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Sample records for 3000x2878x3 shaded relief

  1. Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are four rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, and Zhilovaya. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in blue. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and

  2. Digital Shaded-Relief Image of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riehle, J.R.; Fleming, Michael D.; Molnia, B.F.; Dover, J.H.; Kelley, J.S.; Miller, M.L.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Plafker, George; Till, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction One of the most spectacular physiographic images of the conterminous United States, and the first to have been produced digitally, is that by Thelin and Pike (USGS I-2206, 1991). The image is remarkable for its crispness of detail and for the natural appearance of the artificial land surface. Our goal has been to produce a shaded-relief image of Alaska that has the same look and feel as the Thelin and Pike image. The Alaskan image could have been produced at the same scale as its lower 48 counterpart (1:3,500,000). But by insetting the Aleutian Islands into the Gulf of Alaska, we were able to print the Alaska map at a larger scale (1:2,500,000) and about the same physical size as the Thelin and Pike image. Benefits of the 1:2,500,000 scale are (1) greater resolution of topographic features and (2) ease of reference to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (1987) Alaska Map E and the statewide geologic map (Beikman, 1980), which are both 1:2,500,000 scale. Manually drawn, shaded-relief images of Alaska's land surface have long been available (for example, Department of the Interior, 1909; Raisz, 1948). The topography depicted on these early maps is mainly schematic. Maps showing topographic contours were first available for the entire State in 1953 (USGS, 1:250,000) (J.H. Wittmann, USGS, written commun., 1996). The Alaska Map E was initially released in 1954 in both planimetric (revised in 1973 and 1987) and shaded-relief versions (revised in 1973, 1987, and 1996); topography depicted on the shaded-relief version is based on the 1:250,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Alaska Map E was later modified to include hypsometric tinting by Raven Maps and Images (1989, revised 1993) as copyrighted versions. Other shaded-relief images were produced for The National Geographic Magazine (LaGorce, 1956; 1:3,000,000) or drawn by Harrison (1970; 1:7,500,000) for The National Atlas of the United States. Recently, the State of Alaska digitally produced a shaded-relief image

  3. Digital shaded-relief map of Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrity, Christopher P.; Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco

    2004-01-01

    The Digital Shaded-Relief Map of Venezuela is a composite of more than 20 tiles of 90 meter (3 arc second) pixel resolution elevation data, captured during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in February 2000. The SRTM, a joint project between the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), provides the most accurate and comprehensive international digital elevation dataset ever assembled. The 10-day flight mission aboard the U.S. Space Shuttle Endeavour obtained elevation data for about 80% of the world's landmass at 3-5 meter pixel resolution through the use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology. SAR is desirable because it acquires data along continuous swaths, maintaining data consistency across large areas, independent of cloud cover. Swaths were captured at an altitude of 230 km, and are approximately 225 km wide with varying lengths. Rendering of the shaded-relief image required editing of the raw elevation data to remove numerous holes and anomalously high and low values inherent in the dataset. Customized ArcInfo Arc Macro Language (AML) scripts were written to interpolate areas of null values and generalize irregular elevation spikes and wells. Coastlines and major water bodies used as a clipping mask were extracted from 1:500,000-scale geologic maps of Venezuela (Bellizzia and others, 1976). The shaded-relief image was rendered with an illumination azimuth of 315? and an altitude of 65?. A vertical exaggeration of 2X was applied to the image to enhance land-surface features. Image post-processing techniques were accomplished using conventional desktop imaging software.

  4. Shaded Relief Color Wrapped, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This shaded relief topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are five rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, Zhilovaya, and Kakhtana. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in yellow. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Each cycle of colors (from red through green back to red) represents an equal amount of elevation difference (400 meters, or 1300 feet)similar to contour lines on a standard topographic map. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. For the shading, a computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast

  5. Shaded Relief of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The scrub forest terrain shows relief of about 400 meters (1300 feet). Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. This region has little topographic relief, but even subtle changes in topography have far-reaching effects on regional ecosystems. The image covers an area of 57 km x 79 km and represents one quarter of the 225 km SRTM swath. Colors range from dark blue at water level to white and brown at hill tops. The terrain features that are clearly visible in this image include tributaries of the Sao Francisco, the dark-blue branch-like features visible from top right to bottom left, and on the left edge of the image, and hills rising up from the valley floor. The San Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter

  6. Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C

  7. Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Sinai Peninsula, located between Africa and Asia, is a result of those two continents pulling apart from each other. Earth's crust is cracking, stretching, and lowering along the two northern branches of the Red Sea, namely the Gulf of Suez, seen here on the west (left), and the Gulf of Aqaba, seen to the east (right). This color-coded shaded relief image shows the triangular nature of the peninsula, with the coast of the Mediterranean Sea forming the northern side of the triangle. The Suez Canal can be seen as the narrow vertical blue line in the upper left connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean.

    The peninsula is divided into three distinct parts; the northern region consisting chiefly of sandstone, plains and hills, the central area dominated by the Tih Plateau, and the mountainous southern region where towering peaks abound. Much of the Sinai is deeply dissected by river valleys, or wadis, that eroded during an earlier geologic period and break the surface of the plateau into a series of detached massifs with a few scattered oases.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot

  8. Bali, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The volcanic nature of the island of Bali is evident in this shaded relief image generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).

    Bali, along with several smaller islands, make up one of the 27 Provinces of Indonesia. It lies over a major subduction zone where the Indo-Australian tectonic plate collides with the Sunda plate, creating one of the most volcanically active regions on the planet.

    The most significant feature on Bali is Gunung Agung, the symmetric, conical mountain at the right-center of the image. This 'stratovolcano,' 3,148 meters (10,308 feet) high, is held sacred in Balinese culture, and last erupted in 1963 after being dormant and thought inactive for 120 years. This violent event resulted in over 1,000 deaths, and coincided with a purification ceremony called Eka Dasa Rudra, meant to restore the balance between nature and man. This most important Balinese rite is held only once per century, and the almost exact correspondence between the beginning of the ceremony and the eruption is though to have great religious significance.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter

  9. Shaded relief, color as height Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image of Patagonia, Argentina shows a spectacular landscape formed by volcanoes, rivers, and wind. The area is located just east of the narrow range of the Andes Mountains, about 100 kilometers (62 miles) east of the border with Chile. Interesting features include basalt-capped mesas with sinkholes (lower center), arcuate ridges of windblown beach sands downwind from a salty desert lake (upper center), young volcanic cones(right), and at least one case of what geologists call 'inverted relief'. This happens when lava flows down a valley in soft material and then the soft material is eroded away leaving the former valley as a ridge of lava. These ridges can be seen on the slopes of the volcano in the upper right. Geologists will use SRTM topographic data to study the interaction of volcanic, climatic and erosional processes.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1100 meters(3600 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added

  10. Ireland, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The island of Ireland comprises a large central lowland of limestone with a relief of hills surrounded by a discontinuous border of coastal mountains which vary greatly in geological structure. The mountain ridges of the south are composed of old red sandstone separated by limestone river valleys. Granite predominates in the mountains of Galway, Mayo and Donegal in the west and north-west and in Counties Down and Wicklow on the east coast, while a basalt plateau covers much of the north-east of the country. The central plain, which is broken in places by low hills, is extensively covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand. It has considerable areas of bog and numerous lakes. The island has seen at least two general glaciations and everywhere ice-smoothed rock, mountain lakes, glacial valleys and deposits of glacial sand, gravel and clay mark the passage of the ice.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial

  11. Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Three striking and important areas of Tanzania in eastern Africa are shown in this color-coded shaded relief image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The largest circular feature in the center right is the caldera, or central crater, of the extinct volcano Ngorongoro. It is surrounded by a number of smaller volcanoes, all associated with the Great Rift Valley, a geologic fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique.

    Ngorongoro's caldera is 22.5 kilometers (14 miles) across at its widest point and is 610 meters (2,000 feet) deep. Its floor is very level, holding a lake fed by streams running down the caldera wall. It is part of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and is home to over 75,000 animals. The lakes south of the crater are Lake Eyasi and Lake Manyara, also part of the conservation area.

    The relatively smooth region in the upper left of the image is the Serengeti National Park, the largest in Tanzania. The park encompasses the main part of the Serengeti ecosystem, supporting the greatest remaining concentration of plains game in Africa including more than 3,000,000 large mammals. The animals roam the park freely and in the spectacular migrations, huge herds of wild animals move to other areas of the park in search of greener grazing grounds (requiring over 4,000 tons of grass each day) and water.

    The faint, nearly horizontal line near the center of the image is Olduvai Gorge, made famous by the discovery of remains of the earliest humans to exist. Between 1.9 and 1.2 million years ago a salt lake occupied this area, followed by the appearance of fresh water streams and small ponds. Exposed deposits show rich fossil fauna, many hominid remains and items belonging to one of the oldest stone tool technologies, called Olduwan. The time span of the objects recovered dates from 2,100,000 to 15,000 years ago.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and

  12. Shaded relief, color as height, Fiji

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930's. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations top ink at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1300 meters(4300 feet) of total relief.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to

  13. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.

    Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.

    East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.

    North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.

    South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns

  14. Zagros Mountains, Iran, SRTM Shaded Relief Anaglyph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Zagros Mountains in Iran offer a visually stunning topographic display of geologic structure in layered sedimentary rocks. This scene is nearly 100 kilometers (62 miles) wide but is only a small part of similar terrain that covers much of southern Iran. This area is actively undergoing crustal shortening, as global tectonics moves Arabia toward Asia. Consequently, layers of sedimentary rock are folding much like a carpet will fold if pushed. The convex upward folds create structures called anticlines, which are prominently seen here. The convex downward folds (between the anticlines) create structures called synclines, which are mostly buried and hidden by sediments eroding off the anticlines. Layers having differing erosional resistance create distinctive patterns, often sawtooth triangular facets, that encircle the anticlines. Local relief between the higher mountain ridges and their intervening valleys is about 1,200 meters (about 4,000 feet).

    Salt extrusions and salt 'glaciers' are another set of geologic features readily evident in the topography. Salt deposits, likely created by the evaporation of an ancient inland sea, were buried by the sediments that now make up the layers of the anticlines and synclines. But salt is less dense than most other rocks, so it tends to migrate upward through Earth's crust in vertical columns called 'diapirs'. The compressive folding process has probably facilitated the formation of these diapirs, and the diapirs, in turn, are probably enhancing some anticlines by 'inflating' them with salt. Where the diapirs reach the surface, the salt extrudes, much like lava from a volcano, and the salt flows. Two prominent salt flows are evident in the same valley, leaking from neighboring anticlines, just north of the scene center.

    This anaglyph was created by deriving a shaded relief image from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye

  15. Zagros Mountains, Iran, SRTM Shaded Relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Zagros Mountains in Iran offer a visually stunning topographic display of geologic structure in layered sedimentary rocks. This scene is nearly 100 kilometers (62 miles) wide but is only a small part of similar terrain that covers much of southern Iran. This area is actively undergoing crustal shortening, as global tectonics moves Arabia toward Asia. Consequently, layers of sedimentary rock are folding much like a carpet will fold if pushed. The convex upward folds create structures called anticlines, which are prominently seen here. The convex downward folds (between the anticlines) create structures called synclines, which are mostly buried and hidden by sediments eroding off the anticlines. Layers having differing erosional resistance create distinctive patterns, often sawtooth triangular facets, that encircle the anticlines. Local relief between the higher mountain ridges and their intervening valleys is about 1200 meters (about 4000 feet).

    Salt extrusions and salt 'glaciers' are another set of geologic features readily evident in the topography. Salt deposits, likely created by the evaporation of an ancient inland sea, were buried by the sediments that now make up the layers of the anticlines and synclines. But salt is less dense than most other rocks, so it tends to migrate upward through Earth's crust in vertical columns called 'diapirs'. The compressive folding process has probably facilitated the formation of these diapirs, and the diapirs, in turn, are probably enhancing some anticlines by 'inflating' them with salt. Where the diapirs reach the surface, the salt extrudes, much like lava from a volcano, and the salt flows. Two prominent salt flows are evident in the same valley, leaking from neighboring anticlines, just north of the scene center.

    This shaded relief image was created directly from an SRTM elevation model by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear

  16. Shaded relief, color as height, Salalah, Oman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This elevation map shows a part of the southern coast of the Arabian Peninsula including parts of the countries of Oman and Yemen. The narrow coastal plain on the right side of the image includes the city of Salahlah, the second largest city in Oman. Various crops, including coconuts, papayas and bananas, are grown on this plain. The abrupt topography of the coastal mountains wrings moisture from the monsoon, enabling agriculture in the otherwise dry environment of the Arabian Peninsula. These mountains are historically significant as well: Some scholars believe these mountains are the 'southern mountains' of the book of Genesis.

    This image brightness corresponds to shading illumination from the right, while colors show the elevation as measured by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to brown at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1400 meters (4600 feet) of total relief. The Arabian Sea is colored blue.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI)space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 149 by 40 kilometers (92 by 25 miles) Location: 16.9 deg. North lat., 53.7 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top right Date Acquired: February 15, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  17. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.

    Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.

    East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.

    North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.

    South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns

  18. World Globes, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    These images of the world were generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM Project has recently released a new global data set called SRTM30, where the original one arcsecond of latitude and longitude resolution (about 30 meters, or 98 feet, at the equator) was reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters, or 1496 feet.) These images were created from that data set and show the Earth as it would be viewed from a point in space centered over the Americas, Africa and the western Pacific.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (about 30

  19. France, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of France was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was reduced to 6 arcseconds (about 185 meters north-south and 127 meters east-west), resampled to a Mercator projection, and the French border outlined. Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the country is readily apparent.

    The upper central part of this scene is dominated by the Paris Basin, which consists of a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks. Fertile soils over much of the area make good agricultural land. The Normandie coast to the upper left is characterized by high, chalk cliffs, while the Brittany coast (the peninsula to the left) is highly indented where deep valleys were drowned by the sea, and the Biscay coast to the southwest is marked by flat, sandy beaches.

    To the south, the Pyrenees form a natural border between France and Spain, and the south-central part of the country is dominated by the ancient Massif Central. Subject to volcanism that has only subsided in the last 10,000 years, these central mountains are separated from the Alps by the north-south trending Rhone River Basin.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to

  20. Guiana Highlands, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    inspiration for Arthur Conan Doyle's 1912 best-seller 'The Lost World.'

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Location: 0.2 South to 8.7 degrees North latitude, 60 to 67.9 degrees West longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM30 and GTOPO30 elevation models Data Resolution: SRTM 30 arcsecond (about 928 meters or 1496 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 for SRTM

  1. Australia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    : shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Location: 45 to 10 degrees South latitude, 112 to 155 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  2. Shaded relief map of US topography from digital elevations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pike, R.J.; Thelin, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    Much geologic and geophysical information that lies encoded within land surface form can be revealed by image processing large files of digitized elevations in fast machines and mapping the results. This convergence of computers, analytic software, data, and output devices has created exciting opportunities for automating the numerical and spatial study of topography. One recent result is the accompanying shaded relief map of the conterminous 48 states. -from Authors

  3. Shaded Relief of South Africa, Northern Cape Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Located north of the Swartberg Mountains in South Africa's Northern Cape Province, this topographic image shows a portion of the Great Karoo region. Karoo is an indigenous word for 'dry thirst land.' The semi-arid area is known for its unique variety of flora and fauna. The topography of the area, with a total relief of 200 meters (650 feet), reveals much about the geologic history of the area. The linear features seen in the image are near-vertical walls of once-molten rock, or dikes, that have intruded the bedrock. The dikes are more resistant to weathering and, therefore, form the linear wall-like features seen in the image. In relatively flat arid areas such as this, small changes in the topography can have large impacts on the water resources and the local ecosystem. These data can be used by biologists to study the distribution and range of the different plants and animals. Geologists can also use the data to study the geologic history of this area in more detail.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  4. Shaded Relief Mosaic of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a shaded relief mosaic of Umnak Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    It was created with Airsar data that was geocoded and combined into this mosaic as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Shaded Relief Image of Saint Pierre and Miquelon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image shows two islands, Miquelon and Saint Pierre, located south of Newfoundland, Canada. These islands, along with five smaller islands, are a self-governing territory of France. A thin barrier beach divides Miquelon, with Grande Miquelon to the north and Petite Miquelonto the south. Saint Pierre Island is located to the lower right. With the islandsi location in the north Atlantic Ocean and their deep water ports, fishing is the major part of the economy. The maximum elevation of the island is 240 meters (787 feet). The land mass of the islands is about 242 square kilometers, or 1.5 times the size of Washington DC.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASAis Jet Propulsion

  6. Landsat - SRTM Shaded Relief Comparison, Los Angeles and Vicinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs), such as those produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), allow user-controlled visualization of the Earth's landforms that is not possible using satellite imagery alone. This three-view comparison shows Los Angeles, Calif., and vicinity, with a Landsat image (only) on the left, a shaded relief rendering of the SRTM DEM on the right, and a merge of the two data sets in the middle. Note that topographic expression in the Landsat image alone is very subtle due to the fairly high sun angle (63 degrees above the horizon) during the satellite overflight in late morning of a mid-Spring day (May 4, 2001). In contrast, computer generated topographic shading of the DEM provides a pure and bold image of topographic expression with a user specified illumination direction. The middle image shows how combining the Landsat and DEM shaded relief can result in a topographically enhanced satellite image in which the information content of both data sets is merged into a single view.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA

  7. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This shaded relief image of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula show a subtle, but unmistakable, indication of the Chicxulub impact crater. Most scientists now agree that this impact was the cause of the Cretatious-Tertiary Extinction, the event 65 million years ago that marked the sudden extinction of the dinosaurs as well as the majority of life then on Earth.

    Most of the peninsula is visible here, along with the island of Cozumel off the east coast. The Yucatan is a plateau composed mostly of limestone and is an area of very low relief with elevations varying by less than a few hundred meters (about 500 feet.) In this computer-enhanced image the topography has been greatly exaggerated to highlight a semicircular trough, the darker green arcing line at the upper left corner of the peninsula. This trough is only about 3 to 5 meters (10 to 15 feet) deep and is about 5 km. wide (3 miles), so subtle that if you walked across it you probably would not notice it, and is a surface expression of the crater's outer boundary. Scientists believe the impact, which was centered just off the coast in the Caribbean, altered the subsurface rocks such that the overlying limestone sediments, which formed later and erode very easily, would preferentially erode on the vicinity of the crater rim. This formed the trough as well as numerous sinkholes (called cenotes) which are visible as small circular depressions.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwestern slopes appear bright and southeastern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    For a smaller, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Large

  8. San Gabriel Mountains, California, Shaded relief, color as height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image shows the relationship of the urban area of Pasadena, California to the natural contours of the land. The image includes the alluvial plain on which Pasadena and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory sit, and the steep range of the San Gabriel Mountains. The mountain front and the arcuate valley running from upper left to the lower right are active fault zones, along which the mountains are rising. The chaparral-covered slopes above Pasadena are also a prime area for wildfires and mudslides. Hazards from earthquakes, floods and fires are intimately related to the topography in this area. Topographic data and other remote sensing images provide valuable information for assessing and mitigating the natural hazards for cities along the front of active mountain ranges.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C

  9. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Iturralde Structure, Bolivia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An 8-kilometer (5-mile) wide crater of possible impact origin is shown in this view of an isolated part of the Bolivian Amazon from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The circular feature at the center-left of the image, known as the Iturralde Structure, is possibly the Earth's most recent 'big' impact event recording collision with a meteor or comet that might have occurred between 11,000 and 30,000 years ago.

    Although the structure was identified on satellite photographs in the mid-1980s, its location is so remote that it has only been visited by scientific investigators twice, most recently by a team from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in September 2002. Lying in an area of very low relief, the landform is a quasi-circular closed depression only about 20 meters (66 feet) in depth, with sharply defined sub-angular 'rim' materials. It resembles a 'cookie cutter' in that its appearance 'cuts' the heavily vegetated soft-sediments and pampas of this part of Bolivia. The SRTM data have provided investigators with the first topographic map of the site and will allow studies of its three-dimensional structure crucial to determining whether it actually is of impact origin.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction. North-facing slopes appear bright and south-facing slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with brown and green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography

  10. Mt. Elgon, Africa, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The striking contrast of geologic structures in Africa is shown in this shaded relief image of Mt. Elgon on the left and a section of the Great Rift Valley on the right.

    Mt. Elgon is a solitary extinct volcano straddling the border between Uganda and Kenya, and at 4,321 meters (14,178 feet) tall is the eighth highest mountain in Africa. It is positioned on the Pre-Cambriam bedrock of the Trans Nzoia Plateau, and is similar to other such volcanoes in East Africa in that it is associated with the formation of the Rift Valley. However one thing that sets Mt. Elgon apart is its age.

    Although there is no verifiable evidence of its earliest volcanic activity, Mt. Elgon is estimated to be at least 24 million years old, making it the oldest extinct volcano in East Africa. This presents a striking comparison to Mt. Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa at 5,895 meters (19,341 feet), which is just over one million years old. Judging by the diameter of its base, it is a common belief among geological experts that Mt. Elgon was once the highest mountains in Africa, however erosion has played a significant role in reducing the height to its present value.

    Juxtaposed with this impressive mountain is a section of the Great Rift Valley, a geological fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique. Erosion has concealed some sections, but in some sections like that shown here, there are sheer cliffs several thousand feet high. The present configuration of the valley, which dates from the mid-Pleistocene epoch, results from a rifting process associated with thermal currents in the Earth's mantle.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly

  11. Perspective View with Color-Coded Shaded Relief, Central Panama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This perspective view shows central Panama, with the remnants of the extinct volcano El Valle in the foreground and the Caribbean Sea in the distance. El Valle underwent an explosive eruption about 3 million years ago, forming a crater 5 kilometers (3.1 miles) across, one of the largest in the Americas. The crater subsequently filled with water forming a huge lake, but about 12,000 years ago a breach at the present site of the waterfall Choro de las Mozas caused it to drain, forming the present valley. Within the crater is the town of El Valle de Anton, whose 600-meter (1,968-foot) elevation and resulting cooler climate make it a popular tourist and vacation site.

    The lake in the distance is Lake Gatun, at the west end of the Panama Canal. The canal itself extends to the southwest (to the right in this northeast facing view) but is hidden by the intervening terrain.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM, and range from green at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations.

    SRTM, launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the

  12. Africa in SRTM 3-D, Anaglyph of Shaded Relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This stereoscopic shaded relief image shows Africa's topography as measured by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in February 2000. Also shown are Madagascar, the Arabian Peninsula, and other adjacent regions. Previously, much of the topography here was not mapped in detail. Digital elevation data, such as provided by SRTM, are in high demand by scientists studying earthquakes, volcanism, and erosion patterns and for use in mapping and modeling hazards to human habitation. But the shape of Earth's surface affects nearly every natural process and human endeavor that occurs there, so elevation data are used in a wide range of applications. The image shown here is greatly reduced from the original data resolution, but still provides a good overview of the continent's landforms. It is best viewed while panning at full resolution while using image display software.

    The northern part of the continent consists of a system of basins and plateaus, with several volcanic uplands whose uplift has been matched by subsidence in the large surrounding basins. Many of these basins have been infilled with sand and gravel, creating the vast Saharan lands. The Atlas Mountains in the northwest were created by convergence of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates.

    The geography of the central latitudes of Africa is dominated by the Great Rift Valley, extending from Lake Nyasa to the Red Sea, and splitting into two arms to enclose an interior plateau and the nearly circular Lake Victoria, visible in the right center of the image. To the west lies the Congo Basin, a vast, shallow depression that rises to form an almost circular rim of highlands.

    Most of the southern part of the continent rests on a concave plateau comprising the Kalahari Basin and a mountainous fringe, skirted by a coastal plain that widens out in Mozambique in the southeast.

    Specific noteworthy features one may wish to explore in this scene include (1) the Richat Structure in

  13. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of North America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south and 736 meters east-west in central North America), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the North American continent is readily apparent.

    Active tectonics (structural deformation of the Earth's crust) along and near the Pacific -- North American plate boundary creates the great topographic relief seen along the Pacific coast. Earth's crustal plates converge in southern Mexico and in the northwest United States, melting the crust and producing volcanic cones. Along the California coast, the plates are sliding laterally past each other, producing a pattern of slices within the San Andreas fault system. And, where the plates are diverging, the crust appears torn apart as one huge tear along the Gulf of California (northwest Mexico), and as the several fractures comprising the Basin and Range province (in and around Nevada).

    Across the Great Plains, erosional patterns dominate, with streams channels surrounding and penetrating the remnants of older smooth slopes east of the Rocky Mountains. This same erosion process is exposing the bedrock structural patterns of the Black Hills in South Dakota and the Ozark Mountains in Arkansas. Lateral erosion and sediment deposition by the Mississippi River has produced the flatlands of the lower Mississippi Valley and the Mississippi Delta.

    To the north, evidence of the glaciers of the last ice age is widely found, particularly east of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and around the Great Lakes. From northeastern British Columbia, across Alberta, Saskatchewan

  14. Anaglyph: Shaded Relief and Height as Brightness, Iturralde Structure, Bolivia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An 8-kilometer (5-mile) wide crater of possible impact origin is shown in this anaglyph view of an isolated part of the Bolivian Amazon derived from a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation model. The circular feature at the center of the image, known as the Iturralde Structure, is possibly the Earth's most recent 'big' impact event recording collision with a meteor or comet that might have occurred between 11,000 and 30,000 years ago.

    Although the structure was identified on satellite photographs in the mid-1980s, its location is so remote that it has only been visited by scientific investigators twice, most recently by a team from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in September 2002. Lying in an area of very low relief, the landform is a quasi-circular closed depression only about 20 meters (66 feet) in depth, with sharply defined sub-angular 'rim' materials. It resembles a 'cookie cutter' in that its appearance 'cuts' the heavily vegetated soft-sediments and pampas of this part of Bolivia. The SRTM data have provided investigators with the first topographic map of the site and will allow studies of its three-dimensional structure crucial to determining whether it actually is of impact origin.

    Thick vegetation in part defines the surface that the SRTM radar sees as it maps the terrain. Much of the local 'topography' in this area is a measure of tree height (typically up to 13 meters, or 40 feet). This effect is easily seen here, where the ground surface relief is very low. Interpretative separation of the ground surface and vegetative features typically relies upon recognition of their characteristic patterns.

    This anaglyph was created by deriving an image of the terrain from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. The terrain image depicts a combination of topographic shading (north slopes bright) and topographic height (higher elevations bright). When

  15. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of North America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south and 736 meters east-west in central North America), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the North American continent is readily apparent.

    Active tectonics (structural deformation of the Earth's crust) along and near the Pacific -- North American plate boundary creates the great topographic relief seen along the Pacific coast. Earth's crustal plates converge in southern Mexico and in the northwest United States, melting the crust and producing volcanic cones. Along the California coast, the plates are sliding laterally past each other, producing a pattern of slices within the San Andreas fault system. And, where the plates are diverging, the crust appears torn apart as one huge tear along the Gulf of California (northwest Mexico), and as the several fractures comprising the Basin and Range province (in and around Nevada).

    Across the Great Plains, erosional patterns dominate, with streams channels surrounding and penetrating the remnants of older smooth slopes east of the Rocky Mountains. This same erosion process is exposing the bedrock structural patterns of the Black Hills in South Dakota and the Ozark Mountains in Arkansas. Lateral erosion and sediment deposition by the Mississippi River has produced the flatlands of the lower Mississippi Valley and the Mississippi Delta.

    To the north, evidence of the glaciers of the last ice age is widely found, particularly east of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and around the Great Lakes. From northeastern British Columbia, across Alberta, Saskatchewan

  16. Africa in SRTM 3-D, Anaglyph of Shaded Relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This stereoscopic shaded relief image shows Africa's topography as measured by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in February 2000. Also shown are Madagascar, the Arabian Peninsula, and other adjacent regions. Previously, much of the topography here was not mapped in detail. Digital elevation data, such as provided by SRTM, are in high demand by scientists studying earthquakes, volcanism, and erosion patterns and for use in mapping and modeling hazards to human habitation. But the shape of Earth's surface affects nearly every natural process and human endeavor that occurs there, so elevation data are used in a wide range of applications. The image shown here is greatly reduced from the original data resolution, but still provides a good overview of the continent's landforms. It is best viewed while panning at full resolution while using image display software.

    The northern part of the continent consists of a system of basins and plateaus, with several volcanic uplands whose uplift has been matched by subsidence in the large surrounding basins. Many of these basins have been infilled with sand and gravel, creating the vast Saharan lands. The Atlas Mountains in the northwest were created by convergence of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates.

    The geography of the central latitudes of Africa is dominated by the Great Rift Valley, extending from Lake Nyasa to the Red Sea, and splitting into two arms to enclose an interior plateau and the nearly circular Lake Victoria, visible in the right center of the image. To the west lies the Congo Basin, a vast, shallow depression that rises to form an almost circular rim of highlands.

    Most of the southern part of the continent rests on a concave plateau comprising the Kalahari Basin and a mountainous fringe, skirted by a coastal plain that widens out in Mozambique in the southeast.

    Specific noteworthy features one may wish to explore in this scene include (1) the Richat Structure in

  17. Processing techniques for the production of an experimental computer-generated shaded-relief map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Judd, Damon D.

    1986-01-01

    The data consisted of forty-eight 1° by 1° blocks of resampled digital elevation model (DEM) data. These data were digitally mosaicked and assigned colors based on intervals of elevation values. The color-coded data set was then used to create a shaded-relief image that was photographically composited with cartographic line information to produce a shaded-relief map. The majority of the processing was completed at the National Mapping Division EROS Data Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

  18. Alpine Fault, New Zealand, SRTM Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Alpine fault runs parallel to, and just inland of, much of the west coast of New Zealand's South Island. This view was created from the near-global digital elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and is almost 500 kilometers (just over 300 miles) wide. Northwest is toward the top. The fault is extremely distinct in the topographic pattern, nearly slicing this scene in half lengthwise.

    In a regional context, the Alpine fault is part of a system of faults that connects a west dipping subduction zone to the northeast with an east dipping subduction zone to the southwest, both of which occur along the juncture of the Indo-Australian and Pacific tectonic plates. Thus, the fault itself constitutes the major surface manifestation of the plate boundary here. Offsets of streams and ridges evident in the field, and in this view of SRTM data, indicate right-lateral fault motion. But convergence also occurs across the fault, and this causes the continued uplift of the Southern Alps, New Zealand's largest mountain range, along the southeast side of the fault.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast (image top to bottom) direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect

  19. Shaded Relief with Color as Height, St. Louis, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The confluence of the Mississippi, Missouri and Illinois rivers are shown in this view of the St. Louis area from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The Mississippi flows from the upper left of the image and first meets the Illinois, flowing southward from the top right. It then joins the Missouri, flowing from the west across the center of the picture. The rivers themselves appear black here, and one can clearly see the green-colored floodplains in which they are contained. These floodplains are at particular risk during times of flooding. The Mississippi forms the state boundary between Illinois (to the right) and Missouri (to the left), with the city of St. Louis located on the Mississippi just below the point where it meets the Missouri. This location at the hub of the major American waterways helped establish St. Louis' reputation as the 'Gateway to the West.'

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction. North-facing slopes appear bright and south-facing slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with blue and green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery

  20. Mts. Agung and Batur, Bali, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This perspective view shows the major volcanic group of Bali, one 13,000 islands comprising the nation of Indonesia. The conical mountain to the left is Gunung Agung, at 3,148 meters (10,308 feet) the highest point on Bali and an object of great significance in Balinese religion and culture. Agung underwent a major eruption in 1963 after more than 100 years of dormancy, resulting in the loss of over 1,000 lives.

    In the center is the complex structure of Batur volcano, showing a caldera (volcanic crater) left over from a massive catastrophic eruption about 30,000 years ago. Judging from the total volume of the outer crater and the volcano, that once lay above it, approximately 140 cubic kilometers(33.4 cubic miles) of material must have been produced by this eruption, making it one of the largest known volcanic events on Earth. Batur is still active and has erupted at least 22 times since the 1800's.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA

  1. SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief: Lava plateaus in Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    All of the major landforms relate to volcanism and/or erosion in this Shuttle Radar Topography Mission scene of Patagonia, near La Esperanza, Argentina. The two prominent plateaus once formed a continuous surface that extended over much of this region. Younger volcanoes have grown through and atop the plateau, and one just south of this scene has sent a long, narrow flow down a stream channel (lower left). The topographic pattern shows that streams dominate the erosion processes in this arid environment even though wind is known to move substantial amounts of sediment here.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in the southern hemisphere. Color-coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 62.4 by 88

  2. Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, Shaded Relief with Height as Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Shenandoah National Park lies astride part of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which form the southeastern range of the greater Appalachian Mountains in Virginia. The park is well framed by this one-degree of latitude (38-39 north) by one-degree of longitude (78-79 west) cell of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data, and it appears here as the most prominent ridge trending diagonally across the scene. Skyline Drive, a 169-kilometer (105-mile) road that winds along the crest of the mountains through the length the park, provides vistas of the surrounding landscape. The Shenandoah River flows through the valley to the west, with Massanutten Mountain standing between the river's north and south forks. Unusually pronounced meanders of both river forks are very evident near the top center of this scene. Massanutten Mountain itself is an unusually distinctive landform also, consisting of highly elongated looping folds of sedimentary rock. The rolling Piedmont country lies to the southeast of the park, with Charlottesville located at the bottom center of the scene.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to bluish-white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers

  3. World in Mercator Projection, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of the world was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM Project has recently released a new global data set called SRTM30, where the original one arcsecond of latitude and longitude resolution (about 30 meters, or 98 feet, at the equator) was reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters, or 1496 feet.) This image was created from that data set and shows the world between 60 degrees south and 60 degrees north latitude, covering 80% of the Earth's land mass. The image is in the Mercator Projection commonly used for maps of the world.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Image Data: shaded and

  4. Pando Province, Northern Bolivia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Pando Province, Bolivia, and adjacent parts of Brazil and Peru are seen in this visualization of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data covering part of the Amazon Basin. Most of this region is covered by tropical rainforest and is still largely unaltered by development, though new roads are providing increased access to the area, leading to changes in the landscape. SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional look at the landforms of this region, and the Amazon Basin in its entirety, and will be particularly helpful in understanding the hydrologic patterns as environmental management becomes increasingly important.

    River drainage across this area flows generally east-northeast away from the nearby Andes Mountains. The most prominent river channels seen here are the Purus River in the northwest (upper left) and the Madre de Dios River, which crosses the south central (lower central) part of this view. The Beni and Mamore Rivers combine with the Madre de Dios in the eastern (right central) area to form the Madeira River, which flows northeast to eventually meet the Amazon River near Manaus.

    The Trans-Amazon Highway crosses the northern half of the scene, and subtle evidence of rainforest clear cutting, facilitated by this easy access, is apparent just north of the scene center, even at the low resolution of this display (740 m or 2428 feet). As seen here, clear cutting patterns in the rainforest typically show a pattern of parallel lines. SRTM mapped the shape of the Earths solid surface (not exclusively the ground surface), which includes to some degree land covers such as forests. Thus, SRTM data are capable of revealing deforestation patterns.

    For a smaller, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (image size: 184k JPEG)

    A combination of visualization methods was used to produce this image, based on shading and color coding. A shade image was derived by

  5. SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief: Pinon Canyon region, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Erosional features are prominent in this view of southern Colorado taken by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area covers about 20,000 square kilometers and is located about 50 kilometers south of Pueblo, Colorado. The prominent mountains near the left edge of the image are the Spanish Peaks, remnants of a 20 million year old volcano. Rising 2,100 meters (7,000 ft) above the plains to the east, these igneous rock formations with intrusions of eroded sedimentary rock historically served as guiding landmarks for travelers on the Mountain Branch of the Santa Fe Trail.

    Near the center of the image is the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, a training area for soldiers of the U.S. Army from nearby Fort Carson. The site supports a diverse ecosystem with large numbers of big and small game, fisheries, non-game wildlife, forest, range land and mineral resources. It is bounded on the east by the dramatic topography of the Purgatoire River Canyon, a 100 meter (328 foot) deep scenic red canyon with flowing streams, sandstone formations, and exposed geologic processes.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction. Southern slopes appear bright and northern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with blue and green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR)that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added

  6. New Zealand, SRTM Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    thus consistent with the offset in the subduction zone pattern, vertical offsets (about 7 millimeters per year) are likewise consistent with the uplift of the Southern Alps.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Location: 33.5 to 48 degrees South latitude, 165 to 180 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, cylindrical projection Image Data: Shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  7. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Mount Meru, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Meru is an active volcano located just 70 kilometers (44 miles) west of Mount Kilimanjaro. It reaches 4,566 meters (14,978 feet) in height but has lost much of its bulk due to an eastward volcanic blast sometime in its distant past, perhaps similar to the eruption of Mount Saint Helens in Washington State in 1980. Mount Meru most recently had a minor eruption about a century ago. The several small cones and craters seen in the vicinity probably reflect numerous episodes of volcanic activity. Mount Meru is the topographic centerpiece of Arusha National Park. Its fertile slopes rise above the surrounding savanna and support a forest that hosts diverse wildlife, including nearly 400 species of birds, and also monkeys and leopards.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in June. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to blue and white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space

  8. Davenport Ranges, Northern Territory, Australia, SRTM Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Davenport Ranges of central Australia have been inferred to be among the oldest persisting landforms on Earth, founded on the belief that the interior of Australia has been tectonically stable for at least 700 million years. New rock age dating techniques indicate that substantial erosion has probably occurred over that time period and that the landforms are not nearly that old, but landscape evolution certainly occurs much slower here (at least now) than is typical across Earth's surface.

    Regardless of their antiquity, the Davenport Ranges exhibit a striking landform pattern as shown in this display of elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Quartzites and other erosion resistant strata form ridges within anticlinal (arched up) and synclinal (arched down) ovals and zigzags. These structures, if not the landforms, likely date back at least hundreds of millions of years, to a time when tectonic forces were active. Maximum local relief is only about 60 meters (about 200 feet), which is enough to contrast greatly with the extremely low relief surrounding terrain.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northeast-southwest (image top to bottom) direction, so that northeast slopes appear bright and southwest slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To

  9. Simi Valley, California, Perspective View of Shaded Relief, color as height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic perspective view shows an area of Ventura County, California, including Simi Valley in the center of the image. The view is toward the East. At the lower left is the Santa Clara River Valley. The mountains along the left of the image are Oak Ridge, known to be an active zone of seismic uplift. San Fernando Valley is smooth area at top. Hazards from earthquakes, floods and fires are intimately related to the topography in this area. Topographic data and other remote sensing images provide valuable information for assessing and mitigating the natural hazards in regions such as Southern California.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to red at the highest elevations. This image contains about 750 meters (2500 feet) of total relief. To emphasize subtle differences in topography, the relief is exaggerated by a factor of 5.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and

  10. San Andreas Fault, Southern California, Shaded relief, wrapped color as height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image vividly displays California's famous San Andreas Fault along the southwestern edge of the Mojave Desert, 75 kilometers (46 miles) north of downtown Los Angeles. The entire segment of the fault shown in this image last ruptured during the Fort Tejon earthquake of 1857. This was one of the greatest earthquakes ever recorded in the U.S., and it left an amazing surface rupture scar over 350 kilometers in length along the San Andreas. Were the Fort Tejon shock to happen today, the damage would run into billions of dollars, and the loss of life would likely be substantial, as the communities of Wrightwood, Palmdale, and Lancaster (among others) all lie upon or near the 1857 rupture area. The San Gabriel Mountains fill the lower left half of the image. At the extreme lower left is Pasadena. High resolution topographic data such as these are used by geologists to study the role of active tectonics in shaping the landscape, and to produce earthquake hazard maps.

    This image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Each cycle of colors (from pink through blue back to pink) represents an equal amount of elevation difference (400 meters, or 1300 feet) similar to contour lines on a standard topographic map. This image contains about 2400 meters (8000 feet) of total relief. For the shading, a computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to

  11. Shaded Relief with Height as Color and Landsat, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The top picture is a shaded relief image of the northwest corner of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula generated from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data, and shows a subtle, but unmistakable, indication of the Chicxulub impact crater. Most scientists now agree that this impact was the cause of the Cretatious-Tertiary Extinction, the event 65 million years ago that marked the sudden extinction of the dinosaurs as well as the majority of life on Earth. The pattern of the crater's rim is marked by a trough, the darker green semicircular line near the center of the picture. This trough is only about 3 to 5 meters (10 - 15 feet) deep and is about 5 km (3 miles) wide; so subtle that if you walked across it you probably would not notice it. It is the surface expression of the buried crater's outer boundary. Scientists believe the impact, which was centered just off the coast in the Caribbean, altered the subsurface rocks such that the overlying limestone sediments, which formed later and erode very easily, would preferentially erode along the crater rim. This formed the trough as well as numerous sinkholes (called cenotes) which are visible as small circular depressions.

    The bottom picture is the same area viewed by the Landsat satellite, and was made by displaying the Thematic Mapper's Band 7 (mid-infrared), Band 4 (near-infrared) and Band 2 (green) as red, green and blue. These colors were chosen to maximize the contrast between different vegetation and land cover types, with native vegetation and cultivated land showing as green, yellow and magenta, and urban areas as white. The circular white area near the center of the image is Merida, a city of about 720,000 population. Notice that in the SRTM image, which shows only topography, the city is not visible, while in the Landsat image, which does not show elevations, the trough is not visible.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the SRTM image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The

  12. Tweed Extinct Volcano, Australia, Stereo Pair of SRTM Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Australia is the only continent without any current volcanic activity, but it hosts one of the world's largest extinct volcanoes, the Tweed Volcano. Rock dating methods indicate that eruptions here lasted about three million years, ending about 20 million years ago. Twenty million years of erosion has left this landform deeply eroded yet very recognizable, appearing as a caldera with a central peak. The central peak is not an old remnant landform but is instead the erosional stub of the volcanic neck (the central pipe that carried the magma upward). It is surrounded by ring dikes, which are circular sheets of magma that solidified and now form erosion-resistant ridges. The central peak is named Mount Warning.

    Topography plays a central role in envisioning the volcano at its climax and in deciphering the landscape evolution that has occurred since then. Low-relief uplands interspersed between deeply eroded canyons form a radial pattern that clearly defines the shape and extent of the original volcanic dome. Erosion is most extensive on the eastern side because the eroding streams drained directly to the ocean and therefore had the steepest gradients. This asymmetry of erosion has been extreme enough that the volcano has been hollowed out by the east-flowing drainage, forming an 'erosional caldera'. Calderas usually form as the result of collapse where magmas retreat within an active volcano. If collapse occurred here, erosion may have removed the evidence, but it produced a similar landform itself.

    Three visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading, color coding, and synthetic stereoscopy. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the

  13. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Virunga and Nyiragongo Volcanoes and the East African Rift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    , scientists, commercial enterprises, and members of the public alike. The applications are as diverse as earthquake and volcano studies, flood control, transportation, urban and regional planning, aviation, recreation, and communications. The data's military applications include mission planning and rehearsal, modeling, and simulation.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11,2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR)that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect 3-D measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude (about 111 x 111 kilometers or 69 x 69 miles) Location: 1.5 degrees South latitude, 29.5 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image: Elevation data, colored height with shaded relief Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (about 30 meters or 98 feet), GTOPO30 no greater than 30 arcseconds (about 925 meters or 3000 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), Unknown (GTOPO30)

  14. Gotel Mountains, Nigeria and Cameroon, SRTM Shaded Relief plus Height as Brightness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    granite, that are very hard (generally resistant to erosion) and probably very old. Sometime through their history these rocks cracked, perhaps when they cooled, perhaps under tectonic stress, or perhaps when pressure upon them was relieved when they were unearthed by erosion. Now at the surface, these cracks are zones of weakness as these hard rocks otherwise resist stream erosion.

    But while the topographic data gives clues, it does not always provide definitive answers. Are the lowlands made up of soft sediments washed in from elsewhere or are they simply rocks 'softened' by weathering (disintegration into sand) in place over time. If the latter, might they in fact have been granite also? The two patterns interfinger geographically, suggesting that the rugged highlands may be evolving into the dendritic lowlands. Weathering products (loose sands) tend to accumulate in place in low relief terrain because erosion there is slow to remove them. Also, granites are typically 'massive' and cracking patterns vanish when the rocks disintegrate. The topographic data indeed provide thought provoking evidence, but definitive answers will require fieldwork or other additional evidence.

    This image was created directly from an SRTM elevation model. A shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. The shade image was then merged with a height-as-brightness image, which helps clarify the continuity of the drainage networks.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  15. Stereo Pair of Height as Color & Shaded Relief, New York State, Lake Ontario to Long Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    From Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River (at the top of the image) and extending to Long Island (at the bottom) this image shows the varied topography of eastern New York State and parts of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The high 'bumpy' area in the middle to top right is the southern and western Adirondack Mountains, a deeply eroded landscape that includes the oldest exposed rocks in the eastern U.S.

    On the left side is the Catskill Mountains, a part of the Appalachian Mountain chain, where river erosion has produced an intricate pattern of valleys. Between the Adirondacks and Catskills is a wide valley that contains the Mohawk River and the Erie Canal. On the northwest (top) of the Catskills are several long, narrow lakes, some of the Finger Lakes of central New York that were carved by the vast glacier that covered this entire image as recently as 18,000 years ago.

    The Hudson River runs along a straight valley from right center (near Glens Falls), widening out as it approaches New York City at the lower left on the image. The Connecticut River valley has a similar north-south trend further to the east (across the lower right corner of the image). The Berkshires are between the Hudson and Connecticut valleys. Closer to the coast are the more deeply eroded rocks of the area around New York City, where several resistant rock units form topographic ridges.

    This image product is derived from a preliminary SRTM elevation model, processed with preliminary navigation information from the Space Shuttle. Broad scale and fine detail distortions in the model seen here will be corrected in the final elevation model.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by first creating and combining a shaded relief image and a height as color image, both of which were derived from the elevation model. Large water bodies were then masked, and the result was then draped back over the elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then

  16. Anaglyph of Shaded Relief New York State, Lake Ontario to Long Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    From Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River (at the top of the image) and extending to Long Island (at the bottom) this image shows the varied topography of eastern New York State and parts of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The high 'bumpy' area in the middle to top right is the southern and western Adirondack Mountains, a deeply eroded landscape that includes the oldest exposed rocks in the eastern U.S.

    On the left side is the Catskill Mountains, a part of the Appalachian Mountain chain, where river erosion has produced an intricate pattern of valleys. Between the Adirondacks and Catskills is a wide valley that contains the Mohawk River and the Erie Canal. On the northwest (top) of the Catskills are several long, narrow lakes, some of the Finger Lakes of central New York that were carved by the vast glacier that covered this entire region as recently as 18,000 years ago.

    The Hudson River runs along a straight valley from right center (near Glens Falls), widening out as it approaches New York City at the lower left on the image. The Connecticut River valley has a similar north-south trend further to the east (across the lower right corner of the image). The Berkshires are between the Hudson and Connecticut valleys. Closer to the coast are the more deeply eroded rocks of the area around New York City, where several resistant rock units form topographic ridges.

    This image product is derived from a preliminary SRTM elevation model, processed with preliminary navigation information from the Space Shuttle. Broad scale and fine detail distortions in the model seen here will be corrected in the final elevation model.

    This anaglyph was generated by first creating a shaded relief image from the elevation data, masking the large water bodies, and draping the result back over the elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically

  17. Color Shaded-Relief and Surface-Classification Maps of the Fish Creek Area, Harrison Bay Quadrangle, Northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mars, John L.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Houseknecht, David W.; Amoroso, Lee; Meares, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The northeastern part of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) has become an area of active petroleum exploration during the past five years. Recent leasing and exploration drilling in the NPRA requires the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to manage and monitor a variety of surface activities that include seismic surveying, exploration drilling, oil-field development drilling, construction of oil-production facilities, and construction of pipelines and access roads. BLM evaluates a variety of permit applications, environmental impact studies, and other documents that require rapid compilation and analysis of data pertaining to surface and subsurface geology, hydrology, and biology. In addition, BLM must monitor these activities and assess their impacts on the natural environment. Timely and accurate completion of these land-management tasks requires elevation, hydrologic, geologic, petroleum-activity, and cadastral data, all integrated in digital formats at a higher resolution than is currently available in nondigital (paper) formats. To support these land-management tasks, a series of maps was generated from remotely sensed data in an area of high petroleum-industry activity (fig. 1). The maps cover an area from approximately latitude 70?00' N. to 70?30' N. and from longitude 151?00' W. to 153?10' W. The area includes the Alpine oil field in the east, the Husky Inigok exploration well (site of a landing strip) in the west, many of the exploration wells drilled in NPRA since 2000, and the route of a proposed pipeline to carry oil from discovery wells in NPRA to the Alpine oil field. This map area is referred to as the 'Fish Creek area' after a creek that flows through the region. The map series includes (1) a color shaded-relief map based on 5-m-resolution data (sheet 1), (2) a surface-classification map based on 30-m-resolution data (sheet 2), and (3) a 5-m-resolution shaded relief-surface classification map that combines the shaded-relief

  18. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Kunlun fault, east-central Tibet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    visible in the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission topographic map (right), the best data previously available (left) barely discriminate the sharp break caused by the fault. Note also that the upper left quadrant of the GTOPO30 map was created from a lower-resolution source than the rest of the GTOPO30 data. Another major advantage of the shuttle radar mission is its consistent coverage, unlike previous topography data.

    For some parts of the globe, the shuttle radar measurements are 30 times more precise than previously available topographic information, according to NASA scientists. Mission data will be a welcome resource for national and local governments, scientists, commercial enterprises and members of the public alike. The applications are as diverse as earthquake and volcano studies, flood control, transportation, urban and regional planning, aviation, recreation, and communications. The data's military applications include mission planning and rehearsal, modeling, and simulation.

    This image combines three visualizations of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground combined with shaded relief derived from the mission's topography measurements, while colors show the mission's elevation measurements. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to brown and white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11,2000. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect 3-D measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and

  19. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Kunlun fault, east-central Tibet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    visible in the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission topographic map (right), the best data previously available (left) barely discriminate the sharp break caused by the fault. Note also that the upper left quadrant of the GTOPO30 map was created from a lower-resolution source than the rest of the GTOPO30 data. Another major advantage of the shuttle radar mission is its consistent coverage, unlike previous topography data.

    For some parts of the globe, the shuttle radar measurements are 30 times more precise than previously available topographic information, according to NASA scientists. Mission data will be a welcome resource for national and local governments, scientists, commercial enterprises and members of the public alike. The applications are as diverse as earthquake and volcano studies, flood control, transportation, urban and regional planning, aviation, recreation, and communications. The data's military applications include mission planning and rehearsal, modeling, and simulation.

    This image combines three visualizations of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground combined with shaded relief derived from the mission's topography measurements, while colors show the mission's elevation measurements. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to brown and white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11,2000. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect 3-D measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and

  20. Colored shaded-relief bathymetry, acoustic backscatter, and selected perspective views of the Inner Continental Borderland, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Driscoll, Neal W.; Brothers, Daniel S.; Conrad, James E.; Kluesner, Jared; Kent, Graham; Andrews, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    In late 2013, Scripps Institution of Oceanography collected multibeam bathymetry and acoustic-backscatter data of the Inner Continental Borderland Region, Southern California. The U.S. Geological Survey Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center processed these data, and this report provides the data in a number of different formats in addition to a set of map sheets. The data catalog provides the new bathymetry and acoustic-backscatter data, collected mainly in the Gulf of Santa Catalina and San Diego Trough, as well as this new bathymetry data merged with other publically available bathymetry data from the region. Sheet 1 displays a colored shaded-relief bathymetry map of the Inner Continental Borderland generated from the merged bathymetry data. Sheet 2 displays the new acoustic-backscatter data along with other available backscatter data in the region. Sheet 3 displays selected perspective views of the bathymetry data highlighting submarine canyon and channel systems, knolls, and tectonic features.

  1. SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief: Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet).

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space

  2. Shaded Relief and Radar Image with Color as Height, Madrid, Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The white, mottled area in the right-center of this image from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is Madrid, the capital of Spain. Located on the Meseta Central, a vast plateau covering about 40 percent of the country, this city of 3 million is very near the exact geographic center of the Iberian Peninsula. The Meseta is rimmed by mountains and slopes gently to the west and to the series of rivers that form the boundary with Portugal. The plateau is mostly covered with dry grasslands, olive groves and forested hills.

    Madrid is situated in the middle of the Meseta, and at an elevation of 646 meters (2,119 feet) above sea level is the highest capital city in Europe. To the northwest of Madrid, and visible in the upper left of the image, is the Sistema Central mountain chain that forms the 'dorsal spine' of the Meseta and divides it into northern and southern subregions. Rising to about 2,500 meters (8,200 feet), these mountains display some glacial features and are snow-capped for most of the year. Offering almost year-round winter sports, the mountains are also important to the climate of Madrid.

    Three visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height and radar image intensity. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction. North-facing slopes appear bright and south-facing slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations. The shade image was combined with the radar intensity image in the flat areas.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was

  3. Nabro and Mallahle Volcanoes, Eritrea and Ethiopia, SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The area known as the Afar Triangle is located at the northern end of the East Africa Rift, where it approaches the southeastern end of the Red Sea and the southwestern end of the Gulf of Aden. The East African Rift, the Red Sea, and the Gulf of Aden are all zones where Earth's crust is pulling apart in a process known as crustal spreading. Their three-way meeting is known as a triple junction, and their spreading creates a triangular topographic depression for which the area was named.

    Not surprisingly, the topographic effects of crustal spreading are more dramatic in the Afar Triangle than anywhere else upon Earth's landmasses. The spreading is primarily evident as patterns of numerous tension cracks. But some of these cracks provide conduits for magma to rise to the surface to form volcanoes.

    Shown here are a few of the volcanoes of the Afar Triangle. The larger two are Nabro Volcano (upper right, in Eritrea) and Mallahle Volcano (lower left, in Ethiopia). Nabro Volcano shows clear evidence of multiple episodes of activity that resulted in a crater in a crater in a crater. Many volcanoes in this area are active, including one nearby that last erupted in 1990.

    This image was created directly from an SRTM elevation model. A shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. The shade image was then combined with a color coding of topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, orange, and red, up to purple at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three

  4. Mount Saint Helens, Washington, USA, SRTM Perspective: Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Mount Saint Helens is a prime example of how Earth's topographic form can greatly change even within our lifetimes. The mountain is one of several prominent volcanoes of the Cascade Range that stretches from British Columbia, Canada, southward through Washington, Oregon, and into northern California. Mount Adams (left background) and Mount Hood (right background) are also seen in this view, which was created entirely from elevation data produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission.

    Prior to 1980, Mount Saint Helens had a shape roughly similar to other Cascade peaks, a tall, bold, irregular conic form that rose to 2950 meters (9677 feet). However, the explosive eruption of May 18, 1980, caused the upper 400 meters (1300 feet) of the mountain to collapse, slide, and spread northward, covering much of the adjacent terrain (lower left), leaving a crater atop the greatly shortened mountain. Subsequent eruptions built a volcanic dome within the crater, and the high rainfall of this area lead to substantial erosion of the poorly consolidated landslide material.

    Eruptions at Mount Saint Helens subsided in 1986, but renewed volcanic activity here and at other Cascade volcanoes is inevitable. Predicting such eruptions still presents challenges, but migration of magma within these volcanoes often produces distinctive seismic activity and minor but measurable topographic changes that can give warning of a potential eruption.

    Three visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading of topographic slopes, color coding of topographic height, and then projection into a perspective view. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northeast-southwest (left to right) direction, so that northeast slopes appear bright and southwest slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. The perspective

  5. Shaded Relief and Radar Image with Color as Height, Bosporus Strait and Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    faults close to Istanbul that could kill many more than the 1999 event.

    Three visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height and radar image intensity. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction. Northwest-facing slopes appear dark and southeast-facing slopes appear bright. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations. The shade image was combined with the radar intensity image to add detail, especially in the flat areas.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 2x2 degrees (168 by 222 kilometers; 104 by 138 miles) Location: 40-42 degrees North latitude, 28-30 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model, with SRTM radar intensity added Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (about 30 meters or 98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM))

  6. Color-coded topography and shaded relief map of the lunar near side and far side hemispheres

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    This publication is a set of three sheets of topographic maps that presents color-coded topographic data digitally merged with shaded relief data. Adopted figure: The figure for the Moon, used for the computation of the map projection, is a sphere with a radius of 1737.4 km. Because the Moon has no surface water, and hence no sea level, the datum (the 0 km contour) for elevations is defined as the radius of 1737.4 km. Coordinates are based on the mean Earth/polar axis (M.E.) coordinates system, the z axis is the axis of the Moon's rotation, and the x axis is the mean Earth direction. The center of mass is the origin of the coordinate system. The equator lies in the x-y plane and the prime meridian lies in the x-z plane with east longitude values being positive. Projection: The projection is Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection. The scale factor at the central latitude and central longitude point is 1:10,000,000. For the near side hemisphere the central latitude and central longitude point is at 0° and 0°. For the far side hemisphere the central latitude and central longitude point is at 0° and 180°.

  7. Perspective View of Shaded Relief with Color as Height, Miyake-Jima, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 3D perspective view shows the Japanese island called Miyake-Jima viewed from the northeast. This island -- about 180 kilometers (110 miles) south of Tokyo -- is part of the Izu chain of volcanic islands that runs south from the main Japanese island of Honshu. Dominated by the 820-meter-high (2,700 feet) volcano Mount Oyama, Miyake-Jima is home to 3,800 people. In late June 2000, a series of earthquakes alerted scientists to possible volcanic activity and on June 27 authorities evacuated 2,600 people. On July 7, the island was hit by a typhoon passing overhead, and on July 8 the volcano began erupting. The volcano erupted five times over the next week, spreading gray ash over surrounding areas. Detailed topographic information can be used to predict the directions that lava flows will take. The previous major eruption of Mount Oyama occurred in 1983, when lava flows destroyed hundreds of houses, and an earlier eruption in 1940 killed 11 people.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. The elevation is indicated by colors. Lowest elevation areas appear blue, medium elevations appear green, while higher elevations appear brown and white.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot

  8. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Lake Balbina, near Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These two images show exactly the same area, Lake Balbina near Manaus, Brazil. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the much more detailed image on the right was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, which collected enough measurements to map 80 percent of Earth's landmass at this level of precision.

    Lake Balbina is a man-made reservoir created to supply hydroelectric power to the city of Manaus, located 125 kilometers (77 miles) to the south. The reservoir is located on the Uatuma River and drains a 19,100-square-kilometer (7,340-square-mile) basin of mostly upland topography where the relief extends from 30 meters (98 feet) to 200 meters(650 feet) in elevation. The lake includes a cluster of approximately 1,500 islands separated by submerged, shallow valleys within a flooded water-surface area of 2,400 square kilometers (920 square miles). Prior to the dam closure on October 1, 1987, the annually averaged flow on thriver was about 450 cubic meters (16,000 cubic feet) per second. Water depths in the full reservoir average 7.4 meters (24 feet). Because the vegetation was not cleared before filling, the lake consists mostly of forest and inundated trunks of dead, leafless trees.

    For some parts of the globe, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission measurements are 30 times more precise than previously available topographical information, according to NASA scientists. Mission data will be a welcome resource for national and local governments, scientists, commercial enterprises, and members of the public alike. The applications are as diverse as earthquake and volcano studies, flood control, transportation, urban and regional planning, aviation, recreation, and communications. The data's military applications include mission planning and rehearsal, modeling, and simulation.

    This image combines two types of Shuttle Radar Topography

  9. Shade Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Casal, Jorge J.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of neighboring vegetation modifies the light environment experienced by plants, generating signals that are perceived by phytochromes and cryptochromes. These signals cause large changes in plant body form and function, including enhanced growth of the hypocotyl and petioles, a more erect position of the leaves and early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana. Collectively, these so-called shade-avoidance responses tend to reduce the degree of current or future shade by neighbors. Shade light signals increase the abundance of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) and PIF5 proteins, promote the synthesis and redirection of auxin, favor the degradation of DELLA proteins and increase the expression of auxin, gibberellins and brassinosteroid-promoted genes, among other events downstream the photoreceptors. Selectively disrupting these events by genetic or pharmacological approaches affects shade-avoidance responses with an intensity that depends on the developmental context and the environment. Shade-avoidance responses provide a model to investigate the signaling networks used by plants to take advantage of the cues provided by the environment to adjust to the challenges imposed by the environment itself. PMID:22582029

  10. Shaded-relief and color shaded-relief maps of the Willamette Valley, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Givler, R.W.; Wells, Ray E.

    2001-01-01

    This Open-File Report is released as a digital map database. It includes PostScript plot files that contain images of the map sheets; the images also contain a brief explanation describing the geology and physiography of the study area. The digital map database is a compilation of newly published 10-m digital-elevation-model (DEM) data for western Oregon and represents the physiography of the Willamette Valley.

  11. Retractable Sun Shade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, A.; Derespinis, S. F.; Mockovciak, John, Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Window-shade type spring roller contains blanket, taken up by rotating cylindrical frame and held by frame over area to be shaded. Blanket made of tough, opaque polyimide material. Readily unfurled by mechanism to protect space it encloses from Sun. Blanket forms arched canopy over space and allows full access to it from below. When shading not needed, retracted mechanism stores blanket compactly. Developed for protecting sensitive Space Shuttle payloads from direct sunlight while cargo-bay doors open. Adapted to shading of greenhouses, swimming pools, and boats.

  12. Dynamic Light and Shade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogarth, Burne

    This student artist's handbook provides illustrations and instructions for rendering three-dimensional form with light and shade. Focus is on realistic representation and imitation of natural phenomena. Fifteen chapters cover: (1) "Black-and-White Silhouette; (2) "Minimal Light"; (3) "Five Categories of Light and Shade"; (4) "Single-Source Light";…

  13. Drumlin relief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolo, Matteo; Clark, Chris D.; Hughes, Anna L. C.

    2012-06-01

    Drumlin relief is a key parameter for testing predictions of models of drumlin formation. Although this metric is commonly described in textbooks as being of the order of a few tens of metres, our critical review of the literature suggests an average value of about 13 m, but with much uncertainty. Here we investigate a large sample of drumlins (25,848) mapped from a high resolution digital terrain model of Britain, which allowed the identification of extremely shallow drumlins. Results indicate that most drumlins have a relief between 0.5 and 40 m (with a surprisingly low average value of only 7.1 m) a mode of 3.5-4 m, and with 41% of all drumlins characterized by a relief < 5 m. Drumlin relief is found to never exceed 7% of the width and is positively correlated with this parameter, possibly indicating that drumlins need a large base to stand against the flow of the ice. Drumlin relief is also positively correlated with the length, which shows that drumlins do not grow in length by redistributing sediments from their summits to their downflow (lee) end, as previously hypothesised.

  14. Shades of Gray.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, John C.; Calibeo, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    A university's financing choices cover many shades of gray. Some off-balance-sheet financing uses no debt capacity, while others represent or imply full financial commitment. Many others fall in between. The choices made by a number of institutions in financing facility expansions or improvements are discussed, and the Moody's Investors Service…

  15. Tints, Shades and Frost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Joan

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a classroom art project inspired by the work of Robert Frost, one of the most acclaimed and beloved American poets of all time. Using tints and shades in a composition, this project demonstrates how quality literature may be incorporated into elementary art lessons in a very useful way, making art an important complement to…

  16. Shaded relief with Color as Height, Wellington, New Zealand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The topography of New Zealand's North Island is rich in seismic features: The sharp line cutting through the city of Wellington (on the left side of the large bay on the bottom coast) is the active Wellington Fault, which also goes through the official residence of the Prime Minister of New Zealand.

    Another active fault, the Wairarapa Fault, cuts along the west side of the Wairarapa Valley (center of the image). This fault was the site of an earthquake in 1855 that may have involved as much as 12 meters (40 feet) of fault slip. There are several marine terraces along the south coast that were uplifted in 1855 and previous earthquakes.

    Between the Wairarapa Valley and Wellington is the Rimutaka Range, which reaches 800 meters (2,600 feet), and to the north (top center of the image)is the Tararua Range, with a peak at 1,500 meters (4,900 feet). At the right side of the image is the Aorangi Range, up to 1,000 meters (3,300 feet)high.

    At the bottom of the image is the Cook Strait, between the North and South Islands of New Zealand.

    For a full-resolution, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface on its 11-day mission. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna, and improved tracking and navigation devices.

    The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA)and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 89 kilometers (55 miles) x 82 kilometers (51 miles) Location: 41.2 degrees south latitude, 175.2 degrees east longitude Site name: Wellington, New Zealand Orientation: north is towards the upper left corner Original data resolution: SRTM, 30 meters (99 feet) Date acquired: February 20, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  17. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Manila Bay, Philippines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These two images show exactly the same area, Manila Bay and nearby volcanoes on Luzon Island in the Philippines. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the much more detailed image on the right was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, which collected enough measurements to map 80 percent of Earth's landmass at this level of precision.

    The city of Manila is on the eastern shore of Manila Bay at the right edge of the image. The large central plain to the north of the bay, irrigated by the Panpanga and Agno rivers, is the most important agricultural region in the Philippines. The Bataan Peninsula and volcanic Mt. Bataan at lower center along with the small island of Corregidor near the bottom edge became famous when the Allied forces made their last stand there during World War II. Dominating the upper left of the scene is 1,600 meter (5,249 foot) high Mt. Pinatubo, whose violent eruption on June 15, 1991, wrought widespread destruction on Luzon as well as injecting dust and gas into the atmosphere, which lowered global average temperatures for over a year.

    The image on the right combines two types of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation measurements. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to brown and white at the highest elevations.

    For some parts of the globe, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission measurements are 30 times more precise than previously available topographical information, according to NASA scientists. Mission data will be a welcome resource for national and local governments, scientists, commercial enterprises, and members of the public alike. The applications are as diverse as earthquake and volcano, flood control, transportation, urban and regional planning, aviation, recreation, and communications. The data's military applications include mission planning and rehearsal, modeling, and simulation.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11,2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR)that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect 3-D measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 111 kilometers by 109 kilometers (69 miles by 68 miles) Location: 15 degrees North latitude, 120.5 degrees East longitude Orientation: North is at the top Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM)

  18. Shape from Shading in Pigeons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Robert G.; Qadri, Muhammad A. J.; Kieres, Art; Commons-Miller, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Light is the origin of vision. The pattern of shading reflected from object surfaces is one of several optical features that provide fundamental information about shape and surface orientation. To understand how surface and object shading is processed by birds, six pigeons were tested with differentially illuminated convex and concave curved…

  19. Perceived depth from shading boundaries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juno; Anstis, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Shading is well known to provide information the visual system uses to recover the three-dimensional shape of objects. We examined conditions under which patterns in shading promote the experience of a change in depth at contour boundaries, rather than a change in reflectance. In Experiment 1, we used image manipulation to illuminate different regions of a smooth surface from different directions. This manipulation imposed local differences in shading direction across edge contours (delta shading). We found that increasing the angle of delta shading, from 0° to 180°, monotonically increased perceived depth across the edge. Experiment 2 found that the perceptual splitting of shading into separate foreground and background surfaces depended on an assumed light source from above prior. Image regions perceived as foreground structures in upright images appeared farther in depth when the same images were inverted. We also found that the experienced break in surface continuity could promote the experience of amodal completion of colored contours that were ambiguous as to their depth order (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that the visual system can identify occlusion relationships based on monocular variations in local shading direction, but interprets this information according to a light source from above prior of midlevel visual processing.

  20. Perceived depth from shading boundaries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juno; Anstis, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Shading is well known to provide information the visual system uses to recover the three-dimensional shape of objects. We examined conditions under which patterns in shading promote the experience of a change in depth at contour boundaries, rather than a change in reflectance. In Experiment 1, we used image manipulation to illuminate different regions of a smooth surface from different directions. This manipulation imposed local differences in shading direction across edge contours (delta shading). We found that increasing the angle of delta shading, from 0° to 180°, monotonically increased perceived depth across the edge. Experiment 2 found that the perceptual splitting of shading into separate foreground and background surfaces depended on an assumed light source from above prior. Image regions perceived as foreground structures in upright images appeared farther in depth when the same images were inverted. We also found that the experienced break in surface continuity could promote the experience of amodal completion of colored contours that were ambiguous as to their depth order (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that the visual system can identify occlusion relationships based on monocular variations in local shading direction, but interprets this information according to a light source from above prior of midlevel visual processing. PMID:27271807

  1. Technology reviews: Shading systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schuman, J.; Rubinstein, F.; Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.

    1992-09-01

    We present a representative review of existing, emerging, and future technology options in each of five hardware and systems areas in envelope and lighting technologies: lighting systems, glazing systems, shading systems, daylighting optical systems, and dynamic curtain wall systems. The term technology is used here to describe any design choice for energy efficiency, ranging from individual components to more complex systems to general design strategies. The purpose of this task is to characterize the state of the art in envelope and lighting technologies in order to identify those with promise for advanced integrated systems, with an emphasis on California commercial buildings. For each technology category, the following activities have been attempted to the extent possible: Identify key performance characteristics and criteria for each technology. Determine the performance range of available technologies. Identify the most promising technologies and promising trends in technology advances. Examine market forces and market trends. Develop a continuously growing in-house database to be used throughout the project. A variety of information sources have been used in these technology characterizations, including miscellaneous periodicals, manufacturer catalogs and cut sheets, other research documents, and data from previous computer simulations. We include these different sources in order to best show the type and variety of data available, however publication here does not imply our guarantee of these data. Within each category, several broad classes are identified, and within each class we examine the generic individual technologies that fall into that class.

  2. Winter wheat and summer shade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artru, S.; Garre, S.; Lassois, L.; Dupraz, C.

    2014-12-01

    Agroforestry research is in full expansion, but uncertainty remains on the performance of combinations of species with regard to the broad range of possible species associations. In addition, the variability of environmental conditions under which agroforestry stands can be successfully developed is unknown. Under Belgian pedoclimatic conditions, tree-crop competition for light might be the principal limiting factor in the agroforestry context. Most studies show that shade stress induces a systematic reduction of final crop yield. However, the response of a specific crop to shade is highly dependent on environmental conditions. In agroforestry systems, the tree canopy reduces the incident radiation for the crop following a dynamic spatio-temporal pattern. In this study, we will report on the efficiency of wheat under artificial dynamic shade in the experimental farm of Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Belgium in order to evaluate it's potential for agroforestry purposes in the same region. Wheat productivity and development under artificial shade conditions have been monitored during 1 year and the observations will be continued for 2 more years. We constructed an artificial shade structure, which mimics the light environment observed under hybrid walnut agroforestry trees: periodic fluctuation in radiation transmittance and discontinuous light quantity. We collected information on biomass development, soil state and radiation patterns in the field. Using this data, we evaluated the influence of dynamic shade, light availability and the efficiency with which energy is converted in wheat dry matter under the artificial shade treatment. This, in combination with modeling, will allow a thorough study of the potential of wheat-walnut agroforestry systems in the Hesbaye region in Belgium.

  3. COPD - quick-relief drugs

    MedlinePlus

    COPD - quick-relief drugs; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - control drugs; Chronic obstructive airways disease - quick-relief drugs; Chronic obstructive lung disease - quick-relief drugs; Chronic bronchitis - quick-relief ...

  4. Dry Skin Relief

    MedlinePlus

    ... Master Dermatologist Award Members Making a Difference Award Native American Health Service Resident Rotation PICMED Grant Professionalism Award ... Camp Discovery Diversity Mentorship Program Health Volunteers ... American Health Services Resident Rotation Resident International Grant Shade ...

  5. A direct approach for quantifying stream shading

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive stream water temperature causes thermal stress in fish and invertebrates, decreases dissolved oxygen, and encourages bacterial and algal growth. Solar radiation affects stream temperature. Shade cast by riparian vegetation reduces thermal inputs to stream water. Stream shading standards...

  6. Visual vs. Spectrophotometric Methods for Shade Selection.

    PubMed

    Glockner, Karl; Glockner, Karl; Haiderer, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    The differences in tooth colour are important factors in the esthetic dentistry. The aim of this study was to determine the tooth colour using visual methods under natural light and "Easy Shade" device. Five hundred patients of Dental Clinic Graz Austria were selected for this study. The results of this study showed that the shade matching using "Easy Shade" device were not better than shade matching with visual methods under natural light. No difference was found between visual and digital methods in the selection of a tooth shade.

  7. Topography from shading and stereo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Berthold K. P.

    1994-01-01

    Methods exploiting photometric information in images that have been developed in machine vision can be applied to planetary imagery. Integrating shape from shading, binocular stereo, and photometric stereo yields a robust system for recovering detailed surface shape and surface reflectance information. Such a system is useful in producing quantitative information from the vast volume of imagery being received, as well as in helping visualize the underlying surface.

  8. Adjustable safety relief valve

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, W.L.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a pressure relief valve having a relief set pressure. It comprises: a valve body having a fluid inlet and outlet, a spherical, metal valve seat associated with the inlet and a valve member comprising at least a portion of a spherical,metal ball attached to a ball holding element, the valve member being biased against the valve seat and thus providing a metal-to-metal seal preventing the passage of fluids past the valve seat when the fluid pressure in the inlet is below the relief pressure setting of the valve.

  9. The shading cue in context

    PubMed Central

    Wagemans, Johan; van Doorn, Andrea J; Koenderink, Jan J

    2010-01-01

    The shading cue is supposed to be a major factor in monocular stereopsis. However, the hypothesis is hardly corroborated by available data. For instance, the conventional stimulus used in perception research, which involves a circular disk with monotonic luminance gradient on a uniform surround, is theoretically ‘explained’ by any quadric surface, including spherical caps or cups (the conventional response categories), cylindrical ruts or ridges, and saddle surfaces. Whereas cylindrical ruts or ridges are reported when the outline is changed from circular to square, saddle surfaces are never reported. We introduce a method that allows us to differentiate between such possible responses. We report observations on a number of variations of the conventional stimulus, including variations of shape and quality of the boundary, and contexts that allow the observer to infer illumination direction. We find strong and expected influences of outline shape, but, perhaps surprisingly, we fail to find any influence of context, and only partial influence of outline quality. Moreover, we report appreciable differences within the generic population. We trace some of the idiosyncrasies (as compared to shape from shading algorithms) of the human observer to generic properties of the environment, in particular the fact that many objects are limited in size and elliptically convex over most of their boundaries. PMID:23145221

  10. Blue light regulated shade avoidance.

    PubMed

    Keuskamp, Diederik H; Keller, Mercedes M; Ballaré, Carlos L; Pierik, Ronald

    2012-04-01

    Most plants grow in dense vegetation with the risk of being out-competed by neighboring plants. These neighbors can be detected not only through the depletion in light quantity that they cause, but also through the change in light quality, which plants perceive using specific photoreceptors. Both the reduction of the red:far-red ratio and the depletion of blue light are signals that induce a set of phenotypic traits, such as shoot elongation and leaf hyponasty, which increase the likelihood of light capture in dense plant stands. This set of phenotypic responses are part of the so called shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). This addendum discusses recent findings on the regulation of the SAS of Arabidopsis thaliana upon blue light depletion. Keller et al. and Keuskamp et al. show that the low blue light attenuation induced shade avoidance response of seedling and rosette-stage A. thaliana plants differ in their hormonal regulation. These studies also show there is a regulatory overlap with the R:FR-regulated SAS.

  11. New entrance shade design for SIRTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Paul K.

    1989-01-01

    A new design for the entrance shade for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is presented. The evolution of the entrance shade began with a simple frustum, symmetrical about the telescope axis, when SIRTF was expected to be Shuttle-attached. With the change to a free-flying SIRTF this frustum was cut off at an angle. The telescope will be operated so that whenever not in the earth's shadow the high side is kept toward the sun. However, the entrance shade interior itself will be so warm that the optics, including the secondary mirror and its mechanisms and support structure, will be restricted to the rear part of the barrel, termed the aftbaffle, which is shaded from the interior of the entrance shade by the forebaffle. This is best accomplished by the most recent design in which the axis of the entrance shade is offset from the telescope axis. This results in a shorter entrance shade, shorter forebaffle, and a shaded region within the barrel which is symmetrical about the telescope axis. All of these are advantageous.

  12. Effect of shade on atmospheric oxidants (smog)

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, W.S.; Wilken, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    A series of experiments utilizing atmospheric smog were conducted comparing simultaneously the oxidant level in sunlight and under shade. From the results of the experiments, it is suggested that the undesirable effects of smog in a localized area may be reduced by the planting of shade trees, vines, shrubs and encouraging a denser growth of vegetation.

  13. Pressure Relief Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manha, William D.

    2010-09-01

    Pressure relief devices are used in pressure systems and on pressure vessels to prevent catastrophic rupture or explosion from excessive pressure. Pressure systems and pressure vessels have manufacturers maximum rated operating pressures or maximum design pressures(MDP) for which there are relatively high safety factors and minimum risk of rupture or explosion. Pressure systems and pressure vessels that have a potential to exceed the MDP by being connected to another higher pressure source, a compressor, or heat to water(boiler) are required to have over-pressure protecting devices. Such devices can be relief valves and/or burst discs to safely relieve potentially excessive pressure and prevent unacceptable ruptures and explosions which result in fail-safe pressure systems and pressure vessels. Common aerospace relief valve and burst disc requirements and standards will be presented. This will include the NASA PSRP Interpretation Letter TA-88-074 Fault Tolerance of Systems Using Specially Certified Burst Disks that dictates burst disc requirements for payloads on Shuttle. Two recent undesirable manned space payloads pressure relief devices and practices will be discussed, as well as why these practices should not be continued. One example for discussion is the use of three burst discs that have been placed in series to comply with safety requirements of three controls to prevent a catastrophic hazard of the over-pressurization and rupture of pressure system and/or vessels. The cavities between the burst discs are evacuated and are the reference pressures for activating the two upstream burst discs. If the upstream burst disc leaks into the reference cavity, the reference pressure increases and it can increase the burst disc activating pressure and potentially result in the burst disc assembly being ineffective for over pressure protection. The three burst discs-in-series assembly was found acceptable because the burst discs are designed for minimum risk(DFMR) of

  14. Hydrogen gas relief valve

    DOEpatents

    Whittlesey, Curtis C.

    1985-01-01

    An improved battery stack design for an electrochemical system having at least one cell from which a gas is generated and an electrolyte in communication with the cell is described. The improved battery stack design features means for defining a substantially closed compartment for containing the battery cells and at least a portion of the electrolyte for the system, and means in association with the compartment means for selectively venting gas from the interior of the compartment means in response to the level of the electrolyte within the compartment means. The venting means includes a relief valve having a float member which is actuated in response to the level of the electrolyte within the compartment means. This float member is adapted to close the relief valve when the level of the electrolyte is above a predetermined level and open the relief valve when the level of electrolyte is below this predetermined level.

  15. Improve relief valve reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on careful evaluation of safety relief valves and their service conditions which can improve reliability and permit more time between testing. Some factors that aid in getting long-run results are: Use of valves suitable for service, Attention to design of the relieving system (including use of block valves) and Close attention to repair procedures. Use these procedures for each installation, applying good engineering practices. The Clean Air Act of 1990 and other legislation limiting allowable fugitive emissions in a hydrocarbon processing plant will greatly impact safety relief valve installations. Normal leakage rate from a relief valve will require that it be connected to a closed vent system connected to a recovery or control device. Tying the outlet of an existing valve into a header system can cause accelerated corrosion and operating difficulties. Reliability of many existing safety relief valves may be compromised when they are connected to an outlet header without following good engineering practices. The law has been enacted but all the rules have not been promulgated.

  16. Vent Relief Valve Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Shown is the disassembly, examination, refurbishment and testing of the LH2 ( liquid hydrogen) and LOX (liquid oxygen) vent and relief valves for the S-IVB-211 engine stage in support of the Constellation/Ares project. This image is extracted from high definition video and is the highest resolution available.

  17. High Relief Block Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Explains a method of block printing using styrofoam shapes to make high relief. Describes the creation of the block design as well as the actual printing process. Uses a range of paper types for printing so children can see the results of using different media. (LS)

  18. Series-connected shaded modules to address partial shading conditions in SPV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareek, Smita; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-03-01

    With the progress of technology and reduced cost of PV cells, the PV systems are being installed in many countries, including India. Even though this method of power generation has sufficient potential but its effective utilization is still lacking. This is because the output power of PV cells depends on many factors like insolation, temperature, climate conditions prevailing nearby, aging, using modules from different technologies/manufacturers or partial shading conditions. Among these factors, partial shading causes major reduction in output power despite the size of PV systems. As a result, the produced power is lower than the expected value. The connection of modules to each other has great impact on output power if they are prone to partial shading conditions. In this paper, PV arrays are investigated under partial shading conditions. The results show that partial shading losses can be minimized by connecting shaded modules in series rather than in parallel.

  19. 3-D expression of relief in Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT P images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M. L.; Armesto, Julia; Canas, I.

    2005-04-01

    Perceptual problems of viewing topography on geoimages are caused by illumination from the southeast during data collection. This problem affects the majority of satellite images. The aim of this work is to obtain a stereoscopic effect of shaded relief in such images. Techniques available in commercial digital processing programs are used in the absence of a digital elevation model. The images used are taken by the Landsat TM and SPOT P satellites; the software used was the EASI-PACE and ACE programs (Canadian PCI Geomatics Group). The pseudoscopic effect is solved by using the first principal component obtained in a principle components analysis of the three channels, resulting from the weighted merging of the Landsat and SPOT data. The map obtained provides the observer a view with shaded relief.

  20. Three-dimensional expression of relief in Landsat TM and SPOT P images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Ma M. l. L.; Armesto, Julia; Canas, Ignacio

    2004-02-01

    The perceptual problems of viewing topography on geo-images are caused by illumination from the southeast during data collecion. This problem affects the majority of satellite images. The aim f this work was to obtain a stereoscopic effect of shaded relief in such images. Techniques available in commercial digital processing programs were used in the absence of a digital elevation model. The images used were taken by the Landsat TM and SPOT P satellites; the software used was the EASI-PACE and ACE programs (Canadian PCI Geomatics Group). The pseudoscopic effect was solved by using the first principal component obtained in principle components analysis of the three channels resulting from the weighted merging of the Landsat and SPOT data. The map obtained provides the observer a view with shaded relief.

  1. Shading reduces coral-disease progression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, E. M.; van Woesik, R.

    2009-09-01

    The growing incidence of tropical-marine diseases is attributed to increases in pathogen prevalence and virulence associated with global warming. Additionally, the compromised-host hypothesis suggests that rising ocean temperatures may increase disease activity by making the corals more susceptible to ubiquitous pathogens. We tested the effects of reducing irradiance stress on coral-disease progression rates by shading corals showing signs consistent with white-plague disease. Our results showed that white-plague disease on shaded corals progressed significantly more slowly than on controls. Although the mechanisms are unknown, this study suggests that light intensity influences the rate of coral-disease progression.

  2. Fluid relief and check valve

    DOEpatents

    Blaedel, K.L.; Lord, S.C.; Murray, I.

    1986-07-17

    A passive fluid pressure relief and check valve allows the relief pressure to be slaved to a reference pressure independently of the exhaust pressure. The pressure relief valve is embodied by a submerged vent line in a sealing fluid, the relief pressure being a function of the submerged depth. A check valve is embodied by a vertical column of fluid (the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of fluid). The pressure is vented into an exhaust system which keeps the exhaust out of the area providing the reference pressure.

  3. Shaded relief aeromagnetic map of the Santa Clara Valley and vicinity, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Carter W.; Jachens, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    This aeromagnetic map covers the southern portion of San Francisco Bay, the Santa Clara Valley and surrounding mountains, part of which has been modelled in threedimensions (Jachens and other, 2001). The magnetic anomaly map has been compiled from existing digital data. Data was obtained from six aeromagnetic surveys that were flown at different times, spacings and elevations. The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) for the date of each survey had been removed in the initial processing. The resulting residual magnetic anomalies were analytically continued onto a common surface 305 m (1000 ft) above terrain. Portions of each survey were substantially above the specified flight height listed in the table. The surveys were then merged together using a commercial software package called Oasis Montage. The gray lines on the map indicate the extent of each survey. The program used these regions of overlap to determine the best fit between surveys. Black dots show probable edges of magnetic bodies defined by the maximum horizontal gradient determined using a computer program by Blakely (1995). Crystalline rocks generally contain sufficient magnetic minerals to cause variations in the Earth’s magnetic field that can be mapped by aeromagnetic surveys. Sedimentary rocks are generally weakly magnetized and consequently have a small effect on the magnetic field: thus a magnetic anomaly map can be used to “see through” the sedimentary rock cover and can convey information on lithologic contrasts and structural trends related to the underlying crystalline basement (see Nettleton,1971; Blakely, 1995). Faults often cut magnetic bodies and offset magnetic anomalies can thus be used to help determine fault motion. Serpentinite, which is highly magnetic, is often found along faults. On this map areas of low magnetic anomalies are shown in blues and green while highs are shown in reds and magentas. Faults are from Brabb and others, 1998a,1998b, Graymer and others 1996, Lienkaemper, 1992 and Wentworth and others 1998.

  4. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Kerguelen Island, south Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These two images show exactly the same area, Kerguelen Island in the southern Indian Ocean. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the much more detailed image on the right was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, which collected enough measurements to map 80 percent of Earth's landmass at this level of precision.

    Discovered in 1772 by French navigator Chevalier Yves deKerguelen-Tremarac, Kerguelen is the largest of a group of 300 islands, islets and reefs that make up the Kerguelen Archipelago. The islands lie atop the Kerguelen-Gaussberg Ridge and are built up of a thick series of lava flows with deposits of fragmented volcanic rock and some granite. Ice covers about one-third of the island, with the large Cook Glacier visible as the tan-colored region at the center-left. The highest point at 1,850 meters (6,068 feet) is glacier-covered Mount Ross, located near the bottom center. The coastline of the main island is highly irregular with a large number of peninsulas linked to the island by narrow isthmuses. Remarkably, although the island is 120 by 140 kilometers (75 by 87 miles) in size no point is more than 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the sea.

    For some parts of the globe, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission measurements are 30 times more precise than previously available topographical information, according to NASA scientists. Mission data will be a welcome resource for national and local governments, scientists, commercial enterprises, and members of the public alike. The applications are as diverse as earthquake and volcano studies, flood control, transportation, urban and regional planning, aviation, recreation, and communications. The data's military applications include mission planning and rehearsal, modeling, and simulation.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11,2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR)that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect 3-D measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 222 kilometers by 146 kilometers (138 miles by 91 miles) Location: 49.1 degrees South latitude, 69.5 degrees East longitude Orientation: North is at the top Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM)

  5. Gray-shading for the SD-4060 graphics device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, C.

    1975-01-01

    Grays, a FORTRAN program, is described which will generate gray shading for the SD-4060 graphics device. The program produces 10 shades of gray ranging from no shading at all to complete coverage of the film frame. The graphing capabilities are summarized and illustrated. The figures displayed are representative of the microfilm output, but the distinction between various intensities is much clearer on the film, especially at the more intense shading.

  6. Sun and Shade Leaves: Some Field Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomley, David

    1983-01-01

    Several simple experiments illustrating how the light regime affects the final form of dog's mercury (Mercurialis perennis) are provided. These experiments, which can also be done with other plants, focus on differences in the anatomy, morphology, and physiology of sun and shade leaves. (JN)

  7. Shape from shading in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Qadri, Muhammad A J; Romero, L Michael; Cook, Robert G

    2014-11-01

    Birds behave as if they quickly and accurately perceive an object-filled visual world. Beyond the extensive research with pigeons, however, there is a large and important gap in our knowledge about the mechanisms of object perception and recognition in other avian visual systems. The pattern of shading reflected from the surfaces of objects is one important optical feature that provides fundamental information about shape. To better understand how surface and object shading is processed by a passerine species, 5 starlings were tested with differentially illuminated convex and concave curved surfaces in 3 experiments using a simultaneous visual discrimination procedure. Starlings rapidly learned this shape-from-shading discrimination independent of varied lighting direction, surface color, and camera perspective. Variations in the pattern of lighting through experimental manipulations of camera perspective, surface height, contrast, material specularity, and surface shape were consistent with the hypothesis that the starlings perceived these illuminated surfaces as having 3-dimensional shape, similar to results previously collected with pigeons. These similarities across different orders of birds indicate that the relative shading of objects in a visual scene is a highly salient feature for shape processing in birds and is likely a highly conserved visual process that is widely distributed within this class of animal. PMID:25111630

  8. Shape from Shading in Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, Muhammad A.; Romero, L. Michael; Cook, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Birds behave as if they quickly and accurately perceive an object-filled visual world. Beyond the extensive research with pigeons, however, there is a large and important gap in our knowledge about the mechanisms of object perception and recognition in other avian visual systems. The pattern of shading reflected from object surfaces is one important optical feature providing fundamental information about shape. To better understand how surface and object shading is processed by a passerine species, five starlings were tested with differentially illuminated convex and concave curved surfaces in three experiments using a simultaneous visual discrimination procedure. Starlings rapidly learned this shape-from-shading discrimination independent of varied lighting direction, surface color, and camera perspective. Variations in the pattern of lighting through experimental manipulations of camera perspective, surface height, contrast, material specularity, and surface shape were consistent with the hypothesis that the starlings perceived these illuminated surfaces as having three-dimensional shape, similar to results previously collected with pigeons. These similarities across different orders of birds indicate that the relative shading for objects in a visual scene is a highly salient feature for shape processing in birds and is likely a highly conserved visual process that is widely distributed within this class of animal. PMID:25111630

  9. 21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tooth shade resin material. 872.3690 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3690 Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tooth shade resin material. 872.3690 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3690 Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tooth shade resin material. 872.3690 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3690 Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A...

  12. 21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tooth shade resin material. 872.3690 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3690 Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A...

  13. Green light induces shade avoidance symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Maruhnich, Stefanie A; Folta, Kevin M

    2011-11-01

    Light quality and quantity affect plant adaptation to changing light conditions. Certain wavelengths in the visible and near-visible spectrum are known to have discrete effects on plant growth and development, and the effects of red, far-red, blue, and ultraviolet light have been well described. In this report, an effect of green light on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) rosette architecture is demonstrated using a narrow-bandwidth light-emitting diode-based lighting system. When green light was added to a background of constant red and blue light, plants exhibited elongation of petioles and upward leaf reorientation, symptoms consistent with those observed in a shaded light environment. The same green light-induced phenotypes were also observed in phytochrome (phy) and cryptochrome (cry) mutant backgrounds. To explore the molecular mechanism underlying the green light-induced response, the accumulation of shade-induced transcripts was measured in response to enriched green light environments. Transcripts that have been demonstrated to increase in abundance under far-red-induced shade avoidance conditions either decrease or exhibit no change when green light is added. However, normal far-red light-associated transcript accumulation patterns are observed in cryptochrome mutants grown with supplemental green light, indicating that the green-absorbing form of cryptochrome is the photoreceptor active in limiting the green light induction of shade-associated transcripts. These results indicate that shade symptoms can be induced by the addition of green light and that cryptochrome receptors and an unknown light sensor participate in acclimation to the enriched green environment.

  14. Waiver Plan Generates Relief, Fret

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson; McNeil, Michele

    2011-01-01

    While the Obama administration's plan to offer states relief from parts of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act--if they agree to embrace unspecified education redesign priorities--has drawn kudos from some quarters, it isn't sitting well in others. Officials in a number of states have praised the idea as an opportunity for badly needed relief from…

  15. Sun-shades as a passive cooling element

    SciTech Connect

    Shaviv, E

    1980-01-01

    A discussion of the importance of proper sun-shade design is presented by showing results of thermal performance evaluation of a building with and without sun-shades. The analysis was carried out by using a simulation model developed by Shaviv and Shaviv. The criteria for evaluating sunshades is based on the total energy consumption of the building for cooling, heating, and artificial lighting. We find that the best solution for shading is external sun-shades and we present a method developed by Shaviv for their design. Several designs of external sun-shades are presented.

  16. Compression relief engine brake

    SciTech Connect

    Meneely, V.A.

    1987-10-06

    A compression relief brake is described for four cycle internal-combustion engines, comprising: a pressurized oil supply; means for selectively pressurizing a hydraulic circuit with oil from the oil supply; a master piston and cylinder communicating with a slave piston and cylinder via the hydraulic circuit; an engine exhaust valve mechanically coupled to the engine and timed to open during the exhaust cycle of the engine the exhaust valve coupled to the slave piston. The exhaust valve is spring-based in a closed state to contact a valve seat; a sleeve frictionally and slidably disposed within a cavity defined by the slave piston which cavity communicates with the hydraulic circuit. When the hydraulic circuit is selectively pressurized and the engine is operating the sleeve entraps an incompressible volume of oil within the cavity to generate a displacement of the slave piston within the slave cylinder, whereby a first gap is maintained between the exhaust valve and its associated seat; and means for reciprocally activating the master piston for increasing the pressure within the previously pressurized hydraulic circuit during at least a portion of the expansion cycle of the engine whereby a second gap is reciprocally maintained between the exhaust valve and its associated seat.

  17. Uniform versus asymmetric shading mediates crown recession in conifers.

    PubMed

    Schoonmaker, Amanda L; Lieffers, Victor J; Landhäusser, Simon M

    2014-01-01

    In this study we explore the impact of asymmetrical vs. uniform crown shading on the mortality and growth of upper and lower branches within tree crowns, for two conifer species: shade intolerant lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and shade tolerant white spruce (Picea glauca). We also explore xylem hydraulics, foliar nutrition, and carbohydrate status as drivers for growth and expansion of the lower and upper branches in various types of shading. This study was conducted over a two-year period across 10 regenerating forest sites dominated by lodgepole pine and white spruce, in the lower foothills of Alberta, Canada. Trees were assigned to one of four shading treatments: (1), complete uniform shading of the entire tree, (2) light asymmetric shading where the lower 1/4-1/3 of the tree crown was shaded, (3) heavy asymmetric shading as in (2) except with greater light reduction and (4) control in which no artificial shading occurred and most of the entire crown was exposed to full light. Asymmetrical shading of only the lower crown had a larger negative impact on the bud expansion and growth than did uniform shading, and the effect was stronger in pine relative to spruce. In addition, lower branches in pine also had lower carbon reserves, and reduced xylem-area specific conductivity compared to spruce. For both species, but particularly the pine, the needles of lower branches tended to store less C than upper branches in the asymmetric shade, which could suggest a movement of reserves away from the lower branches. The implications of these findings correspond with the inherent shade tolerance and self-pruning behavior of these conifers and supports a carbon based mechanism for branch mortality--mediated by an asymmetry in light exposure of the crown. PMID:25136823

  18. Uniform versus asymmetric shading mediates crown recession in conifers.

    PubMed

    Schoonmaker, Amanda L; Lieffers, Victor J; Landhäusser, Simon M

    2014-01-01

    In this study we explore the impact of asymmetrical vs. uniform crown shading on the mortality and growth of upper and lower branches within tree crowns, for two conifer species: shade intolerant lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and shade tolerant white spruce (Picea glauca). We also explore xylem hydraulics, foliar nutrition, and carbohydrate status as drivers for growth and expansion of the lower and upper branches in various types of shading. This study was conducted over a two-year period across 10 regenerating forest sites dominated by lodgepole pine and white spruce, in the lower foothills of Alberta, Canada. Trees were assigned to one of four shading treatments: (1), complete uniform shading of the entire tree, (2) light asymmetric shading where the lower 1/4-1/3 of the tree crown was shaded, (3) heavy asymmetric shading as in (2) except with greater light reduction and (4) control in which no artificial shading occurred and most of the entire crown was exposed to full light. Asymmetrical shading of only the lower crown had a larger negative impact on the bud expansion and growth than did uniform shading, and the effect was stronger in pine relative to spruce. In addition, lower branches in pine also had lower carbon reserves, and reduced xylem-area specific conductivity compared to spruce. For both species, but particularly the pine, the needles of lower branches tended to store less C than upper branches in the asymmetric shade, which could suggest a movement of reserves away from the lower branches. The implications of these findings correspond with the inherent shade tolerance and self-pruning behavior of these conifers and supports a carbon based mechanism for branch mortality--mediated by an asymmetry in light exposure of the crown.

  19. Uniform versus Asymmetric Shading Mediates Crown Recession in Conifers

    PubMed Central

    Schoonmaker, Amanda L.; Lieffers, Victor J.; Landhäusser, Simon M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we explore the impact of asymmetrical vs. uniform crown shading on the mortality and growth of upper and lower branches within tree crowns, for two conifer species: shade intolerant lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and shade tolerant white spruce (Picea glauca). We also explore xylem hydraulics, foliar nutrition, and carbohydrate status as drivers for growth and expansion of the lower and upper branches in various types of shading. This study was conducted over a two-year period across 10 regenerating forest sites dominated by lodgepole pine and white spruce, in the lower foothills of Alberta, Canada. Trees were assigned to one of four shading treatments: (1), complete uniform shading of the entire tree, (2) light asymmetric shading where the lower 1/4–1/3 of the tree crown was shaded, (3) heavy asymmetric shading as in (2) except with greater light reduction and (4) control in which no artificial shading occurred and most of the entire crown was exposed to full light. Asymmetrical shading of only the lower crown had a larger negative impact on the bud expansion and growth than did uniform shading, and the effect was stronger in pine relative to spruce. In addition, lower branches in pine also had lower carbon reserves, and reduced xylem-area specific conductivity compared to spruce. For both species, but particularly the pine, the needles of lower branches tended to store less C than upper branches in the asymmetric shade, which could suggest a movement of reserves away from the lower branches. The implications of these findings correspond with the inherent shade tolerance and self-pruning behavior of these conifers and supports a carbon based mechanism for branch mortality – mediated by an asymmetry in light exposure of the crown. PMID:25136823

  20. Technique for making a customized shade guide.

    PubMed

    Askinas, S W; Kaiser, D A

    1979-08-01

    A technique has been presented for making a custom shade guide that provides a direct visual means for conveying color information to the laboratory technician. The technique consists of applying pigment directly to acrylic resin denture teeth using colored drawing pencils. This technique was originated by Dr. Royal Norman of Omaha, Nebraska. One of the authors (S. W. A.) first saw Dr. Norman present it to the USAF Area Dental Laboratory Workshop, Westover AFB, Mass., in 1969.

  1. Generalized shading analysis for paraboloidal collector fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborn, D. B.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents the development and results of a generalized shading analysis for a field of point-focus parabolic dish concentrators. Shading of one concentrator by another with attendant loss of energy is a function of the position of the sun and the relative locations of the concentrators within the field. A method is presented for determining the annualized energy loss which includes a trade-off of system life-cycle energy as a function of concentrator spacing and field geometric layout. System energy output is computed on an annualized basis, employing 15 minute-increment environmental data tapes for the year 1976 at Barstow, California. For a land cost of $5000 per acre, lowest system energy cost occurs at about a 25 percent packing fraction (concentrator area/land area) for a typical 1-MWe dish-Stirling solar thermal power plant. Basic equations are given for computing the shading and concomitant energy loss as a function of concentrator center-to-center spacing, field layout site location.

  2. Disaster relief, inc.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Anisya; Fritz, Lynn

    2006-11-01

    When disaster strikes, many corporations respond generously. After the 2004 tsunami, for instance, U.S. firms alone contributed more than half a billion dollars in cash and in-kind donations. But a host of reactive efforts don't produce the best results-and may even get in the way. To make the most of their humanitarian efforts, companies need to address two fundamental questions: What kind of aid do we want to contribute--philanthropic (money and in-kind donations) or integrative (backroom, operational assistance)? And how do we want to contribute it--by working one-on-one with a single agency or by joining a consortium? The permutations of those two decisions lead to four different approaches, each with its own strengths and challenges. Single-company philanthropic partnerships work well when there's a good match between what a company wants to contribute and what an agency needs, as with Coca-Cola's donations of water to the Red Cross. More diffuse, but also potentially more effective, are the benefits of joining a multicompany philanthropic partnership, which enables the resources of many firms to be matched to the missions of many agencies. More difficult to establish but more fundamental in its impact is a single-company integrative partnership, in which a corporation works to improve the way an aid agency operates, as the logistics giant TNT has done to help the distribution efforts of the World Food Programme. And most difficult to implement--but potentially most effective-is a multicompany integrative partnership, which brings to bear the collective best practices of many companies to improve the response capabilities of multiple agencies. It's easy to see why the image of a relief worker carrying a sack of grain delivers an emotional wallop, but the behind-the-scenes work of process enhancement is just as crucial to humanitarian efforts. The sooner executives realize this, the better positioned the world will be to respond to global disasters.

  3. Disaster relief, inc.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Anisya; Fritz, Lynn

    2006-11-01

    When disaster strikes, many corporations respond generously. After the 2004 tsunami, for instance, U.S. firms alone contributed more than half a billion dollars in cash and in-kind donations. But a host of reactive efforts don't produce the best results-and may even get in the way. To make the most of their humanitarian efforts, companies need to address two fundamental questions: What kind of aid do we want to contribute--philanthropic (money and in-kind donations) or integrative (backroom, operational assistance)? And how do we want to contribute it--by working one-on-one with a single agency or by joining a consortium? The permutations of those two decisions lead to four different approaches, each with its own strengths and challenges. Single-company philanthropic partnerships work well when there's a good match between what a company wants to contribute and what an agency needs, as with Coca-Cola's donations of water to the Red Cross. More diffuse, but also potentially more effective, are the benefits of joining a multicompany philanthropic partnership, which enables the resources of many firms to be matched to the missions of many agencies. More difficult to establish but more fundamental in its impact is a single-company integrative partnership, in which a corporation works to improve the way an aid agency operates, as the logistics giant TNT has done to help the distribution efforts of the World Food Programme. And most difficult to implement--but potentially most effective-is a multicompany integrative partnership, which brings to bear the collective best practices of many companies to improve the response capabilities of multiple agencies. It's easy to see why the image of a relief worker carrying a sack of grain delivers an emotional wallop, but the behind-the-scenes work of process enhancement is just as crucial to humanitarian efforts. The sooner executives realize this, the better positioned the world will be to respond to global disasters. PMID

  4. Shade tolerance plasticity in response to neutral vs green shade cues in Polygonum species of contrasting ecological breadth.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Timothy M; Sultan, Sonia E

    2005-04-01

    Here we examined species differences in perception and response to two distinct types of shade cue, reduced photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) with and without reduced red : far red ratio (R : FR), in Polygonum persicaria and Polygonum hydropiper, two closely related annuals of contrasting ecological breadth. We compared plasticity data for light-gathering traits from glasshouse experiments at equivalently reduced PAR under neutral shade (R : FR 1.03) and green shade (R : FR 0.702). Species shared the ability to distinguish between the two types of shade, as shown by the ability of each to respond differently to neutral vs green shade for one or more traits. However, the species' responses to these cues differed significantly. Polygonum persicaria expressed stronger shade-tolerance responses (increased leaf allocation and leaf area ratio) to reduced PAR alone than to green shade. By contrast, P. hydropiper expressed slightly less plasticity for these traits in neutral than in green shade. The pronounced plastic response of P. persicaria to neutral shade may contribute to the range of habitats this widespread species can occupy, which includes neutral-shade environments such as urban settings.

  5. YUCCA auxin biosynthetic genes are required for Arabidopsis shade avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Moulé, Patricia; Nozue, Kazunari; Pytlak, Melissa L.; Palmer, Christine M.; Covington, Michael F.; Wallace, Andreah D.; Harmer, Stacey L.

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to neighbor shade by increasing stem and petiole elongation. Shade, sensed by phytochrome photoreceptors, causes stabilization of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR proteins and subsequent induction of YUCCA auxin biosynthetic genes. To investigate the role of YUCCA genes in phytochrome-mediated elongation, we examined auxin signaling kinetics after an end-of-day far-red (EOD-FR) light treatment, and found that an auxin responsive reporter is rapidly induced within 2 hours of far-red exposure. YUCCA2, 5, 8, and 9 are all induced with similar kinetics suggesting that they could act redundantly to control shade-mediated elongation. To test this hypothesis we constructed a yucca2, 5, 8, 9 quadruple mutant and found that the hypocotyl and petiole EOD-FR and shade avoidance responses are completely disrupted. This work shows that YUCCA auxin biosynthetic genes are essential for detectable shade avoidance and that YUCCA genes are important for petiole shade avoidance. PMID:27761349

  6. Vitamin D effective ultraviolet wavelengths due to scattering in shade.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, D J; Parisi, A V; Kimlin, M G

    2005-09-01

    Solar UVB radiation (280-320 nm) is an initiator of Vitamin D3 production in the human skin. While numerous studies have been conducted in relation to the biological impact of UV exposure in full sun, less research has investigated the irradiances in shade. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of UV radiation in relation to Vitamin D3 induction with six commonly encountered shade environments for the larger solar zenith angles observed during autumn and winter. Spectral UV irradiance measurements were made under relatively clear sky conditions at a sub-tropical Southern Hemisphere site for six specific shade environments and solar zenith angle between 35 degrees and 60 degrees to investigate the biologically effective UV irradiances for pre-Vitamin D3 production. Data from this research indicates that pre-Vitamin D3 effective UV wavelengths in the shade were most significant for tree shade and a shade umbrella. Compared to that in full sun, pre-Vitamin D3 effective UV wavelengths were at levels of approximately 52 and 55%, respectively, beneath the shade umbrella and in tree shade. UVB irradiance levels in the shade of a northern facing covered veranda and in a car with windows closed were significantly less than those beneath the shade umbrella, with levels of approximately 11 and 0%, respectively, of those in full sun. Shade is important as a UV minimisation strategy; however, it may also play an important role in providing the human body with adequate levels of UVB radiation for pre-Vitamin D3 production without experiencing the relatively higher levels of UVA irradiances present in full sun.

  7. LOX, GOX and Pressure Relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLeod, Ken; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen relief systems present a serious fire hazard risk with often severe consequences. This presentation offers a risk management solution strategy which encourages minimizing ignition hazards, maximizing best materials, and utilizing good practices. Additionally, the relief system should be designed for cleanability and ballistic flow. The use of the right metals, softgoods, and lubricants, along with the best assembly techniques, is stressed. Materials should also be tested if data is not available and a full hazard analysis should be conducted in an effort to minimize risk and harm.

  8. Influence of shading on container-grown flowering dogwoods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bare root dogwoods can be successfully grown when transplanted into a container production system. Shade treatments regardless of color or density did have an effect on the plant growth of Cherokee Brave™ and Cherokee Princess dogwood. Plants grown under 50% black and 50% white shade had more heigh...

  9. Optimal integration of shading and binocular disparity for depth perception.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Paul G; Bloj, Marina; Harris, Julie M

    2012-01-01

    We explore the relative utility of shape from shading and binocular disparity for depth perception. Ray-traced images either featured a smooth surface illuminated from above (shading-only) or were defined by small dots (disparity-only). Observers judged which of a pair of smoothly curved convex objects had most depth. The shading cue was around half as reliable as the rich disparity information for depth discrimination. Shading- and disparity-defined cues where combined by placing dots in the stimulus image, superimposed upon the shaded surface, resulting in veridical shading and binocular disparity. Independently varying the depth delivered by each channel allowed creation of conflicting disparity-defined and shading-defined depth. We manipulated the reliability of the disparity information by adding disparity noise. As noise levels in the disparity channel were increased, perceived depths and variances shifted toward those of the now more reliable shading cue. Several different models of cue combination were applied to the data. Perceived depths and variances were well predicted by a classic maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) model of cue integration, for all but one observer. We discuss the extent to which MLE is the most parsimonious model to account for observer performance.

  10. 21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tooth shade resin material. 872.3690 Section 872.3690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3690 Tooth shade resin material....

  11. Petroleum industry assists hurricane relief

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-14

    This paper reports that the petroleum industry is aiding victims of last month's Hurricane Andrew with cash, clothing, food, water, and other supplies. Cash contributions announced as of last week totaled more than $2.7 million for distribution in South Florida and South Louisiana. Petroleum industry employees were collecting relief items such as bottled water and diapers for distribution in those areas.

  12. Digital relief generation from 3D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meili; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Hongming; Qian, Kun; Chang, Jian; He, Dongjian

    2016-09-01

    It is difficult to extend image-based relief generation to high-relief generation, as the images contain insufficient height information. To generate reliefs from three-dimensional (3D) models, it is necessary to extract the height fields from the model, but this can only generate bas-reliefs. To overcome this problem, an efficient method is proposed to generate bas-reliefs and high-reliefs directly from 3D meshes. To produce relief features that are visually appropriate, the 3D meshes are first scaled. 3D unsharp masking is used to enhance the visual features in the 3D mesh, and average smoothing and Laplacian smoothing are implemented to achieve better smoothing results. A nonlinear variable scaling scheme is then employed to generate the final bas-reliefs and high-reliefs. Using the proposed method, relief models can be generated from arbitrary viewing positions with different gestures and combinations of multiple 3D models. The generated relief models can be printed by 3D printers. The proposed method provides a means of generating both high-reliefs and bas-reliefs in an efficient and effective way under the appropriate scaling factors.

  13. Does shade improve light interception efficiency? A comparison among seedlings from shade-tolerant and -intolerant temperate deciduous tree species.

    PubMed

    Delagrange, Sylvain; Montpied, Pierre; Dreyer, Erwin; Messier, Christian; Sinoquet, Hervé

    2006-01-01

    Here, we tested two hypotheses: shading increases light interception efficiency (LIE) of broadleaved tree seedlings, and shade-tolerant species exhibit larger LIEs than do shade-intolerant ones. The impact of seedling size was taken into account to detect potential size-independent effects on LIE. LIE was defined as the ratio of mean light intercepted by leaves to light intercepted by a horizontal surface of equal area. Seedlings from five species differing in shade tolerance (Acer saccharum, Betula alleghaniensis, A. pseudoplatanus, B. pendula, Fagus sylvatica) were grown under neutral shading nets providing 36, 16 and 4% of external irradiance. Seedlings (1- and 2-year-old) were three-dimensionally digitized, allowing calculation of LIE. Shading induced dramatic reduction in total leaf area, which was lowest in shade-tolerant species in all irradiance regimes. Irradiance reduced LIE through increasing leaf overlap with increasing leaf area. There was very little evidence of significant size-independent plasticity of LIE. No relationship was found between the known shade tolerance of species and LIE at equivalent size and irradiance.

  14. Effects of shade on physiological changes, oxidative stress, and total antioxidant power in Thai Brahman cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aengwanich, Worapol; Kongbuntad, Watee; Boonsorn, Thongchai

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of artificial shade, tree shade, and no shade on physiological changes, oxidative stress, and total antioxidant power in Thai Brahman cattle. Twenty-one cattle were divided into three groups: cattle maintained under artificial shade, under tree shade, and without shade. On days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the experimental period, after the cattle were set in individual stalls for 2 h, physiological changes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and total antioxidant power were investigated. The results revealed that the respiratory rate, heart rate, sweat rate and the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio of the no-shade cattle were significantly higher than those of cattle maintained under artificial shade and tree shade ( P < 0.05). During the early period of heat exposure, the total antioxidant power of the no-shade cattle was lower than those of cattle maintained under artificial shade and tree shade, but the total antioxidant power of cattle maintained under artificial shade and tree shade were not different ( P > 0.05). However, rectal temperature and packed cell volume of the cattle in all groups did not differ ( P > 0.05). These results showed that artificial shade and tree shade can protect cattle from sunlight compared to no shade, and that the effectiveness of tree shade for sunlight protection is at an intermediate level.

  15. Metameric effect between natural teeth and the shade tabs of a shade guide.

    PubMed

    Corcodel, Nicoleta; Helling, Stephan; Rammelsberg, Peter; Hassel, Alexander J

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate metameric effects, that is, the dependence of the colours of teeth and shade tabs on the illuminant used. The colours of 49 teeth of 37 participants and of the corresponding shade tabs of the 3D-Master (VITA Zahnfabrik; colour match DeltaE(ab)< 2) were measured using an intra-oral spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade). Spectral reflectance data (from 400 to 700 nm) were recorded. Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* values were calculated for D65 (reference daylight), A (incandescent light), and TL84 (store/office light) as reference illuminants. A modified metamerism index (Mod-M) and hue-angle ratios were calculated to express differences between tooth and tab colour relative to the difference observed under D65 illumination. The Mod-M for teeth and tabs was greater than unity (indicating a greater colour difference relative to D65) by 57.1% for A and by 49.3% for TL84. Hue-angle ratios of teeth and tabs using the test illuminants were different from those obtained using the standard illuminant D65. If teeth and shade tab matching is conducted using daylight illumination, the colour difference may not be the same under other lighting conditions, leading to perceptible, or even unacceptable, colour differences under these conditions.

  16. Ground Surface Visualization Using Red Relief Image Map for a Variety of Map Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, T.; Hasi, B.

    2016-06-01

    There are many methods to express topographical features of ground surface. In which, contour map has been the traditional method and along with development of digital data, surface model such as shaded relief map has been using for ground surface expression. Recently, data acquisition has been developed very much quick, demanding more advanced visualization method to express ground surface so as to effectively use the high quality data. In this study, the authors using the Red Relief Image Map (RRIM, Chiba et al., 2008) to express ground surface visualization for a variety of map scales. The authors used 30 m mesh data of SRTM to show the topographical features of western Mongolian and micro-topographical features of ground surface in tectonically active regions of Japan. The results show that, compared to traditional and other similar methods, the RRIM can express ground surface more precisely and 3-dimensionally, suggested its advanced usage for many fields of topographical visualization.

  17. 7 CFR 1470.34 - Equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... be eligible for equitable relief under 7 CFR part 635. The financial or technical liability for any... equitable relief under 7 CFR part 635. ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION STEWARDSHIP PROGRAM General...

  18. Argon Dewar Required Relief Flow Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, J.B.; /Fermilab

    1987-09-28

    This report calculates the required fire relief valve flow capacity, the required vaporizer failure relief valve flow capacity, and the required loss of vacuum relief valve flow capacity of the liquid argon storage tank in use at the D-Zero site.

  19. 47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regulatory relief. 69.727 Section 69.727 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.727 Regulatory relief. (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase...

  20. 47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Regulatory relief. 69.727 Section 69.727 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.727 Regulatory relief. (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase...

  1. 47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regulatory relief. 69.727 Section 69.727 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.727 Regulatory relief. (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase...

  2. 47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regulatory relief. 69.727 Section 69.727 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.727 Regulatory relief. (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase...

  3. 47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulatory relief. 69.727 Section 69.727 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.727 Regulatory relief. (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase...

  4. 7 CFR 636.20 - Equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., the participant may request equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.3. (b) If, during the term of a WHIP cost... provision, the participant may be eligible for equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.4. ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVES PROGRAM § 636.20 Equitable relief. (a) If...

  5. 29 CFR 4041.4 - Disaster relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disaster relief. 4041.4 Section 4041.4 Labor Regulations...-EMPLOYER PLANS General Provisions § 4041.4 Disaster relief. When the President of the United States declares that, under the Disaster Relief Act (42 U.S.C. 5121, 5122(2), 5141(b)), a major disaster...

  6. 29 CFR 4041.4 - Disaster relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disaster relief. 4041.4 Section 4041.4 Labor Regulations...-EMPLOYER PLANS General Provisions § 4041.4 Disaster relief. When the President of the United States declares that, under the Disaster Relief Act (42 U.S.C. 5121, 5122(2), 5141(b)), a major disaster...

  7. 29 CFR 4041.4 - Disaster relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disaster relief. 4041.4 Section 4041.4 Labor Regulations...-EMPLOYER PLANS General Provisions § 4041.4 Disaster relief. When the President of the United States declares that, under the Disaster Relief Act (42 U.S.C. 5121, 5122(2), 5141(b)), a major disaster...

  8. 29 CFR 4041.4 - Disaster relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disaster relief. 4041.4 Section 4041.4 Labor Regulations...-EMPLOYER PLANS General Provisions § 4041.4 Disaster relief. When the President of the United States declares that, under the Disaster Relief Act (42 U.S.C. 5121, 5122(2), 5141(b)), a major disaster...

  9. Photovoltaic Shading Testbed for Module-Level Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, C.; Meydbray, J.; Donovan, M.; Forrest, J.

    2012-05-01

    This document describes a repeatable test procedure that attempts to simulate shading situations, as would be experienced by typical residential rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. This type of shading test is particularly useful to evaluate the impact of different power conversion setups, including microinverters, DC power optimizers and string inverters, on overall system performance. The performance results are weighted based on annual estimates of shade to predict annual performance improvement. A trial run of the test procedure was conducted with a side by side comparison of a string inverter with a microinverter, both operating on identical 8kW solar arrays. Considering three different shade weighting conditions, the microinverter was found to increase production by 3.7% under light shading, 7.8% under moderate shading, and 12.3% under heavy shading, relative to the reference string inverter case. Detail is provided in this document to allow duplication of the test method at different test installations and for different power electronics devices.

  10. Chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics, photosynthetic activity, and pigment composition of blue-shade and half-shade leaves as compared to sun and shade leaves of different trees.

    PubMed

    Lichtenthaler, Hartmut K; Babani, Fatbardha; Navrátil, Martin; Buschmann, Claus

    2013-11-01

    The chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence induction kinetics, net photosynthetic CO2 fixation rates P N, and composition of photosynthetic pigments of differently light exposed leaves of several trees were comparatively measured to determine the differences in photosynthetic activity and pigment adaptation of leaves. The functional measurements were carried out with sun, half-shade and shade leaves of seven different trees species. These were: Acer platanoides L., Ginkgo biloba L., Fagus sylvatica L., Platanus x acerifolia Willd., Populus nigra L., Quercus robur L., Tilia cordata Mill. In three cases (beech, ginkgo, and oak), we compared the Chl fluorescence kinetics and photosynthetic rates of blue-shade leaves of the north tree crown receiving only blue sky light but no direct sunlight with that of sun leaves. In these cases, we also determined in detail the pigment composition of all four leaf types. In addition, we determined the quantum irradiance and spectral irradiance of direct sunlight, blue skylight as well as the irradiance in half shade and full shade. The results indicate that sun leaves possess significantly higher mean values for the net CO2 fixation rates P N (7.8-10.7 μmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) leaf area) and the Chl fluorescence ratio R Fd (3.85-4.46) as compared to shade leaves (mean P N of 2.6-3.8 μmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) leaf area.; mean R Fd of 1.94-2.56). Sun leaves also exhibit higher mean values for the pigment ratio Chl a/b (3.14-3.31) and considerably lower values for the weight ratio total chlorophylls to total carotenoids, (a + b)/(x + c), (4.07-4.25) as compared to shade leaves (Chl a/b 2.62-2.72) and (a + b)/(x + c) of 5.18-5.54. Blue-shade and half-shade leaves have an intermediate position between sun and shade leaves in all investigated parameters including the ratio F v/F o (maximum quantum yield of PS2 photochemistry) and are significantly different from sun and shade leaves but could not be differentiated from each other. The

  11. A Custom Made Intrinsic Silicone Shade Guide for Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Behanam, Mohammed; Ahila, S.C.; Jei, J. Brintha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Replication of natural skin colour in maxillofacial prosthesis has been traditionally done using trial and error method, as concrete shade guides are unavailable till date. Hence a novel custom made intrinsic silicone shade guide has been attempted for Indian population. Aim Reconstruction of maxillofacial defects is challenging, as achieving an aesthetic result is not always easy. A concoction of a novel intrinsic silicone shade guide was contemplated for the study and its reproducibility in clinical practice was analysed. Materials and Methods Medical grade room temperature vulcanising silicone was used for the fabrication of shade tabs. The shade guide consisted of three main groups I, II and III which were divided based upon the hues yellow, red and blue respectively. Five distinct intrinsic pigments were added in definite proportions to subdivide each group of different values from lighter to darker shades. A total number of 15 circular shade tabs comprised the guide. To validate the usage of the guide, visual assessment of colour matching was done by four investigators to investigate the consent of perfect colour correspondence. Data was statistically analysed using kappa coefficients. Results The kappa values were found to be 0.47 to 0.78 for yellow based group I, 0.13 to 0.65 for red based group II, and 0.07 to 0.36 for blue based group III. This revealed that the shade tabs of yellow and red based hues matched well and showed a statistically good colour matching. Conclusion This intrinsic silicone shade guide can be effectively utilised for fabrication of maxillofacial prosthesis with silicone in Indian population. A transparent colour formula with definite proportioning of intrinsic pigments is provided for obtaining an aesthetic match to skin tone. PMID:27190946

  12. Photovoltaic application for disaster relief

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W.R. Jr.

    1995-11-01

    Hurricanes, floods, tornados, and earthquakes are natural disasters that can happen at any time destroying homes, businesses, and natural surroundings. One such disaster, Hurricane Andrew, devastated South Florida leaving several hundred-thousand people homeless. Many people were without electrical service, functioning water and sewage systems, communications, and medical services for days, even weeks in the aftermath of the storm. Emergency management teams, the military, and countless public and private organizations staged a massive relief effort. Dependency on electrical utility power became a pronounced problem as emergency services were rendered to survivors and the rebuilding process started. Many of the energy needs of emergency management organizations, relief workers, and the general public can be satisfied with solar electric energy systems. Photovoltaic (PV) power generated from solar energy is quiet, safe, inexhaustible and pollution-free. Previously, photovoltaics have supplied emergency power for Hurricanes Hugo and Andrew, and the earthquake at Northridge in Southern California. This document focuses on photovoltaic technology and its application to disaster relief efforts.

  13. Photoreceptor signaling networks in plant responses to shade.

    PubMed

    Casal, Jorge J

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic light environment of vegetation canopies is perceived by phytochromes, cryptochromes, phototropins, and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8). These receptors control avoidance responses to preclude exposure to limiting or excessive light and acclimation responses to cope with conditions that cannot be avoided. The low red/far-red ratios of shade light reduce phytochrome B activity, which allows PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs) to directly activate the transcription of auxin-synthesis genes, leading to shade-avoidance responses. Direct PIF interaction with DELLA proteins links gibberellin and brassinosteroid signaling to shade avoidance. Shade avoidance also requires CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS 1 (COP1), a target of cryptochromes, phytochromes, and UVR8. Multiple regulatory loops and the input of the circadian clock create a complex network able to respond even to subtle threats of competition with neighbors while still compensating for major environmental fluctuations such as the day-night cycles.

  14. Dynamic Shade and Irradiance Simulation of Aquatic Landscapes and Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Penumbra is a landscape shade and irradiance simulation model that simulates how solar energy spatially and temporally interacts within dynamic ecosystems such as riparian zones, forests, and other terrain that cast topological shadows. Direct and indirect solar energy accumulate...

  15. DETAIL OF CORNICE MOULDING WITH RAM'S HEAD MOTIF. EIGHT SHADES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CORNICE MOULDING WITH RAM'S HEAD MOTIF. EIGHT SHADES OF GOLD LEAF AND BURNISHED GOLD LEAF WERE USED FOR THE INTERIOR FINISHES. - Anaconda Historic District, Washoe Theater, 305 Main Street, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  16. Determination of the Solar Ultraviolet Transmission in Tree Shade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Alfio V.; Kimlin, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    Presents an activity in which the amount of solar ultraviolet radiation in tree shade is measured at different times of the day and compared with changes in illumination levels and temperature. (Author/WRM)

  17. Evaluation of the Aurora Application Shade Measurement Accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-01

    Aurora is an integrated, Web-based application that helps solar installers perform sales, engineering design, and financial analysis. One of Aurora's key features is its high-resolution remote shading analysis.

  18. Shade images of forested areas obtained from Landsat MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimabukuro, Yosio Edemir; Smith, James A.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this report is to generate a shade (shadow) image of forested areas from Landsat MSS data by implementing a linear mixing model, where shadow is considered as one of the primary components in a pixel. The shade images are related to the observed variation in forest structure; i.e., the proportion of inferred shadow in a pixel is related to different forest ages, forest types, and tree crown cover. The constrained least-squares method is used to generate shade images for forest of eucalyptus and vegetation of 'cerrado' over the Itapeva study area in Brazil. The resulted shade images may explain the difference on ages for forest of eucalyptus and the difference on tree crown cover for vegetation of cerrado.

  19. Why are evergreen leaves so contrary about shade?

    PubMed

    Lusk, Christopher H; Reich, Peter B; Montgomery, Rebecca A; Ackerly, David D; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine

    2008-06-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA) is one of the most widely measured of all plant functional traits. In deciduous forests, there is similarity between plastic and evolutionary responses of LMA to light gradients. In evergreens, however, LMA is lower in shaded than sunlit individuals of the same species, whereas shade-tolerant evergreens have higher LMA than light-demanders grown under the same conditions. We suggest that this pattern of 'counter-gradient variation' results from some combination of (i) close evolutionary coordination of LMA with leaf lifespan, (ii) selection for different leaf constitutions (relative investment in cell walls versus cell contents) in sun and shade environments and/or (iii) constraints on plasticity as a result of genetic correlations between phenotypes expressed in sun and shade.

  20. [Photosynthetic characteristics of Gynostemma pentaphyllum under shade].

    PubMed

    Huang, Chenglin; Wu, Zemin; Yao, Yongkang; Xu, Xiaoniu

    2004-11-01

    The study showed that under summer shade condition, the diurnal variation of net photosynthetic rate of Gynostemma pentaphyllum presented nontypical double apex, the first apex being 13.8 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1) at 11:00, and the diurnal net photosynthetic rate was about 176.97 micromol CO2 x m(-2), 3.1 times of that under full sunlight. There was a positive correlation between net photosynthetic rate and photon flux density (PFD), and relative humidity had a small effect on net photosynthetic rate. Under full sunlight, the typical "midday depression" of photosynthesis was observed, and the diurnal variation of net photosynthetic rate presented double apex, with the first apex being 3.0 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1) at 10:00 and the second being 1.25 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1) at 14:00. There was a positive correlation between net photosynthetic rate and relative humidity, and the latter had a strong effect on net photosynthetic rate. When PFD was higher than 700 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1), it had a negative correlation with net photosynthetic rate. Stoma conductance was the main factor affecting the transpiration rate of Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Therefore, Gynostemma pentaphyllum was a typical sciophytic plant, and light factor should be considered firstly in its cultivation. PMID:15707321

  1. Shaded-Color Picture Generation of Computer-Defined Arbitrary Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cozzolongo, J. V.; Hermstad, D. L.; Mccoy, D. S.; Clark, J.

    1986-01-01

    SHADE computer program generates realistic color-shaded pictures from computer-defined arbitrary shapes. Objects defined for computer representation displayed as smooth, color-shaded surfaces, including varying degrees of transparency. Results also used for presentation of computational results. By performing color mapping, SHADE colors model surface to display analysis results as pressures, stresses, and temperatures. NASA has used SHADE extensively in sign and analysis of high-performance aircraft. Industry should find applications for SHADE in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing. SHADE written in VAX FORTRAN and MACRO Assembler for either interactive or batch execution.

  2. Microhardness of different resin cement shades inside the root canal

    PubMed Central

    Vignolo, Valeria; Fuentes, Maria V.; Garrido, Miguel A.; Rodríguez, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To compare microhardness along the root canal post space of two resin cements in different shades and a dual-cure resin core material. Study Design: Root canals of 21 bovine incisors were prepared for post space. Translucent posts (X•Post, Dentsply DeTrey) were luted using one the following resin luting agent: Calibra (Dentsply DeTrey) in Translucent, Medium and Opaque shades, RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE) in Translucent, A2 and A3 shades and the dual-cure resin core material Core•X flow. All materials were applied according to manufacturers’ instructions and were all photopolymerized (Bluephase LED unit, Ivoclar Vivadent, 40s). After 24 hours, roots were transversally cut into 9 slices 1 mm thick from the coronal to apical extremes, three corresponding to each root third. Then, VHNs were recorded (100 gf, 30 s) on the resin luting materials along the adhesive interface in all sections. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and SNK tests (α=0.05). Results: A significant influence on microhardness of resin luting material in their respective shades (p<0.001), root third (p<0.001) and interactions between them was detected (p<0.001). RelyX Unicem cement showed the highest microhardness values and Calibra the lowest, regardless of the shade selected. All resin luting materials tested exhibited a significantly higher microhardness in the cervical third. Conclusions: Microhardness of resin luting agents tested inside the canal is dependent on material brand and resin cement shade seems to be a less relevant factor. Microhardness decreased along the root canal, regardless of the shade selected. Key words:Cement shade, degree of conversion, dual-cured resin cements, fiber posts, microhardness, root thirds. PMID:22322514

  3. Transcriptome response of cassava leaves under natural shade

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zehong; Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Yi; Liu, Fangfang; Wang, Minghui; Zhu, Xinguang; Liu, Peng; Sun, Qi; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming; Brutnell, Tom; Li, Pinghua

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is an important staple crop in tropical and sub-tropical areas. As a common farming practice, cassava is usually cultivated intercropping with other crops and subjected to various degrees of shading, which causes reduced productivity. Herein, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed on a series of developmental cassava leaves under both full sunlight and natural shade conditions. Gene expression profiles of these two conditions exhibited similar developmental transitions, e.g. genes related to cell wall and basic cellular metabolism were highly expressed in immature leaves, genes involved in lipid metabolism and tetrapyrrole synthesis were highly expressed during the transition stages, and genes related to photosynthesis and carbohydrates metabolism were highly expressed in mature leaves. Compared with the control, shade significantly induced the expression of genes involved in light reaction of photosynthesis, light signaling and DNA synthesis/chromatin structure; however, the genes related to anthocyanins biosynthesis, heat shock, calvin cycle, glycolysis, TCA cycle, mitochondrial electron transport, and starch and sucrose metabolisms were dramatically depressed. Moreover, the shade also influenced the expression of hormone-related genes and transcriptional factors. The findings would improve our understanding of molecular mechanisms of shade response, and shed light on pathways associated with shade-avoidance syndrome for cassava improvement. PMID:27539510

  4. Infants' discrimination of shapes from shading and cast shadows.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazuki; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2016-07-01

    Shadows are powerful cues in the perception of shapes. We can perceive shading and cast shadow implicitly. We investigated infants' ability to detect a single discrepant figure that was depicted by shading or cast shadow and examined the influence of the contrast polarity of shadows on this process. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the blur direction of a shadow to create stimuli that appeared either to be partially shaded or to cast a shadow and then used a preference to test whether this difference would allow 5- to 8-month-old infants to discriminate the figures that adults were able to perceive as different shapes. Only 7- to-8-month-old infants could differentiate one shading figure from cast shadow figures, and vice versa. In Experiment 2, we reversed the contrast polarity of the figure (dark object with a light shadow) and tested whether discrimination was affected. As has been found with adults, infants exposed to this condition were unable to discriminate the contrast-reversed shading and cast shadow figures. Our results suggested that an age of around 7 months is important for development of the ability to perceive shape differences from shading and cast shadows.

  5. Shade Effects on the Dispersal of Airborne Hemileia vastatrix Uredospores.

    PubMed

    Boudrot, Audrey; Pico, Jimmy; Merle, Isabelle; Granados, Eduardo; Vílchez, Sergio; Tixier, Philippe; Filho, Elías de Melo Virginio; Casanoves, Fernando; Tapia, Ana; Allinne, Clémentine; Rice, Robert A; Avelino, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    Hemileia vastatrix caused a severe epidemic in Central America in 2012-13. The gradual development of that epidemic on nearly a continental scale suggests that dispersal at different scales played a significant role. Shade has been proposed as a way of reducing uredospore dispersal. The effect of shade (two strata: Erythrina poeppigiana below and Chloroleucon eurycyclum above) and full sun on H. vastatrix dispersal was studied with Burkard traps in relation to meteorological records. Annual and daily patterns of dispersal were observed, with peaks of uredospore capture obtained during wet seasons and in the early afternoon. A maximum of 464 uredospores in 1 day (in 14.4 m(3) of air) was recorded in October 2014. Interactions between shade/full sun and meteorological conditions were found. Rainfall, possibly intercepted by tree cover and redistributed by raindrops of higher kinetic energy, was the main driver of uredospore dispersal under shade. Wind gusts reversed this effect, probably by inhibiting water accumulation on leaves. Wind gusts also promoted dispersal under dry conditions in full sun, whereas they had no effect under shaded conditions, probably because the canopy blocked the wind. Our results indicate the importance of managing shade cover differentially in rainy versus dry periods to control the dispersal of airborne H. vastatrix uredospores.

  6. Shade Effects on the Dispersal of Airborne Hemileia vastatrix Uredospores.

    PubMed

    Boudrot, Audrey; Pico, Jimmy; Merle, Isabelle; Granados, Eduardo; Vílchez, Sergio; Tixier, Philippe; Filho, Elías de Melo Virginio; Casanoves, Fernando; Tapia, Ana; Allinne, Clémentine; Rice, Robert A; Avelino, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    Hemileia vastatrix caused a severe epidemic in Central America in 2012-13. The gradual development of that epidemic on nearly a continental scale suggests that dispersal at different scales played a significant role. Shade has been proposed as a way of reducing uredospore dispersal. The effect of shade (two strata: Erythrina poeppigiana below and Chloroleucon eurycyclum above) and full sun on H. vastatrix dispersal was studied with Burkard traps in relation to meteorological records. Annual and daily patterns of dispersal were observed, with peaks of uredospore capture obtained during wet seasons and in the early afternoon. A maximum of 464 uredospores in 1 day (in 14.4 m(3) of air) was recorded in October 2014. Interactions between shade/full sun and meteorological conditions were found. Rainfall, possibly intercepted by tree cover and redistributed by raindrops of higher kinetic energy, was the main driver of uredospore dispersal under shade. Wind gusts reversed this effect, probably by inhibiting water accumulation on leaves. Wind gusts also promoted dispersal under dry conditions in full sun, whereas they had no effect under shaded conditions, probably because the canopy blocked the wind. Our results indicate the importance of managing shade cover differentially in rainy versus dry periods to control the dispersal of airborne H. vastatrix uredospores. PMID:26828230

  7. Infants' discrimination of shapes from shading and cast shadows.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazuki; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2016-07-01

    Shadows are powerful cues in the perception of shapes. We can perceive shading and cast shadow implicitly. We investigated infants' ability to detect a single discrepant figure that was depicted by shading or cast shadow and examined the influence of the contrast polarity of shadows on this process. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the blur direction of a shadow to create stimuli that appeared either to be partially shaded or to cast a shadow and then used a preference to test whether this difference would allow 5- to 8-month-old infants to discriminate the figures that adults were able to perceive as different shapes. Only 7- to-8-month-old infants could differentiate one shading figure from cast shadow figures, and vice versa. In Experiment 2, we reversed the contrast polarity of the figure (dark object with a light shadow) and tested whether discrimination was affected. As has been found with adults, infants exposed to this condition were unable to discriminate the contrast-reversed shading and cast shadow figures. Our results suggested that an age of around 7 months is important for development of the ability to perceive shape differences from shading and cast shadows. PMID:27150615

  8. Transcriptome response of cassava leaves under natural shade.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zehong; Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Yi; Liu, Fangfang; Wang, Minghui; Zhu, Xinguang; Liu, Peng; Sun, Qi; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming; Brutnell, Tom; Li, Pinghua

    2016-08-19

    Cassava is an important staple crop in tropical and sub-tropical areas. As a common farming practice, cassava is usually cultivated intercropping with other crops and subjected to various degrees of shading, which causes reduced productivity. Herein, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed on a series of developmental cassava leaves under both full sunlight and natural shade conditions. Gene expression profiles of these two conditions exhibited similar developmental transitions, e.g. genes related to cell wall and basic cellular metabolism were highly expressed in immature leaves, genes involved in lipid metabolism and tetrapyrrole synthesis were highly expressed during the transition stages, and genes related to photosynthesis and carbohydrates metabolism were highly expressed in mature leaves. Compared with the control, shade significantly induced the expression of genes involved in light reaction of photosynthesis, light signaling and DNA synthesis/chromatin structure; however, the genes related to anthocyanins biosynthesis, heat shock, calvin cycle, glycolysis, TCA cycle, mitochondrial electron transport, and starch and sucrose metabolisms were dramatically depressed. Moreover, the shade also influenced the expression of hormone-related genes and transcriptional factors. The findings would improve our understanding of molecular mechanisms of shade response, and shed light on pathways associated with shade-avoidance syndrome for cassava improvement.

  9. Characterization of shade avoidance responses in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Ueoka-Nakanishi, Hanayo; Hori, Nanako; Ishida, Kai; Ono, Natsuko; Yamashino, Takafumi; Nakamichi, Norihito; Mizuno, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Sessile plants must continuously adjust their growth and development to optimize photosynthetic activity under ever-fluctuating light conditions. Among such light responses in plants, one of the best-characterized events is the so-called shade avoidance, for which a low ratio of the red (R):far-red (FR) light intensities is the most prominent stimulus. Such shade avoidance responses enable plants to overtop their neighbors, thereby enhancing fitness and competitiveness in their natural habitat. Considerable progress has been achieved during the last decade in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the shade avoidance responses in the model rosette plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We characterize here the fundamental aspects of the shade avoidance responses in the model legume, Lotus japonicus, based on the fact that its phyllotaxis (or morphological architecture) is quite different from that of A. thaliana. It was found that L. japonicus displays the characteristic shade avoidance syndrome (SAS) under defined laboratory conditions (a low R:FR ratio, low light intensity, and low blue light intensity) that mimic the natural canopy. In particular, the outgrowth of axillary buds (i.e., both aerial and cotyledonary shoot branching) was severely inhibited in L. japonicus grown in the shade. These results are discussed with special emphasis on the unique aspects of SAS observed with this legume.

  10. Transcriptome response of cassava leaves under natural shade.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zehong; Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Yi; Liu, Fangfang; Wang, Minghui; Zhu, Xinguang; Liu, Peng; Sun, Qi; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming; Brutnell, Tom; Li, Pinghua

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is an important staple crop in tropical and sub-tropical areas. As a common farming practice, cassava is usually cultivated intercropping with other crops and subjected to various degrees of shading, which causes reduced productivity. Herein, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed on a series of developmental cassava leaves under both full sunlight and natural shade conditions. Gene expression profiles of these two conditions exhibited similar developmental transitions, e.g. genes related to cell wall and basic cellular metabolism were highly expressed in immature leaves, genes involved in lipid metabolism and tetrapyrrole synthesis were highly expressed during the transition stages, and genes related to photosynthesis and carbohydrates metabolism were highly expressed in mature leaves. Compared with the control, shade significantly induced the expression of genes involved in light reaction of photosynthesis, light signaling and DNA synthesis/chromatin structure; however, the genes related to anthocyanins biosynthesis, heat shock, calvin cycle, glycolysis, TCA cycle, mitochondrial electron transport, and starch and sucrose metabolisms were dramatically depressed. Moreover, the shade also influenced the expression of hormone-related genes and transcriptional factors. The findings would improve our understanding of molecular mechanisms of shade response, and shed light on pathways associated with shade-avoidance syndrome for cassava improvement. PMID:27539510

  11. Tsunami relief. After the wave.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Alexis; Forrest, Emma

    2005-03-01

    With the official toll from the Boxing Day tsunami now standing at 300,000, Alexis Nolan and Emma Forrest talk to health service managers who gave more than money to the relief effort--they travelled to the disaster area and gave their time and expertise. The impact on their professional and personal lives was considerable. As Mathi Chandrakumar, clinical director of Kent Health Protection Unit, puts it: 'My heart is there, I feel very sad. I will probably go back.' PMID:15787421

  12. 76 FR 57082 - Premium Penalty Relief; Alternative Premium Funding Target Election Relief

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... CORPORATION Premium Penalty Relief; Alternative Premium Funding Target Election Relief AGENCY: Pension Benefit... from certain premium penalties and in certain situations involving alternative premium funding target... provided in Technical Update 10-2 (Variable Rate Premiums; Alternative Premium Funding Target...

  13. Simplified Method for Modeling the Impact of Arbitrary Partial Shading Conditions on PV Array Performance

    SciTech Connect

    MacAlpine, Sara; Deline, Chris

    2015-06-14

    It is often difficult to model the effects of partial shading conditions on PV array performance, as shade losses are nonlinear and depend heavily on a system's particular configuration. This work describes and implements a simple method for modeling shade loss: a database of shade impact results (loss percentages), generated using a validated, detailed simulation tool and encompassing a wide variety of shading scenarios. The database is intended to predict shading losses in crystalline silicon PV arrays and is accessed using basic inputs generally available in any PV simulation tool. Performance predictions using the database are within 1-2% of measured data for several partially shaded PV systems, and within 1% of those predicted by the full, detailed simulation tool on an annual basis. The shade loss database shows potential to considerably improve performance prediction for partially shaded PV systems.

  14. Simplified Method for Modeling the Impact of Arbitrary Partial Shading Conditions on PV Array Performance: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    MacAlpine, Sara; Deline, Chris

    2015-09-15

    It is often difficult to model the effects of partial shading conditions on PV array performance, as shade losses are nonlinear and depend heavily on a system's particular configuration. This work describes and implements a simple method for modeling shade loss: a database of shade impact results (loss percentages), generated using a validated, detailed simulation tool and encompassing a wide variety of shading scenarios. The database is intended to predict shading losses in crystalline silicon PV arrays and is accessed using basic inputs generally available in any PV simulation tool. Performance predictions using the database are within 1-2% of measured data for several partially shaded PV systems, and within 1% of those predicted by the full, detailed simulation tool on an annual basis. The shade loss database shows potential to considerably improve performance prediction for partially shaded PV systems.

  15. Convergence of CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS 1 and PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR signalling during shade avoidance.

    PubMed

    Pacín, Manuel; Semmoloni, Mariana; Legris, Martina; Finlayson, Scott A; Casal, Jorge J

    2016-08-01

    Shade-avoidance responses require CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS 1 (COP1) but the mechanisms of action of COP1 under shade have not been elucidated. Using simulated shade and control conditions, we analysed: the transcriptome and the auxin levels of cop1 and phytochrome interacting factor 1 (pif1) pif3 pif4 pif5 (pifq) mutants; the dynamics of ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) and LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR-RED (HFR1) proteins; and the epistatic relationships between cop1 and pif3, pif4, pif5, hy5 and hfr1 mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana. Despite severely impaired shade-avoidance responses, only a few genes that responded to shade in the wild-type failed to do so in cop1. Shade enhanced the convergence between cop1 and pifq transcriptomes, mainly on shade-avoidance marker genes. Shade failed to increase auxin levels in cop1. Residual shade avoidance in cop1 was not further reduced by the pif3, pif4 or pif5 mutations, suggesting convergent pathways. HFR1 stability decreased under shade in a COP1-dependent manner but shade increased HY5 stability. The cop1 mutant retains responses to shade and is more specifically impaired in shade avoidance. COP1 promotes the degradation of HFR1 under shade, thus increasing the ability of PIFs to control gene expression, increase auxin levels and promote stem growth.

  16. Convergence of CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS 1 and PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR signalling during shade avoidance.

    PubMed

    Pacín, Manuel; Semmoloni, Mariana; Legris, Martina; Finlayson, Scott A; Casal, Jorge J

    2016-08-01

    Shade-avoidance responses require CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS 1 (COP1) but the mechanisms of action of COP1 under shade have not been elucidated. Using simulated shade and control conditions, we analysed: the transcriptome and the auxin levels of cop1 and phytochrome interacting factor 1 (pif1) pif3 pif4 pif5 (pifq) mutants; the dynamics of ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) and LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR-RED (HFR1) proteins; and the epistatic relationships between cop1 and pif3, pif4, pif5, hy5 and hfr1 mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana. Despite severely impaired shade-avoidance responses, only a few genes that responded to shade in the wild-type failed to do so in cop1. Shade enhanced the convergence between cop1 and pifq transcriptomes, mainly on shade-avoidance marker genes. Shade failed to increase auxin levels in cop1. Residual shade avoidance in cop1 was not further reduced by the pif3, pif4 or pif5 mutations, suggesting convergent pathways. HFR1 stability decreased under shade in a COP1-dependent manner but shade increased HY5 stability. The cop1 mutant retains responses to shade and is more specifically impaired in shade avoidance. COP1 promotes the degradation of HFR1 under shade, thus increasing the ability of PIFs to control gene expression, increase auxin levels and promote stem growth. PMID:27105120

  17. Plant Responses to Vegetation Proximity: A Whole Life Avoiding Shade.

    PubMed

    Roig-Villanova, Irma; Martínez-García, Jaime F

    2016-01-01

    In high density of vegetation, plants detect neighbors by perceiving changes in light quality through phytochrome photoreceptors. Close vegetation proximity might result in competition for resources, such as light. To face this challenge, plants have evolved two alternative strategies: to either tolerate or avoid shade. Shade-avoiding species generally adapt their development by inducing hypocotyl, stem, and petiole elongation, apical dominance and flowering, and decreasing leaf expansion and yield, a set of responses collectively known as the shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). The SAS responses have been mostly studied at the seedling stage, centered on the increase of hypocotyl elongation. After compiling the main findings about SAS responses in seedlings, this review is focused on the response to shade at adult stages of development, such as petioles of adult leaves, and the little information available on the SAS responses in reproductive tissues. We discuss these responses based on the knowledge about the molecular mechanisms and components with a role in regulating the SAS response of the hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana. The transcriptional networks involved in this process, as well as the communication among the tissues that perceive the shade and the ones that respond to this stimulus will also be briefly commented. PMID:26973679

  18. Plant Responses to Vegetation Proximity: A Whole Life Avoiding Shade

    PubMed Central

    Roig-Villanova, Irma; Martínez-García, Jaime F.

    2016-01-01

    In high density of vegetation, plants detect neighbors by perceiving changes in light quality through phytochrome photoreceptors. Close vegetation proximity might result in competition for resources, such as light. To face this challenge, plants have evolved two alternative strategies: to either tolerate or avoid shade. Shade-avoiding species generally adapt their development by inducing hypocotyl, stem, and petiole elongation, apical dominance and flowering, and decreasing leaf expansion and yield, a set of responses collectively known as the shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). The SAS responses have been mostly studied at the seedling stage, centered on the increase of hypocotyl elongation. After compiling the main findings about SAS responses in seedlings, this review is focused on the response to shade at adult stages of development, such as petioles of adult leaves, and the little information available on the SAS responses in reproductive tissues. We discuss these responses based on the knowledge about the molecular mechanisms and components with a role in regulating the SAS response of the hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana. The transcriptional networks involved in this process, as well as the communication among the tissues that perceive the shade and the ones that respond to this stimulus will also be briefly commented. PMID:26973679

  19. SHADE: A Shape-Memory-Activated Device Promoting Ankle Dorsiflexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittaccio, S.; Viscuso, S.; Rossini, M.; Magoni, L.; Pirovano, S.; Villa, E.; Besseghini, S.; Molteni, F.

    2009-08-01

    Acute post-stroke rehabilitation protocols include passive mobilization as a means to prevent contractures. A device (SHADE) that provides repetitive passive motion to a flaccid ankle by using shape memory alloy actuators could be of great help in providing this treatment. A suitable actuator was designed as a cartridge of approximately 150 × 20 × 15 mm, containing 2.5 m of 0.25 mm diameter NiTi wire. This actuator was activated by Joule’s effect employing a 7 s current input at 0.7 A, which provided 10 N through 76 mm displacement. Cooling and reset by natural convection took 30 s. A prototype of SHADE was assembled with two thermoplastic shells hinged together at the ankle and strapped on the shin and foot. Two actuators were fixed on the upper shell while an inextensible thread connected each NiTi wire to the foot shell. The passive ankle motion (passive range of motion, PROM) generated by SHADE was evaluated optoelectronically on three flaccid patients (58 ± 5 years old); acceptability was assessed by a questionnaire presented to further three flaccid patients (44 ± 11.5 years old) who used SHADE for 5 days, 30 min a day. SHADE was well accepted by all patients, produced good PROM, and caused no pain. The results prove that suitable limb mobilization can be produced by SMA actuators.

  20. Shading as a Control Method for Invasive European Frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bin; Ellis, Michael S.; Fancher, Kelly L.; Rudstam, Lars G.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive European frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.) has negative environmental and economic impacts in North American water bodies. It is therefore important to develop effective management tools to control this invasive species. This study investigated shading as a control method for European frogbit in both greenhouse and lake mesocosm experiments. A series of shade treatments (0%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 100%) were tested in the greenhouse for three weeks. Results showed that the 100% shade was most effective at controlling European frogbit, and other shade treatments greater than 50% were less effective, reducing frogbit biomass up to 38.2%. There were no differences found in temperature between treatments, but dissolved oxygen decreased as shading increased. A lake mesocosm experiment utilizing 0% shade, 70% shade, and 100% shade treatments was performed in a sheltered inlet of Oneida Lake in New York State for over one month. Resulting European frogbit biomass was significantly (25 times) less in areas treated with the 70% shade and nearly zero with the 100% shade. Shading did not affect temperature but improved DO conditions. Results on the shading effects on submerged macrophytes were not conclusive: no significant differences in changes in species richness and abundance between the three groups at the end of studied period suggested no shading effects; significant differences between the beginning and end communities in the 70% shade and the 100% shade but not in the control group indicated significant impacts of shading. This study is the first one to investigate shading as a control method for European frogbit and it is concluded that a moderately high density shade can effective remove European frogbit likely with minor impacts on the environment. More experiments with larger scales and longer time periods are recommended for further investigation. PMID:24886916

  1. 7 CFR 636.20 - Equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... with 7 CFR part 635. Where a participant believes that detrimental reliance on the advice or action of... equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.3. The financial or technical liability for any action by a participant... that provision, the participant may be eligible for equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.4....

  2. 7 CFR 636.20 - Equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... with 7 CFR part 635. Where a participant believes that detrimental reliance on the advice or action of... equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.3. The financial or technical liability for any action by a participant... that provision, the participant may be eligible for equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.4....

  3. 7 CFR 636.20 - Equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... with 7 CFR part 635. Where a participant believes that detrimental reliance on the advice or action of... equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.3. The financial or technical liability for any action by a participant... that provision, the participant may be eligible for equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.4....

  4. 7 CFR 636.20 - Equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... with 7 CFR part 635. Where a participant believes that detrimental reliance on the advice or action of... equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.3. The financial or technical liability for any action by a participant... that provision, the participant may be eligible for equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.4....

  5. Analysis of inservice inspection relief requests

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, D.A.; Cook, J.F.

    1989-08-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require inspection (ISI) of boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power plants be performed in accordance with a referenced edition and addenda of Section XI, ``Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant components,`` of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The regulations permit licensees to request relief from the NRC from specific ASME Code requirements that are determined to be impractical for the specific licensee. The NRC evaluates these requests and may grant such relief, but the NRC may also impose alternative or augmented inspections to assure structural reliability. The purpose,of this task was to evaluate the basis for ISI nondestructive examination (NDE) relief requests and to evaluate the effect of proposed ASME Code changes that would reduce the need for such requests or provide for more complete information in relief requests. This report contains the results of an analysis of an ISI relief request data base that has been expanded to include 1195 ISI relief requests versus the 296 relief requests covered in the first report in April 1987, EGG-SD-7430. Also relief requests were added to the data base which came from both first and second 10-year inspection intervals for several facilities. This provided the means to analyze the effect of recently approved ASME Code cases and updated Code requirements, some of which have been published as a result of earlier work on this task.

  6. Inexpensive tamper proof safety relief valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankewich, P. A.

    1970-01-01

    Basic relief valve has added safety relief valve capability that relieves overpressure before failure can occur. It may be installed in inaccesible areas with a high degree of reliability, constructed from a variety of materials, and adapted to the user's specific application.

  7. 29 CFR 4041.4 - Disaster relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disaster relief. 4041.4 Section 4041.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS TERMINATION OF SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS General Provisions § 4041.4 Disaster relief. When the President of the United...

  8. Relief and Distress after Marital Separation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanier, Graham B.; Thompson, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Examined relief and distress as responses to the termination of marriage in a study of 205 individuals soon after their final separation. Results showed that relief is a frequent response to marital separation. Group differences in response were associated with the rewards and costs of ending a marriage. (JAC)

  9. Shade, water and mass: Passive cooling in Andalucia

    SciTech Connect

    Carrasco, V.; Reynolds, J.S.

    1996-10-01

    A thermally massive, ancient patio (courtyard) house in Bornos Spain was monitored for 25 days in summer 1995. Data for light, relative humidity and air temperature were recorded at the floor`s center in the 3-story deep patio. Temperatures were also recorded in one ground floor and one second floor room adjacent to the patio, and on the roof terrace. Victor Carrasco (the owner) kept a daily record of his actions of shading (with a toldo), of watering the patio`s absorbent floor, and of opening windows for night ventilation. The data show the effects of shading, watering and night ventilation. The cycles of temperature and relative humidity in the center of the patio floor reveal a pattern of thermal sailing where skillful manipulations of shading, evaporative cooling, radiation and night ventilation result in indoor comfort despite the highest outside temperatures of this century that occurred in late July 1995.

  10. Analysis and conceptual design of a lunar radiator parabolic shade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Clark, Craig S.

    1991-01-01

    On the moon, the available heat sink temperature for a vertical unshaded radiator at the equator is 322 K. A method of reducing this heat sink temperature using a parabolic trough shading device was investigated. A steady state heat balance was performed to predict the available heat sink temperature. The effect of optical surface properties on system performance was investigated. Various geometric configurations were also evaluated. A flexible shade conceptual design is presented which greatly reduces the weight and stowed volume of the system. The concept makes use of the natural catenary shape assumed by a flexible material when supported at two points. The catenary shape is very near parabolic. The lunar radiator parabolic shade design presented integrates the energy collection and rejection of a solar dynamic power cycle with the moderate temperature waste heat rejection of a lunar habitat.

  11. Relief device for a vacuum vessel

    DOEpatents

    Fast, R.W.

    1987-04-28

    A pressure relief device for a vessel having redundant pressure relief capabilities is disclosed. An annular plate overlies a surface which has an aperture to the vessel. A seal is formed between the surface and annular plate. A solid plate overlies the annular plate. A seal is formed between the solid plate and annular plate. The relief device will open at a first predetermined pressure by lifting the solid plate. In the event the seal between solid plate and annular plate should stick the relief device will open at a second slightly higher, predetermined pressure by lifting the annular plate and solid plate together. Hinging means are provided to reclose the pressure relief device when conditions return to normal. 2 figs.

  12. RTLS entry load relief parameter optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crull, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of a candidate load relief control law for use during the pullup phase of Return-to-Launch-Site (RTLS) abort entries. The control law parameters and cycle time which optimized performance of the normal load factor limiting phase (load relief phase) of an RTLS entry are examined. A set of control law gains, a smoothing parameter, and a normal force coefficient curve fit are established which resulted in good load relief performance considering the possible aerodynamic coefficient uncertainties defined. Also, the examination of various guidance cycle times revealed improved load relief performance with decreasing cycle time. A .5 second cycle provided smooth and adequate load relief in the presence of all the aerodynamic uncertainties examined.

  13. Relief device for a vacuum vessel

    DOEpatents

    Fast, Ronald W.

    1987-04-28

    A pressure relief device 5 for a vessel having redundant pressure relief capabilities. An annular plate 12 overlies a surface 11 which has an aperature to the vessel. A seal is formed between the surface 11 and annular plate 12. A solid plate 13 overlies the annular plate 12. A seal is formed between the solid plate 13 and annular plate 12. The relief device 5 will open at a first predetermined pressure by lifting the solid plate 13. In the event the seal between solid plate 13 and annular plate 12 should stick the relief device 5 will open at a second slightly higher, predetermined pressure by lifting the annular plate 12 and solid plate 13 together. Hinging means 6 are provided to reclose the pressure relief device 5 when conditions return to normal.

  14. Objective measurement of shade color in age estimation

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Sharad; Ahuja, Nitin; Bajaj, Puneet; Kapoor, Charu; Sabarwal, Robin; Rajpal, Karan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Age estimation is an important subspecialty of forensic medicine. Dental hard tissues are highly resistant to degradation and putrefaction. Enamel is translucent and varies in color from light yellow to grey white. The color of the teeth has been reported to be affected by chronological age. Enamel color may also depend on environmental factors viz. diet, occupational habits, vitamin deficiencies, fluoride level in drinking water etc., It has been found that color changes in dentin vary from white to yellow. Studies have been done to measure the dentin color for age estimation. Aim: To find a correlation between the enamel color and chronological age and secondly to estimate the age of an individual from enamel color. Material and Methods: A total of 300 patients visiting the outpatient department of oral medicine and radiology were selected. Out of those, 150 were men and 150 women. The patients were divided into V groups based on the age. A thorough case history was taken for all the patients. Maxillary Central and Lateral incisor was used for the estimation of shade. The enamel color was evaluated using a VITA classical shade guide. Statistical Analysis: Data were exported to an Excel spread sheet and statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS. Linear regression analysis was used to find correlations between age and enamel shade. Results: In the group 1 and 2 i.e. from 15 to 36 years, the shades A 2 and B 2 (reddish hue) was found to be most common. While in the group 3 and 4, shades ranged from A 3 to B 3 (brownish to yellowish hue). In the patients above 59 years i.e. group 5 the enamel shade with greyish hue was found to be most common. Conclusion: Age determination using enamel color can be tried in forensic cases in the identification of individuals with no birth records. PMID:26816455

  15. Modeling Tree Shade Effect on Urban Ground Surface Temperature.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Marco; Massetti, Luciano; Brandani, Giada; Petralli, Martina; Orlandini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in the role that urban forests can play as urban microclimate modifiers. Tree shade and evapotranspiration affect energy fluxes and mitigate microclimate conditions, with beneficial effects on human health and outdoor comfort. The aim of this study was to investigate surface temperature () variability under the shade of different tree species and to test the capability in predicting of a proposed heat transfer model. Surface temperature data on asphalt and grass under different shading conditions were collected in the Cascine park, Florence, Italy, and were used to test the performance of a one-dimensional heat transfer model integrated with a routine for estimating the effect of plant canopies on surface heat transfer. Shading effects of 10 tree species commonly used in Italian urban settings were determined by considering the infrared radiation and the tree canopy leaf area index (LAI). The results indicate that, on asphalt, was negatively related to the LAI of trees ( reduction ranging from 13.8 to 22.8°C). On grass, this relationship was weaker probably because of the combined effect of shade and grass evapotranspiration on ( reduction ranged from 6.9 to 9.4°C). A sensitivity analysis confirmed that other factors linked to soil water content play an important role in reduction of grassed areas. Our findings suggest that the energy balance model can be effectively used to estimate of the urban pavement under different shading conditions and can be applied to the analysis of microclimate conditions of urban green spaces. PMID:26828170

  16. Becoming less tolerant with age: sugar maple, shade, and ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Sendall, Kerrie M; Lusk, Christopher H; Reich, Peter B

    2015-12-01

    Although shade tolerance is often assumed to be a fixed trait, recent work suggests ontogenetic changes in the light requirements of tree species. We determined the influence of gas exchange, biomass distribution, and self-shading on ontogenetic variation in the instantaneous aboveground carbon balance of Acer saccharum. We quantified the aboveground biomass distributions of 18 juveniles varying in height and growing in low light in a temperate forest understory in Minnesota, USA. Gas exchange rates of leaf and stem tissues were measured, and the crown architecture of each individual was quantified. The YPLANT program was used to estimate the self-shaded fraction of each crown and to model net leaf-level carbon gain. Leaf respiration and photosynthesis per gram of leaf tissue increased with plant size. In contrast, stem respiration rates per gram of stem tissue declined, reflecting a shift in the distribution of stem diameter sizes from smaller (with higher respiration) to larger diameter classes. However, these trends were outweighed by ontogenetic increases in self-shading (which reduces the net photosynthesis realized) and stem mass fraction (which increases the proportion of purely respiratory tissue) in terms of influence on net carbon exchange. As a result, net carbon gain per gram of aboveground plant tissue declined with increasing plant size, and the instantaneous aboveground light compensation point increased. When estimates of root respiration were included to model whole-plant carbon gain and light compensation points, relationships with plant size were even more pronounced. Our findings show how an interplay of gas exchange, self-shading, and biomass distribution shapes ontogenetic changes in shade tolerance.

  17. Becoming less tolerant with age: sugar maple, shade, and ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Sendall, Kerrie M; Lusk, Christopher H; Reich, Peter B

    2015-12-01

    Although shade tolerance is often assumed to be a fixed trait, recent work suggests ontogenetic changes in the light requirements of tree species. We determined the influence of gas exchange, biomass distribution, and self-shading on ontogenetic variation in the instantaneous aboveground carbon balance of Acer saccharum. We quantified the aboveground biomass distributions of 18 juveniles varying in height and growing in low light in a temperate forest understory in Minnesota, USA. Gas exchange rates of leaf and stem tissues were measured, and the crown architecture of each individual was quantified. The YPLANT program was used to estimate the self-shaded fraction of each crown and to model net leaf-level carbon gain. Leaf respiration and photosynthesis per gram of leaf tissue increased with plant size. In contrast, stem respiration rates per gram of stem tissue declined, reflecting a shift in the distribution of stem diameter sizes from smaller (with higher respiration) to larger diameter classes. However, these trends were outweighed by ontogenetic increases in self-shading (which reduces the net photosynthesis realized) and stem mass fraction (which increases the proportion of purely respiratory tissue) in terms of influence on net carbon exchange. As a result, net carbon gain per gram of aboveground plant tissue declined with increasing plant size, and the instantaneous aboveground light compensation point increased. When estimates of root respiration were included to model whole-plant carbon gain and light compensation points, relationships with plant size were even more pronounced. Our findings show how an interplay of gas exchange, self-shading, and biomass distribution shapes ontogenetic changes in shade tolerance. PMID:26318296

  18. Iterative CT shading correction with no prior information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Pengwei; Sun, Xiaonan; Hu, Hongjie; Mao, Tingyu; Zhao, Wei; Sheng, Ke; Cheung, Alice A.; Niu, Tianye

    2015-11-01

    Shading artifacts in CT images are caused by scatter contamination, beam-hardening effect and other non-ideal imaging conditions. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel and general correction framework to eliminate low-frequency shading artifacts in CT images (e.g. cone-beam CT, low-kVp CT) without relying on prior information. The method is based on the general knowledge of the relatively uniform CT number distribution in one tissue component. The CT image is first segmented to construct a template image where each structure is filled with the same CT number of a specific tissue type. Then, by subtracting the ideal template from the CT image, the residual image from various error sources are generated. Since forward projection is an integration process, non-continuous shading artifacts in the image become continuous signals in a line integral. Thus, the residual image is forward projected and its line integral is low-pass filtered in order to estimate the error that causes shading artifacts. A compensation map is reconstructed from the filtered line integral error using a standard FDK algorithm and added back to the original image for shading correction. As the segmented image does not accurately depict a shaded CT image, the proposed scheme is iterated until the variation of the residual image is minimized. The proposed method is evaluated using cone-beam CT images of a Catphan©600 phantom and a pelvis patient, and low-kVp CT angiography images for carotid artery assessment. Compared with the CT image without correction, the proposed method reduces the overall CT number error from over 200 HU to be less than 30 HU and increases the spatial uniformity by a factor of 1.5. Low-contrast object is faithfully retained after the proposed correction. An effective iterative algorithm for shading correction in CT imaging is proposed that is only assisted by general anatomical information without relying on prior knowledge. The proposed method is thus practical

  19. Applying photovoltaics to disaster relief

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W. Jr.

    1996-11-01

    Hurricanes, floods, tornados, earthquakes and other disasters can happen at any time, often with little or no advance warning. They can be as destructive as Hurricane Andrew leaving several hundred-thousand people homeless or as minor as an afternoon thunderstorm knocking down local power lines to your home. Major disasters leave many people without adequate medical services, potable water, electrical service and communications. In response to a natural disaster, photovoltaic (solar electric) modules offer a source of quiet, safe, pollution-free electrical power. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are capable of providing the electrical needs for vaccine refrigerators, microscopes, medical equipment, lighting, radios, fans, communications, traffic devices and other general electrical needs. Stand alone PV systems do not require refueling and operate for long period of time from the endless energy supplied by the sun, making them beneficial during recovery efforts. This report discusses the need for electrical power during a disaster, and the capability of PV to fill that need. Applications of PV power used during previous disaster relief efforts are also presented.

  20. Differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Veeraganta, Sumanth K.; Savadi, Ravindra C.; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Z.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose was to investigate the differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color among a sample of the local population in Bengaluru, India. Methodology: The study comprised 100 subjects belonging to both gender between the age groups of 16 years to 55 years. Tooth shade values of permanent maxillary left or right central incisors were recorded using the Vitapan 3D-Master shade guide. Skin color was matched using the Radiance compact makeup shades as a guide. Results: Chi-square statistical test demonstrated that younger subjects have lighter tooth shade values. No statistically significant differences were recorded in tooth shade value according to gender or skin color. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that tooth shade value is significantly influenced by age. Gender and skin color appear not to have a significant relation to tooth shade value. PMID:26929500

  1. Avoid common relief-valve pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Bravo, F.; Contreras, D.; Jester, D.

    1995-08-01

    From the moment that the decision is made to add a relief valve to a process system and, continuing through its installation and operating life, engineers are involved with evaluations, sizing calculations, and documentation. Relief valves are critical to the safe, efficient operation of process systems. However, many times, these devices are not afforded the emphasis that they deserve and this can cause problems. The purpose of this article is to help the engineer to avoid some of the problems that are typically encountered with relief valves. In today`s competitive and quality-driven world, it is important to do it right the first time.

  2. Partial shade stress test for thin-film photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Timothy J.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Deline, Chris; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Partial shade of monolithic thin-film PV modules can cause reverse-bias conditions leading to permanent damage. In this work, we introduce a partial shade stress test for thin-film PV modules that quantifies permanent performance loss. The test reproduces shading and loading conditions that may occur in the field. It accounts for reversible light-induced performance changes and for the effects of light-enhanced reverse breakdown. We simulated the test procedure using a computer model that predicts the local voltage, current and temperature stress resulting from partial shade. We also performed the test on three commercial module types. Each module type we tested suffered permanent damage during masked ash testing totaling < 2 s of light exposure. During the subsequent stress test these module types lost 4%{11% in Pmp due to widespread formation of new shunts. One module type showed a substantial worsening of the Pmp loss upon light stabilization, underscoring the importance of this practice for proper quantification of damage.

  3. Winter shading of blueberry plants in the southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Central Florida, southern highbush blueberries are treated with hydrogen cyanamide to replace lack of chilling and enhance flowering and fruiting. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of repeated applications of processed kaolin particle and flat-top shade structure on blueberry p...

  4. Shade images of forested areas obtained from LANDSAT MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimabukuro, Yosio Edemir; Smith, James A.

    1989-01-01

    The pixel size in the present day Remote Sensing systems is large enough to include different types of land cover. Depending upon the target area, several components may be present within the pixel. In forested areas, generally, three main components are present: tree canopy, soil (understory), and shadow. The objective is to generate a shade (shadow) image of forested areas from multispectral measurements of LANDSAT MSS (Multispectral Scanner) data by implementing a linear mixing model, where shadow is considered as one of the primary components in a pixel. The shade images are related to the observed variation in forest structure, i.e., the proportion of inferred shadow in a pixel is related to different forest ages, forest types, and tree crown cover. The Constrained Least Squares (CLS) method is used to generate shade images for forest of eucalyptus and vegetation of cerrado using LANDSAT MSS imagery over Itapeva study area in Brazil. The resulted shade images may explain the difference on ages for forest of eucalyptus and the difference on three crown cover for vegetation of cerrado.

  5. Evaluating shading bias in malaise and intercept traps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, Kathryn M.; Woods, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Foresters are increasingly focusing on landscape level management regimes. At the landscape level, managed acreage may differ substantially in structure and micro-climatic conditions. Trapping is a commonly used method to evaluate changes in insect communities across landscapes. Among those trapping techniques, Malaise and window-pane traps are conveniently deployed to collect large numbers of insects for relative estimates of density. However, the catch within traps may be affected by a wide range of environmental variables including trap location, height, and factors such as exposure to sunlight and temperature. Seven experiments were conducted from 1996 through 2000 to evaluate the effects of shading on trap catch of a variety of Malaise trap designs and one window-pane trap design. Overall, differences in shading effects on trap catch were detected across different traps and taxa and suggested that, in general, more insects are collected in traps that were in direct sunlight. The effect of shading varied from a reduction in trap catch of 10 % to an increase of 7%, the results depended on trap color. Diptera, Coleoptera, and Homoptera were most likely to exhibit this bias. In contrast, trap catch of the Hymenoptera was the most variable and appeared to be sensitive to factors that might interact with sun/shade conditions

  6. Reproductive efficiency and shade avoidance plasticity under simulated competition.

    PubMed

    Fazlioglu, Fatih; Al-Namazi, Ali; Bonser, Stephen P

    2016-07-01

    Plant strategy and life-history theories make different predictions about reproductive efficiency under competition. While strategy theory suggests under intense competition iteroparous perennial plants delay reproduction and semelparous annuals reproduce quickly, life-history theory predicts both annual and perennial plants increase resource allocation to reproduction under intense competition. We tested (1) how simulated competition influences reproductive efficiency and competitive ability (CA) of different plant life histories and growth forms; (2) whether life history or growth form is associated with CA; (3) whether shade avoidance plasticity is connected to reproductive efficiency under simulated competition. We examined plastic responses of 11 herbaceous species representing different life histories and growth forms to simulated competition (spectral shade). We found that both annual and perennial plants invested more to reproduction under simulated competition in accordance with life-history theory predictions. There was no significant difference between competitive abilities of different life histories, but across growth forms, erect species expressed greater CA (in terms of leaf number) than other growth forms. We also found that shade avoidance plasticity can increase the reproductive efficiency by capitalizing on the early life resource acquisition and conversion of these resources into reproduction. Therefore, we suggest that a reassessment of the interpretation of shade avoidance plasticity is necessary by revealing its role in reproduction, not only in competition of plants.

  7. VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARD WITH CHAINLINK FENCE AND TERRACING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARD WITH CHAINLINK FENCE AND TERRACING, BEHIND 559 BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF 527 BIRCH CIRCLE ON LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. VIEW OF EAST SIDE OF CEDAR DRIVE, SHOWING SHADED CANOPY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST SIDE OF CEDAR DRIVE, SHOWING SHADED CANOPY FORMED BY MONKEYPOD TREES. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Reproductive efficiency and shade avoidance plasticity under simulated competition.

    PubMed

    Fazlioglu, Fatih; Al-Namazi, Ali; Bonser, Stephen P

    2016-07-01

    Plant strategy and life-history theories make different predictions about reproductive efficiency under competition. While strategy theory suggests under intense competition iteroparous perennial plants delay reproduction and semelparous annuals reproduce quickly, life-history theory predicts both annual and perennial plants increase resource allocation to reproduction under intense competition. We tested (1) how simulated competition influences reproductive efficiency and competitive ability (CA) of different plant life histories and growth forms; (2) whether life history or growth form is associated with CA; (3) whether shade avoidance plasticity is connected to reproductive efficiency under simulated competition. We examined plastic responses of 11 herbaceous species representing different life histories and growth forms to simulated competition (spectral shade). We found that both annual and perennial plants invested more to reproduction under simulated competition in accordance with life-history theory predictions. There was no significant difference between competitive abilities of different life histories, but across growth forms, erect species expressed greater CA (in terms of leaf number) than other growth forms. We also found that shade avoidance plasticity can increase the reproductive efficiency by capitalizing on the early life resource acquisition and conversion of these resources into reproduction. Therefore, we suggest that a reassessment of the interpretation of shade avoidance plasticity is necessary by revealing its role in reproduction, not only in competition of plants. PMID:27547325

  11. Shading responses of carbon allocation dynamics in mountain grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahn, M.; Lattanzi, F. A.; Brueggemann, N.; Siegwolf, R. T.; Richter, A.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon (C) allocation strongly influences plant and soil processes. Global environmental changes can alter source - sink relations of plants with potential implications for C allocation. Short-term C allocation dynamics in ecosystems and their responses to environmental changes are still poorly understood. To analyze effects of assimilate supply (i.e. C source strength) on ecosystem C allocation dynamics and the role of non-structural carbohydrates, canopy sections of a mountain meadow were pulse labeled with 13CO2 and subsequently shaded for a week or left unshaded (control). Tracer dynamics in above- and belowground sucrose and starch pools were analysed and coupled using compartmental modelling. The hypothesis was tested that shading affects tracer dynamics in non-structural carbohydrates and diminishes the transfer of recently assimilated C to roots and their storage pools. In unshaded plots up to 40% of assimilated C was routed through short-term storage in shoot starch and sucrose to buffer day / night cycles in photosynthesis. Shoot- and root sucrose and shoot starch were kinetically closely related pools. The tracer dynamics of the modelled root sucrose pool corresponded well with those in soil CO2 efflux. Root starch played no role in buffering day / night cycles and likely acted as a seasonal store. Shading strongly reduced sucrose and starch concentrations in shoots but not roots and resulted in a massive reduction of leaf respiration, while root respiration was much less diminished. Shading affected tracer dynamics in sucrose and starch of shoots: shoot starch rapidly lost tracer, while sucrose transiently increased its tracer content. Surprisingly, shading did not alter the dynamics of root carbohydrates. Even under severe C limitation after one week of shading, tracer C continued to be incorporated in root starch. Also the amount of 13C incorporated in phospholipid fatty acids of soil microbial communities was not reduced by shading, though its

  12. Proximity signal and shade avoidance differences between early and late successional trees.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, I R; Jarvis, P G; Smith, H

    2001-06-14

    Competitive interactions between plants determine the success of individuals and species. In developing forests, competition for light is the predominant factor. Shade tolerators acclimate photosynthetically to low light and are capable of long-term survival under the shade cast by others, whereas shade avoiders rapidly dominate gaps but are overtaken in due course by shade-tolerant, later successional species. Shade avoidance results from the phytochrome-mediated perception of far-red radiation (700-800 nm) scattered from the leaves of neighbours, provides early warning of shading, and induces developmental responses that, when successful, result in the overgrowth of those neighbours. Shade tolerators cast a deep shade, whereas less-tolerant species cast light shade, and saplings tend to have high survivorship in shade cast by conspecific adults, but high rates of mortality when shaded by more-tolerant species. Here we report a parallel relationship in which the shade-avoidance responses of three tree species are inversely proportional to proximity signals generated by those species. On this basis, early successional species generate small proximity signals but react strongly to them, whereas late successional species react weakly but generate strong signals.

  13. A novel two-step method for screening shade tolerant mutant plants via dwarfism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When subjected to shade, plants undergo rapid shoot elongation, which often makes them more prone to disease and mechanical damage. It has been reported that, in turfgrass, induced dwarfism can enhance shade tolerance. Here, we describe a two-step procedure for isolating shade tolerant mutants of ...

  14. 29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco §...

  15. 29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco §...

  16. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of...

  17. 29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco §...

  18. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of...

  19. 29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco §...

  20. 29 CFR 780.506 - Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on shade-grown tobacco operations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco §...

  1. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of...

  2. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of...

  3. 29 CFR 780.505 - Definition of “shade-grown tobacco.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of âshade-grown tobacco.â 780.505 Section 780... Employment or Agricultural Employees in Processing Shade-Grown Tobacco; Exemption From Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.505 Definition of...

  4. The effect of resin shades on microhardness, polymerization shrinkage, and color change of dental composite resins.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Tae-Sung; Kang, Ho-Seung; Kim, Sung-Ki; Kim, Shin; Kim, Hyung-Il; Kwon, Yong Hoon

    2009-07-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the effect of resin shades on the degree of the polymerization. To this end, response variables affected by the degree of polymerization were examined in this study - namely, microhardness, polymerization shrinkage, and color change. Two commercial composite resins of four different shades were employed in this study: shades A3, A3.5, B3, and C3 of Z250 (Z2) and shades A3, A3.5, B3, and B4 of Solitaire 2 (S2). After light curing, the reflectance/absorbance, microhardness, polymerization shrinkage, and color change of the specimens were measured. On reflectance and absorbance, Z2 and S2 showed similar distribution curves regardless of the resin shade, with shade A3.5 of Z2 and shade A3 of S2 exhibiting the lowest/highest distributions. Similarly for attenuation coefficient and microhardness, the lowest/highest values were exhibited by shade A3.5 of Z2 and shade A3 of S2. On polymerization shrinkage, no statistically significant differences were observed among the different shades of Z2. Similarly for color change, Z2 specimens exhibited only a slight (DeltaE*=0.5-0.9) color change after immersion in distilled water for 10 days, except for shades A3 and A3.5. Taken together, results of the present study suggested that the degree of polymerization of the tested composite resins was minimally affected by resin shade.

  5. The effect of resin shades on microhardness, polymerization shrinkage, and color change of dental composite resins.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Tae-Sung; Kang, Ho-Seung; Kim, Sung-Ki; Kim, Shin; Kim, Hyung-Il; Kwon, Yong Hoon

    2009-07-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the effect of resin shades on the degree of the polymerization. To this end, response variables affected by the degree of polymerization were examined in this study - namely, microhardness, polymerization shrinkage, and color change. Two commercial composite resins of four different shades were employed in this study: shades A3, A3.5, B3, and C3 of Z250 (Z2) and shades A3, A3.5, B3, and B4 of Solitaire 2 (S2). After light curing, the reflectance/absorbance, microhardness, polymerization shrinkage, and color change of the specimens were measured. On reflectance and absorbance, Z2 and S2 showed similar distribution curves regardless of the resin shade, with shade A3.5 of Z2 and shade A3 of S2 exhibiting the lowest/highest distributions. Similarly for attenuation coefficient and microhardness, the lowest/highest values were exhibited by shade A3.5 of Z2 and shade A3 of S2. On polymerization shrinkage, no statistically significant differences were observed among the different shades of Z2. Similarly for color change, Z2 specimens exhibited only a slight (DeltaE*=0.5-0.9) color change after immersion in distilled water for 10 days, except for shades A3 and A3.5. Taken together, results of the present study suggested that the degree of polymerization of the tested composite resins was minimally affected by resin shade. PMID:19721281

  6. Rain Hampers Tsunami Relief Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The cleanup and relief efforts from the recent tsunamis continue in coastal communities that were ravaged by the waves all across the Indian Ocean. Heavy rains have further complicated the matter and added to the misery in parts of eastern Sri Lanka. Between December 28, 2004, and January 5, 2005, up to 10 to 15 inches of rain may have fallen along the southeast coast of the island, and as much as 20 inches (red areas) fell just offshore. This rainfall map was created by the TRMM-based, near-real time Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, which monitors rainfall over the global tropics. The map shows that many other regions around the Indian Ocean were also affected by the rains, including Malaysia and parts of Sumatra. The heaviest rains fell on December 31 and January 4. The rains were likely the result of a combination of the northeast monsoon interacting with the topography and an active phase of what is known as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) (or 30-60 day oscillation). The MJO is a large-scale disturbance that propagates eastward from the Indian Ocean into the West Pacific Ocean, bringing extended periods of unsettled weather with it. Individual convective complexes within the MJO can last on the order of a day. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA. NASA image produced by Hal Pierce (SSAI/NASA GSFC) and caption by Steve Lang (SSAI/NASA GSFC).

  7. Debt relief and financing climate change action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, Adrian; Wright, Helena; Afionis, Stavros; Paavola, Jouni; Huq, Saleemul

    2014-08-01

    Slow progress in scaling-up climate finance has emerged as a major bottleneck in international negotiations. Debt relief for climate finance swaps could provide an alternative source for financing mitigation and adaptation action in developing countries.

  8. Brain Circuits Encoding Reward from Pain Relief

    PubMed Central

    Navratilova, Edita; Atcherley, Christopher; Porreca, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Relief from pain in humans is rewarding and pleasurable. Primary rewards, or reward predictive cues, are encoded in brain reward/motivational circuits. While considerable advances have been made in our understanding of reward circuits underlying positive reinforcement, less is known about the circuits underlying the hedonic and reinforcing actions of pain relief. We review findings from electrophysiological, neuroimaging and behavioral studies supporting the concept that the rewarding effect of pain relief requires opioid signaling in the anterior cingulate cortex, activation of midbrain dopamine neurons and release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. Understanding of circuits that govern the reward of pain relief may allow the discovery of more effective and satisfying therapies for patients with acute and chronic pain. PMID:26603560

  9. Part and Whole in Pictorial Relief

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    What are “natural parts” of pictorial reliefs? Intuitively, and suggested by common lore from the visual arts, they are the bulges that stick out toward the observer. Each such bulge contains a (locally) nearest point and is bounded by one or (usually) more curvilinear ruts. The latter meet in “passes” or saddle points. This divides the relief into “natural districts”. From a formal analysis one knows that reliefs can be divided into “hill districts” or “dale districts”, these two “natural” parcellations being fully distinct. We report empirical results that strongly suggest that visual awareness is based on a partition in bulges, which are mutually only weakly connected. Such a notion immediately explains why inverted reliefs or surfaces illuminated from below appear so different as to be mutually not recognizable. PMID:27551359

  10. Relief diffracted elements recorded on absorbent photopolymers.

    PubMed

    Gallego, S; Márquez, A; Ortuño, M; Francés, J; Pascual, I; Beléndez, A

    2012-05-01

    Relief surface changes provide interesting possibilities for storing diffractive optical elements on photopolymers and are an important source of information for characterizing and understanding the material behavior. In this paper we use a 3-dimensional model, based on direct parameter measurements, for predicting the relief structures generated on without-coverplate photopolymers. We have analyzed different spatial frequency and recording intensity distributions such as binary and blazed periodic patterns. This model was successfully applied to different photopolymers with different values of monomer diffusion.

  11. Martian relief and the coming opposition.

    PubMed

    Harris, D H

    1967-06-16

    In the report "Martian relief and the coming opposition" (3 Mar., p. 1100), D. H. Harris stated that, "... the reduced contrast with decreasing (terminator distance) just balances the increase in visibility due to shadow length." This is obviously erroneous. A more careful examination of the problem shows that for favorable values of the Aerocentric EarthSun Sun angle, visibility of relief increases toward the terminator, clouds not withstanding.

  12. [Effects of shading light quality at seedling stage on the photosynthesis and growth of ginger].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui-Hua; Xu, Kun

    2008-03-01

    With different color plastic films as shading materials, this paper studied the effects of shading light quality at seedling stage on the growth and photosynthesis of ginger. The results showed that shading with green or blue film induced the greatest chlorophyll content in ginger leaves, followed by shading with white film, and red film. In parallel, the photosynthetic rate under green film-shading was the highest, being 14.9 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) in the 4th leaves, which was 5.7%, 10.4%, and 18.3% higher than that under white, red, and blue film-shading, respectively. After removing the films at vigorous growth stage, the photosynthetic rate became larger, and its change pattern in different shading treatments was similar to that at seedling stage. No significant differences in the chlorophyll content of young leaves were observed among the shading treatments, except the low chlorophyll content under red film-shading. In contrast, the chlorophyll content in low position leaves under blue and red film-shading was lower than that under green and white film-shading. In the whole growth period, the plants under blue film-shading were higher in height and with thinner stem and lesser shoot, compared with those shaded with other color films. The fresh mass of root, stem, leaf, and rhizome decreased in the order of green, white, red, and blue film-shading, and the yields at harvesting stage were 57,000, 53,709, 51,487, and 48,712 kg x hm(-2), respectively, illustrating that shading with green film at seedling stage could increase the leaf photosynthesis, plant growth, and yield of ginger.

  13. Pressure relief valve types and selection

    SciTech Connect

    Emerson, G.B.

    1988-05-01

    Pressure relief valves are one of the few types of equipment purchased and installed with the hope that they'll never be used. From the production viewpoint, a pressure relief valve produces nothing, yet it is very capable of disrupting a production operation or process. From a safety standpoint, a pressure relief valve must open in certain emergency conditions and also close when the emergency condition has been alleviated. Much depends upon proper selection of the type of pressure relief valve best suited for the intended service. The six figures in this article provide a summary of basic pressure relief valve types - weight loaded, direct spring operated, and pilot operated - outlining the operation and some pros and cons of each type. It is intended to be relative and not absolute. The specific application, prior experience, available commercial or special valve configurations, coupled with various accessories (such as a pilot filter for pilot operated valves in dirty service or a rupture disc upstream of a pressure relief valve), and the location of the valve in the system may allow the use of an otherwise unacceptable valve type.

  14. Evaluation of Dental Shade Guide Variability Using Cross-Polarized Photography.

    PubMed

    Gurrea, Jon; Gurrea, Marta; Bruguera, August; Sampaio, Camila S; Janal, Malvin; Bonfante, Estevam; Coelho, Paulo G; Hirata, Ronaldo

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated color variability in the A hue between the VITA Classical (VITA Zahnfabrik) shade guide and four other VITA-coded ceramic shade guides using a Canon EOS 60D camera and software (Photoshop CC, Adobe). A total of 125 photographs were taken, 5 per shade tab for each of 5 shades (A1 to A4) from the following shade guides: VITA Classical (control), IPS e.max Ceram (Ivoclar Vivadent), IPS d.SIGN (Ivoclar Vivadent), Initial ZI (GC), and Creation CC (Creation Willi Geller). Photos were processed with Adobe Photoshop CC to allow standardized evaluation of hue, chroma, and value between shade tabs. None of the VITA-coded shade tabs fully matched the VITA Classical shade tab for hue, chroma, or value. The VITA-coded shade guides evaluated herein showed an overall unmatched shade in all tabs when compared with the control, suggesting that shade selection should be made using the guide produced by the manufacturer of the ceramic intended for the final restoration. PMID:27560681

  15. Evaluation of Dental Shade Guide Variability Using Cross-Polarized Photography.

    PubMed

    Gurrea, Jon; Gurrea, Marta; Bruguera, August; Sampaio, Camila S; Janal, Malvin; Bonfante, Estevam; Coelho, Paulo G; Hirata, Ronaldo

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated color variability in the A hue between the VITA Classical (VITA Zahnfabrik) shade guide and four other VITA-coded ceramic shade guides using a Canon EOS 60D camera and software (Photoshop CC, Adobe). A total of 125 photographs were taken, 5 per shade tab for each of 5 shades (A1 to A4) from the following shade guides: VITA Classical (control), IPS e.max Ceram (Ivoclar Vivadent), IPS d.SIGN (Ivoclar Vivadent), Initial ZI (GC), and Creation CC (Creation Willi Geller). Photos were processed with Adobe Photoshop CC to allow standardized evaluation of hue, chroma, and value between shade tabs. None of the VITA-coded shade tabs fully matched the VITA Classical shade tab for hue, chroma, or value. The VITA-coded shade guides evaluated herein showed an overall unmatched shade in all tabs when compared with the control, suggesting that shade selection should be made using the guide produced by the manufacturer of the ceramic intended for the final restoration.

  16. Typology of building shading elements on Jalan Sudirman corridor in Pekanbaru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisal, G.; Aldy, P.

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, temperature in Pekanbaru was between 22.60°C and 34.6°C with humidity 79.14 percent. This condition has increase the concern of energy utilization to building comfort. Buildings have the biggest energy consuming due to the use of air conditioner in Pekanbaru. One effort to reduced energy is shading devices application. Application of air conditioner need huge energy, replaced natural circulation with architecture elements to reduced building thermal. This research study about system and building shading devices types that influence building thermal in Pekanbaru so that knowing characteristics and elements form. This study aims to determine and identify of systems and building elements types in Pekanbaru, which the element forms to conquer in climate condition. Qualitative method with rationalistic-paradigm has used to identify typology of building shading devices on Jalan Sudirman corridor. The research orientation on typology theory, thermal theory, and building shading device to identification of building shading device types on Jalan Sudirman corridor. Based on the survey result, there are 2 type of building shading devices on Jalan Sudirman Pekanbaru which is based on forms and quantity of shading. The types are building shading devices based on shading quantity and building shading devices based on shading forms.

  17. 49 CFR 179.400-20 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.400-20 Section 179...-20 Pressure relief devices. (a) The tank must be provided with pressure relief devices for the... safety appliances. Vent or weep holes in pressure relief devices are prohibited. All main pressure...

  18. 49 CFR 179.400-20 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.400-20 Section 179... and 107A) § 179.400-20 Pressure relief devices. (a) The tank must be provided with pressure relief... structure, trucks and safety appliances. Vent or weep holes in pressure relief devices are prohibited....

  19. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each cargo tank must have a combined relief capacity, including the effects of back pressure from vent...

  20. 49 CFR 179.400-20 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.400-20 Section 179...-20 Pressure relief devices. (a) The tank must be provided with pressure relief devices for the... safety appliances. Vent or weep holes in pressure relief devices are prohibited. All main pressure...

  1. 49 CFR 179.400-20 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.400-20 Section 179...-20 Pressure relief devices. (a) The tank must be provided with pressure relief devices for the... safety appliances. Vent or weep holes in pressure relief devices are prohibited. All main pressure...

  2. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each cargo tank must have a combined relief capacity, including the effects of back pressure from vent...

  3. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each cargo tank must have a combined relief capacity, including the effects of back pressure from vent...

  4. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each cargo tank must have a combined relief capacity, including the effects of back pressure from vent...

  5. 46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vacuum relief device. 64.65 Section 64.65 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.65 Vacuum relief device. (a) Each MPT that is designed for an external pressure of less than 7.5 psig must have a...

  6. 46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vacuum relief device. 64.65 Section 64.65 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.65 Vacuum relief device. (a) Each MPT that is designed for an external pressure of less than 7.5 psig must have a...

  7. 46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vacuum relief device. 64.65 Section 64.65 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.65 Vacuum relief device. (a) Each MPT that is designed for an external pressure of less than 7.5 psig must have a...

  8. 46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vacuum relief device. 64.65 Section 64.65 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.65 Vacuum relief device. (a) Each MPT that is designed for an external pressure of less than 7.5 psig must have a...

  9. 46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vacuum relief device. 64.65 Section 64.65 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.65 Vacuum relief device. (a) Each MPT that is designed for an external pressure of less than 7.5 psig must have a...

  10. 46 CFR 154.519 - Piping relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping relief valves. 154.519 Section 154.519 Shipping... Process Piping Systems § 154.519 Piping relief valves. (a) The liquid relief valve that protects the cargo... cargo that is specially approved by the Commandant (CG-522). (b) A relief valve on a cargo pump...

  11. 49 CFR 230.49 - Setting of safety relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Setting of safety relief valves. 230.49 Section... Appurtenances Safety Relief Valves § 230.49 Setting of safety relief valves. (a) Qualifications of individual who adjusts. Safety relief valves shall be set and adjusted by a competent person who is...

  12. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each... pressure above the set pressure of the relief valves: (a) The maximum capacity of an installed cargo...

  13. 46 CFR 154.519 - Piping relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping relief valves. 154.519 Section 154.519 Shipping... Process Piping Systems § 154.519 Piping relief valves. (a) The liquid relief valve that protects the cargo... cargo that is specially approved by the Commandant (CG-522). (b) A relief valve on a cargo pump...

  14. 49 CFR 230.49 - Setting of safety relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Setting of safety relief valves. 230.49 Section... Appurtenances Safety Relief Valves § 230.49 Setting of safety relief valves. (a) Qualifications of individual who adjusts. Safety relief valves shall be set and adjusted by a competent person who is...

  15. 46 CFR 154.519 - Piping relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piping relief valves. 154.519 Section 154.519 Shipping... Process Piping Systems § 154.519 Piping relief valves. (a) The liquid relief valve that protects the cargo... cargo that is specially approved by the Commandant (CG-ENG). (b) A relief valve on a cargo pump...

  16. 43 CFR 4.1367 - Request for temporary relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transfer, Assignment Or Sale of Rights Granted Under Permit (federal Program; Federal Lands Program... setting forth the reasons why relief should be granted; (2) A statement of the specific relief requested... granting or denying such temporary relief. Temporary relief may be granted only if— (1) All parties to...

  17. 49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reduce air pressure to 30 percent of the marked test pressure within 3 minutes after pressure relief... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.500-12 Section 179...-12 Pressure relief devices. (a) Tank shall be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices...

  18. The impact of translucent fabric shades and control strategies on energy savings and visual quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wankanapon, Pimonmart

    Translucent fabric shades provide opportunities for building occupants to control sunlight penetration for heat reduction, thermal comfort, and visual quality. Regulating shades affects building energy and can potentially reduce the size of mechanical cooling systems. Shades are not normally included in energy model studies during the design process, even though shades potential impact energy use. This is because the occupants normally leave shades closed a large fraction of the time, but models are generally performed with no shades. Automatic shade control is now available, so it is necessary to understand the impact of shades on visual quality and their energy saving potential in order to optimize their overall performance. There are very limited studies that have address shades and their integrated performance on energy consumption and visual quality. Most of these do not reflected modern shade types and their application. The goals of this study are: First, to determine the impact of shades on total, heating, cooling and lighting energy savings with different design and operation parameters. Second, to study and develop different automatic shade control strategies to promote and optimize energy savings and visual quality. A simulation-based approach using EnergyPlus in a parametric study provide better understanding energy savings under different shade conditions. The parametric runs addressed various building parameters such as geometry, orientation, site climate, glazing/shade properties, and shade control strategies with integrated lighting control. The impact of shades was determined for total building and space heating, cooling and lighting energy savings. The effect of shades on visual quality was studied using EnergyPlus, AGI32 and DAYSIM for several indices such as daylight glare index (DGI), work plane illuminance, luminance ratios and view. Different shade control strategies and integrated lighting control were considered with two translucent fabric

  19. [Effects of shading on dry matter accumulation and nutrient absorption of summer maize].

    PubMed

    Cui, Hai-Yan; Jin, Li-Bin; Li, Bo; Dong, Shu-Ting; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Ji-Wang

    2013-11-01

    Taking summer maize cultivars Zhenjie 2 (ZJ2), Denghai 605 (DH605), and Zhengdan 958 (ZD958) as test materials, a field trial was conducted to study the effects of shading on the dry matter accumulation and nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) absorption of summer maize. Four treatments were installed, i. e., shading from flowering stage to maturity stage (S1), shading from six-leaf stage to flowering stage (S2), shading all through the growth season (S3), and no shading (CK). After shading, the grain yield and dry matter accumulation decreased significantly, and the decrement was related to shading period, showing S3 > S1 > S2. The grain yield in treatments S1, S2, and S3 was averagely 61.6%, 25.3%, and 92.8% lower than that of CK, respectively, indicating that the effects of shading after flowering were greater than those of shading before flowering. The responses of different cultivars to shading presented a similar trend. The nutrient absorption of summer maize before flowering stage showed K > N > P, and the nutrient absorption amount of whole plant showed N>K>P. After shading, the N and P absorption decreased significantly. The plant relative N and P absorption in different treatments had somewhat increase, because the decrement of dry matter accumulation after shading was larger than that of N and P absorption, as compared with the control. After shading, the plant K absorption decreased significantly, and the decrement in S2 was larger than that of dry matter accumulation. Shading before flowering stage had larger effects on the plant K absorption than on the N and P absorption.

  20. A Novel Two-Step Method for Screening Shade Tolerant Mutant Plants via Dwarfism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Katin-Grazzini, Lorenzo; Krishnan, Sanalkumar; Thammina, Chandra; El-Tanbouly, Rania; Yer, Huseyin; Merewitz, Emily; Guillard, Karl; Inguagiato, John; McAvoy, Richard J.; Liu, Zongrang; Li, Yi

    2016-01-01

    When subjected to shade, plants undergo rapid shoot elongation, which often makes them more prone to disease and mechanical damage. Shade-tolerant plants can be difficult to breed; however, they offer a substantial benefit over other varieties in low-light areas. Although perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is a popular species of turf grasses because of their good appearance and fast establishment, the plant normally does not perform well under shade conditions. It has been reported that, in turfgrass, induced dwarfism can enhance shade tolerance. Here we describe a two-step procedure for isolating shade tolerant mutants of perennial ryegrass by first screening for dominant dwarf mutants, and then screening dwarf plants for shade tolerance. The two-step screening process to isolate shade tolerant mutants can be done efficiently with limited space at early seedling stages, which enables quick and efficient isolation of shade tolerant mutants, and thus facilitates development of shade tolerant new cultivars of turfgrasses. Using the method, we isolated 136 dwarf mutants from 300,000 mutagenized seeds, with 65 being shade tolerant (0.022%). When screened directly for shade tolerance, we recovered only four mutants from a population of 150,000 (0.003%) mutagenized seeds. One shade tolerant mutant, shadow-1, was characterized in detail. In addition to dwarfism, shadow-1 and its sexual progeny displayed high degrees of tolerance to both natural and artificial shade. We showed that endogenous gibberellin (GA) content in shadow-1 was higher than wild-type controls, and shadow-1 was also partially GA insensitive. Our novel, simple and effective two-step screening method should be applicable to breeding shade tolerant cultivars of turfgrasses, ground covers, and other economically important crop plants that can be used under canopies of existing vegetation to increase productivity per unit area of land. PMID:27752260

  1. [Mental health support for disaster relief personnel].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Sho

    2014-01-01

    The Tohoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquake, which occurred on March 11, 2011, caused serious damage and resulted in numerous fatalities and almost 20,000 missing persons. Furthermore, a major accident accompanied by exudation of radioactive material occurred in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A statement regarding the victims' mental health was issued by the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology on May 21, 2011, which established the Department of Disaster Psychiatry for the provision and assurance of long-term mental care support for the victims. The Department of Disaster Psychiatry was consequently reformed in April 2012, focusing on the following objectives: to verify the validity of current mental support methods; to ensure disaster psychiatry and medical care in Japan; and to promote human resource development that can respond to future large-scale disasters. Mental health support for disaster victims is of highest priority. However, the mental health of relief personnel, who act as front liners during disasters (i. e., police officers, fire fighters, Self-Defense Forces, and health care workers), has often been neglected. Therefore, countermeasures for the problems faced by relief personnel are indispensable for a more effective reconstruction. Volunteers are also important members of the disaster relief team and they have witnessed the actual tragedy, and some have experienced burnout. Thus, they require sufficient mental health support, as do relief personnel. We thought that the mental health of disaster relief personnel is an important issue; thus, we report their mental health needs, the systematic correspondence to disaster stress, and our works for relief assistance. As first responders, relief personnel even without prior disaster education proceed to the area of disaster and may get injured. We therefore suggest that prior to the occurrence of any disaster, networking, education, and disaster awareness should be advocated among relief

  2. [Mental health support for disaster relief personnel].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Sho

    2014-01-01

    The Tohoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquake, which occurred on March 11, 2011, caused serious damage and resulted in numerous fatalities and almost 20,000 missing persons. Furthermore, a major accident accompanied by exudation of radioactive material occurred in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A statement regarding the victims' mental health was issued by the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology on May 21, 2011, which established the Department of Disaster Psychiatry for the provision and assurance of long-term mental care support for the victims. The Department of Disaster Psychiatry was consequently reformed in April 2012, focusing on the following objectives: to verify the validity of current mental support methods; to ensure disaster psychiatry and medical care in Japan; and to promote human resource development that can respond to future large-scale disasters. Mental health support for disaster victims is of highest priority. However, the mental health of relief personnel, who act as front liners during disasters (i. e., police officers, fire fighters, Self-Defense Forces, and health care workers), has often been neglected. Therefore, countermeasures for the problems faced by relief personnel are indispensable for a more effective reconstruction. Volunteers are also important members of the disaster relief team and they have witnessed the actual tragedy, and some have experienced burnout. Thus, they require sufficient mental health support, as do relief personnel. We thought that the mental health of disaster relief personnel is an important issue; thus, we report their mental health needs, the systematic correspondence to disaster stress, and our works for relief assistance. As first responders, relief personnel even without prior disaster education proceed to the area of disaster and may get injured. We therefore suggest that prior to the occurrence of any disaster, networking, education, and disaster awareness should be advocated among relief

  3. Perception of light source distance from shading patterns.

    PubMed

    Schütt, Heiko H; Baier, Franziska; Fleming, Roland W

    2016-01-01

    Varying the distance of a light source from an object alters both the intensity and spatial distribution of surface shading patterns. We tested whether observers can use such cues to infer light source distance. Participants viewed stereoscopic renderings of rough objects with diffuse and glossy surfaces, which were illuminated by a point source at a range of distances. In one task, they adjusted the position of a small probe dot in three dimensions to report the apparent location of the light in the scene. In a second task, they adjusted the shading on one object (by moving an invisible light source) until it appeared to be illuminated from the same distance as another object. Participants' responses increased linearly with the true light source distance, suggesting that they have clear intuitions about how light source distance affects shading patterns for a variety of different surfaces. However, there were also systematic errors: Subjects overestimated light source distance in the probe adjustment task, and in both experiments, roughness and glossiness affected responses. We find the pattern of results is predicted surprisingly well by a simplistic model based only on the area of the image that exceeds a certain intensity threshold. Thus, although subjects can report light source distance, they may rely on simple--sometimes erroneous--heuristics to do so. PMID:26868887

  4. Perception of light source distance from shading patterns.

    PubMed

    Schütt, Heiko H; Baier, Franziska; Fleming, Roland W

    2016-01-01

    Varying the distance of a light source from an object alters both the intensity and spatial distribution of surface shading patterns. We tested whether observers can use such cues to infer light source distance. Participants viewed stereoscopic renderings of rough objects with diffuse and glossy surfaces, which were illuminated by a point source at a range of distances. In one task, they adjusted the position of a small probe dot in three dimensions to report the apparent location of the light in the scene. In a second task, they adjusted the shading on one object (by moving an invisible light source) until it appeared to be illuminated from the same distance as another object. Participants' responses increased linearly with the true light source distance, suggesting that they have clear intuitions about how light source distance affects shading patterns for a variety of different surfaces. However, there were also systematic errors: Subjects overestimated light source distance in the probe adjustment task, and in both experiments, roughness and glossiness affected responses. We find the pattern of results is predicted surprisingly well by a simplistic model based only on the area of the image that exceeds a certain intensity threshold. Thus, although subjects can report light source distance, they may rely on simple--sometimes erroneous--heuristics to do so.

  5. Shading-based DEM refinement under a comprehensive imaging model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jianwei; Zhang, Yi; Shan, Jie

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces an approach to refine coarse digital elevation models (DEMs) based on the shape-from-shading (SfS) technique using a single image. Different from previous studies, this approach is designed for heterogeneous terrain and derived from a comprehensive (extended) imaging model accounting for the combined effect of atmosphere, reflectance, and shading. To solve this intrinsic ill-posed problem, the least squares method and a subsequent optimization procedure are applied in this approach to estimate the shading component, from which the terrain gradient is recovered with a modified optimization method. Integrating the resultant gradients then yields a refined DEM at the same resolution as the input image. The proposed SfS method is evaluated using 30 m Landsat-8 OLI multispectral images and 30 m SRTM DEMs. As demonstrated in this paper, the proposed approach is able to reproduce terrain structures with a higher fidelity; and at medium to large up-scale ratios, can achieve elevation accuracy 20-30% better than the conventional interpolation methods. Further, this property is shown to be stable and independent of topographic complexity. With the ever-increasing public availability of satellite images and DEMs, the developed technique is meaningful for global or local DEM product refinement.

  6. Efficiently evaluate complex pressure relief systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.K.; Walker, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    This article will present the steps necessary to perform a comprehensive analysis of complex pressure relief systems. The goal is not to discuss detailed calculations for proper valve sizing and selection, but rather to analyze and verify existing system configurations. Sizing and selection have been covered in detail by the American Petroleum Institute (API) RP 520, API RP 521, various AIChE Design Institute for Emergency Relief Systems (DIERS) publications, and other sources. In their work with industry, the authors have noticed a tendency for some engineers to proceed with detailed calculations without first preparing an overall strategy and implementation plan to make sure that the calculations yield the desired results. They have seen detailed pressure relief system analyses costing hundreds of thousands of dollars which, for any number of reasons, are incorrect. The old adage GIGO (garbage in/garbage out) certainly applies to pressure relief system analysis. They will address the thought processes and actions necessary to correctly and efficiently evaluate complex pressure relief systems.

  7. Pain relief as an opponent process: a psychophysical investigation.

    PubMed

    Leknes, Siri; Brooks, Jonathan C W; Wiech, Katja; Tracey, Irene

    2008-08-01

    Relief from pain in humans is frequently measured by computing the reduction on an 11-point pain intensity scale. However, this definition of relief may be insufficient to capture the utility of pain relief for the individual. Based on pain literature and evidence from studies examining relief and reward, it is clear that pain relief is a broad concept comprising several factors, only one of which is pain intensity reduction. According to opponent process theory, all sensations consist of a primary process and a slow 'opponent process' of opposite valence, the purpose of which is to reduce the deviation from homeostatic balance. Here, opponent process theory provided a framework to explore the interaction between pain, relief and reward. We devised three psychophysical studies examining the temporal (Experiment I) and magnitude (Experiments I and II) relationships between pain severity and its subsequent relief. In Experiment III, we further manipulated the magnitude and pleasantness of relief experienced by applying innocuous cooling following noxious heat stimulation of capsaicin-sensitized skin. Results confirmed predictions from opponent process theory and showed that pain intensity reduction was significantly stronger than relief intensity ratings. Furthermore, continuous relief ratings appeared to reflect the speed of pain intensity reduction. Varying pain intensity parametrically confirmed that relief increases with pain intensity. That innocuous cooling following primary hyperalgesia intervention significantly increased the intensity, pleasantness and duration of relief provides further evidence that pain relief encapsulates more than a reduction in pain intensity. Importantly, the high relief pleasantness ratings confirmed the hypothesized link between relief and reward.

  8. Cryoanalgesia for post-thoracotomy pain relief.

    PubMed

    Joucken, K; Michel, L; Schoevaerdts, J C; Mayné, A; Randour, P

    1987-01-01

    A randomized study comparing the postoperative requirements of narcotics of three groups of patients (Group I: no analgesia; Group II: internal intercostal nerve block; Group III: cryoanalgesia) was conducted. This study was performed in order to assess the efficiency of cryoanalgesia versus internal intercostal nerve block to obtain pain relief after thoracotomy. Regarding post-operative narcotic requirements (Piritramide-Dipidolor), there was no significant difference between Group I and Group II patients, but patients from Group III required a significantly lower amount of narcotics during the first 36 postoperative hours (p less than 0.01). We conclude that, although cryoanalgesia does not provide complete post-thoracotomy pain relief, it is however an easy and safe method and is more efficient than internal intercostal nerve block for pain relief after thoracotomy. PMID:2889313

  9. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1986-03-17

    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury.

  10. Photosynthetic flexibility in maize exposed to salinity and shade

    PubMed Central

    Sharwood, Robert E.; Sonawane, Balasaheb V.; Ghannoum, Oula

    2014-01-01

    C4 photosynthesis involves a close collaboration of the C3 and C4 metabolic cycles across the mesophyll and bundle-sheath cells. This study investigated the coordination of C4 photosynthesis in maize plants subjected to two salinity (50 and 100mM NaCl) treatments and one shade (20% of full sunlight) treatment. Photosynthetic efficiency was probed by combining leaf gas-exchange measurements with carbon isotope discrimination and assaying the key carboxylases [ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)] and decarboxylases [nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP-CK)] operating in maize leaves. Generally, salinity inhibited plant growth and photosynthesis to a lesser extent than shade. Salinity reduced photosynthesis primarily by reducing stomatal conductance and secondarily by equally reducing Rubisco and PEPC activities; the decarboxylases were inhibited more than the carboxylases. Salinity increased photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination (Δp) and reduced leaf dry-matter carbon isotope composition (13δ) due to changes in p i/p a (intercellular to ambient CO2 partial pressure), while CO2 leakiness out of the bundle sheath (ϕ) was similar to that in control plants. Acclimation to shade was underpinned by a greater downregulation of PEPC relative to Rubisco activity, and a lesser inhibition of NADP-ME (primary decarboxylase) relative to PEP-CK (secondary decarboxylase). Shade reduced Δp and ɸ without significantly affecting leaf 13δ or p i/p a relative to control plants. Accordingly, shade perturbed the balance between the C3 and C4 cycles during photosynthesis in maize, and demonstrated the flexible partitioning of C4 acid decarboxylation activity between NADP-ME and PEP-CK in response to the environment. This study highlights the need to improve our understanding of the links between leaf 13δ and photosynthetic Δp, and the role

  11. Cloud Shading Effects on Characteristic Boundary-Layer Length Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, G. L.; Ouwersloot, H. G.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Sikma, M.

    2015-11-01

    We studied the effects of shading by shallow cumulus (shallow Cu) and the subsequent effect of inducing heterogeneous conditions at the surface on boundary-layer characteristics. We placed special emphasis on quantifying the changes in the characteristic length and time scales associated with thermals, shallow Cu and induced thermal circulation structures. A series of systematic numerical experiments, inspired by Amazonian thermodynamic conditions, was performed using a large-eddy simulation model coupled to a land-surface model. We used four different experiments to disentangle the effects of shallow Cu on the surface and the response of clouds to these surface changes. The experiments include a `clear case', `transparent clouds', `shading clouds' and a case with a prescribed uniform domain and reduced surface heat flux. We also performed a sensitivity study on the effect of introducing a weak background flow. Length and time scales were calculated using autocorrelation and two-dimensional spectral analysis, and we found that shading controlled by shallow Cu locally lowers surface temperatures and consequently reduces the sensible and latent heat fluxes, thus inducing spatial and temporal variability in these fluxes. The length scale of this surface heterogeneity is not sufficiently large to generate circulations that are superimposed on the boundary-layer scale, but the heterogeneity does disturb boundary-layer dynamics and generates a flow opposite to the normal thermal circulation. Besides this effect, shallow Cu shading reduces turbulent kinetic energy and lowers the convective velocity scale, thus reducing the mass flux. This hampers the thermal lifetime, resulting in a decrease in the shallow Cu residence time (from 11 to 7 min). This reduction in lifetime, combined with a decrease in mass flux, leads to smaller clouds. This is partially compensated for by a decrease in thermal cell size due to a reduction in turbulent kinetic energy. As a result, inter

  12. The influence of word shading and word length on eye movements during reading.

    PubMed

    Leyland, Louise-Ann; Kirkby, Julie A; Juhasz, Barbara J; Pollatsek, Alexander; Liversedge, Simon P

    2013-01-01

    An interesting issue in reading is how parafoveal information affects saccadic targeting and fixation durations. We investigated the influence of shading selected regions of text on eye movements during reading of long and short words within sentences. A target word, either four- or eight-letters long, was presented in one of four shading conditions: the whole target word shaded; the first half shaded; second half shaded; no shading. There was no evidence of a visually mediated parafoveal-on-foveal effect. Saccadic targeting was modulated by the shading on the first half of the word, such that fixations landed closer to the beginning of the word than in the other three shading conditions. Furthermore, partial word shading, resulting in visual non-uniformity of the target word, produced longer gaze durations than the other conditions. Finally, readers spent more time re-reading target words when they were partially shaded than in the other two conditions. We suggest that our effects are due to targeting of the optimal viewing location and revisits to check words that appear visually unusual. Together, the results indicate robust effects of low-level visual characteristics of the word on oculomotor decisions of where and when to move the eyes during reading.

  13. Emergency relief system design: The DIERS users group safety relief valve example problem

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.G.

    1995-12-31

    Emergency relief system design involving two-phase flow is an evolving and complex technology. Aspects of alternative design techniques have been published. Well-documented, comprehensive design methods for safety relief valves, rupture disks and breather vents, however, are not readily available and example problems supported by data do not exist. Design Institute for Emergency Relief Systems (DIERS) Users Group members recently completed an example rating problem consisting of a safety relief valve mounted in a typical industrial configuration. Participants were asked to compute the flow through the device and to calculate the inlet pipe irreversible pressure loss and discharge pipe back pressure. Case studies involving various flows and physical conditions were formulated. A {open_quotes}Modified Delphi{close_quotes} technique was used to encourage participants to work until the {open_quotes}consensus{close_quotes} result was achieved. The exercise served to educate participants in the complexities and subtleties of emergency relief system design involving safety relief installations as compared to ideal nozzle calculations. All learned from the various calculation techniques used by others to solve the problem. Participants corrected parts of their computer codes and/or added procedures to address aspects of the problem. The present example problem is not supported by data. Available safety relief valve two-phase flow data suggest complexity not presently included in problem solutions. Future modification of the results may be required as additional considerations are incorporated into existing analytical methods and computer codes. 20 refs., 21 tabs.

  14. 75 FR 75091 - Mortgage Assistance Relief Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... promulgates to implement the Omnibus Appropriations Act, therefore, cannot cover the practices of banks... rule included provisions that would: \\16\\ See Mortgage Assistance Relief Services, 74 FR 26130 (June 1... Services, 75 FR 10707 (Mar. 9, 2010) (MARS NPRM). Prohibit MARS providers from making false or...

  15. Recommendations on frequently encountered relief requests

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, R.S.; Ransom, C.B.

    1992-09-01

    This paper is based on the review of a large database of requests for relief from enservice testing (1ST) requirements for pumps and valves. From the review, the paper identifies areas where enhancements to either the relief request process or the applicable test codes can improve IST of pumps and valves. Certain types of requests occur frequently. The paper examines some frequent requests and considers possible changes to the requirements to determine if the frequent requests can be eliminated. Recommended changes and their bases will be discussed. IST of safety-related pumps and valves at commercial nuclear power plants is done according to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section XI. Because of the design and function of some safety systems in nuclear plants, performing Code testing of certain pumps and valves is impractical or a hardship without a compensating increase in the level of safety. Deviations from the Code are allowed by law, as reviewed and approved by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), through the relief request process. Because of similarities in plant design and system function, many problems encountered in testing components are similar from plant to plant. Likewise, there are often common problems associated with test methods or equipment. Therefore, many relief requests received by the NRC from various plants are similar. Identifying and addressing the root causes for these common requests will greatly improve IST.

  16. Recommendations on frequently encountered relief requests

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, R.S.; Ransom, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is based on the review of a large database of requests for relief from enservice testing (1ST) requirements for pumps and valves. From the review, the paper identifies areas where enhancements to either the relief request process or the applicable test codes can improve IST of pumps and valves. Certain types of requests occur frequently. The paper examines some frequent requests and considers possible changes to the requirements to determine if the frequent requests can be eliminated. Recommended changes and their bases will be discussed. IST of safety-related pumps and valves at commercial nuclear power plants is done according to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section XI. Because of the design and function of some safety systems in nuclear plants, performing Code testing of certain pumps and valves is impractical or a hardship without a compensating increase in the level of safety. Deviations from the Code are allowed by law, as reviewed and approved by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), through the relief request process. Because of similarities in plant design and system function, many problems encountered in testing components are similar from plant to plant. Likewise, there are often common problems associated with test methods or equipment. Therefore, many relief requests received by the NRC from various plants are similar. Identifying and addressing the root causes for these common requests will greatly improve IST.

  17. 24 CFR 965.508 - Individual relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual relief. 965.508 Section 965.508 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Resident Allowances for Utilities § 965.508...

  18. Cryoanalgesia. A new approach to pain relief.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, J W; Barnard, J D; Glynn, C J

    1976-10-30

    Cryotherapy has been clinically applied to relieve pain using a new cryosurgical probe to block peripheral nerve function to achieve analgesia. Sixty-four patients with intractable pain were treated with cryoanalgesia. Fifty-two obtained relief of pain for a median duration of 11 days and a range of up to 224 days. PMID:62163

  19. 24 CFR 220.753 - Forbearance relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 220.753 Section 220.753 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  20. 24 CFR 220.753 - Forbearance relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 220.753 Section 220.753 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  1. 24 CFR 220.753 - Forbearance relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 220.753 Section 220.753 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  2. 24 CFR 220.753 - Forbearance relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 220.753 Section 220.753 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  3. 24 CFR 220.753 - Forbearance relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 220.753 Section 220.753 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  4. Tsunami-Relief Groups Advise K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Marianne D.

    2005-01-01

    As American schools pitch in with an array of charitable projects in response to the tsunami in South Asia, experts say educators and students should consider carefully how they can most effectively support relief groups, avoid fund-raising scams, and incorporate their efforts into service-learning programs. When students returned to school after…

  5. 78 FR 19136 - Emergency Relief Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477). Docket: For access to the docket to read background documents and comments received... first $2 billion (78 FR 8691). In accordance with the statute, the remainder of the appropriated funds... Register notice of availability of emergency relief funds for Hurricane Sandy (78 FR 8691, Feb. 6,...

  6. 75 FR 10707 - MORTGAGE ASSISTANCE RELIEF SERVICES

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... are needed to prevent harm to consumers.\\15\\ \\13\\ Mortgage Assistance Relief Services, 74 FR 26130... mortgage loans. Mortgage Acts and Practices, 74 FR 26118 (June 1, 2009). The Commission anticipates that it will publish an NPRM relating to other mortgage practices in the near future. \\15\\ MARS ANPR, 74 FR...

  7. 24 CFR 221.761 - Forbearance relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 221.761 Section 221.761 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  8. 24 CFR 221.761 - Forbearance relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 221.761 Section 221.761 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  9. 49 CFR 1108.4 - Relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... herein, an Arbitrator may grant the following types of relief: (1) Monetary damages, to the extent... Arbitrator. (2) Specific performance of statutory obligations (including the prescription of reasonable rates), but for a period not to exceed 3 years from the effective date of the Arbitrator's award. (b) A...

  10. The effects of drought and shade on the performance, morphology and physiology of Ghanaian tree species.

    PubMed

    Amissah, Lucy; Mohren, Godefridus M J; Kyereh, Boateng; Poorter, Lourens

    2015-01-01

    In tropical forests light and water availability are the most important factors for seedling growth and survival but an increasing frequency of drought may affect tree regeneration. One central question is whether drought and shade have interactive effects on seedling growth and survival. Here, we present results of a greenhouse experiment, in which seedlings of 10 Ghanaian tree species were exposed to combinations of strong seasonal drought (continuous watering versus withholding water for nine weeks) and shade (5% irradiance versus 20% irradiance). We evaluated the effects of drought and shade on seedling survival and growth and plasticity of 11 underlying traits related to biomass allocation, morphology and physiology. Seedling survival under dry conditions was higher in shade than in high light, thus providing support for the "facilitation hypothesis" that shade enhances plant performance through improved microclimatic conditions, and rejecting the trade-off hypothesis that drought should have stronger impact in shade because of reduced root investment. Shaded plants had low biomass fraction in roots, in line with the trade-off hypothesis, but they compensated for this with a higher specific root length (i.e., root length per unit root mass), resulting in a similar root length per plant mass and, hence, similar water uptake capacity as high-light plants. The majority (60%) of traits studied responded independently to drought and shade, indicating that within species shade- and drought tolerances are not in trade-off, but largely uncoupled. When individual species responses were analysed, then for most of the traits only one to three species showed significant interactive effects between drought and shade. The uncoupled response of most species to drought and shade should provide ample opportunity for niche differentiation and species coexistence under a range of water and light conditions. Overall our greenhouse results suggest that, in the absence of root

  11. Cacao Cultivation under Diverse Shade Tree Cover Allows High Carbon Storage and Sequestration without Yield Losses

    PubMed Central

    Abou Rajab, Yasmin; Leuschner, Christoph; Barus, Henry; Tjoa, Aiyen; Hertel, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    One of the main drivers of tropical forest loss is their conversion to oil palm, soy or cacao plantations with low biodiversity and greatly reduced carbon storage. Southeast Asian cacao plantations are often established under shade tree cover, but are later converted to non-shaded monocultures to avoid resource competition. We compared three co-occurring cacao cultivation systems (3 replicate stands each) with different shade intensity (non-shaded monoculture, cacao with the legume Gliricidia sepium shade trees, and cacao with several shade tree species) in Sulawesi (Indonesia) with respect to above- and belowground biomass and productivity, and cacao bean yield. Total biomass C stocks (above- and belowground) increased fivefold from the monoculture to the multi-shade tree system (from 11 to 57 Mg ha-1), total net primary production rose twofold (from 9 to 18 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). This increase was associated with a 6fold increase in aboveground biomass, but only a 3.5fold increase in root biomass, indicating a clear shift in C allocation to aboveground tree organs with increasing shade for both cacao and shade trees. Despite a canopy cover increase from 50 to 93%, cacao bean yield remained invariant across the systems (variation: 1.1–1.2 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). The monocultures had a twice as rapid leaf turnover suggesting that shading reduces the exposure of cacao to atmospheric drought, probably resulting in greater leaf longevity. Thus, contrary to general belief, cacao bean yield does not necessarily decrease under shading which seems to reduce physical stress. If planned properly, cacao plantations under a shade tree cover allow combining high yield with benefits for carbon sequestration and storage, production system stability under stress, and higher levels of animal and plant diversity. PMID:26927428

  12. Cacao Cultivation under Diverse Shade Tree Cover Allows High Carbon Storage and Sequestration without Yield Losses.

    PubMed

    Abou Rajab, Yasmin; Leuschner, Christoph; Barus, Henry; Tjoa, Aiyen; Hertel, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    One of the main drivers of tropical forest loss is their conversion to oil palm, soy or cacao plantations with low biodiversity and greatly reduced carbon storage. Southeast Asian cacao plantations are often established under shade tree cover, but are later converted to non-shaded monocultures to avoid resource competition. We compared three co-occurring cacao cultivation systems (3 replicate stands each) with different shade intensity (non-shaded monoculture, cacao with the legume Gliricidia sepium shade trees, and cacao with several shade tree species) in Sulawesi (Indonesia) with respect to above- and belowground biomass and productivity, and cacao bean yield. Total biomass C stocks (above- and belowground) increased fivefold from the monoculture to the multi-shade tree system (from 11 to 57 Mg ha-1), total net primary production rose twofold (from 9 to 18 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). This increase was associated with a 6fold increase in aboveground biomass, but only a 3.5fold increase in root biomass, indicating a clear shift in C allocation to aboveground tree organs with increasing shade for both cacao and shade trees. Despite a canopy cover increase from 50 to 93%, cacao bean yield remained invariant across the systems (variation: 1.1-1.2 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). The monocultures had a twice as rapid leaf turnover suggesting that shading reduces the exposure of cacao to atmospheric drought, probably resulting in greater leaf longevity. Thus, contrary to general belief, cacao bean yield does not necessarily decrease under shading which seems to reduce physical stress. If planned properly, cacao plantations under a shade tree cover allow combining high yield with benefits for carbon sequestration and storage, production system stability under stress, and higher levels of animal and plant diversity.

  13. Cacao Cultivation under Diverse Shade Tree Cover Allows High Carbon Storage and Sequestration without Yield Losses.

    PubMed

    Abou Rajab, Yasmin; Leuschner, Christoph; Barus, Henry; Tjoa, Aiyen; Hertel, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    One of the main drivers of tropical forest loss is their conversion to oil palm, soy or cacao plantations with low biodiversity and greatly reduced carbon storage. Southeast Asian cacao plantations are often established under shade tree cover, but are later converted to non-shaded monocultures to avoid resource competition. We compared three co-occurring cacao cultivation systems (3 replicate stands each) with different shade intensity (non-shaded monoculture, cacao with the legume Gliricidia sepium shade trees, and cacao with several shade tree species) in Sulawesi (Indonesia) with respect to above- and belowground biomass and productivity, and cacao bean yield. Total biomass C stocks (above- and belowground) increased fivefold from the monoculture to the multi-shade tree system (from 11 to 57 Mg ha-1), total net primary production rose twofold (from 9 to 18 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). This increase was associated with a 6fold increase in aboveground biomass, but only a 3.5fold increase in root biomass, indicating a clear shift in C allocation to aboveground tree organs with increasing shade for both cacao and shade trees. Despite a canopy cover increase from 50 to 93%, cacao bean yield remained invariant across the systems (variation: 1.1-1.2 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). The monocultures had a twice as rapid leaf turnover suggesting that shading reduces the exposure of cacao to atmospheric drought, probably resulting in greater leaf longevity. Thus, contrary to general belief, cacao bean yield does not necessarily decrease under shading which seems to reduce physical stress. If planned properly, cacao plantations under a shade tree cover allow combining high yield with benefits for carbon sequestration and storage, production system stability under stress, and higher levels of animal and plant diversity. PMID:26927428

  14. The Effects of Drought and Shade on the Performance, Morphology and Physiology of Ghanaian Tree Species

    PubMed Central

    Amissah, Lucy; Mohren, Godefridus M. J.; Kyereh, Boateng; Poorter, Lourens

    2015-01-01

    In tropical forests light and water availability are the most important factors for seedling growth and survival but an increasing frequency of drought may affect tree regeneration. One central question is whether drought and shade have interactive effects on seedling growth and survival. Here, we present results of a greenhouse experiment, in which seedlings of 10 Ghanaian tree species were exposed to combinations of strong seasonal drought (continuous watering versus withholding water for nine weeks) and shade (5% irradiance versus 20% irradiance). We evaluated the effects of drought and shade on seedling survival and growth and plasticity of 11 underlying traits related to biomass allocation, morphology and physiology. Seedling survival under dry conditions was higher in shade than in high light, thus providing support for the “facilitation hypothesis” that shade enhances plant performance through improved microclimatic conditions, and rejecting the trade-off hypothesis that drought should have stronger impact in shade because of reduced root investment. Shaded plants had low biomass fraction in roots, in line with the trade-off hypothesis, but they compensated for this with a higher specific root length (i.e., root length per unit root mass), resulting in a similar root length per plant mass and, hence, similar water uptake capacity as high-light plants. The majority (60%) of traits studied responded independently to drought and shade, indicating that within species shade- and drought tolerances are not in trade-off, but largely uncoupled. When individual species responses were analysed, then for most of the traits only one to three species showed significant interactive effects between drought and shade. The uncoupled response of most species to drought and shade should provide ample opportunity for niche differentiation and species coexistence under a range of water and light conditions. Overall our greenhouse results suggest that, in the absence of root

  15. Esthetic restorative material shade changes due to photopolymerization.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hidehiko; Covey, David

    2008-05-01

    This study sought to measure color values (before and after photopolymerization) and variations of A1 shade polymeric dental restorative materials. The L*a*b* values of polymeric dental restorative material disks were measured by a spectrophotometer with the specular component excluded (SCE) geometry under D65 illumination over a standardized white background before and after photopolymerization. Color differences (DeltaE*ab) due to polymerization were calculated using the CIE Lab color-difference formula. DeltaE*ab indicates differences between two colors in the L*a*b* color space. In this system, L*, a*, and b* indicate lightness, red-green, and yellow-blue, respectively. Color differences (DeltaE*ab) were calculated by the equation DeltaE*ab = [(DeltaL*)2 + (Deltaa*)2 + (Deltab*)2]1/2. Eight resin composites, three flowable resin composites (FRCs), and two resin-modified glass ionomers (RMGIs) were utilized; L*a*b* and DeltaE*ab values of the test groups were analyzed using ANOVA and Newman-Keuls multiple comparison tests. DeltaE*ab values before and after photopolymerization ranged from 3.01-17.76. All RMGI and two FRC materials displayed greater color changes than the resin composites (p < 0.05). Photopolymerization produced measurable increases and decreases in lightness. Yellow-blue (b*) values decreased in all test groups after polymerization, while most red-green (a*) values increased. Color differences between polymerized A1 shade materials ranged from 0.76-25.41 DeltaE*ab. The color difference between the test materials and a widely used tooth shade guide (the Vita Lumin) was averaged at 12.66 DeltaE*ab.

  16. Cotyledon-Generated Auxin Is Required for Shade-Induced Hypocotyl Growth in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Procko, Carl; Crenshaw, Charisse Michelle; Ljung, Karin; Noel, Joseph Patrick; Chory, Joanne

    2014-06-01

    Plant architecture is optimized for the local light environment. In response to foliar shade or neighbor proximity (low red to far-red light), some plant species exhibit shade-avoiding phenotypes, including increased stem and hypocotyl growth, which increases the likelihood of outgrowing competitor plants. If shade persists, early flowering and the reallocation of growth resources to stem elongation ultimately affect the yield of harvestable tissues in crop species. Previous studies have shown that hypocotyl growth in low red to far-red shade is largely dependent on the photoreceptor phytochrome B and the phytohormone auxin. However, where shade is perceived in the plant and how auxin regulates growth spatially are less well understood. Using the oilseed and vegetable crop species Brassica rapa, we show that the perception of low red to far-red shade by the cotyledons triggers hypocotyl cell elongation and auxin target gene expression. Furthermore, we find that following shade perception, elevated auxin levels occur in a basipetal gradient away from the cotyledons and that this is coincident with a gradient of auxin target gene induction. These results show that cotyledon-generated auxin regulates hypocotyl elongation. In addition, we find in mature B. rapa plants that simulated shade does not affect seed oil composition but may affect seed yield. This suggests that in field settings where mutual shading between plants may occur, a balance between plant density and seed yield per plant needs to be achieved for maximum oil yield, while oil composition might remain constant.

  17. Shade Avoidance Components and Pathways in Adult Plants Revealed by Phenotypic Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Nozue, Kazunari; Tat, An V.; Kumar Devisetty, Upendra; Robinson, Matthew; Mumbach, Maxwell R.; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Lekkala, Saradadevi; Maloof, Julin N.

    2015-01-01

    Shade from neighboring plants limits light for photosynthesis; as a consequence, plants have a variety of strategies to avoid canopy shade and compete with their neighbors for light. Collectively the response to foliar shade is called the shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). The SAS includes elongation of a variety of organs, acceleration of flowering time, and additional physiological responses, which are seen throughout the plant life cycle. However, current mechanistic knowledge is mainly limited to shade-induced elongation of seedlings. Here we use phenotypic profiling of seedling, leaf, and flowering time traits to untangle complex SAS networks. We used over-representation analysis (ORA) of shade-responsive genes, combined with previous annotation, to logically select 59 known and candidate novel mutants for phenotyping. Our analysis reveals shared and separate pathways for each shade avoidance response. In particular, auxin pathway components were required for shade avoidance responses in hypocotyl, petiole, and flowering time, whereas jasmonic acid pathway components were only required for petiole and flowering time responses. Our phenotypic profiling allowed discovery of seventeen novel shade avoidance mutants. Our results demonstrate that logical selection of mutants increased success of phenotypic profiling to dissect complex traits and discover novel components. PMID:25874869

  18. Interactions between Auxin, Microtubules and XTHs Mediate Green Shade- Induced Petiole Elongation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Sasidharan, Rashmi; Keuskamp, Diederik H.; Kooke, Rik; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Pierik, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Plants are highly attuned to translating environmental changes to appropriate modifications in growth. Such phenotypic plasticity is observed in dense vegetations, where shading by neighboring plants, triggers rapid unidirectional shoot growth (shade avoidance), such as petiole elongation, which is partly under the control of auxin. This growth is fuelled by cellular expansion requiring cell-wall modification by proteins such as xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs). Cortical microtubules (cMTs) are highly dynamic cytoskeletal structures that are also implicated in growth regulation. The objective of this study was to investigate the tripartite interaction between auxin, cMTs and XTHs in shade avoidance. Our results indicate a role for cMTs to control rapid petiole elongation in Arabidopsis during shade avoidance. Genetic and pharmacological perturbation of cMTs obliterated shade-induced growth and led to a reduction in XTH activity as well. Furthermore, the cMT disruption repressed the shade-induced expression of a specific set of XTHs. These XTHs were also regulated by the hormone auxin, an important regulator of plant developmental plasticity and also of several shade avoidance responses. Accordingly, the effect of cMT disruption on the shade enhanced XTH expression could be rescued by auxin application. Based on the results we hypothesize that cMTs can mediate petiole elongation during shade avoidance by regulating the expression of cell wall modifying proteins via control of auxin distribution. PMID:24594664

  19. Daylighting performance evaluation of a bottom-up motorized roller shade

    SciTech Connect

    Kapsis, K.; Athienitis, A.K.; Zmeureanu, R.G.; Tzempelikos, A.

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents an experimental and simulation study for quantifying the daylighting performance of bottom-up roller shades installed in office spaces. The bottom-up shade is a motorized roller shade that opens from top to bottom operating in the opposite direction of a conventional roller shade, so as to cover the bottom part of the window, while allowing daylight to enter from the top part of the window, reaching deeper into the room. A daylighting simulation model, validated with full-scale experiments, was developed in order to establish correlations between the shade position, outdoor illuminance and work plane illuminance for different outdoor conditions. Then, a shading control algorithm was developed for application in any location and orientation. The validated model was employed for a sensitivity analysis of the impact of shade optical properties and control on the potential energy savings due to the use of daylighting. The results showed that Daylight Autonomy for the bottom-up shade is 8-58% higher compared to a conventional roller shade, with a difference of 46% further away from the facade, where the use of electric lighting is needed most of the time. The potential reduction in energy consumption for lighting is 21-41%. (author)

  20. Partial Shade Evaluation of Distributed Power Electronics for Photovoltaic Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, C.; Meydbrav, J.; Donovan, M.

    2012-06-01

    Site survey data for several residential installations are provided, showing the extent and frequency of shade throughout the year. This background information is used to design a representative shading test that is conducted on two side-by-side 8-kW photovoltaic (PV) installations. One system is equipped with a standard string inverter, while the other is equipped with microinverters on each solar panel. Partial shade is applied to both systems in a comprehensive range of shading conditions, simulating one of three shade extents. Under light shading conditions, the microinverter system produced the equivalent of 4% annual performance improvement, relative to the string inverter system. Under moderate shading conditions, the microinverter system outperformed the string inverter system by 8%, and under heavy shading the microinverter increased relative performance by 12%. In all three cases, the percentage of performance loss that is recovered by the use of distributed power electronics is 40%-50%. Additionally, it was found that certain shading conditions can lead to additional losses in string inverters due to peak-power tracking errors and voltage limitations.

  1. Ecophysiological and morphological responses to shade and drought in two contrasting ecotypes of Prunus serotina.

    PubMed

    Abrams, M D; Kloeppel, B D; Kubiske, M E

    1992-06-01

    Photosynthesis (A), water relations and stomatal reactivity during drought, and leaf morphology were evaluated on 2-year-old, sun- and shade-grown Prunus serotina Ehrh. seedlings of a mesic Pennsylvania seed source and a more xeric Wisconsin source. Wisconsin plants maintained higher A and leaf conductance (g(wv)) than Pennsylvania plants during the entire drought under sun conditions, and during the mid stages of drought under shade conditions. Compared to shade plants, sun plants of both sources exhibited a more rapid decrease in A or % A(max) with decreasing leaf water potential (Psi). Tissue water relations parameters were generally not significantly different between seed sources. However, osmotic potentials were lower in sun than shade plants under well-watered conditions. Following drought, shade plants, but not sun plants, exhibited significant osmotic adjustment. Sun leaves had greater thickness, specific mass, area and stomatal density and lower guard cell length than shade leaves in one or both sources. Wisconsin sun leaves were seemingly more xerophytic with greater thickness, specific mass, and guard cell length than Pennsylvania sun leaves. No source differences in leaf structure were exhibited in shade plants. Stomatal reactivity to sun-shade cycles was similar between ecotypes. However, well-watered and droughted plants differed in stomatal reactivity within and between multiple sun-shade cycles. The observed ecotypic and phenotypic variations in ecophysiology and morphology are consistent with the ability of Prunus serotina to survive in greatly contrasting environments. PMID:14969972

  2. Effect of abutment shade, ceramic thickness, and coping type on the final shade of zirconia all-ceramic restorations: in vitro study of color masking ability

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seon-Hee

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of abutment shade, ceramic thickness, and coping type on the final shade of zirconia all-ceramic restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three different types of disk-shaped zirconia coping specimens (Lava, Cercon, Zirkonzahn: ø10 mm × 0.4 mm) were fabricated and veneered with IPS e.max Press Ceram (shade A2), for total thicknesses of 1 and 1.5 mm. A total of sixty zirconia restoration specimens were divided into six groups based on their coping types and thicknesses. The abutment specimens (ø10 mm × 7 mm) were prepared with gold alloy, base metal (nickel-chromium) alloy, and four different shades (A1, A2, A3, A4) of composite resins. The average L*, a*, b* values of the zirconia specimens on the six abutment specimens were measured with a dental colorimeter, and the statistical significance in the effects of three variables was analyzed by using repeated measures analysis of variance (α=.05).The average shade difference (ΔE) values of the zirconia specimens between the A2 composite resin abutment and other abutments were also evaluated. RESULTS The effects of zirconia specimen thickness (P<.001), abutment shade (P<.001), and type of zirconia copings (P<.003) on the final shade of the zirconia restorations were significant. The average ΔE value of Lava specimens (1 mm) between the A2 composite resin and gold alloy abutments was higher (close to the acceptability threshold of 5.5 ΔE) than th ose between the A2 composite resin and other abutments. CONCLUSION This in-vitro study demonstrated that abutment shade, ceramic thickness, and coping type affected the resulting shade of zirconia restorations. PMID:26576252

  3. 49 CFR 601.42 - Emergency relief docket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Emergency Relief Docket in the publicly accessible DOT Docket Management System (DMS) (http://dms.dot.gov... message on its web page (http://www.fta.dot.gov) indicating the Emergency Relief Docket has been...

  4. Enforcing Compliance with IDEA: Dispute Resolution and Appropriate Relief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagley, David

    1995-01-01

    This discussion of dispute resolution and remedies under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act focuses on the due process hearing as well as alternative dispute resolution, appropriate relief, reimbursements, compensatory relief, punitive damages, and attorneys' fees. (DB)

  5. Riparian shading controls instream spring phytoplankton and benthic algal growth.

    PubMed

    Halliday, S J; Skeffington, R A; Wade, A J; Bowes, M J; Read, D S; Jarvie, H P; Loewenthal, M

    2016-06-15

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations showed a striking pattern in a multi-year study of the River Enborne, a small river in SE England. In each of three years (2010-2012), maximum DO concentrations were attained in mid-April, preceded by a period of steadily increasing diurnal amplitudes, followed by a steady reduction in both amplitude and concentration. Flow events during the reduction period reduce DO to low concentrations until the following spring. Evidence is presented that this pattern is mainly due to benthic algal growth which is eventually suppressed by the growth of the riparian tree canopy. Nitrate and silicate concentrations are too high to inhibit the growth of either benthic algae or phytoplankton, but phosphate concentrations might have started to reduce growth if the tree canopy development had been delayed. This interpretation is supported by evidence from weekly flow cytometry measurements and analysis of the diurnal, seasonal and annual patterns of nutrient concentrations. As the tree canopy develops, the river switches from an autotrophic to a heterotrophic state. The results support the use of riparian shading to help control algal growth, and highlight the risks of reducing riparian shade.

  6. Riparian shading controls instream spring phytoplankton and benthic algal growth.

    PubMed

    Halliday, S J; Skeffington, R A; Wade, A J; Bowes, M J; Read, D S; Jarvie, H P; Loewenthal, M

    2016-06-15

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations showed a striking pattern in a multi-year study of the River Enborne, a small river in SE England. In each of three years (2010-2012), maximum DO concentrations were attained in mid-April, preceded by a period of steadily increasing diurnal amplitudes, followed by a steady reduction in both amplitude and concentration. Flow events during the reduction period reduce DO to low concentrations until the following spring. Evidence is presented that this pattern is mainly due to benthic algal growth which is eventually suppressed by the growth of the riparian tree canopy. Nitrate and silicate concentrations are too high to inhibit the growth of either benthic algae or phytoplankton, but phosphate concentrations might have started to reduce growth if the tree canopy development had been delayed. This interpretation is supported by evidence from weekly flow cytometry measurements and analysis of the diurnal, seasonal and annual patterns of nutrient concentrations. As the tree canopy develops, the river switches from an autotrophic to a heterotrophic state. The results support the use of riparian shading to help control algal growth, and highlight the risks of reducing riparian shade. PMID:27192431

  7. Light-Induced Indeterminacy Alters Shade-Avoiding Tomato Leaf Morphology1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chitwood, Daniel H.; Kumar, Ravi; Ranjan, Aashish; Pelletier, Julie M.; Townsley, Brad T.; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Martinez, Ciera C.; Zumstein, Kristina; Harada, John J.; Maloof, Julin N.; Sinha, Neelima R.

    2015-01-01

    Plants sense the foliar shade of competitors and alter their developmental programs through the shade-avoidance response. Internode and petiole elongation, and changes in overall leaf area and leaf mass per area, are the stereotypical architectural responses to foliar shade in the shoot. However, changes in leaf shape and complexity in response to shade remain incompletely, and qualitatively, described. Using a meta-analysis of more than 18,000 previously published leaflet outlines, we demonstrate that shade avoidance alters leaf shape in domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and wild relatives. The effects of shade avoidance on leaf shape are subtle with respect to individual traits but are combinatorially strong. We then seek to describe the developmental origins of shade-induced changes in leaf shape by swapping plants between light treatments. Leaf size is light responsive late into development, but patterning events, such as stomatal index, are irrevocably specified earlier. Observing that shade induces increases in shoot apical meristem size, we then describe gene expression changes in early leaf primordia and the meristem using laser microdissection. We find that in leaf primordia, shade avoidance is not mediated through canonical pathways described in mature organs but rather through the expression of KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEOBOX and other indeterminacy genes, altering known developmental pathways responsible for patterning leaf shape. We also demonstrate that shade-induced changes in leaf primordium gene expression largely do not overlap with those found in successively initiated leaf primordia, providing evidence against classic hypotheses that shaded leaf morphology results from the prolonged production of juvenile leaf types. PMID:26381315

  8. Photosynthetic responses to understory shade and elevated carbon dioxide concentration in four northern hardwood tree species.

    PubMed

    Sefcik, Lesley T; Zak, Donald R; Ellsworth, David S

    2006-12-01

    Seedling responses to elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]) and solar irradiance were measured over two growing seasons in shade-tolerant Acer saccharum Marsh. and Fagus grandifolia J.F. Ehrh. and shade-intolerant Prunus serotina, a J.F. Ehrh. and Betula papyrifera Marsh. Seedlings were exposed to a factorial combination of [CO2] (ambient and elevated (658 micromol mol-1)) and understory shade (deep and moderate) in open-top chambers placed in a forest understory. The elevated [CO(2)] treatment increased mean light-saturated net photosynthetic rate by 63% in the shade-tolerant species and 67% in the shade-intolerant species. However, when measured at the elevated [CO(2)], long-term enhancement of photosynthesis was 10% lower than the instantaneous enhancement seen in ambient-[CO(2)]-grown plants (P < 0.021). Overall, growth light environment affected long-term photosynthetic enhancement by elevated [CO(2)]: as the growth irradiance increased, proportional enhancement due to elevated [CO(2)] decreased from 97% for plants grown in deep shade to 47% for plants grown in moderate shade. Results suggest that in N-limited northern temperate forests, trees grown in deep shade may display greater photosynthetic gains from a CO(2)-enriched atmosphere than trees growing in more moderate shade, because of greater downregulation in the latter environment. If photosynthetic gains by deep-shade-grown plants in response to elevated [CO(2)] translate into improved growth and survival of shade-intolerant species, it could alter the future composition and dynamics of successional forest communities. PMID:17169898

  9. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section 179.15... § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class 106, 107, 110, and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material compatible with the lading, that conforms to...

  10. 49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.500-12 Section 179...-12 Pressure relief devices. (a) Tank shall be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices of... pressure equal to 70 percent of the marked test pressure of tank, flow capacity will be sufficient...

  11. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section 179.15... § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class 106, 107, 110, and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material compatible with the lading, that conforms to...

  12. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section 179.15... Design Requirements § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class 106, 107, 110, and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material compatible with the lading,...

  13. 49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.500-12 Section 179...-12 Pressure relief devices. (a) Tank shall be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices of... pressure equal to 70 percent of the marked test pressure of tank, flow capacity will be sufficient...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1846 - Relief valves: Changing set pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Relief valves: Changing set pressure. 154.1846 Section... Relief valves: Changing set pressure. The master shall: (a) Supervise the changing of the set pressure of relief valves under § 154.802(b); (b) Enter the change of set pressure in the vessel's log; and...

  15. 49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.346-3 Section 178.346-3... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-3 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1846 - Relief valves: Changing set pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief valves: Changing set pressure. 154.1846 Section... Relief valves: Changing set pressure. The master shall: (a) Supervise the changing of the set pressure of relief valves under § 154.802(b); (b) Enter the change of set pressure in the vessel's log; and...

  17. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section 179.15... § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class 106, 107, 110, and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material compatible with the lading, that conforms to...

  18. 49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.346-3 Section 178.346-3... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-3 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type...

  19. 49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.500-12 Section 179...-12 Pressure relief devices. (a) Tank shall be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices of... pressure equal to 70 percent of the marked test pressure of tank, flow capacity will be sufficient...

  20. 49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.346-3 Section 178.346-3... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-3 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type...

  1. 49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... equipped with one or more vacuum relief devices; (2) When intended for use only for lading meeting the...) Each vacuum relief device must be set to open at no more than 6 ounces vacuum. (d) Venting capacities...(e) may be rated at these same pressures. (2) Each vacuum relief system must have sufficient...

  2. 49 CFR 178.348-4 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with a pressure and vacuum relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type and construction. Vacuum relief devices are not required for cargo tanks designed to be loaded by vacuum or built to withstand full vacuum. (c) Pressure settings of relief valves. The setting of the pressure...

  3. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  4. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section 64.59 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.59...

  5. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section 64.59 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.59...

  6. 49 CFR 178.347-4 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must be equipped with a pressure and vacuum relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type and Construction. Vacuum relief devices are not required for cargo tanks designed to be loaded by vacuum or built to withstand full vacuum. (c) Pressure settings of relief valves. The...

  7. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  8. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section 64.59 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.59...

  9. 46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section 64.57 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs §...

  10. 49 CFR 178.348-4 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with a pressure and vacuum relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type and construction. Vacuum relief devices are not required for cargo tanks designed to be loaded by vacuum or built to withstand full vacuum. (c) Pressure settings of relief valves. The setting of the pressure...

  11. 46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section 64.57 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs §...

  12. 46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section 64.71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.71...

  13. 46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section 64.71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.71...

  14. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  15. 46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section 64.71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.71...

  16. 46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section 64.71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.71...

  17. 49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cargo tank must be equipped with one or more vacuum relief devices; (2) When intended for use only for... pressures. (2) Each vacuum relief device must be set to open at no more than 6 ounces vacuum. (d) Venting....345-10(e) may be rated at these same pressures. (2) Each vacuum relief system must have...

  18. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  19. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section 64.59 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.59...

  20. 46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section 64.71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.71...

  1. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  2. 46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section 64.57 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs §...

  3. 49 CFR 178.348-4 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... with a pressure and vacuum relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type and construction. Vacuum relief devices are not required for cargo tanks designed to be loaded by vacuum or built to withstand full vacuum. (c) Pressure settings of relief valves. The setting of the pressure...

  4. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section 64.59 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.59...

  5. 49 CFR 178.348-4 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... with a pressure and vacuum relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type and construction. Vacuum relief devices are not required for cargo tanks designed to be loaded by vacuum or built to withstand full vacuum. (c) Pressure settings of relief valves. The setting of the pressure...

  6. 49 CFR 178.348-4 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must be equipped with a pressure and vacuum relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type and construction. Vacuum relief devices are not required for cargo tanks designed to be loaded by vacuum or built to withstand full vacuum. (c) Pressure settings of relief valves. The...

  7. 46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section 64.57 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs §...

  8. 46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section 64.57 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs §...

  9. 19 CFR 171.3 - Oral presentations seeking relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oral presentations seeking relief. 171.3 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FINES, PENALTIES, AND FORFEITURES Application for Relief § 171.3 Oral... make an oral presentation seeking relief in accordance with this paragraph. (b) Other...

  10. 19 CFR 171.3 - Oral presentations seeking relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral presentations seeking relief. 171.3 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FINES, PENALTIES, AND FORFEITURES Application for Relief § 171.3 Oral... make an oral presentation seeking relief in accordance with this paragraph. (b) Other...

  11. 19 CFR 171.3 - Oral presentations seeking relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oral presentations seeking relief. 171.3 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FINES, PENALTIES, AND FORFEITURES Application for Relief § 171.3 Oral... make an oral presentation seeking relief in accordance with this paragraph. (b) Other...

  12. 19 CFR 171.3 - Oral presentations seeking relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oral presentations seeking relief. 171.3 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FINES, PENALTIES, AND FORFEITURES Application for Relief § 171.3 Oral... make an oral presentation seeking relief in accordance with this paragraph. (b) Other...

  13. 19 CFR 171.3 - Oral presentations seeking relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oral presentations seeking relief. 171.3 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FINES, PENALTIES, AND FORFEITURES Application for Relief § 171.3 Oral... make an oral presentation seeking relief in accordance with this paragraph. (b) Other...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1846 - Relief valves: Changing set pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relief valves: Changing set pressure. 154.1846 Section... Relief valves: Changing set pressure. The master shall: (a) Supervise the changing of the set pressure of relief valves under § 154.802(b); (b) Enter the change of set pressure in the vessel's log; and...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1846 - Relief valves: Changing set pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relief valves: Changing set pressure. 154.1846 Section... Relief valves: Changing set pressure. The master shall: (a) Supervise the changing of the set pressure of relief valves under § 154.802(b); (b) Enter the change of set pressure in the vessel's log; and...

  16. 7 CFR 2902.59 - Topical pain relief products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Topical pain relief products. 2902.59 Section 2902.59... Items § 2902.59 Topical pain relief products. (a) Definition. Products that can be balms, creams and other topical treatments used for the relief of muscle, joint, headache, and nerve pain, as well...

  17. 7 CFR 3201.59 - Topical pain relief products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Topical pain relief products. 3201.59 Section 3201.59... Designated Items § 3201.59 Topical pain relief products. (a) Definition. Products that can be balms, creams and other topical treatments used for the relief of muscle, joint, headache, and nerve pain, as...

  18. 7 CFR 3201.59 - Topical pain relief products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Topical pain relief products. 3201.59 Section 3201.59... Designated Items § 3201.59 Topical pain relief products. (a) Definition. Products that can be balms, creams and other topical treatments used for the relief of muscle, joint, headache, and nerve pain, as...

  19. 7 CFR 3201.59 - Topical pain relief products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Topical pain relief products. 3201.59 Section 3201.59... Designated Items § 3201.59 Topical pain relief products. (a) Definition. Products that can be balms, creams and other topical treatments used for the relief of muscle, joint, headache, and nerve pain, as...

  20. 30 CFR 203.53 - What relief will BSEE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What relief will BSEE grant? 203.53 Section 203... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General § 203.53... twice the relief volume amount. (b) Regardless of the level of production or prices (see §...

  1. 30 CFR 203.53 - What relief will BSEE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What relief will BSEE grant? 203.53 Section 203... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General § 203.53... twice the relief volume amount. (b) Regardless of the level of production or prices (see §...

  2. 30 CFR 203.53 - What relief will MMS grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What relief will MMS grant? 203.53 Section 203.53 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General Royalty Relief for...

  3. 20 CFR 631.86 - Limitations on disaster relief employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Limitations on disaster relief employment... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE III OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.86 Limitations on disaster relief employment. No individual shall be employed under this subpart for more than...

  4. 20 CFR 631.86 - Limitations on disaster relief employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limitations on disaster relief employment... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE III OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.86 Limitations on disaster relief employment. No individual shall be employed under this subpart for more than...

  5. 48 CFR 252.229-7001 - Tax relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tax relief. 252.229-7001... Clauses 252.229-7001 Tax relief. As prescribed in 229.402-70(a), use the following clause: Tax Relief (JUN 1997) (a) Prices set forth in this contract are exclusive of all taxes and duties from which the...

  6. 48 CFR 252.229-7001 - Tax relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tax relief. 252.229-7001... Clauses 252.229-7001 Tax relief. As prescribed in 229.402-70(a), use the following clause: Tax Relief (JUN 1997) (a) Prices set forth in this contract are exclusive of all taxes and duties from which the...

  7. 48 CFR 252.229-7001 - Tax relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tax relief. 252.229-7001... Clauses 252.229-7001 Tax relief. As prescribed in 229.402-70(a), use the following clause: Tax Relief (JUN 1997) (a) Prices set forth in this contract are exclusive of all taxes and duties from which the...

  8. 20 CFR 631.86 - Limitations on disaster relief employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations on disaster relief employment... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE III OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.86 Limitations on disaster relief employment. No individual shall be employed under this subpart for more than...

  9. 21 CFR 358.310 - Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient. 358.310 Section 358.310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Toenail Relief Drug Products § 358.310 Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient. The active ingredient...

  10. 21 CFR 358.310 - Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient. 358.310 Section 358.310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Toenail Relief Drug Products § 358.310 Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient. The active ingredient...

  11. 21 CFR 358.310 - Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient. 358.310 Section 358.310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Toenail Relief Drug Products § 358.310 Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient. The active ingredient...

  12. 43 CFR 1815.1-1 - Relief granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relief granted. 1815.1-1 Section 1815.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT....1-1 Relief granted. (a) Where an existing timber sale contract does not provide relief to the...

  13. 43 CFR 1815.1-1 - Relief granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Relief granted. 1815.1-1 Section 1815.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT....1-1 Relief granted. (a) Where an existing timber sale contract does not provide relief to the...

  14. 43 CFR 1815.1-1 - Relief granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Relief granted. 1815.1-1 Section 1815.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT....1-1 Relief granted. (a) Where an existing timber sale contract does not provide relief to the...

  15. Crisis Communication Practices at an International Relief Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genova, Gina L.

    2006-01-01

    When a disaster strikes, the affected population relies upon the swift response and aid rendered by relief organizations such as the California-based Direct Relief International. Since 1948, Direct Relief's mission has been to provide essential material resources to locally run health programs in areas affected by natural disasters, wars, and…

  16. 48 CFR 252.229-7001 - Tax relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax relief. 252.229-7001... Clauses 252.229-7001 Tax relief. As prescribed in 229.402-70(a), use the following clause: Tax Relief (JUN 1997) (a) Prices set forth in this contract are exclusive of all taxes and duties from which the...

  17. 21 CFR 358.310 - Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient. 358.310 Section 358.310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Toenail Relief Drug Products § 358.310 Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient. The active ingredient...

  18. 21 CFR 358.310 - Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient. 358.310 Section 358.310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Toenail Relief Drug Products § 358.310 Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient. The active ingredient...

  19. 19 CFR 210.68 - Complainant's temporary relief bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Complainant's temporary relief bond. 210.68 Section 210.68 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.68 Complainant's temporary relief bond. (a) In every investigation under...

  20. 19 CFR 210.68 - Complainant's temporary relief bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Complainant's temporary relief bond. 210.68 Section 210.68 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.68 Complainant's temporary relief bond. (a) In every investigation under...

  1. 46 CFR 154.801 - Pressure relief systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Vent Systems § 154.801 Pressure relief systems. (a) Each cargo tank that has a volume of 20m3 (706 ft.3) or less must have at least one pressure relief valve. (b) Each cargo tank that has a volume of more... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief systems. 154.801 Section...

  2. Relief of pain by transcutaneous stimulation.

    PubMed

    Loeser, J D; Black, R G; Christman, A

    1975-03-01

    A series of 198 patients with chronic pain of diverse etiology was carefully analyzed for epidemiologic and descriptive factors which might influence the response to transcutaneous stimulation. The overall series included 12 1/2% with long-term success, and 68% with partial or short-term relief. There were no consistent specific diagnoses, or epidemiologic or descriptive factors that made good results from stimulation predictable. Stimulation of the painful area itself was not always necessary for pain relief. Favorable responses to transcutaneous stimulation were usually correlated with the continued existence of significant sensory input from the painful region. The authors conclude that transcutaneous stimulation is a valuable therapeutic modality for some patients with chronic pain.

  3. Intraoperative cryoanalgesia for postthoracotomy pain relief.

    PubMed

    Müller, L C; Salzer, G M; Ransmayr, G; Neiss, A

    1989-07-01

    In a randomized study, 63 patients were investigated for the benefits of cryoanalgesia after thoracotomy. Analgesia and its dependent effects such as enhancement of mobility, respiratory function, and reduced need of narcotics were evaluated. No significant differences in these variables were observed between the cryoanalgesia group and the control group. However, moderate to severe neuralgia was found in a number of patients in the cryoanalgesia group in the late postoperative period. Cryoanalgesia for pain relief after thoracotomy is not recommended. PMID:2764595

  4. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  5. Automated analysis of hypocotyl growth dynamics during shade avoidance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cole, Benjamin; Kay, Steve A; Chory, Joanne

    2011-03-01

    Plants that are adapted to environments where light is abundant are especially sensitive to competition for light from neighboring vegetation. As a result, these plants initiate a series of changes known as the shade avoidance syndrome, during which plants elongate their stems and petioles at the expense of leaf development. Although the developmental outcomes of exposure to prolonged shade are known, the signaling dynamics during the initial exposure of seedlings to shade is less well studied. Here, we report the development of a new software-based tool, called HyDE (Hypocotyl Determining Engine) to measure hypocotyl lengths of time-resolved image stacks of Arabidopsis wild-type and mutant seedlings. We show that Arabidopsis grows rapidly in response to the shade stimulus, with measurable growth after just 45 min shade exposure. Similar to other mustard species, this growth response occurs in multiple distinct phases, including two phases of rapid growth and one phase of slower growth. Using mutants affected in shade avoidance phenotypes, we demonstrate that most of this early growth requires new auxin biosynthesis via the indole-3-pyruvate pathway. When activity of this pathway is reduced, the first phase of elongation growth is absent, and this is correlated with reduced activity of auxin-regulated genes. Finally, we show that varying shade intensity and duration can affect the shape and magnitude of the growth response, indicating a broad range of the elongation response to shade.

  6. Effects of Shading on Starch Pasting Characteristics of Indica Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Wan-Jun; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Rice is an important staple crop throughout the world, but environmental stress like low-light conditions can negatively impact crop yield and quality. Using pot experiments and field experiments, we studied the effects of shading on starch pasting viscosity and starch content with six rice varieties for three years, using the Rapid Visco Analyser to measure starch pasting viscosity. Shading at different growth stages and in different rice varieties all affected the starch pasting characteristics of rice. The effects of shading on starch pasting viscosity at middle and later growth stages were greater than those at earlier stages. Shading enhanced breakdown but reduced hold viscosity and setback at tillering-elongation stage. Most pasting parameters changed significantly with shading after elongation stage. Furthermore, the responses of different varieties to shading differed markedly. The change scope of starch pasting viscosity in Dexiang 4103 was rather small after heading, while that in IIyou 498 and Gangyou 906 was small before heading. We observed clear tendencies in peak viscosity, breakdown, and pasting temperature of the five rice varieties with shading in 2010 and 2011. Correlation analysis indicated that the rice amylose content was negatively correlated with breakdown, but was positively correlated with setback. Based on our results, IIyou 498, Gangyou 906, and Dexiang 4103 had higher shade endurance, making these varieties most suitable for high-quality rice cultivation in low-light regions. PMID:23861872

  7. Effects of shading on starch pasting characteristics of indica hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Deng, Fei; Ren, Wan-Jun; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Rice is an important staple crop throughout the world, but environmental stress like low-light conditions can negatively impact crop yield and quality. Using pot experiments and field experiments, we studied the effects of shading on starch pasting viscosity and starch content with six rice varieties for three years, using the Rapid Visco Analyser to measure starch pasting viscosity. Shading at different growth stages and in different rice varieties all affected the starch pasting characteristics of rice. The effects of shading on starch pasting viscosity at middle and later growth stages were greater than those at earlier stages. Shading enhanced breakdown but reduced hold viscosity and setback at tillering-elongation stage. Most pasting parameters changed significantly with shading after elongation stage. Furthermore, the responses of different varieties to shading differed markedly. The change scope of starch pasting viscosity in Dexiang 4103 was rather small after heading, while that in IIyou 498 and Gangyou 906 was small before heading. We observed clear tendencies in peak viscosity, breakdown, and pasting temperature of the five rice varieties with shading in 2010 and 2011. Correlation analysis indicated that the rice amylose content was negatively correlated with breakdown, but was positively correlated with setback. Based on our results, IIyou 498, Gangyou 906, and Dexiang 4103 had higher shade endurance, making these varieties most suitable for high-quality rice cultivation in low-light regions.

  8. Shades of Pink: Preschoolers Make Meaning in a Reggio-Inspired Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Bo Sun

    2012-01-01

    Shades of Pink study describes how six preschoolers and their teacher engaged in a collaborative learning project through which they learned about the shades of a color--in this case, pink. As the children learned through experimenting and discussing their theories, they represented ideas using art as a tool for discovery and learning. The study…

  9. A novel high-throughput in vivo molecular screen for shade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The shade avoidance syndrome (SAS) allows plants to anticipate and avoid shading by neighbouring plants by initiating an elongation growth response. The phytochrome photoreceptors are able to detect a reduction in the red:far red ratio in incident light, the result of selective absorption of red and...

  10. The Stevens-Levolor Environmental Simulator and the study of interior shading for energy efficient windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandyck, R. L.; Konen, T. P.

    A window systems and experiments in a unique environmental simulator with an artificial sun were tested. It is shown that interior venetian blind shading is an effective window energy management technique. Predictive methods of generating shading coefficients applicable to modern venetian blinds is confirmed. The findings indicating light colored, as well as highly reflective blinds yielded as significant energy savings.

  11. The effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride and shade on blood metabolites of finishing beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) and shade were evaluated on blood metabolites and lung score in finishing beef steers. Cattle were fed 0 or 8.33 mg/kg ZH for 21 d with a 3- or 4-d withdrawal before harvest and were housed in open or shaded pens. Blood samples and lung scores w...

  12. Effects of shade on the development and sugar metabolism of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Geromel, Clara; Ferreira, Lúcia Pires; Davrieux, Fabrice; Guyot, Bernard; Ribeyre, Fabienne; Brígida dos Santos Scholz, Maria; Protasio Pereira, Luiz Filipe; Vaast, Philippe; Pot, David; Leroy, Thierry; Androcioli Filho, Armando; Esteves Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga; Mazzafera, Paulo; Marraccini, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Coffee fruits grown in shade are characterized by larger bean size than those grown under full-sun conditions. The present study assessed the effects of shade on bean characteristics and sugar metabolism by analyzing tissue development, sugar contents, activities of sucrose metabolizing enzymes and expression of sucrose synthase-encoding genes in fruits of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plants submitted to full-sun (FS) and shade (SH) conditions. Evolution of tissue fresh weights measured in fruits collected regularly from flowering to maturation indicated that this increase is due to greater development of the perisperm tissue in the shade. The effects of light regime on sucrose and reducing sugar (glucose and fructose) contents were studied in fresh and dry coffee beans. Shade led to a significant reduction in sucrose content and to an increase in reducing sugars. In pericarp and perisperm tissues, higher activities of sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13) and sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS: EC 2.4.1.14) were detected at maturation in the shade compared with full sun. These two enzymes also had higher peaks of activities in developing endosperm under shade than in full sun. It was also noted that shade modified the expression of SUS-encoding genes in coffee beans; CaSUS2 gene transcripts levels were higher in SH than in FS. As no sucrose increase accompanied these changes, this suggests that sucrose metabolism was redirected to other metabolic pathways that need to be identified.

  13. Sediment and water-quality data for the West Branch Shade and East Branch Shade River basins, Ohio, 1983 water year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childress, C.J.; Jones, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Sedimentation in and flooding of the West Branch Shade River and its tributaries have been major concerns of residents and State and local officials. The area was extensively surface mined for coal between the mid-1940's and the early 1960's. Reclamation efforts immediately after mining were unsuccessful. The results have been elevated sediment loads and the subsequent loss of channel conveyance. Two sediment and stream-gaging stations were established on the West Branch Shade River and one station was established on the East Branch Shade River. These three stations will provide data to evalute the effectiveness of current reclamation activties on reducing sediment loads. From June Through September 1983, suspended-sediment yield was 18 times higher in West Branch (218 tons/mi2) than East Branch (12 tons/mi2) Shade River. In addition, acidity is higher, pH is lower, and concentrations of dissolved sulfate and metals are higher in the West Branch Shade River basin than in the East Branch Shade river basins.

  14. Evaluation of different shades to improve dairy cattle well-being in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtorta, S. E.; Leva, Perla E.; Gallardo, Miriam R.

    Two tree shades (TS1 and TS2) and an artificial shade structure (AS) were evaluated using black globe temperatures (BGTs) to assess their effectiveness in reducing heat load. The artificial structure consisted of a black woven polypropylene cloth providing 80% shade, mounted on 2.5-m-high eucalyptus posts. The work was carried out at Rafaela Experimental Station, Argentina, during the summer (January and February) 1994. BGTs and floor temperatures were measured in concrete floor holding pens with and without artifical shade. The results showed no difference between TS1, TS2 and AS, their average BGTs being 30.2 (SD 0.58), 29.0 (SD 0.70) and 30.2 (SD 0.74)°C, respectively. BGTs under all three shades were significantly lower (P<0.01) than the average BGT recorded outside: 35.5 (SD 1.12)°C. Average BGTs in holding pens were 32.4 (SD 1.38) and 39.9 (SD 1.91)°C for shaded and non-shaded areas (P<0.01). The corresponding average floor temperatures were 27.8 (SD 0.68)°C and 47.7 (SD 2.13)°C (P<0.01). To assess the effects of shade on animal well-being, afternoon rectal temperatures (RT) and respiratory rate (respirations per minute, RR) of lactating cows were recorded twice a week. Rectal temperatures were significantly higher for non-shaded cows (P<0.01), mean RT being 40.1 (SD 0.65)°C vs 39.3 (SD 0.42)°C for the shaded animals. Corresponding RRs were 78.9 (SD 18.0) and 60.7 (SD 10.6) (P<0.05). It was concluded that: (1) tree and artificial shades produced similar effects, (2) shading the holding pen with an 80% shading cloth was effective in reducing heat load and floor temperatures, and (3) access to shade in our pasture-based system improved animal well-being.

  15. Relief of some small landforms on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, H. J.; Plaut, J. J.; Parker, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    Three sets of radar images have been acquired under different viewing conditions by the Magellan synthetic aperture radar: (1) left-looking with varied incidence angles (cycle 1); (2) right-looking with nearly constant incidence angles (cycle 2); and (3) left-looking with varied incidence angles, most of which were smaller than those in (1) except for those acquired on passes across Maxwell Montes with incidence angles larger than those in (1) (cycle 3). Image displacements in the radar images that are caused by the relief of landforms provide several methods of estimating this relief: (1) monoscopic measurements of foreshortening of landforms that are symmetrical in the plane of the look-direction of the radar (includes radial symmetry); (2) stereoscopic measurements of parallax in same-side image pairs (cycles 1-2 and 3); and (3) measurements of parallax in opposite-side image pairs (cycles 1-2 and/or 2-3). Success in methods 2 and 3 (especially 3) depends on identifying conjugate image points in the two images. Here, we report our preliminary results for five impact craters, seven small volcanic edifices, and two lava flows. The three methods mentioned above lead to the interesting result that Venusian impact craters have depth-diameter ratios like those on Mars rather than those on Earth, but some appear partly filled. Our results for de Lalande and Melba also suggest filling, but there may be other causes for their relatively small depth-diameter ratios. A host of small volcanic edifices have relief that can be crudely estimated using the above methods. Relief/diameter ratios for our cratered cones are about the same as those of Icelandic lava shields; some Venusian cones resemble the Martian shields of Mareotis-Tempe and Ceraunius Fossae, but the Venusian relief diameter ratios are larger. The smallest cratered dome is similar in size and profile to a Martian dome north of Uranius Patera; the smallest cratered cone resembles one in Chryse Planitia. Lava flows

  16. Design of a radiator shade for testing in a simulated lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Jaimi; Remington, Randy; Tang, Toan

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) have chosen the parabolic/catenary concept from their sponsored Fall 1991 lunar radiation shade project for further testing and development. NASA asked the design team to build a shading device and support structure for testing in a vacuum chamber. Besides the support structure for the catenary shading device, the design team was asked to develop a system for varying the shade shape so that the device can be tested at different focal lengths. The design team developed concept variants and combined the concept variants to form overall designs. Using a decision matrix, an overall design was selected by the team from several overall design alternatives. Concept variants were developed for three primary functions. The three functions were structural support, shape adjustments, and end shielding. The shade adjustment function was divided into two sub-functions, arc length adjustment, and width adjustment.

  17. Native bees mediate long-distance pollen dispersal in a shade coffee landscape mosaic.

    PubMed

    Jha, Shalene; Dick, Christopher W

    2010-08-01

    Coffee farms are often embedded within a mosaic of agriculture and forest fragments in the world's most biologically diverse tropical regions. Although shade coffee farms can potentially support native pollinator communities, the degree to which these pollinators facilitate gene flow for native trees is unknown. We examined the role of native bees as vectors of gene flow for a reproductively specialized native tree, Miconia affinis, in a shade coffee and remnant forest landscape mosaic. We demonstrate extensive cross-habitat gene flow by native bees, with pollination events spanning more than 1,800 m. Pollen was carried twice as far within shade coffee habitat as in nearby forest, and trees growing within shade coffee farms received pollen from a far greater number of sires than trees within remnant forest. The study shows that shade coffee habitats support specialized native pollinators that enhance the fecundity and genetic diversity of remnant native trees.

  18. [Effects of color films shading on Phellodendron amurense seedlings biomass and primary nitrogen-assimilation enzyme activities].

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Yan, Xiufeng; Yu, Tao

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, greenhouse Phellodendron amurense seedlings were shaded with red, yellow, blue, and green films for 100 days, and their biomass, chlorophyll and soluble protein contents, and nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activities were determined. Compared with exposure under sunlight, color films shading decreased the seedlings biomass significantly. Plant height and stem diameter had the similar trend with plant biomass. Root/ shoot ratio was less affected by red and yellow films shading, while root biomass was decreased significantly under blue and green films shading. Leaf chlorophyll content was increased significantly under the shading with blue, green and red films, especially with blue film. Red film shading increased the chlorophyll a/b ratio, while blue film shading was in adverse. Under color films shading, soluble protein content and nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activities were significantly higher than the control.

  19. Potential energy savings with exterior shades in large office buildings and the impact of discomfort glare

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Sabine; Lee, Eleanor

    2015-04-01

    Exterior shades are highly efficient for reducing solar load in commercial buildings. Their impact on net energy use depends on the annual energy balance of heating, cooling, fan and lighting energy. This paper discusses the overall energy use intensity of various external shading systems for a prototypical large office building split into the different types of energy use and for different orientations and window sizes. Lighting energy was calculated for a constant lighting power as well as for dimmed lighting fixtures (daylighting control). In Section 3, slat angles and solar cut-off angles were varied for fixed exterior slat shading systems. While the most light-blocking shades performed best for the case without daylighting controls, the optimum cut-off angle with daylighting controls was found to be 30 deg for the office building prototype used in Chicago and Houston. For large window-to-wall (WWR) ratios, window related annual energy use could be reduced by at least 70 % without daylighting control and by a minimum of 86 % with daylighting control in average over all orientations. The occurrence of discomfort glare was is considered in Section 4 of the paper, which looks at the performance of commercially available exterior shading systems when an interior shade is used in addition to the exterior shade during hours when occupants would experience discomfort glare. Glare control impacts overall energy use intensity significantly for exterior shades with high transmittance, especially when daylighting controls are used. In these cases, exterior shades are only beneficial for window-to-wall areas ≥ 45% in the hot Houston climate. For smaller windows and in a heating/cooling climate like Chicago, exterior shades can increase energy consumption

  20. Acclimation of leaves to contrasting irradiance in juvenile trees differing in shade tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wyka, Tomasz; Robakowski, Piotr; Zytkowiak, Roma

    2007-09-01

    Leaves developing in different irradiances undergo structural and functional acclimation, although the extent of trait plasticity is species specific. We tested the hypothesis that irradiance-induced plasticity of photosynthetic and anatomical traits is lower in highly shade-tolerant species than in moderately shade-tolerant species. Seedlings of two evergreen conifers, shade-tolerant Abies alba Mill. and moderately shade-tolerant Picea abies Karst., and two deciduous angiosperm species, highly shade-tolerant Fagus sylvatica L. and moderately shade-tolerant Acer pseudoplatanus L., were grown in deep shade (LL, 5% of full irradiance) or in full solar irradiance (HL) during 2003 and 2004. Steady state responses of quantum yield of PSII (Phi(PSII)), apparent electron transport rate (ETR), nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) and photochemical quenching (qP) were generally modified by the light environment, with slower declines in Phi(PSII) and qP and greater maximal ETR and NPQ values in HL plants in at least one season; however, no link between quantitative measures of plasticity of these traits and shade tolerance was found. Plasticity of nine anatomical traits (including palisade cell length, which was reduced in LL) showed no relationship with shade tolerance, but was less in conifers than in deciduous trees, suggesting that leaf life span may be a significant correlate of plasticity. When LL-acclimated plants were exposed to HL conditions, the degree and duration of photoinhibition (measured as a decline in maximum quantum yield) was greatest in F. sylvatica, much lower in P. abies and A. alba, and lowest in A. pseudoplatanus. Thus, as with the other traits studied, vulnerability to photoinhibition showed no relationship with shade tolerance.

  1. Shading decreases the abundance of the herbivorous California horn snail, Cerithidea californica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorda, Julio; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Most of the intertidal zone in estuaries of California, USA and Baja California, Mexico is covered with vascular vegetation. Shading by these vascular plants influences abiotic and biotic processes that shape benthic community assemblages. We present data on the effects of shading on the California horn snail, Cerithidea californica. This species is important because it is the most common benthic macrofaunal species in these systems and acts as an obligate intermediate host of several species of rematode parasites that infect several other species. Using observational and experimental studies, we found a negative effect of shade on the distribution and abundance of the California horn snail. We hypothesized that shading reduces the abundance of the epipelic diatoms that the snails feeds on, causing snails to leave haded areas. We observed a negative relationship between vascular plant cover, sub-canopy light levels, and snail density in Mugu Lagoon. Then we experimentally manipulated light regimes, by clipping vegetation and adding shade structures, and found higher snail densities at higher light levels. In Goleta Slough, we isolated the effect of shade from vegetation by documenting a negative relationship between the shade created by two bridges and diatom and snail densities. We also found that snails moved the greatest distances over shaded channel banks compared to unshaded channel banks. Further, we documented the effect of water depth and channel bank orientation on shading in this system. An additional effect of shading is the reduction of temperature, providing an alternative explanation for some of our results. These results broaden our knowledge of how variation in the light environment influences the ecology of estuarine ecosystems.

  2. Preference of domestic horses for shade in a hot, sunny environment.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, K E; Tucker, C B; Stull, C L

    2014-04-01

    Provision of shade is recommended by best practice guidelines for horses living in hot, sunny environments despite a lack of research focused on potential benefits. We found in a previous study that horses without access to shade showed greater rectal temperature (RT), respiration rate (RR), and skin temperature (SK) and exhibited more sweat than horses that were completely shaded. Yet not known is whether horses will choose to stand in the shade when given a choice of areas with and without this resource. Our objective was to assess horse preference for shaded and unshaded areas in the hot and arid, sunny summer weather in Davis, California. For this preference test, 12 healthy, adult horses (6 mares, 6 geldings) were randomized into 3 sequential trials using 4 horses in each trial. The trials consisted of 2 d of acclimation and either 5 d (Trial 1) or 7 d (Trials 2 and 3) of observation. Horses were housed individually in dry lot pens. Half of each pen was covered by an open-sided shade structure. The amount of the pen shaded varied slightly throughout the day with a mean of 50.1% of the pen shaded. Physiological measurements (RT, RR, SK, sweat score) were recorded at 0900, 1230, and 1800 h. Behavioral observations (horses' location relative to shade, time spent walking, foraging, and standing) were recorded at 5-min intervals from 1300 to 1800 h daily and at 10-min intervals from 1800 to 1300 h on alternate days. Insect avoidance behavior was recorded for 1 min/h for each horse. Weather factors were recorded every 5 min, 24 h/d throughout the study; mean daytime ambient temperature was 29 °C ± 5 °C. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS. Horses were located in the shade in 7.1% more observations than by chance (SE = 1.3, P < 0.001), with greatest use before and during peak solar radiation and then again following peak black globe temperature. Horses performed more walking and foraging behavior in the shaded areas (P < 0.01). Our research indicates that

  3. Relief memory consolidation requires protein synthesis within the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Bruning, Johann E A; Breitfeld, Tino; Kahl, Evelyn; Bergado-Acosta, Jorge R; Fendt, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Relief learning refers to the association of a stimulus with the relief from an aversive event. The thus-learned relief stimulus then can induce, e.g., an attenuation of the startle response or approach behavior, indicating positive valence. Previous studies revealed that the nucleus accumbens is essential for the acquisition and retrieval of relief memory. Here, we ask whether the nucleus accumbens is also the brain site for consolidation of relief memory into a long-term form. In rats, we blocked local protein synthesis within the nucleus accumbens by local infusions of anisomycin at different time points during a relief conditioning experiment. Accumbal anisomycin injections immediately after the relief conditioning session, but not 4 h later, prevented the consolidation into long-term relief memory. The retention of already consolidated relief memory was not affected by anisomycin injections. This identifies a time window and site for relief memory consolidation. These findings should complement our understanding of the full range of effects of adverse experiences, including cases of their distortion in humans such as post-traumatic stress disorder and/or phobias. PMID:26792192

  4. [Body integrity identity disorder, relief after amputation].

    PubMed

    Blom, R M; Braam, A W; de Boer-Kreeft, N; Sonnen, M P A M

    2014-01-01

    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is a rare condition in which a person, for no apparent physical reason, is tormented by the experience that a body-part, such as a limb, does not really belong to the body. Patients experience an intense desire for the limb to be amputated (a 'desire' formerly referred to as 'apotemnophilia'). We report on a 58-year-old male patient with BIID who froze one of his legs so that he could amputate it himself. A surgeon ultimately intervened and amputated the leg professionally. The patient was extremely relieved and was still experiencing relief at a follow-up three years later.

  5. Are sun- and shade-type anatomy required for the acclimation of Neoregelia cruenta?

    PubMed

    Reinert, Fernanda; Leal-Costa, Marcos V; Junqueira, Nícia E; Tavares, Eliana S

    2013-01-01

    Sun and shade plants are often discriminated by a number of sun- and shade-type anatomies. Nonetheless, we propose that among tank-bromeliads, changes in rosette architecture satisfy the requirements for coping with contrasting light levels. The tank-bromeliad Neoregelia cruenta naturally colonises sub-habitats ranging from full exposure to direct sunlight, to shaded environments in sand ridge plains. We quantified anatomical and morphological traits of leaves and rosettes of N. cruenta grown under sun and shade conditions. Cells with undulated lateral walls within the water parenchyma are for the first time described for the family. Under high light, leaf blades were wider, shorter, and yellowish. The rosette diameter of sun plants was less than half that of shade plants. Sun leaves overlapped with neighbouring leaves for most of their length, forming a cylindrical rosette where water accumulates. Shade leaves only overlapped in the centre of the rosette. Most anatomical traits were similar under both growth conditions. Stomata were absent from the base of sun leaves, which is probably explained by limited gas exchange at the base of the tight sun-type rosette. Data suggest that the ability of N. cruenta to acclimate to sun and shade is better explained by changes in rosette architecture than by leaf anatomy.

  6. Adolescents’ use of purpose built shade in secondary schools: cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    White, Vanessa; Wakefield, Melanie A; Jamsen, Kris M; White, Victoria; Livingston, Patricia M; English, Dallas R; Simpson, Julie A

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine whether students use or avoid newly shaded areas created by shade sails installed at schools. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial with secondary schools as the unit of randomisation. Setting 51 secondary schools with limited available shade, in Australia, assessed over two spring and summer terms. Participants Students outside at lunch times. Intervention Purpose built shade sails were installed in winter 2005 at full sun study sites to increase available shade for students in the school grounds. Main outcome measure Mean number of students using the primary study sites during weekly observations at lunch time. Results Over the study period the mean change in students using the primary study site from pre-test to post-test was 2.63 (95% confidence interval 0.87 to 4.39) students in intervention schools and −0.03 (−1.16 to 1.09) students in control schools. The difference in mean change between groups was 2.67 (0.65 to 4.68) students (P=0.011). Conclusions Students used rather than avoided newly shaded areas provided by purpose built shade sails at secondary schools in this trial, suggesting a practical means of reducing adolescents’ exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Trial registration Exempt. PMID:19223344

  7. An Appraisal of the Classic Forest Succession Paradigm with the Shade Tolerance Index

    PubMed Central

    Lienard, Jean; Florescu, Ionut; Strigul, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we revisit the classic theory of forest succession that relates shade tolerance and species replacement and assess its validity to understand patch-mosaic patterns of forested ecosystems of the USA. We introduce a macroscopic parameter called the “shade tolerance index” and compare it to the classic continuum index in southern Wisconsin forests. We exemplify shade tolerance driven succession in White Pine-Eastern Hemlock forests using computer simulations and analyzing approximated chronosequence data from the USDA FIA forest inventory. We describe this parameter across the last 50 years in the ecoregions of mainland USA, and demonstrate that it does not correlate with the usual macroscopic characteristics of stand age, biomass, basal area, and biodiversity measures. We characterize the dynamics of shade tolerance index using transition matrices and delimit geographical areas based on the relevance of shade tolerance to explain forest succession. We conclude that shade tolerance driven succession is linked to climatic variables and can be considered as a primary driving factor of forest dynamics mostly in central-north and northeastern areas in the USA. Overall, the shade tolerance index constitutes a new quantitative approach that can be used to understand and predict succession of forested ecosystems and biogeographic patterns. PMID:25658092

  8. Are sun- and shade-type anatomy required for the acclimation of Neoregelia cruenta?

    PubMed

    Reinert, Fernanda; Leal-Costa, Marcos V; Junqueira, Nícia E; Tavares, Eliana S

    2013-01-01

    Sun and shade plants are often discriminated by a number of sun- and shade-type anatomies. Nonetheless, we propose that among tank-bromeliads, changes in rosette architecture satisfy the requirements for coping with contrasting light levels. The tank-bromeliad Neoregelia cruenta naturally colonises sub-habitats ranging from full exposure to direct sunlight, to shaded environments in sand ridge plains. We quantified anatomical and morphological traits of leaves and rosettes of N. cruenta grown under sun and shade conditions. Cells with undulated lateral walls within the water parenchyma are for the first time described for the family. Under high light, leaf blades were wider, shorter, and yellowish. The rosette diameter of sun plants was less than half that of shade plants. Sun leaves overlapped with neighbouring leaves for most of their length, forming a cylindrical rosette where water accumulates. Shade leaves only overlapped in the centre of the rosette. Most anatomical traits were similar under both growth conditions. Stomata were absent from the base of sun leaves, which is probably explained by limited gas exchange at the base of the tight sun-type rosette. Data suggest that the ability of N. cruenta to acclimate to sun and shade is better explained by changes in rosette architecture than by leaf anatomy. PMID:23828343

  9. Leaf traits show different relationships with shade tolerance in moist versus dry tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Poorter, Lourens

    2009-03-01

    Shade tolerance is the central paradigm for understanding forest succession and dynamics, but there is considerable debate as to what the salient features of shade tolerance are, whether adult leaves show similar shade adaptations to seedling leaves, and whether the same leaf adaptations are found in forests under different climatic control. Here, adult leaf and metamer traits were measured for 39 tree species from a tropical moist semi-evergreen forest (1580 mm rain yr(-1)) and 41 species from a dry deciduous forest (1160 mm yr(-1)) in Bolivia. Twenty-six functional traits were measured and related to species regeneration light requirements.Adult leaf traits were clearly associated with shade tolerance. Different, rather than stronger, shade adaptations were found for moist compared with dry forest species. Shade adaptations exclusively found in the evergreen moist forest were related to tough and persistent leaves, and shade adaptations in the dry deciduous forest were related to high light interception and water use.These results suggest that, for forests differing in rainfall seasonality, there is a shift in the relative importance of functional leaf traits and performance trade-offs that control light partitioning. In the moist evergreen forest leaf traits underlying the growth-survival trade-off are important, whereas in the seasonally deciduous forest leaf traits underlying the growth trade-off between low and high light might become important.

  10. Spectrophotometric Study of the Effect of Luting Agents on the Resultant Shade of Ceramic Veneers: An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Yogesh; Pustake, Swati; Bijjaragi, Shobha; Pustake, Bhushan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Dentistry has found practically the best available aesthetic answer, is ceramic restoration. There are various factors that contribute to the success of ceramic veneers, like colour of underlying tooth, thickness if ceramics and the type of underlying luting cement. Shade selection and matching remains still challenge, however the shade of luting agent used for cementation of veneers produces a change in resultant shade of veneers. Aim To compare and analyze the spectrophotometric effect of opaque and transparent luting agent on resultant shade of ceramic veneers made of 2L1.5 shade (Vitapan 3D-Masters) and B2 shade (Vitapan Classic). Materials and Methods Out of 15 ceramic veneers of 2L1.5 shade (VITAPAN 3D- Master), seven teeth cemented with opaque cement and eight teeth with transparent cement shade of dual cure resin cement (Variolink IITM). Out of 10 ceramic veneers of B2 shade (VITAPAN Classic), five teeth were cemented with opaque cement and other five teeth with transparent cement shade of dual cure resin cement (Variolink IITM). Spectrophotometric (Macbeth U.S.A.) analysis of all ceramic veneer crowns done with optiview software and readings were recorded in Commission Internationale de I’ Eclairge {CIELAB} system and dE value was calculated. Statistical Analysis Statistical analysis was done by using Paired t-test. Results Spectrophotometric analysis of all the veneers cemented with opaque luting agent were lighter in shade due to significant change in dL value. Veneers cemented with transparent luting agent were darker in shade due to significant change in the dL value. Conclusion Opaque luting agent gives lighter shade and transparent luting agent gives darker shade to ceramic veneers fabricated with 2L1.5 and B2 shades. PMID:26501014

  11. Seeing the landscape for the trees: Metrics to guide riparian shade management in river catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Matthew F.; Wilby, Robert L.

    2015-05-01

    Rising water temperature (Tw) due to anthropogenic climate change may have serious consequences for river ecosystems. Conservation and/or expansion of riparian shade could counter warming and buy time for ecosystems to adapt. However, sensitivity of river reaches to direct solar radiation is highly heterogeneous in space and time, so benefits of shading are also expected to be site specific. We use a network of high-resolution temperature measurements from two upland rivers in the UK, in conjunction with topographic shade modeling, to assess the relative significance of landscape and riparian shade to the thermal behavior of river reaches. Trees occupy 7% of the study catchments (comparable with the UK national average) yet shade covers 52% of the area and is concentrated along river corridors. Riparian shade is most beneficial for managing Tw at distances 5-20 km downstream from the source of the rivers where discharge is modest, flow is dominated by near-surface hydrological pathways, there is a wide floodplain with little landscape shade, and where cumulative solar exposure times are sufficient to affect Tw. For the rivers studied, we find that approximately 0.5 km of complete shade is necessary to off-set Tw by 1°C during July (the month with peak Tw) at a headwater site; whereas 1.1 km of shade is required 25 km downstream. Further research is needed to assess the integrated effect of future changes in air temperature, sunshine duration, direct solar radiation, and downward diffuse radiation on Tw to help tree planting schemes achieve intended outcomes.

  12. Influence of resin cement shade on the color and translucency of ceramic veneers

    PubMed Central

    HERNANDES, Daiana Kelly Lopes; ARRAIS, Cesar Augusto Galvão; de LIMA, Erick; CESAR, Paulo Francisco; RODRIGUES, José Augusto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective This in vitro study evaluated the effect of two different shades of resin cement (RC- A1 and A3) layer on color change, translucency parameter (TP), and chroma of low (LT) and high (HT) translucent reinforced lithium disilicate ceramic laminates. Material and Methods One dual-cured RC (Variolink II, A1- and A3-shade, Ivoclar Vivadent) was applied to 1-mm thick ceramic discs to create thin RC films (100 µm thick) under the ceramics. The RC was exposed to light from a LED curing unit. Color change (ΔE) of ceramic discs was measured according to CIEL*a*b* system with a standard illuminant D65 in reflectance mode in a spectrophotometer, operating in the light range of 360-740 nm, equipped with an integrating sphere. The color difference between black (B) and white (W) background readings was used for TP analysis, while chroma was calculated by the formula C* ab=(a*2+b*2)½. ΔE of 3.3 was set as the threshold of clinically unacceptable. The results were evaluated by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. Results HT ceramics showed higher ΔE and higher TP than LT ceramics. A3-shade RC promoted higher ΔE than A1-shade cement, regardless of the ceramic translucency. No significant difference in TP was noted between ceramic discs with A1- and those with A3-shade cement. Ceramic with underlying RC showed lower TP than discs without RC. HT ceramics showed lower chroma than LT ceramics, regardless of the resin cement shade. The presence of A3-shade RC resulted in higher chroma than the presence of A1-shade RC. Conclusions Darker underlying RC layer promoted more pronounced changes in ceramic translucency, chroma, and shade of high translucent ceramic veneers. These differences may not be clinically differentiable. PMID:27556211

  13. What a Relief: Using Paper Relief Sculpture to Teach Topographic Map Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    While the struggle persists in science classes to help students visualize in three dimensions, art classes are creating unique sculptures out of paper that produce three-dimensional displays from two-dimensional resources. The translation of paper relief sculpting from the art classroom to the science classroom adds dimension to the teaching of…

  14. Postoperative pain relief by demand analgesia.

    PubMed

    Peeters, M; Brugmans, J

    1980-01-01

    Postoperative pain relief is only apparently an easy task. A brief survey of literature investigating the discomfort experienced in the postoperative phase is all but encouraging. One can identify four basic problems in obtaining adequate results by delivery of analgesic drugs: a) the biological variability among individual patients, b) the unpredictable uptake of the drug administered intramuscularly, c) the time lag involved between request by the patient and the subsequent administration of a single dose and d) the lack of knowledge about the nature of the discomfort and its remedies. An alternative strategy introducing "On-Demand" analgesia administering prescribed doses at the right moment is presented and analysed a) as an operant conditioning process implementing a particular reinforcement schedule (behavioural sciences), as well as b) a negative feedback control loop that entrust the central judgement to the patient (system theory). Both approaches give insight into the results: the technique copes with biological variability; anticipating pain induced by fear disappears; the feedback strategy works well and patients adapt to a wide range in prescriptions; intermittent administration makes more efficient use of the analgesic; an optimal result is demonstrated in studies comparing on-demand analgesia with the normal IM-regime and epidural analgesia; continuity in pain relief can be obtained in routine clinical practice.

  15. Ontogeny, understorey light interception and simulated carbon gain of juvenile rainforest evergreens differing in shade tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Lusk, Christopher H.; Pérez-Millaqueo, Manuel Matías; Piper, Frida I.; Saldaña, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims A long-running debate centres on whether shade tolerance of tree seedlings is mainly a function of traits maximizing net carbon gain in low light, or of traits minimizing carbon loss. To test these alternatives, leaf display, light-interception efficiency, and simulated net daily carbon gain of juvenile temperate evergreens of differing shade tolerance were measured, and how these variables are influenced by ontogeny was queried. Methods The biomass distribution of juveniles (17–740 mm tall) of seven temperate rainforest evergreens growing in low (approx. 4 %) light in the understorey of a second-growth stand was quantified. Daytime and night-time gas exchange rates of leaves were also determined, and crown architecture was recorded digitally. YPLANT was used to model light interception and carbon gain. Results An index of species shade tolerance correlated closely with photosynthetic capacities and respiration rates per unit mass of leaves, but only weakly with respiration per unit area. Accumulation of many leaf cohorts by shade-tolerant species meant that their ratios of foliage area to biomass (LAR) decreased more gradually with ontogeny than those of light-demanders, but also increased self-shading; this depressed the foliage silhouette-to-area ratio (STAR), which was used as an index of light-interception efficiency. As a result, displayed leaf area ratio (LARd = LAR × STAR) of large seedlings was not related to species shade tolerance. Self-shading also caused simulated net daily carbon assimilation rates of shade-tolerant species to decrease with ontogeny, leading to a negative correlation of shade tolerance with net daily carbon gain of large (500 mm tall) seedlings in the understorey. Conclusions The results suggest that efficiency of energy capture is not an important correlate of shade tolerance in temperate rainforest evergreens. Ontogenetic increases in self-shading largely nullify the potential carbon gain advantages expected

  16. Effect of time and weather on preference, frequency, and duration of shade use by horses.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, K E; Stull, C L

    2016-04-01

    The Federation of Animal Science Societies (FASS) recommends providing access to shade for horses in hot, sunny weather at equine facilities. Previously, we found that healthy, mature domestic horses use shade with behavioral and physiological benefits during those weather conditions. The objective of this study was to characterize preference, frequency, and duration of shade use by healthy, mature horses in a Bureau of Land Management (BLM) holding facility during hot, sunny weather. The study took place at the BLM's Palomino Valley Wild Horse and Burro Center in Reno, NV, from Aug. 10 to Oct. 1, 2014. Freestanding shade structures were constructed in each of 2 drylot pens with shade cloth covering the top that blocked 98% of UV radiation. A group of 4 mares was placed in each of the 2 pens. After a 2-d acclimation period, data were recorded for 5 d, the horses were moved to the opposite pen, and data collected for an additional 5 d. This schedule was repeated for a total of 4 consecutive trials and 32 horses. Footage from time-lapse cameras was viewed at 10 s intervals between 0930 and 1700 h to record each horse's position relative to shade. Dosimeters secured to horses' halters recorded UV exposure. Automated weather stations recorded daytime ambient temperature (mean 25.9°C [SD 5.8]), relative humidity (mean 25.4% [SD 17.1]), black globe temperature (mean 29.3°C [SD 6.5] in shade and 35.8°C [SD 8.0] in unshaded area), and solar radiation (mean 595 W/m [SD 235]). Horses spent 10.9% more time in shade than by chance ( < 0.0001) within the drylots across all 40 study days. Mean daily time spent in shade was 107.9 min/horse (SD 66.9), comprising 17.1 bouts (SD 12.1) with an average bout length of 6.3 min (SD 3.4). The mean daily UV Index experienced by horses in these partially shaded drylots was 1.52 (SD 0.58) compared with 3.4 (SD 1.5) for a control instrument in the sun. Horses used shade more on the sunniest days and greater than just by chance at all hours

  17. Effect of time and weather on preference, frequency, and duration of shade use by horses.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, K E; Stull, C L

    2016-04-01

    The Federation of Animal Science Societies (FASS) recommends providing access to shade for horses in hot, sunny weather at equine facilities. Previously, we found that healthy, mature domestic horses use shade with behavioral and physiological benefits during those weather conditions. The objective of this study was to characterize preference, frequency, and duration of shade use by healthy, mature horses in a Bureau of Land Management (BLM) holding facility during hot, sunny weather. The study took place at the BLM's Palomino Valley Wild Horse and Burro Center in Reno, NV, from Aug. 10 to Oct. 1, 2014. Freestanding shade structures were constructed in each of 2 drylot pens with shade cloth covering the top that blocked 98% of UV radiation. A group of 4 mares was placed in each of the 2 pens. After a 2-d acclimation period, data were recorded for 5 d, the horses were moved to the opposite pen, and data collected for an additional 5 d. This schedule was repeated for a total of 4 consecutive trials and 32 horses. Footage from time-lapse cameras was viewed at 10 s intervals between 0930 and 1700 h to record each horse's position relative to shade. Dosimeters secured to horses' halters recorded UV exposure. Automated weather stations recorded daytime ambient temperature (mean 25.9°C [SD 5.8]), relative humidity (mean 25.4% [SD 17.1]), black globe temperature (mean 29.3°C [SD 6.5] in shade and 35.8°C [SD 8.0] in unshaded area), and solar radiation (mean 595 W/m [SD 235]). Horses spent 10.9% more time in shade than by chance ( < 0.0001) within the drylots across all 40 study days. Mean daily time spent in shade was 107.9 min/horse (SD 66.9), comprising 17.1 bouts (SD 12.1) with an average bout length of 6.3 min (SD 3.4). The mean daily UV Index experienced by horses in these partially shaded drylots was 1.52 (SD 0.58) compared with 3.4 (SD 1.5) for a control instrument in the sun. Horses used shade more on the sunniest days and greater than just by chance at all hours

  18. Increasing the Useful Life of Quench Reliefs with Inconel Bellows

    SciTech Connect

    Soyars, W. M.

    1999-01-01

    Reliable quench relief valves are an important part of superconducting magnet systems. Fermilab developed bellows-actuated cryogenic quench reliefs which have been in use since the early l 980's. The original design uses a stainless steel bellows. A high frequency, low amplitude vibration during relieving events has resulted in fatigue failures in the original design. To take advantage of the improved resistance to fatigue of Inconel, a nickel-chromium alloy, reliefs using Inconel 625 bellows were made. Design, development, and testing of the new version reliefs will be discussed. Tests show that relief valve lifetimes using Inconel bellows are more than five times greater than when using the original stainless steel bellows. Inconel bellows show great promise in increasing the lifetime of quench relief valves, and thus the reliability of accelerator cryogenic systems.

  19. SRTM Colored and Shaded Topography: Haro and Kas Hills, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001, the Kachchh region in western India suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. This shaded topography view of landforms northeast of the city of Bhuj depicts geologic structures that are of interest in the study the tectonic processes that may have led to that earthquake. However, preliminary field studies indicate that these structures are composed of Mesozoic rocks that are overlain by younger rocks showing little deformation. Thus these structures may be old, not actively growing, and not directly related to the recent earthquake.

    The Haro Hills are on the left and the Kas Hills are on the right. The Haro Hills are an 'anticline,' which is an upwardly convex elongated fold of layered rocks. In this view, the anticline is distinctly ringed by an erosion resistant layer of sandstone. The east-west orientation of the anticline may relate to the crustal compression that has occurred during India's northward movement toward, and collision with, Asia. In contrast, the largest of the Kas Hills appears to be a tilted (to the south) and faulted (on the north) block of layered rocks. Also seen here, the linear feature trending toward the southwest from the image center is an erosion-resistant 'dike,' which is an igneous intrusion into older 'host' rocks along a fault plane or other crack. These features are simple examples of how shaded topography can provide a direct input to geologic studies.

    In this image, colors show the elevation as measured by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Colors range from green at the lowest elevations, through yellow and red, to purple at the highest elevations. Elevations here range from near sea level to about 300 meters (about 1000 feet). Shading has been added, with illumination from the north (image top).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same

  20. The dynamical influences of cloud shading on simulated supercell thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frame, Jeffrey

    2008-10-01

    Numerical simulations of supercell thunderstorms which include parameterized radiative transfer and surface fluxes are performed using the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) model. The tilted independent column approximation (TICA) is adopted for use in the ARPS model because the existing method of parameterized radiative transfer, the independent column approximation (ICA), permits only the vertical transfer of shortwave radiation. The computed radiative fluxes from both the TICA and ICA are compared to output from a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer solver and it is determined that the TICA fluxes more closely match those from the Monte Carlo model than do those from the ICA. Additionally, the TICA is able to capture the extensions of shadows that occur when the solar zenith angle deviates significantly from zero, which cannot be captured by the ICA. The maximum low-level air temperature deficits within the modeled cloud shadows is 1.5 to 2.0 K, which is only about half that previously observed. The loss of strong solar heating of the model surface within the shaded regions cools the surface temperatures, and changes the sign of the sensible heat flux near the edge of the shadow. This stabilizes the model surface layer and suppresses vertical mixing at low levels within the shaded area. This reduction in vertical mixing means that higher momentum air from aloft is prevented from mixing with air near the surface that has lost momentum to surface friction. The net result of this is a shallower, but more intense vertically-sheared layer near the surface. As the supercell's rear-flank gust front propagates into this modified shear layer, the layer of cold outflow air becomes shallower and it accelerates eastward. In the case of a stationary storm, the cold outflow undercuts the updraft and mesocyclone, depriving them of warm and moist inflow, and ultimately weakening the storm. These results are not likely applicable to all simulations of

  1. Cuttlefish see shape from shading, fine-tuning coloration in response to pictorial depth cues and directional illumination.

    PubMed

    Zylinski, Sarah; Osorio, D; Johnsen, Sonke

    2016-03-16

    Humans use shading as a cue to three-dimensional form by combining low-level information about light intensity with high-level knowledge about objects and the environment. Here, we examine how cuttlefish Sepia officinalis respond to light and shadow to shade the white square (WS) feature in their body pattern. Cuttlefish display the WS in the presence of pebble-like objects, and they can shade it to render the appearance of surface curvature to a human observer, which might benefit camouflage. Here we test how they colour the WS on visual backgrounds containing two-dimensional circular stimuli, some of which were shaded to suggest surface curvature, whereas others were uniformly coloured or divided into dark and light semicircles. WS shading, measured by lateral asymmetry, was greatest when the animal rested on a background of shaded circles and three-dimensional hemispheres, and less on plain white circles or black/white semicircles. In addition, shading was enhanced when light fell from the lighter side of the shaded stimulus, as expected for real convex surfaces. Thus, the cuttlefish acts as if it perceives surface curvature from shading, and takes account of the direction of illumination. However, the direction of WS shading is insensitive to the directions of background shading and illumination; instead the cuttlefish tend to turn to face the light source. PMID:26984626

  2. A scaleable methodology for assessing the impacts of urban shade on the summer electricity use of residential homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Robert Vanderlei

    Our cities are experiencing unprecedented growth while net global temperatures continue to trend warmer making sustainable urban development and energy conservation pressing public issues. This research explores how urban landscaping -- in particular trees and buildings -- affect summer electricity use in residential homes. I studied the interactions of urban shade and temperature to explore how vegetation distribution and intensity could play a meaningful role in heat mitigation in urban environments. Only a few studies have reconciled modeled electricity savings from tree shade with actual electricity consumption data. This research proposes a methodology for modeling the isolated effects of urban shade (tree shade vs building shade) on buildings' summertime electricity consumption from micro to mesoscales, empirically validating the modeled shade with actual electricity billing data, and comparing the electric energetic impact of tree shade effects with building shade effects. This proposed methodology seeks to resolve three primary research questions: 1) What are the modeled quantities of urban shade associated with the area of interest (AOI)? 2) To what extent do the effects of shading from trees and buildings mitigate summertime heat in the AOI? 2) To what extent do the shade effects from trees and buildings reduce summertime electricity consumption in the AOI?

  3. Shade, leaf growth and crown development of Quercus rubra, Quercus velutina, Prunus serotina and Acer rubrum seedlings.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Kurt W.

    1994-01-01

    The study was conducted in an open field to determine the optimum irradiance for establishment and growth of two oak species and two major associated woody species. Half-sib seedlings of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and black oak (Q. velutina Lam.) were grown for two years under shade-cloth tents. Eight shade treatments (94, 70, 57, 45, 37, 27, 20 and 8% of full sunlight) with three replications each were used. Measurements were made on seedlings harvested at the end of the first and second growing seasons. In the second year, shading significantly decreased the number of leaves for all species except black cherry, but only significantly decreased leaf area in northern red oak. Shading significantly decreased average leaf size of red maple. Average leaf size of black cherry was largest in the intermediate shade treatments and decreased significantly with increased and decreased shade. Leaf weight/leaf area (mg cm(-2)) increased significantly in a quadratic pattern with decreasing shade for all four species. Leaf area ratio (cm(2) g(-1)) decreased significantly with decreasing shade for all species except red maple in the first year and black oak in the second year. Total branch development increased significantly with decreasing shade in red maple and northern red oak, whereas indeterminate branches increased significantly with decreasing shade only in black cherry, and short branches increased significantly with decreasing shade only in red maple. PMID:14967644

  4. 46 CFR 154.801 - Pressure relief systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief systems. 154.801 Section 154.801... Vent Systems § 154.801 Pressure relief systems. (a) Each cargo tank that has a volume of 20m3 (706 ft.3) or less must have at least one pressure relief valve. (b) Each cargo tank that has a volume of...

  5. 46 CFR 154.801 - Pressure relief systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief systems. 154.801 Section 154.801... Vent Systems § 154.801 Pressure relief systems. (a) Each cargo tank that has a volume of 20m3 (706 ft.3) or less must have at least one pressure relief valve. (b) Each cargo tank that has a volume of...

  6. 46 CFR 154.801 - Pressure relief systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief systems. 154.801 Section 154.801... Vent Systems § 154.801 Pressure relief systems. (a) Each cargo tank that has a volume of 20m3 (706 ft.3) or less must have at least one pressure relief valve. (b) Each cargo tank that has a volume of...

  7. 46 CFR 154.801 - Pressure relief systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief systems. 154.801 Section 154.801... Vent Systems § 154.801 Pressure relief systems. (a) Each cargo tank that has a volume of 20m3 (706 ft.3) or less must have at least one pressure relief valve. (b) Each cargo tank that has a volume of...

  8. 49 CFR 601.41 - Petitions for relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES Emergency Procedures for Public... for temporary relief from the provisions of any policy statement, circular, guidance document or rule....

  9. 4. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, DETAIL OF ABUTMENT, GRIFFIN RELIEF SCULPTURE, CA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, DETAIL OF ABUTMENT, GRIFFIN RELIEF SCULPTURE, CA. 1940. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, Grumman Avenue Bridge, Spanning Merritt Parkway, Norwalk, Fairfield County, CT

  10. Accuracy of shade matching performed by colour blind and normal dental students using 3D Master and Vita Lumin shade guides.

    PubMed

    Vafaee, F; Rakhshan, V; Vafaei, M; Khoshhal, M

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether 3D Master or VitaLumin shade guides could improve colour selection in individuals with normal and defective colour vision. First, colour perception of 260 dental students was evaluated. Afterwards, 9 colour blind and 9 matched normal subjects tried to detect colours of 10 randomly selected tabs from each kit and the correct/false answers were counted. Of the colour-defective subjects, 47.8% and 33.3% correctly detected the shade using 3D Master and VitaLumin, respectively. These statistics were 62.2% and 42.2% in normal subjects. In normal participants, but not in colour blind ones, 3D Master significantly improved shade matching accuracy compared to VitaLumin.

  11. Continuous shading and its fast update in fully analytic triangular-mesh-based computer generated hologram.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Hyeung; Kim, Seong-Bok; Yeom, Han-Ju; Kim, Hee-Jae; Zhang, HuiJun; Li, BoNi; Ji, Yeong-Min; Kim, Sang-Hoo; Ko, Seok-Bum

    2015-12-28

    Fully analytic mesh-based computer generated hologram enables efficient and precise representation of three-dimensional scene. Conventional method assigns uniform amplitude inside individual mesh, resulting in reconstruction of the three-dimensional scene of flat shading. In this paper, we report an extension of the conventional method to achieve the continuous shading where the amplitude in each mesh is continuously varying. The proposed method enables the continuous shading, while maintaining fully analytic framework of the conventional method without any sacrifice in the precision. The proposed method can also be extended to enable fast update of the shading for different illumination directions and the ambient-diffuse reflection ratio based on Phong reflection model. The feasibility of the proposed method is confirmed by the numerical and optical reconstruction of the generated hologram.

  12. Ornamental and Shade Tree Pest Control: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, M. S.

    This is a training manual for commercial pesticide applicators. It gives information for identification and control of diseases, insects, mites, weeds, and vertebrate pests of shade and ornamental trees. Phytotoxicity, environmental concerns, and pesticide application information is also given. (BB)

  13. Interactions between carbon sequestration and shade tree diversity in a smallholder coffee cooperative in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Richards, Meryl Breton; Méndez, V Ernesto

    2014-04-01

    Agroforestry systems have substantial potential to conserve native biodiversity and provide ecosystem services. In particular, agroforestry systems have the potential to conserve native tree diversity and sequester carbon for climate change mitigation. However, little research has been conducted on the temporal stability of species diversity and aboveground carbon stocks in these systems or the relation between species diversity and aboveground carbon sequestration. We measured changes in shade-tree diversity and shade-tree carbon stocks in 14 plots of a 35-ha coffee cooperative over 9 years and analyzed relations between species diversity and carbon sequestration. Carbon sequestration was positively correlated with initial species richness of shade trees. Species diversity of shade trees did not change significantly over the study period, but carbon stocks increased due to tree growth. Our results show a potential for carbon sequestration and long-term biodiversity conservation in smallholder coffee agroforestry systems and illustrate the opportunity for synergies between biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation.

  14. Daylight Adaptive Shading Using Parametric Camshaft Mechanism for SOHO in Jakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utama Sjarifudin, Firza; Justina, Laurensia

    2014-03-01

    This research analyzes SOHO (Small Office Home Office) which can adjust to the need of visual comfort for the users through natural daylighting and also can be adapted to standard requirements of 14 creative industry workspace in Jakartas. The method of the research is by simulating the SOHO unit with variation of shading opening angles in order to adapt to each unit. Analysis done to every shading opening angle to get the appropriate daylight intensity level which support the work activities in every unit for the whole day. In order for the shading to be able to adapt to the changing daylight condition, previously developed parametric camshaft mechanism was used. The study found that the visual comfort for SOHO with creative industries workers in Jakarta can be achieve by varying the shading opening angles between 15-75°.

  15. The Art of Being Flexible: How to Escape from Shade, Salt, and Drought1

    PubMed Central

    Pierik, Ronald; Testerink, Christa

    2014-01-01

    Environmental stresses, such as shading of the shoot, drought, and soil salinity, threaten plant growth, yield, and survival. Plants can alleviate the impact of these stresses through various modes of phenotypic plasticity, such as shade avoidance and halotropism. Here, we review the current state of knowledge regarding the mechanisms that control plant developmental responses to shade, salt, and drought stress. We discuss plant hormones and cellular signaling pathways that control shoot branching and elongation responses to shade and root architecture modulation in response to drought and salinity. Because belowground stresses also result in aboveground changes and vice versa, we then outline how a wider palette of plant phenotypic traits is affected by the individual stresses. Consequently, we argue for a research agenda that integrates multiple plant organs, responses, and stresses. This will generate the scientific understanding needed for future crop improvement programs aiming at crops that can maintain yields under variable and suboptimal conditions. PMID:24972713

  16. Partial Shade Stress Test for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, Timothy J.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Deline, Chris; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-09-02

    Partial shade of monolithic thin-film PV modules can cause reverse-bias conditions leading to permanent damage. In this work, we propose a partial shade stress test for thin-film PV modules that quantifies permanent performance loss. We designed the test with the aid of a computer model that predicts the local voltage, current and temperature stress that result from partial shade. The model predicts the module-scale interactions among the illumination pattern, the electrical properties of the photovoltaic material and the thermal properties of the module package. The test reproduces shading and loading conditions that may occur in the field. It accounts for reversible light-induced performance changes and for additional stress that may be introduced by light-enhanced reverse breakdown. We present simulated and experimental results from the application of the proposed test.

  17. Determination of the usage of shade structures via a dosimetry technique.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Alfio V; Eley, Robert; Downs, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    A measurement system is described that allows an objective review and evaluation of the amount of use by different population groups of provided shade structures. It employs the comparison of the erythemal UV exposure measured with dosimeters to either the vertex or forehead to that in full sun. The technique has been developed using three shade structures and found to provide a linear relationship with an R(2) of 0.99 between the exposure ratio and the time spent in the shade for the solar zenith angle range of 19-53° and for both low- and high-cloud levels. It provides an objective determination of the amount of shade use by population groups that have set periods of time outdoors. PMID:22332953

  18. Direct Volume Rendering with Shading via Three-Dimensional Textures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Gelder, Allen; Kim, Kwansik

    1996-01-01

    A new and easy-to-implement method for direct volume rendering that uses 3D texture maps for acceleration, and incorporates directional lighting, is described. The implementation, called Voltx, produces high-quality images at nearly interactive speeds on workstations with hardware support for three-dimensional texture maps. Previously reported methods did not incorporate a light model, and did not address issues of multiple texture maps for large volumes. Our research shows that these extensions impact performance by about a factor of ten. Voltx supports orthographic, perspective, and stereo views. This paper describes the theory and implementation of this technique, and compares it to the shear-warp factorization approach. A rectilinear data set is converted into a three-dimensional texture map containing color and opacity information. Quantized normal vectors and a lookup table provide efficiency. A new tesselation of the sphere is described, which serves as the basis for normal-vector quantization. A new gradient-based shading criterion is described, in which the gradient magnitude is interpreted in the context of the field-data value and the material classification parameters, and not in isolation. In the rendering phase, the texture map is applied to a stack of parallel planes, which effectively cut the texture into many slabs. The slabs are composited to form an image.

  19. Microleakage in class V gingiva-shaded composite resin restorations

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Chiesa, Marco; Dagna, Alberto; Colombo, Marco; Scribante, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microleakage in Class V cavities restored with a new gingiva-shaded microhybrid composite resin and with a conventional microhybrid composite resin using three different dentin bonding systems (DBS). Class V cavities were prepared in sixty freshly extracted human teeth with the incisal margin in enamel and the apical margin in dentin/cementum. Restored specimens, after thermocycling, were placed in 2% methylene blue solution for 24 hours. Longitudinal sections were obtained and studied with a stereomicroscope for assessment of the microleakage according to degree of dye penetration (scale 0–3). Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis test and with Mann-Whitney U-test. In this study there was no leakage in enamel: all the cavities showed no dye penetration at the incisal margins (located in enamel). None of the DBS used eliminated microleakage in apical margins (located in dentin or cementum): three-step total-etch and single-step self-etch were more effective in reducing microleakage in dentin margins when compared with two-step total-etch. This in vitro study concluded that microleakage in Class V cavities restored with the composite resins tested is similar. PMID:22783451

  20. Satellite communications for disaster relief operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivo, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    The use of existing and planned communication satellite systems to provide assistance in the implementation of disaster relief operations on a global basis was discussed along with satellite communications system implications and their potential impact on field operations in disaster situations. Consideration are given to the utilization of both INTELSAT and MARISAT systems operating at frequencies ranging from 1.5 to 4 GHz and to the size and type of ground terminals necessary for satellite access. Estimates of communication requirements for a global system are given. Some discussion of cost estimates for satellite services to support operations are included. Studies of communication satellites for both pre and post disaster applications conducted for NOAA are included as well as recent experiments conducted in conjunction with the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance of the Agency for International Development.

  1. Maternal health considerations during disaster relief.

    PubMed

    Nour, Nawal N

    2011-01-01

    When disasters strike resource-poor nations, women are often the most affected. They represent the majority of the poor, the most malnourished, and the least educated, and they account for more than 75% of displaced persons. The predisaster familial duties of women are magnified and expanded, and they have significantly less support and fewer resources than they had before the incident. Moreover, after the disaster, they bear the responsibility of caring for their children, the elderly, the injured, and the sick. Besides the effects of the disaster, women become more vulnerable to reproductive and sexual health problems and are at increased risk for physical and sexual violence. Women become both victims and the primary caretakers. Health practitioners are often not aware of these issues when providing emergency care. Developing a disaster relief team with experts in maternal health is necessary to improve women's health outcome. PMID:21629495

  2. Pain relief by touch: a quantitative approach.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Flavia; Nash, Thomas; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Pain relief by touch has been studied for decades in pain neuroscience. Human perceptual studies revealed analgesic effects of segmental tactile stimulation, as compared to extrasegmental touch. However, the spatial organisation of touch-pain interactions within a single human dermatome has not been investigated yet. In 2 experiments we tested whether, how, and where within a dermatome touch modulates the perception of laser-evoked pain. We measured pain perception using intensity ratings, qualitative descriptors, and signal detection measures of sensitivity and response bias. Touch concurrent with laser pulses produced a significant analgesia, and reduced the sensitivity in detecting the energy of laser stimulation, implying a functional loss of information within the ascending Aδ pathway. Touch also produced a bias to judge laser stimuli as less painful. This bias decreased linearly when the distance between the laser and tactile stimuli increased. Thus, our study provides evidence for a spatial organisation of intrasegmental touch-pain interactions.

  3. [Effects of shade-humid environment on the growth characteristics of different maize (Zea mays) hybrids].

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing-Jiu; Huo, Shi-Ping; Zhang, Fang-Kui; Zhang, Xing-Duan; Zhang, Jian; Xiang, Zhen-Fan; Yu, Zhi-Jiang; Feng, Yun-Chao

    2013-12-01

    The growth traits of 18 maize hybrids were studied in natural and artificial simulation shade-humid environments. Significant differences were observed between the natural and shade-humid environments, and the air relative humidity in the shade-humid environment increased 15.0%-16.4%, the soil moisture increased 27.0%-78.4%, the illumination intensity decreased 72.9%-77.9%, and the quantum decreased 72.8%-79.6%. Shade did not affect the ambient temperature. The 7th leaf width, effective functional leaves, plant total leaves, tassel branch number, stem diameter, plant height, ear height, ear length, ear diameter, rows per ear, kernels per row, 100-grain mass and grain yield per plant under the shade-humid environment showed negative variations (reduction in phenotypic values), with the grain yield per plant and plant height being reduced by 72.3% and 7.1% respectively, and the declining changes of the remaining traits ranging from 14.8%-53.8%. However, the 7th leaf length, 7th leaf length-width ratio, anthesis to silking (ASI) duration, southern leaf blight (SLB) index and sheath blight index showed positive variations (increase in phenotypic values), with increases by 39.8%, 80.5%, 114.3%, 73.0% and 54.8%, respectively. The comprehensive shade-humid-tolerant coefficient calculated from the seven traits of ASI, tassel branches, plant total leaves, plant height, individual grain yield, southern leaf blight and sheath blight index could be easily and reliably used to evaluate the shade-humid-tolerant ability of the maize hybrids. According to this coefficient, the 18 hybrids could be classified into three categories, strongly-resistant, moderately-resistant and weakly-resistant to the shade-humid environment.

  4. Is Shade Beneficial for Mediterranean Shrubs Experiencing Periods of Extreme Drought and Late-winter Frosts?

    PubMed Central

    Valladares, Fernando; Zaragoza-Castells, Joana; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Matesanz, Silvia; Alonso, Beatriz; Portsmuth, Angelika; Delgado, Antonio; Atkin, Owen K.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants are naturally exposed to multiple, frequently interactive stress factors, most of which are becoming more severe due to global change. Established plants have been reported to facilitate the establishment of juvenile plants, but net effects of plant–plant interactions are difficult to assess due to complex interactions among environmental factors. An investigation was carried out in order to determine how two dominant evergreen shrubs (Quercus ilex and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) co-occurring in continental, Mediterranean habitats respond to multiple abiotic stresses and whether the shaded understorey conditions ameliorate the negative effects of drought and winter frosts on the physiology of leaves. Methods Microclimate and ecophysiology of sun and shade plants were studied at a continental plateau in central Spain during 2004–2005, with 2005 being one of the driest and hottest years on record; several late-winter frosts also occurred in 2005. Key Results Daytime air temperature and vapour pressure deficit were lower in the shade than in the sun, but soil moisture was also lower in the shade during the spring and summer of 2005, and night-time temperatures were higher in the shade. Water potential, photochemical efficiency, light-saturated photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and leaf 13C composition differed between sun and shade individuals throughout the seasons, but differences were species specific. Shade was beneficial for leaf-level physiology in Q. ilex during winter, detrimental during spring for both species, and of little consequence in summer. Conclusions The results suggest that beneficial effects of shade can be eclipsed by reduced soil moisture during dry years, which are expected to be more frequent in the most likely climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean region. PMID:18819947

  5. Photovoltaic Shading Testbed for Module-Level Power Electronics: 2014 Update

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, C.; Meydbray, J.; Donovan, M.

    2014-08-01

    The 2012 NREL report 'Photovoltaic Shading Testbed for Module-Level Power Electronics' provides a standard methodology for estimating the performance benefit of distributed power electronics under partial shading conditions. Since the release of the report, experiments have been conducted for a number of products and for different system configurations. Drawing from these experiences, updates to the test and analysis methods are recommended. Proposed changes in data processing have the benefit of reducing the sensitivity to measurement errors and weather variability, as well as bringing the updated performance score in line with measured and simulated values of the shade recovery benefit of distributed PV power electronics. Also, due to the emergence of new technologies including sub-module embedded power electronics, the shading method has been extended to include power electronics that operate at a finer granularity than the module level. An update to the method is proposed to account for these emerging technologies that respond to shading differently than module-level devices. The partial shading test remains a repeatable test procedure that attempts to simulate shading situations as would be experienced by typical residential or commercial rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. Performance data for multiple products tested using this method are discussed, based on equipment from Enphase, Solar Edge, Maxim Integrated and SMA. In general, the annual recovery of shading losses from the module-level electronics evaluated is 25-35%, with the major difference between different trials being related to the number of parallel strings in the test installation rather than differences between the equipment tested.

  6. Seeds Use Temperature Cues to Ensure Germination under Nurse-plant Shade in Xeric Kalahari Savannah

    PubMed Central

    Kos, Martijn; Poschlod, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims In arid environments many plant species are found associated with the canopies of woody perennials. Favourable conditions for establishment under canopies are likely to be associated with shade, but under canopies shade is distributed patchily and differs in quality. Diurnal temperature fluctuations and maximum temperatures could be reliable indicators of safe sites. Here, an examination is made as to whether canopy-associated species use temperature cues to germinate in shade patches, rather than matrix areas between trees. Methods The study was carried out in arid southern Kalahari savannah (Republic of South Africa). Perennial and annual species associated with Acacia erioloba trees and matrix species were germinated at temperature regimes resembling shaded and unshaded conditions. Soil temperature was measured in the field. Key Results Germination of all fleshy-fruited perennial acacia-associated species and two annual acacia-associated species was inhibited by the temperature regime resembling unshaded conditions compared with at least one of the regimes resembling shaded conditions. Inhibition in perennials decreased with seed mass, probably reflecting that smaller seedlings are more vulnerable to drought. Germination of matrix species was not inhibited by the unshaded temperature regime and in several cases it increased germination compared with shaded temperature regimes or constant temperature. Using phylogenetically independent contrasts a significant positive relationship was found between canopy association and the germination at shade temperatures relative to unshaded temperatures. Conclusions The data support the hypothesis that canopy species have developed mechanisms to prevent germination in open sun conditions. The results and data from the literature show that inhibition of germination at temperature regimes characteristic of open sun conditions can be found in fleshy-fruited species of widely divergent taxonomic groups. It is

  7. Simulated herbivory does not constrain phenotypic plasticity to shade through ontogeny in a relict tree.

    PubMed

    Pardo, A; García, F M; Valladares, F; Pulido, F

    2016-07-01

    Ecological limits to phenotypic plasticity (PP), induced by simultaneous biotic and abiotic factors, can prevent organisms from exhibiting optimal plasticity, and in turn lead to decreased fitness. Herbivory is an important biotic stressor and may limit plant functional responses to challenging environmental conditions such as shading. In this study we investigated whether plant functional responses and PP to shade are constrained by herbivory, and whether such constraints are due to direct effects based on resource limitation by considering ontogeny. We used as a model system the relict tree Prunus lusitanica and implemented an indoor experiment to quantify the response of saplings of different ages to shade and herbivory. We measured five functional traits and quantitatively calculated PP. Results showed that herbivory did not constrain functional responses or PP to shade except for shoot:root ratio (SR), which, despite showing a high PP in damaged saplings, decreased under shade instead of increasing. Damaged saplings of older age did not exhibit reduced constraints on functional responses to shade and generally presented a lower PP than damaged saplings of younger age. Our findings suggest that herbivory-mediated constraints on plant plasticity to shade may not be as widespread as previously thought. Nonetheless, the negative effect of herbivory on SR plastic expression to shade could be detrimental for plant fitness. Finally, our results suggest a secondary role of direct effects (resource-based) on P. lusitanica plasticity limitation. Further studies should quantify plant resources in order to gain a better understanding of this seldom-explored subject.

  8. Seasonal contrasts in the response of coffee ants to agroforestry shade-tree management.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, A V; Sousa-Souto, L; Klein, A-M; Tscharntke, T

    2010-12-01

    In many tropical landscapes, agroforestry systems are the last forested ecosystems, providing shade, having higher humidity, mitigating potential droughts, and possessing more species than any other crop system. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher levels of shade and associated humidity in agroforestry enhance coffee ant richness more during the dry than rainy season, comparing ant richness in 22 plots of three coffee agroforestry types in coastal Ecuador: simple-shade agroforests (intensively managed with low tree species diversity), complex-shade agroforests (extensively managed with intermediate tree species diversity) and abandoned coffee agroforests (abandoned for 10-15 yr and resembling secondary forests). Seasonality affected responses of ant richness but not composition to agroforestry management, in that most species were observed in abandoned coffee agroforests in the dry season. In the rainy season, however, most species were found in simple-shade agroforests, and complex agroforestry being intermediate. Foraging coffee ants species composition did not change differently according to agroforestry type and season. Results show that shade appears to be most important in the dry seasons, while a mosaic of different land-use types may provide adequate environmental conditions to ant species, maximizing landscape-wide richness throughout the year.

  9. Seasonal contrasts in the response of coffee ants to agroforestry shade-tree management.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, A V; Sousa-Souto, L; Klein, A-M; Tscharntke, T

    2010-12-01

    In many tropical landscapes, agroforestry systems are the last forested ecosystems, providing shade, having higher humidity, mitigating potential droughts, and possessing more species than any other crop system. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher levels of shade and associated humidity in agroforestry enhance coffee ant richness more during the dry than rainy season, comparing ant richness in 22 plots of three coffee agroforestry types in coastal Ecuador: simple-shade agroforests (intensively managed with low tree species diversity), complex-shade agroforests (extensively managed with intermediate tree species diversity) and abandoned coffee agroforests (abandoned for 10-15 yr and resembling secondary forests). Seasonality affected responses of ant richness but not composition to agroforestry management, in that most species were observed in abandoned coffee agroforests in the dry season. In the rainy season, however, most species were found in simple-shade agroforests, and complex agroforestry being intermediate. Foraging coffee ants species composition did not change differently according to agroforestry type and season. Results show that shade appears to be most important in the dry seasons, while a mosaic of different land-use types may provide adequate environmental conditions to ant species, maximizing landscape-wide richness throughout the year. PMID:22182538

  10. The impact of light intensity on shade-induced leaf senescence.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Bastiaan; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Bagard, Matthieu; Keech, Olivier; Gardeström, Per

    2012-06-01

    Plants often have to cope with altered light conditions, which in leaves induce various physiological responses ranging from photosynthetic acclimation to leaf senescence. However, our knowledge of the regulatory pathways by which shade and darkness induce leaf senescence remains incomplete. To determine to what extent reduced light intensities regulate the induction of leaf senescence, we performed a functional comparison between Arabidopsis leaves subjected to a range of shading treatments. Individually covered leaves, which remained attached to the plant, were compared with respect to chlorophyll, protein, histology, expression of senescence-associated genes, capacity for photosynthesis and respiration, and light compensation point (LCP). Mild shading induced photosynthetic acclimation and resource partitioning, which, together with a decreased respiration, lowered the LCP. Leaf senescence was induced only under strong shade, coinciding with a negative carbon balance and independent of the red/far-red ratio. Interestingly, while senescence was significantly delayed at very low light compared with darkness, phytochrome A mutant plants showed enhanced chlorophyll degradation under all shading treatments except complete darkness. Taken together, our results suggest that the induction of leaf senescence during shading depends on the efficiency of carbon fixation, which in turn appears to be modulated via light receptors such as phytochrome A.

  11. Sedimentation and water quality in the West Branch Shade River basin, Ohio, 1984 water year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childress, C.J.; Jones, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Sedimentation in, and flooding of, the West Branch Shade River and its tributaries have been major concerns of residents and State and local officials. The area was extensively surface mined for coal between the mid-1940 's and the early 1960's. Reclamation efforts immediately after mining were unsuccessful. The results have been elevated sediment loads and the subsequent loss of channel conveyance. Two sediment and stream gaging stations were established on West Branch Shade River in the area of past mining to provide data to evaluate the effectiveness of current reclamation activities on reducing sediment loads. A third station was established on the East Branch Shade River in an unmined area as a control. From October 1983 through September 1984, the annual suspended sediment yield/acre-ft of runoff was approximately two times as high for West Branch Shade River (0.51 ton/acre-ft of runoff) as for East Branch Shade River (0.28 ton/acre-ft). In addition, water quality of West Branch indicates that acidity is higher, pH is lower, and concentrations of dissolved sulfate and metals are higher than for East Branch. The concentration of coal in bed material increased in the downstream direction along West Branch Shade River. The concentration downstream in the West Branch was more than 20 times greater than in the East Branch. (Author 's abstract)

  12. Quantitative analysis of anthropogenic relief features: automated mapping of charcoal kiln sites from high-resolution ALS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Anna; Takla, Melanie; Nicolay, Alexander; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    High-resolution digital elevation data from airborne laser scanning (ALS) allow for identification and mapping of so far unknown small-scale relief features that are hidden by forest cover. Especially as a result of historic land use, small anthropogenic landforms can occur, e.g., remains of charcoal kilns on sites that were used for charcoal production or ridge and furrow systems in former farmland areas. Mapping such relief features and analyzing their spatial distribution patterns can help to understand past land-use systems and their effects on landscapes. To efficiently detect and quantify small-scale relief features from high-resolution DEMs for larger areas, (semi-) automated mapping routines are required. In order to describe the number and spatial distribution of historic charcoal kiln sites in the area around Cottbus, Germany, we developed a GIS-based routine for the detection and mapping of kiln remnants from ALS elevation models with a resolution of 1 or 2 meters. The method is based on a template matching algorithm, using a combination of morphometric parameters, and is implemented within ArcGIS. The mapping results could be validated against a comprehensive database of kiln sites and diameters recorded from archaeological excavations in the forefield of the opencast mine Jänschwalde and from manual digitization of kiln remnants from Shaded Relief maps for the Jänschwalder Heide and the Tauersche Forst, north of Cottbus. A considerably high number of charcoal kiln sites could be detected in ALS data, and the diameters of the identified charcoal kilns are remarkable large in the area. For the Jänschwalder Heide, more than 5000 kiln sites in an area of 32 km2 were detected by manual digitization, with 1355 kiln sites that are wider than 12 m. These relatively large kiln sites could be mapped with detection rates that are close to those of manual digitization using the automated mapping routine. Detection quality was improved by the combination of

  13. 46 CFR 76.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief. 76.15-40 Section 76.15-40 Shipping... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary, relatively... means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the compartment when the carbon dioxide...

  14. 46 CFR 56.50-20 - Pressure relief piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief piping. 56.50-20 Section 56.50-20... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-20 Pressure relief piping. (a) General... pressure-relieving safety devices shall be designed to facilitate drainage. (c) Stop valves. Stop...

  15. 46 CFR 76.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief. 76.15-40 Section 76.15-40 Shipping... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary, relatively... means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the compartment when the carbon dioxide...

  16. 49 CFR 178.345-10 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.345-10 Section 178.345-10... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-10 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped to relieve pressure and vacuum conditions in conformance with this section and the...

  17. 46 CFR 154.802 - Alternate pressure relief settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternate pressure relief settings. 154.802 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.802 Alternate pressure relief settings. Cargo tanks with more than one...) Change the set pressure without pressure testing to verify the new setting; and (2) Can be...

  18. 46 CFR 154.802 - Alternate pressure relief settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternate pressure relief settings. 154.802 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.802 Alternate pressure relief settings. Cargo tanks with more than one...) Change the set pressure without pressure testing to verify the new setting; and (2) Can be...

  19. 46 CFR 154.802 - Alternate pressure relief settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternate pressure relief settings. 154.802 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.802 Alternate pressure relief settings. Cargo tanks with more than one...) Change the set pressure without pressure testing to verify the new setting; and (2) Can be...

  20. 46 CFR 56.50-20 - Pressure relief piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief piping. 56.50-20 Section 56.50-20... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-20 Pressure relief piping. (a) General... pressure-relieving safety devices shall be designed to facilitate drainage. (c) Stop valves. Stop...

  1. 46 CFR 154.517 - Piping: Liquid pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piping: Liquid pressure relief. 154.517 Section 154.517... and Process Piping Systems § 154.517 Piping: Liquid pressure relief. The cargo loading and discharge crossover headers, cargo hoses, and cargo loading arms must have means to relieve cargo pressure and...

  2. 49 CFR 178.345-10 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.345-10 Section 178.345-10... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-10 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped to relieve pressure and vacuum conditions in conformance with this section and...

  3. 46 CFR 76.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief. 76.15-40 Section 76.15-40 Shipping... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary, relatively... means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the compartment when the carbon dioxide...

  4. 46 CFR 95.16-35 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief. 95.16-35 Section 95.16-35 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fixed Clean Agent Gas Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.16-35 Pressure relief. Tight... excessive pressure within the compartment when the extinguishing agent is injected....

  5. 49 CFR 179.300-15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.300-15 Section 179... Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.300-15 Pressure relief devices... shall be sufficient to prevent building up pressure in tank in excess of 82.5 percent of the tank...

  6. 46 CFR 193.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief. 193.15-40 Section 193.15-40 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary... suitable means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the compartment when the carbon...

  7. 49 CFR 178.345-10 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.345-10 Section 178.345-10... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-10 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped to relieve pressure and vacuum conditions in conformance with this section and the...

  8. 49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.500-12 Section 179... and 107A) § 179.500-12 Pressure relief devices. (a) Tank shall be equipped with one or more pressure..., with tank filled with air at pressure equal to 70 percent of the marked test pressure of tank,...

  9. 46 CFR 193.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief. 193.15-40 Section 193.15-40 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-40 Pressure relief. (a... be provided with suitable means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the...

  10. 49 CFR 179.300-15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.300-15 Section 179... Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.300-15 Pressure relief devices... shall be sufficient to prevent building up pressure in tank in excess of 82.5 percent of the tank...

  11. 46 CFR 154.517 - Piping: Liquid pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Liquid pressure relief. 154.517 Section 154.517... and Process Piping Systems § 154.517 Piping: Liquid pressure relief. The cargo loading and discharge crossover headers, cargo hoses, and cargo loading arms must have means to relieve cargo pressure and...

  12. 46 CFR 154.517 - Piping: Liquid pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping: Liquid pressure relief. 154.517 Section 154.517... and Process Piping Systems § 154.517 Piping: Liquid pressure relief. The cargo loading and discharge crossover headers, cargo hoses, and cargo loading arms must have means to relieve cargo pressure and...

  13. 46 CFR 193.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief. 193.15-40 Section 193.15-40 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-40 Pressure relief. (a... be provided with suitable means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the...

  14. 46 CFR 95.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief. 95.15-40 Section 95.15-40 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary... suitable means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the compartment when the carbon...

  15. 46 CFR 154.802 - Alternate pressure relief settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternate pressure relief settings. 154.802 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.802 Alternate pressure relief settings. Cargo tanks with more than one...) Change the set pressure without pressure testing to verify the new setting; and (2) Can be...

  16. 46 CFR 95.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief. 95.15-40 Section 95.15-40 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary... suitable means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the compartment when the carbon...

  17. 49 CFR 178.345-10 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.345-10 Section 178.345-10... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-10 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped to relieve pressure and vacuum conditions in conformance with this section and the...

  18. 49 CFR 178.345-10 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.345-10 Section 178.345-10... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-10 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped to relieve pressure and vacuum conditions in conformance with this section and the...

  19. 46 CFR 95.16-35 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief. 95.16-35 Section 95.16-35 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fixed Clean Agent Gas Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.16-35 Pressure relief. Tight... excessive pressure within the compartment when the extinguishing agent is injected....

  20. 46 CFR 95.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief. 95.15-40 Section 95.15-40 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary... suitable means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the compartment when the carbon...

  1. 46 CFR 56.50-20 - Pressure relief piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief piping. 56.50-20 Section 56.50-20... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-20 Pressure relief piping. (a) General... pressure-relieving safety devices shall be designed to facilitate drainage. (c) Stop valves. Stop...

  2. 46 CFR 76.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief. 76.15-40 Section 76.15-40 Shipping... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary, relatively... means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the compartment when the carbon dioxide...

  3. 46 CFR 76.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief. 76.15-40 Section 76.15-40 Shipping... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary, relatively... means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the compartment when the carbon dioxide...

  4. 46 CFR 56.50-20 - Pressure relief piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief piping. 56.50-20 Section 56.50-20... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-20 Pressure relief piping. (a) General... pressure-relieving safety devices shall be designed to facilitate drainage. (c) Stop valves. Stop...

  5. 46 CFR 95.16-35 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief. 95.16-35 Section 95.16-35 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fixed Clean Agent Gas Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.16-35 Pressure relief. Tight... excessive pressure within the compartment when the extinguishing agent is injected....

  6. 46 CFR 56.50-20 - Pressure relief piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief piping. 56.50-20 Section 56.50-20... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-20 Pressure relief piping. (a) General... pressure-relieving safety devices shall be designed to facilitate drainage. (c) Stop valves. Stop...

  7. 46 CFR 95.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief. 95.15-40 Section 95.15-40 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary... suitable means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the compartment when the carbon...

  8. 46 CFR 193.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief. 193.15-40 Section 193.15-40 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary... suitable means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the compartment when the carbon...

  9. 49 CFR 179.300-15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.300-15 Section 179... Pressure relief devices. (a) Unless prohibited in part 173 of this subchapter, tanks shall be equipped with... total discharge capacity shall be sufficient to prevent building up pressure in tank in excess of...

  10. 46 CFR 95.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief. 95.15-40 Section 95.15-40 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary... suitable means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the compartment when the carbon...

  11. 46 CFR 193.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief. 193.15-40 Section 193.15-40 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-40 Pressure relief. (a... be provided with suitable means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the...

  12. 46 CFR 154.517 - Piping: Liquid pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piping: Liquid pressure relief. 154.517 Section 154.517... and Process Piping Systems § 154.517 Piping: Liquid pressure relief. The cargo loading and discharge crossover headers, cargo hoses, and cargo loading arms must have means to relieve cargo pressure and...

  13. 49 CFR 179.300-15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.300-15 Section 179... Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.300-15 Pressure relief devices... shall be sufficient to prevent building up pressure in tank in excess of 82.5 percent of the tank...

  14. 78 FR 49242 - Relief From Joint and Several Liability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... (TD 9003, 67 FR 47278). Sections 1.6015-2, 1.6015-3, and 1.6015-4 of the final regulations provide... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK51 Relief From Joint and Several Liability AGENCY... contains proposed regulations relating to relief from joint and several tax liability under section 6015...

  15. 49 CFR 178.347-4 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... with a pressure and vacuum relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type and construction. Vacuum relief devices are not required for cargo tank motor vehicles that are designed to be loaded by vacuum in accordance with § 178.347-1(c) or built to withstand full vacuum in accordance...

  16. 49 CFR 178.347-4 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... with a pressure and vacuum relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type and construction. Vacuum relief devices are not required for cargo tank motor vehicles that are designed to be loaded by vacuum in accordance with § 178.347-1(c) or built to withstand full vacuum in accordance...

  17. 49 CFR 178.347-4 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with a pressure and vacuum relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type and construction. Vacuum relief devices are not required for cargo tank motor vehicles that are designed to be loaded by vacuum in accordance with § 178.347-1(c) or built to withstand full vacuum in accordance...

  18. 49 CFR 178.347-4 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with a pressure and vacuum relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type and construction. Vacuum relief devices are not required for cargo tank motor vehicles that are designed to be loaded by vacuum in accordance with § 178.347-1(c) or built to withstand full vacuum in accordance...

  19. 32 CFR 2.2 - Statutory relief for participating programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting on a defense acquisition program may be waived. (c) The requirements in section 809 of Public Law... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statutory relief for participating programs. 2.2... PROGRAM POLICY § 2.2 Statutory relief for participating programs. (a) Within the limitations...

  20. 32 CFR 2.2 - Statutory relief for participating programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting on a defense acquisition program may be waived. (c) The requirements in section 809 of Public Law... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Statutory relief for participating programs. 2.2... PROGRAM POLICY § 2.2 Statutory relief for participating programs. (a) Within the limitations...