAST-INTERIOR OF BOILER SHOP SECTION OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD BLACKSMITH SHOP/BOILER SHOP. - Bethlehem Steel Company Shipyard, Blacksmith Shop-Boiler Shop, 1201-1321 Hudson Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  17. 12. Forward end of Boiler Room showing open firing doors ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Forward end of Boiler Room showing open firing doors for boilers. Note ladderway retracted overhead by which firemen entered and left Boiler Room. Coal ejectors shown at extreme left of view. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  18. Looking east at the boiler water treatment tank located off ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east at the boiler water treatment tank located off the west wall of the boiler house. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  19. Boiler Emission Compliance Survey, Norton AFB CA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    Norton AFB requested AFOEHL assistance to: (1) determine carbon monoxide emissions from each boiler as specified in 40 CFR 60, Appendix A, Reference...Method 10, and (2) determine the oxides of nitrogen emissions from each boiler as specified in 40 CFR 60, Appendix A, Reference Method 7, and for...additional information (3) determine perticulate emissions from each boiler as specified in 40 CFR 60, Appendix A, Reference Methods 1-5. B. Site Description A

  20. WATER BOILER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    King, L.D.P.

    1960-11-22

    As its name implies, this reactor utilizes an aqueous solution of a fissionable element salt, and is also conventional in that it contains a heat exchanger cooling coil immersed in the fuel. Its novelty lies in the utilization of a cylindrical reactor vessel to provide a critical region having a large and constant interface with a supernatant vapor region, and the use of a hollow sleeve coolant member suspended from the cover assembly in coaxial relation with the reactor vessel. Cool water is circulated inside this hollow coolant member, and a gap between its outer wall and the reactor vessel is used to carry off radiolytic gases for recombination in an external catalyst chamber. The central passage of the coolant member defines a reflux condenser passage into which the externally recombined gases are returned and condensed. The large and constant interface between fuel solution and vapor region prevents the formation of large bubbles and minimizes the amount of fuel salt carried off by water vapor, thus making possible higher flux densities, specific powers and power densities.

  1. Performance of two identical 110 MWe high pressure PYROFLOW CFB boilers firing two different categories of waste fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuo, Y.; Chelian, P.K.; Reed, K.

    1997-12-31

    Two identical 110 MWe high pressure FOSTER WHEELER PYROFLOW{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers went into commercial operation in 1995. Both boilers generate 98.91 kg/s (785,000 lb/hr) of main steam t 174 bar (2,525 psig) and 540 C (1,005 F) with reheat steam at 540 C (1,005 F). Both were built to burn waste fuels. One unit, located in Colver, Pennsylvania, burns bituminous gob and the other unit located in Northampton, Pennsylvania, burns anthracite culm with a 20% mix of silt. A different type of ammonia injection system for reducing NOx emissions was installed in each boiler. An anhydrous ammonia injection system is used in the Colver plant and an aqueous ammonia direct-injection system is used in the Northampton plant. A performance optimization test was performed on both boilers prior to the commercial operation at the direction of and in accordance with the requirements of the Pennsylvania Regulatory Authority. In addition, boiler performance tests were run on both units to confirm operation in accordance with performance guarantees. The results of these tests are provided in detail in this paper. The resultant data provides a comparison in boiler operation between the two different categories of waste fuels fired in identical CFB boilers. The data also provides insight into the low emissions levels and limestone utilization capabilities of the CFB boiler.

  2. Stress-Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Preet M Singh; Steven J Pawel

    2006-05-27

    A number of industrial boilers, including in the pulp and paper industry, needed to replace their lower furnace tubes or decommission many recovery boilers due to stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) on the waterside of boiler tubes. More than half of the power and recovery boilers that have been inspected reveal SAC damage, which portends significant energy and economic impacts. The goal of this project was to clarify the mechanism of stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) of boiler tubes for the purpose of determining key parameters in its mitigation and control. To accomplish this in-situ strain measurements on boiler tubes were made. Boiler water environment was simulated in the laboratory and effects of water chemistry on SAC initiation and growth were evaluated in terms of industrial operations. Results from this project have shown that the dissolved oxygen is single most important factor in SAC initiation on carbon steel samples. Control of dissolved oxygen can be used to mitigate SAC in industrial boilers. Results have also shown that sharp corrosion fatigue and bulbous SAC cracks have similar mechanism but the morphology is different due to availability of oxygen during boiler shutdown conditions. Results are described in the final technical report.

  3. Characteristics of Krakow`s boiler population

    SciTech Connect

    Cyklis, P.; Kowalski, J.; Kroll, J.; Wlodkowski, A.; Zaczkowski, A.; Boron, J.; Butcher, T.

    1994-06-01

    In this paper the characteristics of the local boiler houses and the single-building boilers which are coal-fired are discussed. These sources are seen as particularly important for air quality in Krakow for two reasons. First, these sources have very high emission factors. Unlike the large power plants at Leg and Skawina these smaller boilers do not have high efficiency dust collectors. Also, because of the nature of the boilers they often have high emissions of volatile organics and CO. The second factor which makes these sources so important is their location--very close to residents.

  4. 46 CFR 52.25-5 - Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-5 Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21). Miniature boilers must meet the applicable provisions in this part for the boiler type involved and the...

  5. 46 CFR 52.25-5 - Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-5 Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21). Miniature boilers must meet the applicable provisions in this part for the boiler type involved and the...

  6. 46 CFR 52.25-5 - Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-5 Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21). Miniature boilers must meet the applicable provisions in this part for the boiler type involved and the...

  7. 46 CFR 52.25-5 - Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-5 Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21). Miniature boilers must meet the applicable provisions in this part for the boiler type involved and the...

  8. 46 CFR 52.25-5 - Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-5 Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21). Miniature boilers must meet the applicable provisions in this part for the boiler type involved and the...

  9. [Predicting low NOx combustion property of a coal-fired boiler].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Mao, Jianbo; Chi, Zuohe; Jiang, Xiao; Wang, Zhenhua; Cen, Kefa

    2002-03-01

    More attention was paid to the low NOx combustion property of the high capacity tangential firing boiler, but the NOx emission and unburned carbon content in fly ash of coal burned boiler were complicated, they were affected by many factors, such as coal character, boiler's load, air distribution, boiler style, burner style, furnace temperature, excess air ratio, pulverized coal fineness and the uniformity of the air and coal distribution, etc. In this paper, the NOx emission property and unburned carbon content in fly ash of a 600 MW utility tangentially firing coal burned boiler was experimentally investigated, and taking advantage of the nonlinear dynamics characteristics and self-learning characteristics of artificial neural network, an artificial neural network model on low NOx combustion property of the high capacity boiler was developed and verified. The results illustrated that such a model can predicate the NOx emission concentration and unburned carbon content under various operating conditions, if combined with the optimization algorithm, the operator can find the best operation condition of the low NOx combustion.

  10. Assessment of combustion of oil shale refinery by-products in a TP-101 boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorkin, V. T.; Tugov, A. N.; Vereshchetin, V. A.; Mel'nikov, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    The most cost-efficient method for utilization of the oil shale refinery by-products, viz., the retort gas and the shale gasoline, for power generation is combustion of these products in power-generating oil shale-fired boilers. Calculation studies carried out at the Estonian electric power plant in Narva, an enterprise of EESTI ENERGIA, have shown that recycling of the flue gases in the furnace of a TP-101 boiler enables an increase in the portion of the oil shale refinery by-products burned in the boiler from the current 7% to 40%. Recycling of the flue gases is aimed at maintaining the temperatures in the furnace at a level characteristic of combustion of oil shale and reducing the nitric oxide concentration in the retort gas burners' flame. The degree of the flue gas recycling depends on the percentage of the burnt oil shale refinery by-products in the total heat generation and increases with the increasing percentage. For the threshold value of 40% under the rated conditions, the flue gas recycling accounts for 10%. A complete changeover of the boiler to combustion of only the retort gas in place of the oil shale does not seem to be possible, since this will necessitate major modification to the TP-101 boiler heating surfaces. Considering the obtained results, as a pilot project, one boiler furnace was modified by installing six retort gas burners and a flue gas recycling system.

  11. New form of calcium carbonate improves SO{sub 2} removal from boilers

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    As acid rain control regulations take effect, some utility companies are considering or have installed flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems using lime-based sorbents. With one type of FGD system, called furnace sorbent injection (FSI), sorbents are injected directly into the combustion chamber of a coal-fired boiler. Such systems have proven effective at reducing sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions from some types of boilers, especially those that operate at relatively low temperatures. However, FSI systems have generally not performed well with most types of conventional boilers. A New York company has patented a new FGD sorbent called thermally active marble (TAM). TAMs tend to fracture and expose new reaction surfaces - much like ice cubes in hot water. This enables such materials to neutralize SO{sub 2} more efficiently and at much higher temperatures than limestone. In fact, TAMs have shown the ability to neutralize SO{sub 2} even when injected into the hottest portion of many conventional boilers. TAMs have also been shown to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) formation and improve boiler efficiency by promoting more complete carbon combustion. Pilot- and full-scale tests of TAMs in several types of boilers are described in this paper. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Boiler efficiency calculation for multiple fuel burning boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Khodabakhsh, F.; Munukutla, S.; Clary, A.T.

    1996-12-31

    A rigorous method based on the output/loss approach is developed for calculating the coal flow rate for multiple fuel burning boilers. It is assumed that the ultimate analyses of all the fuels are known. In addition, it is assumed that the flow rates of all the fuels with the exception of coal are known. The calculations are performed iteratively, with the first iteration taking into consideration coal as the only fuel. The results converge to the correct answer after a few number of iterations, typically four or five.

  13. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge shall...

  14. Wood fueled boiler financial feasibility user's manual

    Treesearch

    Robert Govett; Scott Bowe; Terry Mace; Steve Hubbard; John (Rusty) Dramm; Richard Bergman

    2005-01-01

    “Wood Fueled Boiler Financial Feasibility” is a spreadsheet program designed for easy use on a personal computer. This program provides a starting point for interested parties to perform financial feasibility analysis of a steam boiler system for space heating or process heat. By allowing users to input the conditions applicable to their current or proposed fuel...

  15. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge shall...

  16. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge shall...

  17. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge shall...

  18. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge shall...

  19. Baghouse cleans flyash from boiler exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    A large baghouse installation recently started up on the boilerhouse of the Avtex Fibers Inc. rayon plant in Front Royal, Virginia. The baghouse removes 99.7% of the flyash particulate from the combustion fumes of five coal-fired boilers. The boilers have a combined capacity of one million lb/h of steam. Emissions from the plant are well below EPA limitations.

  20. Latest Development of CFB Boilers in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, G. X.; Yang, H. R.; Lu, J. F.; Zhang, H.

    The circulating fluidized bed (CFB) coal-fired boiler has being rapidly developed in China since 1980s and becomes a key clean coal technology used in thermal and power generation. In this paper, the development history and development status of the CFB boiler in China are introduced. The development history of the CFB boiler in China is divided into four periods and the important features of each period are given. Some latest research activities and important results on CFB boilers, and the typical achievements and newest development of the CFB boiler in China are also introduced. In addition, a few challenges and development directions including the capacity scaling up, SO2 removal and energy saving are discussed.

  1. EVALUATION OF INTERNALLY STAGED COAL BURNERS AND SORBENT JET AERODYNAMICS FOR COMBINED SO2/NOX CONTROL IN UTILITY BOILERS, VOLUME 1, TESTING IN A 10 MILLION BTU/HR EXPERIMENTAL FURNACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document gives results of tests conducted in a 2 MWt experimental furnace to: (1) investigate ways to reduce NOx emissions from utility coal burners without external air ports (i.e., with internal fuel/air staging); and (2) improve the performance of calcium-based sorbents fo...

  2. EVALUATION OF INTERNALLY STAGED COAL BURNERS AND SORBENT JET AERODYNAMICS FOR COMBINED SO2/NOX CONTROL IN UTILITY BOILERS, VOLUME 1, TESTING IN A 10 MILLION BTU/HR EXPERIMENTAL FURNACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document gives results of tests conducted in a 2 MWt experimental furnace to: (1) investigate ways to reduce NOx emissions from utility coal burners without external air ports (i.e., with internal fuel/air staging); and (2) improve the performance of calcium-based sorbents fo...

  3. Combustion of fuel with high fines in Ahlstrom Pyroflow{reg_sign} CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Chelian, P.K.; Gamble, R.

    1995-12-31

    Ahlstrom Pyroflow{reg_sign} boilers have demonstrated the ability of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers to successfully burn unconventional fuels. These boilers have played a major role in the utilization of waste fuels, like bituminous gob and anthracite culm. Many of the waste fuels are processed prior to combustion to increase their heating value. As the technology for combustion of these fuels advanced, so has the desire of the owners to utilize more of the waste fuel and minimize the rejects. In the past, a majority of the fines content (less than 150 microns) was rejected and returned to the piles along with other rejects. In some cases, pond settlings were found to have a reasonably useful heat content, and were a preferred supplement to the anthracite culm. The use of these rejects had one result in common, i.e., to increase the fines content in the fuel feed to the CFB boilers. Pyropower was involved in tests conducted at two boilers, one burning bituminous gob and the other burning processed anthracite culm and silt. These tests were aimed at studying the effect of the high fuel fines content on the CFB boiler performance to determine the maximum practical fines limit. There were concerns of high unburned carbon loss, high CO and high cyclone temperatures. The actual test data confirmed that these boilers could fire a high percent of fines without major concerns. This paper discusses in detail the results of the testing with anthracite culm and silt, and references similar observations made during the testing with high fines bituminous gob.

  4. FUEL LEAN BIOMASS REBURNING IN COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey J. Sweterlitsch; Robert C. Brown

    2002-07-01

    This final technical report describes research conducted between July 1, 2000, and June 30, 2002, for the project entitled ''Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning in Coal-Fired Boilers,'' DOE Award No. DE-FG26-00NT40811. Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning is a method of staging fuel within a coal-fired utility boiler to convert nitrogen oxides (NOx) to nitrogen by creating locally fuel-rich eddies, which favor the reduction of NOx, within an overall fuel lean boiler. These eddies are created by injecting a supplemental fuel source, designated as the reburn fuel, downstream of the primary combustion zone. Chopped biomass was the reburn fuel for this project. Four parameters were explored in this research: the initial oxygen concentration ranged between 1%-6%, the amount of biomass used as the reburn fuel ranged between from 0%-23% of the total % energy input, the types of biomass used were low nitrogen switchgrass and high nitrogen alfalfa, and the types of carrier gases used to inject the biomass (nitrogen and steam). Temperature profiles and final flue gas species concentrations are presented in this report. An economic evaluation of a potential full-scale installation of a Fuel-Lean Biomass Reburn system using biomass-water slurry was also performed.

  5. PAH emission from the industrial boilers.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Mi, H; Lee, W; You, W; Wang, Y

    1999-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from 25 industrial boilers were investigated. The fuels used for these 25 boilers included 21 heavy oil, two diesel, a co-combustion of heavy oil and natural gas (HO+NG) and a co-combustion of coke oven gas and blast furnace gas (COG+BFG) boilers. PAH samples from the stack flue gas (gas and particle phases) of these 25 boilers were collected by using a PAH stack sampling system. Twenty one individual PAHs were analyzed primarily by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Total-PAH concentration in the flue gas of 83 measured data for these 25 boiler stacks ranged between 29.0 and 4250 microg/m(3) and averaged 488 microg/m(3). The average of PAH-homologue mass (F%) counted for the total-PAH mass was 54.7%, 9.47% and 15.3% for the 2-ring, 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs, respectively. The PAHs in the stack flue gas were dominant in the lower molecular weight PAHs. The emission factors (EFs) of total-PAHs were 13,300, 2920, 2880 and 208 microg/kg-fuel for the heavy oil, diesel, HO+NG and COG+BFG fueled-boiler, respectively. Nap was the most predominant PAH occurring in the stack flue gas. In addition, the EF of 21 individual PAHs in heavy-oil boiler were almost the highest among the four various fueled-boilers except for those of FL and BkF in the diesel boiler. Furthermore, the EF of total-PAHs or BaP for heavy oil were both one order of magnitude higher than that for the diesel-fueled boiler.

  6. Cofiring of biofuels in coal fired boilers: Results of case study analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tillman, D.A.; Hughes, E.; Gold, B.A.

    1993-12-31

    Ebasco Environmental and Reaction Engineering, under contract to EPRI, performed a case study analysis of cofiring biomass in coal-fired boilers of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The study was also sponsored by DOE. This analysis included evaluating wood fuel receiving, preparation, and combustion in pulverized coal (PC) boilers and cyclone furnaces and an assessment of converting wood into pyrolysis oil or low Btu gas for use in a new combined cycle combustion turbine (CCCT) installation. Cofiring wood in existing coal-fired boilers has the most immediate potential for increasing the utilization of biofuels in electricity generation. Cofiring biofuels with coal can potentially generate significant benefits for utilities including: (1) reducing emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}; (2) reducing the net emissions of CO{sub 2}; (3) potentially reducing the fuel cost to the utility depending upon local conditions and considering biomass is potentially exempt from the proposed Btu tax and may get a 1.5 cent/kWh credit for energy generated by wood combustion; (4) supporting local industrial forest industry; and (5) providing a long term market for the development of a biofuel supply and delivery industry. Potential benefits are reviewed in the context of cofiring biofuel at a rate of 15% heat input to the boiler, and compares this cofiring strategy and others previously tested or developed by other utilities. Other issues discussed include: (1) wood fuel specifications as a function of firing method; (2) wood fuel receiving and preparation system requirements; (3) combustion system requirements for cofiring biofuels with coal; (4) combustion impacts of firing biofuels with coal; (5) system engineering issues; (6) the economics of cofiring biofuel with coal. The Allen, TN 330 MW(e) cyclone boiler and Kingston, TN 135 MW(e) Boiler {number_sign}1, a tangentially fired PC unit, case studies are then summarized in the paper, highlighting the cofiring opportunities.

  7. Condensing economizers for small coal-fired boilers and furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Litzke, W.

    1994-01-01

    Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impactors are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

  8. Air force waste petroleum, oil, and lubricants as boiler fuel. Final report, January-December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Shaaban, A.H.

    1995-03-01

    This interim report documents the effort spent between January and December 1992. Work concentrated on literature search and survey, summarizing the data of the rate, variety, and management of waste POL generated at each Air Force base; studying DOD and commercial efforts to utilize waste POL as boiler fuel; conducting an economic incentive study; identify the environmental regulatory compliance issues; and identify and purchase of equipment. The literature review and the economic incentive study show that utilizing waste POLs as boiler fuel is possible and economically sound. Waste POL can be burned in a variety of boilers and burner types in blends with virgin boiler fuel up to 100 percent waste POL or as a fuel supplement in a coal-fired boilers. Concerns for undesirable emissions and ash residue include: (1) lead and other heavy metals; (2) inorganic elements such as sulfur, nitrogen, chlorine, bromine, and fluorine; and (3) organic elements such as antifreeze, halides, and solvents. Extra care is required at the collection points to minimize the contamination of waste POL by halogens, low flash point fuels and solvents, solids, and water. The surveys sent out to the Air Force Major Commands proved inadequate. Data received were incomplete and inaccurate. Lack of manpower and time at the individual bases contributed to the inaccuracy of the data.

  9. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... thermal units per hour) or greater. (ii) A boiler or process heater into which the vent stream is... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers and process heaters. 65.149... System or a Process § 65.149 Boilers and process heaters. (a) Boiler and process heater equipment...

  10. Looking east at the west wall of the boiler house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east at the west wall of the boiler house, boiler water treatment tank, and waste gas stack. Water tower is to the left of the boiler house. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  11. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOEpatents

    Wagoner, Charles L.; Foote, John P.

    1995-01-01

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler, the converted boiler including a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones.

  12. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOEpatents

    Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.

    1995-07-04

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler are disclosed. The converted boiler includes a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones. 19 figs.

  13. 24. VIEW OF FIRING AISLE OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW OF FIRING AISLE OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING SOUTH. BOILERS 900 AND 901 ARE ON THE RIGHT, BOILERS 902, 903, AND 904 ARE ON THE LEFT. NOTE REMAINS OF THE LARRY CAR TRACK SYSTEM FOR TRANSFERRING COAL TO BOILER HOPPERS ABOVE THE AISLE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  14. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test....

  15. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boilers and process heaters. 65.149... System or a Process § 65.149 Boilers and process heaters. (a) Boiler and process heater equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using boilers and process heaters to meet the 98...

  16. 46 CFR 61.05-15 - Boiler mountings and attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boiler mountings and attachments. 61.05-15 Section 61.05... TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-15 Boiler mountings and attachments. (a....05-10. (b) Each stud or bolt for each boiler mounting that paragraph (c) of this section requires...

  17. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test....

  18. 49 CFR 230.30 - Lap-joint seam boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lap-joint seam boilers. 230.30 Section 230.30..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.30 Lap-joint seam boilers. Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal...

  19. 49 CFR 230.30 - Lap-joint seam boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lap-joint seam boilers. 230.30 Section 230.30..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.30 Lap-joint seam boilers. Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal...

  20. 46 CFR 61.05-15 - Boiler mountings and attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Boiler mountings and attachments. 61.05-15 Section 61.05... TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-15 Boiler mountings and attachments. (a....05-10. (b) Each stud or bolt for each boiler mounting that paragraph (c) of this section requires...

  1. 49 CFR 230.30 - Lap-joint seam boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lap-joint seam boilers. 230.30 Section 230.30..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Inspection and Repair § 230.30 Lap-joint seam boilers. Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal...

  2. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test....

  3. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test....

  4. 46 CFR 61.05-15 - Boiler mountings and attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler mountings and attachments. 61.05-15 Section 61.05... TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-15 Boiler mountings and attachments. (a....05-10. (b) Each stud or bolt for each boiler mounting that paragraph (c) of this section requires...

  5. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test....

  6. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boilers and process heaters. 65.149... System or a Process § 65.149 Boilers and process heaters. (a) Boiler and process heater equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using boilers and process heaters to meet the 98...

  7. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boilers and process heaters. 65.149... System or a Process § 65.149 Boilers and process heaters. (a) Boiler and process heater equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using boilers and process heaters to meet the 98...

  8. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boilers and process heaters. 65.149... System or a Process § 65.149 Boilers and process heaters. (a) Boiler and process heater equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using boilers and process heaters to meet the 98...

  9. Results of heat tests of the TGE-435 main boiler in the PGU-190/220 combined-cycle plant of the Tyumen' TETs-2 cogeneration plant

    SciTech Connect

    A.V. Kurochkin; A.L. Kovalenko; V.G. Kozlov; A.I. Krivobok

    2007-01-15

    Special features of operation of a boiler operating as a combined-cycle plant and having its own furnace and burner unit are descried. The flow of flue gases on the boiler is increased due to feeding of exhaust gases of the GTU into the furnace, which intensifies the convective heat exchange. In addition, it is not necessary to preheat air in the convective heating surfaces (the boiler has no air preheater). The convective heating surfaces of the boiler are used for heating the feed water, thus replacing the regeneration extractions of the steam turbine (HPP are absent in the circuit) and partially replacing the preheating of condensate (the LPP in the circuit of the unit are combined with preheaters of delivery water). Regeneration of the steam turbine is primarily used for the district cogeneration heating purposes. The furnace and burner unit of the exhaust-heat boiler (which is a new engineering solution for the given project) ensures utilization of not only the heat of the exhaust gases of the GTU but also of their excess volume, because the latter contains up to 15% oxygen that oxidizes the combustion process in the boiler. Thus, the gas temperature at the inlet to the boiler amounts to 580{sup o}C at an excess air factor a = 3.50; at the outlet these parameters are utilized to T{sub out} = 139{sup o}C and a{sub out} = 1.17. The proportions of the GTU/boiler loads that can actually be organized at the generating unit (and have been checked by testing) are presented and the proportions of loads recommended for the most efficient operation of the boiler are determined. The performance characteristics of the boiler are presented for various proportions of GTU/boiler loads. The operating conditions of the superheater and of the convective trailing heating surfaces are presented as well as the ecological parameters of the generating unit.

  10. ACTIVATION AND REACTIVITY OF NOVEL CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS FOR DRY SO2 CONTROL IN BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemically modified calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) sorbents developed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) for sulfur dioxide (SO2) control in utility boilers were tested in an electrically heated, bench-scale isotherma...

  11. ACTIVATION AND REACTIVITY OF NOVEL CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS FOR DRY SO2 CONTROL IN BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemically modified calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) sorbents developed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) for sulfur dioxide (SO2) control in utility boilers were tested in an electrically heated, bench-scale isotherma...

  12. PROTOTYPE SCALE TESTING OF LIMB TECHNOLOGY FOR A PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes results of an evaluation of furnace sorbent injection (FSI) to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. (NOTE: FSI of calcium-based sorbents has shown promise as a moderate SO2 removal technology.) The Electric Power Research I...

  13. PROTOTYPE SCALE TESTING OF LIMB TECHNOLOGY FOR A PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes results of an evaluation of furnace sorbent injection (FSI) to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. (NOTE: FSI of calcium-based sorbents has shown promise as a moderate SO2 removal technology.) The Electric Power Research I...

  14. Numerical Simulation in a Supercirtical CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Gaol, Xiang; Luo, Zhongyang; Jiang, Xiaoguo

    The dimension of the hot circulation loop of the supercritical CFB boiler is large, and there are many unknowns and challenges that should be identified and resolved during the development. In order to realize a reasonable and reliable design of the hot circulation loop, numerical simulation of gas-solid flow in a supercritical CFB boiler was conducted by using FLUENT software. The working condition of hot circulation loop flow field, gas-solid flow affected by three unsymmetrical cyclones, air distribution and pressure drop in furnace were analyzed. The simulation results showed that the general arrangement of the 600MWe supercritical CFB boiler is reasonable.

  15. Resource recovery waste heat boiler upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Kuten, P.; McClanahan, D.E.; Gehring, P.R.; Toto, M.L.; Davis, J.J.

    1996-09-01

    The waste heat boilers installed in a 360 TPD waste to energy plant were identified as the bottle neck for an effort to increase plant capacity. These boilers were successfully modified to accommodate the increase of plant capacity to 408 TPD, improve steam cycle performance and reduce boiler tube failures. The project demonstrated how engineering and operation can work together to identify problems and develop solutions that satisfy engineering, operation, and financial objectives. Plant checking and testing, design review and specification development, installation and operation results are presented.

  16. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Bradley R.; Fry, Andrew R.; Senior, Constance L.; Shim, Hong Shig; Otten, Brydger Van; Wendt, Jost; Shaddix, Christopher; Tree, Dale

    2010-06-01

    This report summarizes Year 2 results of a research program designed to use multi-scale experimental studies and fundamental theoretical models to characterize and predict the impacts of retrofit of existing coal-fired utility boilers for oxy-combustion. Year 2 focused extensively on obtaining experimental data from the bench-scale, lab-scale and pilot-scale reactors. These data will be used to refine and validate submodels to be implemented in CFD simulations of full-scale boiler retrofits. Program tasks are on schedule for Year 3 completion. Both Year 2 milestones were completed on schedule and within budget.

  17. Air toxics evaluation of ABB Combustion Engineering Low-Emission Boiler Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wesnor, J.D.

    1993-10-26

    The specific goals of the program are to identify air toxic compounds that might be emmitted from the new boiler with its various Air Pollution Control device for APCD alternatives in levels of regulatory concern. For the compounds thought to be of concern, potential air toxic control methodologies will be suggested and a Test Protocol will be written to be used in the Proof of Concept and full scale tests. The following task was defined: Define Replations and Standards; Identify Air Toxic Pollutants of Interest to Interest to Utility Boilers; Assesment of Air Toxic By-Products; State of the Art Assessment of Toxic By-Product Control Technologies; and Test Protocol Definition.

  18. Advancement of 10 t/h fluidized bed boiler burning Fujian anthracite with extremely low volatile[ity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, C.; Duan, Y.; Chen, X.; Wu, X.; Wu, S.; Wang, W.; Huang, C.

    1999-07-01

    The anthracite in Fujian Province, China with extremely low volatile content about 2--4% is very difficult to burn in grate firing boilers, and operation conditions are very poor, such as steam output well below the nominal capacity and very low burning-out rate. Burning Fujian anthracite in specially designed bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) boilers with capacities between 4 T/H and 20 T/H are still unsatisfactory. In order to increase boiler output and utilize local coal more efficiently, a 10 T/H BFB boiler burning Fujian anthracite was retrofitted with several special techniques, in terms of underbed feeding of recycling fly ash, vortexing secondary air injection, continuous bottom ash removal and adding immersed tube surface. The boiler performances before and after the retrofitting were measured and compared. The experimental results indicate that steam output of the boiler is boosted from 7--8 T/H to more than 14 T/H, unburned carbon content (UBC) in ash from the convective banks drops from 31.39% to 3.89%, UBC in ash from the multicyclone drops from 38.87% to 22.19%, and UBC in fly ash drops from 35.3% to 18.07%. The boiler thermal efficiency increases from 67.27% to 82.93%. Boiler operation becomes more stable. Particulate emission is substantially lessened because of separation by the vortexing secondary air. The retrofitting was completely successful. The technique used and experiences obtained in the retrofitting can be widely applied in industrial BFB boilers.

  19. New thinking for the boiler room.

    PubMed

    Rose, Wayne

    2008-09-01

    Wayne Rose, marketing manager at integrated plant room manufacturer Armstrong Integrated Systems, explains how increasing use of off-site manufacture, the latest 3D modelling technology, and advances in control technology, are revolutionising boiler room design and construction.

  20. Boiler scale prevention employing an organic chelant

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Steven L.; Griffin, Jr., Freddie; Tvedt, Jr., Thorwald J.

    1984-01-01

    An improved method of treating boiler water which employs an oxygen scavenging compound and a compound to control pH together with a chelating agent, wherein the chelating agent is hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriacetic acid.

  1. Model-based control rescues boiler from steam-temperature excursions

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, K.; Werre, J.; Chloupek, J.; Richerson, J.

    1995-05-01

    This article describes how, after operators of a lignite-fired boiler wrestled for years to control its main steam temperature, a switch to model-based control resolved the problem. Decoupling of control loops was essential. Montana Dakota Utilities (MDU) is the operator of the Coyote station, a 450-MW unit located at Beulah, ND, in the heart of lignite country. Owners of the plant are MDU, Northern Municipal Power Agency, Northwestern Public Service Co., and Otter Tail Power Co. The unit, a Babcock and Wilcox Co. (Barberton, Ohio) drum-boiler design, came on line in 1981. It burns lignite with a heating value of 6,900 Btu/lb using 12 cyclones. Because of unique boiler characteristics and controls implementation using several different control systems, the Coyote station had experienced significant steam-temperature excursions over the years.

  2. Boiler burden reduced at Bedford site.

    PubMed

    Horsley, Chris

    2011-10-01

    With the NHS aiming to reduce its 2007 carbon footprint by 10% by 2015, Chris Horsley, managing director of Babcock Wanson UK, a provider of industrial boilers and burners, thermal oxidisers, air treatment, water treatment, and associated services, looks at how one NHS Trust has approached the challenge, and considerably reduced its carbon emissions, by refurbishing its boiler house and moving from oil to gas-fired steam generation.

  3. Research and Development of Large Capacity CFB Boilers in TPRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xianbin, Sun; Minhua, Jiang

    This paper presents an overview of advancements of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology in Thermal Power Research Institute (TPRI),including technologies and configuration and progress of scaling up. For devoloping large CFB boiler, the CFB combustion test facilities have been established, the key technologies of large capacity CFB boiler have been research systematically, the 100MW ˜330MW CFB boiler have been developed and manufactured. The first domestically designed 100MW and 210MW CFB boiler have been put into commericial operation and have good operating performance. Domestic 330MW CFB boiler demonstration project also has been put into commericial operation,which is H type CFB boiler with Compact heat exchanger. This boiler is China's largest CFB boiler. The technical plan of domestic 600MW supercritical CFB boiler are also briefly introduced.

  4. Foster Wheeler compact CFB boiler with INTREX

    SciTech Connect

    Hyppaenen, T.; Rainio, A.; Kauppinen, K.V.O.; Stone, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    Foster Wheeler has introduced a new COMPACT Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler design based on the rectangular hot solids separator. The Compact design also enables easy implementation of new designs for INTREX fluid bed heat exchangers. These new products result in many benefits which affect the boiler economy and operation. After initial development of the Compact CFB design it has been applied in demonstration and industrial scale units. The performance of Compact CFB has been proved to be equivalent to conventional Foster Wheeler CFB has been proved to be equivalent to conventional Foster Wheeler CFB boilers with high availability. Several new Foster Wheeler Compact boilers are being built or already in operation. Operational experiences from different units will be discussed in this paper. There are currently Compact units with 100--150 MW{sub e} capacity under construction. With the scale-up experience with conventional CFB boilers and proven design approach and scale-up steps, Foster Wheeler will have the ability to provide large Compact CFB boilers up to 400--600 MW{sub e} capacity.

  5. {open_quotes}The next generations of Tampella Power`s CFB boilers{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Alliston, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    The next generation of Tampella Power Corporation`s CFB boilers is discussed in outline form. The following topics are outlined: CFB boiler advantages, CFB boiler fuel flexibility and CYMIC boiler construction.

  6. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-03-31

    This is the fifteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At AEP's Gavin Plant, data from the corrosion probes showed that corrosion rate increased as boiler load was increased. During an outage at the plant, the drop in boiler load, sensor temperature and corrosion rate could all be seen clearly. Restarting the boiler saw a resumption of corrosion activity. This behavior is consistent with previous observations made at a 600MWe utility boiler. More data are currently being examined for magnitudes of corrosion rates and changes in boiler operating conditions. Considerable progress was made this quarter in BYU's laboratory study of catalyst deactivation. Surface sulfation appears to partially suppress NO adsorption when the catalyst is not exposed to NH3; NH3 displaces surface-adsorbed NO on SCR catalysts and surface sulfation increases the amount of adsorbed NH3, as confirmed by both spectroscopy and TPD experiments. However, there is no indication of changes in catalyst activity despite changes in the amount of adsorbed NH3. A monolith test reactor (MTR), completed this quarter, provided the first comparative data for one of the fresh and field-exposed monolith SCR catalysts yet developed in this project. Measurements of activity on one of the field-exposed commercial monolith catalysts do not show significant changes in catalyst activity (within experimental error) as compared to the fresh catalyst. The exposed surface of the sample contains large amounts of Ca and Na, neither of which is present in the fresh sample, even after removal of visibly obvious fouling deposits. However, these fouling compounds do not

  7. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30

    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected

  8. 33. VIEW OF BASEMENT UNDER EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW OF BASEMENT UNDER EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING TOWARD WEST BOILER ROOM BASEMENT THROUGH THE ASH TRANSFER TUNNEL. ASH HOPPER FOR BOILER 900 IS ON THE RIGHT. NOTE THE TRACKS ALONG THE FLOOR OF THE TUNNEL. A SMALL ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE HAULED CARS FOR TRANSFERRING ASH FROM BOILERS TO DISPOSAL SITES OUTSIDE THE BUILDING. THIS SYSTEM BECAME OBSOLETE IN 1938 WHEN BOILERS IN THE WEST BOILER ROOM WERE REMOVED AND PULVERIZED COAL WAS ADOPTED AS THE FUEL. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  9. Fuel sulfur and boiler fouling

    SciTech Connect

    Litzke, W.; Celebi, Y.; Butcher, T.

    1995-04-01

    Fouling of the heat transfer surfaces of boilers and furnaces by `soot` leads to reduced efficiency and increased service requirements. The average level of annual efficiency reduction as a result of fouling if generally accepted as 2% per year. Improving the efficiency of equipment in the field may be the most important oil heat conservation opportunity at present. Improvements can be realized by reducing fouling rates, promoting lower firing rates in existing equipment, and enabling excess air levels to be set lower without raising concerns about increased service requirements. In spite of the importance of efficiency in the field there is very little data available on efficiency degradation rates with modern equipment, actual field operating conditions (excess air and smoke number settings) and service problems which affect efficiency. During 1993-94 field tests were initiated to obtain such data and to obtain information that would compliment existing and current laboratory work. Experimental work conducted on a bench scale level have included tests with various advanced burners, fuel types, and different operating conditions which have been done at the BNL Rapid Fouling Test Facility. This report will focus on the field study of fouling effects on ten residential heating service problems at each site are summarized. In addition, the technical difficulties involved with conducting such a field study shall also be discussed as the findings should serve to improve future work in this area.

  10. Waste minimization and pollution prevention initiatives within Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) boiler house operations

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The mission of ANL-E Plant Facility and Services-Utilities and Systems (PFS-US) is to operate and maintain utility services in a cost-effective manner, while utilizing new and innovative methods whenever possible. PFS-US operates an on-site coal burning boiler plant that generates steam for use throughout the Laboratory as a source to heat buildings, as well as for use in research experiments. In the recent past, PFS-US has embarked upon a series of initiatives to improve operating efficiency of boiler house operations. The results of these projects have had the following impacts on boiler house performance and operations: (1) boiler house efficiency and operations have improved, (2) boiler house operating costs have been reduced, (3) specific operating and maintenance costs have been avoided or eliminated, and (4) the amount of waste and pollution generated has been reduced. Through the implementation of these initiatives, over $250,000 of revenue and cost savings have been incurred by ANL-E. In addition, the Laboratory and DOE will benefit annually from revenues, cost savings, and the reduction of environmental liability resulting from these initiatives.

  11. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  12. 1. VIEW OS SOUTH FRONT OF BOILER HOUSE, WITH SCALE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OS SOUTH FRONT OF BOILER HOUSE, WITH SCALE STICK, SHOWING HEAVY SCALES OFFICE TO LEFT, LOOKING NORTH - Marvine Colliery, Boiler House No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  13. 38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN BOILER PLANT LOCATED EAST OF MAIN STEEL PLANT, 1909. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  14. Looking northwest at central boiler house, with 16" skelp mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking northwest at central boiler house, with 16" skelp mill furnace building in foreground. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Central Boiler House, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  15. Looking north at the stokers for boilers numbers 1 through ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking north at the stokers for boilers numbers 1 through 4. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  16. Looking south at the ash disposal hoppers for boilers numbers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking south at the ash disposal hoppers for boilers numbers 1 through 6. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  17. 30. VIEW OF BASEMENT BELOW FIRING AISLE OF EAST BOILER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW OF BASEMENT BELOW FIRING AISLE OF EAST BOILER ROOM SHOWING BOILER FEED WATER PUMP. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  18. Overview of Boiler House showing the Ibeam framework supporting the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of Boiler House showing the I-beam framework supporting the chimney, view facing southwest - Kahului Cannery, Plant No. 28, Boiler House, Sheet Metal and Electrical Shops, 120 Kane Street, Kahului, Maui County, HI

  19. 2. EAST SIDE; COAL ASH FROM BOILERS WAS BLOWN INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST SIDE; COAL ASH FROM BOILERS WAS BLOWN INTO TANK AT RIGHT, THEN DROPPED INTO RAIL CARS FOR REMOVAL - Rath Packing Company, Boiler Room, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  20. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF BOILER ROOM, LOOKING NORTH; CONTROL PANEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF BOILER ROOM, LOOKING NORTH; CONTROL PANEL AT CENTER; BOXLIKE, RIVETED HOUSING AT TOP CENTER CONTAINED AUGER FOR COAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM - Rath Packing Company, Boiler Room, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  1. 4. STEAM PLANT MARINE BOILERS WEST OF STEAM PLANT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. STEAM PLANT MARINE BOILERS WEST OF STEAM PLANT AND SOUTH OF ORIGINAL STEAM PLANT BOILERS, FROM SOUTH. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. 13. Interior, boiler house, at elev. 55' looking west at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Interior, boiler house, at elev. 55' looking west at retired 300 lb. boilers #11, 10, and 9. - Manchester Street Generating Station, Manchester Street Station, 460 Eddy Street, Providence, Providence County, RI

  3. 1. VIEW TO EAST, WITH BOILER HOUSE TO LEFT, FILTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO EAST, WITH BOILER HOUSE TO LEFT, FILTH HOIST HOUSE TO RIGHT, WITH ENGINE HOUSE AT RIGHT REAR. - Providence Sewage Treatment System, Ernest Street Pumping Station, Boiler House, Ernest Street & Allens Avenue, Providence, Providence County, RI

  4. 3. NORTH ELEVATION OF BOILER HOUSE; PARTIAL NORTH ELEVATION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTH ELEVATION OF BOILER HOUSE; PARTIAL NORTH ELEVATION OF ENGINE HOUSE, LEFT REAR. - Providence Sewage Treatment System, Ernest Street Pumping Station, Boiler House, Ernest Street & Allens Avenue, Providence, Providence County, RI

  5. 3. Partial view of SE sides of Boiler Building (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Partial view of SE sides of Boiler Building (left), Incineration Building (to right of stack) and Machine Shop (right). - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Boiler Building, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  6. View of the rear of the electrical department & boiler ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the rear of the electrical department & boiler house, behind the upper shops - Johnson Steel Street Rail Company, Electrical Department & Boiler House, 525 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  7. 20. FIREMAN'S END OF FIRETUBE BOILER. MANUFACTURED BY LUCEY. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. FIREMAN'S END OF FIRE-TUBE BOILER. MANUFACTURED BY LUCEY. THE BOILER CREATED APPROXIMATELY 150 POUNDS OF PRESSURE. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  8. Looking south at boiler feedwater pumps (steam turbine pump on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking south at boiler feedwater pumps (steam turbine pump on left, electric motor pump on right). - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  9. 36. REDUCTION PLANT CLOSE VIEW OF FURNACE AND BOILER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. REDUCTION PLANT - CLOSE VIEW OF FURNACE AND BOILER Reduction Plant furnace and boiler used to provide heat for drying the fish and fish offal, in their conversion to meal. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  10. Looking south at a chemical mixing tank for boiler feedwater. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking south at a chemical mixing tank for boiler feedwater. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  11. Boiler MACT Technical Assistance (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    Fact sheet describing the changes to Environmental Protection Act process standards. The DOE will offer technical assistance to ensure that major sources burning coal and oil have information on cost-effective, clean energy strategies for compliance, and to promote cleaner, more efficient boiler burning to cut harmful pollution and reduce operational costs. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is expected to finalize the reconsideration process for its Clean Air Act pollution standards National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters (known as Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)), in Spring 2012. This rule applies to large and small boilers in a wide range of industrial facilities and institutions. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will offer technical assistance to ensure that major sources burning coal or oil have information on cost-effective clean energy strategies for compliance, including combined heat and power, and to promote cleaner, more efficient boilers to cut harmful pollution and reduce operational costs.

  12. Boiler house modernization through shared savings program

    SciTech Connect

    Breault, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    Throughout Poland as well as the rest of Eastern Europe, communities and industries rely on small heat only boilers to provide district and process heat. Together these two sectors produce about 85,000 MW from boilers in the 2 to 35 MW size range. The bulk of these units were installed prior to 1992 and must be completely overhauled to meet the emission regulations which will be coming into effect on January 1, 1998. Since the only practical fuel is coal in most cases, these boilers must be either retrofit with emission control technology or be replaced entirely. The question that arises is how to accomplish this given the current tight control of capital in Poland and other East European countries. A solution that we have for this problem is shared savings. These boilers are typically operating with a quiet low efficiency as compared to western standards and with excessive manual labor. Installing modernization equipment to improve the efficiency and to automate the process provides savings. ECOGY provides the funds for the modernization to improve the efficiency, add automation and install emission control equipment. The savings that are generated during the operation of the modernized boiler system are split between the client company and ECOGY for a number of years and then the system is turned over in entirety to the client. Depending on the operating capacity, the shared savings agreement will usually span 6 to 10 years.

  13. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling, five-year report

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The project originated in October 1990 and was scheduled to run for four years. At that time, there was considerable emphasis on developing accurate predictions of the physical carryover of macroscopic particles of partially burnt black liquor and smelt droplets out of the furnace, since this was seen as the main cause of boiler plugging. This placed a major emphasis on gas flow patterns within the furnace and on the mass loss rates and swelling and shrinking rates of burning black liquor drops. As work proceeded on developing the recovery boiler furnace model, it became apparent that some recovery boilers encounter serious plugging problems even when physical carryover was minimal. After the original four-year period was completed, the project was extended to address this issue. The objective of the extended project was to improve the utility of the models by including the black liquor chemistry relevant to air emissions predictions and aerosol formation, and by developing the knowledge base and computational tools to relate furnace model outputs to fouling and plugging of the convective sections of the boilers. The work done to date includes CFD model development and validation, acquisition of information on black liquor combustion fundamentals and development of improved burning models, char bed model development, and model application and simplification.

  14. Economic recovery and utilization of boiler flue gas pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.F.; Sackett, R.L.

    1991-10-29

    This patent describes a method of removing unwanted pollutants from flue gas streams from power plants. It comprises passing flue gas containing lime, sulphur dioxide and water in succession through at least three vertically extending beds of particulates, the particulates being disposed in a duct such that the flue gas is passed through substantially all of the particulates, reacting lime, sulphur dioxide and water in the flue gas to form gypsum at a first bed of particulates; reacting sulphur dioxide and water in the flue gas to form sulphuric acid, and collecting sulphuric acid below its condensation temperature at a second bed of particulates; reacting sulphur dioxide in the flue gas with an alkali material to form bisulphites and bisulphates at a third bed of particulates; and removing the pollutants from the particulates of the beds.

  15. METHANE DE-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2004-02-06

    The primary focus for the project continues to be on developing a PC PREHEAT system design suitable for use with caking coals and readying the 100 MMBtu/h CBTF for testing with noncaking PRB coal. During the current quarter, twenty-two pilot tests were conducted with Central Appalachian (CA) caking coal. The objective for these tests was to achieve continuous operation of the pilot system at its design coal feed rate of 156 lb/h, without plugging or agglomeration in the combustor. One combustor air distribution method tested achieved continuous operation at 110 lb/hr, and inspection of the combustor afterward indicated that this method has potential to solve the caking problem. The NOx results from the pilot caking coal runs indicate that even greater NOx reduction is possible with CA coal than with the PRB coal tested, to levels near 100 ppmv or lower at 4-6% exit oxygen. It was therefore decided to conduct additional pilot tests of the air distribution method to determine how to incorporate this into a workable CA combustor design. Based on current weather and manpower restrictions at the site, this pilot testing is expected to be started in February. The design for the 100 MMBtu/h unit for PRB testing in the CBTF was completed and fabrication and installation started during the quarter. While significant progress has been made in the installation of the unit, weather and combustor fabrication delays are expected to move the start of large-scale testing with PRB coal into February, which will push the project completion date beyond the current 3/30/04 end date. GTI is in the process of developing a revised project schedule and estimated cost to complete.

  16. Stationary Source Committee Recommendation on NOx RACT for Utility Boilers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2004-12-31

    Preparations for conducting large-scale combustion tests with caking bituminous coal continued during the start of this quarter. Major project accomplishments related to bituminous coal testing included: a CFD preheat model and evaluation, an update of the process flow diagram and a detailed preheat burner mechanical design (suitable for construction) for firing bituminous coal. Installation and testing of the 85 MMBtu/h bituminous coal preheating system was planned to take place before the end of December. Based on the inability to conduct testing in Riley's Commercial Burner Test Facility (CBTF) during freezing weather, a schedule review indicated required site work for testing bituminous coal at the CBTF could not be completed before freezing weather set in at the site. Further bituminous preheat modification work was put on hold and efforts turned to securing the test facility over the winter season. Bituminous coal tests are therefore delayed; April-May 2005 is earliest estimate of when testing can resume. A request for a time extension was submitted to DOE to extend the project through September 2005 to allow time to secure additional funding and complete the bituminous coal testing. Removal of the PRB PC Preheater from the CBTF burner deck was completed. Decommissioning of the CBTF for the winter was also completed.

  18. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2004-09-30

    Large-scale PRB testing during the current quarter was cut short due to the inability of the coal mill to meet the 85 MMBtu/h design firing rate. The project was therefore redirected toward design, installation and testing of the 85-million Btu/h preheater for bituminous coal. Based on extensive pilot-scale testing completed earlier in the project, 2-D modeling and preliminary design activities were started based on the use of staged, annular protective air films to control temperature and prevent deposition on the preheater walls. A total of 14 2-D modeling cases were completed for the modified preheater for bituminous coal. The preheater concept modeled was based on an expanding preheater chamber where the diameter of the chamber is increased in steps along its length and annular cooling/protective air is introduced at each step. A process flow diagram for the bituminous coal preheating system and a preliminary preheater design drawing were developed based on the modeling results. A project schedule to complete design, installation and testing of the 85 MMBtu/h bituminous coal preheating system before the end of December was also developed.

  19. 35. VIEW LOOKING EAST IN SOUTH END OF EAST BOILER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. VIEW LOOKING EAST IN SOUTH END OF EAST BOILER ROOM. CYLINDRICAL TANKS ARE WORTHINGTON DEAERATORS. THESE REMOVED AIR FROM BOILER FEED WATER TO MINIMIZE CORROSION AND PITTING OF THE BOILER TUBES. AIR REMOVAL ALSO HELPED AVOID THE FORMATION OF FOAM IN THE SYSTEM. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  20. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... status requirements of 40 CFR part 265, subpart O; (ii) A boiler or process heater with a design heat... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a...

  1. Biomass boiler conversion potential in the eastern United States

    Treesearch

    Charles D. Ray; Li Ma; Thomas Wilson; Daniel Wilson; Lew McCreery; Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. is the world's leading consumer of primary energy. A large fraction of this energy is used in boiler installations to generate steam and hot water for heating applications. It is estimated there are total 163,000 industrial and commercial boilers in use in the United States of all sizes. This paper characterizes the commercial and industrial boilers in...

  2. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic...

  3. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic...

  4. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic...

  5. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic...

  6. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic...

  7. Fluidized-bed boilers achieve commercial status worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, B.

    1985-02-01

    The author reviews the current status of commercial fluidized-bed boilers worldwide. Particular attention is given to circulating fluidised-bed systems. A number of detailed tables are presented providing details of manufacturers of afb boilers, and information on 88 installed boilers, their fuels, combustion systems and operational data. Less detailed information is given of a further 140 installations.

  8. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall inspect...

  9. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall inspect...

  10. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall inspect...

  11. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall inspect...

  12. 23. VIEW FROM CATWALK OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW FROM CATWALK OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING NORTH. BOILERS 900 AND 901 ARE ON THE LEFT, BOILERS 902 AND 903 ARE ON THE RIGHT. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  13. 26. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PORTION OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PORTION OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING EAST AT BOILER 904. BOILER 904 WAS MANUFACTURED BY RILEY STOKER AND INSTALLED IN 1944. ORIGINALLY FUELED BY PULVERIZED COAL, IT WAS CONVERTED TO GAS/OIL OPERATION IN 1978 AND OPERATED UNTIL THE PLANT CLOSED. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  14. 30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...

  15. 40 CFR 761.71 - High efficiency boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High efficiency boilers. 761.71... PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.71 High efficiency boilers. (a) To burn mineral oil dielectric fluid containing a PCB concentration of ≥50 ppm, but boiler shall comply with the...

  16. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or...

  17. 46 CFR 115.812 - Pressure vessels and boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vessels and boilers. 115.812 Section 115.812... CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 115.812 Pressure vessels and boilers. (a) Pressure vessels must be tested... testing requirements for boilers are contained in § 61.05 in subchapter F of this chapter....

  18. 40 CFR 761.71 - High efficiency boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High efficiency boilers. 761.71... PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.71 High efficiency boilers. (a) To burn mineral oil dielectric fluid containing a PCB concentration of ≥50 ppm, but boiler shall comply with the...

  19. 10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. 431.82... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82 Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart E, and of subparts A and...

  20. 30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...

  1. 30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...

  2. 30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...

  3. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or...

  4. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or...

  5. 40 CFR 761.71 - High efficiency boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High efficiency boilers. 761.71... PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.71 High efficiency boilers. (a) To burn mineral oil dielectric fluid containing a PCB concentration of ≥50 ppm, but boiler shall comply with the...

  6. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Incinerators, boilers, and process... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters. (a) Equipment and operating requirements. (1) Owners or operators using incinerators, boilers, or...

  7. 30 CFR 77.411 - Compressed air and boilers; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressed air and boilers; general. 77.411... COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.411 Compressed air and boilers; general. All boilers and pressure vessels shall be constructed, installed, and maintained in accordance with...

  8. Some common corrosion mechanisms leading to boiler tube failure

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, D.I.; Haff, J.D.; Kelly, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Corrosion mechanisms remain a major cause of tube failures in operating boiler units. Conditions resulting in caustic corrosion, acid corrosion, chelant corrosion and sulfate induced high temperature external corrosion of boiler tribes are reviewed. Three case histories are presented illustrating the impact of the conditions discussed on boiler tube failures.

  9. Overview of Boiler House and Sheet Metal and Electrical Shops ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of Boiler House and Sheet Metal and Electrical Shops Building (center - with single large chimney), note the monitor on the original section of the Boiler House Building, view facing north - Kahului Cannery, Plant No. 28, Boiler House, Sheet Metal and Electrical Shops, 120 Kane Street, Kahului, Maui County, HI

  10. 21 CFR 173.310 - Boiler water additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Boiler water additives. 173.310 Section 173.310... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.310 Boiler water additives. Boiler water additives may be safely... water. Copolymer contains not more than 0.5 percent by weight of acrylic acid monomer (dry weight...

  11. 21 CFR 173.310 - Boiler water additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Boiler water additives. 173.310 Section 173.310... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.310 Boiler water additives. Boiler water additives may be safely... water. Copolymer contains not more than 0.5 percent by weight of acrylic acid monomer (dry weight...

  12. Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler

    DOEpatents

    Rapier, P.M.

    1979-12-27

    Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carryover through the turbine causing corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

  13. Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler

    DOEpatents

    Rapier, Pascal M.

    1982-01-01

    Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carry-over through the turbine causes corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

  14. Evaluation of thermal overload in boiler operators.

    PubMed

    Braga, Camila Soares; Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; Campos, Julio César Costa; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José; de Moraes, Angêlo Casali; Sensato, Guilherme Luciano

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilians educational institutions need a large energy demand for the operation of laundries, restaurants and accommodation of students. Much of that energy comes from steam generated in boilers with wood fuel. The laboral activity in boiler may present problems for the operator's health due to exposure to excessive heat, and its operation has a high degree of risk. This paper describes an analysis made the conditions of thermal environment in the operation of a B category boiler, located at a Higher Education Institution, located in the Zona da Mata Mineira The equipments used to collect data were Meter WBGT of the Heat Index; Meter of Wet Bulb Index and Globe Thermometer (WBGT); Politeste Instruments, an anemometer and an Infrared Thermometer. By the application of questionnaires, the second phase consisted of collecting data on environmental factors (temperature natural environment, globe temperature, relative humidity and air velocity). The study concluded that during the period evaluated, the activity had thermal overload.

  15. Boiler fuel economizers surpass savings projection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    This paper describes three Kentube RETROMISER fuel economiser units chosen for their efficiency and compact size. Plant gas consumption was reduced by 50,000 cu. ft. the day the first unit went on-line. The energy management program is being conducted by Whitman's Chocolates in Pennsylvania with the goal of reducing the Btu's of energy used per pound of product produced. Engineers conducted a performance study of the plant and concluded that boiler fuel economizers could produce substantial savings by preheating the boiler's feedwater. The fuel economizer finned tubing offered greater heat transfer surface than bare tube of the same diameter and its continuously welded, helically wound fin gave outstanding thermal performance and continuous fin-to-tube contact for maximum heat transfer. Equally important was the unit's compact, cylindrical design, which allowed simple installation in the boiler room.

  16. Development of clad boiler tubes extruded from bimetallic centrifugal castings

    SciTech Connect

    Sponseller, D.L.; Bakker, W.T.; Timmons, G.A.

    1998-04-01

    Wrought tubes of T-11 steel, externally clad with SS310, have been produced by a new method. The alloys were united directly from the molten state by centrifugal casting. In the optimum process, temperatures were controlled to prevent meltback of the SS310 outer layer by the higher melting T-11 stream. Hollow extrusion billets were prepared from the heavy-walled cast bimetallic tubes and successfully hot extruded to 84-mm OD x 64-mm ID tubes, and to 51-mm OD x 38-mm ID tubes. For the most part, thicknesses of the cladding and of the tube wall are rather uniform around the circumference and from end to end of the tubes. Hardness and tensile properties of annealed 51-mm tubes are uniform from end to end of a tube, and between tubes, and readily conform to ASTM A 213; tubes satisfy the flattening and flaring requirements of ASTM A 450. The cladding is metallurgically bonded to be base metal, as revealed by metallography, and by two tests developed for this study: a bond shear strength test and a twist test. In the latter test, rings 3.1 mm in thickness are slotted and severely twisted with a special tool. In tubes made by the optimum process, minute fissures that form adjacent to some of the pressure points during twist testing occupy just 3% of the bond-line length. Cost estimates for commercial production of 51-mm tubes via the centrifugal casting route suggest that such tubes should be considerably less expensive than conventionally clad tubes (extruded from composite billets assembled from heavy-walled wrought tubes). Such tubes should be attractive for the following applications in utility boilers: high-corrosion areas of existing coal-fired boilers, in both steam-generating tubes and superheaters; water walls, screen tubes, and superheater tubes of municipal waste-incineration boilers; future ultra super-critical boilers operating a higher temperatures and pressures; and steam-generating tubes of Syngas coolers of integrated coal gasification power plants.

  17. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-07-28

    This is the eighth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. CFD modeling studies of RRI in a full scale utility boiler have been performed that provide further insight into the NOx reduction process that occurs if the furnace is not adequately staged. In situ reactivity data indicate thus far that titania sulfates under SCR conditions but there is no indication of vanadia sulfation in agreement with some, but not most literature results. Additional analysis and advanced diagnostics are under way to confirm this result and determine its accuracy. Construction of a catalyst characterization reactor system is nearly complete, with a few remaining details discussed in this report. Shakedown testing of the SCR field reactor was completed at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal furnace. The CEM system has been ordered. Talks continued with American Electric Power about hosting a demonstration at their Rockport plant.

  18. An improved PCA method with application to boiler leak detection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xi; Marquez, Horacio J; Chen, Tongwen; Riaz, Muhammad

    2005-07-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a popular fault detection technique. It has been widely used in process industries, especially in the chemical industry. In industrial applications, achieving a sensitive system capable of detecting incipient faults, which maintains the false alarm rate to a minimum, is a crucial issue. Although a lot of research has been focused on these issues for PCA-based fault detection and diagnosis methods, sensitivity of the fault detection scheme versus false alarm rate continues to be an important issue. In this paper, an improved PCA method is proposed to address this problem. In this method, a new data preprocessing scheme and a new fault detection scheme designed for Hotelling's T2 as well as the squared prediction error are developed. A dynamic PCA model is also developed for boiler leak detection. This new method is applied to boiler water/steam leak detection with real data from Syncrude Canada's utility plant in Fort McMurray, Canada. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively reduce false alarm rate, provide effective and correct leak alarms, and give early warning to operators.

  19. Compact CFB: The next generation CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Utt, J.

    1996-12-31

    The next generation of compact circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers is described in outline form. The following topics are discussed: compact CFB = pyroflow + compact separator; compact CFB; compact separator is a breakthrough design; advantages of CFB; new design with substantial development history; KUHMO: successful demo unit; KUHMO: good performance over load range with low emissions; KOKKOLA: first commercial unit and emissions; KOKKOLA: first commercial unit and emissions; compact CFB installations; next generation CFB boiler; grid nozzle upgrades; cast segmented vortex finders; vortex finder installation; ceramic anchors; pre-cast vertical bullnose; refractory upgrades; and wet gunning.

  20. Transients in a circulating fluidized bed boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskakov, A. P.; Munts, V. A.; Pavlyuk, E. Yu.

    2013-11-01

    Transients in a circulating fluidized bed boiler firing biomass are considered. An attempt is made to describe transients with the use of concepts applied in the automatic control theory. The parameters calculated from an analysis of unsteady heat balance equations are compared with the experimental data obtained in the 12-MW boiler of the Chalmers University of Technology. It is demonstrated that these equations describe the transient modes of operation with good accuracy. Dependences for calculating the time constants of unsteady processes are obtained.

  1. Heat pipe waste heat recovery boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littwin, D. A.; McCurley, J.

    The use of heat pipes as transport devices in waste heat recovery boilers is examined. Test results show that heat pipes can efficiently extract heat from the hot gas stream and transfer it inside the pressure vessel for the steam generation process. The benefits of incorporating heat pipes into the design of waste heat recovery boilers include a highly compact package, a significant reduction in thermally induced stresses, double isolation of the steam from the heat source, an extended surface for improved efficiency in heat extraction, improved circulation and stability in the boiling regime, easy cleaning, individually replaceable tubes, and low flue gas pressure drop.

  2. Neural network boiler optimization of efficiency, emission, and reliability with TVA Kingston Unit 3 low NOx optimization test results

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.S.; Poston, J.M.; Schroech, K.A.; Hou, H.S.

    1995-12-31

    Boiler performance optimization includes the preservation of efficiency, emission, capacity, and reliability. Competitive pressures require cost reduction and environmental compliance. It is a challenge for utility personnel to balance these requirements often demand tradeoffs. The Clean Air Act Amendment requires utilities to reduce NOx emission. NOx emission reduction has often been accomplished by installation of new low NOx burners. Boiler tuning for NOx control can be used as an alternative to low NOx burner installation. Specifically in tangentially-fired boilers, boiler tuning can be very effective in NOx reduction. A PC-based computer software program was developed to assist the tuning process. This software, System Optimization Analysis Program (SOAP), is a neural network based code which uses the self-adaptation learning process, with an adaptive filter added for data noise control. SOAP can use historical data as the knowledge base and provides a fast optimal solution to adaptive control problems. SOAP was tested at TVA`s Kingston Unit 3 tangentially coal-fired furnace for NOx reduction. With a well-organized test plan, the optimized solution was reached with 16 tests at each test series load level. SOAP will be used for other plant equipment or system optimization, such as pulverizer performance, combustion system optimization, compared thermal performance design, and boiler tube leak detection and allocation.

  3. Super Boiler: Packed Media/Transport Membrane Boiler Development and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, William E; Cygan, David F

    2013-04-17

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and Cleaver-Brooks developed a new gas-fired steam generation system the Super Boiler for increased energy efficiency, reduced equipment size, and reduced emissions. The system consists of a firetube boiler with a unique staged furnace design, a two-stage burner system with engineered internal recirculation and inter-stage cooling integral to the boiler, unique convective pass design with extended internal surfaces for enhanced heat transfer, and a novel integrated heat recovery system to extract maximum energy from the flue gas. With these combined innovations, the Super Boiler technical goals were set at 94% HHV fuel efficiency, operation on natural gas with <5 ppmv NOx (referenced to 3%O2), and 50% smaller than conventional boilers of similar steam output. To demonstrate these technical goals, the project culminated in the industrial demonstration of this new high-efficiency technology on a 300 HP boiler at Clement Pappas, a juice bottler located in Ontario, California. The Super Boiler combustion system is based on two stage combustion which combines air staging, internal flue gas recirculation, inter-stage cooling, and unique fuel-air mixing technology to achieve low emissions rather than external flue gas recirculation which is most commonly used today. The two-stage combustion provides lower emissions because of the integrated design of the boiler and combustion system which permit precise control of peak flame temperatures in both primary and secondary stages of combustion. To reduce equipment size, the Super Boiler's dual furnace design increases radiant heat transfer to the furnace walls, allowing shorter overall furnace length, and also employs convective tubes with extended surfaces that increase heat transfer by up to 18-fold compared to conventional bare tubes. In this way, a two-pass boiler can achieve the same efficiency as a traditional three or four-pass firetube boiler design. The Super Boiler is consequently up to

  4. Novel CFB Boiler Technology with Reconstruction of its Fluidization State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H. R.; Zhang, H.; Lu, J. F.; Lfu, Q.; Wu, Y. X.; Yuet, G. X.; Su, J.; Fu, Z. P.

    Compared with a conventional pulverized coal fired boiler, the combustion efficiency of a CFB boiler is lower while the self-consumed service power is 1-2% higher. The solution of these problems is the key research topic for researchers and manufacturers of CFB boilers. Based on the State Specification Design Theory of CFB boilers, Tsinghua University proposed a novel CFB technology by reconstruction of the fluidization state in the furnace by adjusting the bed inventory and bed quality. Theoretical analyses show that there is an optimal bed pressure drop, around which the boiler operation can achieve the maximal combustion efficiency and with significant reduction of the wear of the heating surface and fan power consumption. The proposed novel process was implemented in a 75t/h CFB boiler. The results of field tests on this boiler validated the theoretical analyses.

  5. Design and experience with large-size CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, S.L.

    1994-12-31

    CFB boilers have been in operation for many years in industrial steam and power generation applications demonstrating the low SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} emissions and fuel flexibility of the technology. In the past few years, several large-size CFB boilers (over 100 MWe) have entered service and are operating successfully. On the basis of this experience, CFB boilers up to 400 MWe in size are now being offered with full commercial guarantees. Such large CFB boilers will be of interest to countries with strict emission regulations or the need to reduce emissions, and to countries with both a large need for additional power and low grade indigenous solid fuel. This paper will describe Ahlstrom Pyropower`s scale-up of the AHLSTROM PYROFLOW CFB boiler, experience with large-size CFB boilers and the design features of CFB boilers in the 400 MWe size range.

  6. The next generation of oxy-fuel boiler systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Gross, Alex; Patrick, Brian; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Summers, Cathy A.; Turner, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    Research in the area of oxy-fuel combustion which is being pioneered by Jupiter Oxygen Corporation combined with boiler research conducted by the USDOE/Albany Research Center has been applied to designing the next generation of oxy-fuel combustion systems. The new systems will enhance control of boiler systems during turn-down and improve response time while improving boiler efficiency. These next generation boiler systems produce a combustion product that has been shown to be well suited for integrated pollutant removal. These systems have the promise of reducing boiler foot-print and boiler construction costs. The modularity of the system opens the possibility of using this design for replacement of boilers for retrofit on existing systems.

  7. Stress Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes - Failure Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Preet M; Pawel, Steven J; Yang, Dong; Mahmood, Jamshad

    2007-01-01

    Stress assisted corrosion (SAC) of carbon steel boiler tubes is one of the major causes of waterside failure in industrial boilers. SAC is a major concern for kraft recovery boilers in the pulp and paper industry as any water leak into the furnace can cause a smelt-water explosion in the boiler. Failed carbon steel boiler tubes from different kraft recovery boilers were examined to understand the role of carbon steel microstructure on crack initiation and SAC crack morphology. A number of carbon steel tubes showed a deep decarburized layer on the inner surface (water-touched) and also an unusually large grain size at the inner tube surface. SAC cracks were found to initiate in these areas with large-graineddecarburized microstructure. Tubes without such microstructure were also found to have SAC cracks. It was found that the decarburization and large grained microstructure may facilitate initiation and growth but is not necessary for SAC of carbon steel boiler tubes.

  8. Building America Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency. Efficient operation of the heating system faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68 degrees F) than day (73 degrees F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  9. Technology Solutions Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency, which faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68°F) than day (73° F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  10. Hydronic Heating Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings: Boiler Control Replacement and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Dentz, J.; Henderson, H.; Varshney, K.

    2014-09-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency. Efficient operation of the heating system faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68 degrees F) than day (73 degrees F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  11. Thermal Nondestructive Characterization of Corrosion in Boiler Tubes by Application fo a Moving Line Heat Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Winfree, William P.

    2000-01-01

    Wall thinning in utility boiler waterwall tubing is a significant inspection concern for boiler operators. Historically, conventional ultrasonics has been used lor inspection of these tubes. This technique has proved to be very labor intensive and slow. This has resulted in a "spot check" approach to inspections, making thickness measurements over a relatively small percentage of the total boiler wall area. NASA Langley Research Center has developed a thermal NDE technique designed to image and quantitatively characterize the amount of material thinning present in steel tubing. The technique involves the movement of a thermal line source across the outer surface of the tubing followed by an infrared imager at a fixed distance behind the line source. Quantitative images of the material loss due to corrosion are reconstructed from measurements of the induced surface temperature variations. This paper will present a discussion of the development of the thermal imaging system as well as the techniques used to reconstruct images of flaws. The application of the thermal line source, coupled with this analysis technique, represents a significant improvement in the inspection speed for large structures such as boiler waterwalls while still providing high-resolution thickness measurements. A theoretical basis for the technique will be presented thus demonstrating the quantitative nature of the technique. Further, results of laboratory experiments on flat Panel specimens with fabricated material loss regions will be presented.

  12. New source performance standards for industrial boilers. Volume 5. Analysis of solid waste impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Boldt, K.; Davis, H.; Delaney, B.; Grundahl, N.; Hyde, R.; Malloch, R.; Tusa, W.

    1980-09-01

    This study provides an analysis of the impacts of emission controls on disposal of solid wastes from coal-fired industrial boilers. Examination is made of boiler systems, coal types, emission control alternatives, waste streams, waste disposal and utilization alternatives, and pertinent Federal regulations. Twenty-four representative model case scenarios are studied in detail. Expected disposal/utilization alternatives and disposal costs are developed. Comparison of the systems studied indicates that the most cost-effective SO/sub 2/ control technologies from the perspective of waste disposal cost per unit SO/sub 2/ control are, in decreasing order: physically cleaned coal/double alkali combination; double alkali; lime/limestone; spray drying; fluidized-bed combustion; and sodium throwaway.

  13. Digital radiographic systems detect boiler tube cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, S.

    2008-06-15

    Boiler water wall leaks have been a major cause of steam plant forced outages. But conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques have a poor track record of detecting corrosion fatigue cracking on the inside surface of the cold side of waterwall tubing. EPRI is performing field trials of a prototype direct-digital radiographic system that promises to be a game changer. 8 figs.

  14. Micronized coal solves mushroom grower's boiler headaches

    SciTech Connect

    Reason, J.

    1984-03-01

    A brief account is given of a Utah mushroom grower who has replaced two underfeed stoker-fired boilers requiring 7 attendants by an ultra-fine pulverised coal-fired system. The coal is ground in a proprietary rotary grinder to 80% through a 325-mesh screen. Information is presented on the mill and the special refractory burners required.

  15. Is That Boiler Ready To Blow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Glenn S.; Trombley, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses implementation of a thorough assessment program to determine the condition of boilers, pressure vessels and other plant equipment to determine the feasibility of part or entire system replacement. Assessment basics are examined as are tips for selecting the right inspection and engineering contractor for assessments. (GR)

  16. Microphone Detects Boiler-Tube Leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, S. P.

    1985-01-01

    Unit simple, sensitive, rugged, and reliable. Diaphragmless microphone detects leaks from small boiler tubes. Porous plug retains carbon granules in tube while allowing pressure changes to penetrate to granules. Has greater life expectancy than previous controllers and used in variety of hot corrosive atmospheres.

  17. Is That Boiler Ready To Blow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Glenn S.; Trombley, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses implementation of a thorough assessment program to determine the condition of boilers, pressure vessels and other plant equipment to determine the feasibility of part or entire system replacement. Assessment basics are examined as are tips for selecting the right inspection and engineering contractor for assessments. (GR)

  18. Six years of experience with Sweden`s largest CFB-boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Skoglund, B.

    1997-12-31

    The CFB boiler at Oerebro has been in commercial operation since 1990. In this paper the operation experience of NOX reduction, fouling, and ash handling are discussed. NOX reduction has been studied, and methods for automatic control of ammonia injection have been introduced the last few years. The results are presented. Ash handling problems have been studied since 1993 and different areas for possible utilization are proposed. The work on the different topics are still under way at the Oerebro plant.

  19. Development of Computational Capabilities to Predict the Corrosion Wastage of Boiler Tubes in Advanced Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, Steven; Rapp, Robert

    2014-08-31

    A comprehensive corrosion research project consisting of pilot-scale combustion testing and long-term laboratory corrosion study has been successfully performed. A pilot-scale combustion facility available at Brigham Young University was selected and modified to enable burning of pulverized coals under the operating conditions typical for advanced coal-fired utility boilers. Eight United States (U.S.) coals were selected for this investigation, with the test conditions for all coals set to have the same heat input to the combustor. In addition, the air/fuel stoichiometric ratio was controlled so that staged combustion was established, with the stoichiometric ratio maintained at 0.85 in the burner zone and 1.15 in the burnout zone. The burner zone represented the lower furnace of utility boilers, while the burnout zone mimicked the upper furnace areas adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters. From this staged combustion, approximately 3% excess oxygen was attained in the combustion gas at the furnace outlet. During each of the pilot-scale combustion tests, extensive online measurements of the flue gas compositions were performed. In addition, deposit samples were collected at the same location for chemical analyses. Such extensive gas and deposit analyses enabled detailed characterization of the actual combustion environments existing at the lower furnace walls under reducing conditions and those adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters under oxidizing conditions in advanced U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. The gas and deposit compositions were then carefully simulated in a series of 1000-hour laboratory corrosion tests, in which the corrosion performances of different commercial candidate alloys and weld overlays were evaluated at various temperatures for advanced boiler systems. Results of this laboratory study led to significant improvement in understanding of the corrosion mechanisms operating on the furnace walls as well as superheaters and reheaters in

  20. Stationary Engineers Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 12.1-12.9. Boilers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This learning module, one in a series of 20 related training modules for apprentice stationary engineers, deals with boilers. Addressed in the individual instructional packages included in the module are the following topics: firetube and watertube boilers; boiler construction; procedures for operating and cleaning boilers; and boiler fittings,…

  1. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electric hot water supply boilers. 63.25-3 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-3 Electric hot water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than...

  2. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric hot water supply boilers. 63.25-3 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-3 Electric hot water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than...

  3. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric hot water supply boilers. 63.25-3 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-3 Electric hot water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than...

  4. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric hot water supply boilers. 63.25-3 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-3 Electric hot water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than...

  5. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric hot water supply boilers. 63.25-3 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-3 Electric hot water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than...

  6. 32. (Credit CBF) Boilers in the McNeil Street Station, November ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. (Credit CBF) Boilers in the McNeil Street Station, November 1911: two 100 hp Atlas boilers and one Chattanooga boiler. The Atlas boilers were installed c1892, the Chattanooga boiler c1897. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  7. Design for a 350 MWe class CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, S.L.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes Foster Wheeler's design for a 350 MWe Class boiler. Foster Wheeler's experience with large CFB boilers and with large suspension fired boilers is summarized. A reference 350 MWe CFB boiler design is presented and major design features are described along with expected performance. Areas in the CFB boiler design which benefit from suspension from boiler experience are highlighted. CFB boilers are now proven in the 150--250 MWe size range, with several in operation and many others scheduled to begin operation this year. The next step for CFB boiler technology is the 300 - 400 MWe size range. This paper will describe Foster Wheeler's design for a 350 MWe class CFB boiler, including the major design features and anticipated performance. The authors will demonstrate how Foster Wheeler's experience in designing large suspension-fired boilers in sizes over 900 MWe has been applied to the 350 MWe class CFB, in order to minimize scale-up risk and ensure high reliability. This design will bring the benefits of CFB technology, which include flexibility and low emissions, to the 350 MWe size range.

  8. Startup, Commissioning and Operation of Fenyi 100MW CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Yu, Wugao; Bo, Shi

    The first 100MW CFB boiler, designed by the Thermal Power Research Institute and manufactured by Harbin Boiler Company Limited, has been successfully running in Jiangxi Fenyi Power Plant since 2003. Local high ash content anthracite and lean coal that are very difficult to burn out are used in the 100 MW CFB boiler. The results of the 100MW CFB boiler shows that the CFB boiler can run in 30% MCR and startup with two under bed burners, and the boiler efficiency higher than 88% can be got after the combustion modification test. The CFB boiler can be operated with full load and reaches design parameters. The emissions of NO, N2O and CO are less than 7Omg/m3, 30mg/m3, and 125mg/m3, respectively, and SO2 less than 400mg/m3 after limestone injection. The bottom ash temperature from bed ash coolers is less than 120°C after its modification. Coal blockage at the coal storage silo is the main problem influencing the CFB boiler continuous operation. The running experiences for 5 years proved that the CFB boiler performance is successful, and the results were applied in 210 MW and 330 MW CFB Boiler design of Fenyi Power Plant.

  9. Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Oland, CB

    2002-05-06

    Boiler owners and operators who need additional generating capacity face a number of legal, political, environmental, economic, and technical challenges. Their key to success requires selection of an adequately sized low-emission boiler and combustion equipment that can be operated in compliance with emission standards established by state and federal regulatory agencies. Recognizing that many issues are involved in making informed selection decisions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) sponsored efforts at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop a guide for use in choosing low-emission boilers and combustion equipment. To ensure that the guide covers a broad range of technical and regulatory issues of particular interest to the commercial boiler industry, the guide was developed in cooperation with the American Boiler Manufacturers Association (ABMA), the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The guide presents topics pertaining to industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boilers. Background information about various types of commercially available boilers is provided along with discussions about the fuels that they burn and the emissions that they produce. Also included are discussions about emissions standards and compliance issues, technical details related to emissions control techniques, and other important selection considerations. Although information in the guide is primarily applicable to new ICI boilers, it may also apply to existing boiler installations.

  10. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliano, Michael; Seltzer, Andrew; Agarwal, Hans; Robertson, Archie; Wang, Lun

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO2 level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year

  11. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Gagliano; Andrew Seltzer; Hans Agarwal; Archie Robertson; Lun Wang

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO{sub 2} level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to

  12. Metallurgical failures in fossil fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    French, D.N.

    1983-01-01

    Forty case histories of boiler shut downs resulting from metallurgical failures are presented. Reasons for the failures are traced, and the fundamentals of elementary metallurgy are explained to help non-metallurgists understand these practical examples. The full range of expected tube failures is covered, including microstructural changes, high temperature and creep ruptures, corrosion caused by poor steam side chemistry, fuel ash corrosion, and weld problems. Cases that relate steam-side conditions with fireside oxidation, corrosion and creep failures are provided. The effects of misuse or thermal abuse are also presented. Finally, there is a discussion of boiler design in terms of how to avoid these problems, minimize service failures, and improve maintenance.

  13. Maximising safety in the boiler house.

    PubMed

    Derry, Carr

    2013-03-01

    Last month's HEJ featured an article, the second in our new series of guidance pieces aimed principally at Technician-level engineers, highlighting some of the key steps that boiler operators can take to maximise system performance and efficiency, and thus reduce running both costs and carbon footprint. In the third such article, Derry Carr, C.Env, I.Eng, BSc (Hons), M.I.Plant.E., M.S.O.E., technical manager & group gas manager at Dalkia, who is vice-chairman of the Combustion Engineering Association, examines the key regulatory and safety obligations for hospital energy managers and boiler technicians, a number of which have seen changes in recent years with revision to guidance and other documentation.

  14. Particulate Emission Abatement for Krakow Boiler Houses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered the foremost national priorities in Poland. The target of this cleanup is the Polish coal industry, which currently comprises over 78% of Poland`s primary energy production. This project addresses the problem of airborne dust and uncontrolled particulate emissions from boilerhouses, which represent a large fraction of the total in Poland. In Krakow alone, there are more than 2,000 uncontrolled boilers accounting for about half the total fuel use. The large number of low- capacity boilers poses both technical and economic challenges, since the cost of control equipment is a significant factor in the reduction of emissions. A new concept in dust collection, called a Core Separator, is proposed for this important application. The Core Separator is an advanced technology developed through research sponsored by the Department of Energy.

  15. Field Test of Boiler Primary Loop Temperature Controller

    SciTech Connect

    Glanville, P.; Rowley, P.; Schroeder, D.; Brand, L.

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and, in some cases, return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential.

  16. A Rule-Based Industrial Boiler Selection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. F.; Khalil, S. N.; Karjanto, J.; Tee, B. T.; Wahidin, L. S.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G. W. M.; Sivarao, S.; Lim, T. L.

    2015-09-01

    Boiler is a device used for generating the steam for power generation, process use or heating, and hot water for heating purposes. Steam boiler consists of the containing vessel and convection heating surfaces only, whereas a steam generator covers the whole unit, encompassing water wall tubes, super heaters, air heaters and economizers. The selection of the boiler is very important to the industry for conducting the operation system successfully. The selection criteria are based on rule based expert system and multi-criteria weighted average method. The developed system consists of Knowledge Acquisition Module, Boiler Selection Module, User Interface Module and Help Module. The system capable of selecting the suitable boiler based on criteria weighted. The main benefits from using the system is to reduce the complexity in the decision making for selecting the most appropriate boiler to palm oil process plant.

  17. Boiler Control Systems Oxygen Trim Systems Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    measurement , and how these measurements can be used to improve the boiler efficiency. Section 4.0 identifies the various combustion air trim systems that can...with the oxygen in air to form various gases, the formation of which results in the release of large amounts of heat referred to as the heat of...method of combustion optimization is just as effective. Carbon monoxide concentration is independent of excess air and is a direct measure of

  18. Anthracite culm fired fluidized-bed boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Lentz, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    The author describes a fluidised-bed boiler that has been designed by FluiDyne Engineering Corp. for the combustion of anthracite culm, a material containing about 40% ash and consisting of coal particles embedded in mineral matter. There are some 900 million tons of anthracite culm in northeast Pennsylvania within easy reach of many large metropolitan areas. It is estimated that the material can be used economically within a distance of 200 miles.

  19. Stress-enhanced corrosion of boiler tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Esmacher, M.J.

    1987-05-01

    Five case histories are presented on the effect of residual stresses (from fabrication or welding) on the waterside corrosion performance of carbon steel boiler tubing. Specifically, cases are reviewed in which tube swaging or tube bending operations (producing high forming stresses in deformed zones) resulted in the formation of stress-enhanced corrosion cells. In addition, the phenomenon of accelerated corrosion in welded support zones, membrane-welded panel sections, and weld-repaired areas is discussed.

  20. Fluidized Bed Boiler Assessment for Navy Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    inertia and latent heat stored in the bed material allow newly added fuel to ignite quickly and evenly; even wet or low-quality fuels can be burned...about 97% inert bed material (e.g., sand) and 3% fuel. The upper bed is composed of finely ground sulfur sorbent and is where desulfurization of...can be burned without the need of the expensive back-end desulfurization equipment. In fact, most FBC boilers can practically burn all combustible

  1. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Area Source Boilers Tune-up Guides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains two tune-up guides for area source boilers for industrial, commercial, and institutional boilers and process heaters. The first guide is for owners and operators, and the second is for technicians for the area source boilers.

  2. Conversion of packaged boiler to micronized coal cuts operating cost

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, B.

    1984-05-01

    The use of micronised coal can be an alternative to the purchase of new coal-fired boilers, since, in many cases, this fuel can be burned in existing oil- and gas-fired boilers with acceptable derating. The experience is quoted of Idaho Supreme, a potato processing company, where a packaged boiler designed to operate on oil and wood has been successfully run on micronised coal.

  3. 33. 20HORSE POWER VERTICAL BOILER WAS MANUFACTURED BY ORR & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. 20-HORSE POWER VERTICAL BOILER WAS MANUFACTURED BY ORR & SEMBOWER, FROM READING, PA. IT WAS INSTALLED IN 1929 TO REPLACE THE ORIGINAL BOILER. THE BOILER PROVIDED STEAM TO THE STEAM ENGINE. TO LUBRICATING THE DIE OF THE BRICK AUGER, AND TO THE STEAM PIPES OF THE DRYING ROOM ON THE FLOOR ABOVE. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  4. 36. VIEW OF SOUTH END OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. VIEW OF SOUTH END OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING SOUTHWEST. THE CYLINDRICAL TANKS IN THE FOREGROUND CONTAIN AN ION-EXCHANGE RESIN FOR REMOVING CALCIUM FROM THE BOILER FEED TO REDUCE WATER "HARDNESS". THE SHALLOW TANK IN THE RIGHT BACKGROUND IS A DIATOMACEOUS EARTH FILTER TO REMOVE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM THE BOILER FEED. THE ION-EXCHANGE WATER SOFTENING SYSTEM WAS INSTALLED IN 1977. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  5. 16. View into interior steam spaces of boiler above fireboxes ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View into interior steam spaces of boiler above fireboxes through manhole (see photo VT-14-16 for manhole location). Tops-or crown sheets--of fireboxes show below. Vertical and inclined bars are stays used to hold boiler together and reinforce flat plates under pressure. Note water level used in boilers indicated by scale encrustation on stays. (Threaded stud in extreme foreground belongs to manhole cover opened for purposed of photography.) - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  6. 22. (Credit JTL) Detail, south elevation of boiler room; view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. (Credit JTL) Detail, south elevation of boiler room; view looking NNW at Adolphous Custodis stack base (1900), boiler room doors, boiler backheads and edge of old high service pump room. Note joint in bricks to right of Poller room doors showing extent of wall replacement when doors were installed. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  7. 27. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PORTION OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PORTION OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING EAST AT UPPER PORTION BOILER 904. BOILER 904 WAS MANUFACTURED BY RILEY STOKER AND INSTALLED IN 1944. ORIGINALLY FUELED BY PULVERIZED COAL, IT WAS CONVERTED TO GAS/OIL OPERATION IN 1978 AND OPERATED UNTIL THE PLANT CLOSED. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  8. Contributions to the use of macrosounds for boiler decrusting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradeteanu, C.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an investigation indicate the following: (1) The deposition of incrustations on the heating surfaces of steam boilers can be prevented by inserting between heating surface and water an insulating layer on which the boiler incrustation will be deposited. (2) The insulating layer reduces the coefficient of heat transmission by 2%. (3) The insulating layer can be removed by macrosounds with a frequency of about 20 kHz, after any interval of boiler operation.

  9. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-08-04

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  10. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  11. Maintenance aspects of boiler tube failures

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, B.; McNaughton, W.

    1996-07-01

    Boiler tube failures (BTF) remain the number one availability problem in the fossil-fueled power industry. The authors have recently prepared a three-volume book on all aspects of BTF. One of the key areas in the ultimate alleviation of tube failures is proper maintenance activities. This paper thoroughly reviews the areas where improper maintenance leads directly to repeat failures. Problems typically develop from: (i) improper chemical cleaning, (ii) improper repairs, such as the use of palliative or {open_quotes}band-aid{close_quotes} repairs: coatings, pad welding, weld overlay, improper welding activities etc., or (iii) improperly executed maintenance procedures such as can occur with sootblowing. The paper discusses these three topics as they pertain to boiler tube failures. Also discussed are five boiler tube failure mechanisms and how they are influenced by maintenance activities: (i) flyash erosion, (ii) waterwall underdeposit corrosion mechanisms, (iii) short-term overheating in waterwalls, (iv) short-term overheating in SH/RH tubes, and (v) damage directly induced by maintenance operations. A vision of where the authors expect the industry will move over the next five years is presented.

  12. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    SciTech Connect

    Wysk, R.

    1995-12-31

    Among the many strategies for improving air quality in Krakow, one possible method is to adapt new and improved emission control technology. This project focuses on such a strategy. In order to reduce dust emissions from coal-fueled boilers, a new device called a Core Separator has been introduced in several boiler house applications. This advanced technology has been successfully demonstrated in Poland and several commercial units are now in operation. Particulate emissions from the Core Separator are typically 3 to 5 times lower than those from the best cyclone collectors. It can easily meet the new standard for dust emissions which will be in effect in Poland after 1997. The Core Separator is a completely inertial collector and is based on a unique recirculation method. It can effectively remove dust particles below 10 microns in diameter, the so-called PM-10 emissions. Its performance approaches that of fabric filters, but without the attendant cost and maintenance. It is well-suited to the industrial size boilers located in Krakow. Core Separators are now being marketed and sold by EcoInstal, one of the leading environmental firms in Poland, through a cooperative agreement with LSR Technologies.

  13. Combined boiler feed and condensate pump

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Cooper, Titusville, N.J.

    1993-06-01

    A pump for drawing the condensate from a condenser and feeding it to a steam boiler is described, the combination comprising: an elongate casing adapted to be connected in a pipeline having an inlet for receiving the condensate from a steam condenser and an outlet for feeding the condensate to a steam boiler; a pump shaft mounted in said casing rotating in a pair of bearings spaced along said shaft and fixed in said casing; an electric motor mounted in said casing connected to one end of said shaft for driving it; control means for operating said electric motor; an inducer pump mounted at the other end of said shaft, driven by said shaft; a multiple stage centrifugal feed pump located in said casing driven by said shaft and receiving condensate from the inducer pump, pumping said condensate to a higher pressure suitable for feeding a steam boiler and delivering said condensate to the outlet of said pump, the multiple stage centrifugal feed pump being located adjacent said inducer pump; and said inducer pump being of the type to produce sufficient positive pressure for properly feeding condensate to said feed pump.

  14. Solid fuel feed system for a boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Clamser, C.J.; Powers, R.A.

    1986-07-08

    A fuel system is described for a boiler comprising inlet means for receiving the fuel, hopper means for storing the fuel, discharge means for discharging fuel to the boiler, first conveyor belt means extending between the inlet means and the hopper means and constructed and arranged for receiving the fuel from the inlet means and conveying the fuel to the hopper means, second conveyor belt means extending between the hopper means and the discharge means, a portion of the second conveyor means extending within the hopper means for receiving the accumulated fuel in the hopper means. The second conveyor means is constructed and arranged to transfer the fuel from the hopper means to the discharge means, first control means for controlling the speed of the first conveyor belt means in response to the amount of fuel in the hopper means, second control means responsive to the operation of the boiler for controlling the speed of the second conveyor belt means, sensing means for sensing the speed of each of the conveyor belts, alarm means connected to the sensing means for providing an alarm in response to the speed of the conveyor belt means falling below or above a predetermined value, and means associated with each of the conveyor belt means for controlling the level of the fuel on the belt means.

  15. Residual Strain Distribution in Bent Composite Boiler Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, Camden R; Gorti, Sarma B; Tang, Fei; Keiser, James R

    2006-01-01

    Kraft recovery boilers are typically constructed of carbon steel boiler tubes clad with a corrosion resistant layer, and these composite tubes are bent and welded together to form air port panels which enable the combustion air to enter the boiler. In this paper, the through-thickness residual strain in the carbon steel layer of non-heat-treated and heat-treated composite bent tubes were measured by neutron diffraction techniques and modeled by finite element modeling. The results can be used to optimize material selection and manufacturing processes to prevent stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue cracking in the boiler tubes.

  16. 13. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Engine and boiler house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Engine and boiler house, ca. 1881. Locomotive-type, fire-tube, portable boiler, no. I model. Manufactured by Ames Iron Works, Oswego, New York, 1879. 120 lbs./sq. in. working pressure, 66 sq. ft. heating surface in tubes. View: Historical view, 1934, from T.T. Waterman Collection, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. View shows engine and boiler house structure intact. The water and pressure gauge to the right of the boiler are in more complete condition than in 1978 views. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  17. Design and Operation of CFB Boilers with Low Bed Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jun; Zhao, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Jianchun; Liu, Aicheng; Yang, Hairui; Yue, Guangxi; Fu, Zhiping

    In this paper, the challenges and problems of the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology are summarized and analyzed. In order to resolve the problems in CFB boiler application, design principals and method of CFB boiler with the low bed inventory is proposed by Taiyuan Boiler Group Co. Ltd., cooperated with Tsinghua University. And a full set of design code of new CFB boiler with low bed inventory has been developed, to design the product structure of new generation CFB boilers. The first CFB boiler product with the low inventory was placed and has been operated for two years in Datuhe Thermal Power Plant at Lishi, Shanxi province. The operation practice and measurement data show that the CFB boiler with the low bed inventory stands for the newest trend of the development of CFB boiler in the future. It is expected that more technical advantages will be shown when this technology is applied to the CFB boiler with larger capacity in the near future.

  18. Operational Status of 135MWe CFB Boilers in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lit, J. F.; Yang, S.; Haot, J. H.; Mit, J. H.; Lu, J. F.; Jit, H. M.; Huang, H. T.; Yan, H. R.; Yu, G. X.

    CFB boiler technology has been rapidly developed in China and China has the largest installed number and capacity of CFB boiler in the world. The number of 135MWe CFB boilers is over 150. The operational performance of 135MWe CFB boilers was summarized in the article. And the reliability, economy, environmental protection index are also discussed in the article. It not only provides information of the development status of CFB industry, but also provides some experience and guidance to improve the operation and to further develop CFB combustion technology.

  19. CFB boiler for Southern Illinois University: Planning and design

    SciTech Connect

    Silvey, M.; Roth, N.; Haake, A.

    1995-12-31

    Southern Illinois University (SIU) is in the process of installing a Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) coal fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler at its Carbondale, Illinois campus. The CFB boiler will be used for cogeneration. Funding for this project was made possible by the State of Illinois Capital Development Board. Illinois coal will be fired in this CFB boiler. This paper provides a description of the planning process and design of the CFB boiler and related equipment with specific emphasis on particulate removal and recirculation. The startup of this new installation is scheduled for the summer of 1996, with commercial operation by fall of 1996.

  20. Cost and performance of Group 2 boiler NOx controls

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, S.; Maibodi, M.; Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted to assist EPA in developing the Phase II NO{sub x} rule under Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 (the Act). The specific purpose of this study was to assess the performance and capital and total levelized costs of NO{sub x} controls pertinent to Group 2 boilers. Group 2 boilers are all coal-fired boilers that are not dry-bottom wall-fired and tangentially fired and include cell burner-fired, cyclone-fired, wet-bottom, vertically fired, stoker-fired, and fluidized-bed boilers.