Science.gov

Sample records for 3001-b 3004-b t-30

  1. Maintenance Action Readiness Assessment Plan for Waste Area Grouping 1 inactive Tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, T-30, and 3013 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This Readiness Assessment Plan has been prepared to document operational readiness for the maintenance action consisting of remediation of four inactive liquid low-level radioactive tanks in Waste Area Grouping 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The four tanks to be remediated are Tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, T-30, and 3013. Tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, and T-30 will be removed from the ground. Because of logistical issues associated with excavation and site access, Tank 3013 will be grouted in place and permanently closed. This project is being performed as a maintenance action rather than an action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, because the risk to human health and environment is well below the US Environmental Protection Agency`s level of concern. The decision to proceed as a maintenance action was documented by an interim action proposed plan, which is included in the administrative record. A Readiness Assessment Team has been assembled to review the criteria deemed necessary to conduct the remediation tasks. These criteria include approval of all plans, acquisition of needed equipment, completion of personnel training, and coordination with plant health and safety personnel. Once the criteria have been met and documented, the task will begin. The readiness assessment is expected to be completed by late July 1995, and the task will begin thereafter.

  2. Maintenance Action Work Plan for Waste Area Grouping 1 inactive tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, T-30, and 3013 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This Maintenance Action Work Plan has been prepared to document the activities and procedures for the remediation of four inactive, low-level radioactive tanks at Waste Area Grouping 1, from the Category D list of tanks in the Federal Facility Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation (EPA et al. 1994). The four tanks to remediated are tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, T-30, and 3013. Three of the tanks (3001-B, 3004-B, and T-30) will be physically removed from the ground. Because of logistical issues associted with excavation and site access, the fourth tank (3013) will be grouted in place and permanently closed.

  3. Root cause analysis for waste area grouping 1, Batch I, Series 1 Tank T-30 project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Four inactive liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks were scheduled for remedial actions as the Batch L Series I Tank Project during fiscal year (FY) 1995. These tanks are 3001-B, 3004-B, T-30, and 3013. The initial tank remediation project was conducted as a maintenance action. One project objective was to gain experience in remediation efforts (under maintenance actions) to assist in conducting remedial action projects for the 33 remaining inactive LLLW tanks. Batch I, Series 1 project activities resulted in the successful remediation of tanks 3001-B, 3004-B, and 3013. Tank T-30 remedial actions were halted as a result of information obtained during waste characterization activities. The conditions discovered on tank T-30 would not allow completion of tank removal and smelting as originally planned. A decision was made to conduct a root cause analysis of Tank T-30 events to identify and, where possible, correct weaknesses that, if uncorrected, could result in similar delays for completion of future inactive tank remediation projects. The objective of the analysis was to determine why a portion of expected project end results for Tank T-30 were not fully achieved. The root cause analysis evaluates project events and recommends beneficial improvements for application to future projects. This report presents the results of the Batch I, Series root cause analysis results and makes recommendations based on that analysis.

  4. Measurement of the MACS of 159Tb(n, γ) at kT = 30 keV by Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praena, J.; Mastinu, P. F.; Pignatari, M.; Quesada, J. M.; Capote, R.; Morilla, Y.

    2014-06-01

    The measurement of the Maxwellian-Averaged Cross-Section (MACS) of the 159Tb(n, γ) reaction at kT = 30 keV by the activation technique is presented. An innovative method for the generation of Maxwellian neutron spectra at kT = 30 keV is used. An experimental value of 2166 ± 181 mb agrees well with the MACS value derived from the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation, but is higher than KADoNiS recommended value of 1580 ± 150 mb. Astrophysical implications are studied.

  5. Test wells T23, T29, and T30, White Sands Missile Range and Fort Bliss Military Reservation, Dona Ana County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, R.G.; Pinckley, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    Three test wells, T23, T29, and T30, were drilled in south-central New Mexico as part of a joint military training program sponsored by the U.S. Army in November 1982. Test well T23 was drilled as an exploratory and monitoring well in the proposed Soledad well field at the Fort Bliss Military Reservation. Test wells T29 and T30 were drilled at White Sands Missile Range. Test well T29 was drilled as an observation well in the vicinity of the outfall channel from the sewage treatment plant. Test well T30 was drilled as an observation well for a landfill south of the well site. Information obtained from these wells includes lithologic logs for all wells and borehole-geophysical logs from the cased wells for test wells T29 and T30. (USGS)

  6. Small-Scale Trials Suggest Increasing Applications of Natular™ XRT and Natular™ T30 Larvicide Tablets May Not Improve Mosquito Reduction in Some Catch Basins

    PubMed Central

    Harbison, Justin E.; Henry, Marlon; Corcoran, Peter C.; Zazra, Dave; Xamplas, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Stormwater catch basins are commonly treated with larvicides by mosquito control agencies to reduce local populations of mosquito species capable of transmitting West Nile virus. Recent evidence suggests that extended-release larvicides formulated to last up to 180 days in catch basins may not be effective in some basins due to chronic flushing, rapid dissolution, or burying of treatment in sump debris. To investigate if increasing the number of applications could improve effectiveness, a small study was performed over 13 weeks in 2015 to evaluate two extended-release larvicides (Natular™ XRT 180-day tablets and Natular™ T30 30-day tablets) and a larvicide oil (CocoBear™). Over the course of 13 weeks, three groups of eight basins were monitored for mosquitoes, each group receiving Natular™ XRT, Natular™ T30, or CocoBear™ larvicides. All basins received a single application at the beginning of the study period. Once mosquitoes in a basin surpassed the treatment threshold during weekly monitoring, an additional application of the associated larvicide was given to that basin. The number of applications during the study period ranged from 1 to 10 for CocoBear™ basins, 1 to 7 for T30 basins, and 2 to 8 for XRT basins. Overall, the average number of applications and the cost of larvicide per basin were 4.4 applications at $0.66 per Coco-Bear™ basin, 4.4 applications at $6.26 per T30 basin, and 4 applications at $16.56 per XRT basin. Basins treated with XRT and T30 needed reapplications more often than expected, yet were no more effective than CocoBear™, suggesting that increasing the frequency of application of these larvicide formulations may not provide increased mosquito reduction in some basins. PMID:26792998

  7. Measurement of the MACS of Ta181(n,γ) at kT=30 keV as a test of a method for Maxwellian neutron spectra generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praena, J.; Mastinu, P. F.; Pignatari, M.; Quesada, J. M.; García-López, J.; Lozano, M.; Dzysiuk, N.; Capote, R.; Martín-Hernández, G.

    2013-11-01

    Measurement of the Maxwellian-Averaged Cross-Section (MACS) of the Ta(n,γ)181 reaction at kT=30 keV by the activation technique using an innovative method for the generation of Maxwellian neutron spectra is presented. The method is based on the shaping of the proton beam to produce a desired neutron spectrum using the 7Li(p,n) reaction as a neutron source. The characterization of neutron spectra has been performed by combining measured proton distributions, an analytical description of the differential neutron yield in angle and energy of the 7Li(p,n) reaction, and with Monte Carlo simulations of the neutron transport. A measured value equal to 815±73 mbarn is reported for the MACS of the reaction Ta(n,γ)181 at kT=30 keV. The MACS of the reaction Au(n,γ)197 provided by KADoNiS has been used as a reference.

  8. Final Regulatory Determination for Special Wastes From Mineral Processing (Mining Waste Exclusion) - Federal Register Notice, June 13, 1991

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This action presents the Agency's final regulatory determination required by section 3001(b)(3)(C) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for 20 special wastes from the processing of ores and minerals.

  9. SU-E-T-30: Absorbed Doses Determined by Texture Analysis of Gafchromic EBT3 Films Using Scanning Electron Microscopy: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S; Kim, H; Ye, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The texture analysis method is useful to estimate structural features of images as color, size, and shape. The study aims to determine a dose-response curve by texture analysis of Gafchromic EBT3 film images using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods: The uncoated Gafchromic EBT3 films were prepared to directly scan over the active surface layer of EBT3 film using SEM. The EBT3 films were exposed at a dose range of 0 to 10 Gy using a 6 MV photon beam. The exposed film samples were SEM-scanned at 100X, 1000X, and 3000X magnifications. The four texture features (Homogeneity, Correlation, Contrast, and Energy) were calculated based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) derived from the SEM images at each dose. To validate a correlation between delivered doses and texture features, an R-squared value in linear regression was tested. Results: The results showed that the Correlation index was more suitable as dose indices than the other three texture features due to higher linearity and sensitivity of the dose response curves. Further the Correlation index of 3000X magnified SEM images with 9 pixel offsets had an R-squared value of 0.964. The differences between the delivered doses and the doses measured by this method were 0.9, 1.2, 0.2, and 0.2 Gy at 5, 10, 15, and 20 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: It seems to be feasible to convert micro-scale structural features of {sub χ}t{sub χχχ}he EBT3 films to absorbed doses using the texture analysis method.

  10. Health information technology: initial set of standards, implementation specifications, and certification criteria for electronic health record technology. Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2010-01-13

    The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is issuing this interim final rule with a request for comments to adopt an initial set of standards, implementation specifications, and certification criteria, as required by section 3004(b)(1) of the Public Health Service Act. This interim final rule represents the first step in an incremental approach to adopting standards, implementation specifications, and certification criteria to enhance the interoperability, functionality, utility, and security of health information technology and to support its meaningful use. The certification criteria adopted in this initial set establish the capabilities and related standards that certified electronic health record (EHR) technology will need to include in order to, at a minimum, support the achievement of the proposed meaningful use Stage 1 (beginning in 2011) by eligible professionals and eligible hospitals under the Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Programs.

  11. Allele Polymorphism and Haplotype Diversity of HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 Loci in Sequence-Based Typing for Chinese Uyghur Ethnic Group

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chun-mei; Zhu, Bo-feng; Deng, Ya-jun; Ye, Shi-hui; Yan, Jiang-wei; Yang, Guang; Wang, Hong-dan; Qin, Hai-xia; Huang, Qi-zhao; Zhang, Jing-Jing

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies indicate that the frequency distributions of HLA alleles and haplotypes vary from one ethnic group to another or between the members of the same ethnic group living in different geographic areas. It is necessary and meaningful to study the high-resolution allelic and haplotypic distributions of HLA loci in different groups. Methodology/Principal Findings High-resolution HLA typing for the Uyghur ethnic minority group using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based-typing method was first reported. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 allelic distributions were determined in 104 unrelated healthy Uyghur individuals and haplotypic frequencies and linkage disequilibrium parameters for HLA loci were estimated using the maximum-likelihood method. A total of 35 HLA-A, 51 HLA-B and 33 HLA-DRB1 alleles were identified at the four-digit level in the population. High frequency alleles were HLA-A*1101 (13.46%), A*0201 (12.50%), A*0301 (10.10%); HLA-B*5101(8.17%), B*3501(6.73%), B*5001 (6.25%); HLA-DRB1*0701 (16.35%), DRB1*1501 (8.65%) and DRB1*0301 (7.69%). The two-locus haplotypes at the highest frequency were HLA-A*3001-B*1302 (2.88%), A*2402-B*5101 (2.86%); HLA-B*5001-DRB1*0701 (4.14%) and B*0702-DRB1*1501 (3.37%). The three-locus haplotype at the highest frequency was HLA-A*3001-B*1302-DRB1*0701(2.40%). Significantly high linkage disequilibrium was observed in six two-locus haplotypes, with their corresponding relative linkage disequilibrium parameters equal to 1. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree between the Uyghur group and other previously reported populations was constructed on the basis of standard genetic distances among the populations calculated using the four-digit sequence-level allelic frequencies at HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 loci. The phylogenetic analyses reveal that the Uyghur group belongs to the northwestern Chinese populations and is most closely related to the Xibe group, and then to Kirgiz, Hui, Mongolian and Northern Han. Conclusions

  12. Molecular diversity of Citrus tristeza virus in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a serious citrus pathogen worldwide. Recent genetic studies have identified five standard CTV genotypic groups: T30, VT, T36, T3, and B165/T68. Field surveys performed in California in 2008-2010 identified primarily MCA13-negative CTV isolates with T30-like genotype. C...

  13. What Is Salvia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... A, changes the chemistry in the brain, causing hallucinations (seeing something that seems real but isn’t). ... 30 minutes. People who use salvia generally have hallucinations—they see or feel things that aren’t ...

  14. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 polymorphism in Koreans defined by sequence-based typing of 4128 cord blood units.

    PubMed

    Huh, J Y; Yi, D Y; Eo, S-H; Cho, H; Park, M H; Kang, M S

    2013-12-01

    Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and haplotypes differ significantly among different ethnic groups, and high-resolution typing methods allow for the detection of a wider spectrum of HLA variations. In this study, HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 genotypes were analysed in 4128 cord blood units obtained from Korean women using the sequence-based typing method. A total of 44 HLA-A, 67 HLA-B and 48 HLA-DRB1 most probable alleles were identified. Of these, high-frequency alleles found at a frequency of ≥5% were 6 HLA-A (A*02:01, A*02:06, A*11:01, A*24:02, A*31:01, A*33:03), 5 HLA-B (B*15:01, B*44:03, B*51:01, B*54:01, B*58:01) and 7 HLA-DRB1 (DRB1*01:01, DRB1*04:05, DRB1*07:01, DRB1*08:03, DRB1*09:01, DRB1*13:02, DRB1*15:01) alleles. At each locus, A*02, B*15 and DRB1*04 generic groups were most diverse at allelic level, consisting of 8, 11 and 10 different alleles, respectively. Two- and three-locus haplotypes estimated by the maximum likelihood method revealed 73 A-B, 74 B-DRB1 and 42 A-B-DRB1 haplotypes with frequencies of ≥0.3%. A total of 193 A-B-DRB1 haplotypes found at a frequency of ≥0.1% were presented, and the six most common haplotypes were A*33:03-B*44:03-DRB1*13:02 (4.6%), A*33:03-B*58:01-DRB1*13:02 (3.0%), A*24:02-B*07:02-DRB1*01:01 (2.7%), A*33:03-B*44:03-DRB1*07:01 (2.5%), A*30:01-B*13:02-DRB1*07:01 (2.2%) and A*24:02-B*52:01-DRB1*15:02 (2.1%). Compared with previous smaller scale studies, this study further delineated the allelic and haplotypic diversity in Koreans including low-frequency alleles and haplotypes. Information obtained in this study will be useful for the search for unrelated bone marrow donors and for anthropologic and disease association studies.

  15. Effect of hand-arm exercise on venous blood constituents during leg exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, N.; Silver, J. E.; Greenawalt, S.; Kravik, S. E.; Geelen, G.

    1985-01-01

    Contributions by ancillary hand and arm actions to the changes in blood constituents effected by leg exercises on cycle ergometer were assessed. Static or dynamic hand-arm exercises were added to the leg exercise (50 percent VO2 peak)-only control regimens for the subjects (19-27 yr old men) in the two experimental groups. Antecubital venous blood was analyzed at times 0, 15, and 30 min (T0, T15, and T30) for serum Na(+), K(+), osmolality, albumin, total CA(2+), and glucose; blood hemoglobin, hematocrit, and lactic acid; and change in plasma volume. Only glucose and lactate values were affected by additional arm exercise. Glucose decreased 4 percent at T15 and T30 after static exercise, and by 2 percent at T15 (with no change at T30) after dynamic arm exercise. Conversely, lactic acid increased by 20 percent at T30 after static exercise, and by 14 percent by T15 and 6 percent at T30 after dynamic arm exercise. It is concluded that additional arm movements, performed usually when gripping the handle-bar on the cycle ergometer, could introduce significant errors in measured venous concentrations of glucose and lactate in the leg-exercised subjects.

  16. Effects of adding supplemental tallow to diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles on fatty acid digestibility in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Davis, J M; Urriola, P E; Baidoo, S K; Johnston, L J; Shurson, G C

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of fatty acids in diets containing 0 or 30% corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and 0, 5, or 10% tallow. Barrows (n = 24; initial BW = 25 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum. Pigs (n = 4/diet) were randomly assigned to diets: corn-soybean meal control (CON), CON plus 5% tallow (5T0D), CON plus 10% tallow (10T0D), CON plus 30% DDGS (0T30D), CON plus 5% tallow and 30% DDGS (5T30D), and CON plus 10% tallow and 30% DDGS (10T30D). Eight replicates per treatment were achieved by randomizing diets among pigs for a second collection period. Each pig was fed their respective diet for a 5-d adaptation period followed by 3-d fecal collection and 2-d ileal digesta collection periods. The AID and ATTD of fatty acids was calculated using the index method and acid-insoluble ash as an indigestible marker. When tallow was added to diets with 0% DDGS, there was no effect on AID of palmitic acid (C16:0) or SFA, while AID of stearic acid (C18:0) was increased (66.87% for CON, 72.06% for 5T0D, and 76.81% for 10T0D; P < 0.01). However, when diets contained 30% DDGS, the AID of all SFA was reduced as levels of tallow increased C16:0 (77.62% for 0T30D, 69.66% for 5T30D, and 68.43% for 10T30D), C18:0 (85.87% for 0T30D, 64.08% for 5T30D, and 61.25% for 10T30D), and SFA (79.88% for 0T30D, 68.23% for 5T30D, and 66.29% for 10T30D). The AID of MUFA was not affected when tallow was added to diets with 30% DDGS but actually increased in 5T0D and 10T0D. The amount of apparent ileal digested fatty acids increased with the addition of DDGS and tallow regardless of their digestibility. Amounts of ileal digested MUFA and PUFA increased when both DDGS (P < 0.01) and tallow (P < 0.01) were included in the diet compared to when either ingredient was excluded. For ileal digestible SFA, an interaction (P < 0.01) between DDGS and tallow was

  17. Juvenile Rank Can Predict Male-Typical Adult Mating Behavior in Female Sheep Treated Prenatally with Testosterone1

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Eila K.; Flak, Jonathan N.; Ye, Wen; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Lee, Theresa M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research with female sheep indicates that exposure to excess testosterone for 60 days (from Gestational Days 30–90 of the 147-day gestation) leads to virilized genitalia, severe neuroendocrine deficits, as well as masculinization and defeminization of sexual behavior (T60 females). In contrast, 30 days of testosterone exposure (Gestational Days 60–90) produce animals with female-typical genitalia, less severe neuroendocrine alterations, and variable gender patterns of sexual behavior (T30 females). Variation in adult sexual behavior of male ungulates is influenced by early social experience, but this has never been tested in females. Here we investigate the influence of rank in the dominance hierarchy on the expression of adult sexual behavior in females. Specifically, we hypothesized that juvenile rank would predict the amount of male- and female-typical mating behavior exhibited by adult female sheep. This hypothesis was tested in two treatment groups and their controls (group 1: T60 females; group 2: T30 females). Dominance hierarchies were determined by observing competition over resources. Both groups of prenatal testosterone-treated females were higher ranking than controls (T60: P = 0.05; T30: P < 0.01). During the breeding season, both T60 and T30 females exhibited more male-typical mating behavior than did controls; however, the T30 animals also exhibited female-typical behavior. For the T60 group, prenatal treatment, not juvenile rank, best predicted male-typical sex behavior (P = 0.007), while juvenile rank better predicted male mating behavior for the T30 group (P = 0.006). Rank did not predict female mating behavior in the hormone-treated or control ewes. We conclude that the effect of prenatal testosterone exposure on adult male-specific but not female-specific mating behavior is modulated by juvenile social experiences. PMID:19122184

  18. The pathogenicity determinant of Citrus tristeza virus causing the seedling yellows syndrome maps at the 3'-terminal region of the viral genome.

    PubMed

    Albiach-Marti, Maria R; Robertson, Cecile; Gowda, Siddarame; Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Belliure, Belén; Garnsey, Stephen M; Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Moreno, Pedro; Dawson, William O

    2010-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) (genus Closterovirus, family Closteroviridae) causes some of the more important viral diseases of citrus worldwide. The ability to map disease-inducing determinants of CTV is needed to develop better diagnostic and disease control procedures. A distinctive phenotype of some isolates of CTV is the ability to induce seedling yellows (SY) in sour orange, lemon and grapefruit seedlings. In Florida, the decline isolate of CTV, T36, induces SY, whereas a widely distributed mild isolate, T30, does not. To delimit the viral sequences associated with the SY syndrome, we created a number of T36/T30 hybrids by substituting T30 sequences into different regions of the 3' half of the genome of an infectious cDNA of T36. Eleven T36/T30 hybrids replicated in Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts. Five of these hybrids formed viable virions that were mechanically transmitted to Citrus macrophylla, a permissive host for CTV. All induced systemic infections, similar to that of the parental T36 clone. Tissues from these C. macrophylla source plants were then used to graft inoculate sour orange and grapefruit seedlings. Inoculation with three of the T30/T36 hybrid constructs induced SY symptoms identical to those of T36; however, two hybrids with T30 substitutions in the p23-3' nontranslated region (NTR) (nucleotides 18 394-19 296) failed to induce SY. Sour orange seedlings infected with a recombinant non-SY p23-3' NTR hybrid also remained symptomless when challenged with the parental virus (T36), demonstrating the potential feasibility of using engineered constructs of CTV to mitigate disease.

  19. Effects of subthalamic nucleus stimulation on motor cortex plasticity in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Jin; Udupa, Kaviraja; Ni, Zhen; Moro, Elena; Gunraj, Carolyn; Mazzella, Filomena; Lozano, Andres M.; Hodaie, Mojgan; Lang, Anthony E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesized that subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) will improve long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity in motor cortex in Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: We studied 8 patients with PD treated with STN-DBS and 9 age-matched healthy controls. Patients with PD were studied in 4 sessions in medication (Med) OFF/stimulator (Stim) OFF, Med-OFF/Stim-ON, Med-ON/Stim-OFF, and Med-ON/Stim-ON states in random order. Motor evoked potential amplitude and cortical silent period duration were measured at baseline before paired associated stimulation (PAS) and at 3 different time intervals (T0, T30, T60) up to 60 minutes after PAS in the abductor pollicis brevis and abductor digiti minimi muscles. Results: Motor evoked potential size significantly increased after PAS in controls (+67.7% of baseline at T30) and in patients in the Med-ON/Stim-ON condition (+55.8% of baseline at T30), but not in patients in the Med-OFF/Stim-OFF (−0.4% of baseline at T30), Med-OFF/Stim-ON (+10.3% of baseline at T30), and Med-ON/Stim-OFF conditions (+17.3% of baseline at T30). Cortical silent period duration increased after PAS in controls but not in patients in all test conditions. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that STN-DBS together with dopaminergic medications restore LTP-like plasticity in motor cortex in PD. Restoration of cortical plasticity may be one of the mechanisms of how STN-DBS produces clinical benefit. PMID:26156511

  20. Nucleotide heterogeneity at the genomic 5’- and 3’-termini of California (CA) isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nucleotide (nt) sequences in the genomic ends of sense (+)-RNA viruses serve essential biological functions and are important considerations in the construction of infectious clones. Two isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) from California (CA) having a T30- and a T36-genotype were inoculated in ...

  1. Preparation of graphene nanoflakes/polymer composites and their performances for actuation and energy harvesting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seveyrat, L.; Chalkha, A.; Guyomar, D.; Lebrun, L.

    2012-05-01

    Composites based on polyurethane (PU) or P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) terpolymer (T30) filled with various amounts of 60-nm thick graphene nanoflakes were prepared. The dielectric properties, including relative permittivity, loss tangent, and conductivity over a broad range of frequencies were presented and discussed according to the percolation theory. The percolation threshold was found to differ for the two systems, respectively, 7.2 and 3.0 vol. % for the PU and the T30 composites. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that there was practically no interaction between the polymeric matrix and the fillers. The increase in permittivity could not be related to this very slight modification of the polymer but rather to the space charges induced by the graphene flakes. Moreover, measurements of the thickness strain under an applied electric field demonstrated a twofold increase of the actuation capability. The optimal value of the M33 electrostriction coefficient was for both systems obtained for a filler content somewhat lower than the percolation threshold. The PU-graphene composite exhibited better performances compared to its T30-graphene counterpart and this was attributed to the good ratio of relative permittivity to the Young modulus in addition to the specific morphology of the used polyurethane. The energy harvesting properties were investigated by monitoring the evolution of the current under a DC electric field and under AC mechanical strain. The T30-graphene composite was found to be the best material for energy harvesting as previously predicted based on its high permittivity.

  2. 75 FR 21161 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CJ610 Series Turbojet Engines and CF700...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    .... This AD will not have a substantial direct effect on the States, on the relationship between the...) for GE CJ610 series turbojet engines and CF700 turbofan engines with AFT Technologies combustion liners, part number (P/N) AFT-5016T30G02. This AD requires removing from service, AFT...

  3. Dramatic Change in Citrus tristeza virus populations in the Dominican Republic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the most destructive viral pathogen of citrus and has been an important concern for the citrus industry in the Dominican Republic. Earlier studies documented widespread distribution of mild isolates of the T30 genotype, which caused no disease in the infected trees, an...

  4. Sequences of Citrus tristeza virus separated in time and space are essentially identical.

    PubMed

    Albiach-Martí, M R; Mawassi, M; Gowda, S; Satyanarayana, T; Hilf, M E; Shanker, S; Almira, E C; Vives, M C; López, C; Guerri, J; Flores, R; Moreno, P; Garnsey, S M; Dawson, W O

    2000-08-01

    The first Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genomes completely sequenced (19.3-kb positive-sense RNA), from four biologically distinct isolates, are unexpectedly divergent in nucleotide sequence (up to 60% divergence). Understanding of whether these large sequence differences resulted from recent evolution is important for the design of disease management strategies, particularly the use of genetically engineered mild (essentially symptomless)-strain cross protection and RNA-mediated transgenic resistance. The complete sequence of a mild isolate (T30) which has been endemic in Florida for about a century was found to be nearly identical to the genomic sequence of a mild isolate (T385) from Spain. Moreover, samples of sequences of other isolates from distinct geographic locations, maintained in different citrus hosts and also separated in time (B252 from Taiwan, B272 from Colombia, and B354 from California), were nearly identical to the T30 sequence. The sequence differences between these isolates were within or near the range of variability of the T30 population. A possible explanation for these results is that the parents of isolates T30, T385, B252, B272, and B354 have a common origin, probably Asia, and have changed little since they were dispersed throughout the world by the movement of citrus. Considering that the nucleotide divergence among the other known CTV genomes is much greater than those expected for strains of the same virus, the remarkable similarity of these five isolates indicates a high degree of evolutionary stasis in some CTV populations.

  5. Multi-view Decision Making (MVDM) Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    throughout the development (T30) o 5 % causing 90% of the problems? (T31) o Navy approach – less interactive relationships; fewer of them; evaluate with...driver? (N29) Can community of interest be an opportunity to drive participation into KPP o NCES is an attempt to bring this together ( N30 ) o Can it

  6. A novel thermoalkaliphilic xylanase from Gordonia sp. is salt, solvent and surfactant tolerant.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Radhika; Monika; Subudhi, Enketeswara

    2014-12-01

    Two aerobic bacterial consortia namely Con T and Con R were developed by enrichment technique from termite gut and cow dung respectively, using xylan as a sole carbon source. Molecular characterization of Con R based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed the presence of Pannonibacter sp. R-3 and Pseudoxanthomas sp. R-5. On the other hand, Con T showed the presence of Pseudoxanthomas sp. T-5, Cellulosimicrobium sp. T-21, and Gordonia sp. T-30. Being the maximum xylanase producer among the five isolates and being a novel xylanase producing bacterial genus, Gordonia sp. T-30 was selected. Xylanase produced by Gordonia sp. T-30 showed optimum activity at 60 °C and pH 9. Xylanase was 95% stable for 120 min at pH 9.0 and 98% stable at 60 °C for 90 min. Xylanase activity was stimulated in the presence of organic solvents such as petroleum ether, acetone, diethyl ether, n-hexane, and benzene. Detergent like cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and presence of NaCl also accelerated the xylanase function. Comparative evaluation was studied between sterilized and non-sterilized solid fermentation to produce xylanase by Gordonia sp. T-30 using various agricultural residues as growth substrate in cost effective manner. Industrially important features endowed by this xylanase make it a very promising candidate for food, feed, and fuel industry.

  7. First kinetic evidence for the CH/π and π/π solute-solvent interaction of C60 in the Diels-Alder reaction with cyclohexadiene.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Takumi; Mikie, Tsubasa; Ikuma, Naohiko; Yakuma, Hajime

    2012-03-07

    The first CH/π solute-solvent interaction of C(60) was evidenced by the kinetic solvent effects in the Diels-Alder reaction with 1,3-cyclohexadiene based on the evaluation of linear free energy relationship of log k(2) with empirical solvent polarity and basicity parameters, E(T)(30) and D(π), respectively.

  8. The prevalence of the citrus tristeza virus trifoliate resistant breaking genotype among Puerto Rican isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates have been grouped previously into five genotypes: T3, T30, T36, VT, B165 based on symptoms, host range and genomic sequence data. A sixth genotype has recently been identified with the novel property of replicating in trifoliate orange trees, a non host for the o...

  9. 75 FR 67767 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... from the date of this publication. Willamette Meridian Oregon T. 30 S., R. 9 W., accepted September 27 2010 T. 3 S., R. 8 W., accepted September 27 2010 T. 29 S., R. 9 W., accepted September 27 2010 T. 7 S., R. 2 E., accepted September 29 2010 T. 6 S., R. 2 E., accepted October 1, 2010 T. 14 S., R. 2...

  10. Reliability and validity of a 20-s alternative to the wingate anaerobic test in team sport male athletes.

    PubMed

    Attia, Ahmed; Hachana, Younes; Chaabène, Helmi; Gaddour, Abdelmajid; Neji, Zied; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel

    2014-01-01

    The intent of this study was to evaluate relative and absolute reliability of the 20-s anaerobic test (WAnT20) versus the WAnT30 and to verify how far the various indices of the 30-s Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT30) could be predicted from the WAnT20 data in male athletes. The participants were Exercise Science majors (age: 21.5±1.6 yrs, stature: 0.183±0.08 m, body mass: 81.2±10.9 kg) who participated regularly in team sports. In Phase I, 41 participants performed duplicate WAnT20 and WAnT30 tests to assess reliability. In Phase II, 31 participants performed one trial each of the WAnT20 and WAnT30 to determine the ability of the WAnT20 to predict components of the WAnT30. In Phase III, 31 participants were used to cross-validate the prediction equations developed in Phase II. Respective intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) for peak power output (PPO) (ICC = 0.98 and 0.95) and mean power output (MPO) (ICC 0.98 and 0.90) did not differ significantly between WAnT20 and WAnT30. ICCs for minimal power output (POmin) and fatigue index (FI) were poor for both tests (range 0.53 to 0.76). Standard errors of the means (SEM) for PPO and MPO were less than their smallest worthwhile changes (SWC) in both tests; however, POmin and FI values were "marginal," with SEM values greater than their respective SWCs for both tests values. Stepwise regression analysis showed that MPO had the highest coefficient of predictability (R = 0.97), with POmin and FI considerable lower (R = 0.71 and 0.41 respectively). Cross-validation showed insignificant bias with limits of agreement of 0.99±1.04, 6.5±92.7 W, and 1.6±9.8% between measured and predicted MPO, POmin, and FI, respectively. WAnT20 offers a reliable and valid test of leg anaerobic power in male athletes and could replace the classic WAnT30.

  11. Motor cortex plasticity in Parkinson's disease and levodopa-induced dyskinesias.

    PubMed

    Morgante, Francesca; Espay, Alberto J; Gunraj, Carolyn; Lang, Anthony E; Chen, Robert

    2006-04-01

    Experimental models of Parkinson's disease have demonstrated abnormal synaptic plasticity in the corticostriatal system, possibly related to the development of levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID). We tested the hypothesis that LID in Parkinson's disease is associated with aberrant plasticity in the human motor cortex (M1). We employed the paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol, an experimental intervention involving transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and median nerve stimulation capable of producing long-term potentiation (LTP) like changes in the sensorimotor system in humans. We studied the more affected side of 16 moderately affected patients with Parkinson's disease (9 dyskinetic, 7 non-dyskinetic) and the dominant side of 9 age-matched healthy controls. Motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes and cortical silent period (CSP) duration were measured at baseline before PAS and for up to 60 min (T0, T30 and T60) after PAS in abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles. PAS significantly increased MEP size in controls (+74.8% of baseline at T30) but not in patients off medication (T30: +0.07% of baseline in the non-dyskinetic, +27% in the dyskinetic group). Levodopa restored the potentiation of MEP amplitudes by PAS in the non-dyskinetic group (T30: +64.9% of baseline MEP) but not in the dyskinetic group (T30: -9.2% of baseline). PAS prolonged CSP duration in controls. There was a trend towards prolongation of CSP in the non-dyskinetic group off medications but not in the dyskinetic group. Levodopa did not restore CSP prolongation by PAS in the dyskinetic group. Our findings suggest that LTP-like plasticity is deficient in Parkinson's disease off medications and is restored by levodopa in non-dyskinetic but not in dyskinetic patients. Abnormal synaptic plasticity in the motor cortex may play a role in the development of LID.

  12. Hydroxyl ionic liquids: the differentiating effect of hydroxyl on polarity due to ionic hydrogen bonds between hydroxyl and anions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiguo; Qi, Xiujuan; Ma, Xiangyuan; Lu, Liujin; Deng, Youquan

    2010-03-25

    The polarity of a series of ionic liquids (ILs) based on hydroxyethyl-imidazolium moiety with various anions ([PF(6)], [NTf(2)], [ClO(4)], [DCA], [NO(3)], [AC], and [Cl]) and their corresponding nonhydroxyl ILs was investigated by solvatochromic dyes and fluorescence probe molecules. Most of the nonhydroxyl ILs exhibit anion-independent polarity with similar E(T)(30) in the narrow range of 50.7-52.6 kcal/mol, except [EMIm][AC] (49.7 kcal/mol). However, the polarity of the hydroxyl ILs covers a rather wide range (E(T)(30) = 51.2-61.7 kcal/mol) and is strongly anion-dependent. According to their E(T)(30) or E(T)(33) values, the hydroxyl ILs can be further classified into the following three groups: (Iota) acetate-based hydroxyl ILs [HOEMIm][AC] exhibit polarity scale (E(T)(30) = 51.2 kcal/mol) similar to short chain alcohol and fall in the range of the nonhydroxyl ILs; (II) Hydroxyl ILs containing anions [NO(3)], [DCA], and [Cl] exhibit comparable polarity (E(T)(30) = 55.5-56.9 kcal/mol), moderately higher than those of their nonhydroxyl ILs; (III) Hydroxyl ILs containing anions [PF(6)], [NTf(2)], and [ClO(4)] possess unusual "hyperpolarity" (E(T)(30) = 60.3-61.7 kcal/mol) close to protic ILs and water. Kamlet-Taft parameters and density functional theory calculations indicated that the greatly expanded range of polarity of hydroxyl ILs is correlated to an intramolecular synergistic solvent effect of the ionic hydrogen-bonded HBD/HBA complexes generated by intrasolvent HBD/HBA association between the anions and the hydroxyl group on cations, wherein hydroxyl group exhibits a significant differentiating effect on the strength of H-bonding and thus the polarity. Spiropyran-merocyanine equilibrium acted as a model polarity-sensitive reaction indeed shows obviously polarity-dependent solvatochromism, photochromism, and thermal reversion in hydroxyl ILs.

  13. [Protective effect of verapamil and dopamine against cyclosporine-induced vasoconstriction in isolated glomeruli in rats].

    PubMed

    L'Azou, B; Lagroye, I; Plande, J; Lakhdar, B; Cambar, J

    1992-12-02

    Cyclosporin A (CsA)-induced nephrotoxicity is characterized by dramatic changes in glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow, largely limiting the clinical use of this drug. The vasoconstrictive response of CsA could explain, in part, these hemodynamic alterations. The present study compares the area changes in rat-isolated glomeruli incubated with CsA alone or after pre-treatment with verapamil and dopamine. In verapamil-pretreated CsA-intoxicated glomeruli, size decrease was reduced (-1.5 percent at T10, -3.1 percent at T20 and -4.8 percent at T30), when compared with CsA alone (-4.7 percent at T10, -10.1 percent at T20 and -12 percent at T30). The results obtained with dopamine were similar. In conclusion, verapamil and dopamine can be regarded as fair protective agents against CsA-induced vasoconstriction in rat-isolated glomeruli.

  14. Measurement of the shape of the boson-transverse momentum distribution in pp --> Z/gamma* --> e+e- + X events produced at square root s = 1.96 TeV.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Jesus, A C S Assis; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, P; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chan, K; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, J; Guo, F; Gutierrez, P; Gutierrez, G; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J R; Kalk, J M; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kozelov, A V; Krop, D; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lellouch, J; Leveque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Li, L; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, J; Meyer, A; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Y Garzón, G J Otero; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; da Silva, W L Prado; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schliephake, T; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, J; Snow, G R; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Strauss, E; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, S; Uvarov, L; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Toerne, E; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weber, G; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2008-03-14

    We present a measurement of the shape of the Z/gamma* boson transverse momentum (q(T)) distribution in pp --> Z/gamma* --> e(+)e(-) + X events at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV using 0.98 fb(-1) of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The data are found to be consistent with the resummation prediction at low q(T), but above the perturbative QCD calculation in the region of q(T)>30 GeV/c. Using events with q(T)<30 GeV/c, we extract the value of g(2), one of the nonperturbative parameters for the resummation calculation. Data at large boson rapidity y are compared with the prediction of resummation and with alternative models that employ a resummed form factor with modifications in the small Bjorken x region of the proton wave function.

  15. Pulsed magnetic field study of the spin gap in intermediate valence compound SmB 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flachbart, K.; Bartkowiak, M.; Demishev, S.; Gabani, S.; Glushkov, V.; Herrmannsdorfer, T.; Moshchalkov, V.; Shitsevalova, N.; Sluchanko, N.

    2009-10-01

    In this work, we report the behavior of electrical resistivity of SmB 6 at temperatures between 2.2 and 70 K in pulsed magnetic fields up to 54 T. A strong negative magnetoresistance was detected with increasing magnetic field, when lowering the temperature in the range T<30 K. We show that the amplitude of negative magnetoresistance reaches its maximum dR/R~70% at B=54 T, in the vicinity of phase transition occurring in this strongly correlated electron system at TC~5 K. The crossover from negative magnetoresistance to positive magnetoresistance found at intermediate temperatures at T>30 K is discussed within the framework of exciton-polaron model of local charge fluctuations in SmB 6 proposed by Kikoin and Mishchenko. It seems that these exciton-polaron in-gap states are influenced both by temperature and magnetic field.

  16. Ultralight Metallic Panels with Textile Cores Designed for Blast Mitigation and Load Retention/Topologically Structured Materials: Blast and Multifunctional Implementations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Assembly of machined truss core and braze coated face sheets Ti-6AI-4V face sheet k—- /. A J TiCuNi-60 brazing alloy * /"" coating on face...fabrication of these structures can be extended from steel and aluminum alloys to high performance materials such as metal matrix composites and...sheets (d) Face sheets attachment ( brazing ) Heat Applied pressure is Heat T = 975 C, Applied pressure = 0.01-0 05 MPa, t = 30 min

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhh... - Exempted Aquifers in New Mexico

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS... mile radius around the following Class II wells in the listed formations are exempted for the purpose...—Formation SE/NE 5 T30NR16W 1650′FNL 330′FEL 134 NW/NW 30 T31NR16W 660′FNL 703′FWL 8 SE/SW 28 T31NR16W...

  18. Waterborne Commerce of the United States, Calendar Year 1985. Part 1. Waterways and Harbors. Atlantic Coast.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    HEAD Of PROJCCT At WATEIONO, M. . 3 FOJCE TT I3 c 35 PlT 4 1*081 504,8T30L %(0 LOW WATER FROM KID YORK CITV TO 0LGAMVP 14 F ET LONEST LON MATIN TO...4 1Ś Wiio , . C., D Lri t -.... .....-- - - - 102. 273 Steepy Poin ioy, . C. ---------------------- 110, 175 ilinton. N. C.. Porn of

  19. Stochastic and Centrifuge Modelling of Jointed Rock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-31

    1b Maxmu Tensile Prnia StesVcos fSeie * t 30󈨏 Preextin- Frcue and -ne a Wine Crck Subec toUix.Cmrsie* tesi Vetia Direction- Noe Hg eniesteslee i oe...34 30 - .-- rCo - 0.0024, A - 0.785 C"P.. ow’ tod 0. A 30 avo . exp. 25 - A 30comp, 20 13 45 avo . oxp. "o AN 45 comp. is A. O 60 avo xp) to,’ 10 60 comp

  20. Conventional Anchor Test Results at San Diego and Indian Island

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    lISaP? ItCMO TR. LEO 10.4ny No te A 1ho 01911 Lt~ -f’ -1I-- J f T T30.0 ofn; dralg .ri ;rre ...-. 1 n1 T. ; r.. I. .. .. .... n _ . , I F "rr,,1 Tl...DELAWARE Newark. DE (Dept of Civil Engineering. Chesson) UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII HONOLULU, HI (SCIENCE AND TECH. DIV.): Honolulu HI (Dr. Szilard ), Ocean Engrng

  1. Investigation to Study the Aerodynamic Ship Wake Turbulence Generated by a DD963 Destroyer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    me up of tw quartz covered platinum split- film elements operated at constant te erature, which produce a heat - flux differential when placed in a flow...application of smoke and helium/soap bubble flow visual- ization techniques. on the basis of having either met or exceeded the contractural ...TUFBULENCE TEST PROBES IN FLUX 2.54 M ABOVE SHIP yAW ANGLE (#) t30 DEGREES; DIRECTIO SHIP ROLL ANGLE (0) al DEGREES WIND TUMMU vZLOCITY 20 XTS. XTY

  2. Sequences of Citrus Tristeza Virus Separated in Time and Space Are Essentially Identical†

    PubMed Central

    Albiach-Martí, María R.; Mawassi, Munir; Gowda, Siddarame; Satyanarayana, Tatineni; Hilf, Mark E.; Shanker, Savita; Almira, Ernesto C.; Vives, María C.; López, Carmelo; Guerri, Jose; Flores, Ricardo; Moreno, Pedro; Garnsey, Steve M.; Dawson, William O.

    2000-01-01

    The first Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genomes completely sequenced (19.3-kb positive-sense RNA), from four biologically distinct isolates, are unexpectedly divergent in nucleotide sequence (up to 60% divergence). Understanding of whether these large sequence differences resulted from recent evolution is important for the design of disease management strategies, particularly the use of genetically engineered mild (essentially symptomless)-strain cross protection and RNA-mediated transgenic resistance. The complete sequence of a mild isolate (T30) which has been endemic in Florida for about a century was found to be nearly identical to the genomic sequence of a mild isolate (T385) from Spain. Moreover, samples of sequences of other isolates from distinct geographic locations, maintained in different citrus hosts and also separated in time (B252 from Taiwan, B272 from Colombia, and B354 from California), were nearly identical to the T30 sequence. The sequence differences between these isolates were within or near the range of variability of the T30 population. A possible explanation for these results is that the parents of isolates T30, T385, B252, B272, and B354 have a common origin, probably Asia, and have changed little since they were dispersed throughout the world by the movement of citrus. Considering that the nucleotide divergence among the other known CTV genomes is much greater than those expected for strains of the same virus, the remarkable similarity of these five isolates indicates a high degree of evolutionary stasis in some CTV populations. PMID:10888625

  3. Past and future of a century old Citrus tristeza virus collection: a California citrus germplasm tale

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinbo; Bozan, Orhan; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Dang, Tyler; Rucker, Tavia; Yokomi, Raymond K.; Lee, Richard F.; Folimonova, Svetlana Y.; Krueger, Robert R.; Bash, John; Greer, Greg; Diaz, James; Serna, Ramon; Vidalakis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates collected from citrus germplasm, dooryard and field trees in California from 1914 have been maintained in planta under quarantine in the Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP), Riverside, California. This collection, therefore, represents populations of CTV isolates obtained over time and space in California. To determine CTV genetic diversity in this context, genotypes of CTV isolates from the CCPP collection were characterized using multiple molecular markers (MMM). Genotypes T30, VT, and T36 were found at high frequencies with T30 and T30+VT genotypes being the most abundant. The MMM analysis did not identify T3 and B165/T68 genotypes; however, biological and phylogenetic analysis suggested some relationships of CCPP CTV isolates with these two genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of the CTV coat protein (CP) gene sequences classified the tested isolates into seven distinct clades. Five clades were in association with the standard CTV genotypes T30, T36, T3, VT, and B165/T68. The remaining two identified clades were not related to any standard CTV genotypes. Spatiotemporal analysis indicated a trend of reduced genotype and phylogenetic diversity as well as virulence from southern California (SC) at early (1907–1957) in comparison to that of central California (CC) isolates collected from later (1957–2009) time periods. CTV biological characterization also indicated a reduced number and less virulent stem pitting (SP) CTV isolates compared to seedling yellows isolates introduced to California. This data provides a historical insight of the introduction, movement, and genetic diversity of CTV in California and provides genetic and biological information useful for CTV quarantine, eradication, and disease management strategies such as CTV-SP cross protection. PMID:24339822

  4. Changes in serum markers indicative of health effects in vineyard workers following exposure to the fungicide mancozeb: an Italian study.

    PubMed

    Colosio, Claudio; Fustinoni, Silvia; Corsini, Emanuela; Bosetti, Cristina; Birindelli, Sarah; Boers, Daisy; Campo, Laura; La Vecchia, Carlo; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Pennanen, Sirpa; Vergieva, Tatjana; Van Amelsvoort, Ludovic G P M; Steerenberg, Peter; Swaen, Gerard M H; Zaikov, Christo; Van Loveren, Henk

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the health effects induced by exposure to the fungicide mancozeb in Italian vineyard workers. Ninety-three Italian subjects entered the study - 48 vine-growers intermittently exposed to mancozeb and 45 healthy controls. The subjects were investigated three times: before the seasonal application of pesticides (T0), 30 days after the beginning of the application period (T30), and 45 days after T0 (T45). At T0 the comparison between agricultural workers and controls showed a higher prevalence of cold or flu symptoms, a statistically significant lower percentage of monocytes, higher absolute count of T lymphocytes, CD4 and natural killer cells, and lower plasma levels of IgA and IgM in workers. Such differences were not confirmed at T30 and T45. In fact at T30 in exposed workers, besides a significant increase of urinary ethylenethiourea, confirming mancozeb exposure, T lymphocytes, CD4 and natural killer cells, IgA and IgM returned to values comparable to those observed in controls. Moreover, no other differences in clinical signs, haematological, and immune parameters, such as the immune functional capability evaluated as a response to hepatitis B vaccination, was observed. Altogether the differences between exposed and controls were not consistently correlated to any clinical impairment and suggest that the seasonal application of mancozeb does not pose a significant health risk to exposed subjects.

  5. Heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation of cyprodinil and fludioxonil in leaching water under solar irradiation.

    PubMed

    Fenoll, José; Ruiz, Encarnación; Hellín, Pilar; Flores, Pilar; Navarro, Simón

    2011-11-01

    The efficiency of ZnO and TiO(2) suspensions in the photocatalytic degradation of two fungicides (cyprodinil and fludioxonil) in leaching water was investigated. The experiments were carried out at pilot plant scale using compound parabolic collectors under natural sunlight. The blank experiments for both irradiated compounds solutions showed that both oxides strongly enhanced the removal of the fungicides. The addition of an oxidant (Na(2)S(2)O(8)) to the ZnO or TiO(2) increased the rate of photooxidation. The degradation of cyprodinil and fludioxonil followed first order kinetics according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Complete degradation of both fungicides was achieved within 4 h (t(30W)=18 min) when treated with illuminated ZnO. The disappearance time (DT(75)), when referred to the normalized illumination time (t(30W)), was lower than 40 and 550 min (t(30W)=2 and 40 min) for both fungicides using ZnO or TiO(2), respectively. ZnO appeared to be more effective in cyprodinil and fludioxonil oxidation than TiO(2) probably due to its nonstoichiometry.

  6. A class V chitin synthase gene, chsA is essential for conidial and hyphal wall strength in the fungus Colletotrichum graminicola (Glomerella graminicola).

    PubMed

    Amnuaykanjanasin, Alongkorn; Epstein, Lynn

    2003-04-01

    The Colletotrichum graminicola tagged mutant T30 has conidia that burst and hyphal tips that swell in media with low osmotic pressure. The disrupted gene in T30 was identified as a class V chitin synthase (CSV) "chsA," which has an open reading frame of 1783 amino acids and two introns that are 52 and 54 bp. C. graminicola has one copy of chsA and no other highly homologous class V CHSs. Reverse transcriptase PCR indicated that the T30 mutant does not express the chsA transcript fragment in the conserved region in CSVs. Complementation of the mutant with chsA indicates that the encoded protein is responsible for approximately 29% of the chitin in conidial walls, is essential for conidial wall strength in media with high water potential and contributes to strength of hyphal tips. Analysis of the aligned deduced amino acid sequences of the 10 fully sequenced CSVs suggests that they are in two subgroups.

  7. Rat lung reactivity to natural and man-made fibrous silicates following short-term exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Lemaire, I. ); Dionne, P.G. ); Nadeau, D.; Dunnigan, J. )

    1989-04-01

    The inflammatory and fibrogenic potential of three naturally occurring and two man-made industrial minerals were compared. Groups of five rats each received respectively a single intratracheal instillation of saline (control), UICC chrysotile B asbestos, short chrysotile 4T30, attapulgite, xonotlite (a calcium silicate), and Fiberfrax (an aluminum silicate) at doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg. One month after the treatment, assessment of lung morphology and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed on each animal. Under these conditions, UICC chrysotile B at all doses tested (1, 5, and 10 mg) induced fibrotic lesions in bronchiolar tissues while short chrysotile 4T30 (1, 5, and 10 mg) caused focal accumulation of inflammatory cells in the alveolar structures but no apparent fibrosis. Compared to these positive reactions with different fibrogenicity, xonotlite caused minimal inflammatory reactions detectable only at high dose (10 mg) and by bronchoalveolar analysis. By contrast, the rat lung reacted more significantly to attapulgite and Fiberfrax although the tissue reaction differed considerably for these two materials. While attapulgite, at doses up to 10 mg caused minimal reactions characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration mainly in the alveolar structures, Fiberfrax at 1 mg and higher caused significant granulomatous reactions and the appearance of early fibrosis. Overall the order of lung biological reactivity observed for the various silicates was xonotlite T30

  8. Effect of seminal plasma vesicular structures in canine frozen-thawed semen.

    PubMed

    Goericke-Pesch, S; Hauck, S; Failing, K; Wehrend, A

    2015-12-01

    Membrane vesicles (MVs) in the ejaculate have been identified in various species and are considered to affect membrane fluidity due to their characteristic molecular composition. Addition of MV to human frozen semen has been shown to improve post-thaw motility. Similarly, a beneficial effect has been suggested for frozen equine semen. As post-thaw canine semen quality varies widely between dogs, the aim of our study was to test for the effect of addition of canine MV on post-thaw semen quality in dogs. Semen samples from 10 male dogs were purified from MV and prepared for freezing. In experiment 1, three groups were compared: sperm frozen (1) with MV (S1); (2) without MV, but MV added immediately after thawing (S2); and (3) without MV (C). Semen analysis included computer-assisted sperm analysis of motility parameters immediately after thawing (t0), after 10 (t10) and 30 minutes (t30), % living sperm, % membrane intact, % morphologically normal sperm (all t0 and t30). Computer-assisted sperm analysis motility distance and velocity parameters (all P < 0.05) and % living sperm (P < 0.001) were significantly affected by treatment with a temporary increase of distance and velocity parameters at t0 to t10, but a significant decrease of the aforementioned parameters at t30 in samples with MV. In experiment 2, different MV protein concentrations added after thawing were compared: 0.05 mg, 0.1 mg, and 0.2 mg/mL. Computer-assisted sperm motility analysis was performed at t0, t10, and t30. No differences between MV concentrations were identified, only a significant interaction between effect of treatment and time for progressive motility (P < 0.01). Our study identified a short-term beneficial effect of canine MV on post-thaw distance and velocity parameters, whereas at t30 progressive motility, motility parameters and % living sperm were reduced in samples with MV compared to C. The results point to species-specific differences regarding the MV effect on frozen

  9. Latent effect of passive static stretching on driver clubhead speed, distance, accuracy, and consistent ball contact in young male competitive golfers.

    PubMed

    Gergley, Jeffrey C

    2010-12-01

    This investigation was conducted to determine the effect of 2 different warm-up treatments over time on driver clubhead speed, distance, accuracy, and consistent ball contact in young male competitive golfers. Two supervised warm-up treatments, an active dynamic warm-up with golf clubs (AD) and a 20-minute total body passive static stretching routine plus an identical AD warm-up (PSS), were applied before each performance testing session using a counterbalanced design on nonconsecutive days. Immediately after the AD treatment, subjects were instructed to hit 3 full swing golf shots with their driver with 1-minute rest between trials. Immediately after the PSS treatment, subjects were instructed to hit 3 full-swing golf shots with their driver at t0 and thereafter at t15, t30, t45, and t60 minutes with 1-minute rest between swing trials to determine any latent effects of PSS on golf driver performance measures. Results of paired t-tests revealed significant (p < 0.05) decreases in clubhead speed at t0 (-4.92%), t15 (-2.59%), and t30 (-2.19%) but not at t45 (-0.95) or t60 (-0.99). Significant differences were also observed in distance at t0 (-7.26%), t15 (-5.19%), t30 (-5.47%), t45 (-3.30%), and t60 (-3.53%). Accuracy was significantly impaired at t0 (61.99%), t15 (58.78%), t30 (59.46%), and t45 (61.32%) but not at t60 (36.82%). Finally, consistent ball contact was significantly reduced at t0 (-31.29%), t15 (-31.29%), t30 (-23.56%), t45 (-27.49%), and t60 (-15.70%). Plausible explanations for observed performance decrements include a more compliant muscle-tendon unit (MTU) and an altered neurological state because of the PSS treatment. Further, the findings of this study provide evidence supporting the theory that the mechanical properties of the MTU may recover at a faster rate than any associated neurological changes. The results of this inquiry strongly suggest that a total-body passive static stretching routine should be avoided before practice or competition in

  10. Coal combustion waste management at landfills and surface impoundments 1994-2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.; Ranek, N. L.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-08

    On May 22, 2000, as required by Congress in its 1980 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Regulatory Determination on Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels. On the basis of information contained in its 1999 Report to Congress: Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels, the EPA concluded that coal combustion wastes (CCWs), also known as coal combustion by-products (CCBs), did not warrant regulation under Subtitle C of RCRA, and it retained the existing hazardous waste exemption for these materials under RCRA Section 3001(b)(3)(C). However, the EPA also determined that national regulations under Subtitle D of RCRA were warranted for CCWs that are disposed of in landfills or surface impoundments. The EPA made this determination in part on the basis of its findings that 'present disposal practices are such that, in 1995, these wastes were being managed in 40 percent to 70 percent of landfills and surface impoundments without reasonable controls in place, particularly in the area of groundwater monitoring; and while there have been substantive improvements in state regulatory programs, we have also identified gaps in State oversight' (EPA 2000). The 1999 Report to Congress (RTC), however, may not have reflected the changes in CCW disposal practices that occurred since the cutoff date (1995) of its database and subsequent developments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the EPA discussed this issue and decided to conduct a joint DOE/EPA study to collect new information on the recent CCW management practices by the power industry. It was agreed that such information would provide a perspective on the chronological adoption of control measures in CCW units based on State regulations. A team of experts from the EPA, industry, and DOE (with support from Argonne National Laboratory) was established to develop a mutually acceptable approach for collecting and analyzing data on CCW

  11. Investigating the use of in situ liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Nguy, Amanda

    2016-02-19

    Engineering nanoparticles with desired shape-dependent properties is the key to many applications in nanotechnology. Although many synthetic procedures exist to produce anisotropic gold nanoparticles, the dynamics of growth are typically unknown or hypothetical. In the case of seed-mediated growth in the presence of DNA into anisotropic nanoparticles, it is not known exactly how DNA directs growth into specific morphologies. A series of preliminary experiments were carried out to contribute to the investigation of the possible mechanism of DNA-mediated growth of gold nanoprisms into gold nanostars using liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Imaging in the liquid phase was achieved through the use of a liquid cell platform and liquid cell holder that allow the sample to be contained within a “chip sandwich” between two electron transparent windows. Ex situ growth experiments were performed using Au-T30 NPrisms (30-base thymine oligonucleotide-coated gold nanoprisms) that are expected to grow into gold nanostars. Growth to form these nanostars were imaged using TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and liquid cell STEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy). An attempt to perform in situ growth experiments with the same Au-T30 nanoprisms revealed challenges in obtaining desired morphology results due to the environmental differences within the liquid cell compared to the ex situ environment. Different parameters in the experimental method were explored including fluid line set up, simultaneous and alternating reagent addition, and the effect of different liquid cell volumes to ensure adequate flow of reagents into the liquid cell. Lastly, the binding affinities were compared for T30 and A30 DNA incubated with gold nanoparticles using zeta potential measurements, absorption spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). It was previously reported thymine bases have a lower binding affinity to gold surfaces than adenine

  12. Investigating the use of in situ liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy to explore DNA-mediated gold nanoparticle growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguy, Amanda

    Engineering nanoparticles with desired shape-dependent properties is the key to many applications in nanotechnology. Although many synthetic procedures exist to produce anisotropic gold nanoparticles, the dynamics of growth are typically unknown or hypothetical. In the case of seed-mediated growth in the presence of DNA into anisotropic nanoparticles, it is not known exactly how DNA directs growth into specific morphologies. A series of preliminary experiments were carried out to contribute to the investigation of the possible mechanism of DNA-mediated growth of gold nanoprisms into gold nanostars using liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Imaging in the liquid phase was achieved through the use of a liquid cell platform and liquid cell holder that allow the sample to be contained within a “chip sandwich” between two electron transparent windows. Ex situ growth experiments were performed using Au-T30 NPrisms (30-base thymine oligonucleotide-coated gold nanoprisms) that are expected to grow into gold nanostars. Growth to form these nanostars were imaged using TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and liquid cell STEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy). An attempt to perform in situ growth experiments with the same Au-T30 nanoprisms revealed challenges in obtaining desired morphology results due to the environmental differences within the liquid cell compared to the ex situ environment. Different parameters in the experimental method were explored including fluid line set up, simultaneous and alternating reagent addition, and the effect of different liquid cell volumes to ensure adequate flow of reagents into the liquid cell. Lastly, the binding affinities were compared for T30 and A30 DNA incubated with gold nanoparticles using zeta potential measurements, absorption spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). It was previously reported thymine bases have a lower binding affinity to gold surfaces than

  13. Rat lung reactivity to natural and man-made fibrous silicates following short-term exposure.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, I; Dionne, P G; Nadeau, D; Dunnigan, J

    1989-04-01

    The inflammatory and fibrogenic potential of three naturally occurring and two man-made industrial minerals were compared. Groups of five rats each received respectively a single intratracheal instillation of saline (control), UICC chrysotile B asbestos, short chrysotile 4T30, attapulgite, xonotlite (a calcium silicate), and Fiberfrax (an aluminum silicate) at doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg. One month after the treatment, assessment of lung morphology and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed on each animal. Under these conditions, UICC chrysotile B at all doses tested (1, 5, and 10 mg) induced fibrotic lesions in bronchiolar tissues while short chrysotile 4T30 (1, 5, and 10 mg) caused focal accumulation of inflammatory cells in the alveolar structures but no apparent fibrosis. Compared to these positive reactions with different fibrogenicity, xonotlite caused minimal inflammatory reactions detectable only at high dose (10 mg) and by bronchoalveolar analysis. By contrast, the rat lung reacted more significantly to attapulgite and Fiberfrax although the tissue reaction differed considerably for these two materials. While attapulgite, at doses up to 10 mg caused minimal reactions characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration mainly in the alveolar structures, Fiberfrax at 1 mg and higher caused significant granulomatous reactions and the appearance of early fibrosis. Overall the order of lung biological reactivity observed for the various silicates was xonotlite much less than attapulgite less than short chrysotile 4T30 less than Fiberfrax less than UICC chrysotile B. These observations indicate that Fiberfrax, attapulgite, and, to a lesser extent, xonotlite are biologically active within the time span studied and potentially deleterious for lung tissue.

  14. Altitude distribution of tropospheric ozone over the Northern Hemisphere during 1996, simulated with a chemistry-general circulation model at two different horizontal resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentarchos, A. S.; Roelofs, G. J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2001-01-01

    The spatial/temporal variability of the vertical distribution of tropospheric ozone in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) over a period of 1 year (1996) is studied with a coupled chemistry-general circulation model. The model is used at two different horizontal resolutions (T30: 3.75°×3.75° and T63: 1.875°×1.875°) and is nudged towards European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts analyses for 1996, using a four-dimensional assimilation technique (newtonian relaxation), to enable direct comparisons of observations and model results. Overall, the model reproduces satisfactorily the magnitude and seasonal variability of the vertical ozone distribution observed at six selected locations. Discrepancies occur, however, at remote locations in the subtropical Atlantic and tropical Pacific where ozone concentrations throughout the free troposphere are overestimated by the fourth version of the European Centre Hamburg Model (ECHAM4)-T30. A considerable improvement is evident at T63, which can be attributed, at least partially, to less efficient transport of ozone precursors from the polluted continents at higher resolution. In the upper troposphere/tropopause region, short-term ozone variations are better reproduced at higher resolution. The origin of tropospheric ozone is examined by decomposing its seasonal variation in the model into ozone from the stratosphere and ozone produced within the troposphere. Differences in the NH annual tropospheric ozone budget for 1996, between T30 and T63 mean amounts are relatively small. The tropospheric ozone budget is dominated by photochemical production and destruction (2716 and 2684 Tg, respectively), while the net ozone flux from the stratosphere is estimated to be 436 Tg, and dry deposition is estimated to be 487 Tg.

  15. 25. 'HANGAR SHEDS TRUSSES DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. 'HANGAR SHEDS - TRUSSES - DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS - PLANT AREA; MODIFICATION CENTER NO. 1, DAGGETT, CALIFORNIA.' Sections and details of trusses, ironwork, and joints, as modified to show ridge joint detail. As built. This blueline also shows the fire suppression system, added in orange pencil for 'Project 13: Bldgs. T-30, T-50, T-70, T-90' at a later, unspecified date. Contract no. W509 Eng. 2743; File no. 555/84, revision B, dated August 24, 1942. No sheet number. - Barstow-Daggett Airport, Hangar Shed No. 4, 39500 National Trails Highway, Daggett, San Bernardino County, CA

  16. The Shock and Vibration Bulletin. Part 2. Modal and Impedance Analysis, Human Response to Vibration and Shock, Isolation and Damping, Dynamic Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    energy stored in a unit volume of material undergoing uniform, sin- rubbery transition glassy u region region region x(t),X(s): A displacement time...29) D .o VC G 2 Jai (23 Using this damper to dampen the motion of sin- 2? The maximum energy stored at any point In gle DOF oscillator with external...f(t) (30) Finally, the loss factor, n. can be com- Jtl puted by dividing the energy dissipition per unit volume by the peak energy stored per unit

  17. Longitudinal double-spin asymmetry for inclusive jet production in vec p + vec p collisions at sqrt s = 200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    STAR Coll

    2007-10-07

    We report a new STAR measurement of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry A{sub LL} for inclusive jet production at mid-rapidity in polarized p + p collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 200 GeV. The data, which cover jet transverse momenta 5 < p{sub T} < 30 GeV/c, are substantially more precise than previous measurements. They provide significant new constraints on the gluon spin contribution to the nucleon spin through the comparison to predictions derived from one global fit of polarized deep-inelastic scattering measurements.

  18. Studies on bacteriocin (thermophilin T) production by Streptococcus thermophilus ACA-DC 0040 in batch and fed-batch fermentation modes.

    PubMed

    Aktypis, Anastasios; Tychowski, Matheus; Kalantzopoulos, George; Aggelis, George

    2007-08-01

    Growth conditions that support bacteriocin (thermophilin T) production by Streptococcus thermophilus ACA-DC 0040 were identified. Synthesis of thermophilin T occurred during primary metabolic growth, while its specific rate of synthesis seemed to be optimal at T = 30 degrees C. Thermophilin T activity rapidly decreased in the stationary phase, especially at high growth temperature (i.e. T = 42 degrees C). In media with high content of complex nitrogen sources, high amounts of bacteriocin were detected in the growth environment, while about an 8-fold increase of thermophilin T titer and a 2-fold increase of specific synthesis rate was achieved when a fed-batch fermentation mode was applied.

  19. CW Measurement System. Software System Maintenance Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-02

    021 U) 0 N 39 LU~~U Z.>Zu LLI- > >) C) I.- 3 (A 4 4 Z==!)9a U5 LL L-T- U)9 -C6 - 0 Threat waveform task. This task generates threat waveform files...from the imaginary part is S 2 r+ - Ll si w t + (b2 b) sinl ~t + * + b sin nt] (33) t 30 Scaling the integrals by then yields the inverse transform in...the Digital Equipment Corporation trans- operating system editor. It allows creation and modification of Flecs, Fortran, or Macro- ll source files

  20. Signature of surface state coupling in thin films of the topological Kondo insulator SmB6 from anisotropic magnetoresistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaviv Petrushevsky, M.; Rout, P. K.; Levi, G.; Kohn, A.; Dagan, Y.

    2017-02-01

    The temperature and thickness dependencies of the in-plane anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) of SmB6 thin films are reported. We find that the AMR changes sign from negative (ρ||<ρ⊥ ) at high temperatures to positive (ρ||>ρ⊥ ) at low temperatures. The temperature, Ts, at which this sign change occurs, decreases with increasing film thickness t and Ts vanishes for t > 30 nm. We interpret our results in the framework of a competition between two components: a negative bulk contribution and a positive surface AMR.

  1. Building a Dynamic Spectrum Access Smart Radio with Application to Public Safety Disaster Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-13

    gnuradio ," 2008. [9] Ettus Research LLC, "http://www.ettus.com/," 2008. [10] FCC 04-167, "Second Report and Order: Promoting Efficient Use of Spectrum...Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 2007. [22] E. Blossom, "Exploring GNU Radio," http://www.gnu.org/software/ gnuradio /doc/exploring...iperf -c 192.168.5.2 -u -P 1 -i 1 -p 5001 -f k -b 1M -t 30 -T 1 # Time to Live –T, 1 hop # Client, sends UDP (-u) data cd <gnuradio_home>/ gnuradio

  2. CPm gene diversity in field isolates of Citrus tristeza virus from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Oliveros-Garay, Oscar Arturo; Martinez-Salazar, Natalhie; Torres-Ruiz, Yanneth; Acosta, Orlando

    2009-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence diversity of the CPm gene from 28 field isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was assessed by SSCP and sequence analyses. These isolates showed two major shared haplotypes, which differed in distribution: A1 was the major haplotype in 23 isolates from different geographic regions, whereas R1 was found in isolates from a discrete region. Phylogenetic reconstruction clustered A1 within an independent group, while R1 was grouped with mild isolates T30 from Florida and T385 from Spain. Some isolates contained several minor haplotypes, which were very similar to, and associated with, the major haplotype.

  3. Use of Holographic Linear Fringe Linearization Interferometry (FLI) for Detection of Defects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    System. The irradiance in the hologram plane of Figure I-1 is H(x) = [eikxsin(go/f) + f(x,t)12 , (I-i) where . denotes a Fourier transform. If a prism of...THEN 800 l.,, L20 100 400 1:’ 2+( SfR (4+(X+S)* 2+I’+..2) ) 410 ... 2fS0R(4+(X-S)**2+Y**2) 4 0I k.- TURNa:0𔃺 Y=Yf5 191:t0 1=0 2) .’ IF Y= THEN 8,0 t30

  4. Longitudinal double-spin asymmetry for inclusive jet production in p[over -->] + p[over -->] collisions at sqrt[s]=200 GeV.

    PubMed

    Abelev, B I; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Bai, Y; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Baumgart, S; Belaga, V V; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A; Bellwied, R; Benedosso, F; Betts, R R; Bhardwaj, S; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Blyth, S-L; Bombara, M; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Burton, T P; Bystersky, M; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Callner, J; Catu, O; Cebra, D; Cervantes, M C; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, J Y; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chung, S U; Clarke, R F; Codrington, M J M; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cosentino, M R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Dash, S; Daugherity, M; de Moura, M M; Dedovich, T G; Dephillips, M; Derevschikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Djawotho, P; Dogra, S M; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta Mazumdar, M R; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Elhalhuli, E; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Feng, A; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Y; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gaillard, L; Ganti, M S; Garcia-Solis, E; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gorbunov, Y N; Gos, H; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D; Grube, B; Guertin, S M; Guimaraes, K S F F; Gupta, A; Gupta, N; Haag, B; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Harris, J W; He, W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Heppelmann, S; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffman, A M; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Hollis, R S; Horner, M J; Huang, H Z; Hughes, E W; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Iordanova, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jakl, P; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kapitan, J; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kettler, D; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Kislov, E M; Klein, S R; Knospe, A G; Kocoloski, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kouchpil, V; Kowalik, K L; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krueger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kurnadi, P; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lapointe, S; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, C-H; Lehocka, S; Levine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Li, Y; Lin, G; Lin, X; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, J; Liu, L; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, G L; Ma, J G; Ma, Y G; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meschanin, A; Millane, J; Miller, M L; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, A; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nattrass, C; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nepali, C; Netrakanti, P K; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Olson, D; Pachr, M; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Phatak, S C; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Porile, N; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M; Potrebenikova, E; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Pruthi, N K; Putschke, J; Qattan, I A; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Relyea, D; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Russcher, M J; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Sakuma, T; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarsour, M; Sazhin, P S; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Selyuzhenkov, I; Seyboth, P; Shabetai, A; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shen, W Q; Shimanskiy, S S; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sorensen, P; Sowinski, J; Speltz, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stadnik, A; Stanislaus, T D S; Staszak, D; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Suarez, M C; Subba, N L; Sumbera, M; Sun, X M; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Timoshenko, S; Tokarev, M; Trainor, T A; Tram, V N; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van der Kolk, N; van Leeuwen, M; Vander Molen, A M; Varma, R; Vasilevski, I M; Vasiliev, A N; Vernet, R; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Wada, M; Waggoner, W T; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, J; Wu, Y; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Z; Yepes, P; Yoo, I-K; Yue, Q; Yurevich, V I; Zawisza, M; Zhan, W; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, Y; Zhong, C; Zhou, J; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N; Zuo, J X

    2008-06-13

    We report a new STAR measurement of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry A(LL) for inclusive jet production at midrapidity in polarized p + p collisions at a center-of-mass energy of sqrt[s]=200 GeV. The data, which cover jet transverse momenta 5T)<30 GeV/c, are substantially more precise than previous measurements. They provide significant new constraints on the gluon spin contribution to the nucleon spin through the comparison to predictions derived from one global fit to polarized deep-inelastic scattering measurements.

  5. Data Report. Volume I. Velocity and Temperature Profile Data for Zero Pressure Gradient, Fully Turbulent Boundary Layers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    o I kru T V A L t’ CF Trvu-R1TL1;r rl;7LT 7 Z CALCLLtTCP DELTA = 6116T D!SrLACrm -T THICX!.%~c (LrLSTf!Z) = .l747f7426 ?A-,, rTU - Tl4-7 -XQ,-rS (TW-TA...2 g VELOCITY AND TEMPERATURE RATIOS ISA 0.0 U0 T~*T 30- VELOCITY AND TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTIONS IN UNIVERSAL COORDINATES + 1O1 Figure 44. Boundary

  6. Priming of mononuclear cells with a combination of growth factors enhances wound healing via high angiogenic and engraftment capabilities.

    PubMed

    Jin, Enze; Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Sung-Whan

    2013-12-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that a specific combination of growth factors enhances the survival, adhesion and angiogenic potential of mononuclear cells (MNCs). In this study, we sought to investigate the changes of the angiogenic potential of MNCs after short-time priming with a specific combination of growth factors. MNCs were isolated using density gradient centrifugation and incubated with a priming cocktail containing epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, FMS-like tyrosine kinase (Flt)-3L , Angiopoietin (Ang)-1, granulocyte chemotactic protein (GCP)-2 and thrombopoietin (TPO) (all 400 ng/ml) for 15, 30 and 60 min. Wounds in nonobese diabetic-severe combined immune deficiency (NOD-SCID) mice were created by skin excision followed by cell transplantation. We performed a qRT-PCR analysis on the growth factor-primed cells. The angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, FGF-2, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and interleukin (IL)-8 and the anti-apoptotic factors IGF-1 and transforming growth factor-β1 were significantly elevated in the MNCs primed for 30 min. (T30) compared with the non-primed MNCs (T0). The scratch wound assay revealed that T30- conditioned media (CM) significantly increased the rate of fibroblast-mediated wound closure compared with the rates from T0-CM and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC)-CM at 20 hrs. In vivo wound healing results revealed that the T30-treated wounds demonstrated accelerated wound healing at days 7 and 14 compared with those treated with T0. The histological analyses demonstrated that the number of engrafted cells and transdifferentiated keratinocytes in the wounds were significantly higher in the T30-transplanted group than in the T0-transplanted group. In conclusion, this study suggests that short-term priming of MNCs with growth factors might be alternative therapeutic option for cell

  7. In Situ Observation of Reversible Nanomagnetic Switching Induced by Electric Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-12

    run using saturation magnetization (Msat) ) 1.360 × 106 A/m, exchange stiffness (A) ) 1.4 × 10-11 J /m, and thickness ( t ) ) 30 nm, values independently...P. A.; Ahn, J . S.; Guha, S.; Cheong, S. W. Nature 2004, 429 (6990), 392–395. (4) Lottermoser, T .; Lonkai, T .; Amann, U.; Hohlwein, D.; Ihringer, J ...19), 92. (7) Chung, T . K.; Keller, S.; Carman, G. P. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2009, (13), 94. (8) Molegraaf, H. J . A.; Hoffman, J .; Vaz, C. A. F.; Gariglio, S

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of the ocellate river stingray (Potamotrygon motoro).

    PubMed

    Song, Hong-Mei; Mu, Xi-Dong; Wei, Min-Xia; Wang, Xue-Jie; Luo, Jian-Ren; Hu, Yin-Chang

    2015-01-01

    We determined the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Potamotrygon motoro from South American freshwater stingrays. The total length of P. motoro mitogenome is 17,448 bp, which consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and a control region, with the genome organization and gene order being identical to that of the typical vertebrate. The overall nucleotide composition is 32.3% A, 24.4% T, 30.5% C and 12.8% G. These data will provide useful molecular information for phylogenetic relationships within the family Potamotrygonidae species.

  9. Erratum to: Measurement of jet multiplicity distributions in $$\\mathrm {t}\\overline{\\mathrm {t}}$$ production in pp collisions at $$\\sqrt{s} = 7\\,\\text {TeV} $$

    DOE PAGES

    Chatrchyan, Serguei

    2015-05-19

    Table 4 was incorrectly captioned in the originally published version. The correct caption is ‘Normalised differential tt- production cross section as a function of the number of additional jets with pT > 30 GeV in the lepton+jets channel. Furthermore, the statistical, systematic, and total uncertainties are also shown. Finally, the main experimental and model systematic uncertainties are displayed: JES and the combination of renormalisation and factorisation scales, jet-parton matching threshold, and hadronisation (in the table “Q2/Match./Had.”)’.

  10. STS-39 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, SPAS II IBSS computer animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-39 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS) II Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS) and Chemical Release Observation (CRO) experiment illustrated with computer graphics. Views include SPAS II (in foreground) deployed by OV-103 (27771), orbital maneuvering system (OMS) primary reaction control system (PRCS) plume firings after SPAS II deployment (27772), Chemical Release Observation (CRO) experiment in orbit (27773), and CRO deployed from OV-103 payload bay (27774). View (27772) used in the STS-39 Press Information (PUB 3546-V Rev 4-91) p27, April 1991 and for T-30 flight directors' briefing.

  11. Preventing opioid-induced nausea and vomiting: Rest your head and close your eyes?

    PubMed Central

    Heuser, Fabian; Schulz, Christian; Sağlam, Murat; Ramaioli, Cecilia; Heuberger, Maria; Wagner, Klaus J.; Jahn, Klaus; Schneider, Erich; Brandt, Thomas; Glasauer, Stefan; Lehnen, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    Although opioid-induced nausea and vomiting (OINV) is common and debilitating, its mechanism is still unclear. Recently, we suggested that opioids affect semicircular canal function and that this leads to a mismatch between canal input and other sensory information during head motion, which triggers OINV. Here, we assess if visual input is relevant for this mismatch. In a randomized-controlled crossover study 14 healthy men (26.9±3.4 years, mean±SD) were tested twice, once blindfolded and once with eyes open, with at least one-day washout. The opioid remifentanil was administered intravenously (0.15 μg/kg/min) for 60 minutes. After a thirty-minutes resting period, subjects’ head and trunk were passively moved. Nausea was rated before remifentanil start (T0), before the movement intervention (T30) and after 60 minutes (T60) of administration. At rest (T0, T30), median nausea ratings were zero whether subjects were blindfolded or not. Movement triggered nausea independently of visual input (nausea rating 1.5/3.0 (median/interquartile range) in the blindfolded, 2.5/6 in the eyes-open condition, χ2(1) = 1.3, p = 0.25). As movement exacerbates OINV independently of visual input, a clash between visual and semicircular canal information is not the relevant trigger for OINV. To prevent OINV, emphasis should be put on head-rest, eye-closure is less important. PMID:28291842

  12. Ram seminal plasma improves pregnancy rates in ewes cervically inseminated with ram semen stored at 5 °C for 24 hours.

    PubMed

    López-Pérez, A; Pérez-Clariget, R

    2012-01-15

    In this study, we compared pregnancy rates obtained using ram semen stored at 5 °C for 24 h, with ram or bull seminal plasma (SP) added to TRIS-egg yolk extender. During the breeding period, 670 adult Corriedale ewes were cervically inseminated with semen (2 × 10(8) sperm in a volume of 0.2 mL) from eight adult Corriedale rams. Ejaculates, obtained using an artificial vagina, were split into three aliquots and diluted with the following: TRIS-egg yolk based extender (T), T + 30% ram SP (R), or T + 30% bull SP (B). Samples were refrigerated and stored at 5 °C for 24 h until used for AI. Pregnancy was assessed by ultrasonography 35 to 40 d after AI. Pregnancy rate was not affected by ram (P = 0.77) or breeding period (P = 0.43), and there were no interactions between extender and ram (P = 0.94), or extender and breeding period (P = 0.24). However, there was an effect of extender (P = 0.0009) on pregnancy rates; ram SP, but not bull SP, increased pregnancy rates compared with extender without SP (49.7, 38.1, and 31.1%, for R, B, and T respectively). In conclusion, ram SP added to TRIS-egg yolk extender had a beneficial effect on the pregnancy rate of ram sperm stored at 5 °C for 24 h and used for cervical insemination of ewes.

  13. Measurement of prompt ψ(2S) to J/ψ yield ratios in Pb-Pb and p-p collisions at sqrt[sNN]=2.76  TeV.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Fabjan, C; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kiesenhofer, W; Knünz, V; Krammer, M; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Treberer-Treberspurg, W; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Alderweireldt, S; Bansal, M; Bansal, S; Cornelis, T; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Knutsson, A; Luyckx, S; Ochesanu, S; Roland, B; Rougny, R; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Blekman, F; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; Heracleous, N; Keaveney, J; Lowette, S; Maes, M; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Strom, D; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Villella, I; Caillol, C; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dobur, D; Favart, L; Gay, A P R; Grebenyuk, A; Léonard, A; Mohammadi, A; Perniè, L; Reis, T; Seva, T; Thomas, L; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wang, J; Adler, V; Beernaert, K; Benucci, L; Cimmino, A; Costantini, S; Crucy, S; Dildick, S; Fagot, A; Garcia, G; Mccartin, J; Ocampo Rios, A A; Ryckbosch, D; Salva Diblen, S; Sigamani, M; Strobbe, N; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Beluffi, C; Bruno, G; Castello, R; Caudron, A; Ceard, L; Da Silveira, G G; Delaere, C; du Pree, T; Favart, D; Forthomme, L; Giammanco, A; Hollar, J; Jez, P; Komm, M; Lemaitre, V; Nuttens, C; Pagano, D; Perrini, L; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Popov, A; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Vizan Garcia, J M; Beliy, N; Caebergs, T; Daubie, E; Hammad, G H; Aldá Júnior, W L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Correa Martins Junior, M; Dos Reis Martins, T; Mora Herrera, C; Pol, M E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santaolalla, J; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Vilela Pereira, A; Bernardes, C A; Dogra, S; Tomei, T R Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Aleksandrov, A; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Marinov, A; Piperov, S; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Tcholakov, V; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Hadjiiska, R; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Du, R; Jiang, C H; Liang, S; Plestina, R; Tao, J; Wang, X; Wang, Z; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Ban, Y; Guo, Y; Li, Q; Li, W; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Zhang, L; Zou, W; Avila, C; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; Gomez, J P; Gomez Moreno, B; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Kadija, K; Luetic, J; Mekterovic, D; Sudic, L; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Bodlak, M; Finger, M; Finger, M; Assran, Y; Ellithi Kamel, A; Mahmoud, M A; Radi, A; Kadastik, M; 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Boudoul, G; Bouvier, E; Brochet, S; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Chasserat, J; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fan, J; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Sabes, D; Sgandurra, L; Sordini, V; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Xiao, H; Tsamalaidze, Z; Autermann, C; Beranek, S; Bontenackels, M; Edelhoff, M; Feld, L; Hindrichs, O; Klein, K; Ostapchuk, A; Perieanu, A; Raupach, F; Sammet, J; Schael, S; Weber, H; Wittmer, B; Zhukov, V; Ata, M; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Erdmann, M; Fischer, R; Güth, A; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hoepfner, K; Klingebiel, D; Knutzen, S; Kreuzer, P; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Millet, P; Olschewski, M; Padeken, K; Papacz, P; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Teyssier, D; Thüer, S; Weber, M; Cherepanov, V; Erdogan, Y; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Geisler, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Heister, A; Hoehle, F; Kargoll, B; Kress, T; Kuessel, Y; Lingemann, J; Nowack, A; Nugent, I M; 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Khalatyan, S; Kurt, P; Moon, D H; O'Brien, C; Silkworth, C; Turner, P; Varelas, N; Albayrak, E A; Bilki, B; Clarida, W; Dilsiz, K; Duru, F; Haytmyradov, M; Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Ogul, H; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Penzo, A; Rahmat, R; Sen, S; Tan, P; Tiras, E; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bolognesi, S; Fehling, D; Gritsan, A V; Maksimovic, P; Martin, C; Swartz, M; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Benelli, G; Bruner, C; Gray, J; Kenny, R P; Malek, M; Murray, M; Noonan, D; Sanders, S; Sekaric, J; Stringer, R; Wang, Q; Wood, J S; Barfuss, A F; Chakaberia, I; Ivanov, A; Khalil, S; Makouski, M; Maravin, Y; Saini, L K; Shrestha, S; Skhirtladze, N; Svintradze, I; Gronberg, J; Lange, D; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Baden, A; Belloni, A; Calvert, B; Eno, S C; Gomez, J A; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kolberg, T; Lu, Y; Marionneau, M; Mignerey, A C; Pedro, K; Skuja, A; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Apyan, A; Barbieri, R; Bauer, G; Busza, W; Cali, I A; Chan, M; Di Matteo, L; Dutta, V; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Gulhan, D; Klute, M; Lai, Y S; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Ma, T; Paus, C; Ralph, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Stephans, G S F; Stöckli, F; Sumorok, K; Velicanu, D; Veverka, J; Wyslouch, B; Yang, M; Zanetti, M; Zhukova, V; Dahmes, B; Gude, A; Kao, S C; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Pastika, N; Rusack, R; Singovsky, A; Tambe, N; Turkewitz, J; Acosta, J G; Oliveros, S; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Bose, S; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Keller, J; Knowlton, D; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Malik, S; Meier, F; Snow, G R; Dolen, J; Godshalk, A; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Rappoccio, S; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Baumgartel, D; Chasco, M; Haley, J; Massironi, A; Morse, D M; Nash, D; Orimoto, T; Trocino, D; Wang, R-J; Wood, D; Zhang, J; Hahn, K A; Kubik, A; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Pollack, B; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Sung, K; Velasco, M; Won, S; Brinkerhoff, A; Chan, K M; Drozdetskiy, A; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kellams, N; Lannon, K; Luo, W; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Pearson, T; Planer, M; Ruchti, R; Valls, N; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Woodard, A; Antonelli, L; Brinson, J; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Flowers, S; Hill, C; Hughes, R; Kotov, K; Ling, T Y; Puigh, D; Rodenburg, M; Smith, G; Winer, B L; Wolfe, H; Wulsin, H W; Driga, O; Elmer, P; Hebda, P; Hunt, A; Koay, S A; Lujan, P; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Quan, X; Saka, H; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Zenz, S C; Zuranski, A; Brownson, E; Mendez, H; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Barnes, V E; Benedetti, D; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; De Mattia, M; Hu, Z; Jha, M K; Jones, M; Jung, K; Kress, M; Leonardo, N; Lopes Pegna, D; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Radburn-Smith, B C; Shi, X; Shipsey, I; Silvers, D; Svyatkovskiy, A; Wang, F; Xie, W; Xu, L; Yoo, H D; Zablocki, J; Zheng, Y; Parashar, N; Stupak, J; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Covarelli, R; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Eshaq, Y; Ferbel, T; Garcia-Bellido, A; Goldenzweig, P; Han, J; Harel, A; Khukhunaishvili, A; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Ciesielski, R; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Arora, S; Barker, A; Chou, J P; Contreras-Campana, C; Contreras-Campana, E; Duggan, D; Ferencek, D; Gershtein, Y; Gray, R; Halkiadakis, E; Hidas, D; Kaplan, S; Lath, A; Panwalkar, S; Park, M; Patel, R; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Rose, K; Spanier, S; York, A; Bouhali, O; Castaneda Hernandez, A; Eusebi, R; Flanagan, W; Gilmore, J; Kamon, T; Khotilovich, V; Krutelyov, V; Montalvo, R; Osipenkov, I; Pakhotin, Y; Perloff, A; Roe, J; Rose, A; Safonov, A; Sakuma, T; Suarez, I; Tatarinov, A; Akchurin, N; Cowden, C; Damgov, J; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Kovitanggoon, K; Kunori, S; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Volobouev, I; Appelt, E; Delannoy, A G; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Mao, Y; Melo, A; Sharma, M; Sheldon, P; Snook, B; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Arenton, M W; Boutle, S; Cox, B; Francis, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Lin, C; Neu, C; Wood, J; Clarke, C; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Lamichhane, P; Sturdy, J; Belknap, D A; Carlsmith, D; Cepeda, M; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Friis, E; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Levine, A; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ross, I; Sarangi, T; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Vuosalo, C; Woods, N

    2014-12-31

    The ratio between the prompt ψ(2S) and J/ψ yields, reconstructed via their decays into μ+ μ-, is measured in Pb-Pb and p-p collisions at sqrt[sNN]=2.76  TeV. The analysis is based on Pb-Pb and p-p data samples collected by CMS at the Large Hadron Collider, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 150  μb(-1) and 5.4  pb(-1), respectively. The double ratio of measured yields (Nψ(2S)/N(J/ψ))(Pb-Pb)/(Nψ(2S)/N(J/ψ))(p-p) is computed in three Pb-Pb collision centrality bins and two kinematic ranges: one at midrapidity, |y|<1.6, covering the transverse momentum range 6.5T<30  GeV/c, and the other at forward rapidity, 1.6<|y|<2.4, extending to lower pT values, 3T<30  GeV/c. The centrality-integrated double ratio changes from 0.45±0.13(stat)±0.07(syst) in the first range to 1.67±0.34(stat)±0.27(syst) in the second. This difference is most pronounced in the most central collisions.

  14. Shape transformation of bimetallic Au–Pd core–shell nanocubes to multilayered Au–Pd–Au core–shell hexagonal platelets

    DOE PAGES

    Bhattarai, Nabraj; Prozorov, Tanya

    2015-11-05

    Transformation of metallic or bimetallic (BM) nanoparticles (NPs) from one shape to another desired shape is of importance to nanoscience and nanotechnology, where new morphologies of NPs lead to enhancement of their exploitable properties. In this report, we present the shape transformation of Au octahedral NPs to Au–Pd core–shell nanocubes, followed by their transformation to nanostars and finally to multilayered Au–Pd–Au core–shell hexagonal platelets in the presence of T30 DNA. The weaker binding affinity of T30 DNA directs the growth to favor the formation of lower energy {111} facets, changing the morphology from nanocubes to nanostar. The nanostars, exhibiting unusualmore » intermediate morphologies, are comprised two sets of shell layers and have Au core, Pd intermediate shell, and Au outer shell. Similarly, the hexagonal platelets, which also have Au core and inner Pd shell, are encased in an external gold shell. As a result, the formation of multilayered Au–Pd–Au core–shell hexagonal platelets from Au–Pd core–shell nanocubes via the multilayered nanostars is monitored using scanning/transmission electron microscopy analysis.« less

  15. Optical and transport study of Ge wells and dots on Si(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokhinson, L. P.; Tsui, D. C.; Benton, J. L.; Xie, Y.-H.

    1998-03-01

    Despite intensive studies of self-assembled Ge-rich islands on Si there remain unanswered questions about their energy structure. We performed both optical and transport measurements of molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) grown Ge layers embedded in Si. An increase of Ge layer thickness from 2Å to 10Å changes the growth mechanism from two-dimensional (2D) growth of strained wells to three-dimensional (3D) Stranski-Krastanov growth mode. Photoluminescence spectroscopy shows a clear transition from 2D to 3D growth at ~ 5Åin agreement with measurements reported by Schittenhelm et.al.(P. Schittenhelm, M. Gail, J. Brunner, J. F. Nutzel, and G. Abstraiter, APL 67), 1292 (1995). Far-infrared spectroscopy shows a strong photocurrent response at ≈200 meV. The temperature dependence of the resistance at T<30 K is best described by variable range hopping, while at T>30 K, the transport is thermally activated with an activation energy of ~35 meV.

  16. Substitutions of Thr30 provide mechanistic insight into tryptophan-mediated activation of TRAP binding to RNA.

    PubMed

    Payal, Vandana; Gollnick, Paul

    2006-01-01

    TRAP is an 11 subunit RNA binding protein that regulates expression of genes involved in tryptophan biosynthesis and transport in Bacillus subtilis. TRAP is activated to bind RNA by binding up to 11 molecules of l-tryptophan in pockets formed by adjacent subunits. The precise mechanism by which tryptophan binding activates TRAP is not known. Thr30 is in the tryptophan binding pocket. A TRAP mutant in which Thr30 is substituted with Val (T30V) does not bind tryptophan but binds RNA constitutively, suggesting that Thr30 plays a key role in the activation mechanism. We have examined the effects of other substitutions of Thr30. TRAP proteins with small beta-branched aliphatic side chains at residue 30 bind RNA constitutively, whereas those with a small polar side chain show tryptophan-dependent RNA binding. Several mutant proteins exhibited constitutive RNA binding that was enhanced by tryptophan. Although the tryptophan and RNA binding sites on TRAP are distinct and are separated by approximately 7.5 A, several substitutions of residues that interact with the bound RNA restored tryptophan binding to T30V TRAP. These observations support the hypothesis that conformational changes in TRAP relay information between the tryptophan and RNA binding sites of the protein.

  17. The effective air absorption coefficient for predicting reverberation time in full octave bands.

    PubMed

    Wenmaekers, R H C; Hak, C C J M; Hornikx, M C J

    2014-12-01

    A substantial amount of research has been devoted to producing a calculation model for air absorption for pure tones. However, most statistical and geometrical room acoustic prediction models calculate the reverberation time in full octave bands in accordance with ISO 3382-1 (International Organization for Standardization, 2009). So far, the available methods that allow calculation of air absorption in octave bands have not been investigated for room acoustic applications. In this paper, the effect of air absorption on octave band reverberation time calculations is investigated based on calculations. It is found that the approximation method, as described in the standard ANSI S1.26 (American National Standards Institute, 1995), fails to estimate accurate decay curves for full octave bands. In this paper, a method is used to calculate the energy decay curve in rooms based on a summation of pure tones within the band. From this decay curve, which is found to be slightly concave upwards, T20 and T30 can be determined. For different conditions, an effective intensity attenuation coefficient mB ;eff for the full octave bands has been calculated. This mB ;eff can be used for reverberation time calculations, if results are to be compared with T20 or T30 measurements. Also, guidelines are given for the air absorption correction of decay curves, measured in a scale model.

  18. Selective differences in macrophage populations and monokine production in resolving pulmonary granuloma and fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, I.

    1991-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) and their production of interleukin-1-like activity (IL-1) and macrophage-derived growth factor for fibroblasts (MDGF) were examined during chronic inflammatory reactions leading to either granuloma formation or fibrosis. Groups of five rats each received, respectively, a single transtracheal injection of xonotlite, attapulgite, short chrysotile 4T30, UICC chrysotile B asbestos, or saline. One month later, such treatments induced either no change (xonotlite), granuloma formation (attapulgite and short chrysotile 4T30), or fibrosis (UICC chrysotile B). By 8 months, however, the granulomatous reactions had resolved or greatly diminished, whereas the fibrosis persisted irreversibly. Parallel examination of cell populations obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage revealed that multinucleated giant macrophages (MGC) were present in lavage fluids of animals with resolving granulomatous reactions but absent in those obtained from animals with lung fibrosis. Evaluation of monokine production by inflammatory macrophages also revealed significant differences. Enhanced production of IL-1-like activity was seen in both types of lung injury, although especially during the early stage (1 month) and decreased thereafter (8 months). By contrast, augmentation of MDGF production was observed in animals with lung fibrosis only and persisted up to 9 months. Taken together, these data indicate that production of selected cytokines, as well as AM differentiation along a given pathway, may modulate the outcome of a chronic inflammatory response. PMID:1992772

  19. Measurement of reverberation gain in an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Mijić, Miomir; Šumarac Pavlović, Dragana

    2012-09-01

    Multipath propagation within an urban area introduces a specific type of reverberation in response to sound excitation. That appearance affects the level of ambient noise produced by strong sound sources. In this paper, the signals recorded during the 1999 bombing of Belgrade were used to analyze the characteristics of reverberation in that urban environment. Six recorded signals were selected among more than 50 explosions recorded at that time. Due to the impulse nature of sound sources, the recorded signals represent the impulse responses of that area. The measured reverberation time T30 is about 7 ± 1 s in octaves between 31.5 Hz and 1 kHz. There is a variation of decay slope in time that is verified by differences between values of T10 and T30. The reverberation gain calculated from recorded signals is 2-7 dB, depending on the global position of the sound excitation point as well as its micro-location according to its position among the surrounding buildings. A variation of gain over octave bands is in the interval of approximately 3 dB. Information about reverberation gain in urban environment can be useful in a quick estimation of noise level produced by strong sound sources in a large area of urban environment.

  20. Shape transformation of bimetallic Au–Pd core–shell nanocubes to multilayered Au–Pd–Au core–shell hexagonal platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattarai, Nabraj; Prozorov, Tanya

    2015-11-05

    Transformation of metallic or bimetallic (BM) nanoparticles (NPs) from one shape to another desired shape is of importance to nanoscience and nanotechnology, where new morphologies of NPs lead to enhancement of their exploitable properties. In this report, we present the shape transformation of Au octahedral NPs to Au–Pd core–shell nanocubes, followed by their transformation to nanostars and finally to multilayered Au–Pd–Au core–shell hexagonal platelets in the presence of T30 DNA. The weaker binding affinity of T30 DNA directs the growth to favor the formation of lower energy {111} facets, changing the morphology from nanocubes to nanostar. The nanostars, exhibiting unusual intermediate morphologies, are comprised two sets of shell layers and have Au core, Pd intermediate shell, and Au outer shell. Similarly, the hexagonal platelets, which also have Au core and inner Pd shell, are encased in an external gold shell. As a result, the formation of multilayered Au–Pd–Au core–shell hexagonal platelets from Au–Pd core–shell nanocubes via the multilayered nanostars is monitored using scanning/transmission electron microscopy analysis.

  1. Studies of single walled carbon nanotubes for biomedical, mechanical and electrical applications using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiji, Roya Roientan

    The promise of carbon nanotubes to provide high-strength composites implies that carbon nanotubes might find widespread use throughout the world, implying that humans everywhere will be exposed to carbon nanotube-containing materials. In order to study what effects if any carbon nanotubes might have on the function of living cells, we have studied the association of single stranded DNA (ssDNA) with single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as a first step toward understanding the interaction of SWCNTs with living matter. Studies have been performed on both as-received and chemically oxidized SWCNTs to better understand the preferential association of ssDNA with SWCNTs. Samples of T30 ssDNA:SWCNT were examined under ambient conditions using non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)) techniques. AFM images of well-dispersed, as-received SWCNTs revealed isolated features on the SWCNT that are 1.4 to 2.8 nm higher than the bare SWCNT itself. X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed these features to be T30 ssDNA in nature. Chemically oxidizing SWCNTs before dispersion by sonication is found to be an effective way to increase the number of T30 ssDNA features. A series of experiments showed that free radical scavengers such as ascorbic acid and trolox can effectively prevent the conjugation of ssDNA to SWCNTs, suggesting a significant role of free radicals in this association. Also hybridization of the complimentary ssDNA sequences showed the covalent nature of this association. These results are important to understanding the precise mechanism of ssDNA:SWCNT association and provide valuable information for future use in electronics, biosensors and as a possible drug carrier into individual cells. If SWCNTs are used in biosensor or circuit design applications then it is important to note how much energy can be stored in a SWCNT based on its shape and configuration before a permanent damage is introduced to it. Therefore a study has been done on bending SWCNTs into

  2. The effects of noise and reverberation on listening effort for adults with normal hearing

    PubMed Central

    Picou, Erin M.; Gordon, Julia; Ricketts, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of background noise and reverberation on listening effort. Four specific research questions were addressed related to listening effort. These questions were: A) with comparable word recognition performance across levels of reverberation, what are the effects of noise and reverberation on listening effort? (B) what is the effect of background noise when reverberation time is constant? (C) what is the effect of increasing reverberation from low to moderate when signal-to-noise ratio is constant? (D) what is the effect of increasing reverberation from moderate to high when signal-to-noise ratio is constant? Design Eighteen young adults (mean age 24.8 years) with normal hearing participated. A dual-task paradigm was used to simultaneously assess word recognition and listening effort. The primary task was monosyllable word recognition and the secondary task was word categorization (press a button if the word heard was judged to be a noun). Participants were tested in quiet and in background noise in three levels of reverberation (T30 < 100 ms, T30 = 475 ms, and T30 = 834 ms). Signal-to-noise ratios used were chosen individually for each participant and varied by reverberation to address the specific research questions. Results As expected, word recognition performance was negatively affected by both background noise and by increases in reverberation. Furthermore, analysis of mean response times revealed that background noise increased listening effort, regardless of degree of reverberation. Conversely, reverberation did not affect listening effort, regardless of whether word recognition performance was comparable or signal-to-noise ratio was constant. Conclusions The finding that reverberation did not affect listening effort, even when word recognition performance was degraded, is inconsistent with current models of listening effort. The reasons for this surprising finding are unclear and warrant

  3. Improvement of aluminum drilling efficiency and precision by shaped femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ying; Qi, Hongxia; Chen, Anmin; Hu, Zhan

    2014-10-01

    Shaped femtosecond laser pulses with the plain phase (transform-limited pulse) and sine phase (A = 1.2566, T = 30, T = 10, and T = 5) were used to drill Al sheet in vacuum. Using different phase, the number of pulses required to drill through the sheet was different. With lower laser pulse energy, the ablation rate was the highest when plain phase (corresponding to transform limited pulse) was used. With higher laser energy, the optimized ablation rate can be achieved by increasing the time separation between the subpulses of pulse train produced from the sine phase function. And, with the shaped femtosecond laser, the diameter of ablation holes produced was smaller, the ablation precision was also improved. The results showed that shaped femtosecond laser pulse has great advantages in the context of femtosecond laser drilling.

  4. Substituent and Solvent Effects on Excited State Charge Transfer Behavior of Highly Fluorescent Dyes Containing Thiophenylimidazole-Based Aldehydes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santos, Javier; Bu, Xiu R.; Mintz, Eric A.

    2001-01-01

    The excited state charge transfer for a series of highly fluorescent dyes containing thiophenylimidazole moiety was investigated. These systems follow the Twisted Intramolecular Charge Transfer (TICT) model. Dual fluorescence was observed for each substituted dye. X-ray structures analysis reveals a twisted ground state geometry for the donor substituted aryl on the 4 and 5 position at the imidazole ring. The excited state charge transfer was modeled by a linear solvation energy relationship using Taft's pi and Dimroth's E(sub T)(30) as solvent parameters. There is linear relation between the energy of the fluorescence transition and solvent polarity. The degree of stabilization of the excited state charge transfer was found to be consistent with the intramolecular molecular charge transfer. Excited dipole moment was studied by utilizing the solvatochromic shift method.

  5. Production Systems as a Programming Language for Artificial Intelligence Applications. Volume III.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    06LEVEL4 *..7 MOVING @K row DO TO If LEVEL 4 9. 9 ?VJIWC-W IOM 06TOV LEVEL 4 . .m.. C’ MOW 06E (...... 9 MOVI 3NIG WK RO06STO0? LEAL 4 ANT MOVE Or. 0...101 CmEl TO as LEM a. LEVEL - SI 9wT 30m C? 01 ....... 69 MVIIW73SWEllCS TODoLEM4I LEL- FAIL EPTH 2 CWT MOVIE OS Do S C1s CI * 12 .?ow10 U7U07 Sm:C~z...MOVING W P (S TO D6 L(V 4 LEVEL - S I . 7 MOVI O TCF 01 O L(EL4 . ZS PMOIG N FRO09 1TO Ed LEWL 4 . VING W 73 0106 TO E? L(W. 4 CA’T MO( 04 NC C T

  6. Dirac and Pauli form factors based on consideration of the gluon effect in light-cone wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shojaei, Mohammad Reza; Nikkhoo, Negin Sattary

    2015-11-01

    We discuss Dirac and Pauli form factors based on a generalized parton distribution framework in the range of high momentum transfers of t < 30 GeV2 and calculate the electromagnetic form factors, GE and GM, for the proton. In previous work, Gaussian parameterization has been used in wave functions for calculating electromagnetic form factors at intermediate-high momentum transfers of 1 GeV2 < t < 10 GeV2; in this paper, by considering an improved Gaussian ansatz, we not only calculate the electromagnetic form factors at moderately high momentum transfers t but also can calculate these quantities at high momentum transfers, achieving reasonable agreement with experimental data and other previous work.

  7. In Situ Radiometric and Exposure Age Dating of the Martian Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, K. A.; Malespin, C.; Mahaffy, P.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Vasconcelos, P. M.; Milliken, R. E.; Malin, M.; Edgett, K. S.; Pavlov, A. A.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Grant, J. A.; Miller, H. B.; Arvidson, R.; Beegle, L.; Calef, F.; Conrad, P. G.; Dietrich, W. E.; Eigenbrode, J.; Gellert, R.; Gupta, S.; Hamilton, V.; Hassler, D. M.; Lewis, K. W.; McLennan, S. M.; Ming, D. M.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Steele, A.; Stolper, E. M.; Sumner, D. Y.; Vaniman, D.; Vasavada, A.; Williford, K.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2014-01-01

    We determined radiogenic and cosmogenic noble gases in a mudstone on the floor of Gale Crater. A K-Ar age of 4.21 +/- 0.35 billion years represents a mixture of detrital and authigenic components and confirms the expected antiquity of rocks comprising the crater rim. Cosmic-ray-produced 3He, 21Ne, and 36Ar yield concordant surface exposure ages of 78 T 30 million years. Surface exposure occurred mainly in the present geomorphic setting rather than during primary erosion and transport. Our observations are consistent with mudstone deposition shortly after the Gale impact or possibly in a later event of rapid erosion and deposition. The mudstone remained buried until recent exposure by wind-driven scarp retreat. Sedimentary rocks exposed by this mechanism may thus offer the best potential for organic biomarker preservation against destruction by cosmic radiation.

  8. Resonant and deep impurity levels under hydrostatic pressure in pure n-type InAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadri, A.; Aulombard, R. L.; Zitouni, K.; Konczewicz, L.

    1986-05-01

    Hall coefficient ( RH) and electrical resistivity (ϱ 0) were measured as a function of hydrostatic pressure up to 18 kbar, in the 4.2 K-120 K temperature range, on nominally undopted n-type InAs with free carrier concentration ∼2 × 10 16 cm -3. In the 4.2-30 K range, RH and ϱ 0 versus pressure variations indicate the deionization of impurity states which are resonant in the Γ 1c band at normal pressure. The position and the pressure variation of the resonant impurity level are discussed. At T>30 K, evidence is made for the existence of a donor-like impurity level lying ∼10 meV below the Γ 1c band minimum and moving with pressure at the rate of -1.8 meV/kbar with respect to this band.

  9. Cloud point extraction of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol from cannabis resin.

    PubMed

    Ameur, S; Haddou, B; Derriche, Z; Canselier, J P; Gourdon, C

    2013-04-01

    A cloud point extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/UV) method was developed for the determination of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in micellar phase. The nonionic surfactant "Dowfax 20B102" was used to extract and pre-concentrate THC from cannabis resin, prior to its determination with a HPLC-UV system (diode array detector) with isocratic elution. The parameters and variables affecting the extraction were investigated. Under optimum conditions (1 wt.% Dowfax 20B102, 1 wt.% Na2SO4, T = 318 K, t = 30 min), this method yielded a quite satisfactory recovery rate (~81 %). The limit of detection was 0.04 μg mL(-1), and the relative standard deviation was less than 2 %. Compared with conventional solid-liquid extraction, this new method avoids the use of volatile organic solvents, therefore is environmentally safer.

  10. The effect of boundary shape to acoustic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prawirasasra, M. S.; Sampurna, R.; Suwandi

    2016-11-01

    To design a room in term of acoustic, many variables need to be considered such as volume, acoustic characteristics & surface area of material and also boundary shape. Modifying each variable possibly change the sound field character. To find impact of boundary shape, every needed properties is simulated through acoustic prediction software. The simulation is using three models with different geometry (asymmetry and symmetry) to produce certain objective parameters. By applying just noticeable difference (JND), the effect is considered known. Furthermore, individual perception is needed to gain subjective parameter. The test is using recorded speech that is convoluted with room impulse of each model. The result indicates that 84% of participants could not recognize the speech which is emit from different geometry properties. In contrast, JND value of T30 is exceed 5%. But for D50, every model has JND below 5%.

  11. Crystal field and magnetization of canted antiferromagnet CoCO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshcheryakov, V. F.

    2007-11-01

    The magnetization of the canted antiferromagnet CoCO3 ( T N = 18.1 K) is calculated in the Weiss molecular field approximation taking into account the microscopic state of the Co2+ ion in the entire range of temperatures and magnetic fields. The values of T N, magnetic susceptibility in the basal plane, and ferromagnetic moment were used as parameters. It is shown that the anisotropy of the g factor and of the exchange interaction at low temperatures ( T < 30 K) including the magnetic ordering temperature is correctly described in the Abragam-Pryce approximation. At high temperatures, the g factor increases and becomes isotropic, but it cannot be described using the Abragam-Pryce approximation. The reasons for g factor variation and the magnitude of the magnetic moment are discussed.

  12. Interaction of near-IR laser radiation with plasma of a continuous optical discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimakov, V. P.; Kuznetsov, V. A.; Solovyov, N. G.; Shemyakin, A. N.; Shilov, A. O.; Yakimov, M. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of 1.07-μm laser radiation with plasma of a continuous optical discharge (COD) in xenon and argon at a pressure of p = 3-25 bar and temperature of T = 15 kK has been studied. The threshold power required to sustain COD is found to decrease with increasing gas pressure to P t < 30 W in xenon at p > 20 bar and to P t < 350 W in argon at p > 15 bar. This effect is explained by an increase in the coefficient of laser radiation absorption to 20-25 cm-1 in Xe and 1-2 cm-1 in Ar due to electronic transitions between the broadened excited atomic levels. The COD characteristics also depend on the laser beam refraction in plasma. This effect can be partially compensated by a tighter focusing of the laser beam. COD is applied as a broadband light source with a high spectral brightness.

  13. Neutron capture cross section measurement of 151Sm at the CERN neutron time of flight facility (n_TOF).

    PubMed

    Abbondanno, U; Aerts, G; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Alvarez-Pol, H; Andriamonje, S; Andrzejewski, J; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becvár, F; Benlliure, J; Berthoumieux, E; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Cennini, P; Chepel, V; Chiaveri, E; Colonna, N; Cortes, G; Cortina, D; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dababneh, S; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dolfini, R; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Frais-Koelbl, H; Furman, W; Goncalves, I; Gallino, R; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martinez, A; Isaev, S; Jericha, E; Käppeler, F; Kadi, Y; Karadimos, D; Kerveno, M; Ketlerov, V; Koehler, P; Konovalov, V; Krticka, M; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marrone, S; Martinez-Val, J; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Molina-Coballes, A; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, H; O'Brien, S; Pancin, J; Papaevangelou, T; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perlado, J M; Perrot, L; Pignatari, M; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Policarpo, A; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Raman, S; Rapp, W; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, C; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Soares, J C; Stephan, C; Tagliente, G; Tain, J; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarin, D; Vincente, M C; Vlachoudis, V; Voss, F; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K

    2004-10-15

    The151Sm(n,gamma)152Sm cross section has been measured at the spallation neutron facility n_TOF at CERN in the energy range from 1 eV to 1 MeV. The new facility combines excellent resolution in neutron time-of-flight, low repetition rates, and an unsurpassed instantaneous luminosity, resulting in rather favorable signal/background ratios. The 151Sm cross section is of importance for characterizing neutron capture nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars. At a thermal energy of kT=30 keV the Maxwellian averaged cross section of this unstable isotope (t(1/2)=93 yr) was determined to be 3100+/-160 mb, significantly larger than theoretical predictions.

  14. STS-31 preflight press conference with SSIP participant Gregory S. Peterson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    During STS-31 thirty days before launch (T-30) press conference, Shuttle Student Involvement Project (SSIP) participant Gregory S. Peter (right), a senior at Utah State University in Logan, fields questions about his student experiment (SE) to be flown on STS-31. Others pictured are Ed Mason (left) of Morton-Thiokol and Jeff Blakely of Utah State Space Dynamics Laboratory. A model of the experiment titled 'Ion Arc Behavior in Microgravity' SE 82-16 was used during the briefing (pictured). SE 82-16 will be located on Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, middeck to observe the effects of microgravity on an electric arc. The absence of convection currents in a weightless environment will keep the arc from rising. SE 82-16 will also study the effect of a magnetic field on an arc without correction. An Arriflex 16mm camera will be used to photograph the experiment.

  15. SESAME 7363: A new Li(6)D equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, Daniel Glen; Kress, Joel David; Crockett, Scott; Collins, Lee A.; Greeff, Carl William

    2015-09-21

    A new Equation of State (EOS) for Lithium 6 Deuteride (6LiD) was created, sesame 7363. This EOS was released to the user community under “eos-developmental” as sesame 97363. The construction of this new EOS is a modification of a previously released EOS, sesame 73601. Sesame 7360 is too stiff (5-10% excess pressure) at high compressions and high temperatures (ρ = 4-110g/cm3, T = 30-10,000 eV) compared to orbital-free density-functional theory. Sesame 7363 is softer and gives a better representation of the physics over this range without compromising the agreement with the experimental and simulation data that sesame 7360 was based on.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Ussurian moose, Alces alces cameloides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Jiang, Guangshun

    2016-11-01

    Ussurian moose (Alces alces cameloides) in Northeast China, which is on the southmost edge of the species' Eurasian range, are facing dramatic decline in population size and distribution areas. We undertook the first sequencing of the entire mitogenome of Ussurian moose, which is thought as the oldest moose subspecies to better understand the evolutionary history of this circumboreal sole extant species. The mitogenome is 16,418 bp in length, consisting of two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and one control region. The overall base composition is A: 33.7%, T: 30.1%, C: 23.2%, and G: 13.0%, with a much higher A + T content. The phylogenetic tree of moose and 10 other most closely related Cervidae species was built.

  17. Neutrino dynamics below the electroweak crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiglieri, J.; Laine, M.

    2016-07-12

    We estimate the thermal masses and damping rates of active (m< eV) and sterile (M∼ GeV) neutrinos with thermal momenta k∼3T at temperatures below the electroweak crossover (5 GeV T<30 GeV. Therefore it is challenging to generate a large lepton asymmetry facilitating dark matter computations operating at T<5 GeV, whereas the generation of a baryon asymmetry at T>130 GeV remains an option. Our differential rates are tabulated in a form suitable for studies of specific scenarios with given neutrino Yukawa matrices.

  18. Recovery of Pyruvic Acid using Tri-n-butylamine Dissolved in Non-Toxic Diluent (Rice Bran Oil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Dharm; Keshav, Amit

    2016-04-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate the effectiveness of the vegetable oil based biocompatible solvent for the separation of pyruvic acid from fermentation broth, by using rice bran oil as natural, non-toxic diluent. Reactive extraction of pyruvic acid (0.1-0.5 k mol/m3) from aqueous solutions has been studied using tri-n-butylamine (TBA; 10-70 %) as an extractant dissolved in non toxic rice bran oil at T = 30 ± 1 °C. Results were presented in terms of distribution coefficient (Kd), extraction efficiency (E %), loading ratio (Z), and complexation constant (\\varphi_{α β }). Extraction equilibrium was interpreted using mass action modeling approach. Based on the extent of loading (Z < 0.5) only (1:1), pyruvic acid: TBA complex was proposed. Equilibrium complexation constant was evaluated to 1.22 m3/k mol. Results obtained are useful in understanding the extraction mechanism.

  19. Observations of Soft Gamma Repeaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2004-01-01

    Magnetars (Soft Gamma Repeaters and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars) are a subclass of neutron stars characterized by their recurrent X-ray bursts. While in an active (bursting) state (lasting anywhere between days and years), they are emit&ng hundreds of predominantly soft (kT=30 kev), short (0.1-100 ms long) events. Their quiescent source x-ray light ewes exhibit puhlions rotational period rate changes (spin-down) indicate that their magnetic fields are extremely high, of the order of 10^14- 10^l5 G. Such high B-field objects, dubbed "magnetars", had been predicted to exist in 1992, but the first concrete observational evidence were obtained in 1998 for two of these sources. I will discuss here the history of Soft Gamma Repeaters, and their spectral, timing and flux characteristics both in the persistent and their burst emission.

  20. AFOSR (Air Force Office of Scientific Research) Technical Report Summaries, July-September 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    C) 0 C42 (L L L U I w 17C -- m V. - V2) Wt m 0 10- t/2- .. C4 C0 tL) Lf) ry l L O < CD D 4 > - ri>1 0 0U m -rU CF ~ EV ’U l l -* 3 0 LL) I C 0 0 > 0...C4 C, 71-1 1 u I ’- C- c--L U C fC W M- 11- 41 vw C C, )I P- -D - -,-rZ0 C ) CC0’- L L) M U Z c C- C- 0I trP C0ZO.AZ 0- Pz’U T 30M VL-C a -~.0 c. ɘ

  1. Measurement of the production cross section for Z/γ* in association with jets in pp collisions at s=7TeV with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, D.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Byatt, T.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G. D.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A. M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S. A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Chapman, J. W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavda, V.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S. L.; Chevalier, L.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I. A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciba, K.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M. D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clifft, R. W.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coe, P.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C. D.; Colas, J.; Colijn, A. P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N. J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Consonni, M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crescioli, F.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cuciuc, C.-M.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C. J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czirr, H.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; da Silva, P. V. M.; da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Damiani, D. S.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G. L.; Daum, C.; Dauvergne, J. P.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, A. R.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J. W.; Daya, R. K.; de, K.; de Asmundis, R.; de Castro, S.; de Castro Faria Salgado, P. E.; de Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; de Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; de La Taille, C.; de la Torre, H.; de Lotto, B.; de Mora, L.; de Nooij, L.; de Pedis, D.; de Salvo, A.; de Sanctis, U.; de Santo, A.; de Vivie de Regie, J. B.; Dean, S.; Debbe, R.; Dedovich, D. V.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; Della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delpierre, P.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Devetak, E.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dewilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; di Ciaccio, A.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Girolamo, A.; di Girolamo, B.; di Luise, S.; di Mattia, A.; di Micco, B.; di Nardo, R.; di Simone, A.; di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M. A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Do Vale, M. A. B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T. K. O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobinson, R.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dohmae, T.; Donadelli, M.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dosil, M.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M. T.; Dowell, J. D.; Doxiadis, A. D.; Doyle, A. T.; Drasal, Z.; Drees, J.; Dressnandt, N.; Drevermann, H.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dubbs, T.; Dube, S.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Dührssen, M.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M.-A.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Dydak, F.; Düren, M.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Ebke, J.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C. A.; Edwards, N. 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G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2012-02-01

    Results are presented on the production of jets of particles in association with a Z/γ* boson, in proton-proton collisions at s=7TeV with the ATLAS detector. The analysis includes the full 2010 data set, collected with a low rate of multiple proton-proton collisions in the accelerator, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36pb-1. Inclusive jet cross sections in Z/γ* events, with Z/γ* decaying into electron or muon pairs, are measured for jets with transverse momentum pT>30GeV and jet rapidity |y|<4.4. The measurements are compared to next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD calculations, and to predictions from different Monte Carlo generators implementing leading-order matrix elements supplemented by parton showers.

  2. Design of a 15N Molecular Unit to Achieve Long Retention of Hyperpolarized Spin State

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, Hiroshi; Hirano, Masashi; Imakura, Yuki; Takakusagi, Yoichi; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Sando, Shinsuke

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear hyperpolarization is a phenomenon that can be used to improve the sensitivity of magnetic resonance molecular sensors. However, such sensors typically suffer from short hyperpolarization lifetime. Herein we report that [15N, D14]trimethylphenylammonium (TMPA) has a remarkably long spin–lattice relaxation time (1128 s, 14.1 T, 30 °C, D2O) on its 15N nuclei and achieves a long retention of the hyperpolarized state. [15N, D14]TMPA-based hyperpolarized sensor for carboxylesterase allowed the highly sensitive analysis of enzymatic reaction by 15N NMR for over 40 min in phophate-buffered saline (H2O, pH 7.4, 37 °C). PMID:28067292

  3. A measurement of the ratio of the production cross sections for W and Z bosons in association with jets with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.

    2014-12-02

    In this study, the ratio of the production cross sections for W and Z bosons in association with jets has been measured in proton–proton collisions at √s = 7TeV with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The measurement is based on the entire 2011 dataset, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.6fb–1. Inclusive and differential cross-section ratios for massive vector bosons decaying to electrons and muons are measured in association with jets with transverse momentum pT > 30GeV and jet rapidity |y| < 4.4. The measurements are compared to next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD calculations and to predictions from differentmore » Monte Carlo generators implementing leading-order matrix elements supplemented by parton showers.« less

  4. Methane production from the red seaweed gracilaria tikvahiae

    SciTech Connect

    Hanisak, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    Stable continuous anaerobic digestion of the title seaweed was maintained in large (120 L) digesters for more than 20 months, with an average gas (60% CH4) production of 0.4 L/g volatile solids. The average bioconversion efficiency was approximately 48%. When the retention time, t, was increased (i.e., loading rate decreased) from 10 to 60 days the total production of biogas and CH4 (as well as the percent CH4 and the reduction of total volatile solids) increased to maximum at t = 30 days and decreased at t = 60 days. Biogas and CH4 production on the basis of volatile solids added increased to less than or equal to 60 days, as did the percent volatile solids reduction. The pH in the digesters increased with increasing t.

  5. Design of a 15N Molecular Unit to Achieve Long Retention of Hyperpolarized Spin State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonaka, Hiroshi; Hirano, Masashi; Imakura, Yuki; Takakusagi, Yoichi; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Sando, Shinsuke

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear hyperpolarization is a phenomenon that can be used to improve the sensitivity of magnetic resonance molecular sensors. However, such sensors typically suffer from short hyperpolarization lifetime. Herein we report that [15N, D14]trimethylphenylammonium (TMPA) has a remarkably long spin–lattice relaxation time (1128 s, 14.1 T, 30 °C, D2O) on its 15N nuclei and achieves a long retention of the hyperpolarized state. [15N, D14]TMPA-based hyperpolarized sensor for carboxylesterase allowed the highly sensitive analysis of enzymatic reaction by 15N NMR for over 40 min in phophate-buffered saline (H2O, pH 7.4, 37 °C).

  6. Turn structures in CGRP C-terminal analogues promote stable arrangements of key residue side chains.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, K A; Schmidt, R; von Mentzer, B; Haglund, U; Roberts, E; Walpole, C

    2001-07-27

    The 37-amino acid calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a potent endogenous vasodilator thought to be implicated in the genesis of migraine attack. CGRP antagonists may thus have therapeutic value for the treatment of migraine. The CGRP C-terminally derived peptide [D(31),P(34),F(35)]CGRP(27-37)-NH(2) was recently identified as a high-affinity hCGRP(1) receptor selective antagonist. Reasonable CGRP(1) affinity has also been demonstrated for several related analogues, including [D(31),A(34),F(35)]CGRP(27-37)-NH(2). In the study presented here, conformational and structural features in CGRP(27-37)-NH(2) analogues that are important for hCGRP(1) receptor binding were explored. Structure-activity studies carried out on [D(31),P(34),F(35)]CGRP(27-37)-NH(2) resulted in [D(31),P(34),F(35)]CGRP(30-37)-NH(2), the shortest reported CGRP C-terminal peptide analogue exhibiting reasonable hCGRP(1) receptor affinity (K(i) = 29.6 nM). Further removal of T(30) from the peptide's N-terminus greatly reduced receptor affinity from the nanomolar to micromolar range. Additional residues deemed critical for hCGRP(1) receptor binding were identified from an alanine scan of [A(34),F(35)]CGRP(28-37)-NH(2) and included V(32) and F(37). Replacement of the C-terminal amide in this same peptide with a carboxyl, furthermore, resulted in a greater than 50-fold reduction in hCGRP(1) affinity, thus suggesting a direct role for the amide moiety in receptor binding. The conformational properties of two classes of CGRP(27-37)-NH(2) peptides, [D(31),X(34),F(35)]CGRP(27-37)-NH(2) (X is A or P), were examined by NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling. A beta-turn centered on P(29) was a notable feature consistently observed among active peptides in both series. This turn led to exposure of the critical T(30) residue to the surrounding environment. Peptides in the A(34) series were additionally characterized by a stable C-terminal helical turn that resulted in the three important residues (T(30), V

  7. Equipment Model for the Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of Polysilicon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    sir3Oll, del X1301), max-del-si, max-delX; doL’)-le lpt, tl, opt, tc, apt, te; doucle ).±’ etica (), injectionV () ,I itg,.uessO velocityO conv-dif fO...r(3011; double dal-si[3011, kl(3011. Ks(3011, Xh[3011, D(301), Ct*3t(30l1; /* n: #of nodes; sill: ’old’ value of the potential, which is actually the...Silane, which is actually the ’guessed’ X() for the first iteration. On return of ’cony diffo’, X(I carries the ’new’ values of Silane concenitration

  8. Results of the liquid scintillation detector of the Mont Blanc Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglietta, M.; Badino, G.; Bologna, G. F.; Castagnoli, C.; Fulgione, W.

    1986-04-01

    Preliminary results research on collapsing-star neutrino bursts and cosmic-ray muons, obtained using the 90-ton 72 element liquid-scintillation detector (LSD) at Mt. Blanc Laboratory since October 1984, are presented in tables and graphs and characterized. The theoretically expected energy and time values for neutrinos from collapsing stars of 2 solar mass are calculated, and it is shown that no burst with multiplicity 6 or greater and Delta t 30 s or less was detected in 4 mo of LSD live time, corresponding to a preliminary upper limit of 3/yr for Galactic stellar collapses. About 3 muons/h crossing at least two counters were observed, and detection of aobut 700 muon bundles per year of multiplicity 2 or greater or 90 bundles per year of multiplicity 3 or greater is predicted. The possible use of the LSD to search for nucleon instability (proton decay into muons) is considered.

  9. Influence of seminal plasma on cryopreservation of human spermatozoa in a biological material-free medium: study of normal and low-quality semen.

    PubMed

    Grizard, G; Chevalier, V; Griveau, J F; Le Lannou, D; Boucher, D

    1999-06-01

    The objective was to evaluate the efficiency of a biological material-free medium and the role of seminal plasma (SP) in the cryopreservation of human spermatozoa. Normal semen samples and low-quality semen samples were used for this study. After centrifugation of 300 microL fractions of whole semen, pellets were resuspended either in autologous SP or in a chemically defined medium (BM) supplemented or not with 3% bovine serum albumin (BSA); after 15 min at 37 degrees C, the samples were diluted (V/V) with cryoprotective medium (30 mM NaCl; 22 mM sodium citrate, 19.4 mM fructose; 80 mM glutamine; 14%, V/V, glycerol) and maintained for 15 min at room temperature before freezing. Assessment of viability and motility was performed using fresh semen (T0), after centrifugation and resuspension prior to adding the cryoprotectant (T15), after adding the cryoprotectant (T30) and after freezing and thawing (Tpost). In all three resuspending media used, sperm viability and motility (forward and total) decreased (p < 0.05) during both the equilibration period especially before addition of the cryoprotective medium (between T0 and T15) and during the freeze-thaw process comparison between T30 and Tpost. The recovery of viable and motile spermatozoa (post-thaw values/values of fresh samples) was higher (p < 0.05) in normal semen than in low-quality semen. In both groups, the recovery was slightly, but significantly, higher with SP than with BM and the presence of BSA has no beneficial effect. To conclude, these data suggest that SP may reduce the deleterious effects of cryopreservation. Nevertheless cryopreservation of spermatozoa in a medium containing neither SP nor biological substances could offer an acceptable cryoprotection of spermatozoa to be used in assisted fertilization procedures, especially for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  10. Phagocytosis by Acanthamoeba castellanii: ionic strength dependence of the probability of cell attachment; ingestion and contact seam morphology.

    PubMed

    Obaray, N; Coakley, W T.

    2001-10-01

    The phagocytosis of glutaraldehyde-fixed horse erythrocytes by Acanthamoeba castellanii has been examined in iso-osmolal phosphate buffered saline/sucrose suspending phases of ionic strength, I, ranging from 0.17 to 0.0017. The erythrocytes were exposed, at a ratio of 15:1, to 5x10(6) amoeba in 0.2 ml volumes. The average number of erythrocytes forming a contact with an amoeba over 30 min (T(30)) was well described by T(30)=5.2 exp(-0.112xI(-0.5)). The index of the exponential 'probability of attachment' term may also be expressed in terms of either surface potential (psi(0)) or the Debye length (kappa(-1)). The probability term is formally similar to a Bolzmann factor. Electron microscopy showed that contact spreading of the amoeba over the erythrocyte took place by formation of discrete contacts and that the lateral separation distance between contacts was 0.66, 1.36 and 1.59 &mgr;m for ionic strengths 0.17, 0.052 and 0.0017, respectively. The direction of change in lateral contact separation distance was consistent with published changes in focal contact separation when amoeba move over glass or when human erythrocyte-erythrocyte adhesion occurs in different ionic strength media. The direction was also consistent with interfacial instability theory predictions for the dependence of localised membrane contact formation on interaction potential. The proportion of attached cells that were subsequently ingested correlated more strongly with the number of contacts formed along the cell-cell contact region (seam) than with the seam length at different ionic strengths.

  11. Jet energy scale and resolution in the CMS experiment in pp collisions at 8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; Damiao, D. De Jesus; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; De Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Mohammed, Y.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schwandt, J.; Seidel, M.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Frensch, F.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hazi, A.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nishu, N.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutta, S.; Jain, Sa.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Chowdhury, S. Roy; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Mahakud, B.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sarkar, T.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Sharma, S.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Khakzad, M.; Najafabadi, M. Mohammadi; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Viliani, L.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Brianza, L.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Di Guida, S.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bellato, M.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Fanzago, F.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gonella, F.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Maron, G.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Tosi, M.; Vanini, S.; Ventura, S.; Zanetti, M.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D'imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. 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G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Verzetti, M.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2017-02-01

    Improved jet energy scale corrections, based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1 collected by the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, are presented. The corrections as a function of pseudorapidity η and transverse momentum pT are extracted from data and simulated events combining several channels and methods. They account successively for the effects of pileup, uniformity of the detector response, and residual data-simulation jet energy scale differences. Further corrections, depending on the jet flavor and distance parameter (jet size) R, are also presented. The jet energy resolution is measured in data and simulated events and is studied as a function of pileup, jet size, and jet flavor. Typical jet energy resolutions at the central rapidities are 15–20% at 30 GeV, about 10% at 100 GeV, and 5% at 1 TeV. The studies exploit events with dijet topology, as well as photon+jet, Z+jet and multijet events. Several new techniques are used to account for the various sources of jet energy scale corrections, and a full set of uncertainties, and their correlations, are provided.The final uncertainties on the jet energy scale are below 3% across the phase space considered by most analyses (pT>30 GeV and 0| η| <5.). In the barrel region (| η| <1.3) an uncertainty below 1% for pT>30 GeV is reached, when excluding the jet flavor uncertainties, which are provided separately for different jet flavors. A new benchmark for jet energy scale determination at hadron colliders is achieved with 0.32% uncertainty for jets with \\pt of the order of 165–330\\GeV, and | η| <0.8.

  12. Transcutaneous spinal cord direct current stimulation inhibits the lower limb nociceptive flexion reflex in human beings.

    PubMed

    Cogiamanian, Filippo; Vergari, Maurizio; Schiaffi, Elena; Marceglia, Sara; Ardolino, Gianluca; Barbieri, Sergio; Priori, Alberto

    2011-02-01

    Aiming at developing a new, noninvasive approach to spinal cord neuromodulation, we evaluated whether transcutaneous direct current (DC) stimulation induces long-lasting changes in the central pain pathways in human beings. A double-blind crossover design was used to investigate the effects of anodal direct current (2mA, 15min) applied on the skin overlying the thoracic spinal cord on the lower-limb flexion reflex in a group of 11 healthy volunteers. To investigate whether transcutaneous spinal cord DC stimulation (tsDCS) acts indirectly on the nociceptive reflex by modulating excitability in mono-oligosynaptic segmental reflex pathways, we also evaluated the H-reflex size from soleus muscle after tibial nerve stimulation. In our healthy subjects, anodal thoracic tsDCS reduced the total lower-limb flexion reflex area by 40.25% immediately after stimulation (T0) and by 46.9% 30min after stimulation offset (T30). When we analyzed the 2 lower-limb flexion reflex components (RII tactile and RIII nociceptive) separately, we found that anodal tsDCS induced a significant reduction in RIII area with a slight but not significant effect on RII area. After anodal tsDCS, the RIII area decreased by 27% at T0 and by 28% at T30. Both sham and active tsDCS left all the tested H-reflex variables unchanged. None of our subjects reported adverse effects after active stimulation. These results suggest that tsDCS holds promise as a tool that is complementary or alternative to drugs and invasive spinal cord electrical stimulation for managing pain. Thoracic transcutaneous direct current stimulation induces depression of nociceptive lower limb flexion reflex in human beings that persists after stimulation offset; this form of stimulation holds promise as a tool that is complementary or alternative to drugs and invasive spinal cord electrical stimulation for managing pain.

  13. Evolution of Determinant Factors of Repeated Sprint Ability.

    PubMed

    Pareja-Blanco, Fernando; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Rodríguez-Rosell, David; López-Segovia, Manuel; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Bachero-Mena, Beatriz; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the relationships between repeated sprint ability (RSA) and anthropometric measures as well as fitness qualities in soccer players. Twenty-one professional soccer players performed several anthropometric and physical tests including countermovement vertical jumps (CMJs), a straight-line 30 m sprint (T30), an RSA test (6 x 20 + 20 m with 20 s recovery), a progressive isoinertial loading test in a full squat, a Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level-1 (YYIRT-1) and a 20 m shuttle run test (20mSRT). The mean (RSAmean), the fastest (RSAbest), each single sprint time, and the percentage in a sprint decrease (%Dec) in the RSA test were calculated. RSAbest correlated significantly with RSAmean (r = .82) and with all single sprints (p < 0.05), showing a downward trend as the number of sprints performed increased. No significant relationship was observed between the %Dec and RSA performance. CMJs and the T30 also showed a correlation with RSA performance, whereas lower limb strength did not show any relationship with RSA performance. RSAmean showed significant (p < 0.05) relationships with body mass (r = .44), adiposity (r = .59) and the YYIRT-1 (r = -.62), increasing as the number of repeated sprints increased. The 20mSRT showed minimal relationships with RSA performance. In conclusion, maximal sprint capacity seems to be relevant for the RSA performance, mainly in the first sprints. However, high intermittent endurance capacity and low adiposity might help enhance the RSA performance when increasing the number of repeated sprints.

  14. Biological monitoring and questionnaire for assessing exposure to ethylenebisdithiocarbamates in a multicenter European field study.

    PubMed

    Fustinoni, S; Campo, L; Liesivuori, J; Pennanen, S; Vergieva, T; van Amelsvoort, Lgpm; Bosetti, C; Van Loveren, H; Colosio, C

    2008-09-01

    This study deals with pesticide exposure profile in some European countries with a specific focus on ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDC). In all, 55 Bulgarian greenhouse workers, 51 Finnish potato farmers, 48 Italian vineyard workers, 42 Dutch floriculture farmers, and 52 Bulgarian zineb producers entered the study. Each group was matched with a group of not occupationally exposed subjects. Exposure data were gained through self-administered questionnaires and measuring ethylenethiourea (ETU) in two spot urine samples collected, respectively, before the beginning of seasonal exposure (T0), and after 30 days, at the end of the exposure period (T30). Controls underwent a similar protocol. Study agriculture workers were involved in mixing and loading pesticides, application of pesticide mixture with mechanical or manual equipments, re-entry activities, and cleaning equipments. Chemical workers were involved in synthesis, quality controls, and packing activities. The number of pesticides to whom these subjects were exposed varied from one (zineb production) to eight (potato farmers). The use of personal protective devices was variegate and regarded both aerial and dermal penetration routes. EBDC exposure, assessed by T30 urinary ETU, was found to follow the order: greenhouse workers, zineb producers, vineyard workers, potato farmers, floriculture farmers with median levels of 49.6, 23.0, 11.8, 7.5, and 0.9 microg/g creatinine; the last group having ETU at the same level of controls (approximately 0.5 microg/g creatinine). Among agriculture workers, pesticide application, especially using manual equipment, seems to be the major determinant in explaining internal dose. Although the analysis of self-administered questionnaires evidenced difficulties especially related to lack and/or poor quality of reported data, biological monitoring confirms to be a powerful tool in assessing pesticide exposure.

  15. Jet energy scale and resolution in the CMS experiment in pp collisions at 8 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; ...

    2017-02-22

    Improved jet energy scale corrections, based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fbmore » $$^{-1}$$ collected by the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, are presented. The corrections as a function of pseudorapidity $$\\eta$$ and transverse momentum $$p_{\\mathrm{T}}$$ are extracted from data and simulated events combining several channels and methods. They account successively for the effects of pileup, uniformity of the detector response, and residual data-simulation jet energy scale differences. Further corrections, depending on the jet flavor and distance parameter (jet size) $R$, are also presented. The jet energy resolution is measured in data and simulated events and is studied as a function of pileup, jet size, and jet flavor. Typical jet energy resolutions at the central rapidities are 15-20% at 30 GeV, about 10% at 100 GeV, and 5% at 1 TeV. The studies exploit events with dijet topology, as well as photon+jet, Z+jet and multijet events. Several new techniques are used to account for the various sources of jet energy scale corrections, and a full set of uncertainties, and their correlations, are provided.The final uncertainties on the jet energy scale are below 3% across the phase space considered by most analyses ($$p_{\\mathrm{T}}> $$ 30 GeV and $$| \\eta| < $$ 5.0). In the barrel region ($$| \\eta| < $$ 1.3) an uncertainty below 1% for $$p_{\\mathrm{T}}> $$ 30 GeV is reached, when excluding the jet flavor uncertainties, which are provided separately for different jet flavors. Finally, a new benchmark for jet energy scale determination at hadron colliders is achieved with 0.32% uncertainty for jets with $$p_{\\mathrm{T}}$$ of the order of 165-330 GeV, and $$| \\eta| < $$ 0.8.« less

  16. Adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of dyes on polyacrylamide/calcium alginate/TiO2 composite film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shuxin; Zhao, Kongyin; Zhang, Xinxin; Fu, Yifan; Li, Zhihui; Xu, Sai; Wei, Junfu

    2015-03-01

    A casting solution was prepared by dispersing titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in the sodium alginate and acrylamide aqueous solution. The casting solution was spread on a glass plate by a glass rod enlaced with brass wires to control the thickness of the sticky solution. Then polyacrylamide/calcium alginate/TiO2 (PAM/CA/T) composite film was obtained after UV irradiation and cross-linking by CaCl2. The PAM/CA/T film was characterized by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The PAM/CA/T film had good strength and toughness. And they did not rupture after swelling in 5 wt.% NaCl solution and still had good mechanical properties. The adsorption properties of the PAM/CA/T film were investigated by using different dyes as the adsorbates. The photocatalytic degradation properties of these dyes on the PAM/CA/T films were also researched. The results indicated that there was no difference in the adsorption efficiency of PAM/CA film and PAM/CA/T-30 film. The adsorption rates of all the dyes were fast. The pre-adsorption of dyes had little effect on the catalytic degradation of dyes on PAM/CA/T film. The PAM/CA/T hydrogel film provided a suitable carrier for TiO2 in the photocatalytic degradation of dyes and the degradation efficiency of PAM/CA/T-30 film for methyl orange reached 80.76%. The PAM/CA/T film had good reusability and could degrade dyes in NaCl solution.

  17. Evolution of Determinant Factors of Repeated Sprint Ability

    PubMed Central

    Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Rodríguez-Rosell, David; López-Segovia, Manuel; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Bachero-Mena, Beatriz; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the relationships between repeated sprint ability (RSA) and anthropometric measures as well as fitness qualities in soccer players. Twenty-one professional soccer players performed several anthropometric and physical tests including countermovement vertical jumps (CMJs), a straight-line 30 m sprint (T30), an RSA test (6 x 20 + 20 m with 20 s recovery), a progressive isoinertial loading test in a full squat, a Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level-1 (YYIRT-1) and a 20 m shuttle run test (20mSRT). The mean (RSAmean), the fastest (RSAbest), each single sprint time, and the percentage in a sprint decrease (%Dec) in the RSA test were calculated. RSAbest correlated significantly with RSAmean (r = .82) and with all single sprints (p < 0.05), showing a downward trend as the number of sprints performed increased. No significant relationship was observed between the %Dec and RSA performance. CMJs and the T30 also showed a correlation with RSA performance, whereas lower limb strength did not show any relationship with RSA performance. RSAmean showed significant (p < 0.05) relationships with body mass (r = .44), adiposity (r = .59) and the YYIRT-1 (r = -.62), increasing as the number of repeated sprints increased. The 20mSRT showed minimal relationships with RSA performance. In conclusion, maximal sprint capacity seems to be relevant for the RSA performance, mainly in the first sprints. However, high intermittent endurance capacity and low adiposity might help enhance the RSA performance when increasing the number of repeated sprints. PMID:28031763

  18. CO-dark gas and molecular filaments in Milky Way-type galaxies - II. The temperature distribution of the gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Simon C. O.; Smith, Rowan J.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the temperature distribution of CO-dark molecular hydrogen (H2) in a series of disc galaxies simulated using the AREPO moving-mesh code. In conditions similar to those in the Milky Way, we find that H2 has a flat temperature distribution ranging from 10 to 100 K. At T < 30 K, the gas is almost fully molecular and has a high CO content, whereas at T > 30 K, the H2 fraction spans a broader range and the CO content is small, allowing us to classify gas in these two regimes as CO-bright and CO-dark, respectively. The mean sound speed in the CO-dark H2 is cs, dark = 0.64 km s-1, significantly lower than the value in the cold atomic gas (cs, CNM = 1.15 km s-1), implying that the CO-dark molecular phase is more susceptible to turbulent compression and gravitational collapse than its atomic counterpart. We further show that the temperature of the CO-dark H2 is highly sensitive to the strength of the interstellar radiation field, but that conditions in the CO-bright H2 remain largely unchanged. Finally, we examine the usefulness of the [C II] and [O I] fine-structure lines as tracers of the CO-dark gas. We show that in Milky Way-like conditions, diffuse [C II] emission from this gas should be detectable. However, it is a problematic tracer of this gas, as there is only a weak correlation between the brightness of the emission and the H2 surface density. The situation is even worse for the [O I] line, which shows no correlation with the H2 surface density.

  19. Transcutaneous trigeminal nerve stimulation induces a long-term depression-like plasticity of the human blink reflex.

    PubMed

    Pilurzi, Giovanna; Mercante, Beniamina; Ginatempo, Francesca; Follesa, Paolo; Tolu, Eusebio; Deriu, Franca

    2016-02-01

    The beneficial effects of trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS) on several neurological disorders are increasingly acknowledged. Hypothesized mechanisms include the modulation of excitability in networks involved by the disease, and its main site of action has been recently reported at brain stem level. Aim of this work was to test whether acute TNS modulates brain stem plasticity using the blink reflex (BR) as a model. The BR was recorded from 20 healthy volunteers before and after 20 min of cyclic transcutaneous TNS delivered bilaterally to the infraorbital nerve. Eleven subjects underwent sham-TNS administration and were compared to the real-TNS group. In 12 subjects, effects of unilateral TNS were tested. The areas of the R1 and R2 components of the BR were recorded before and after 0 (T0), 15 (T15), 30 (T30), and 45 (T45) min from TNS. In three subjects, T60 and T90 time points were also evaluated. Ipsi- and contralateral R2 areas were significantly suppressed after bilateral real-TNS at T15 (p = 0.013), T30 (p = 0.002), and T45 (p = 0.001), while R1 response appeared unaffected. The TNS-induced inhibitory effect on R2 responses lasted up to 60 min. Real- and sham-TNS protocols produced significantly different effects (p = 0.005), with sham-TNS being ineffective at any time point tested. Bilateral TNS was more effective (p = 0.009) than unilateral TNS. Acute TNS induced a bilateral long-lasting inhibition of the R2 component of the BR, which resembles a long-term depression-like effect, providing evidence of brain stem plasticity produced by transcutaneous TNS. These findings add new insight into mechanisms of TNS neuromodulation and into physiopathology of those neurological disorders where clinical benefits of TNS are recognized.

  20. Jet energy scale and resolution in the CMS experiment in pp collisions at 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2016-07-13

    Improved jet energy scale corrections, based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb$^{-1}$ collected by the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, are presented. The corrections as a function of pseudorapidity $\\eta$ and transverse momentum $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ are extracted from data and simulated events combining several channels and methods. They account successively for the effects of pileup, uniformity of the detector response, and residual data-simulation jet energy scale differences. Further corrections, depending on the jet flavor and distance parameter (jet size) $R$, are also presented. The jet energy resolution is measured in data and simulated events and is studied as a function of pileup, jet size, and jet flavor. Typical jet energy resolutions at the central rapidities are 15-20% at 30 GeV, about 10% at 100 GeV, and 5% at 1 TeV. The studies exploit events with dijet topology, as well as photon+jet, Z+jet and multijet events. Several new techniques are used to account for the various sources of jet energy scale corrections, and a full set of uncertainties, and their correlations, are provided.The final uncertainties on the jet energy scale are below 3% across the phase space considered by most analyses ($p_{\\mathrm{T}}> $ 30 GeV and $| \\eta| < $ 5.0). In the barrel region ($| \\eta| < $ 1.3) an uncertainty below 1% for $p_{\\mathrm{T}}> $ 30 GeV is reached, when excluding the jet flavor uncertainties, which are provided separately for different jet flavors. A new benchmark for jet energy scale determination at hadron colliders is achieved with 0.32% uncertainty for jets with $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ of the order of 165-330 GeV, and $| \\eta| < $ 0.8.

  1. Baseline plasma corticosterone, haematological and biochemical results in nesting and rehabilitating loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Flower, Jennifer E; Norton, Terry M; Andrews, Kimberly M; Nelson, Steven E; Parker, Clare E; Romero, L Michael; Mitchell, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of hormonal responses to stress in reptiles relies on acquisition of baseline corticosterone concentrations; however, the stress associated with the restraint needed to collect the blood samples can affect the results. The purpose of this study was to determine a time limit for the collection of blood samples to evaluate baseline corticosterone, haematological and biochemical results in nesting (n = 11) and rehabilitating (n = 16) loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). Blood samples were collected from the dorsal cervical sinus of each turtle immediately after touching the animal (t 0; 0-3 min) and 3 (t 3; 3-6 min), 6 (t 6; 6-9 min; nesting turtles only), 10 (t 10; 10-13 min) and 30 min (t 30; rehabilitating turtles only) after the initial hands-on time. Consistent between the rehabilitating and nesting turtles, there was a subtle yet significant increase in white blood cell counts over time. Despite the fact that white blood cell counts increased during the sampling period, there was no direct correlation between white blood cell count and corticosterone in the sampled turtles. In the nesting turtles, significant elevations in corticosterone were noted between t 0 and t 3 (P = 0.014) and between t 0 and t 6 (P = 0.022). Values at t 10 were not significantly different from those at t 0 (P = 0.102); however, there was a trend for the corticosterone values to continue to increase. These results suggest that sampling of nesting loggerhead sea turtles within 3 min of handling will provide baseline corticosterone concentrations in their natural environment. Significant elevations in corticosterone were also noted in the rehabilitating loggerhead sea turtles between t 0 and t 10 (P = 0.02) and between t 0 and t 30 of sampling (P = 0.0001). These results suggest that sampling of loggerhead sea turtles within 6 min of handling should provide baseline corticosterone concentrations in a rehabilitation setting. The

  2. Relationship Between Repeated Sprint Performance and both Aerobic and Anaerobic Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Dardouri, Wajdi; Selmi, Mohamed Amin; Sassi, Radhouane Haj; Gharbi, Zied; Rebhi, Ahmed; Yahmed, Mohamed Haj; Moalla, Wassim

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were firstly, to examine the relationship between repeated sprint performance indices and anaerobic speed reserve (AnSR), aerobic fitness and anaerobic power and secondly, to identify the best predictors of sprinting ability among these parameters. Twenty nine subjects (age: 22.5 ± 1.6 years, body height: 1.8 ± 0.1 m, body mass: 68.8 ± 8.5 kg, body mass index (BMI): 22.2 ± 2.1 kg•m-2, fat mass: 11.3 ± 2.9 %) participated in this study. All participants performed a 30 m sprint test (T30) from which we calculated the maximal anaerobic speed (MAnS), vertical and horizontal jumps, 20m multi-stage shuttle run test (MSRT) and repeated sprint test (10 × 15 m shuttle run). AnSR was calculated as the difference between MAnS and the maximal speed reached in the MSRT. Blood lactate sampling was performed 3 min after the RSA protocol. There was no significant correlation between repeated sprint indices (total time (TT); peak time (PT), fatigue index (FI)) and both estimated VO2max and vertical jump performance). TT and PT were significantly correlated with T30 (r=0.63, p=0.001 and r=0.62, p=0.001; respectively), horizontal jump performance (r = −0.47, p = 0.001 and r = −0.49, p = 0.006; respectively) and AnSR (r=−0.68, p= 0.001 and r=−0.70, p=0.001, respectively). Significant correlations were found between blood lactate concentration and TT, PT, and AnSR (r=−0.44, p=0.017; r=−0.43, p=0.018 and r=0.44, p=0.016; respectively). Stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that AnSR was the only significant predictor of the TT and PT, explaining 47% and 50% of the shared variance, respectively. Our findings are of particular interest for coaches and fitness trainers in order to predict repeated sprint performance by using AnSR that can easily identify the respective upper performance limits supported by aerobic and anaerobic power of a player involved in multi-sprint team sports. PMID:25031682

  3. Nonlinear effects on western boundary current structure and separation: a laboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierini, S.; Falco, P.; Zambardino, G.; McClimans, T. A.; Ellingsen, I.

    2009-04-01

    The role played by nonlinear effects in shaping the structure of barotropic western boundary currents (WBCs) and in determining WBC separation from the coast has been investigated through laboratory simulations by means of the 5-m-diameter Coriolis rotating basin at SINTEF (Trondheim, Norway) in the framework of the HYDRALAB-III project. The laboratory setup consists of two parallel rectangular channels separated by an island and linked by two curved connections: in the first channel, a piston is forced at a constant speed U ranging from 0.05 to 3 cm/s over a distance of 2.5 m, producing a virtually unsheared current at the entrance of the second channel. In the latter, a linear reduction of the water depth provides the topographic beta-effect that produces the westward intensification. Nearly steady currents are obtained and measured photogrammetrically over a region of about 1 m2. The broad range of piston speeds permitted by the mechanical apparatus has allowed us to achieve an unprecedented coverage of the range of nonlinearity for WBCs in terms of experimental data, so that the cross-stream WBC profile could be analyzed from the nearly linear Munk-type case (e.g., for U=0.1 cm/s with T=30 s, where T is the rotation period of the basin) up to the more realistic highly nonlinear limit (particularly significant is the case U=1 cm/s and T=30 s, which is close to be dynamically similar to the Gulf Stream). Thanks to the large size of the rotating basin, cross-stream widths of the simulated WBC as large as 80 cm could be obtained. Moreover, in order to analyze the process of WBC separation, coastal variations have been introduced along the western boundary in the form of wedge-shaped continents with different coastline orientations, whose northern limit corresponds to an idealized Cape Hatteras. While weak WBCs follow the coast also past the cape, for sufficiently strong nonlinear effects the current detaches from the coast as a consequence of flow deceleration

  4. Relationship Between Repeated Sprint Performance and both Aerobic and Anaerobic Fitness.

    PubMed

    Dardouri, Wajdi; Selmi, Mohamed Amin; Sassi, Radhouane Haj; Gharbi, Zied; Rebhi, Ahmed; Yahmed, Mohamed Haj; Moalla, Wassim

    2014-03-27

    The aims of this study were firstly, to examine the relationship between repeated sprint performance indices and anaerobic speed reserve (AnSR), aerobic fitness and anaerobic power and secondly, to identify the best predictors of sprinting ability among these parameters. Twenty nine subjects (age: 22.5 ± 1.6 years, body height: 1.8 ± 0.1 m, body mass: 68.8 ± 8.5 kg, body mass index (BMI): 22.2 ± 2.1 kg•m-2, fat mass: 11.3 ± 2.9 %) participated in this study. All participants performed a 30 m sprint test (T30) from which we calculated the maximal anaerobic speed (MAnS), vertical and horizontal jumps, 20m multi-stage shuttle run test (MSRT) and repeated sprint test (10 × 15 m shuttle run). AnSR was calculated as the difference between MAnS and the maximal speed reached in the MSRT. Blood lactate sampling was performed 3 min after the RSA protocol. There was no significant correlation between repeated sprint indices (total time (TT); peak time (PT), fatigue index (FI)) and both estimated VO2max and vertical jump performance). TT and PT were significantly correlated with T30 (r=0.63, p=0.001 and r=0.62, p=0.001; respectively), horizontal jump performance (r = -0.47, p = 0.001 and r = -0.49, p = 0.006; respectively) and AnSR (r=-0.68, p= 0.001 and r=-0.70, p=0.001, respectively). Significant correlations were found between blood lactate concentration and TT, PT, and AnSR (r=-0.44, p=0.017; r=-0.43, p=0.018 and r=0.44, p=0.016; respectively). Stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that AnSR was the only significant predictor of the TT and PT, explaining 47% and 50% of the shared variance, respectively. Our findings are of particular interest for coaches and fitness trainers in order to predict repeated sprint performance by using AnSR that can easily identify the respective upper performance limits supported by aerobic and anaerobic power of a player involved in multi-sprint team sports.

  5. N2O emission from urine in the soil in the beef production in Southeast Brazil: soil moisture content and temperature effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões Barneze, Arlete; Mancebo Mazzetto, Andre; Fernandes Zani, Caio; Siqueira Neto, Marcos; Clemente Cerri, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Pasture expansion in Brazil has shown an increase in 4.5% per year, and a total cattle herd of about 200 millions in 2010. Associated to animal husbandry there are emissions of N2O (nitrous oxide) and other gases to the atmosphere. The liquid manure contributes to emitte 5% of the total N2O emissions. The urea content of cattle urine will readily hydrolyze to form ammonium after deposition to the soil. Nitrous oxide may then be emitted through the microbiological processes of nitrification and denitrification. Important factors can influence on these processes and consequently in nitrous oxide emissions, as soil water content and temperature (Bolan et al., 2004; Luo et al., 2008). The main goal of this research was to determine the soil water content and temperature influence on N2O emissions from urine depositions on the soil. In order to achieve the objective, soil incubation experiment was conducted in laboratory conditions at three levels of water-filled pore space (40%, 60% and 80% WFPS) and two temperatures (25ºC and 35ºC) with and without urine, with five replicates each. The soil used in this study was collected from the 0-10 cm layer of a grassland field in Southeast of Brazil and classified as Nitisols. For each measurement, the Kilner jar was hermetically sealed by replacing the lid and a first gas sample was immediately taken (time-zero, t0 sample) using a syringe and stored in a pre-evacuated gas vial. After 30 minutes the headspace of each jar was sampled again (time-thirty, t_30 sample). The lids were then removed and kept off until the next sampling day. Nitrous oxide concentrations in the sampled air were measured using a SRI Gas Chromatograph (Model 8610C). Gas fluxes were calculated by fitting linear regressions through the data collected at t0 and t_30 and were corrected for temperature and amount of soil incubated. Gas measurements were carried out up to 55 days. To determine the statistical significance, Tukey tests were carried out at 0

  6. Baseline plasma corticosterone, haematological and biochemical results in nesting and rehabilitating loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta)

    PubMed Central

    Flower, Jennifer E.; Norton, Terry M.; Andrews, Kimberly M.; Nelson, Steven E.; Parker, Clare E.; Romero, L. Michael; Mitchell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of hormonal responses to stress in reptiles relies on acquisition of baseline corticosterone concentrations; however, the stress associated with the restraint needed to collect the blood samples can affect the results. The purpose of this study was to determine a time limit for the collection of blood samples to evaluate baseline corticosterone, haematological and biochemical results in nesting (n = 11) and rehabilitating (n = 16) loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). Blood samples were collected from the dorsal cervical sinus of each turtle immediately after touching the animal (t0; 0–3 min) and 3 (t3; 3–6 min), 6 (t6; 6–9 min; nesting turtles only), 10 (t10; 10–13 min) and 30 min (t30; rehabilitating turtles only) after the initial hands-on time. Consistent between the rehabilitating and nesting turtles, there was a subtle yet significant increase in white blood cell counts over time. Despite the fact that white blood cell counts increased during the sampling period, there was no direct correlation between white blood cell count and corticosterone in the sampled turtles. In the nesting turtles, significant elevations in corticosterone were noted between t0 and t3 (P = 0.014) and between t0 and t6 (P = 0.022). Values at t10 were not significantly different from those at t0 (P = 0.102); however, there was a trend for the corticosterone values to continue to increase. These results suggest that sampling of nesting loggerhead sea turtles within 3 min of handling will provide baseline corticosterone concentrations in their natural environment. Significant elevations in corticosterone were also noted in the rehabilitating loggerhead sea turtles between t0 and t10 (P = 0.02) and between t0 and t30 of sampling (P = 0.0001). These results suggest that sampling of loggerhead sea turtles within 6 min of handling should provide baseline corticosterone concentrations in a rehabilitation setting. The delay in

  7. Nuclear structure of 30S and its implications for nucleosynthesis in classical novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setoodehnia, K.; Chen, A. A.; Kahl, D.; Komatsubara, T.; José, J.; Longland, R.; Abe, Y.; Binh, D. N.; Chen, J.; Cherubini, S.; Clark, J. A.; Deibel, C. M.; Fukuoka, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayakawa, T.; Hendriks, J.; Ishibashi, Y.; Ito, Y.; Kubono, S.; Lennard, W. N.; Moriguchi, T.; Nagae, D.; Nishikiori, R.; Niwa, T.; Ozawa, A.; Parker, P. D.; Seiler, D.; Shizuma, T.; Suzuki, H.; Wrede, C.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yuasa, T.

    2013-06-01

    Background: The uncertainty in the 29P(p,γ)30S reaction rate over 0.1 ≤ T ≤ 1.3 GK was previously determined to span approximately four orders of magnitude due to the uncertain location of two previously unobserved 3+ and 2+ resonances in the Ex=4.7-4.8 MeV region in 30S. Therefore, the abundances of silicon isotopes synthesized in novae, which are relevant for the identification of presolar grains of putative nova origin, were uncertain by a factor of 3.Purpose: (a) To investigate the level structure of 30S above the proton threshold [4394.9(7) keV] via charged-particle spectroscopy using the 32S(p,t)30S reaction and in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy using the 28Si(3He, nγ)30S reaction to calculate the 29P(p,γ)30S reaction rate. (b) To explore the impact of this rate on the abundances of silicon isotopes synthesized in novae.Methods: Differential cross sections of the 32S(p,t)30S reaction were measured at 34.5 MeV. Distorted-wave Born approximation calculations were performed to constrain the spin-parity assignments of the observed levels, including the two astrophysically important levels. An energy-level scheme was deduced from γ-γ coincidence measurements using the 28Si(3He, nγ)30S reaction. Spin-parity assignments based on measurements of γ-ray angular distributions and γ-γ directional correlation from oriented nuclei were made for most of the observed levels of 30S.Results: The resonance energies corresponding to the states with 4.5 MeV ≲ Ex ≲ 6 MeV, including the two astrophysically important states predicted previously, are measured with significantly better precision than before. The spin-parity assignments of both astrophysically important resonances are confirmed. The uncertainty in the rate of the 29P(p,γ)30S reaction is substantially reduced over the temperature range of interest. Finally, the influence of this rate on the abundance ratios of silicon isotopes synthesized in novae are obtained via 1D hydrodynamic nova simulations

  8. The aluminum phosphate zone in the Peace River area, land-pebble phosphate field, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, James B.

    1953-01-01

    The Peace River area, comprising T. 30 and 31 S., R. 24 and 25 E., contains a thicker and more persistent aluminum phosphate zone, and one that is higher in P2O5 and uranium content than is known elsewhere in the land-pebble phosphate district. This report has been prepared to bring together all of the information on the aluminum phosphate zone in the area where the first plant to treat this material will probably be located. The area may be divided into three physiographic units, (1) the ridge, (2) the flatwoods, and (3) the valley. Maps showing distribution and grade of the aluminum phosphate zone indicate that the zone is thin or absent in the ridge unit, thickest and most persistent, and of the best grade in P2O5 and uranium in the flatwoods unit, and absent or very low in grade in the valley unit. Maps of thickness and of chemical composition show that even in favorable areas there are places where the aluminum phosphate zone is missing or of questionable economic importance. The distribution maps also show that areas of high P2O5 and high uranium content coincide closely. Areas containing thick aluminum phosphate material usually have high uranium and P2O5 contents. It is estimated that an average of 13,000 tons per day of aluminum phosphate material might be mined from this area. This figure is based on the probable amount of time, per year, that mining would be in favorable ground. When all mines in the area are in favorable ground, the tonnage per day might be about 23,000 tons. Tonnages of aluminum phosphate material have been computed for about 36 percent of the area of T. 30 S., R. 25 E., and for 18 percent of the area of T. 31 S., R. 25 E. The total inferred tonnage is about 150,000,000 short tons, with an average grade of 0.012 percent U3O8.

  9. Computer simulations of the solvatochromism of betaine-30

    SciTech Connect

    Mente, S.R.; Maroncelli, M.

    1999-09-09

    Monte Carlo simulations of the pyridinium N-phenolate dye betaine-30 in 12 solvents (20 solvent representations) were performed in order to explore the molecular basis of the E{sub T}(30) scale of solvent polarity. Ab initio (HF/6-31G{sup *}) and semiempirical (AM1 and INDO/S) electronic structure calculations were used to determine the geometry and charge distribution of betaine-30 in its S{sub 0} and S{sub 1} states. The solvent effect on the betaine absorption spectrum was assumed to derive from electrostatic interactions between the effective charge distributions of solvent molecules and the charge shift brought about by the S{sub 0} {r_arrow} S{sub 1} transition. Two models for this charge shift, one obtained from INDO/S calculations and the other an idealized two-site model, were used for the spectral calculations. Good agreement between simulated and observed {Delta}E{sub T} shifts (E{sub T}(30) values measured relative to the nonpolar standard tetramethylsilane) was found for both charge-shift models. In water and other hydroxylic solvents, the O atom of the betaine solute was observed to form moderately strong hydrogen bonds to between one and two solvent molecules. The contribution of these specifically coordinated molecules to the {Delta}E{sub T} shift was found to be large, (30--60%) and comparable to experimental estimates. Additional simulations of acetonitrile and methanol in equilibrium with the S{sub 1} state of betaine-30 were used to determine reorganization energies in these solvents and to decide the extent to which the solvent response to the S{sub 0} {leftrightarrow} S{sub 1} transition conforms to linear response predictions. In both solvents, the spectral distributions observed in the S{sub 0} state simulations were {approximately} 15% narrower than those in the S{sub 1} simulations, indicating only a relatively small departure from linear behavior. Reorganization energies were also estimated for a number of other solvents and compared to

  10. Analysis of bolus formation in micropipette ejection systems.

    PubMed

    Mirbod, Parisa; Meng, Diwen

    2015-06-01

    The ejection of drugs from micropipettes is practiced frequently in biomedical research and clinical studies however, little is known about the dynamics of this process. The fundamentals of disperse fluid injection via a capillary into an ambient immiscible fluid have been investigated extensively. Here, we experimentally investigate the bolus formation in micropipette ejection systems, where the injection and ambient fluid are the same. We experimentally measure the temporal evolution of the bolus formation in the same fluid. There are three different bolus formation mechanisms that arise from different Re t regimes: a) a nearly spherical bolus, b) a pear-like bolus, and c) a large distortion or axial jet. We examine the scaled dimensions of the bolus, R b/D t, L b/D t, H/D t, and α, as a function of the dimensionless parameters such as tip Reynolds number, Re t, dimensionless value of g/(D t (.) V t), the dimensionless time, tV t/D t, and the distance between the edge of the micropipette and the free surface, D/D t. The bolus radius for 0.2 < Re t < 30 grows according to t (1/2) in the entire time range, which allows us to estimate the time for complete bolus formation.

  11. Magnetic characterization of a hydrogen phase trapped inside deep dislocation cores in a hydrogen-cycled PdH{sub x} (x {approx} 4.5 x 10{sup -4}) single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Lipson, A. G. Heuser, B. J.; Castano, C. H.; Lyakhov, B. F.; Tsivadze, A. Yu.

    2006-09-15

    The magnetic characterization of Pd single crystals deformed by cycling in a hydrogen atmosphere has been performed. Based on evidence obtained from thermal desorption analysis, it is shown that the condensed hydrogen phase formed inside deep dislocation cores in PdH{sub x} (x = H/Pd {approx} 4.5 x 10{sup -4}) is tightly bound with a Pd matrix. The activation energy of hydrogen desorption from these cores was found to be as high as e = 1.6eV/H-atom, suggesting the occurrence of a strong band overlapping between Pd and H atoms. SQUID measurements carried out in a weak magnetic field (H < 5.0 Oe) showed an anomalous diamagnetic contribution to the DC and AC magnetic susceptibilities of the PdH{sub x} sample at T < 30 K resulting in the presence of the hydrogen phase. It is suggested that the anomalous diamagnetic response in PdH{sub x} is caused by the presence of a hydrogen dominant phase, tightly bound with a Pd matrix inside the dislocation cores (nanotubes)

  12. Quantitative Defect Analysis of PAN-based Carbon Fibers Treated by Single and Dual HF RF-CCP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erözbek Güngör, Ümmügül

    2016-09-01

    This work states the effects of single (40.68 MHz) and dual (40.68/2.1 MHz) RF-CCPs on defect structure of the PAN-based carbon fibers. The fibers were treated between two identical aluminum electrodes with R 200 mm in a 78.5 L stainless steel cylindrical reactor (R 500 mm, H 400 mm). The gap distance was 4 cm. In SRF mode, PHF = 50-200 W, p = 0.3, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 Torr, t = 30, 60 and 90 min. In DRF mode, PLF = 50-200 W, p = 0.1-0.9 Torr and t = 15, 30, 45 and 60 min at fixed PHF = 50 W. The structural analyses of the treated fibers were done by using high sensitive confocal Raman spectroscopy and the surfaces were excited by 532 nm-100 mW He-Ne (2.33 eV) laser. The average defect size and density of the treated fibers were calculated according to the following formulas; LD (size) = (1 . 8 ×10-9λL4 IG /ID)1/2 and nD (density) = (1 . 8 ×1022 /λL4) ×ID /IG where λL is the laser wavelength, ID is the intensity of D-band (˜1350 cm-1) and IG is the intensity of G-band ( 1580 cm-1) .

  13. Extraordinary behavioral entrainment following circadian rhythm bifurcation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Elizabeth M.; Walbeek, Thijs J.; Sun, Jonathan; Johnson, Jeremy; Poonawala, Qays; Gorman, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian circadian timing system uses light to synchronize endogenously generated rhythms with the environmental day. Entrainment to schedules that deviate significantly from 24 h (T24) has been viewed as unlikely because the circadian pacemaker appears capable only of small, incremental responses to brief light exposures. Challenging this view, we demonstrate that simple manipulations of light alone induce extreme plasticity in the circadian system of mice. Firstly, exposure to dim nocturnal illumination (<0.1 lux), rather than completely dark nights, permits expression of an altered circadian waveform wherein mice in light/dark/light/dark (LDLD) cycles “bifurcate” their rhythms into two rest and activity intervals per 24 h. Secondly, this bifurcated state enables mice to adopt stable activity rhythms under 15 or 30 h days (LDLD T15/T30), well beyond conventional limits of entrainment. Continuation of dim light is unnecessary for T15/30 behavioral entrainment following bifurcation. Finally, neither dim light alone nor a shortened night is sufficient for the extraordinary entrainment observed under bifurcation. Thus, we demonstrate in a non-pharmacological, non-genetic manipulation that the circadian system is far more flexible than previously thought. These findings challenge the current conception of entrainment and its underlying principles, and reveal new potential targets for circadian interventions. PMID:27929128

  14. The Structural Properties of Vapor Deposited Water Ice and Astrophysical Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Blake, D. F.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Films of vapor deposited water ice at low temperature (T<30 K) show a number of interesting structural changes during a gradual warmup. We would like to talk about the structure of the low temperature high density amorphous form of water ice, the process of crystallization, and some recent work on the morphological changes of water ice films at high temperature. The studies of the high density amorphous form are from in-situ electron microscopy as well as numerical simulations of molecular dynamics and have lead to new insights into the physical distinction between this high density amorphous form and the low density amorphous form. For the process of crystallization, we propose a model that describes the crystallization of water ice from the amorphous phase to cubic ice in terms of the nucleation of small domains in the ice. This model agrees well with the behavior of water ice in our electron microscopy studies and finds that pure water above the glass transition is a strong liquid. In more recent work, we have concentrated on temperatures above the crystallization temperature and we find interesting morphological changes related to the decrease in viscosity of the amorphous component in the cubic crystalline regime. Given enough time, we would like to put these results in an astrophysical context and discuss some observed features of the frost on interstellar grains and the bulk ice in comets.

  15. Measurement of the B± production asymmetry and the C P asymmetry in B±→J /ψ K± decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Arnau Romeu, J.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Babuschkin, I.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baker, S.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Baryshnikov, F.; Baszczyk, M.; Batozskaya, V.; Batsukh, B.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Betancourt, C.; Betti, F.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bezshyiko, Ia.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bitadze, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Boettcher, T.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Bordyuzhin, I.; Borgheresi, A.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bossu, F.; Boubdir, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D. H.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Chamont, D.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chatzikonstantinidis, G.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chobanova, V.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombs, G.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Costa Sobral, C. M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Da Cunha Marinho, F.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Serio, M.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Demmer, M.; Dendek, A.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dungs, K.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Déléage, N.; Easo, S.; Ebert, M.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Fazzini, D.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Prieto, A.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fini, R. A.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Franco Lima, V.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Fu, J.; Funk, W.; Furfaro, E.; Färber, C.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garcia Martin, L. M.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Garsed, P. J.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianı, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gizdov, K.; Gligorov, V. V.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gorelov, I. V.; Gotti, C.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruberg Cazon, B. R.; Grünberg, O.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Göbel, C.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hatch, M.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hombach, C.; Hopchev, H.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hutchcroft, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jiang, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Karacson, M.; Kariuki, J. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koliiev, S.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kosmyntseva, A.; Kozachuk, A.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lefèvre, R.; Lemaitre, F.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, T.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Lyu, X.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Maltsev, T.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marinangeli, M.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurice, E.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Merli, A.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Mogini, A.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Morgunova, O.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mulder, M.; Mussini, M.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nieswand, S.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Nogay, A.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pais, P. R.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Pastore, A.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Placinta, V.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Pomery, G. J.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Poslavskii, S.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Ratnikov, F.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Remon Alepuz, C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Roiser, S.; Rollings, A.; Romanovskiy, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Rudolph, M. S.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sadykhov, E.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schellenberg, M.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubert, K.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Simone, S.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Soares Lavra, l.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefko, P.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stemmle, S.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevens, H.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tilley, M. J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Toriello, F.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Traill, M.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tully, A.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valassi, A.; Valat, S.; Valenti, G.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Venkateswaran, A.; Vernet, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Viana Barbosa, J. V.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Viemann, H.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vitti, M.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voneki, B.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Wark, H. M.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yao, Y.; Yin, H.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zarebski, K. A.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zheng, Y.; Zhu, X.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.; LHCb Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    The B± meson production asymmetry in p p collisions is measured using B+→D¯ 0 π+ decays. The data were recorded by the LHCb experiment during Run 1 of the LHC at center-of-mass energies of √{s }=7 and 8 TeV. The production asymmetries, integrated over transverse momenta in the range 2 T<30 GeV /c , and rapidities in the range 2.1

  16. Two-Component Self-Diffusion in Solutions: Trehalose and Sucrose in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feick, E. J.; von Meerwall, E. D.; Ekdawi, N.; de Pablo, J.

    2001-03-01

    Trehalose is now recognized as a superior substitute for sucrose in solution as a cryoprotectant, for preserving organs destined for transplantation. To explore some aspects of this superiority, we have used the proton NMR pulsed-gradient spin-echo method at T = 30, 50, and 85 deg. C to study the self-diffusion of solvent and solute in aqueous solutions of these molecules as function of their concentration, c. We find that both solute molecules diffuse substantially more slowly than water at the same c and T; that addition of water accelerates solute diffusion more rapidly than that of water; and that while at a given c and T water diffusion is insensitive to solute identity, trehalose diffusion is somewhat slower than sucrose diffusion, an effect which reaches a factor near two at the highest c. The results of our extensive MC and MD molecular simulations of diffusion in sucrose solutions agree quantitatively with our experimental findings at corresponding c. Free-volume theory is also employed to explore the cooperative interactions between solvent and solutes, and to guide the interpretation of both experiment and simulation.

  17. Diffusion of Trehalose and Sucrose in Aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feick, E.; von Meerwall, E.; Ekdawi, N.; de Pablo, J.

    2000-10-01

    Trehalose is emerging as superior substitute for sucrose in solution as a cryoprotectant, e. g., to preserve organs destined for transplantation. We have used the proton NMR pulsed-gradient spin-echo method between T = 30 and 85 deg. C to study the self-diffusion of solvent and solute in aqueous solutions of these molecules as function of their concentration, c. We find that both solute molecules diffuse substantially more slowly than water at corresponding c and T; that addition of water accelerates solute diffusion more rapidly than that of water; and that while at a given c and T water diffusion is insensitive to solute identity, trehalose diffusion is slower than sucrose diffusion. The latter effect increases with c, approaching a factor of two at the highest c. In these respects our results correspond closely to those of our extensive numerical simulations of these systems. Free-volume theory is employed to explore the cooperative kinetic interactions between solvent and solutes, and to account tentatively for part of the superiority of trehalose to sucrose as preservation agent. Differences in crystallization behavior also seem to be involved.

  18. Anthropometric characteristics and sex influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hammond, L E; Cuttell, S; Nunley, P; Meyler, J

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether anthropometric measures influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy (WBC). Height, weight, body fat percentage, and lean mass were measured in 18 male and 14 female participants. Body surface area, body surface area to mass ratio, body mass index, fat-free mass index, and fat mass index were calculated. Thermal images were captured before and after WBC (-60°C for 30 seconds, -110°C for 2 minutes). Skin temperature was measured at the chest, arm, thigh, and calf. Mean skin temperature before and after WBC and change in mean skin temperature (ΔT sk) were calculated. ΔT sk was significantly greater in females (12.07 ± 1.55°C) than males (10.12 ± 1.86°C; t(30) = -3.09, P = .004). A significant relationship was observed between body fat percentage and ΔT sk in the combined dataset (P = .002, r = .516) and between fat-free mass index and ΔT sk in males (P = .005, r = .622). No other significant associations were found. Skin response of individuals to WBC appears to depend upon anthropometric variables and sex, with individuals with a higher adiposity cooling more than thinner individuals. Effects of sex and anthompometrics should be considered when designing WBC research or treatment protocols.

  19. Coordinated investigation of midlatitude upper mesospheric temperature inversion layers and the associated gravity wave forcing by Na lidar and Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper in Logan, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Tao; Pautet, P.-D.; Zhao, Y.; Cai, X.; Criddle, N. R.; Taylor, M. J.; Pendleton, W. R.

    2014-04-01

    Mesospheric inversion layers (MIL) are well studied in the literature but their relationship to the dynamic feature associated with the breaking of atmospheric waves in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT) region are not well understood. Two strong MIL events (ΔT ~30 K) were observed above 90 km during a 6 day full diurnal cycle Na lidar campaign conducted from 6 August to 13 August Logan, Utah (42°N, 112°W). Colocated Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper observations provided key information on concurrent gravity wave (GW) events and their characteristics during the nighttime observations. The study found both MILs were well correlated with the development and presence of an unstable region ~2 km above the MIL peak altitudes and a highly stable region below, implicating the strengthening of MIL is likely due to the increase of downward heat flux by the enhanced saturation of gravity wave, when it propagates through a highly stable layer. Each MIL event also exhibited distinct features: one showed a downward progression most likely due to tidal-GW interaction, while the peak height of the other event remained constant. During further investigation of atmospheric stability surrounding the MIL structure, lidar measurements indicate a sharp enhancement of the convective stability below the peak altitude of each MIL. We postulate that the sources of these stable layers were different; one was potentially triggered by concurrent large tidal wave activity and the other during the passage of a strong mesospheric bore.

  20. Are fat acids of human milk impacted by pasteurization and freezing?

    PubMed

    Borgo, Luiz Antônio; Coelho Araújo, Wilma Maria; Conceição, Maria Hosana; Sabioni Resck, Inês; Mendonça, Márcio Antonio

    2014-10-03

    The Human Milk Bank undergo human milk to pasteurization, followed by storage in a freezer at -18° C for up to six months to thus keep available the stocks of this product in maternal and infant hospitals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of processing on the lipid fraction of human milk. A sample of human milk was obtained from a donor and was subdivided into ten sub-samples that was subjected to the following treatments: LC = raw milk; T0 = milk after pasteurization; T30 = milk after pasteurization and freezing for 30 days; T60 = milk after pasteurization and freeze for 60 days, and so on every 30 days until T240 = milk after pasteurization and freezing for 240 days, with 3 repetitions for each treatment. Lipids were extracted, methylated and fatty acid profiles determined by gas chromatography. The fatty acids were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and functional groups were identified by infrared spectroscopy. There were variations in the concentration of fatty acids. For unsaturated fatty acids there was increasing trend in their concentrations. The IR and NMR analyze characterized and identified functional groups presents in fatty acids.

  1. Enzyme-assisted extraction of lycopene from tomato processing waste.

    PubMed

    Zuorro, Antonio; Fidaleo, Marcello; Lavecchia, Roberto

    2011-12-10

    A central composite design was used to optimize the enzyme-assisted extraction of lycopene from the peel fraction of tomato processing waste. Tomato skins were pretreated by a food-grade enzyme preparation with pectinolytic and cellulolytic activities and then subjected to hexane extraction. The factors investigated included extraction temperature (10-50 °C), pretreatment time (0.5-6.5 h), extraction time (0.5-4.5 h), enzyme solution-to-solid ratio (10-50 dm³/kg) and enzyme load (0-0.2 kg/kg). Overall, an 8- to 18-fold increase in lycopene recovery was observed compared to the untreated plant material. From a response surface analysis of the data, a second-degree polynomial equation was developed which provided the following optimal extraction conditions: T=30 °C, extraction time=3.18 h and enzyme load=0.16 kg/kg. The obtained results strongly support the idea of using cell-wall degrading enzymes as an effective means for recovering lycopene from tomato waste.

  2. Measurement of prompt ψ(2S) to J/ψ yield ratios in Pb-Pb and p-p collisions at sNN=2.76TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; ...

    2014-12-31

    The ratio between the prompt ψ(2S) and J/ψ yields, reconstructed via their decays into μ⁺μ⁻, is measured in Pb-Pb and p-p collisions at √sNN = 2.76  TeV. The analysis is based on Pb-Pb and p-p data samples collected by CMS at the Large Hadron Collider, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 150  μb⁻¹ and 5.4  pb⁻¹, respectively. The double ratio of measured yields (Nψ(2S)/NJ/ψ)Pb−Pb/(Nψ(2S)/NJ/ψ)p−p is computed in three Pb-Pb collision centrality bins and two kinematic ranges: one at midrapidity, |y| < 1.6, covering the transverse momentum range 6.5 < pT < 30  GeV/c, and the other at forward rapidity, 1.6<|y|<2.4, extending to lower pT values,more » 3« less

  3. On-line characterization using ultrasound of pectin hydrolysis catalyzed by the enzyme pectinmethylesterase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, C.; Resa, P.; Sierra, C.; Elvira, L.

    2012-12-01

    The major problem in the fruit juice industry is associated with juice quality deterioration due to the cloud loss of juice concentrates by the enzymatic reaction of pectinmethylesterase enzyme (PME, EC 3.1.1.11). During pectin hydrolysis, pectin and water are transformed into polygalacturonic acid (pectate) and methanol by the action of PME. In this work, a low-intensity ultrasonic technique is used to monitor this enzymatic reaction, with PME both from orange peel and from Aspergillus niger. Changes in sound velocity during pectin hydrolysis (1% concentration of pectin, T = 30°C and pH = 4.5 and 7) with 0.25 ml of enzyme solution (PME) have been measured using a through-transmission technique. Sound velocity decreases as pectin is transformed into pectate and methanol and at the end of the process, the change in sound velocity reaches 0.3 m/s with PME from orange peel and 0.33 m/s with PME from Aspergillus niger.

  4. Donor-acceptor substituted phenylethynyltriphenylenes – excited state intramolecular charge transfer, solvatochromic absorption and fluorescence emission

    PubMed Central

    Nandy, Ritesh

    2010-01-01

    Summary Several 2-(phenylethynyl)triphenylene derivatives bearing electron donor and acceptor substituents on the phenyl rings have been synthesized. The absorption and fluorescence emission properties of these molecules have been studied in solvents of different polarity. For a given derivative, solvent polarity had minimal effect on the absorption maxima. However, for a given solvent the absorption maxima red shifted with increasing conjugation of the substituent. The fluorescence emission of these derivatives was very sensitive to solvent polarity. In the presence of strongly electron withdrawing (–CN) and strongly electron donating (–NMe2) substituents large Stokes shifts (up to 130 nm, 7828 cm−1) were observed in DMSO. In the presence of carbonyl substituents (–COMe and –COPh), the largest Stokes shift (140 nm, 8163 cm−1) was observed in ethanol. Linear correlation was observed for the Stokes shifts in a Lippert–Mataga plot. Linear correlation of Stokes shift was also observed with E T(30) scale for protic and aprotic solvents but with different slopes. These results indicate that the fluorescence emission arises from excited state intramolecular charge transfer in these molecules where the triphenylene chromophore acts either as a donor or as an acceptor depending upon the nature of the substituent on the phenyl ring. HOMO–LUMO energy gaps have been estimated from the electrochemical and spectral data for these derivatives. The HOMO and LUMO surfaces were obtained from DFT calculations. PMID:21085512

  5. Relationships Between Vertical Jump and Full Squat Power Outputs With Sprint Times in U21 Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    López-Segovia, Manuel; Marques, Mário C.; van den Tillaar, Roland; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between power variables in the vertical jump and full squat with the sprint performance in soccer players. Fourteen under-21 soccer players were evaluated in two testing sessions separated by 7 days. In the first testing session, vertical jump height in countermovement was assessed, and power output for both loaded countermovement jump (CMJL) and full squat (FS) exercises in two progressive load tests. The second testing session included sprinting at 10, 20, and 30m (T10, T20, T30, T10–20, T10–30, T20–30). Power variables obtained in the loaded vertical jump with 20kg and full squat exercise with 70kg showed significant relationships with all split times (r=−0.56/–0.79; p≤ 0.01/0.01). The results suggest that power produced either with vertical jump or full squat exercises is an important factor to explain short sprint performance in soccer players. These findings might suggest that certain levels of neuromuscular activation are more related with sprint performance reflecting the greater suitability of loads against others for the improvement of short sprint ability in under-21 soccer players. PMID:23487438

  6. Anthropometric Characteristics and Sex Influence Magnitude of Skin Cooling following Exposure to Whole Body Cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, L. E.; Cuttell, S.; Nunley, P.; Meyler, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether anthropometric measures influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy (WBC). Height, weight, body fat percentage, and lean mass were measured in 18 male and 14 female participants. Body surface area, body surface area to mass ratio, body mass index, fat-free mass index, and fat mass index were calculated. Thermal images were captured before and after WBC (−60°C for 30 seconds, −110°C for 2 minutes). Skin temperature was measured at the chest, arm, thigh, and calf. Mean skin temperature before and after WBC and change in mean skin temperature (ΔTsk) were calculated. ΔTsk was significantly greater in females (12.07 ± 1.55°C) than males (10.12 ± 1.86°C; t(30) = −3.09, P = .004). A significant relationship was observed between body fat percentage and ΔTsk in the combined dataset (P = .002, r = .516) and between fat-free mass index and ΔTsk in males (P = .005, r = .622). No other significant associations were found. Skin response of individuals to WBC appears to depend upon anthropometric variables and sex, with individuals with a higher adiposity cooling more than thinner individuals. Effects of sex and anthompometrics should be considered when designing WBC research or treatment protocols. PMID:25061612

  7. Droplet Size and Liquid Water Characteristics of the USAAEFA (CH-47) Helicopter Spray System and Natural Clouds as Sampled by a JUH-1H Helicopter.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    2 AF +n7 u*rL-nl I.1521nI 5. 32. 30 *2eiuE+07 *Q’J7L,(’b *’J02L>01 *13𔃻E- P1 S. 4J3. 33 .22E#)7 *773F*Ot . a 3ft-o I . Ius[ -f0I 5.*1 3o .11IE4(𔄁...P + t .30f -n I . 13 0 F- 01 a.64. 6 0 *3 92 E + .19 bF # 5 . ail 3F-0 1 .2211-n2 5. b9. 81itt+ 3e 64#a .363E-01 8l2f -02 4. 73. 100 A* P1 4 5 . 4 3’*1...MASSG(’-1) FAASS(GM-3J-1 PERCLNI cum PjwctfNI 3 .244JE+08 .(413f*07 .IUSF-cs �F-03 0. 0, Illf +0Q .34ts *0’.950f - P1 .1501-01 s. it. t’Q4L+*0m .?Ib

  8. Stellar (n ,γ ) cross sections of neutron-rich nuclei: Completing the isotope chains of Yb, Os, Pt, and Hg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marganiec, J.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Käppeler, F.

    2014-12-01

    The (n ,γ ) cross sections of the most neutron-rich stable isotopes of Yb, Os, Pt, and Hg have been determined in a series of activation measurements at the Karlsruhe 3.7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, using the quasistellar neutron spectrum for k T =25 keV that can be produced with the 7Li(p ,n ) 7Be reaction. In this way, Maxwellian averaged cross sections could be directly obtained with only minor corrections. After irradiation the induced activities were counted with a HPGe detector via the strongest γ -ray lines. The stellar neutron capture cross sections of Yb,176174, Os,192190, Pt,198196, and Hg,204202, extrapolated to k T =30 keV, were found to be 157 ±6 mb, 114 ±8 mb, 278 ±11 mb, 160 ±7 mb, 171 ±19 mb, 94 ±4 mb, 62 ±2 mb, and 32 ±15 mb, respectively. In the case of 196Pt the partial cross section to the isomeric state at 399.5 keV could be determined as well. With these results the cross section data for long isotopic chains could be completed for a discussion of the predictive power of statistical model calculations towards the neutron-rich and proton-rich sides of the stability valley.

  9. Preparation of gluten free bread enriched with green mussel (Perna canaliculus) protein hydrolysates and characterization of peptides responsible for mussel flavour.

    PubMed

    Vijaykrishnaraj, M; Roopa, B S; Prabhasankar, P

    2016-11-15

    Green mussel protein hydrolysates (GMPH) utilization for the enrichment of gluten-free bread followed by characterization of flavour peptides using chromatography and electronic nose techniques have been done. The degree of hydrolysis was carried out in each protease digest, and the higher degree of hydrolysis was observed in pepsin digestion. Gluten-free (GF) bread was formulated by using buckwheat flour (BWF), rice flour (RF) and chickpea flour (CPF) (70:20:10) and GMPH were added in the range of 0-20% in the GF bread for enrichment with GMPH. Radar plot of the electronic nose analysis showed that the sensors P30/2, T30/1 and T70/2 had a higher response to the GF bread and GMPH. Consequently, the peptide sequence was obtained manually by ESI-MS spectra of GMPH (KGYSSYICDK) and F-II (SSYCIVKICDK). Flavour quality was 97% discriminately comparable to the GMPH and F-II fractions. Mussel flavoured GF bread can be included in the celiac diet.

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Gansu zokor, Eospalax cansus (Rodentia, Spalacidae).

    PubMed

    Su, Junhu; Wang, Jing; Hua, Limin; Gleeson, Dianne; Ji, Weihong

    2013-12-01

    Mysopalacinae (zokors) is a group of fossorial rodents for which the taxonomy has yet to reach consensus. Furthermore, due to their fossorial lifestyle, little is known about their ecology. Molecular data are important to elucidate such aspects. In this paper, the complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Gansu zokor (Eospalax cansus) of the type found in Lintan, China was determined. The genome is 16,354 bp in length and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and two main non-coding regions (the control region and the origin of the light strand replication), the gene composition and order of which are similar to most other mammals. The overall base composition is T 30.0%, C 24.2%, A 33.5%, and G 12.3%, with an A + T bias of 63.5%. These mitogenome sequence data are potentially important for evolutionary, population genetic, and ecological studies of the Mysopalacinae.

  11. Photocatalytic degradation of eight pesticides in leaching water by use of ZnO under natural sunlight.

    PubMed

    Navarro, S; Fenoll, J; Vela, N; Ruiz, E; Navarro, G

    2009-12-30

    Photodegradation of eight pesticides in leaching water at pilot plant scale using the tandem ZnO/Na(2)S(2)O(8) as photosensitizer/oxidant and compound parabolic collectors under natural sunlight is reported. The pesticides, habitually used on pepper culture and belonging to different chemical groups were azoxyxtrobin, kresoxim-methyl, hexaconazole, tebuconazole, triadimenol, and pyrimethanil (fungicides), primicarb (insecticide), and propyzamide (herbicide). As expected, the influence of the semiconductor used at 150 mg L(-1) on the degradation of pesticides was very significant in all cases. Photocatalytic experiments show that the addition of photosensitizer strongly improves the elimination of pesticides in comparison with photolytic tests; significantly increasing the reaction rates. The use of Na(2)S(2)O(8) implies a significant reduction in treatment time showing a quicker reaction time than ZnO alone. On the contrary, the addition of H(2)O(2) into illuminated ZnO suspensions does not improve the rate of photooxidation. The disappearance of the pesticides followed first-order kinetics according to Langmuir-Hinshelwood model and complete degradation occurs from 60 to 120 min. The disappearance time (DT(75)), referred to the normalized illumination time (t(30 W)) was lower than 3 min in all cases.

  12. Threshold selection for classification of MR brain images by clustering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovanu, Simona; Obreja, Cristian; Moraru, Luminita

    2015-12-01

    Given a grey-intensity image, our method detects the optimal threshold for a suitable binarization of MR brain images. In MR brain image processing, the grey levels of pixels belonging to the object are not substantially different from the grey levels belonging to the background. Threshold optimization is an effective tool to separate objects from the background and further, in classification applications. This paper gives a detailed investigation on the selection of thresholds. Our method does not use the well-known method for binarization. Instead, we perform a simple threshold optimization which, in turn, will allow the best classification of the analyzed images into healthy and multiple sclerosis disease. The dissimilarity (or the distance between classes) has been established using the clustering method based on dendrograms. We tested our method using two classes of images: the first consists of 20 T2-weighted and 20 proton density PD-weighted scans from two healthy subjects and from two patients with multiple sclerosis. For each image and for each threshold, the number of the white pixels (or the area of white objects in binary image) has been determined. These pixel numbers represent the objects in clustering operation. The following optimum threshold values are obtained, T = 80 for PD images and T = 30 for T2w images. Each mentioned threshold separate clearly the clusters that belonging of the studied groups, healthy patient and multiple sclerosis disease.

  13. Threshold selection for classification of MR brain images by clustering method

    SciTech Connect

    Moldovanu, Simona; Obreja, Cristian; Moraru, Luminita

    2015-12-07

    Given a grey-intensity image, our method detects the optimal threshold for a suitable binarization of MR brain images. In MR brain image processing, the grey levels of pixels belonging to the object are not substantially different from the grey levels belonging to the background. Threshold optimization is an effective tool to separate objects from the background and further, in classification applications. This paper gives a detailed investigation on the selection of thresholds. Our method does not use the well-known method for binarization. Instead, we perform a simple threshold optimization which, in turn, will allow the best classification of the analyzed images into healthy and multiple sclerosis disease. The dissimilarity (or the distance between classes) has been established using the clustering method based on dendrograms. We tested our method using two classes of images: the first consists of 20 T2-weighted and 20 proton density PD-weighted scans from two healthy subjects and from two patients with multiple sclerosis. For each image and for each threshold, the number of the white pixels (or the area of white objects in binary image) has been determined. These pixel numbers represent the objects in clustering operation. The following optimum threshold values are obtained, T = 80 for PD images and T = 30 for T2w images. Each mentioned threshold separate clearly the clusters that belonging of the studied groups, healthy patient and multiple sclerosis disease.

  14. Measurement of the stellar 58Ni(n ,γ )59Ni cross section with accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Peter; Rugel, Georg; Dillmann, Iris; Faestermann, Thomas; Fimiani, Leticia; Hain, Karin; Korschinek, Gunther; Lachner, Johannes; Poutivtsev, Mikhail; Knie, Klaus; Heil, Michael; Käppeler, Franz; Wallner, Anton

    2017-03-01

    The 58Ni(n ,γ )59Ni cross section was measured with a combination of the activation technique and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The neutron activations were performed at the Karlsruhe 3.7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator using the quasistellar neutron spectrum at k T =25 keV produced by the 7Li(p ,n )7Be reaction. The subsequent AMS measurements were carried out at the 14 MV tandem accelerator of the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory in Garching using the gas-filled analyzing magnet system (GAMS). Three individual samples were measured, yielding a Maxwellian-averaged cross section at k T =30 keV of <σ> 30 keV = 30.4 (23)syst(9)stat mbarn. This value is slightly lower than two recently published measurements using the time-of-flight (TOF) method, but agrees within the uncertainties. Our new results also resolve the large discrepancy between older TOF measurements and our previous value.

  15. Measurement of differential J/ψ production cross sections and forward-backward ratios in p + Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chang, P.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Charfeddine, D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciocio, A.; Citron, Z. H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Daniells, A. C.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davignon, O.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Nooij, L.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Dris, M.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dwuznik, M.; Dyndal, M.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fulsom, B. G.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; Garberson, F.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gemme, C.; Gemmell, A.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giugni, D.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Goddard, J. R.; Godlewski, J.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M. P.; Goussiou, A. G.; Grabas, H. M. X.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grafström, P.; Grahn, K-J.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griffiths, J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J. -F.; Grohs, J. P.; Grohsjean, A.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Grout, Z. 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G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sartisohn, G.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sato, K.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D. H.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnellbach, Y. J.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H. -C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Schwoerer, M.; Sciacca, F. G.; Scifo, E.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekula, S. J.; Selbach, K. E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Shushkevich, S.; Sicho, P.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simoniello, R.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Siragusa, G.; Sircar, A.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, K. M.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sosebee, M.; Soualah, R.; Soueid, P.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; St. Denis, R. D.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Stavina, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thong, W. M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Topilin, N. D.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Tran, H. L.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virzi, J.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yao, W-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2015-09-01

    Measurements of differential cross sections for J/ψ production in p+Pb collisions at √sNN=5.02TeV at the CERN Large Hadron Collider with the ATLAS detector are presented. The data set used corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 28.1 nb-1. The J/ψ mesons are reconstructed in the dimuon decay channel over the transverse momentum range 8T<30GeV and over the center-of-mass rapidity range -2.87

  16. Modelling Changes in Mediterranean Potential Vegetation in the Last 6000 Years Employing a Time-Slice Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körper, Janina; Wagner, Sebastian; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2010-05-01

    Due to the high computational costs long climate simulations, e.g. of the last 6000 years, using comprehensive atmosphere-ocean general circulation models [AOGCMs] are currently carried out either for selected time slices with high spatial resolution or transiently with a low resolution. This study aims at regionalization of transient AOGCM simulations of the Holocene focussing on the Mediterranean region. Sea surface temperatures and sea ice coverage of a coarsely resolved T30 transient simulation of the Holocene are used as lower boundary conditions for time slice experiments for different higher horizontal resolutions with the atmospheric model ECHAM5 for selected time slices in the Holocene. In the low resolution simulations the climate in transition zones, e.g. ranging from the summer-dry Mediterranean climate to the desert climate, is poorly reflected. This is not only due to orographic effects but also due to averaging over large areas. In the horizontally higher resolved time-slice experiments the simulated potential vegetation, represented by biomes, generally improves. Our time-slice experiments indicate that in most parts of the Mediterranean area the potential vegetation is close to thresholds and therefore very sensitive to small temperature or precipitation changes. According to this model study, over the northern part of the region Mid-Holocene minus Pre-industrial biome changes are similar in the spatial structure to the anthropogenically influenced Present-day minus Pre-industrial patterns. Implications for a future climate will be discussed.

  17. Discrimination between ethanol inhibition models in a continuous alcoholic fermentation process using flocculating yeast.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, S C; Paiva, T C; Visconti, A E; Giudici, R

    1998-09-01

    Discrimination between different rival models for describing the inhibitory effect of ethanol both on yeast growth and on fermentation was studied for a continuous process of alcoholic fermentation in a tower reactor with recycling of flocculating cells. Models tested include linear, parabolic, hyperbolic, exponential, and generalized nonlinear power-law types. The best expressions were identified under the criteria that all the kinetic parameters should assume acceptable values in a feasible range and should result in the best fit of the experimental data. The kinetic parameters were estimated from steady-state data of several sugar concentrations in feeding stream (S0 = 160, 170, 180, 190, 200 g/L), constant dilution rate (D = 0.2 h-1), recycle ratio (alpha = 13.6), and temperature (T = 30 degrees C). The best model for the yeast growth was of power-law type, whereas for the product formation the best model was of linear type. These models were able to reproduce the trends of the process variables satisfactorily.

  18. Lipid metabolism during bacterial growth, sporulation, and germination: differential synthesis of individual branched- and normal-chain fatty acids during spore germination and outgrowth of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, K W; Bulla, L A; Mounts, T L

    1975-12-01

    The biosynthesis of individual branched- and normal-chain fatty acids during Bacillus thuringiensis spore germination and outgrowth was studied by comparing pulsed and continuous labeling of these fatty acids with [U-14C]acetate. The relative specific activity of each fatty acid varies with time as the cell progresses through outgrowth. However, fatty acid synthesis does occur in two distinct phases. Upon germination, acetate is incorporated only into the iso-isomers i-C13, i-C14, and i-C16; no normal or anteiso synthesis occurs. Subsequent to T30, the full complement of branched- and normal-chain homologues is formed and there is a dramatic enhancement in the overall rate of fatty acid synthesis. Significantly, this rate increase coincides with a marked shift from the synthesis of short-chain to long-chain fatty acids. These findings illustrate a dichotomy in synthesis that may result from initial fatty acid formation by preexisting spore fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. Elucidation of the timing and kinetics of individual fatty acid formation provides a biochemical profile of activities directly related to membrane differentiation and cellular development.

  19. Changing the 30-min Rule in Canada: The Effect of Room Temperature on Bacterial Growth in Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Arcos, Sandra; Kou, Yuntong; Ducas, Éric; Thibault, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Background To maintain product quality and safety, the ‘30-min rule’ requires the discard of red blood cells (RBCs) that are exposed to uncontrolled temperatures for more than 30 min. Recent studies suggest this rule may safely be extended to a 60-min rule. Methods A pool-and-split design study (N = 4) was run in parallel at Canadian Blood Services (SAGM RBCs) and Héma-Québec (AS-3 RBCs). RBCs were spiked with ∼1 colony-forming unit/ml of mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria. Control units remained in storage at 1-6 °C for 42 days. Test 30 (T30) and T60 units were exposed to room temperature (RT) six times during storage, each time for 30 and 60 min, respectively. Bacterial proliferation was monitored. Results Mesophilic bacteria do not proliferate in RBCs. The growth of psychrophilic bacteria is not significantly different in RBCs exposed for 30 or 60 min to RT (p < 0.05). Conclusion The study findings were the final evidence to support extension from a 30-min rule to a 60-min rule in Canada. PMID:27994525

  20. Comparative jet wake structure and swimming performance of salps.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Kelly R; Madin, Laurence P

    2010-09-01

    Salps are barrel-shaped marine invertebrates that swim by jet propulsion. Morphological variations among species and life-cycle stages are accompanied by differences in swimming mode. The goal of this investigation was to compare propulsive jet wakes and swimming performance variables among morphologically distinct salp species (Pegea confoederata, Weelia (Salpa) cylindrica, Cyclosalpa sp.) and relate swimming patterns to ecological function. Using a combination of in situ dye visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements, we describe properties of the jet wake and swimming performance variables including thrust, drag and propulsive efficiency. Locomotion by all species investigated was achieved via vortex ring propulsion. The slow-swimming P. confoederata produced the highest weight-specific thrust (T=53 N kg(-1)) and swam with the highest whole-cycle propulsive efficiency (eta(wc)=55%). The fast-swimming W. cylindrica had the most streamlined body shape but produced an intermediate weight-specific thrust (T=30 N kg(-1)) and swam with an intermediate whole-cycle propulsive efficiency (eta(wc)=52%). Weak swimming performance variables in the slow-swimming C. affinis, including the lowest weight-specific thrust (T=25 N kg(-1)) and lowest whole-cycle propulsive efficiency (eta(wc)=47%), may be compensated by low energetic requirements. Swimming performance variables are considered in the context of ecological roles and evolutionary relationships.

  1. Impact dynamics of porcine drip bloodstains on fabrics.

    PubMed

    Williams, Elisabeth M P; Dodds, Margaret; Taylor, Michael C; Li, Jingyao; Michielsen, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    As a passive blood drop impacts a hard surface, it is observed to collapse and spread laterally, then retract and settle. During the spreading phase, the edge of the drop may rise forming a crown extending into spines and breaking up into secondary drops. When a similar drop falls onto a textile surface these same processes may occur, but the process of blood wicking into the fabric complicates stain formation. These processes are described within for passive drip stains collected under controlled conditions using anticoagulated porcine blood. Three stages of this impact process were identified and could be separated into distinct time zones: (1) spreading (time t≤2.5ms) and (2) retraction (2.5≤t≤12ms) on the surface with potential splashing at the periphery, and (3) wicking (30ms ≤t≤30min) of the blood into the fabric. Although wetting and wicking may also occur for t<30ms, the vast majority of wetting and wicking occur after this time and thus the short-time wicking can be ignored. In addition, the number of satellite stains correlates with the surface roughness with the number of satellites for jersey knit>plain-woven>cardboard. Conversely, the size of the satellite stains correlates with the amount of wicking in the fabric with the satellite stain size for plain-woven>jersey knit>cardboard.

  2. J-integral of circumferential crack in large diameter pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wei; Chao, Yuh J.; Sutton, M. A.; Lam, P. S.; Mertz, G. E.

    Large diameter thin-walled pipes are encountered in a low pressure nuclear power piping system. Fracture parameters such as K and J, associated with postulated cracks, are needed to assess the safety of the structure, for example, prediction of the onset of tile crack growth and the stability of the crack. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has completed a comprehensive study of cracks in pipes and handbook-type data is available. However, for some large diameter, thin-walled pipes the needed information is not included in the handbook. This paper reports our study of circumferential cracks in large diameter, thin-walled pipes (R/t=30 to 40) under remote bending or tension loads. Elastic-Plastic analyses using the finite element method were performed to determine the elastic and fully plastic J values for various pipe/crack geometries. A non-linear Ramberg-Osgood material model is used with strain hardening exponents (n) that range from 3 to 10. A number of circumferential, through thickness cracks were studied with half crack angles ranging from 0.063(pi) to 0.5(pi). Results are tabulated for use with the EPRI estimation scheme.

  3. Structure and electrical properties of epitaxial SrRuO3 thin films controlled by oxygen partial pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yan; Zhong, Ni; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Qi, Rui-Juan; Huang, Rong; Tang, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Ping-Xiong; Xiang, Ping-Hua; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2016-12-01

    SrRuO3 (SRO) thin films have been grown on (001)-oriented SrTiO3 substrate under various oxygen partial pressures (PO2). A typical step-and-terrace surface morphology and coherent epitaxy characteristics are found in the SRO films for high oxygen pressure growth (PO2 ≥ 10 Pa). Under such high PO2, SRO films exhibit metallic behavior over a temperature range of 10 K ≤ T ≤ 300 K. A detailed study on the transport properties of the metallic SRO films reveals that the resistivity (ρ) follows the law ρ(T)-ρ0 ∝ Tx (x = 0.5, 1.5, or 2). Below ferromagnetic transition temperature (Tc), ρ(T) follows T2 dependence below 30 K and T1.5 dependence at T > 30 K, respectively. This result demonstrates that a transition between the Fermi-liquid (FL) and non-Fermi-liquid (NFL) behavior occurs at ˜30 K. Furthermore, ρ(T) follows T0.5 dependence at T > Tc in the paramagnetic metal state. We have found that the FL to NFL transitions as well as the ferromagnetic transition are corresponding to the abnormal peaks in the magnetoresistance curves, suggesting the coupling of electronic and magnetic properties. The transition temperature of FL to NFL for metallic SRO films is almost independent on PO2, while Tc slightly increases with PO2.

  4. Olive mill wastewater treatment: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Bettazzi, E; Morelli, M; Caffaz, S; Caretti, C; Azzari, E; Lubello, C

    2006-01-01

    Olive oil production, one of the main agro-industries in Mediterranean countries, generates significant amounts of olive mill wastewaters (OMWs), which represent a serious environmental problem, because of their high organic load, the acidic pH and the presence of recalcitrant and toxic substances such as phenolic and lipidic compounds (up to several grams per litre). In Italy, traditional disposal on the soil is the most common way to discharge OMWs. This work is aimed at investigating the efficiency and feasibility of AOPs and biological processes for OMW treatment. Trials have been carried out on wastewaters taken from one of the largest three-phase mills of Italy, located in Quarrata (Tuscany), as well as on synthetic solutions. Ozone and Fenton's reagents applied both on OMWs and on phenolic synthetic solutions guaranteed polyphenol removal efficiency up to 95%. Aerobic biological treatment was performed in a batch reactor filled with raw OMWs (pH = 4.5, T = 30 degrees C) without biomass inoculum. A biomass rich of fungi, developed after about 30 days, was able to biodegrade phenolic compounds reaching a removal efficiency of 70%. Pretreatment of OMWs by means of oxidation increased their biological treatability.

  5. A reliable monitoring of the biocompatibility of an effluent along an oxidative pre-treatment by sequential bioassays and chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Amat, A M; Arques, A; García-Ripoll, A; Santos-Juanes, L; Vicente, R; Oller, I; Maldonado, M I; Malato, S

    2009-02-01

    A new approach to assess biocompatibility of an effluent, based on combination of different bioassays and chemical analyses, has been tested using a mixture of four commercial pesticides treated by a solar photo-Fenton as target effluent. A very fast elimination of the pesticides occurred (all of them were below detection limit at t30W=36 min), but mineralisation was a more time-consuming process, due to the formation of organic intermediates and to the presence of solvents, as shown by GC-MS analysis. Measurements based on activated sludge indicated that detoxification was coincident with the removal of the active ingredients, while more sensitive Vibrio fischeri bacterium showed significant toxicity until the end of the experiment, although the effluent might be compatible with biological processes. Biodegradability of the solutions was enhanced by the photochemical process, to reach BOD5/COD ratios above 0.8. Longer time bioassays, such as the Zahn-Wellens' test, support the applicability of coupling photochemical with activated sludge-based biological processes to deal with these effluents.

  6. Electronic nose guided determination of frying disposal time of sunflower oil using fuzzy logic analysis.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Rohit; Sehwag, Sneha; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2017-04-15

    An electronic nose (e-nose), having 18 metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors, guided determination of frying disposal time of sunflower oil is reported. The ranking and screening of MOS sensors, specific for volatile organic compounds, was performed using fuzzy logic. A correlation was examined between rancidity indices of fried oil (total polar compounds (TPC), and triglyceride dimers-polymers (TGDP), among others) and e-nose based odor index. Fuzzy logic screened 6 MOS sensors (LY2/G, LY2/AA, LY2/GH, LY2/gCT1, T30/1, and P30/1) to deconvolute the rancid fried oils using hierarchical clustering on principal component space. A good relationship was noted between rancidity indices and odor index (R(2)>0.85). Based on maximum discard limits of rancidity indices (25% TPC and 10% TGDP), the frying disposal time of 15.2h (TPC) vs. 15.8h (e-nose) and 15.5h (TGDP) vs. 16.3h (e-nose) was determined. The demonstrated methodology holds a potential extension to different fried oils and products.

  7. The effects of motor rehabilitation training on clinical symptoms and serum BDNF levels in Parkinson's disease subjects.

    PubMed

    Angelucci, Francesco; Piermaria, Jacopo; Gelfo, Francesca; Shofany, Jacob; Tramontano, Marco; Fiore, Marco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Peppe, Antonella

    2016-04-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that motor rehabilitation may delay Parkinson's disease (PD) progression. Moreover, parallel treatments in animals up-regulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Thus, we investigated the effect of a motor rehabilitation protocol on PD symptoms and BDNF serum levels. Motor rehabilitation training consisted of a cycle of 20 days/month of physiotherapy divided in 3 daily sessions. Clinical data were collected at the beginning, at the end, and at 90 days follow-up. BDNF serum levels were detected by ELISA at 0, 7, 14, 21, 30, and 90 days. The follow-up period had a duration of 60 days (T30-T90). The results showed that at the end of the treatment (day 30), an improvement in extrapyramidal signs (UPDRS III; UPDRS III - Gait and Balance items), motor (6 Minute Walking Test), and daily living activities (UPDRS II; PDQ-39) was observed. BDNF levels were increased at day 7 as compared with baseline. After that, no changes in BDNF were observed during the treatment and in the successive follow-up. This study demonstrates that motor rehabilitation training is able to ameliorate PD symptoms and to increase temporarily BDNF serum levels. The latter effect may potentially contribute to the therapeutic action.

  8. Differential viability response of prokaryotes and eukaryotes to high strength pulsed magnetic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Boda, Sunil Kumar; Ravikumar, K; Saini, Deepak K; Basu, Bikramjit

    2015-12-01

    The present study examines the efficacy of a high strength pulsed magnetic field (PMF) towards bacterial inactivation in vitro, without compromising eukaryotic cell viability. The differential response of prokaryotes [Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli], and eukaryotes [C2C12 mouse myoblasts and human mesenchymal stem cells, hMSCs] upon exposure to varying PMF stimuli (1-4 T, 30 pulses, 40 ms pulse duration) is investigated. Among the prokaryotes, ~60% and ~70% reduction was recorded in the survival of staphylococcal species and E. coli, respectively at 4 T PMF as evaluated by colony forming unit (CFU) analysis and flow cytometry. A 2-5 fold increase in intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels suggests oxidative stress as the key mediator in PMF induced bacterial death/injury. The 4 T PMF treated staphylococci also exhibited longer doubling times. Both TEM and fluorescence microscopy revealed compromised membranes of PMF exposed bacteria. Under similar PMF exposure conditions, no immediate cytotoxicity was recorded in C2C12 mouse myoblasts and hMSCs, which can be attributed to the robust resistance towards oxidative stress. The ion interference of iron containing bacterial proteins is invoked to analytically explain the PMF induced ROS accumulation in prokaryotes. Overall, this study establishes the potential of PMF as a bactericidal method without affecting eukaryotic viability. This non-invasive stimulation protocol coupled with antimicrobial agents can be integrated as a potential methodology for the localized treatment of prosthetic infections.

  9. Solvent effect on 1,2-O-(1-ethylpropylidene)-alpha-D-glucofuranose organogel properties.

    PubMed

    Bielejewski, M; Lapiński, A; Luboradzki, R; Tritt-Goc, J

    2009-07-21

    The solvent effect on organogel formation in nitrobenzene and chlorobenzene using 1,2-O-(1-ethylpropylidene)-alpha-d-glucofuranose (1) as the gelator is presented. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed that hydrogen bonding between the molecules of gelator 1 is the main driving force for gelator self-aggregation. The gels are characterized by different hydrogen-bonding patterns, which are reflected in a different microstructure of the networks. The morphology of fibers of nitrobenzene organogel consists of straight, rod-like, and thinner fibers, in comparison to the elongated but generally not straight and thicker fibers in chlorobenzene organogel. The thermal stability of gels also differs, and the DeltaH is equal to 50.1 and 65.0 kJ/mol for nitrobenzene and chlorobenzene gels, respectively. The properties of the gels reported here were compared to benzene and toluene gels of 1 presented in previous work and correlated with different solvent parameters: epsilon, delta, and E(T)(30). We have shown that the polarity of the solvent influences the thermal stability of the gel, the hydrogen-bonding network, and finally the structure of gel network. Therefore, in the studied sugar-based gelator, the hydrogen bonding alone is insufficient to fully describe the gelation process.

  10. Relationships between vertical jump and full squat power outputs with sprint times in u21 soccer players.

    PubMed

    López-Segovia, Manuel; Marques, Mário C; van den Tillaar, Roland; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between power variables in the vertical jump and full squat with the sprint performance in soccer players. Fourteen under-21 soccer players were evaluated in two testing sessions separated by 7 days. In the first testing session, vertical jump height in countermovement was assessed, and power output for both loaded countermovement jump (CMJL) and full squat (FS) exercises in two progressive load tests. The second testing session included sprinting at 10, 20, and 30m (T10, T20, T30, T10-20, T10-30, T20-30). Power variables obtained in the loaded vertical jump with 20kg and full squat exercise with 70kg showed significant relationships with all split times (r=-0.56/-0.79; p≤ 0.01/0.01). The results suggest that power produced either with vertical jump or full squat exercises is an important factor to explain short sprint performance in soccer players. These findings might suggest that certain levels of neuromuscular activation are more related with sprint performance reflecting the greater suitability of loads against others for the improvement of short sprint ability in under-21 soccer players.

  11. Low-energy spin fluctuations in the metallic spinel compound LiV{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Yushankhai, V. Yu.; Thalmeier, P.; Takimoto, T.

    2009-08-20

    In the family of transition metal oxides the spinel compound LiV{sub 2}O{sub 4} is a rare metallic system showing heavy fermion behavior. In particular, an anomalously large specific heat coefficient gamma = C/T and strongly enhanced magnetic susceptibility chi{sub s} were detected in the low temperature limit, T<30 K. Recently we have proposed a model which allowed us to relate such an anomalous behavior of LiV{sub 2}O{sub 4} to the proximity of the underlying 3d-electron system to a magnetic instability at T->0. The emergence of a rather peculiar paramagnetic ground state with largely degenerate lowenergy 'critical' antiferromagnetic fluctuations in LiV{sub 2}O{sub 4} is the combined effect of strong electron correlations and the geometrical frustration of V-ion pyrochlore lattice forming the metallic system in this compound. A self-consistent renormalization theory was developed to describe effects of strong coupling between spin fluctuation modes and their evolution with varying temperature and external pressure. The theory was shown to provide a firm basis for understanding many peculiar properties of spin dynamics obtained in the inelastic neutron scattering and NMR measurements on LiV{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  12. Stellar (n,{gamma}) cross sections of p-process isotopes. II. {sup 168}Yb, {sup 180}W, {sup 184}Os, {sup 190}Pt, and {sup 196}Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Marganiec, J.; Dillmann, I.; Pardo, C. Domingo; Kaeppeler, F.; Walter, S.

    2010-09-15

    The neutron-capture cross sections of {sup 168}Yb, {sup 180}W, {sup 184}Os, {sup 190}Pt, and {sup 196}Hg have been measured by means of the activation technique. The samples were irradiated in a quasistellar neutron spectrum of kT=25 keV, which was produced at the Karlsruhe 3.7-MV Van de Graaff accelerator via the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. Systematic uncertainties were investigated in repeated activations with different samples and by variation of the experimental parameters, that is, irradiation times, neutron fluxes, and {gamma}-ray counting conditions. The measured data were converted into Maxwellian-averaged cross sections at kT=30 keV, yielding 1214{+-}61, 624{+-}54, 590{+-}43, 511{+-}46, and 201{+-}11 mb for {sup 168}Yb, {sup 180}W, {sup 184}Os, {sup 190}Pt, and {sup 196}Hg, respectively. The present results either represent first experimental data ({sup 168}Yb, {sup 184}Os, and {sup 196}Hg) or could be determined with significantly reduced uncertainties ({sup 180}W and {sup 190}Pt). These measurements are part of a systematic study of stellar (n,{gamma}) cross sections of the stable p isotopes.

  13. Extremely large electronic anisotropy caused by electronic phase separation in Ca3(Ru0.97Ti0.03)2O7 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jing; Wu, Xiaoshan; Mao, Zhiqiang

    2015-03-01

    Bilayered ruthenate Ca3 Ru2O7 exhibits rich electronic and magnetic properties. It orders at 56K, with FM bilayers antiferromagnetically coupled along c-axis (AFM-a). The AFM transition is closely followed by a first-order metal-insulator (MI) transition at 48K where spin directions switch to the b-axis (AFM-b). While this MI transition is accompanied by the opening of anisotropic charge gap; small Fermi pockets survive from the MI transition, thus resulting in quasi-2D metallic transport behavior for T<30K. We previously showed such a quasi-2D metal with the AFM-b order composed of FM bilayers can be tuned to a Mott-insulating state with a nearest-neighbor AFM order via Ti doping. Ca3(Ru0 . 97 Ti0 . 03) 2O7 is close to the critical composition for the AFM-b-to-G-AFM phase transition. Our recent studies show the sample with this composition is characterized by an electronic phase separation between the insulating G-AFM phase (major) and the localized AFM-b phase (minor). The minor AFM-b phase forms a conducting path through electronic percolation within the ab-plane, but not along the c-axis, thus resulting in extremely large electronic anisotropy with ρab /ρc ~109 , which may be the largest among bulk materials.

  14. Caregiver Stigma and Burden in Memory Disorders: An Evaluation of the Effects of Caregiver Type and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Phoebe V.; Wishart, Heather A.; Randolph, Jennifer S.; Santulli, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable gains in public awareness of dementia, dementia patients and their caregivers continue to be stigmatized. Previous work has explored stigma and burden among adult children of persons with dementia in Israel, but no similar data exist for spousal caregivers or caregivers in general in the United States. This study examines the differences in stigma and burden experienced by spousal and adult child caregivers and male and female caregivers of persons with dementia. Eighty-two caregivers were given the Zarit Burden Inventory Short Form (ZBI) and the Caregiver Section of the Family Stigma in Alzheimer's Disease Scale (FS-ADS-C). Scores on the FS-ADS-C and ZBI were positively correlated (rs = .51, p < .001). Female caregivers reported experiencing more stigma on the FS-ADS-C (t(80) = −4.37, p < .001) and more burden on the ZBI (t(80) = −2.68, p = .009) compared to male caregivers, and adult child caregivers reported experiencing more stigma on the FS-ADS-C (t(30.8) = −2.22, p = .034) and more burden on the ZBI (t(80) = −2.65, p = .010) than spousal caregivers. These results reinforce the importance of support for caregivers, particularly adult child and female caregivers who may experience higher levels of stigma and burden. PMID:26941795

  15. Long lasting phosphorescence and photostimulated luminescence in Tb-ion-activated reduced calcium aluminate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Takeru; Yamazaki, Masaaki; Kawazoe, Hiroshi; Hosono, Hideo

    1999-10-01

    Long lasting phosphorescence (LLP) and photostimulated luminescence (PSL) were found in reduced calcium aluminate glasses activated with Tb3+ ions. The LLP from Tb3+ was observed by illuminating the Tb3+ 4f→5d charge transfer band with ultraviolet (UV) 254 nm light, while the PSL was seen by stimulating the UV-illuminated glasses with 633 nm light. The decay curve of the LLP was fitted with a second-order kinetic for the initial period (0t>30 min). An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal, which is attributed to an F+-like center associated with Ca2+ ions, was induced by illumination with UV light and its intensity decay was fitted with a first-order kinetic similarly to the later stage of the LLP. The appearance of the PSL by illumination is accompanied by a distinct intensity reduction of the EPR signal due to the F+-like center. The thermoluminescence spectra of the specimen illuminated with UV light at 77 K consist of two components peaking at ˜240 and ˜390 K. The low temperature component and the high temperature component were attributed to an F-like center and an F+-like center, respectively. These results lead to a conclusion that electrons of the F-like center and the F+-like center contribute predominantly to the emergence of the LLP and the PSL, respectively.

  16. Magnetically responsive nanoparticles for drug delivery applications using low magnetic field strengths.

    PubMed

    McGill, Shayna L; Cuylear, Carla L; Adolphi, Natalie L; Osiński, Marek; Smyth, Hugh D C

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of magnetic nanoparticles for enhancing drug delivery using a low oscillating magnetic field (OMF) strength. We investigated the ability of magnetic nanoparticles to cause disruption of a viscous biopolymer barrier to drug delivery and the potential to induce triggered release of drug conjugated to the surfaces of these particles. Various magnetic nanoparticles were screened for thermal response under a 295-kHz OMF with an amplitude of 3.1 kA/m. Based on thermal activity of particles screened, we selected the nanoparticles that displayed desired characteristics for evaluation in a simplified model of an extracellular barrier to drug delivery, using lambda DNA/HindIII. Results indicate that nanoparticles could be used to induce DNA breakage to enhance local diffusion of drugs, despite low temperatures of heating. Additional studies showed increased diffusion of quantum dots in this model by single-particle tracking methods. Bimane was conjugated to the surface of magnetic nanoparticles. Fluorescence and transmission electron microscope images of the conjugated nanoparticles indicated little change in the overall appearance of the nanoparticles. A release study showed greater drug release using OMF, while maintaining low bulk heating of the samples (T = 30 degrees C). This study indicates that lower magnetic field strengths may be successfully utilized for drug delivery applications as a method for drug delivery transport enhancement and drug release switches.

  17. Effect of the artificial sweetener, sucralose, on small intestinal glucose absorption in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Chang, Jessica; Checklin, Helen L; Young, Richard L; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Christopher K

    2010-09-01

    It has been reported that the artificial sweetener, sucralose, stimulates glucose absorption in rodents by enhancing apical availability of the transporter GLUT2. We evaluated whether exposure of the proximal small intestine to sucralose affects glucose absorption and/or the glycaemic response to an intraduodenal (ID) glucose infusion in healthy human subjects. Ten healthy subjects were studied on two separate occasions in a single-blind, randomised order. Each subject received an ID infusion of sucralose (4 mM in 0.9% saline) or control (0.9% saline) at 4 ml/min for 150 min (T = - 30 to 120 min). After 30 min (T = 0), glucose (25 %) and its non-metabolised analogue, 3-O-methylglucose (3-OMG; 2.5 %), were co-infused intraduodenally (T = 0-120 min; 4.2 kJ/min (1 kcal/min)). Blood was sampled at frequent intervals. Blood glucose, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and serum 3-OMG concentrations increased during ID glucose/3-OMG infusion (P < 0.005 for each). However, there were no differences in blood glucose, plasma GLP-1 or serum 3-OMG concentrations between sucralose and control infusions. In conclusion, sucralose does not appear to modify the rate of glucose absorption or the glycaemic or incretin response to ID glucose infusion when given acutely in healthy human subjects.

  18. Enhanced malignant transformation is accompanied by increased survival recovery after ionizing radiation in Chinese hamster embryo fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Boothman, D.A.

    1994-04-01

    Transformed Chinese hamster embryo fibroblasts (CHEF), which gradually increase in tumor-forming ability in nude mice, were isolated from normal diploid CHEF/18 cells. Transformed CHEF cells (i.e., T30-4 > 21-2M3 > 21-2 > normal CHEF/18) showed gradual increases in potentially lethal damage (PLD) survival recovery. {beta}-Lapachone and camptothecin, modulators of topoisomerase I (Topo I) activity, not only prevented survival recovery in normal as well as in tumor cells, but enhanced unscheduled DNA synthesis. These seemingly conflicting results are due to the fact that Topo I activity can be modulated by inhibitors to convert single-stranded DNA lesions into double-stranded breaks. Increases in unscheduled DNA synthesis may result from a continual supply of free ends, on which DNA repair processes may act. Altering Topo I activity with modulators appears to increase X-ray lethality via a DNA lesion modification suicide pathway. Cells down-regulate Topo I immediately after ionizing radiation to prevent Topo I-mediated lesion modification and to enhance survival recovery. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Inactivation of the DMH selectively inhibits the ACTH and corticosterone responses to hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Evans, Scott B; Wilkinson, Charles W; Gronbeck, Pam; Bennett, Jennifer L; Zavosh, Aryana; Taborsky, Gerald J; Figlewicz, Dianne P

    2004-01-01

    We have previously reported that repeated bouts of insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) in the rat result in blunted activation of the paraventricular, arcuate, and dorsomedial hypothalamic (DMH) nuclei. Because DMH activation has been implicated in the sympathoadrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses to stressors, we hypothesized that its blunted activation may play a role in the impaired counterregulatory response that is also observed with repeated bouts of IIH. In the present study, we evaluated the role of normal DMH activation in the counterregulatory response to a single bout of IIH. Local infusion of lidocaine (n = 8) to inactivate the DMH during a 2-h bout of IIH resulted in a significant overall decrease of the ACTH response and a delay of onset of the corticosterone response compared with vehicle-infused controls (n = 9). We observed suppression of the ACTH response at time (t) = 90 and 120 min (50 +/- 12 and 63 +/- 6%, respectively, of control levels) and early suppression of the corticosterone response at t = 30 min (59 +/- 13% of the control level). The epinephrine, norepinephrine, and glucagon responses were not altered by DMH inactivation. Our finding suggests that DMH inactivation may play a specific role in decreasing the HPA axis response after repeated bouts of IIH.

  20. The energy input mechanism into the lower transition regions between stellar chromospheres and coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1988-01-01

    The ratio of the emission line fluxes for the C II and C IV lines in the lower transition regions (T = 30,000 to 100,000 K) between stellar chromospheres and transition layers is shown to depend mainly on the temperature gradient in the line emitting regions which can therefore be determined from this line ratio. From the observed constant (within the limits of observational error) ratio of the emission line fluxes of the C II (1335 A) and C IV (1550 A) lines it is concluded that the temperature gradients in the lower transition layers are similar for the large majority of stars independently of T sub eff, L, and degree of activity. This means that the temperature dependence of the damping length for the mechanical flux must be the same for all these stars. Since for different kinds of mechanical fluxes the dependence of the damping length on gas pressure and temperature is quite different, it is concluded that the same heating mechanism must be responsible for the heating of all the lower transition layers of these stars, regardless of their chromospheric activity. Only the amount of mechanical flux changes. The T Tauri stars are exceptions: their emission lines are probably mainly due to circumstellar material.

  1. Development of lead salt semiconductor lasers for the 9-17 micron spectral region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, K. J.; Butler, J. F.; Nill, K. W.; Reeder, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Improved diode lasers of Pb sub 1-x Sn sub x Se operating in the 9-17 micrometers spectral region were developed. The performance characteristics of the best lasers exceeded the contract goals of 500 microW/mode at T 30K in the 9-12 micrometers region and 200 microW/mode at T 18K in the 16-17 micrometers region. Increased reliability and device yields resulted from processing improvements which evolved from a series of diagnostic studies. By means of Auger electron spectroscopy, laser shelf storage degradation was shown to be characterized by the presence of In metal on the semiconductor crystal surfaces. Studies of various metal barrier layers between the crystals and the In metal led to the development of an improved metallurgical contacting technology which has resulted in devices with performance stability values exceeding the contract goal of a one year shelf life. Lasers cycled over 500 times between 300K and 77K were also shown to be stable. Studies on improved methods of fabricating striped geometry lasers indicated that good spectral mode characteristics resulted from lasers which stripe widths of 12 and 25 micrometers.

  2. Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in (311)A GaAs 2D holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, Jeng-Bang; de Poortere, E. P.; Shayegan, M.

    2001-03-01

    We report the observation of Aharonov-Bohm (A-B) oscillations in high mobility (311)A GaAs two-dimensional (2D) holes. The 2D holes in GaAs have been demonstrated to exhibit a significant spin-orbit induced spin-splitting which can be tuned by changing the front/back gate voltages.(Papadakis et al.), Science 283, 2056 (1999). In addition to the A-B phase, a spin wave function acquires a geometrical phase, the Berry's phase,(M. V. Berry, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 392, 45 (1984).) when it travels adiabatically in a magnetic field. A-B rings made of this 2D material are therefore good candidates for the measurement of Berry's phase as proposed by Aronov et al..(A. G. Aronov et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 343 (1993). We defined the A-B ring with a 2000 Åwide channel by electron beam lithography and deposited Ti/Au as the front gate. At T ~= 30 mK, we observe A-B oscillations with periods matching the geometry of the ring, providing evidence for the phase-coherent transport of 2D holes. By changing the front gate voltage, we observe changes in the magnitude and period of the oscillations. Furthermore, the Fourier spectra of some of the traces reveal a splitting of the peak, which may be a manifestation of the Berry's phase.

  3. Titan's surface at 2.2-cm wavelength imaged by the Cassini RADAR radiometer: Calibration and first results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janssen, M.A.; Lorenz, R.D.; West, R.; Paganelli, F.; Lopes, R.M.; Kirk, R.L.; Elachi, C.; Wall, S.D.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Anderson, Y.; Boehmer, R.A.; Callahan, P.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.A.; Kelleher, K.D.; Roth, L.; Stiles, B.; Le, Gall A.

    2009-01-01

    The first comprehensive calibration and mapping of the thermal microwave emission from Titan's surface is reported based on radiometric data obtained at 2.2-cm wavelength by the passive radiometer included in the Cassini Radar instrument. The data reported were accumulated from 69 separate observational segments in Titan passes from Ta (October 2004) through T30 (May 2007) and include emission from 94% of Titan's surface. They are diverse in the key observing parameters of emission angle, polarization, and spatial resolution, and their reduction into calibrated global mosaic maps involved several steps. Analysis of the polarimetry obtained at low to moderate resolution (50+ km) enabled integration of the radiometry into a single mosaic of the equivalent brightness temperature at normal incidence with a relative precision of about 1 K. The Huygens probe measurement of Titan's surface temperature and radiometry obtained on Titan's dune fields allowed us to infer an absolute calibration estimated to be accurate to a level approaching 1 K. The results provide evidence for a surface that is complex and varied on large scales. The radiometry primarily constrains physical properties of the surface, where we see strong evidence for subsurface (volume) scattering as a dominant mechanism that determines the emissivity, with the possibility of a fluffy or graded-density surface layer in many regions. The results are consistent with, but not necessarily definitive of a surface composition resulting from the slow deposition and processing of organic compounds from the atmosphere. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc.

  4. An electro-conductive fluid as a responsive implant for the controlled stimuli-release of diclofenac sodium.

    PubMed

    Bijukumar, Divya; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an electro-responsive co-polymeric (ERP) implantable gel from polyethylene glycol (PEG), sodium polystyrene sulphonate (NaPss), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and diethyl acetomidomalonate (DAA) for electro-liberation of the model drug diclofenac sodium. Various physicochemical and physicomechanical characterization tests were undertaken on the synthesized drug-free gel (ERP G1) and drug-loaded gel (ERP G2). The ability of the gel to release diclofenac sodium following electrical stimulation was evaluated using a galvanostat while Molecular Mechanics (MM) simulations were performed to elucidate the experimental mechanisms. A stable electro-active gel exhibiting superior cycling stability was produced with desirable rheological properties, rigidity (BHN = 35.4 N ± 0.33 N/mm(2); resilience = 10.91 ± 0.11%), thermal properties (Tg ≈ 70 °C; Tc ≈ 200 °C) and homogeneous morphology. "ON-OFF" pursatile gradual drug release (37-94% from t30 min-t180 min) kinetics was observed upon applying electric stimulation intermittently, indicating that drug release from the gel was electrically controlled. Overall, the galvanometric and MM evaluation ascertained the suitability of the PEG/NaPss/PVA ERP-Gel for application as a subcutaneously injectable drug delivery implant.

  5. Measurement of the Sm151(n,γ) cross section from 0.6 eV to 1 MeV via the neutron time-of-flight technique at the CERN n_TOF facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrone, S.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Bečvář, F.; Benlliure, J.; Berthomieux, E.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Cortina, D.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dababneh, S.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dolfini, R.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Duran-Escribano, I.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W. I.; Gallino, R.; Goncalves, I. F.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Isaev, S.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Kerveno, M.; Ketlerov, V.; Koehler, P. E.; Konovalov, V.; Kritĉka, M.; Lamboudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Martinez-Val, J.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Molina-Coballes, A.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papaevangelou, T.; Paradela, C.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perlado, J. M.; Perrot, L.; Pignatari, M.; Pigni, M. T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Policarpo, A.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J. M.; Raman, S.; Rapp, W.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Soares, J. C.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L. M. N.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin-Fernandez, D.; Vincente-Vincente, M.; Vlachoudis, V.; Voss, F.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2006-03-01

    The Sm151(n,γ) cross section was measured with the time-of-flight technique from 0.6 eV up to 1 MeV relative to the Au standard with an overall uncertainty of typically 6%. Neutrons were produced by spallation at the innovative n_TOF facility at CERN; the γ rays from capture events were detected with organic C6D6 scintillators. Experimental setup and data analysis procedures are described with emphasis on the corrections for detection efficiency, background subtraction, and neutron flux determination. At low energies, resonances could be resolved up to about 1 keV, yielding a resonance integral of 3575±210 b, an average s-wave resonance spacing of =1.49±0.07 eV, and a neutron strength function of =(3.87±0.33)×10-4. Maxwellian-averaged capture cross sections are reported for thermal energies between 5 and 100 keV. These results are of relevance for nuclear structure studies, nuclear astrophysics, and nuclear technology. The new value of the Maxwellian-averaged cross section at kT=30 keV is 3.08±0.15 b, considerably larger than previous theoretical estimates, and provides better constraints for the thermodynamic conditions during the occurrence of the slow neutron capture process in low-mass stars during their asymptotic giant branch phase.

  6. Effect of instant controlled pressure drop treatments on the oligosaccharides extractability and microstructure of Tephrosia purpurea seeds.

    PubMed

    Amor, Bouthaina Ben; Lamy, Cécile; Andre, Patrice; Allaf, Karim

    2008-12-12

    The study of the oligosaccharides extracted from Tephrosia purpurea seeds was undertaken using the instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) as a pre-treatment prior to conventional solvent extraction. This DIC procedure provided structural modification in terms of expansion, higher porosity and improvement of specific surface area; diffusion of solvent inside such seeds and availability of oligosaccharides increase notably. In this paper, we investigated and quantified the impact of the different DIC operative parameters on the yields of ciceritol and stachyose extracted from T. purpurea seeds. The treatment could be optimized with a steam pressure (P) (P=0.2 MPa), initial water content (W) (W=30% dry basis (DB)) and thermal treatment time (t) (t=30s). By applying DIC treatment in these conditions, the classic process of extraction was intensified in both aspects of yields (145% of ciceritol and 185% of stachyose), and kinetics (1h of extraction time instead of 4h for conventional process). The scanning electron microscopy micrographs provided evident modifications of structure of seeds due to the DIC treatment.

  7. Hogg 12 and NGC 3590: A New Open Cluster Binary System Candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Clariá, Juan J.; Ahumada, Andrea V.

    2010-05-01

    We have obtained CCD UBVIKC photometry down to V ∼ 22.0 for the open clusters Hogg 12 and NGC 3590 and the fields surrounding them. Based on photometric and morphological criteria, as well as on the stellar density in the region, our evidence is sufficient to confirm that Hogg 12 is a genuine open cluster. NGC 3590 was used as a control cluster. The color-magnitude diagrams of Hogg 12, cleaned from field star contamination, reveal that this is a solar metal content cluster, affected by E(B - V) = 0.40 ± 0.05, located at a heliocentric distance d = 2.0 ± 0.5 kpc, and of an age similar to that of NGC 3590 (t = 30 Myr). Both clusters are surprisingly small objects whose radii are barely ∼1 pc, andthey are separated in the sky by scarcely 3.6 pc. These facts, added to their similar ages, reddenings, and metallicities, allow us to consider them a new open cluster binary system candidate. Of the ∼180 open cluster binary systems estimated to exist in the Galaxy, of which 27 are actually well known, Hogg 12 and NGC 3590 appear to be one of the two closest pairs.

  8. New green synthesis and formulations of acyclovir prodrugs.

    PubMed

    de Regil-Hernández, Rubén; Martínez-Lagos, Fernando; Rodríguez-Bayón, Amalia; Sinisterra, José-Vicente

    2011-01-01

    Different green synthesis of alkyl esters of acyclovir (acyclovir prodrugs) is described. Hexanoic, decanoic, dodecanoic and tetradecanoic acyclovir esters were synthesized reacting acyclovir and the respective acid anhydride in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), in solvents from renewable sources and without solvent (T=30 °C). Yields in prodrugs after 10 min of reaction were >95% using DMSO as solvent. The purification methodology was very simple, shorter and greener than previously described. The biosolvent, N,N-dimethylamide of decanoic acid, let us to obtain >95% yield at 24 h. This oily biosolvent is not dermotoxic and the reaction crude can directly be used in topic formulations. Syntheses without solvent proceeded successfully for acyclovir esters. Indeed, dodecanoate and tetradecanoate yielding >98% conversion of reactants in 30 min. In spite of requiring mild temperature (65 °C), substrate molar ratios were lowered to 1 : 1, thus conducing to a more efficient use of raw materials. The synthetic procedures were scaled up to a 300 g batch (yield 98-99% isolated ester). These esters can be used as acyclovir prodrugs in topic formulations. The esters release from an oil/water micro-emulsion and a hydrogel formulation were tested with good results.

  9. EVIDENCE FOR MULTIPLE PATHWAYS TO DEUTERIUM ENHANCEMENTS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Oeberg, Karin I.; Qi, Chunhua; Wilner, David J.; Hogerheijde, Michiel R.

    2012-04-20

    The distributions of deuterated molecules in protoplanetary disks are expected to depend on the molecular formation pathways. We use observations of spatially resolved DCN emission from the disk around TW Hya, acquired during ALMA science verification with a {approx}3'' synthesized beam, together with comparable DCO{sup +} observations from the Submillimeter Array, to investigate differences in the radial distributions of these species and hence differences in their formation chemistry. In contrast to DCO{sup +}, which shows an increasing column density with radius, DCN is better fit by a model that is centrally peaked. We infer that DCN forms at a smaller radii and thus at higher temperatures than DCO{sup +}. This is consistent with chemical network model predictions of DCO{sup +} formation from H{sub 2}D{sup +} at T < 30 K and DCN formation from additional pathways involving CH{sub 2}D{sup +} at higher temperatures. We estimate a DCN/HCN abundance ratio of {approx}0.017, similar to the DCO{sup +}/HCO{sup +} abundance ratio. Deuterium fractionation appears to be efficient at a range of temperatures in this protoplanetary disk. These results suggest caution in interpreting the range of deuterium fractions observed in solar system bodies, as multiple formation pathways should be taken into account.

  10. On the simulation of seat-dip effect using geometrical acoustics software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirillo, Ettore; Martellotta, Francesco

    2004-05-01

    A group of Italian churches was surveyed in order to measure the most important acoustic parameters according to ISO 3382 Standard. Computer models of the same churches were made using acoustic simulation software. Absorption coefficients found in the literature were used and later calibrated to match predicted and measured T30 values. The results of the simulations were compared with the observed values, showing some discrepancies at mid-low frequencies. This discrepancy appeared to be due to a lack of direct sound in the measured responses, particularly at the 250-Hz and 500-Hz octave bands, indicating the probable presence of a seat-dip effect caused by the wooden pews. Since the acoustic simulation software provided the possibility to use acoustically semitransparent planes, this feature was used to simulate the effect of selective absorption of the direct sound due to the seat-dip effect. The comparison between measured acoustic parameters and those predicted including the simulation of the seat-dip effect showed that an improvement in the prediction accuracy can be achieved. Different configurations were tested in order to define the optimal placing of the semitransparent plane, and a criterion to choose the transparency coefficients is finally proposed.

  11. A measurement of the ratio of the W and Z cross sections with exactly one associated jet in pp collisions at √{ s} = 7 TeV with ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, D.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Byatt, T.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G. D.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A. M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S. A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Chapman, J. W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavda, V.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S. L.; Chevalier, L.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I. A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciba, K.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M. D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clifft, R. W.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coe, P.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C. D.; Colas, J.; Colijn, A. P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N. J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Consonni, M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crescioli, F.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cuciuc, C.-M.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C. J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czirr, H.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; da Silva, P. V. M.; da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Damiani, D. S.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G. L.; Daum, C.; Dauvergne, J. P.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, A. R.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J. W.; Daya, R. K.; de, K.; de Asmundis, R.; de Castro, S.; de Castro Faria Salgado, P. E.; de Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; de Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; de La Taille, C.; de la Torre, H.; de Lotto, B.; de Mora, L.; de Nooij, L.; de Pedis, D.; de Salvo, A.; de Sanctis, U.; de Santo, A.; de Vivie de Regie, J. B.; Dean, S.; Debbe, R.; Dedovich, D. V.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; Della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delpierre, P.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Devetak, E.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dewilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; di Ciaccio, A.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Girolamo, A.; di Girolamo, B.; di Luise, S.; di Mattia, A.; di Micco, B.; di Nardo, R.; di Simone, A.; di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M. A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Do Vale, M. A. B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T. K. O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobinson, R.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dohmae, T.; Donadelli, M.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dosil, M.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M. T.; Dowell, J. D.; Doxiadis, A. D.; Doyle, A. T.; Drasal, Z.; Drees, J.; Dressnandt, N.; Drevermann, H.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dubbs, T.; Dube, S.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Dührssen, M.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M.-A.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Dydak, F.; Düren, M.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Ebke, J.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C. A.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evangelakou, D.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Fazio, S.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Feligioni, L.; Fellmann, D.; Felzmann, C. U.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferland, J.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrara, V.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M. L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fischer, P.; Fisher, M. J.; Fisher, S. M.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Fokitis, M.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Forbush, D. A.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Foster, J. M.; Fournier, D.; Foussat, A.; Fowler, A. J.; Fowler, K.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Frank, T.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, F.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gadfort, T.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallas, M. V.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galyaev, E.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, Y. S.; Gapienko, V. A.; Gaponenko, A.; Garberson, F.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garitaonandia, H.; Garonne, V.; Garvey, J.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaumer, O.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gayde, J.-C.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Gemmell, A.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerlach, P.; Gershon, A.; Geweniger, C.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghez, P.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, A.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilbert, L. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gilewsky, V.; Gillberg, D.; Gillman, A. R.; Gingrich, D. M.; Ginzburg, J.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giordano, R.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giovannini, P.; Giraud, P. F.; Giugni, D.; Giunta, M.; Giusti, P.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glazov, A.; Glitza, K. W.; Glonti, G. L.; Godfrey, J.; Godlewski, J.; Goebel, M.; Göpfert, T.; Goeringer, C.; Gössling, C.; Göttfert, T.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golovnia, S. N.; Gomes, A.; Gomez Fajardo, L. S.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; Gonidec, A.; Gonzalez, S.; González de La Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Silva, M. L.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodson, J. J.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Gorokhov, S. A.; Goryachev, V. N.; Gosdzik, B.; Gosselink, M.; Gostkin, M. I.; Gough Eschrich, I.; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M. P.; Goussiou, A. G.; Goy, C.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grabski, V.; Grafström, P.; Grah, C.; Grahn, K.-J.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Grau, N.; Gray, H. M.; Gray, J. A.; Graziani, E.; Grebenyuk, O. G.; Greenfield, D.; Greenshaw, T.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griffiths, J.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grillo, A. A.; Grinstein, S.; Grishkevich, Y. V.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grognuz, J.; Groh, M.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Groth-Jensen, J.; Grybel, K.; Guarino, V. J.; Guest, D.; Guicheney, C.; Guida, A.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Guler, H.; Gunther, J.; Guo, B.; Guo, J.; Gupta, A.; Gusakov, Y.; Gushchin, V. N.; Gutierrez, A.; Gutierrez, P.; Guttman, N.; Gutzwiller, O.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haas, S.; Haber, C.; Hackenburg, R.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hadley, D. R.; Haefner, P.; Hahn, F.; Haider, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haller, J.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamilton, A.; Hamilton, S.; Han, H.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hance, M.; Handel, C.; Hanke, P.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hansson, P.; Hara, K.; Hare, G. A.; Harenberg, T.; Harkusha, S.; Harper, D.; Harrington, R. D.; Harris, O. M.; Harrison, K.; Hartert, J.; Hartjes, F.; Haruyama, T.; Harvey, A.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hassani, S.; Hatch, M.; Hauff, D.; Haug, S.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Havranek, M.; Hawes, B. M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, D.; Hayakawa, T.; Hayden, D.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Hazen, E.; He, M.; Head, S. J.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heinemann, B.; Heisterkamp, S.; Helary, L.; Heller, M.; Hellman, S.; Hellmich, D.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henke, M.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Henry-Couannier, F.; Hensel, C.; Henß, T.; Hernandez, C. 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T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Prell, S.; Pretzl, K.; Pribyl, L.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Price, M. J.; Prichard, P. M.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Prudent, X.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Pueschel, E.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qian, J.; Qian, Z.; Qin, Z.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radescu, V.; Radics, B.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A. M.; Rahm, D.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rammes, M.; Ramstedt, M.; Randle-Conde, A. S.; Randrianarivony, K.; Ratoff, P. N.; Rauscher, F.; Rauter, E.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reichold, A.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reinsch, A.; Reisinger, I.; Reljic, D.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z. L.; Renaud, A.; Renkel, P.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richards, A.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rieke, S.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R. R.; Riu, I.; Rivoltella, G.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robinson, M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J. G.; Roda, C.; Roda Dos Santos, D.; Rodier, S.; Rodriguez, D.; Roe, A.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rojo, V.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romanov, V. M.; Romeo, G.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, A.; Rose, M.; Rosenbaum, G. A.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rosendahl, P. L.; Rosenthal, O.; Rosselet, L.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rossi, L.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubinskiy, I.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, C.; Rudolph, G.; Rühr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E.; Rumiantsev, V.; Rumyantsev, L.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Rust, D. R.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryadovikov, V.; Ryan, P.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N. C.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sadeh, I.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B. M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B. H.; Sanchez, A.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, T.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sartisohn, G.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Sauvan, J. B.; Savard, P.; Savinov, V.; Savu, D. O.; Savva, P.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D. H.; Says, L. P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scallon, O.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schäfer, U.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schamov, A. G.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J. L.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, M.; Schöning, A.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schuh, S.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, J. W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Scott, W. G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellden, B.; Sellers, G.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M. E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shank, J. T.; Shao, Q. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shichi, H.; Shimizu, S.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Short, D.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sircar, A.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinnari, L. A.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloan, T. J.; Sloper, J.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B. C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snow, S. W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E.; Soldevila, U.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Sondericker, J.; Soni, N.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sorbi, M.; Sosebee, M.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiriti, E.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockmanns, T.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strang, M.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Strong, J. A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Soh, D. A.; Su, D.; Subramania, Hs.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suita, K.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Sviridov, Yu. M.; Swedish, S.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szeless, B.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tappern, G. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teinturier, M.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Thadome, J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F. J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Traynor, D.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T. N.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tuggle, J. M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tyrvainen, H.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eijk, B.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walbersloh, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Weydert, C.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wong, W. C.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ybeles Smit, G. V.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V. G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo. K.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.; Atlas Collaboration

    2012-02-01

    The ratio of production cross sections of the W and Z bosons with exactly one associated jet is presented as a function of jet transverse momentum threshold. The measurement has been designed to maximise cancellation of experimental and theoretical uncertainties, and is reported both within a particle-level kinematic range corresponding to the detector acceptance and as a total cross-section ratio. Results are obtained with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV using an integrated luminosity of 33 pb-1. The results are compared with perturbative leading-order, leading-log, and next-to-leading-order QCD predictions, and are found to agree within experimental and theoretical uncertainties. The ratio is measured for events with a single jet with pT > 30 GeV to be 8.73 ± 0.30(stat) ± 0.40(syst) in the electron channel, and 8.49 ± 0.23(stat) ± 0.33(syst) in the muon channel.

  12. Induction Cell Design Tradeoffs and Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reginato, Louis L.; Briggs*, Richard J.

    A brief history of induction accelerator development was covered in Chap. 2. The induction accelerators constructed since the early 1960s can be categorized as short-pulse if the pulse duration is less than 100 ns and long-pulse if it is longer. The distinction between short-pulse and long-pulse is arbitrary; it mainly reflects the type of magnetic material that was typically used in the cell. Examples of short-pulse induction accelerators are the electron ring accelerator (ERA, Δ t=30 ns) [1], the advanced test accelerator (ATA, Δ t=70 ns) [2] and the experimental test accelerator (ETA-II, Δ t=70 ns) [3]. Examples of long-pulse accelerators are the Astron (Δ t=400 ns) [4, 5] and the second axis of the dual axis radiographic hydro test accelerator (DARHT-II, Δ t=2{,}000 ns) [6]. In this chapter the cell design of several of these accelerators will be described in detail. We will discuss how the physics, economics, and space requirements often lead to a non-optimum design from the accelerator systems vantage point. Although modulators are covered in Chap. 4 , some specific designs will be discussed on how the constant voltage (flat-top) was achieved in concert with the cell design and compensation network .

  13. Induction Cell Design Tradeoffs and Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reginato, Louis L.; Briggs*, Richard J.

    A brief history of induction accelerator development was covered in Chap. 2 10.1007/978-3-642-13917-8_2". The induction accelerators constructed since the early 1960s can be categorized as short-pulse if the pulse duration is less than 100 ns and long-pulse if it is longer. The distinction between short-pulse and long-pulse is arbitrary; it mainly reflects the type of magnetic material that was typically used in the cell. Examples of short-pulse induction accelerators are the electron ring accelerator (ERA, Δ t=30 ns) [1], the advanced test accelerator (ATA, Δ t=70 ns) [2] and the experimental test accelerator (ETA-II, Δ t=70 ns) [3]. Examples of long-pulse accelerators are the Astron (Δ t=400 ns) [4, 5] and the second axis of the dual axis radiographic hydro test accelerator (DARHT-II, Δ t=2{,}000 ns) [6]. In this chapter the cell design of several of these accelerators will be described in detail. We will discuss how the physics, economics, and space requirements often lead to a non-optimum design from the accelerator systems vantage point. Although modulators are covered in Chap. 4 10.1007/978-3-642-13917-8_4, some specific designs will be discussed on how the constant voltage (flat-top) was achieved in concert with the cell design and compensation network .

  14. Extraordinary behavioral entrainment following circadian rhythm bifurcation in mice.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Elizabeth M; Walbeek, Thijs J; Sun, Jonathan; Johnson, Jeremy; Poonawala, Qays; Gorman, Michael R

    2016-12-08

    The mammalian circadian timing system uses light to synchronize endogenously generated rhythms with the environmental day. Entrainment to schedules that deviate significantly from 24 h (T24) has been viewed as unlikely because the circadian pacemaker appears capable only of small, incremental responses to brief light exposures. Challenging this view, we demonstrate that simple manipulations of light alone induce extreme plasticity in the circadian system of mice. Firstly, exposure to dim nocturnal illumination (<0.1 lux), rather than completely dark nights, permits expression of an altered circadian waveform wherein mice in light/dark/light/dark (LDLD) cycles "bifurcate" their rhythms into two rest and activity intervals per 24 h. Secondly, this bifurcated state enables mice to adopt stable activity rhythms under 15 or 30 h days (LDLD T15/T30), well beyond conventional limits of entrainment. Continuation of dim light is unnecessary for T15/30 behavioral entrainment following bifurcation. Finally, neither dim light alone nor a shortened night is sufficient for the extraordinary entrainment observed under bifurcation. Thus, we demonstrate in a non-pharmacological, non-genetic manipulation that the circadian system is far more flexible than previously thought. These findings challenge the current conception of entrainment and its underlying principles, and reveal new potential targets for circadian interventions.

  15. Spectroscopic investigation of the solvatochromic behavior of a new synthesized non symmetric viologen dye: study of the solvent-solute interactions.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Raffaello; Deligkiozi, Ioanna; Tsolomitis, Athanase

    2010-07-01

    This work deals with the design, synthesis, and characterization of a new solvatochromic dye. The intense solvatochromic behavior of this new synthesized non symmetric viologen was investigated using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. A further purpose was the study of the interactions between the solvent and solute molecules responsible for the solvatochromism. Several protic and aprotic solvents were used, and the resulting absorption maxima wavenumbers obtained via UV-Vis spectrophotometry, were correlated with the solvent polarity parameters, E(T)(30) (Dimroth-Reichardt solvent polarity parameter) and the Gutmann's donor number (DN) using the biparametric model introduced by Krygowski and Fawcett. The analysis of the relative contribution of each parameter has clearly shown that the dominating interaction responsible for the solvatochromic behavior observed is the proton donation by the solute molecules to the solvent molecules, the latter acting as a Lewis bases. This is an interaction which can be described by DN. Additionally, the good correlation with the Kamlet-Taft parameter beta is in good agreement.

  16. Choristoneura fumiferana nucleopolyhedrovirus encodes a functional 3'-5' exonuclease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dan-Hui; de Jong, Jondavid G; Makhmoudova, Amina; Arif, Basil M; Krell, Peter J

    2004-12-01

    The Choristoneura fumiferana nucleopolyhedrovirus (CfMNPV) encodes an ORF homologous to type III 3'-5' exonucleases. The CfMNPV v-trex ORF was cloned into the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression-vector system, expressed in insect Sf21 cells with an N-terminal His tag and purified to homogeneity by using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Biochemical characterization of the purified V-TREX confirmed that this viral protein is a functional 3'-5' exonuclease that cleaves oligonucleotides from the 3' end in a stepwise, distributive manner, suggesting a role in proofreading during viral DNA replication and DNA repair. Enhanced degradation of a 5'-digoxigenin- or 5'-(32)P-labelled oligo(dT)(30) substrate was observed at increasing incubation times or increased amounts of V-TREX. The 3'-excision activity of V-TREX was maximal at alkaline pH (9.5) in the presence of 5 mM MgCl(2), 2 mM dithiothreitol and 0.1 mg BSA ml(-1).

  17. Postseismic deformation due to subcrustal viscoelastic relaxation following dip-slip earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    The deformation of the Earth following a dip-slip earthquake is calculated using a three layer rheological model and finite element techniques. The three layers are an elastic upper lithosphere, a standard linear solid lower lithosphere, and a Maxwell viscoelastic asthenosphere-a model previously analyzed in the strike-clip case (Cohen, 1981, 1982). Attention is focused on the magnitude of the postseismic subsidence and the width of the subsidence zone that can develop due to the viscoelastic response to coseismic reverse slip. Detailed analysis for a fault extending from the surface to 15 km with a 45 deg dip reveals that postseismic subsidence is sensitive to the depth to the asthenosphere but is only weakly dependent on lower lithosphere depth. The greatest subsidence occurs when the elastic lithosphere is about 30 km thick and the asthenosphere lies just below this layer (asthenosphere depth = 2 times the fault depth). The extremum in the subsidence pattern occurs at about 5 km from the surface trace of the fault and lies over the slip plane. In a typical case after a time t = 30 tau (tau = Maxwell time) following the earthquake the subsidence at this point is 60% of the coseismic uplift. Unlike the horizontal deformation following a strike slip earthquake, significant vertical deformation due to asthenosphere flow persists for many times tau and the magnitude of the vertical deformation is not necessarily enhanced by having a partially relaxing lower lithosphere.

  18. Interaction of near-IR laser radiation with plasma of a continuous optical discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Zimakov, V. P.; Kuznetsov, V. A.; Solovyov, N. G.; Shemyakin, A. N.; Shilov, A. O.; Yakimov, M. Yu.

    2016-01-15

    The interaction of 1.07-μm laser radiation with plasma of a continuous optical discharge (COD) in xenon and argon at a pressure of p = 3–25 bar and temperature of T = 15 kK has been studied. The threshold power required to sustain COD is found to decrease with increasing gas pressure to P{sub t} < 30 W in xenon at p > 20 bar and to P{sub t} < 350 W in argon at p > 15 bar. This effect is explained by an increase in the coefficient of laser radiation absorption to 20−25 cm{sup –1} in Xe and 1−2 cm{sup –1} in Ar due to electronic transitions between the broadened excited atomic levels. The COD characteristics also depend on the laser beam refraction in plasma. This effect can be partially compensated by a tighter focusing of the laser beam. COD is applied as a broadband light source with a high spectral brightness.

  19. Streptomyces hypolithicus sp. nov., isolated from an Antarctic hypolith community.

    PubMed

    Le Roes-Hill, Marilize; Rohland, Jeffrey; Meyers, Paul R; Cowan, Don A; Burton, Stephanie G

    2009-08-01

    As part of an enzyme-screening programme, an actinobacterium, strain HSM#10T, was isolated from a sample collected from the base of a translucent quartz rock in Miers Valley, eastern Antarctica. The isolate produced branching vegetative mycelium that was characteristic of filamentous actinobacteria. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of the strain suggested that HSM#10T should be classified as a member of the genus Streptomyces. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain was closely related to members of the genus Streptomyces, which supports the classification of this strain within the family Streptomycetaceae. Phenotypic and phylogenetic results allowed strain HSM#10T to be differentiated from known streptomycetes. DNA-DNA hybridization data also showed that strain HSM#10T could be differentiated from its nearest phylogenetic neighbours Streptomyces chryseus DSM 40420T (53.55+/-3.15% DNA relatedness), Streptomyces helvaticus DSM 40431T (38.75+/-2.75%), Streptomyces flavidovirens DSM 40150T (30.7+/-2.90%) and Streptomyces albidochromogenes DSM 41800T (33.9+/-0.10%). Therefore, the name Streptomyces hypolithicus sp. nov. is proposed, with HSM#10T (=DSM 41950T=NRRL B-24669T) as the type strain.

  20. Do tunneling states and boson peak persist or disappear in extremely stabilized glasses?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, M. A.; Pérez-Castañeda, T.; Jiménez-Riobóo, R. J.; Rodríguez-Tinoco, C.; Rodríguez-Viejo, J.

    2015-06-01

    We review and concurrently discuss two recent works conducted by us, which apparently give opposite results. Specifically, we have investigated how extreme thermal histories in glasses can affect their universal properties at low temperatures, by studying: (i) amber, the fossilized natural resin, which is a glass which has experienced a hyperaging process for about one hundred million years; and (ii) ultrastable thin-film glasses of indomethacin. Specific heat Cp measurements in the temperature range 0.07 K < T < 30 K showed that the amount of two-level systems, assessed from the linear term at the lowest temperatures, was exactly the same for the pristine hyperaged amber glass as for the subsequently rejuvenated samples, whereas just a modest increase of the boson-peak height (in Cp/T3) with increasing rejuvenation was observed, related to a corresponding increase of the Debye coefficient. On the other hand, we have observed an unexpected suppression of the two-level systems in the ultrastable glass of indomethacin, whereas conventionally prepared thin films of the same material exhibit the usual linear term in the specific heat below 1 K ascribed to these universal two-level systems in glasses. By comparing both highly-stable kinds of glass, we conclude that the disappearance of the tunneling two-level systems in ultrastable thin films of indomethacin may be due to the quasi-2D and anisotropic behavior of this glass, what could support the idea of a phonon-mediated interaction between two-level systems.

  1. Magnetic field effect on growth, arsenic uptake, and total amylolytic activity on mesquite (Prosopis juliflora x P. velutina) seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Tavizón, Edith; Mokgalaka-Matlala, Ntebogeng S.; Elizalde Galindo, José T.; Castillo-Michelle, Hiram; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic field is closely related to the cell metabolism of plants [N. A. Belyavskaya, Adv. Space Res. 34, 1566 (2004)]. In order to see the effect of magnetic field on the plant growth, arsenic uptake, and total amylolytic activity of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora x P. velutina) seeds, ten sets of 80 seeds were selected to be oriented with the long axis parallel or randomly oriented to an external magnetic field. The external magnetic field magnitude was 1 T, and the exposition time t = 30 min. Then, the seeds were stored for three days in a plastic bag and then sown on paper towels in a modified Hoagland's nutrient solution. After three days of germination in the dark and three days in light, seedlings were grown hydroponically in modified Hoagland's nutrient solution (high PO42-) containing 0, 10, or 20 ppm of arsenic as As (III) and (V). The results show that the germination ratios, growth, elongation, arsenic uptake, and total amylolytic activity of the long axis oriented mesquite seeds were much higher than those of the randomly oriented seeds. Also, these two sets of seeds showed higher properties than the ones that were not exposed to external magnetic field.

  2. Informatics in radiology: integration of the medical imaging resource center into a teaching hospital network to allow single sign-on access.

    PubMed

    Prevedello, Luciano M; Andriole, Katherine P; Khorasani, Ryan Roobian Ramin

    2009-01-01

    The RSNA Medical Imaging Resource Center (MIRC) software is an open-source program that allows users to identify, index, and retrieve images, teaching files, and other radiologic data that share a common underlying structure. The software is being continually improved as new challenges and different needs become apparent. Although version T30 is easily installed on a stand-alone computer, its implementation at healthcare enterprises with complex network architecture may be challenging with respect to security because users cannot log on by using a standard enterprise-wide authentication protocol. Instead, authentication takes place through the local MIRC database, creating security concerns and potential organizational problems. In this setting, the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) can be used to provide a single sign-on environment and increase authentication security. A commercial directory service using LDAP has been successfully integrated with MIRC in a large multifacility enterprise to provide single sign-on capability compatible with the institutional networking policies for password security.

  3. Plasma-Filled Rod-Pinch Diode for HEDLP Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Andrew; Weber, Bruce; Swanekamp, Stephen; Schumer, Joseph; Pereira, Nino; Seely, John; Mosher, David

    2016-10-01

    This poster describes recent progress on research into using the plasma-filled rod-pinch (PFRP) at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) for warm dense matter (WDM) studies. The objective of this project is to utilize the PFRP diode and associated diagnostics to experimentally quantify the pressure, temperature, and ionization state via independent measurements in WDM comprised of ionized high-Z materials (tungsten). Previous experiments and preliminary results show that the parameters of the PFRP plasma are approximately Z = 17 , ρm = 0.7 g/cm3, T = 30 eV, P = 16 Mb, and Γ = 35 . The experiments and simulations currently underway will allow for more accurate determination of these parameters, which will contribute to an enhanced understanding of these high-Z materials in a WDM state. To achieve this objective, new diagnostics are being developed and current diagnostics are being refined, experiments are being performed, and numerical modeling is being carried out. This project will refine a new technique for producing WDM that can be replicated on pulsed power generators at several US universities and government laboratories, provide data for benchmarking numerical analysis codes, and develop diagnostics that should prove useful on many other WDM sources. This work was supported under the Department of Energy Office of Science Project DE-SC0014331.

  4. Selected Manpower Statistics, FY-1970

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-04-15

    31,27 31 Dect 195 (:26,3 226 29i 2131,660 1,25 3,7 ,058Q #2 0961 75 9 396,059 1.2,M5 608,0490 31,61 4766e -0 Ji 18,3L196211 L W L -o3,1 -T, -8569T5) Y ...86196 8r*0i 435 31- duty 1,159,019 626 340 17.5e 51.e t 30J e 96 5e355h 197 litcdt 865 ud 1,26 ,224 e in30- Y .out 11.1,20 81.52 !7,4 11 (C8ta70.21...1939 21310 S1,54 9n0112/ 666,p "a 311 61115 11,90 111,25630 .is 19)3 2,15ඔ,3 31 Iks 1960 32,30,Uk A*7, 9710, 6 31 JUN 1961 2.൓ y f5,3 I1,3 MAW35

  5. Neutron capture of /sup 122/Te, /sup 123/Te, /sup 124/Te, /sup 125/Te, and /sup 126/Te

    SciTech Connect

    Macklin, R.L.; Winters, R.R.

    1989-07-01

    Isotopically enriched samples of the tellurium isotopes from mass 122 to mass 126 were used to measure neutron capture in the energy range 2.6 keV to 600 keV at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator pulsed neutron source. Starting at 2.6 keV, over 200 Breit-Wigner resonances for each isotope were used to describe the capture data. Least-squares adjustment gave parameters and their uncertainties for a total of 1659 resonances. Capture cross sections averaged over Maxwellian neutron distributions with temperatures ranging from kT = 5 keV to kT = 100 keV were derived for comparison with stellar nucleosynthesis calculations. For the three isotopes shielded from the astrophysical r-process, /sup 122/Te, /sup 123/Te and /sup 124/Te at kT = 30 keV the respective values were (280 /plus minus/ 10) mb, (819 /plus minus/ 30) mb and (154 /plus minus/ 6) mb. The corresponding products of cross section and solar system abundance are nearly equal in close agreement with s-process nucleosynthesis calculations. 26 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. EFFECTS OF AGE AND ACUTE MUSCLE FATIGUE ON REACTIVE POSTURAL CONTROL IN HEALTHY ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Papa, Evan V.; Foreman, K. Bo; Dibble, Lee E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. METHODS A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-minutes (T15) and 30-minutes (T30) of rest. FINDINGS Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. INTERPRETATION Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 minutes of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. PMID:26351001

  7. Increase in prostate stem cell antigen expression in prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone and 17β-estradiol in C57BL mice.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Nariaki; Kanno, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Estradiol (E2) is known to act synergistically with testosterone (T) for the development of prostatic hyperplasia in rats and dogs, but murine prostate is less responsive to hormonal stimulation. However, a recent study revealed that the combined administration of E2 and T induced prostatic hyperplasia with bladder outlet obstruction in C57BL mice. To understand the mechanisms underlying the hormonal induction of prostatic hyperplasia, the expression of growth factors and their receptors, androgen receptor, estrogen receptor (ER), and prostatic secretory proteins was investigated. Ten-week-old male C57BL mice were treated with T (30mg) or T+E2 (0.5mg) for 10 weeks, and prostatic lobes were dissected and subjected to quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting analysis. T administration appeared to induce glandular prostatic growth, while with T+E2 administration this growth was greater and accompanied by extreme bladder enlargement. The expression of prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) mRNA and protein was increased in prostate tissue in the T group. The combined administration of E2 with T prominently enhanced PSCA expression, along with increased insulin growth factor 1 mRNA levels and decreased estrogen receptor β mRNA expression. The synergistic effect of E2 on the expression of PSCA suggests that this protein may play an important role in the hormone-induced development of prostatic hyperplasia.

  8. Interpreting the physical background of empirical solvent polarity via photodetachment spectroscopy of microsolvated aromatic ketyl anions.

    PubMed

    Maeyama, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Keiji; Yagi, Izumi; Fujii, Asuka; Mikami, Naohiko

    2009-10-08

    The physical background of empirical solvent polarity is explored in regard to trends in solute-solvent intermolecular potential energy functions. Aromatic ketyl anions, benzophenone, and 9-fluorenone radical anions, are chosen for a model solute molecule showing solvatochromic behavior similar to betaine-30 dye, which provides the most established solvent polarity scale, E(T)(30). Common features among the ketyl anions and betaine-30 were examined with quantum chemical calculations for the electronic states and solvation structure. Vertical photodetachment and photoabsorption energies were determined for the ketyl anions microsolvated with a single solvent molecule by measuring photoelectron spectra as well as photodetachment excitation spectra for several aprotic and protic solvents. The spectroscopic data were analyzed through quantum chemical calculations based on density functional theory, and their relationship with the characteristics of intermolecular potential energies was considered. As a result, the typical solvent polarity parameter can be interpreted to reflect essentially the gradient of a potential energy function (namely, the strength of force) between a negative charge and the solvent molecules in the attractive region. A large polarity for protic solvents is attributed to an effective interaction of a proton-like hydrogen atom with the negative charge in a short-range.

  9. Stellar neutron capture cross sections of 41K and 45Sc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, M.; Plag, R.; Uberseder, E.; Bisterzo, S.; Käppeler, F.; Mengoni, A.; Pignatari, M.

    2016-05-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of light nuclei (A <56 ) are important for s -process scenarios since they act as neutron poisons. We report on measurements of the neutron capture cross sections of 41K and 45Sc, which were performed at the Karlsruhe 3.7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator via the activation method in a quasistellar neutron spectrum corresponding to a thermal energy of k T =25 keV. Systematic effects were controlled by repeated irradiations, resulting in overall uncertainties of less than 3%. The measured spectrum-averaged data have been used to normalize the energy-dependent (n ,γ ) cross sections from the main data libraries JEFF-3.2, JENDL-4.0, and ENDF/B-VII.1, and a set of Maxwellian averaged cross sections was calculated for improving the s -process nucleosynthesis yields in AGB stars and in massive stars. At k T =30 keV, the new Maxwellian averaged cross sections of 41K and 45Sc are 19.2 ±0.6 mb and 61.3 ±1.8 mb, respectively. Both values are 20% lower than previously recommended. The effect of neutron poisons is discussed for nuclei with A <56 in general and for the investigated isotopes in particular.

  10. Endogenously released GLP-1 is not sufficient to alter postprandial glucose regulation in the dog

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Tiffany; Schurr, Kathleen; Donahue, E. Patrick; Farmer, Ben; Neal, Doss; Cherrington, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted from the L cell of the gut in response to oral nutrient delivery. To determine if endogenously released GLP-1 contributes to the incretin effect and postprandial glucose regulation, conscious dogs (n = 8) underwent an acclimation period (t = −60 to −20 min), followed by a basal sampling period (t = −20 to 0 min) and an experimental period (t = 0–320 min). At the beginning of the experimental period, t = 0 min, a peripheral infusion of either saline or GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) antagonist, exendin (9–39) (Ex-9, 500 pmol/kg/min), was started. At t = 30 min, animals consumed a liquid mixed meal, spiked with acetaminophen. All animals were studied twice (± Ex-9) in random fashion, and the experiments were separated by a 1–2-week washout period. Antagonism of the GLP-1R did not have an effect, as indicated by repeated-measures MANOVA analysis of the Δ AUC from t = 45–320 min of arterial plasma glucose, GLP-1, insulin, glucagon, and acetaminophen levels. Therefore, endogenous GLP-1 is not sufficient to alter postprandial glucose regulation in the dog. PMID:21547512

  11. Assessment of High-rate GPS time series at long periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelevitz, K.; Houlie, N.; Giardini, D.; Rothacher, M.

    2015-12-01

    We present the comparison of 1 Hz GPS waveforms and very broadband seismic waveforms recorded during and after three mega-thrust earthquakes (2003 Hokkaido, 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Tohoku-Oki) for various period bands (T > 30 s) and distances from the epicenter. With this study we aim at providing valuable data between periods of 300s and 1200s, corresponding to long-period surface waves and the first normal mode of the free oscillation of the Earth, respectively. We assess the performance of each dataset at the light of comparisons with synthetic seismic displacement waveforms. We find that GPS is well capable of recovering millimetre ground motion oscillations in a wide range of periods (30 - 1300 s), potentially providing valuable information on the lithosphere and upper-mantle heterogeneities on a scale of 300 - 3000 km. With the aim of building a database of GPS waveforms we have conducted a study of different processing techniques with the GAMIT and Bernese GPS data processing packages. We show the outline of the planned GPS waveform database, which consists of long period surface wave records of large earthquakes (Mw > 7) of the last decades, and could be used for various seismological applications.

  12. Binding of environmental carcinogens to asbestos and mineral fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, G; Pagé, M; Dumas, L

    1984-01-01

    A rapid method has been developed for measuring the binding capacity of asbestos and other mineral fibres for environmental carcinogens. Benzo(alpha)pyrene (B(alpha)P), nitrosonornicotine (NNN), and N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene (NAAF) were assayed in the presence of Canadian grade 4T30 chrysotile, chrysotile A, amosite, crocidolite, glass microfibres, glasswool, attapulgite, and titanium dioxide. Chrysotile binds significantly more carcinogens than the other mineral fibres. This binding assay is reproducible with coefficients of variation of less than 8% and 6% respectively for inter and intra assay. The influence of pH was also studied, and there is good correlation between the carcinogen binding and the charge of the tested mineral fibres. The in vitro cytotoxicity on macrophage like cell line P388D1 and the haemolytic activity of various mineral fibres were also measured; a good correlation was found between the binding capacity and the cytotoxicity of tested mineral fibres on P388D1 cells. These results give some explanations for the reported synergism between exposure to asbestos and the smoking habits of workers. PMID:6331497

  13. Caffeine Ingestion Increases Estimated Glycolytic Metabolism during Taekwondo Combat Simulation but Does Not Improve Performance or Parasympathetic Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caffeine ingestion on performance and estimated energy system contribution during simulated taekwondo combat and on post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation. Methods Ten taekwondo athletes completed two experimental sessions separated by at least 48 hours. Athletes consumed a capsule containing either caffeine (5 mg∙kg-1) or placebo (cellulose) one hour before the combat simulation (3 rounds of 2 min separated by 1 min passive recovery), in a double-blind, randomized, repeated-measures crossover design. All simulated combat was filmed to quantify the time spent fighting in each round. Lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion were measured before and after each round, while heart rate (HR) and the estimated contribution of the oxidative (WAER), ATP-PCr (WPCR), and glycolytic (W[La-]) systems were calculated during the combat simulation. Furthermore, parasympathetic reactivation after the combat simulation was evaluated through 1) taking absolute difference between the final HR observed at the end of third round and the HR recorded 60-s after (HRR60s), 2) taking the time constant of HR decay obtained by fitting the 6-min post-exercise HRR into a first-order exponential decay curve (HRRτ), or by 3) analyzing the first 30-s via logarithmic regression analysis (T30). Results Caffeine ingestion increased estimated glycolytic energy contribution in relation to placebo (12.5 ± 1.7 kJ and 8.9 ± 1.2 kJ, P = 0.04). However, caffeine did not improve performance as measured by attack number (CAF: 26. 7 ± 1.9; PLA: 27.3 ± 2.1, P = 0.48) or attack time (CAF: 33.8 ± 1.9 s; PLA: 36.6 ± 4.5 s, P = 0.58). Similarly, RPE (CAF: 11.7 ± 0.4 a.u.; PLA: 11.5 ± 0.3 a.u., P = 0.62), HR (CAF: 170 ± 3.5 bpm; PLA: 174.2 bpm, P = 0.12), oxidative (CAF: 109.3 ± 4.5 kJ; PLA: 107.9 kJ, P = 0.61) and ATP-PCr energy contributions (CAF: 45.3 ± 3.4 kJ; PLA: 46.8 ± 3.6 kJ, P = 0.72) during the combat simulation

  14. Evaluation of sexual dimorphism by discriminant function analysis of toe length (1T–5T) of adult Igbo populace in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alabi, Stephen A.; Didia, Blessing C.; Oladipo, Gabriel Sunday; Aigbogun, Eric O.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sex determination is an important and one of the foremost criteria in establishing the identity of an individual, and this is achieved by investigating various anatomical structures to establish sex discriminatory features. The present study conducted baseline data for the toe with a view of finding discriminatory sex characteristics. Materials and Methods: A total of 420 subjects were studied by direct linear measurements of the toe length (big toe [1T] to the fifth toes [5T]) of both feet using a digital Vernier caliper with accuracy of 0.01 mm. Statistical Package for Social Sciences  (IBM, version 23, Armonk, New York, USA), Levene's ANOVA outcome informed the use of t-tests to compare mean differences. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to evaluate the possibility of sex categorization. The significance level was set at 95%. Results: The mean ± standard deviation values of the right (R) toes for the males were 49.63 ± 4.43 mm (1T), 36.92 ± 5.14 mm (2T), 30.35 ± 4.95 mm (3T), 25.55 ± 3.97 mm (4T) and 22.21 ± 2.94 mm (5T), whereas the female values were 45.73 ± 4.07 mm (1T), 33.31 ± 4.66 mm (2T), 26.63 ± 4.02 mm (3T), 22.89 ± 3.43 mm (4T), and 19.77 ± 2.70 mm (5T). The left male values were 49.16 ± 4.32 mm (1T), 36.82 ± 5.16 mm (2T), 30.88 ± 4.91 mm (3T), 26.13 ± 3.99 mm (4T), and 22.46 ± 3.24 mm (5T), whereas the female values were 45.33 ± 4.05 mm (1T), 33.05 ± 4.70 mm (2T), 27.27 ± 4.29 mm (3T), 23.10 ± 3.36 mm (4T), 19.81 ± 2.59 mm (5T). From the results, males displayed significantly higher mean values than females in all measured parameters (t = 2.405, P = 0.018) with no asymmetry (P > 0.05); although T3 and T4 were larger on the left foot. The DFA model when tested with the present data derived a significant F likelihood ratio test (P < 0.001), a Wilks’ lambda predictability value of 0.759 having a model accuracy of 69.5% with a better prediction for female (70%) than males (69%). Conclusion: The use of toe

  15. Optimized performance for neutron interrogation to detect SNM

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, D R; Asztalos, S J; Biltoft, P J; Church, J A; Descalle, M; Hall, J M; Luu, T C; Manatt, D R; Mauger, G J; Norman, E B; Petersen, D C; Pruet, J A; Prussin, S G

    2007-02-14

    A program of simulations and validating experiments was utilized to evaluate a concept for neutron interrogation of commercial cargo containers that would reliably detect special nuclear material (SNM). The goals were to develop an interrogation system capable of detecting a 5 kg solid sphere of high-enriched uranium (HEU) even when deeply embedded in commercial cargo. Performance goals included a minimum detection probability, P{sub d} {ge} 95%, a maximum occurrence of false positive indications, P{sub fA} {le} 0.001, and maximum scan duration of t {le} 1 min. The conditions necessary to meet these goals were demonstrated in experimental measurements even when the SNM is deeply buried in any commercial cargo, and are projected to be met successfully in the most challenging cases of steel or hydrocarbons at areal density {rho}L {le} 150 g/cm{sup 2}. Optimal performance was obtained with a collimated ({Delta}{Theta} = {+-} 15{sup o}) neutron beam at energy E{sub n} = 7 MeV produced by the D(d,n) reaction with the deuteron energy E{sub d} = 4 MeV. Two fission product signatures are utilized to uniquely identify SNM, including delayed neutrons detected in a large array of polyethylene moderated 3He proportional counters and high energy {beta}-delayed fission product {gamma}-radiation detected in a large array of 61 x 61 x 25 cm{sup 3} plastic scintillators. The latter detectors are nearly blind to normal terrestrial background radiation by setting an energy threshold on the detection at E{sub min} {ge} 3 MeV. Detection goals were attained with a low beam current (I{sub d} = 15-65 {micro}A) source up to {rho}L = 75 g/cm{sup 2} utilizing long irradiations, T = 30 sec, and long counting times, t = 30-100 sec. Projecting to a higher beam current, I{sub d} {ge} 600 {micro}A and larger detector array the detection and false alarm goals would be attained even with intervening cargo overburden as large as {rho}L {le} 150 g/cm{sup 2}. The latter cargo thickness corresponds to

  16. Coordination chemistry of two heavy metals: I, Ligand preferences in lead(II) complexation, toward the development of therapeutic agents for lead poisoning: II, Plutonium solubility and speciation relevant to the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Neu, Mary Patricia

    1993-11-01

    The coordination chemistry and solution behavior of the toxic ions lead(II) and plutonium(IV, V, VI) have been investigated. The ligand pKas and ligand-lead(II) stability constants of one hydroxamic acid and four thiohydroaxamic acids were determined. Solution thermodynamic results indicate that thiohydroxamic acids are more acidic and slightly better lead chelators than hydroxamates, e.g., N-methylthioaceto-hydroxamic acid, pKa = 5.94, logβ120 = 10.92; acetohydroxamic acid, pKa = 9.34, logβ120 = 9.52. The syntheses of lead complexes of two bulky hydroxamate ligands are presented. The X-ray crystal structures show the lead hydroxamates are di-bridged dimers with irregular five-coordinate geometry about the metal atom and a stereochemically active lone pair of electrons. Molecular orbital calculations of a lead hydroxamate and a highly symmetric pseudo octahedral lead complex were performed. The thermodynamic stability of plutonium(IV) complexes of the siderophore, desferrioxamine B (DFO), and two octadentate derivatives of DFO were investigated using competition spectrophotometric titrations. The stability constant measured for the plutonium(IV) complex of DFO-methylterephthalamide is logβ120 = 41.7. The solubility limited speciation of 242Pu as a function of time in near neutral carbonate solution was measured. Individual solutions of plutonium in a single oxidation state were added to individual solutions at pH = 6.0, T = 30.0, 1.93 mM dissolved carbonate, and sampled over intervals up to 150 days. Plutonium solubility was measured, and speciation was investigated using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemical methods.

  17. Sodium metabisulfite–induced polymerization of sickle cell hemoglobin incubated in the extracts of three medicinal plants (Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa)

    PubMed Central

    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka

    2011-01-01

    Background: The exploitation and utilization of vast varieties of herbal extracts may serve as alternative measures to deter aggregation of deoxygenated sickle cell hemoglobin (deoxyHbS) molecules. Objective: The present in vitro study ascertained the capacity of three medicinal plants, namely, Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa, to alter polymerization of HbS. Materials and Methods: Spectrophotometric method was used to monitor the level of polymerization of hemolysate HbS molecules treated with sodium metabisulfite (Na2 S2 O5) at a regular interval of 30 s for a period of 180 s in the presence of separate aqueous extracts of A. occidentale, P. guajava, and T. catappa. At time intervals of 30 s, the level of polymerization was expressed as percentage of absorbance relative to the control sample at the 180th s. Results: Although extracts of the three medicinal plants caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction in polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules, the corresponding capacity in this regard diminished with increase in incubation time. Aqueous extract of P. guajava exhibited the highest capacity to reduced polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules. Whereas at t > 60 s, extract concentration of 400 mg% of A. occidentale activated polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules by 6.23±1.34, 14.53±1.67, 21.15±1.89, and 24.42±1.09%, 800 mg% of T. catappa at t > 30 s gave values of 2.50±1.93, 5.09±1.96, 10.00±0.99, 15.38±1.33, and 17.31±0.97%. Conclusion: The capacity of the three medicinal plants to interfere with polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules depended on the duration of incubation and concentration of the extracts. PMID:21716622

  18. Measurement of OH density and gas temperature in incipient spark-ignited hydrogen-air flame

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Ryo; Oda, Tetsuji

    2008-01-15

    To investigate the electrostatic ignition of hydrogen-air mixtures, the density of OH radicals and the gas temperature are measured in an incipient spark-ignited hydrogen-air flame using laser-induced predissociation fluorescence (LIPF). The assessment of the electrostatic hazard of hydrogen is necessary for developing hydrogen-based energy systems in which hydrogen is used in fuel cells. The spark discharge occurs across a 2-mm gap with pulse duration approximately 10 ns. First, a hydrogen (50%)-air mixture is ignited by spark discharge with E=1.35E{sub -}, where E is the spark energy and E{sub -} is the minimum ignition energy. In this mixture, OH density decreases after spark discharge. It is 3 x 10{sup 16}cm{sup -3} at t=0{mu}s and 4 x 10{sup 15}cm{sup -3} at t=100{mu}s, where t is the postdischarge time. On the other hand, the gas temperature increases after spark discharge. It is 900 K at t=30{mu}s and 1400 K at t=200{mu}s. Next, a stoichiometric (hydrogen (30%)-air) mixture is ignited by spark discharge with E=1.25E{sub -}. In this mixture, OH density is approximately constant at 4 x 10{sup 16}cm{sup -3} for 150 {mu}s after spark discharge, and the gas temperature increases from 1000 K (t=0{mu}s) to 1800 K (t=150{mu}s). (author)

  19. ARAC dispersion modeling support for January-March 1995 Vandenberg AFB launches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskett, R. L.; Pace, J. C.

    1995-05-01

    The Glory Trip (GT) 17-PA Peacekeeper launch originally scheduled at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) between 15 and 20 November 1994 was cancelled based on modeled toxic exhaust cloud calculations. The Missile Flight Control Branch, 30th Space Wing Safety Office (30 SW/SEY), made several successive 'No Go' decisions using Version 7.05 Rocket Exhaust Effluent Dispersion Model (REEDM) with forecasted meteorological conditions. REEDM runs made from T-14 hours to T-30 minutes predicted that ground-level concentrations of hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas from the catastrophic abort case would exceed 5 ppM, the 'instantaneous' ambient air concentration 'Tier 2' limit at that time, modeled as a peak 1-minute cloud centerline concentration. Depending on the forecasted wind direction and speed at launch time, this limit was predicted to be exceeded sometimes at Base Housing, approximately 10 km southeast of the launch, and during other launch windows at the town of Casmalia, about 5 km east- southeast. In late December 1994, the LLNL Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) program modeled the aborted November 1994 Peacekeeper launch and compared its results with REEDM. This initial comparison showed that the ARAC model predicted values about 1/3 as large as REEDM for the limiting case at Base Housing. Subsequently ARAC was asked to provide real-time modeling support to 30 SW/SEY during the rescheduled Peacekeeper GT 17-PA launch in January 1995 and two Minuteman launches in February and March. This report first briefly discusses the model differences and then summarizes the results of the three supported launches.

  20. ARAC dispersion modeling support for January--March 1995 Vandenberg AFB launches

    SciTech Connect

    Baskett, R.L.; Pace, J.C.

    1995-05-01

    The Glory Trip (GT) 17-PA Peacekeeper launch originally scheduled at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) between 15 and 20 November 1994 was cancelled based on modeled toxic exhaust cloud calculations. The Missile Flight Control Branch, 30th Space Wing Safety Office (30 SW/SEY), made several successive ``No Go`` decisions using Version 7. 05 Rocket Exhaust Effluent Dispersion Model (REEDM) with forecasted meteorological conditions. REEDM runs made from T-14 hours to T-30 minutes predicted that ground-level concentrations of hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas from the catastrophic abort case would exceed 5 ppM, the ``instantaneous`` ambient air concentration ``Tier 2`` limit at that time, modeled as a peak 1-minute cloud centerline concentration. Depending on the forecasted wind direction and speed at launch time, this limit was predicted to be exceeded sometimes at Base Housing, approximately 10 km southeast of the launch, and during other launch windows at the town of Casmalia, about 5 km east- southeast. In late December 1994, the LLNL Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) program modeled the aborted November 1994 Peacekeeper launch and compared its results with REEDM. This initial comparison showed that the ARAC model predicted values about 1/3 as large as REEDM for the limiting case at Base Housing. Subsequently ARAC was asked to provide real-time modeling support to 30 SW/SEY during the rescheduled Peacekeeper GT 17-PA launch in January 1995 and two Minuteman launches in February and March. This report first briefly discusses the model differences and then summarizes the results of the three supported launches.

  1. Sustained AS160 and TBC1D1 phosphorylations in human skeletal muscle 30 min after a single bout of exercise

    PubMed Central

    Vendelbo, M. H.; Møller, A. B.; Treebak, J. T.; Gormsen, L. C.; Goodyear, L. J.; Wojtaszewski, J. F. P.; Jørgensen, J. O. L.; Møller, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: phosphorylation of AS160 and TBC1D1 plays an important role for GLUT4 mobilization to the cell surface. The phosphorylation of AS160 and TBC1D1 in humans in response to acute exercise is not fully characterized. Objective: to study AS160 and TBC1D1 phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle after aerobic exercise followed by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Design: eight healthy men were studied on two occasions: 1) in the resting state and 2) in the hours after a 1-h bout of ergometer cycling. A hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp was initiated 240 min after exercise and in a time-matched nonexercised control condition. We obtained muscle biopsies 30 min after exercise and in a time-matched nonexercised control condition (t = 30) and after 30 min of insulin stimulation (t = 270) and investigated site-specific phosphorylation of AS160 and TBC1D1. Results: phosphorylation on AS160 and TBC1D1 was increased 30 min after the exercise bout, whereas phosphorylation of the putative upstream kinases, Akt and AMPK, was unchanged compared with resting control condition. Exercise augmented insulin-stimulated phosphorylation on AS160 at Ser341 and Ser704 270 min after exercise. No additional exercise effects were observed on insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Thr642 and Ser588 on AS160 or Ser237 and Thr596 on TBC1D1. Conclusions: AS160 and TBC1D1 phosphorylations were evident 30 min after exercise without simultaneously increased Akt and AMPK phosphorylation. Unlike TBC1D1, insulin-stimulated site-specific AS160 phosphorylation is modified by prior exercise, but these sites do not include Thr642 and Ser588. Together, these data provide new insights into phosphorylation of key regulators of glucose transport in human skeletal muscle. PMID:24876356

  2. Measuring and Characterizing the Human Nasal Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kahana-Zweig, Roni; Geva-Sagiv, Maya; Weissbrod, Aharon; Secundo, Lavi; Soroker, Nachum; Sobel, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Nasal airflow is greater in one nostril than in the other because of transient asymmetric nasal passage obstruction by erectile tissue. The extent of obstruction alternates across nostrils with periodicity referred to as the nasal cycle. The nasal cycle is related to autonomic arousal and is indicative of asymmetry in brain function. Moreover, alterations in nasal cycle periodicity have been linked to various diseases. There is therefore need for a tool allowing continuous accurate measurement and recording of airflow in each nostril separately. Here we provide detailed instructions for constructing such a tool at minimal cost and effort. We demonstrate application of the tool in 33 right-handed healthy subjects, and derive several statistical measures for nasal cycle characterization. Using these measures applied to 24-hour recordings we observed that: 1: subjects spent slightly longer in left over right nostril dominance (left = 2.63 ± 0.89 hours, right = 2.17 ± 0.89 hours, t(32) = 2.07, p < 0.05), 2: cycle duration was shorter in wake than in sleep (wake = 2.02 ± 1.7 hours, sleep = 4.5 ± 1.7 hours, (t(30) = 5.73, p < 0.0001). 3: slower breathing was associated with a more powerful cycle (the extent of difference across nostrils) (r = 0.4, p < 0.0001), and 4: the cycle was influenced by body posture such that lying on one side was associated with greater flow in the contralateral nostril (p < 0.002). Finally, we provide evidence for an airflow cycle in each nostril alone. These results provide characterization of an easily obtained measure that may have diagnostic implications for neurological disease and cognitive state. PMID:27711189

  3. Non-conductive and miniature fiber-optic imaging system for real-time detection of neuronal activity in time-varying electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Saito, Atsushi; Takahashi, Masayuki; Jimbo, Yasuhiko; Nakasono, Satoshi

    2017-01-15

    Establishing an appropriate threshold value for neuronal modulation by time-varying electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure is important for developing international guidelines to protect against the potential health effects, and to design a variety of medical devices. However, it is technically difficult to achieve real-time detection of neuronal activity under repetitive and long-term exposure to EMF. For this purpose, we developed a non-conductive, miniature, and flexible fiber-optic imaging system that does not affect the electromagnetic noise, induction heating, or vibration in a high-intensity and repetitive time-varying EMF exposure. Using the proposed system, we succeeded at real-time detection of spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations in single neuronal and glial cells, as well as synchronized bursting activities of multiple neuronal networks at a micrometer-scale and millisecond-order spatiotemporal resolution during long-term EMF exposure (sinusoidal wave, 20kHz, 8.6mT, >30min). The results indicated that short-term (<5min) exposure-related neuronal modulation was not detectable; however, long-term (15-30min) exposure was observed to depress neuronal activities. In addition, the simultaneous and real-time recording of neuronal activity and the environmental temperature revealed that the neuronal modulation was accompanied by a 0.5-1°C rise in the temperature of the culture medium induced by the heat generation of exposure coils. These findings suggest that our real-time imaging system can be used for precise evaluation of the threshold values and clarification of the mechanisms of neuronal modulation induced by time-varying EMF exposure.

  4. Increases in fruit intakes in older low consumers of fruit following two community-based repeated exposure interventions.

    PubMed

    Appleton, K M

    2013-03-14

    The present study investigated the value of two repeated exposure interventions for increasing intakes of fruit in older people. A total of ninety-five participants (aged 65 years and over) were randomised to receive either one (E1), five (E5) or five plus (E5+) exposures to fruit over a 5-week period. Fruit exposures occurred in community-based church and social groups, through fruit-tasting sessions involving familiar fruits and novel fruit products and dishes (E1, E5, E5+), and through fruit provision (E5+). Daily intakes of fruit and vegetables were assessed before and after all interventions. Liking for all fruits was also measured during repeated exposure (E5, E5+). In low consumers of fruit (one portion/d or less), fruit intakes increased significantly in the repeated exposure groups (E5, E5+) (t(30) = 5·79, P< 0·01), but did not change in the E1 group (t(16) = 0·29, P= 0·78). No differences were found between E5 and E5+ groups (F(3,87) = 1·22, P= 0·31). Similar effects were also found in fruit and vegetable intakes. No effects were found in other participants. Also, no changes in liking were found. These findings suggest that compared to single exposure, repeated exposure to fruit via fruit-tasting sessions once per week for 5 weeks in a community setting significantly improved fruit intakes, and fruit and vegetable intakes in older low consumers of fruit, although no benefits of additional fruit provision were found. Repeated exposure was also easy to implement, of low cost and enjoyable.

  5. In Search of the Youngest Protostars: IRAS HIRES Results in the Serpens Cloud Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurt, R. L.; Barsony, M.

    1995-12-01

    Protostars which have yet to accrete the bulk of their initial main sequence mass from their infall envelopes, dubbed ``Class 0'' (Andre, Ward-Thompson, & Barsony 1993), represent the youngest (a few x 10(4) yr) protostellar sources. The defining observational characteristics for Class 0 protostars include a high ratio of mm/submm to bolometric luminosity, the presence of molecular outflows, invisibility shortward of 10 mu m, and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) resembling modified blackbodies with T <= 30 K. Since Class 0 SEDs peak at ~ 100--200 mu m, far-infrared (FIR) data are required to produce SEDs for these sources. The nearby Serpens star-forming cloud core is a region of great interest for Class 0 protostar searches. Millimeter continuum maps of the central 6(') x 5(') reveal at least five cold dust continuum peaks which lack NIR counterparts (Casali, Eiroa, & Duncan 1993). A recent multi-transition H_2CO study of these millimeter continuum sources (FIRS1, SMM2, SMM3, SMM4, & S68N) confirms the presence of central heating sources and substantial masses of circumstellar gas in these objects, suggesting that they could all be Class 0 protostars (Hurt, Barsony & Wooten 1996). We present new 12, 25, 60, & 100 mu m HIRES processed IRAS images of the Serpens cloud core at FWHM resolutions of ~ 30('') --1(') . Such resolutions are necessary to help identify the individual contributions from the closely spaced sources. We use HIRES-processed point source models of the IRAS emission to determine new flux values and flux upper limits for all the protostellar candidates in the Serpens core. From the resulting SEDs we derive the dust temperature, circumstellar mass, bolometric luminosity, and evolutionary status of each protostellar candidate. Remarkably, we find all five millimeter continuum sources to share the defining characteristics of Class 0 protostars, potentially making the Serpens core the densest known collection of such objects.

  6. Structural alterations in the seminiferous tubules of rats treated with immunosuppressor tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Caneguim, Breno H; Cerri, Paulo S; Spolidório, Luís C; Miraglia, Sandra M; Sasso-Cerri, Estela

    2009-01-01

    Background Tacrolimus (FK-506) is an immunosuppressant that binds to a specific immunophilin, resulting in the suppression of the cellular immune response during transplant rejection. Except for some alterations in the spermatozoa, testicular morphological alterations have not been described in rats treated with tacrolimus. In the present study, we purpose to evaluate if the treatment with tacrolimus at long term of follow-up interferes in the integrity of the seminiferous tubules. Methods Rats aging 42-day-old received daily subcutaneous injections of 1 mg/kg/day of tacrolimus during 30 (T-30) and 60 (T-60) days; the rats from control groups (C-30 and C-60) received saline solution. The left testes were fixed in 4% formaldehyde and embedded in glycol methacrylate for morphological and morphometric analyses while right testes were fixed in Bouin's liquid and embedded in paraffin for detection of cell death by the TUNEL method. The epithelial and total tubular areas as well as the stages of the seminiferous epithelium and the number of spermatocytes, spermatids and Sertoli cells (SC) per tubule were obtained. Results In the treated groups, seminiferous tubules irregularly outlined showed disarranged cellular layers and loss of germ cells probably due to cell death, which was revealed by TUNEL method. In addition to germ cells, structural alterations in the SC and folding of the peritubular tissue were usually observed. The morphometric results revealed significant decrease in the number of SC, spermatocytes, spermatids and significant reduction in the epithelial and total tubular areas. Conclusion Tacrolimus induces significant histopathological disorders in the seminiferous tubules, resulting in spermatogenic damage and reduction in the number of Sertoli cells. A careful evaluation of the peritubular components will be necessary to clarify if these alterations are related to the effect of FK-506 on the peritubular tissue. PMID:19243597

  7. Enhancing the orthorhombicity and antiferromagnetic-insulating state in epitaxial La0.67Ca0.33MnO3/NdGaO3(001) films by inserting a SmFeO3 buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xuelian; Gao, Guanyin; Chen, Pingfan; Xu, Haoran; Zhi, Bowen; Jin, Feng; Chen, Feng; Wu, Wenbin

    2014-11-01

    Structural and magnetotransport properties of epitaxial La0.67Ca0.33MnO3(30 nm)/NdGaO3(001) [LCMO/NGO(001)] films are tuned by inserting an insulating SmFeO3 (SFO) buffer layer at various thicknesses (t). All the layers and the NGO substrates have the same Pbnm symmetry with the octahedra tilting about the b-axis, but different orthorhombicity (d). We found that as t increases, the fully strained (≤15 nm) or partially relaxed (30-60 nm) SFO layers can produce different d in the upper LCMO films. Correspondingly, the induced antiferromagnetic-insulating (AFI) state in LCMO is greatly enhanced with TAFI shifted from ˜250 K for t ≤ 15 nm to ˜263 K for t = 30-60 nm. We also show that the strain relaxation for t ≥ 30 nm is remarkably anisotropic, with a stable lattice constant a as that of the NGO substrates but increasing b of both SFO and LCMO layers. This indicates the octahedral coupling across the interfaces, leaving the strain along the a-axis accommodated by the octahedral tilts, while along the b-axis most probably by the octahedral deformations. The AFI state in the LCMO layer could be ascribed to the enhanced orthorhombicity with cooperatively increased Jahn-Teller-like distortions and tilting of the MnO6 octahedra. The results strongly suggest that the interfacial octahedral coupling plays a crucial role in epitaxial growth and in tuning functionalities of the perovskite oxide films.

  8. Environmental occurrence, origin, physical and geochemical properties, and carcinogenic potential of erionite near San Miguel de Allende, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Guerrero, M Adrián; Carrasco-Núñez, Gerardo

    2014-06-01

    Detailed geologic surveys and different microscopic and analytical techniques were conducted near Tierra Blanca de Abajo where lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma (MM) are the primary causes of death. Results show that erionite-K occurs as a diagenetic product in altered Oligocene-Miocene rhyolitic tuffs. The microscopic structure of erionite minerals shows concentrations of individual fibers in the range of 0.14-0.547 μm in diameter and 2.81-50 μm in length, with a few "bundles" about 0.2-2.5 μm wide by 10-50 μm long. Chemical properties of erionite show Si/Al in the range of 3.23-3.58 (at.%) and T Si in the range of 0.76-0.78 (at.%). Potassium is the dominant cation (K > Ca > Mg > Fe). Associated minerals are heulandite, clinoptilolite, quartz, sanidine, anorthite, smectite and opal. This mineral assemblage formed in the lower part of an open catchment, where bicarbonate-rich (T > 30 °C, pH > 8) groundwater discharge conditions prevailed in the past. The physical and chemical characteristics of erionite near San Miguel de Allende are similar to those of erionite from the Cappadocian region of Turkey where erionite is associated with MM. The presence of erionite and the type of respiratory diseases that occur in the village strongly suggest the need for detailed health-based studies in the region. Pliocene-Holocene fine-grain deposits, used in the past for the construction of adobe-houses and exposed in recreational areas, also contain erionite associated with erosion and alluvial transport from the rhyolitic tuffs, potentially affecting more than 13 villages located downstream toward the Allende Dam.

  9. Thermally activated dissipation and pinning mechanisms in a Bi2223 superconductor with the addition of nanosized ZrO2 particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zouaoui, M.; Bessais, L.; Ben Salem, M.

    2010-09-01

    The experimental results of the effect of low magnetic field and temperature on the transport proprieties of bulk Bi2223 with added ZrO2 nanoparticles (10-20 nm) are presented. The mechanisms responsible for the broadening of the resistive transition under magnetic field are discussed. The resistivity ρ(T) dependences are well described by the Ambegaokar-Halperin (AH) model. The AH parameter C(H) has been used to estimate the critical current density Jcj(0) at zero temperature in the grain boundaries. The critical current Jcj(0) in the grain boundaries decreases as a power law, Hn, which is an indication of the sensitivity of a single junction between the superconducting grains to the applied magnetic field. The magnetic field and the temperature dependences of the critical current have been studied with a central objective to determine the dominant source and mechanism of vortex pinning in the added sample. Nevertheless, in the low-field regime it can be viewed as a single vortex pinning mechanism followed by a transition to collective pinning in the high-field region. Two contributions to the critical current density have been identified and quantified: the weak pinning and the correlated disorder. We demonstrate in the present work that the correlated disorder coming from Bi2223/Zr-nanophase interfaces is dominant in the high temperature range (T >= 40 K), and the weak pinning centres associated to the defects generated by Zr-naophases embedded in matrix superconducting Bi2223 are dominant in the low temperature region (T <= 30 K).

  10. High-Resolution Submillimeter and Near-Infrared Studies of the Transition Disk around Sz 91

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Momose, Munetake; Hashimoto, Jun; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Andrews, Sean; Saito, Masao; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Wilner, David; Kawabe, Ryohei; Abe, Lyu; Akiyama, Eiji; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D.; Carson, Joseph; Currie, Thayne; Enger, Sebastian E.; Goto, Miwa; Grady, Carol A.; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Kwon, Jungmi; McElwain, Michael W.; Matsuo, Taro; Mayama, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    To reveal the structures of a transition disk around a young stellar object in Lupus, Sz 91, we have performed aperture synthesis 345 GHz continuum and CO(32) observations with the Submillimeter Array ( 13 resolution), and high-resolution imaging of polarized intensity at the Ks-band by using the Hi-CIAO instrument on the Subaru Telescope (0.25 resolution). Our observations successfully resolved the inner and outer radii of the dust disk to be 65 and 170AU, respectively, which indicates that Sz 91 is a transition disk source with one of the largest known inner holes. The model fitting analysis of the spectral energy distribution reveals an H2 mass of 2.4 103 M in the cold (T 30 K) outer part at 65 r 170 AU by assuming a canonical gas-to-dust mass ratio of 100, although a small amount ( 3109 M) of hot (T 180 K) dust possibly remains inside the inner hole of the disk. The structure of the hot component could be interpreted as either an unresolved self-luminous companion body (not directly detected in our observations) or a narrow ring inside the inner hole. Significant CO(32) emission with a velocity gradient along the major axis of the dust disk is concentrated on the Sz 91 position, suggesting a rotating gas disk with a radius of 420 AU. The Sz 91 disk is possibly a rare disk in an evolutionary stage immediately after the formation of protoplanets because of the large inner hole and the lower disk mass than other transition disks studied thus far.

  11. Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory Observations of CO J=7-->6 and J=4-->3 Emission toward the Galactic Center Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunguen; Martin, Christopher L.; Stark, Antony A.; Lane, Adair P.

    2002-12-01

    We present position-velocity strip maps of the Galactic center region in the CO J=7-->6 and J=4-->3 transitions observed with the Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory located at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. Emission from the two rotational transitions of 12CO was mapped at b=0deg for 3.5d>l>-1.5d on a 1' grid with a FWHM beam size of 58" at 806 GHz and 105" at 461 GHz. Previous observations of CO J=4-->3 (C. L. Martin et al., in preparation) and of [C I] emission (Ojha et al.) from this region show that these lines are distributed in a manner similar to CO J=1-->0 (Stark et al.); the (CO J=4-->3)/(CO J=1-->0) line ratio map is almost featureless across the entire Galactic center region. In contrast, the CO J=7-->6 emission from the Galactic center is strongly peaked toward the Sgr A and Sgr B molecular complexes. A large velocity gradient analysis shows that, aside from the two special regions Sgr A and Sgr B, the photon-dominated regions within a few hundred parsecs of the Galactic center are remarkably uniform in mean density and kinetic temperature at n=2500-4000 cm-3 and T=30-45 K. The (CO J=7-->6)/(CO J=4-->3) line temperature ratios near Sgr B are a factor of 2 higher than those observed in the nuclear region of the starburst galaxy M82 (Mao et al.), while the CO(J=7-->6)/CO(J=4-->3) line temperature ratios around Sgr A are similar to M82. The line ratio on large scales from the Galactic center region is an order of magnitude less than that from M82.

  12. AST/RO Observations of CO J = 7 → 6 and J = 4 → 3 Emission toward the Galactic Center Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Martin, C. L.; Stark, A. A.; Lane, A. P.

    We present position-velocity strip maps of the Galactic Center region in the CO J = 7 → 6 and J = 4 → 3 transitions observed with the Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO) located at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. Emission from the two rotational transitions of 12CO was mapped at b = 0circ for 3.5circ > ell > -1.5circ, on a 1' grid with a FWHM beamsize of 58'' at 806 GHz and 105'' at 461 GHz. CO J = 4 → 3, and [C I] (Ojha et al. 2001) emission from this region show that these lines are distributed in a manner similar to CO J = 1 → 0 (Stark et al. 1987); the (CO J = 4 → 3)/(CO J = 1 → 0) line ratio map is almost featureless across the entire Galactic Center region. In contrast, the CO J = 7 → 6 emission from the Galactic Center is strongly peaked toward the Sgr A and Sgr B molecular complexes. A Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) analysis shows that aside from the two special regions Sgr A and Sgr B, the photon-dominated regions within a few hundred parsecs of the Galactic Center are remarkably uniform in mean density and kinetic temperature at n = 2500 to 4000 cm3 and T = 30 to 45 K. The (CO J = 7 → 6) / (CO J = 4 → 3) line temperature ratios near Sgr B are a factor of two higher than those observed in the nuclear region of the starburst galaxy M82 (Mao et al. 2000), while the CO(J = 7 → 6) / CO(J = 4 → 3) line temperature ratios around Sgr A are similar to M82. The line ratio on large scales from the Galactic Center region is an order of magnitude less than that from M82.

  13. TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION DURING THE MIGRATION AND RESONANCE CROSSINGS OF THE GIANT PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Lykawka, Patryk Sofia; Ito, Takashi

    2013-08-10

    The newly formed giant planets may have migrated and crossed a number of mutual mean motion resonances (MMRs) when smaller objects (embryos) were accreting to form the terrestrial planets in the planetesimal disk. We investigated the effects of the planetesimal-driven migration of Jupiter and Saturn, and the influence of their mutual 1:2 MMR crossing on terrestrial planet formation for the first time, by performing N-body simulations. These simulations considered distinct timescales of MMR crossing and planet migration. In total, 68 high-resolution simulation runs using 2000 disk planetesimals were performed, which was a significant improvement on previously published results. Even when the effects of the 1:2 MMR crossing and planet migration were included in the system, Venus and Earth analogs (considering both orbits and masses) successfully formed in several runs. In addition, we found that the orbits of planetesimals beyond a {approx} 1.5-2 AU were dynamically depleted by the strengthened sweeping secular resonances associated with Jupiter's and Saturn's more eccentric orbits (relative to the present day) during planet migration. However, this depletion did not prevent the formation of massive Mars analogs (planets with more than 1.5 times Mars's mass). Although late MMR crossings (at t > 30 Myr) could remove such planets, Mars-like small mass planets survived on overly excited orbits (high e and/or i), or were completely lost in these systems. We conclude that the orbital migration and crossing of the mutual 1:2 MMR of Jupiter and Saturn are unlikely to provide suitable orbital conditions for the formation of solar system terrestrial planets. This suggests that to explain Mars's small mass and the absence of other planets between Mars and Jupiter, the outer asteroid belt must have suffered a severe depletion due to interactions with Jupiter/Saturn, or by an alternative mechanism (e.g., rogue super-Earths)

  14. Lasting depression in corticomotor excitability associated with local scalp cooling.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, François; Remaud, Anthony; Mekonnen, Abeye; Gholami-Boroujeny, Shiva; Racine, Karl-Édouard; Bolic, Miodrag

    2015-07-23

    In this study, we investigated the effect of local scalp cooling on corticomotor excitability with transcranial magnetic simulation (TMS). Participants (healthy male adults, n=12) were first assessed with TMS to derive baseline measure of excitability from motor evoked potentials (MEPs) using the right first dorsal interosseous as the target muscle. Then, local cooling was induced on the right hemi-scalp (upper frontal region ∼ 15 cm(2)) by means of a cold wrap. The cooling was maintained for 10-15 min to get a decrease of at least 10°C from baseline temperature. In the post-cooling period, both scalp temperature and MEPs were reassessed at specific time intervals (i.e., T0, T10, T20 and T30 min). Scalp surface temperatures dropped on average by 12.5°C from baseline at T0 (p<0.001) with partial recovery at T10 (p<0.05) and full recovery at T20. Parallel analysis of post-cooling variations in MEP amplitude revealed significant reductions relative to baseline at T0, T10 and T20. No concurrent change in MEP latency was observed. A secondary control experiment was performed in a subset of participants (n=5) to account for the mild discomfort associated with the wrapping procedure without the cooling agent. Results showed no effect on any of the dependent variables (temperature, MEP amplitude and latency). To our knowledge, this report provides the first neurophysiological evidence linking changes in scalp temperature with lasting changes in corticomotor excitability.

  15. Epitaxial oxidation of Ni-V biaxially textured tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrisor, T.; Boffa, V.; Celentano, G.; Ciontea, L.; Fabbri, F.; Galluzzi, V.; Gambardella, U.; Mancini, A.; Rufoloni, A.; Varesi, E.

    2002-08-01

    The epitaxial oxidation of the (0 0 1)[1 0 0] textured Ni 100- xV x tapes was studied because of the practical interest of NiO as a first buffer layer for the YBCO based coated conductors. The study revealed that the oxidation of the Ni-V alloy is rather complex, the less noble V being internally oxidized, while Ni undergoes an external oxidation. Moreover, the formation of the NiVO 3 and of Ni 7V 5O 17 compounds have negative effects on the epitaxial oxidation and on the surface morphology, as well. The role of vanadium on the epitaxial oxidation of Ni-V alloy has not been fully understood yet. The optimum conditions for the epitaxial oxidation have been found to be: 700t<30 min and PO 2<30 mTorr. The epitaxial NiO films obtained under these conditions have a good out-of-plane and in-plane orientation, with a full-width-half-maximum of about 6.5° and 9.5°, respectively. The in-plane epitaxial relationship is [1 0 0]NiO∥[1 1 0]Ni-V. The as-obtained films have a compact and crack-free morphology, with grain sizes ranging from 30 to 300 nm. Nevertheless, the NiO films grown on (1 1 3) oriented grains or on twins are polycrystalline with a bright aspect, exhibiting a spongeous morphology. Epitaxial YBCO/CeO 2/NiO/Ni-V structures grown on the NiO template have a critical current density of about 0.6 MA/cm 2 at 77 K and zero magnetic field.

  16. IGR J18293-1213 is an eclipsing cataclysmic variable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavel, M.; Tomsick, J. A.; Bodaghee, A.; Chiu, J.-L.; Fornasini, F. M.; Hong, J.; Krivonos, R.; Ponti, G.; Rahoui, F.; Stern, D.

    2016-09-01

    Studying the population of faint hard X-ray sources along the plane of the Galaxy is challenging because of high extinction and crowding, which make the identification of individual sources more difficult. IGR J18293-1213 is part of the population of persistent sources which have been discovered by the INTEGRAL satellite. We report on NuSTAR and Swift/XRT observations of this source, performed on 2015 September 11. We detected three eclipsing intervals in the NuSTAR light curve, allowing us to constrain the duration of these eclipses, Δ t= 30.8^{+6.3}_{-0.0} min, and the orbital period of the system, T = 6.92 ± 0.01 h. Even though we only report an upper limit on the amplitude of a putative spin modulation, the orbital period and the hard thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum of IGR J18293-1213 provide strong evidence that this source is a magnetic cataclysmic variable. Our NuSTAR and Swift/XRT joint spectral analysis places strong constraints on the white dwarf mass M_wd = 0.78^{+0.10}_{-0.09} M⊙. Assuming that the mass to radius ratio of the companion star M⋆/R⋆ = 1 (solar units) and using T, Δt, and Mwd, we derived the mass of the companion star M⋆ = 0.82 ± 0.01 M⊙, the orbital separation of the binary system a = 2.14 ± 0.04 R⊙, and its orbital inclination compared to the line of sight i=(72.2°^{+2.4}_{-0.0})± 1.0°.

  17. Population structure and diversity of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates in Hunan province, China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Cui; Yao, Run-Xian; Li, Fang; Dai, Su-Ming; Licciardello, Grazia; Catara, Antonino; Gentile, Alessandra; Deng, Zi-Niu

    2017-02-01

    Stem-pitting (SP) is the main type of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) that causes severe damage to citrus trees, especially those of sweet orange, in Hunan province, China. Understanding the local CTV population structure should provide clues for effective mild strain cross-protection (MSCP) of the SP strain of CTV. In this study, markers for the p23 gene, multiple molecular markers (MMMs), and sequence analysis of the three silencing suppressor genes (p20, p23 and p25) were employed to analyze the genetic diversity and genotype composition of the CTV population based on 51 CTV-positive samples collected from 14 citrus orchards scattered around six major citrus-growing areas of Hunan. The results indicated that the CTV population structure was extremely complex and that infection was highly mixed. In total, p23 gene markers resulted in six profiles, and MMMs demonstrated 25 profiles. The severe VT and T3 types appeared to be predominantly associated with SP, while the mild T30 and RB types were related to asymptomatic samples. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of p20, p23 and p25, 19 representative CTV samples were classified into seven recently established CTV groups and a potentially novel one. A high level of genetic diversity, as well as potential recombination, was revealed among different CTV isolates. Five pure SP severe and two pure mild strains were identified by genotype composition analysis. Taken together, the results update the genetic diversity of CTV in Hunan with the detection of one possible novel strain, and this information might be applicable for the selection of appropriate mild CTV strains for controlling citrus SP disease through cross-protection.

  18. Distribution and interplay of geologic processes on Titan from Cassini radar data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, R.M.C.; Stofan, E.R.; Peckyno, R.; Radebaugh, J.; Mitchell, K.L.; Mitri, G.; Wood, C.A.; Kirk, R.L.; Wall, S.D.; Lunine, J.I.; Hayes, A.; Lorenz, R.; Farr, Tom; Wye, L.; Craig, J.; Ollerenshaw, R.J.; Janssen, M.; LeGall, A.; Paganelli, F.; West, R.; Stiles, B.; Callahan, P.; Anderson, Y.; Valora, P.; Soderblom, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper is providing an unprecedented view of Titan's surface geology. Here we use Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image swaths (Ta-T30) obtained from October 2004 to December 2007 to infer the geologic processes that have shaped Titan's surface. These SAR swaths cover about 20% of the surface, at a spatial resolution ranging from ???350 m to ???2 km. The SAR data are distributed over a wide latitudinal and longitudinal range, enabling some conclusions to be drawn about the global distribution of processes. They reveal a geologically complex surface that has been modified by all the major geologic processes seen on Earth - volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering, and erosion and deposition by fluvial and aeolian activity. In this paper, we map geomorphological units from SAR data and analyze their areal distribution and relative ages of modification in order to infer the geologic evolution of Titan's surface. We find that dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are more widespread than lakes, putative cryovolcanic features, mottled plains, and craters and crateriform structures that may be due to impact. Undifferentiated plains are the largest areal unit; their origin is uncertain. In terms of latitudinal distribution, dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are located mostly at low latitudes (less than 30??), with no dunes being present above 60??. Channels formed by fluvial activity are present at all latitudes, but lakes are at high latitudes only. Crateriform structures that may have been formed by impact appear to be uniformly distributed with latitude, but the well-preserved impact craters are all located at low latitudes, possibly indicating that more resurfacing has occurred at higher latitudes. Cryovolcanic features are not ubiquitous, and are mostly located between 30?? and 60?? north. We examine temporal relationships between units wherever possible, and conclude that aeolian and fluvial/pluvial/lacustrine processes are the

  19. Disribution and interplay of geologic processes on Titan from Cassini radar data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, R.M.C.; Stofan, E.R.; Peckyno, R.; Radebaugh, J.; Mitchell, K.L.; Mitri, G.; Wood, C.A.; Kirk, R.L.; Wall, S.D.; Lunine, J.I.; Hayes, A.; Lorenz, R.; Farr, Tom; Wye, L.; Craig, J.; Ollerenshaw, R.J.; Janssen, M.; LeGall, A.; Paganelli, F.; West, R.; Stiles, B.; Callahan, P.; Anderson, Y.; Valora, P.; Soderblom, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper is providing an unprecedented view of Titan's surface geology. Here we use Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image swaths (Ta-T30) obtained from October 2004 to December 2007 to infer the geologic processes that have shaped Titan's surface. These SAR swaths cover about 20% of the surface, at a spatial resolution ranging from ~350 m to ~2 km. The SAR data are distributed over a wide latitudinal and longitudinal range, enabling some conclusions to be drawn about the global distribution of processes. They reveal a geologically complex surface that has been modified by all the major geologic processes seen on Earth - volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering, and erosion and deposition by fluvial and aeolian activity. In this paper, we map geomorphological units from SAR data and analyze their areal distribution and relative ages of modification in order to infer the geologic evolution of Titan's surface. We find that dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are more widespread than lakes, putative cryovolcanic features, mottled plains, and craters and crateriform structures that may be due to impact. Undifferentiated plains are the largest areal unit; their origin is uncertain. In terms of latitudinal distribution, dunes and hummocky and mountainous terrains are located mostly at low latitudes (less than 30 degrees), with no dunes being present above 60 degrees. Channels formed by fluvial activity are present at all latitudes, but lakes are at high latitudes only. Crateriform structures that may have been formed by impact appear to be uniformly distributed with latitude, but the well-preserved impact craters are all located at low latitudes, possibly indicating that more resurfacing has occurred at higher latitudes. Cryovolcanic features are not ubiquitous, and are mostly located between 30 degrees and 60 degrees north. We examine temporal relationships between units wherever possible, and conclude that aeolian and fluvial

  20. Energy Release and Transport in Super-Hot Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, A.; McTiernan, J. M.; Shih, A.; Martinez Oliveros, J. C.; Allred, J. C.; Warren, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Solar flares efficiently convert the magnetic energy stored in the Sun's complex coronal magnetic field into the kinetic energies of hot plasma, accelerated particles, and bulk flows. In intense flares, up to 10^32-33 ergs can go into heating plasma to tens of MK, accelerating electrons to hundreds of MeV and ions to tens of GeV, and ejecting 10^9-10 kg of coronal material into the heliosphere at thousands of km/s. However, the exact physical mechanisms behind these phenomena are poorly understood. For example, while "super-hot" (T > 30 MK) plasma temperatures appear to be common in the most intense, X-class flares, how that plasma is so efficiently heated remains unknown. Current studies favor an in situ heating process for super-hot plasma, versus chromospheric evaporation for cooler plasma, although the specific mechanism is under debate. X-class flares are also often associated with enhanced photospheric/chromospheric white light emission, which is itself poorly understood, and with fast (>1000 km/s) CMEs; super-hot flares are more commonly observed in eruptive two-ribbon arcade flares than in highly-confined events. These phenomena may well have common underlying drivers. We discuss the current understanding of super-hot plasma in solar flares, its formation, and evolution, based on observations from RHESSI, SDO/EVE, SDO/AIA, and other instruments. We discuss the energetics of these events and their relationship to white light enhancement and fast CMEs. We explore the possibility of energy deposition by accelerated ions as a common driver for super-hot plasmas and white light enhancement, and discuss future instrumentation -- both for CubeSats and Explorers -- that will provide a deeper understanding of these phenomena and their interrelationships.

  1. Low-intermediate dose testosterone replacement therapy by different pharmaceutical preparations improves frailty score in elderly hypogonadal hyperglycaemic patients.

    PubMed

    Strollo, Felice; Strollo, Giovanna; Morè, Massimo; Magni, Paolo; Macchi, Chiara; Masini, Maria Angela; Carucci, Iarba; Celotti, Fabio; Ruscica, Massimiliano; Gentile, Sandro

    2013-06-01

    An open-label follow-up study of low-to-intermediate dose testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) was conducted in 64 overweight patients (aged 65-75 years) with late onset hypogonadism (LOH) and increased fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Patients were subdivided into four treatment groups: oral testosterone (T) (T undecanoate, 80 mg/d), transmucosal T (60 mg/d), transdermal T (30 mg/d) or no treatment (control), and evaluated at 0 and 6 months. FPG, hemoglobin (Hb), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and total T were measured and the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index was calculated. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fitness level (6-min walking test), Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scale, handgrip strength and energy expenditure with physical activity (Minnesota questionnaire for Leisure Time Physical Activity (LTPA)) were evaluated and a "frailty score" (based on: grip strength, gait speed and LTPA) was calculated. T levels increased in all treatment groups; the oral T group had values still in the hypogonadal range (5.9 ± 1.1 nmol/L). PSA and Hb concentrations did not change in any group. BMI, waist circumference, FPG and HOMA-IR improved in all T-treated groups after 6 months, with a greater effect seen with transmucosal and transdermal T compared with oral T. This study indicates that low-to-intermediate dose TRT may be safely utilized in LOH patients to ameliorate somatic and psychological frailty symptoms in association with improved anthropometric and glycometabolic parameters in aging, overweight men with LOH and impaired fasting glucose.

  2. Non-magnetic Anomaly at 1K Arising in Ferromagnetic Ce2.15(Pd1-xAgx)1.95In0.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sereni, J. G.; Giovannini, M.; Berisso, M. Ǵomez; Gastaldo, F.

    Magnetic and thermal properties of Ferromagnetic (FM) Ce2.15(Pd1-xAgx)1.95In0.9 alloys were studied in order to determine the Quantum Critical Point (QCP) at TC → 0. The in- crease of band electrons produced by Pd/Ag substitution depresses TC (x) from 4.1K down to TC (x = 0.5)=1.1K, with a QCP extrapolated to xQCP ≥ 0.5. Magnetic susceptibility from T > 30K indicates an effective moment slightly decreasing from μeff =2.56μB to 2.4μB at x=0.5. These values and the paramagnetic temperature θP ≈ -10K exclude significant Kondo screening effects. The TC (x) reduction is accompanied by a weakening of the FM magnetization and the emergence of a specific heat Cm(T) anomaly at T* ≈ 1K, without signs of magnetism detected from AC-susceptibility. The magnetic entropy collected around 4K (i.e. the TC of the x = 0 sample) practically does not change with Ag concentration: Sm(4K) ≈ 0.8 Rln2, suggesting a progressive transfer of FM degrees of freedom to the non-magnetic (NM) compo- nent. No antecedent was found concerning any NM anomaly emerging from a FM system at such temperature. The origin of this anomaly is attributed to an entropy bottleneck originated in the nearly divergent power law dependence for T >T*

  3. Photocatalytic treatment of IGCC power station effluents in a UV-pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; San Martín, I; Sánchez-Romero, R

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this work is to improve the quality of water effluents coming from an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power station to meet with future environmental legislation. This study has been made using an homogeneous photocatalytic oxidation process (UV/Fe(II)/H(2)O(2)) in a pilot plant. The efficiency of the process was determined from the analysis of the following parameters: cyanides, formates and TOC content. In the first stage, a factorial experimental design allowed to determine the influence of operation variables (initial concentration of H(2)O(2) and Fe(II), pH and temperature) on the degradation kinetics. pH was always kept in a value >9.5 during cyanides destruction to avoid gaseous HCN formation and lowered later to enhance formates degradation. Experimental kinetic constants were fitted using neural networks (NNs). Under the optimum conditions ([H(2)O(2)]=1700 ppm, [Fe(II)]=2 ppm, pH 2 after cyanides destruction, and T=30 degrees C), it is possible to degrade 100% of cyanides in 15 min and 76% of formates in 120 min. The use of an homogeneous process with UV light can offer an economical and practical alternative to heterogeneous photocatalysis for the destruction of environmental pollutants present in thermoelectric power stations effluents, since it can treat very high flowrates using a lower H(2)O(2) concentration. Furthermore, it does not require additional operations to recover the solid catalyst and regenerate it due to deactivation as occurs in heterogeneous catalysis.

  4. Modulation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Specific Immune Response by Using Efavirenz, Nelfinavir, and Stavudine in a Rescue Therapy Regimen for HIV-Infected, Drug-Experienced Patients

    PubMed Central

    Trabattoni, Daria; Lo Caputo, Sergio; Biasin, Mara; Seminari, Elena; Di Pietro, Massimo; Ravasi, Giovanni; Mazzotta, Francesco; Maserati, Renato; Clerici, Mario

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the virologic and immunomodulatory effects of an association of efavirenz (EFV), nelfinavir (NFV), and stavudine (d4T) was performed in 18 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-experienced patients who failed multiple therapeutic protocols. Patients (<500 CD4+ cells/μl; >10,000 HIV copies/ml) were nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-naive and were treated for 10 months with EFV (600 mg/day) in association with NFV (750 mg three times daily) and d4T (30 or 40 mg twice daily). Measurement of HIV peptide- and mitogen-stimulated production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-4, and IL-10 as well as quantitation of mRNA for the same cytokines in unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells were performed at baseline and 2 weeks (t1), 2 months (t2), and 10 months (t3) into therapy. The results showed that HIV-specific (but not mitogen-stimulated) IL-2 and IFN-γ production was augmented and IL-10 production was reduced in patients who received EFV, NFV, and d4T. Therapy was also associated with a reduction in HIV RNA in plasma and an increase in CD4+ cell count. These changes occurred in the first year of therapy (t2 and t3) and were confirmed by quantitation of cytokine-specific mRNA. Therapy with EFV, NFV, and d4T increases HIV-specific type 1 cytokine production as well as CD4 counts and reduces plasma viremia. This therapeutic regimen may be considered for use in cases of advanced HIV infection. PMID:12204968

  5. Three-band Hubbard model: A Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dopf, G.; Muramatsu, A.; Hanke, W.

    1990-05-01

    We have studied a two-dimensional multiband Hubbard model describing CuO2 sheets in the high-Tc oxides. The simulations were performed for a grand-canonical ensemble on lattice sizes up to 16 unit cells of three atoms each and temperatures down to kBT~t/30, where t is the Cu-O hybridization. For generally accepted values of the Hubbard coupling on the Cu sites Ud>~6t, two different regimes can be distinguished in the magnetic properties of the model. In the half-filled band case we see for Δ>Ud/2 (Δ=ɛp-ɛd being the charge-transfer energy) the formation of a correlation gap, as expected for a charge-transfer insulator. For Δ~4/t, although no phase transition to a superconducting state could be seen.

  6. Application of parallel liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for high throughput microsomal stability screening of compound libraries.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rongda; Nemes, Csaba; Jenkins, Kelly M; Rourick, Robyn A; Kassel, Daniel B; Liu, Charles Z C

    2002-02-01

    Solution-phase and solid-phase parallel synthesis and high throughput screening have enabled biologically active and selective compounds to be identified at an unprecedented rate. The challenge has been to convert these hits into viable development candidates. To accelerate the conversion of these hits into lead development candidates, early assessment of the physicochemical and pharmacological properties of these compounds is being made. In particular, in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) assays are being conducted at earlier and earlier stages of discovery with the goal of reducing the attrition rate of these potential drug candidates as they progress through development. In this report, we present an eight-channel parallel liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) system in combination with custom Visual Basic and Applescript automated data processing applications for high throughput early ADME. The parallel LC/MS system was configured with one set of gradient LC pumps and an eight-channel multiple probe autosampler. The flow was split equivalently into eight streams before the multiple probe autosampler and recombined after the eight columns and just prior to the mass spectrometer ion source. The system was tested for column-to-column variation and for reproducibility over a 17 h period (approximately 500 injections per column). The variations in retention time and peak area were determined to be less than 2 and 10%, respectively, in both tests. The parallel LC/MS system described permits time-course microsomal incubations (t(o), t5, t15, t30) to be measured in triplicate and enables estimations of t 1/2 microsomal stability. The parallel LC/MS system is capable of analyzing up to 240 samples per hour and permits the complete profiling up to two microtiter plates of compounds per day (i.e., 176 test substrate compounds + sixteen controls).

  7. Experimental Study of the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability of Incompressible Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niederhaus, Charles; Jacobs, Jeffrey W.

    2002-01-01

    The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability of a low Atwood number, miscible, two-liquid system is investigated experimentally. The initially stratified fluids are contained within a rectangular tank mounted to a sled that rides on a vertical set of rails. The instability is generated by dropping the sled onto a coil spring, producing a nearly impulsive upward acceleration. The subsequent freefall that occurs as the container travels upward and then downward on the rails allows the instability to evolve in the absence of gravity. The interface separating the two liquids initially has a well-defined, sinusoidal perturbation that quickly inverts and then grows in amplitude after undergoing the impulsive acceleration. Disturbance amplitudes are measured and compared to theoretical predictions. Linear stability theory gives excellent agreement with the measured initial growth rate, a(sub 0), for single-mode perturbations with the predicted amplitudes differing by less than 10% from experimental measurements up to a nondimensional time ka(sub 0)t = 0.7, where k is the wavenumber. Linear stability theory also provides excellent agreement for the individual mode amplitudes of multi-mode initial perturbations up until the interface becomes multi-valued. Comparison with previously published weakly nonlinear single-mode models shows good agreement up to ka(sub 0)t = 3, while published nonlinear single-mode models provide good agreement up to ka(sub 0)t = 30. The effects of Reynolds number on the vortex core evolution and overall growth rate of the interface are also investigated. Measurements of the overall amplitude are found to be unaffected by the Reynolds number for the range of values studied here. However, experiments carried out at lower values of Reynolds numbers were found to have decreased vortex core rotation rates. In addition, an instability in the vortex cores is observed.

  8. Two-stage electrochemical treatment of bio-digested distillery spent wash using stainless steel and aluminum electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pinki; Joshi, Himanshu; Srivastava, Vimal C

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of two-stage electro-coagulation (EC) process using multi-parameter optimization for treating bio-digested distillery spent wash by stainless steel (SS) and aluminum (Al) electrodes. Operating parameters have been optimized and treatment efficiency of SS and Al electrodes have been compared by central composite design of response surface analysis in terms of COD, color and total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Individual and interactive effects of four independent parameters namely initial pH (pHo: 2-10 and 4-10 for SS and Al electrodes, respectively), current density (j: 30.86-154.32 A m(-2)), inter-electrode distance (g: 0.5-2.5 cm) and electrolysis time (t: 30-150 min) on the COD, color and TOC removal efficiency were evaluated for both the electrodes. SS electrode was found to be more effective for the removal of COD, color and TOC with removal efficiencies of 70%, 93% and 72%, respectively, as compared to Al electrode, which showed respective removal efficiencies of 59%, 80% and 55%. A two-stage EC process was also conducted to study the predominance of different types of electrodes, and to increase the efficiency of EC process. Results shows that SS followed by Al electrode (with total COD, color and TOC removal efficiency of 81%, 94% and 78%, respectively) was found to be more effective than Al followed by SS electrode combination (with total COD, color and TOC removal efficiency of 78%, 89% and 76%, respectively). Present study shows that EC process can be used as an additional step to bio-methanation process so as to meet effluent discharge standards in distilleries.

  9. How do liquid mixtures solubilize insoluble gelators? Self-assembly properties of pyrenyl-linker-glucono gelators in tetrahydrofuran-water mixtures.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ni; Xu, Zhiyan; Diehn, Kevin K; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Fang, Yu; Weiss, Richard G

    2013-06-19

    The self-assembly behavior of a series of glucono-appended 1-pyrenesulfonyl derivatives containing α,ω-diaminoalkane spacers (Pn, where n, the number of methylene units separating the amino groups, is 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8) in v:v tetrahydrofuran (THF):water mixtures is examined at room temperature. The Pn at 2 w/v % concentrations do not dissolve in either THF or water at room temperature. However, the Pn can be dissolved in some THF:water mixtures, and they form gels spontaneously in other compositions without dissolving completely. The self-assembly of the Pn in the liquid mixtures has been investigated using a variety of techniques. The particle sizes of the Pn in their solutions/sols, critical gelation concentrations, microstructures, thermal and mechanical stabilities of the gels, and molecular packing modes of Pn molecules in their gel networks are found to be very dependent on the composition of the liquid mixtures. Correlations between the self-assembly behavior of the Pn and the polarity of the liquid mixtures, as probed by E(T)(30) and Hansen solubility parameters, yield both qualitative and quantitative insights into why self-assembly of the Pn can or cannot be achieved in different liquid compositions. As revealed by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy studies, π-π stacking of the pyrenyl groups occurs as part of the aggregation process. Correlations between the rheological properties of the gels and the Hansen solubility parameters of the Pn and the solvent mixtures indicate that hydrogen-bonding interactions are a major contributor to the mechanical stability. Overall, the results of this study offer a new strategy to investigate the balance between dissolution and aggregation of molecular gelators. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of the spontaneous formation of molecular gels without heating by placing gelators in mixtures of liquids in which they are insoluble in the neat components.

  10. Postprandial hyperglycemia was ameliorated by taking metformin 30 min before a meal than taking metformin with a meal; a randomized, open-label, crossover pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Muhei; Okada, Hiroshi; Mistuhashi, Kazuteru; Kimura, Toshihiro; Kitagawa, Noriyuki; Fukuda, Takuya; Majima, Saori; Fukuda, Yukiko; Tanaka, Yoshimitsu; Yamada, Shunji; Senmaru, Takafumi; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Asano, Mai; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Oda, Yohei; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2016-05-01

    Taking metformin with a meal has been shown to decrease bioavailability of metformin. We hypothesized that taking metformin 30 min before a meal improves glucose metabolism. As an animal model, 18 Zucker-rats were divided into three groups as follows: no medication (Control), metformin (600 mg/kg) with meal (Met), and metformin 10 min before meal (pre-Met). In addition, five diabetic patients were recruited and randomized to take metformin (1000 mg) either 30 min before a meal (pre-Met protocol) or with a meal (Met protocol). In the animal model, the peak glucose level of pre-Met (7.8 ± 1.5 mmol/L) was lower than that of Control (12.6 ± 2.5 mmol/L, P = 0.010) or Met (14.1 ± 2.9 mmol/L, P = 0.020). Although there was no statistical difference among the three groups, total GLP-1 level at t = 0 min of pre-Met (7.4 ± 2.7 pmol/L) tended to be higher than that of Control (3.7 ± 2.0 pmol/L, P = 0.030) or Met (3.9 ± 1.2 pmol/L, P = 0.020). In diabetic patients, the peak glucose level of pre-Met protocol (7.0 ± 0.4 mmol/L) was lower than that of Met protocol (8.5 ± 0.9 mmol/L, P = 0.021). Total GLP-1 level at t = 30 min of pre-Met protocol (11.0 ± 6.1 pmol/L) was higher than that of Met protocol (6.7 ± 3.9 pmol/L, P = 0.033). Taking metformin 30 min before a meal ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia. This promises to be a novel approach for postprandial hyperglycemia.

  11. Pilot scale-up and shelf stability of hydrogel wound dressings obtained by gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, Dulce María; Rodríguez, Yanet; Correa, Hector; Moreno, Ailed; Carrizales, Lila

    2012-08-01

    This study is aimed of producing pilot batches of hydrogel wound dressings by gamma radiation and evaluating their shelf stability. Six batches of 3L capacity were prepared based on poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), agar and polyethylene glycol and they were dispensed in polyester trays, covered with polyester films and sealed in two types of materials: polyethylene bags and vacuum polyethylene bags. Dressings were formed in a single step process for the hydrogel formation and sterilization at 25-30 kGy gamma radiation dose in a JS-9500 Gamma Irradiator (Nordion, Canada). The six batches were initially physicochemical characterized in terms of dimensions and appearance, gel fraction, morphology analysis, hydrogel strength, moisture retention capability and swelling capacity. They were kept under two storage conditions: room temperature (T: 30±2 °C/RH: 70± 5%) and refrigerated temperature (T: 5±3 °C) during 24 months and sterility test was performed. The appearance of membranes was transparent, clear, uncut and flexible; the gel fraction of batches was higher than 75% and the hydrogel surface showed a porous structure. There was a slow decrease of the compression rate 20% until 7 h and about 70% at 24 h. Moisture retention capability in 5 h was similar for all the batches, about 40% and 60% at 37 °C and at room temperature respectively. The swelling of hydrogels in acidic media was strong and in alkaline media the weight variation remains almost stable until 24 h and then there is a loss of weight. The six batches remained sterile during the stability study in the conditions tested. The pilot batches were consistent from batch to batch and remained stable during 24 months.

  12. Validation and Characterization of a Novel Peptide That Binds Monomeric and Aggregated β-Amyloid and Inhibits the Formation of Neurotoxic Oligomers*

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Renae K.; Verdile, Giuseppe; Wijaya, Linda K.; Morici, Michael; Taddei, Kevin; Gupta, Veer B.; Pedrini, Steve; Jin, Liang; Nicolazzo, Joseph A.; Knock, Erin; Fraser, Paul E.; Martins, Ralph N.

    2016-01-01

    Although the formation of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in the brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD), the soluble oligomers rather than the mature amyloid fibrils most likely contribute to Aβ toxicity and neurodegeneration. Thus, the discovery of agents targeting soluble Aβ oligomers is highly desirable for early diagnosis prior to the manifestation of a clinical AD phenotype and also more effective therapies. We have previously reported that a novel 15-amino acid peptide (15-mer), isolated via phage display screening, targeted Aβ and attenuated its neurotoxicity (Taddei, K., Laws, S. M., Verdile, G., Munns, S., D'Costa, K., Harvey, A. R., Martins, I. J., Hill, F., Levy, E., Shaw, J. E., and Martins, R. N. (2010) Neurobiol. Aging 31, 203–214). The aim of the current study was to generate and biochemically characterize analogues of this peptide with improved stability and therapeutic potential. We demonstrated that a stable analogue of the 15-amino acid peptide (15M S.A.) retained the activity and potency of the parent peptide and demonstrated improved proteolytic resistance in vitro (stable to t = 300 min, c.f. t = 30 min for the parent peptide). This candidate reduced the formation of soluble Aβ42 oligomers, with the concurrent generation of non-toxic, insoluble aggregates measuring up to 25–30 nm diameter as determined by atomic force microscopy. The 15M S.A. candidate directly interacted with oligomeric Aβ42, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation and surface plasmon resonance/Biacore analysis, with an affinity in the low micromolar range. Furthermore, this peptide bound fibrillar Aβ42 and also stained plaques ex vivo in brain tissue from AD model mice. Given its multifaceted ability to target monomeric and aggregated Aβ42 species, this candidate holds promise for novel preclinical AD imaging and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26538562

  13. Structural basis for the ligand-binding specificity of fatty acid-binding proteins (pFABP4 and pFABP5) in gentoo penguin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Woo; Kim, Jung Eun; Do, Hackwon; Kim, Ryeo-Ok; Lee, Sung Gu; Park, Hyun Ho; Chang, Jeong Ho; Yim, Joung Han; Park, Hyun; Kim, Il-Chan; Lee, Jun Hyuck

    2015-09-11

    Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are involved in transporting hydrophobic fatty acids between various aqueous compartments of the cell by directly binding ligands inside their β-barrel cavities. Here, we report the crystal structures of ligand-unbound pFABP4, linoleate-bound pFABP4, and palmitate-bound pFABP5, obtained from gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), at a resolution of 2.1 Å, 2.2 Å, and 2.3 Å, respectively. The pFABP4 and pFABP5 proteins have a canonical β-barrel structure with two short α-helices that form a cap region and fatty acid ligand binding sites in the hydrophobic cavity within the β-barrel structure. Linoleate-bound pFABP4 and palmitate-bound pFABP5 possess different ligand-binding modes and a unique ligand-binding pocket due to several sequence dissimilarities (A76/L78, T30/M32, underlining indicates pFABP4 residues) between the two proteins. Structural comparison revealed significantly different conformational changes in the β3-β4 loop region (residues 57-62) as well as the flipped Phe60 residue of pFABP5 than that in pFABP4 (the corresponding residue is Phe58). A ligand-binding study using fluorophore displacement assays shows that pFABP4 has a relatively strong affinity for linoleate as compared to pFABP5. In contrast, pFABP5 exhibits higher affinity for palmitate than that for pFABP4. In conclusion, our high-resolution structures and ligand-binding studies provide useful insights into the ligand-binding preferences of pFABPs based on key protein-ligand interactions.

  14. Evaluating the Performance of Short-Term Heat Storage in Alluvial Aquifer with 4D Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Hydrological Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermans, T.; Robert, T.; Paulus, C.; Bolly, P. Y.; Koo Seen Lin, E.; Nguyen, F.

    2015-12-01

    In the context of energy demand side management (DSM), energy storage solutions are needed to store energy during high production periods and recover energy during high demand periods. Among currently studied solutions, storing energy in the subsurface through heat pumps and/or exchangers (thermal energy storage) is relatively simple with low investment costs. However, the design and functioning of such systems have strong interconnections with the geology of the site which may be complex and heterogeneous, making predictions difficult. In this context, local temperature measurements are necessary but not sufficient to model heat flow and transport in the subsurface. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) provides spatially distributed information on the temperature distribution in the subsurface. In this study, we monitored, with 4D ERT combined with multiple hydrological measurements in available wells, a short-term heat storage experiment in a confined alluvial aquifer. We injected heated water (ΔT=30K) during 6 hours with a rate of 3 m³/h. We stored this heat during 3 days, and then we pumped it back to estimate the energy balance. We collected ERT data sets using 9 parallel profiles of 21 electrodes and cross-lines measurements. Inversion results clearly show the ability of ERT to delimit the thermal plume growth during injection, the diffusion and decrease of temperature during storage, and the decrease in size after pumping. Quantitative interpretation of ERT in terms of temperature estimates is difficult at this stage due to strong spatial variations of the total dissolved solid content in the aquifer, due to historical chloride contamination of the site. However, we demonstrated that short-term heat storage in alluvial aquifer is efficient and that ERT combined with hydrological measurements is a valuable tool to image and estimate the temperature distribution in the subsurface. Moreover, energy balance shows that up to 75% of the energy can be easily

  15. Effects of thermal stress on the immune and oxidative stress responses of juvenile sea cucumber Holothuria scabra.

    PubMed

    Kamyab, Elham; Kühnhold, Holger; Novais, Sara C; Alves, Luís M F; Indriana, Lisa; Kunzmann, Andreas; Slater, Matthew; Lemos, Marco F L

    2017-01-01

    Holothuria scabra is the most valued and cultured tropical sea cucumber, given the great demand of this species for human consumption. However, despite its ecological and economic relevance, little is known regarding its immune responses under thermal stress. Here, the main goal was to study the response of sea cucumbers to temperature stress, assessing sub-organismal alterations and acclimation capacities of juveniles to temperature changes. After changing temperature (1 °C/day) for 6 days, organisms were exposed to temperature conditions of 21 °C (cold), 27 °C (control), and 33 °C (warm) over a 30 day period. At each 15-day interval (T0, T15, and T30), six replicates per condition were killed for biochemical analysis. Immune responses were addressed by studying the activity of phenoloxidase (PO) and prophenoloxidase (ProPO) in the coelomic fluid. Antioxidant defence responses-catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione reductase (GR) enzymatic activities-were measured in the muscle and respiratory tree tissues, whereas oxidative damage was evaluated by measuring levels of superoxide radicals (ROS), DNA-strand breaks and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Juvenile H. scabra increased SOD and PO activities when temperature was elevated, and revealed low levels of ROS and damage in both cold and warm treatments throughout the experiment, confirming the organism's moderate thermal stress. After the short acclimation period, the immune and antioxidant responses prevented damage and maintained homeostasis. This multi-biomarker approach highlights its usefulness to monitor the health of H. scabra and to gain insight concerning the use of this high-valued species in global-scale aquaculture from different temperature regions.

  16. OEM-TACE: a new therapeutic approach in unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Poggi, Guido; Amatu, A; Montagna, B; Quaretti, P; Minoia, C; Sottani, C; Villani, L; Tagliaferri, B; Sottotetti, F; Rossi, O; Pozzi, E; Zappoli, F; Riccardi, A; Bernardo, G

    2009-11-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a rare life-threatening disease, whose only treatment with potential for cure is surgical resection. However, only 27% of patients at most are suitable for surgery when first diagnosed. For patients with unresectable disease, therapeutic options are chemotherapy or chemoradiation. We evaluated the feasibility and safety of oxaliplatin-eluting microspheres transarterial chemoembolization (OEM-TACE) associated with chemotherapy (ChT) in patients affected by unresectable ICC. Between December 2005 and May 2008 we treated nine patients (six female and three male) with unresectable ICC. All patients had undergone OEM-TACE associated with chemotherapy with oxaliplatin and gemcitabine. A retrospective comparison was carried out with a historical group of 11 patients treated with ChT only, estimating the prevalence of adverse effects and the median survival of the two groups. A total of 30 TACEs were performed during the observational time (ranging from one to seven procedures per patient). OEM-TACEs were followed by few adverse effects (AEs), without G4 AEs, according to CTACAE 3.0. According to RECIST criteria, 44% (4/9) of patients achieved partial responses and 56% (5/9) stabilization of disease. Overall survival analysis in the two groups showed a significantly increased survival in patients treated with ChT and OEM-TACE, with respect to those treated with ChT (30 vs. 12.7 months; p=0.004). In conclusion, in our experience OEM-TACE associated with ChT in the treatment of advanced unresectable ICC is a safe and feasible treatment causing no major adverse events. Although RECIST criteria can underestimate the rate of responses in patients treated with locoregional therapies, we achieved very encouraging results. A randomized multicentric trial is warranted to assess the actual superiority of OEM-TACE associated with ChT compared to conventional chemotherapy.

  17. Solvothermal synthesis, multi-temperature crystal structures and physical properties of isostructural coordination polymers, 2C4H12N+[M3(C8H4O4)4]2-.3C5H11NO, M = Co, Zn.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Poulsen, Rasmus; Bentien, Anders; Christensen, Mogens; Brummerstedt Iversen, Bo

    2006-04-01

    Two isostructural metal organic framework (MOF) structures have been synthesized by solvothermal methods and examined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. A microcrystal of 2C4H12N+[Co3(C8H4O4)4]2-.3C5H11NO (1) was investigated at T = 120 K using synchrotron radiation. 2C4H12N+[Zn3(C8H4O4)4]2-.3C5H11NO (2) was investigated at multiple temperatures (T = 30, 100, 200 and 300 K) on a conventional diffractometer. The thermal expansion of the structure of (2) is anisotropic and along the a axis, which corresponds to the metal chain direction. The structures contain anionic frameworks with cations and solvent molecules trapped in the voids. The magnetic susceptibility (chi) and heat capacity (C(p)) have been measured from 1.8 to 350 K. Compound (1) orders ferromagnetically with a broad phase transition observed in C(p) at approximately 6 K. The magnetic moment reaches a value of 3 micro(B) per Co at 2 K in a magnetic field of 9 T, and a Curie-Weiss fit to chi(T) gives an effective moment (mu(eff)) of 4.2 mu(B) and a Weiss temperature (theta) of 23 K. The exchange mechanism for the magnetic coupling is suggested to involve the Co-O-Co bridges in the individual three-metal-atom subchains. The three-dimensional magnetism presumably is due to super-exchange through two out of the three unique C8H4O4 linker molecules, which have the carboxylate and benzene pi systems well aligned.

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL EXCIPIENT BEHAVIOR OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM) STARCH IN GLICLAZIDE IMMEDIATE RELEASE TABLETS.

    PubMed

    Meka, Venkata Srikanth; Yee, Phung; Sheshala, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, there are number of researchers carrying out their research on the excipients derived from polysaccharides and some of these researches show that natural excipients are comparable and can serve as an alternative to the synthetic excipients. Hence, the objectives of this research are to characterize the naturally sourced chickpea starch powder and to study the pharmaceutical excipient behavior of chickpea starch in gliclazide immediate release (IR) tablets. In this research, the binding properties of chickpea starch were compared to that of povidone, whereas the disintegrant properties of chickpea starch were compared to those of crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate. Flow property of chickpea starch was assessed with the measurement of bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index and angle of repose. Calibration curve for gliclazide in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 was developed. Gliclazide IR tablets were then produced with direct compression method. Physicochemical characteristics of the tablets, including thickness, tablet weight uniformity, hardness, disintegration time and friability were evaluated. Then, in vitro dissolution studies were performed by following United States Pharmacopeia (USP) dissolution method. The dissolution results were analyzed and compared with t30, t50, dissolution efficiency (DE). Lastly, drug-excipient compatibility studies, including Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis were carried out. Fair flow property was observed in the chickpea starch powder. Furthermore, the tablets produced passed all the tests in physicochemical characteristics evaluation except hardness and disintegration test. Additionally, in vitro dissolution studies show that chickpea starch acted as a disintegrant instead of a binder in gliclazide IR tablets and its disintegrant properties were comparable to those of crospovidone, croscarmellose

  19. New observations of flux ropes in the magnetotail reconnection region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shiyong; Retino, Alessandro; Phan, Tai; Daughton, W. Bill; Vaivads, Andris; Karimabadi, Homa; Pang, Ye; Zhou, Meng; Sahraoui, Fouad; Li, Guanlai; Yuan, Zhigang; Deng, Xiaohua; Fu, Huishan; Fu, Song; Wang, Dedong

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental physical process that enables the rapid transfer of magnetic energy into plasma kinetic and thermal energy in the laboratory, astrophysical and space plasma. Flux ropes have been suggested to play important role in controlling the micro-scale physics of magnetic reconnection and electron acceleration. In this presentation, we report new observations of flux ropes in the magnetotail reconnection region based on the Cluster multi-spacecraft data. Firstly, two consecutive magnetic flux ropes, separated by less than 30 s (Δt < 30 s), are observed within one magnetic reconnection diffusion region without strong guide field. In spite of the small but non-trivial global scale negative guide field (-By), there exists a directional change of the core fields of two flux ropes, i.e. -By for the first one, and +By for the second one. This is inconsistent with any theory and simulations. Therefore, we suggest that the core field of flux ropes is formed by compression of the local preexisting By, and that the directional change of core field is due to the change of local preexisting By. Such a change in ambientBy might be caused by some microscale physics. Secondary, we will present in-situ observations of a small scale flux rope locally formed at the separatrix region of magnetic reconnection without large guide field. Bidirectional electron beams (cold and hot beams) and density cavity accompanied by intense wave activities substantiate the crossing of the separatrix region. Density compression and one parallel electron beam are detected inside the flux rope. We suggest that this flux rope is locally generated at the separatrix region due to the tearing instability within the separatrix current layer. This observation sheds new light on the 3D picture of magnetic reconnection in space plasma.

  20. Interaction of a Magnetized Shell with an Ambient Medium: Limits on Impulsive Magnetic Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, Amir

    2010-09-01

    The interaction of relativistic magnetized ejecta with an ambient medium is studied for a range of structures and magnetization of the unshocked ejecta. We particularly focus on the effect of the ambient medium on the dynamics of an impulsive, high-sigma shell. It is found that for sufficiently high values of the initial magnetization σ0 the evolution of the system is significantly altered by the ambient medium well before the shell reaches its coasting phase. The maximum Lorentz factor of the shell is limited to values well below σ0 for a shell of initial energy E = 1052 E 52 erg and size r 0 = 1012 T 30 cm expelled into a medium having a uniform density ni , we obtain Γmax ~= 180(E 52/T 3 30 ni )1/8 in the high-sigma limit. The reverse shock and any internal shocks that might form if the source is fluctuating are shown to be very weak. The restriction on the Lorentz factor is more severe for shells propagating in a stellar wind. Intermittent ejection of small sub-shells does not seem to help, as the shells merge while still highly magnetized. Lower sigma shells start decelerating after reaching the coasting phase and spreading away. The properties of the reverse shock then depend on the density profiles of the coasting shell and the ambient medium. For a self-similar cold shell the reverse shock becomes strong as it propagates inward, and the system eventually approaches the self-similar solution recently derived by Nakamura & Shigeyama.

  1. Observational capabilities of solar satellite "Coronas-Photon"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, Yu.

    Coronas-Photon mission is the third satellite of the Russian Coronas program on solar activity observation The main goal of the Coronas-Photon is the study of solar hard electromagnetic radiation in the wide energy range from UV up to high energy gamma-radiation sim 2000MeV Scientific payload for solar radiation observation consists of three type of instruments 1 monitors Natalya-2M Konus-RF RT-2 Penguin-M BRM Phoka Sphin-X Sokol for spectral and timing measurements of full solar disk radiation with timing in flare burst mode up to one msec Instruments Natalya-2M Konus-RF RT-2 will cover the wide energy range of hard X-rays and soft Gamma rays 15keV to 2000MeV and will together constitute the largest area detectors ever used for solar observations Detectors of gamma-ray monitors are based on structured inorganic scintillators with energy resolution sim 5 for nuclear gamma-line band to 35 for GeV-band PSD analysis is used for gamma neutron separation for solar neutron registration T 30MeV Penguin-M has capability to measure linear polarization of hard X-rays using azimuth are measured by Compton scattering asymmetry in case of polarization of an incident flux For X-ray and EUV monitors the scintillation phoswich detectors gas proportional counter CZT assembly and Filter-covered Si-diodes are used 2 Telescope-spectrometer TESIS for imaging solar spectroscopy in X-rays with angular resolution up to 1 in three spectral lines and RT-2 CZT assembly of CZT

  2. Comparison of actual tidal volume in neonatal lung model volume control ventilation using three ventilators.

    PubMed

    Toyama, H; Endo, Y; Ejima, Y; Matsubara, M; Kurosawa, S

    2011-07-01

    In neonates, small changes in tidal volumes (V(T)) may lead to complications. Previous studies have shown a significant difference between ventilator-measured tidal volume and tidal volume delivered (actual V(T)). We evaluated the accuracy of three different ventilators to deliver small V(T) during volume-controlled ventilation. We tested Servo 300, 840 ventilator and Evita 4 Neoflow ventilators with lung models simulating normal and injured neonatal lung compliance models. Gas volume delivered from the ventilator into the test circuit (V(TV)) and actual V(T) to the test lung were measured using Ventrak respiration monitors at set V(T) (30 ml). The gas volume increase of the breathing circuit was then calculated. Tidal volumes of the SV300 and PB840 in both lung models were similar to the set V(T) and the actual tidal volumes in the injured model (20.7 ml and 19.8 ml, respectively) were significantly less than that in the normal model (27.4 ml and 23.4 ml). PB840 with circuit compliance compensation could not improve the actual V(T). V(TV) of the EV4N in the normal and the injured models (37.8 ml and 46.6 ml) were markedly increased compared with set V(T), and actual V(T) were similar to set V(T) in the normal and injured model (30.2 ml and 31.9 ml, respectively). EV4N measuring V(T) close to the lung could match actual V(T) to almost the same value as the set V(T) however the gas volume of the breathing circuit was increased. If an accurate value for the patient's actual V(T) is needed, this V(T) must be measured by a sensor located between the Y-piece and the tracheal tube.

  3. Tear Oxygen Under Hydrogel and Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lenses in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, Joseph A.; Clark, Christopher; Pruitt, John; Alvord, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine the tear oxygen tension under a variety of conventional and silicone hydrogel contact lenses in human subjects. Methods Three hydrogel and five silicone hydrogel lenses (Dk/t = 17 to 329) were coated on the back surface with an oxygen sensitive, bovine serum albumin-Pd meso-tetra (4-carboxyphenyl) porphine complex (BSA-porphine). Each lens type was placed on the right eye of 15 non-contact lens wearers to obtain a steady-state open eye tear oxygen tension using oxygen sensitive phosphorescence decay of BSA-porphine. A closed-eye oxygen tension estimate was obtained by measuring the change in tear oxygen tension after 5 min of eye closure. In separate experiments, a goggle was placed over the lens wearing eye and a gas mixture (PO2 = 51 torr) flowed over the lens to simulate anterior lens oxygen tension during eye closure. Results Mean open eye oxygen tension ranged from 58 to 133 torr. Closed eye estimates ranged from 11 to 42 torr. Oxygen tension under the goggle ranged from 8 to 48 torr and was higher than the closed eye estimate for six out of the eight lenses, suggesting that the average closed eye anterior lens surface oxygen tension is <51 torr. For Dk/t >30, the measured tear oxygen tension is significantly lower than that predicted from previous studies. Conclusions The phosphorescence decay methodology is capable of directly measuring the in vivo post lens PO2 of high Dk/t lenses without disturbing the contact lens or cornea. Our data indicate that increasing Dk/t up to and beyond 140 continues to yield increased flux into the central cornea. PMID:19609230

  4. Hybrid control and acquisition system for distributed sensors for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garufi, Fabio; Acernese, Fausto; Boiano, Alfonso; De Rosa, Rosario; Romano, Rocco; Barone, Fabrizio

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we describe the architecture and the performances of a hybrid modular acquisition and control system prototype we developed in Napoli for the implementation of geographycally distributed monitoring and control systems. The system, an improvement of a VME-UDP/IP based system developed by our group for interferometric detectors of gravitational waves, is based on a dual-channel 18-bit low noise ADC and 16-bit DAC module at 1 MHz, managed by an ALTERA FPGA, that can be used standalone or mounted as mezzanine (also in parallel with other modules) on a motherboard. Both the modules and the motherboard can send/receive the configuration and the acquired/correction data for control through a standard EPP parallel port to an external PC, where the real-time computation is performed. Experimental tests have demonstrated that this architeture allows the implementation of distributed control systems, using a standard laptop PC for the realtime computation, with delay time Δt < 30 μs on a single channel, that is a sustained sampling frequency f c > 30kHz. Each module is also equipped with a 20-bit slower ADC necessary for the acquisition of an external calibration signal. The system is now under extensive test in two different experiments, i.e. the control of a Michelson Interferometer to be used as Velocimeter for Seismic Waves in Geophysics and the control of the end mirrors a suspended Michelson Interferometer through electrostatic actuators, a prototype for mirror control for Interferometric Detectors of Gravitational Waves.

  5. Performance evaluation of different solar advanced oxidation processes applied to the treatment of a real textile dyeing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Manenti, Diego R; Soares, Petrick A; Silva, Tânia F C V; Módenes, Aparecido N; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-01-01

    The performance of different solar-driven advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as TiO2/UV, TiO2/H2O2/UV, and Fe(2+)/H2O2/UV-visible in the treatment of a real textile effluent using a pilot plant with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs), was investigated. The influence of the main photo-Fenton reaction variables such as iron concentration (20-100 mg Fe(2+) L(-1)), pH (2.4-4.5), temperature (10-50 °C), and irradiance (22-68 WUV m(-2)) was evaluated in a lab-scale prototype using artificial solar radiation. The real textile wastewater presented a beige color, with a maximum absorbance peak at 641 nm, alkaline pH (8.1), moderate organic content (dissolved organic carbon (DOC) = 129 mg C L(-1) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) = 496 mg O2 L(-1)), and high conductivity mainly associated to the high concentration of chloride (1.1 g Cl(-) L(-1)), sulfate (0.4 g SO 4 (2 -) L(- 1)), and sodium (1.2 g Na(+) L(-1)) ions. Although all the processes tested contributed to complete decolorization and effective mineralization, the most efficient process was the solar photo-Fenton with an optimum catalyst concentration of 60 mg Fe(2+) L(-1), leading to 70 % mineralization (DOCfinal = 41 mg C L(-1); CODfinal < 150 mg O2 L(-1)) at pH 3.6, requiring a UV energy dose of 3.5 kJUV L(-1) (t 30 W = 22.4 min; [Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]) and consuming 18.5 mM of H2O2.

  6. Electronic transport and band structures of GaAs/AlAs nanostructures superlattices for near-infrared detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkissy, Driss; Nafidi, Abdelhakim; Boutramine, Abderrazak; Benchtaber, Nassima; Khalal, Ali; El Gouti, Thami

    2017-01-01

    We report here the theoretical calculations of band structures E( d 1), E( k z , k p ) and effective mass along the growth axis and in the plane of GaAs/Al x Ga1- x As superlattices, in the envelope function formalism. The effect of valence band offset, well thickness and temperature on the band structures, has been also studied. Our results show that a transition from indirect to direct band gap in (GaAs) m /(AlAs)4 takes place between m = 5 and 6 monolayers at room temperature. Samples (GaAs)9/(AlAs)4 and GaAs( d 1 = 10 nm)/Al0.15Ga0.85As( d 2 = 15 nm) have a direct band gap of 1.747 eV at room temperature and 1.546 eV at T = 30 mK, respectively. Their corresponding cutoff wavelengths are located in the near infrared region. We have interpreted the photoluminescence measurements of Ledentsov et al. in GaAs( d 1 = 2.52 nm)/AlAs ( d 1 = 1.16 nm) and the oscillations in the magnetoresistance observed by Kawamura et al. in GaAs/Al0.15Ga0.85As superlattice. In the later, the existence of discrete quantized levels along the growth direction z indicates extremely low interactions between adjacent wells leading to the use in parallel transport. The position of Fermi level predicts that this sample exhibits n-type conductivity. These results were compared and discussed with the available data in the literature and can be used as a guide for the design of infrared nanostructured detectors.

  7. A new algorithm to find earthquake clusters using neighboring cell connection and rate analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, W.; Toda, S.

    2015-12-01

    To study earthquake interaction, it is important to objectively find a group of earthquakes occurred closely in space and time. Earthquake clusters are chosen with previous techniques that characterize them as mainshock-aftershock sequences or swarm sequences by empirical laws (e.g., Omori-Utsu; ETAS) or direct assumptions about physical processes such as stress transfer, transient stress loading, and fluid migration. Recent papers instead proposed non-parameterized techniques such as a kernel-based smoothing method. The cumulative rate clustering method (CURATE, Jacobs et al., 2013) is one of the approaches without any direct assumptions. The CURATE method was applied in New Zealand and provided a good result for selecting the swarm sequences comparing with the ETAS model. However, it is still difficult to choose a proper confined area and a time interval for extracting sequences from the catalog. To avoid arbitrariness in space and time parameters, here we propose a new method modifying the CURATE approach. We first identify the spatial clusters by looking into the spatial distribution in a 2-D cell-gridded map. The spatial clusters defined as multiple neighboring cells, each of which contains at least one earthquake in a time period T. From the selected spatial clusters, we then evaluate temporal clustering which is defined as a transient increase of seismicity rate comparing to the rate before the target event. We tested this method focusing on shallow crustal seismicity, northern Honshu, Japan. We chose the parameter range from T = 1 to 100 days and cell size = 0.01°to 0.1°. As a result, the number of the clusters increase with longer T and larger cell size. By choosing the T = 30 days and cell size = 0.05°, we successfully selected the long-lasting aftershock sequences associated with the 2004 M6.8 Chuetsu and 2007 M6.8 Chuetsu-oki earthquakes, while other empirical models and CURATE method failed to decluster.

  8. Correlation of lactate and pH in human skeletal muscle after exercise by 1H NMR.

    PubMed

    Pan, J W; Hamm, J R; Hetherington, H P; Rothman, D L; Shulman, R G

    1991-07-01

    We have made in vivo 1H NMR measurements of the time course of pH and lactate in human skeletal muscle after exercise. Spectra were obtained in a 4.7-T 30-cm bore Bruker Biospec spectrometer with a 2.5-cm diameter single surface coil. pH was determined from the shift of the endogenous carnosine H-C2 peak while lactate concentrations were determined by comparison with endogenous total creatine, taken to be 28.5 mM/kg wet wt. Fitting the data shows that the exponential decay of lactate (-0.094 +/- 0.014 min-1. t1/2 = 10.6 min) is slower than that of pH (-0.147 +/- 0.015 min-1, t1/2 = 4.7 min), n = 7 with two different volunteers. These values are significantly different with P less than 0.0005. Relaxation times of lactate and creatine were also measured for lactate quantitation; creatine T1, 1.23 +/- 12 s, T2, 136.2 +/- 26.4 ms (both in resting human muscle); lactate T1 (in postmortem rabbit muscle), 1.0 +/- 11 s and T2, 80 ms (in postexercise human muscle). At the end of intense exercise, the lactate level reached was 25.3 +/- 4.0 mM and the average pH drop was 1.0 pH unit. We discuss the implications of these measurements in conjunction with existing data on other sources of H+ flux, phosphocreatine resynthesis, H+ transport, and contribution of inorganic phosphate to buffering.

  9. High-resolution submillimeter and near-infrared studies of the transition disk around Sz 91

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Momose, Munetake; Hashimoto, Jun; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Saito, Masao; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Kawabe, Ryohei; Akiyama, Eiji; Andrews, Sean; Wilner, David; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D.; Carson, Joseph; Currie, Thayne; Egner, Sebastian E.; Guyon, Olivier; Goto, Miwa; Grady, Carol; and others

    2014-03-10

    To reveal the structures of a transition disk around a young stellar object in Lupus, Sz 91 , we have performed aperture synthesis 345 GHz continuum and CO(3-2) observations with the Submillimeter Array (∼1''-3'' resolution) and high-resolution imaging of polarized intensity at the K{sub s} -band using the HiCIAO instrument on the Subaru Telescope (0.''25 resolution). Our observations successfully resolved the inner and outer radii of the dust disk to be 65 and 170 AU, respectively, which indicates that Sz 91 is a transition disk source with one of the largest known inner holes. The model fitting analysis of the spectral energy distribution reveals an H{sub 2} mass of 2.4 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} in the cold (T < 30 K) outer part at 65 AU 3 × 10{sup –9} M {sub ☉}) of hot (T ∼ 180 K) dust possibly remains inside the inner hole of the disk. The structure of the hot component could be interpreted as either an unresolved self-luminous companion body (not directly detected in our observations) or a narrow ring inside the inner hole. Significant CO(3-2) emission with a velocity gradient along the major axis of the dust disk is concentrated on the Sz 91 position, suggesting a rotating gas disk with a radius of 420 AU. The Sz 91 disk is possibly a rare disk in an evolutionary stage immediately after the formation of protoplanets because of the large inner hole and the lower disk mass than other transition disks studied thus far.

  10. Quantification of rapid environmental redox processes with quick-scanning x-ray absorption spectroscopy (Q-XAS).

    PubMed

    Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Landrot, Gautier; Fischel, Jason S; Sparks, Donald L

    2009-09-22

    Quantification of the initial rates of environmental reactions at the mineral/water interface is a fundamental prerequisite to determining reaction mechanisms and contaminant transport modeling and predicting environmental risk. Until recently, experimental techniques with adequate time resolution and elemental sensitivity to measure initial rates of the wide variety of environmental reactions were quite limited. Techniques such as electron paramagnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies suffer from limited elemental specificity and poor sensitivity to inorganic elements, respectively. Ex situ analysis of batch and stirred-flow systems provides high elemental sensitivity; however, their time resolution is inadequate to characterize rapid environmental reactions. Here we apply quick-scanning x-ray absorption spectroscopy (Q-XAS), at sub-second time-scales, to measure the initial oxidation rate of As(III) to As(V) by hydrous manganese(IV) oxide. Using Q-XAS, As(III) and As(V) concentrations were determined every 0.98 s in batch reactions. The initial apparent As(III) depletion rate constants (t < 30 s) measured with Q-XAS are nearly twice as large as rate constants measured with traditional analytical techniques. Our results demonstrate the importance of developing analytical techniques capable of analyzing environmental reactions on the same time scale as they occur. Given the high sensitivity, elemental specificity, and time resolution of Q-XAS, it has many potential applications. They could include measuring not only redox reactions but also dissolution/precipitation reactions, such as the formation and/or reductive dissolution of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides, solid-phase transformations (i.e., formation of layered-double hydroxide minerals), or almost any other reaction occurring in aqueous media that can be measured using x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  11. Fat digestion is required for suppression of ghrelin and stimulation of peptide YY and pancreatic polypeptide secretion by intraduodenal lipid.

    PubMed

    Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Patterson, Michael; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Horowitz, Michael

    2005-12-01

    Stimulation of cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion by fat is mediated by the products of fat digestion. Ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) appear to play an important role in appetite regulation, and their release is modulated by food ingestion, including fat. It is unknown whether fat digestion is a prerequisite for their suppression (ghrelin) or release (PYY, PP). Moreover, it is not known whether small intestinal exposure to fat is sufficient to suppress ghrelin secretion. Our study aimed to resolve these issues. Sixteen healthy young males received, on two separate occasions, 120-min intraduodenal infusions of a long-chain triglyceride emulsion (2.8 kcal/min) 1) without (condition FAT) or 2) with (FAT-THL) 120 mg of tetrahydrolipstatin (THL, lipase inhibitor), followed by a standard buffet-style meal. Blood samples for ghrelin, PYY, and PP were taken throughout. FAT infusion was associated with a marked, and progressive, suppression of plasma ghrelin from t = 60 min (P < 0.001) and stimulation of PYY from t = 30 min (P < 0.01). FAT infusion also stimulated plasma PP (P < or = 0.01), and the release was immediate. FAT-THL completely abolished the FAT-induced changes in ghrelin, PYY, and PP. In response to the meal, plasma ghrelin was further suppressed, and PYY and PP stimulated, during both FAT and FAT-THL infusions. In conclusion, in healthy humans, 1) the presence of fat in the small intestine suppresses ghrelin secretion, and 2) fat-induced suppression of ghrelin and stimulation of PYY and PP is dependent on fat digestion.

  12. Gastric emptying, postprandial blood pressure, glycaemia and splanchnic flow in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Trahair, Laurence G; Kimber, Thomas E; Flabouris, Katerina; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine gastric emptying, blood pressure, mesenteric artery blood flow, and blood glucose responses to oral glucose in Parkinson’s disease. METHODS: Twenty-one subjects (13 M, 8 F; age 64.2 ± 1.6 years) with mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease (Hoehn and Yahr score 1.4 ± 0.1, duration of known disease 6.3 ± 0.9 years) consumed a 75 g glucose drink, labelled with 20 MBq 99mTc-calcium phytate. Gastric emptying was quantified with scintigraphy, blood pressure and heart rate with an automated device, superior mesenteric artery blood flow by Doppler ultrasonography and blood glucose by glucometer for 180 min. Autonomic nerve function was evaluated with cardiovascular reflex tests and upper gastrointestinal symptoms by questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean gastric half-emptying time was 106 ± 9.1 min, gastric emptying was abnormally delayed in 3 subjects (14%). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure fell (P < 0.001) and mesenteric blood flow and blood glucose (P < 0.001 for both) increased, following the drink. Three subjects (14%) had definite autonomic neuropathy and 8 (38%) had postprandial hypotension. There were no significant relationships between changes in blood pressure, heart rate or mesenteric artery blood flow with gastric emptying. Gastric emptying was related to the score for autonomic nerve function (R = 0.55, P < 0.01). There was an inverse relationship between the blood glucose at t = 30 min (R = -0.52, P < 0.05), while the blood glucose at t = 180 min was related directly (R = 0.49, P < 0.05), with gastric emptying. CONCLUSION: In mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease, gastric emptying is related to autonomic dysfunction and a determinant of the glycaemic response to oral glucose. PMID:27239112

  13. Measuring and Characterizing the Human Nasal Cycle.

    PubMed

    Kahana-Zweig, Roni; Geva-Sagiv, Maya; Weissbrod, Aharon; Secundo, Lavi; Soroker, Nachum; Sobel, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Nasal airflow is greater in one nostril than in the other because of transient asymmetric nasal passage obstruction by erectile tissue. The extent of obstruction alternates across nostrils with periodicity referred to as the nasal cycle. The nasal cycle is related to autonomic arousal and is indicative of asymmetry in brain function. Moreover, alterations in nasal cycle periodicity have been linked to various diseases. There is therefore need for a tool allowing continuous accurate measurement and recording of airflow in each nostril separately. Here we provide detailed instructions for constructing such a tool at minimal cost and effort. We demonstrate application of the tool in 33 right-handed healthy subjects, and derive several statistical measures for nasal cycle characterization. Using these measures applied to 24-hour recordings we observed that: 1: subjects spent slightly longer in left over right nostril dominance (left = 2.63 ± 0.89 hours, right = 2.17 ± 0.89 hours, t(32) = 2.07, p < 0.05), 2: cycle duration was shorter in wake than in sleep (wake = 2.02 ± 1.7 hours, sleep = 4.5 ± 1.7 hours, (t(30) = 5.73, p < 0.0001). 3: slower breathing was associated with a more powerful cycle (the extent of difference across nostrils) (r = 0.4, p < 0.0001), and 4: the cycle was influenced by body posture such that lying on one side was associated with greater flow in the contralateral nostril (p < 0.002). Finally, we provide evidence for an airflow cycle in each nostril alone. These results provide characterization of an easily obtained measure that may have diagnostic implications for neurological disease and cognitive state.

  14. Approximations for modelling CO chemistry in giant molecular clouds: a comparison of approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Simon C. O.; Clark, Paul C.

    2012-03-01

    We examine several different simplified approaches for modelling the chemistry of CO in 3D numerical simulations of turbulent molecular clouds. We compare the different models both by looking at the behaviour of integrated quantities such as the mean CO fraction or the cloud-averaged CO-to-H2 conversion factor, and also by studying the detailed distribution of CO as a function of gas density and visual extinction. In addition, we examine the extent to which the density and temperature distributions depend on our choice of chemical model. We find that all of the models predict the same density probability density function (PDF) and also agree very well on the form of the temperature PDF for temperatures T > 30 K, although at lower temperatures, some differences become apparent. All of the models also predict the same CO-to-H2 conversion factor, to within a factor of a few. However, when we look more closely at the details of the CO distribution, we find larger differences. The more complex models tend to produce less CO and more atomic carbon than the simpler models, suggesting that the C/CO ratio may be a useful observational tool for determining which model best fits the observational data. Nevertheless, the fact that these chemical differences do not appear to have a strong effect on the density or temperature distributions of the gas suggests that the dynamical behaviour of the molecular clouds on large scales is not particularly sensitive to how accurately the small-scale chemistry is modelled.

  15. Host-seeking activity and avian host preferences of mosquitoes associated with West Nile virus transmission in the northeastern U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suom, Channsotha; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Bernick, Andrew; Klein, Coby; Buckley, P.A.; Salvatore, Christa; LeBrun, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    Mosquito host-seeking activity was studied using a custom-designed trap to explore: (1) at which time interval of the night adult mosquito abatement would be most effective, and (2) if there exists an avian-specific host-seeking preference. Overnight trials using traps baited with dry ice showed that Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) was most active at dusk and was then captured throughout the night. In contrast, Culex spp. (Cx. pipiens (Linnaeus) and Cx. restuans (Theobald) delayed most activity until about two h after dusk and were then captured through the night. This pattern suggests that management activities directed at adult Culex spp. would be most effective if initiated well after sunset. Mosquito capture rates in traps baited with birds in net bags were significantly greater than those with empty net bags, indicating that mosquitoes were attracted to the birds and not incidentally being sucked in by the custom trap's strong fan motor (Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test, n = 24, t = 30, p 2 = 0.21, p = 0.02). Trials with paired traps that contained different native bird species showed that Gray Catbirds, Dumatella carolinensis, attracted more mosquitoes than the heavier Northern Cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis (paired samples t-test, t = 2.58, df = 7, p = 0.04). However, attractiveness did not differ substantially among bird species, and Gray Catbirds did not attract more mosquitoes than all other birds combined as a group. American Robins, Turdus migratorius (n = 4) were comparable in attractiveness to other bird species, but not enough American Robins were captured for a comprehensive study of mosquito avian preference.

  16. Dynamics of a robust photo-induced insulator-metal transition driven by coherent and broad-band light in epitaxial films of La(0.625-y)Pr(y)Ca(0.375)MnO(3).

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, S; Pandey, N K; Saini, Shrikant; Budhani, R C

    2010-07-14

    A dramatic drop of ≈5 orders of magnitude in the resistance (R) of La(0.175)Pr(0.45)Ca(0.375)MnO(3) epitaxial films upon exposure to optical photons derived from both continuous and pulsed lasers, as well as broad-band sources at temperatures (T) < 30 K is reported. The strength of change is a sensitive function of both the incident photon flux and temperature. Under isothermal conditions the photo-generated low resistance state persists eternally after removal of light. This non-equilibrium state is metallic, as revealed by the positive dR/dT for T ≤ T(p) (≈120 K). This electrically conducting state is presumably ferromagnetic as T(p) coincides with the temperature where a weak ferromagnetism sets in on cooling the insulating film from room temperature. To rule out the possibility of photon-induced local heating of the sample as a mechanism of the observed effects, photo-illumination experiments were performed under identical conditions on thin films of two non-charge-ordered manganites deposited on substrates of similar thermal conductivity. Our model for the observed transition encompasses a global charge-ordered state in which ferromagnetic metallic clusters of fraction p much less than the critical fraction p(c) for percolation exists at low temperatures. Photo-induced melting of the charge-ordered state increases this fraction beyond p(c) in a cumulative manner as successive pulses of light fall on the sample.

  17. Two-dimensional Tomographic Inversion Model of Ross Island, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraj, S.; Aster, R. C.; Knox, H. A.; Zandomeneghi, D.; Snelson, C. M.; Kyle, P. R.

    2010-12-01

    A controlled-source seismic refraction experiment (Tomo-Erebus; TE) was undertaken during the 2008-09 Austral summer field season to examine the magmatic system beneath the active Erebus volcano (TE-3D) and the crustal structure beneath Ross Island, including details of the Terror Rift (TE-2D). Previous geophysical studies north of Ross Island have determined the north-south trending Terror Rift within the broader Victoria Land Basin, which are part of the intraplate West Antarctic Rift System. For TE-2D, 21 seismic recorders (Ref Tek 130) with three-component 4.5 Hz geophones (Sercel L-28-3D) were deployed along a 77-km east-west line between Capes Royds and Crozier. For TE-3D, 79 similar instruments were deployed in a 3 x 3 km grid around the crater of Erebus, an array of 8 permanent short period and broadband sensors and 23 three-component sensors (Guralp CMG-40T, 30s-100 Hz) were positioned around the flanks and summit of Erebus. Fifteen chemical sources ranging from 75 to 600 kg of ANFO were used. An additional shot was detonated in the sea (McMurdo Sound) using 200 kg of dynamite. Although the station spacing is ~5 km, the data have a high signal to noise ratio with clear first arrivals and wide-angle reflections across the array. Forward modelling ray tracing was used to develop 1-D P-wave velocity models by matching layers of known velocities with the P-wave first arrival times. 1-D velocity models developed for 3 sources and show ~3 layers with a velocity of ~7 km/s below 6-8 km depth. The 1-D models were used as the starting model for a the P-wave tomographic velocity model.

  18. Alfaxalone versus propofol in dogs: a randomised trial to assess effects on peri-induction tear production, intraocular pressure and globe position.

    PubMed

    Costa, Daniel; Leiva, Marta; Moll, Xavier; Aguilar, Adrià; Peña, Teresa; Andaluz, Anna

    2015-01-17

    The purpose of this randomised trial was to compare the effects of alfaxalone and propofol on tear production (STT-1), intraocular pressure (IOP) and globe position (GP) in healthy dogs. Fourteen Beagles were randomly divided into two groups; dogs in one group received alfaxalone (3 mg/kg) (n=7) and dogs in the other group received propofol (6 mg/kg) (n=7), both administered intravenously. IOP and GP were evaluated at basal time (Tb) and T2,5,10,15,20,25&30 (minutes after complete drug administration). STT-1 was evaluated at Tb and T10,20&30. STT-1 and IOP results were analysed using analysis of variance and GP was analysed using the likelihood ratio χ(2) test. Dogs in the alfaxalone group showed a significant reduction in STT-1 at T10&20 (P<0.05), while the propofol group did not show statistically significant differences in this parameter over time. Both anaesthetic drugs produced a transient elevation of IOP at T2 (P>0.05), which then decreased (P<0.01). While alfaxalone caused a ventral globe deviation that lasted from T2 to T10 (P<0.05) and was fully recovered at T30, propofol induced a ventral globe deviation from T2 to T5 (P<0.05), being restored at T20. These results suggest that both alfaxalone and propofol can be safely used for intraocular surgery, as they significantly reduce IOP. Furthermore, anaesthetic induction with propofol would be especially recommended for dogs with tear deficiencies.

  19. Dopamine D1 and D5 Receptors Modulate Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity at Medial Perforant Path to Dentate Granule Cell Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kechun

    2014-01-01

    Although evidence suggests that DA modulates hippocampal function, the mechanisms underlying that dopaminergic modulation are largely unknown. Using perforated-patch electrophysiological techniques to maintain the intracellular milieu, we investigated how the activation of D1-type DA receptors regulates spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) of the medial perforant path (mPP) synapse onto dentate granule cells. When D1-type receptors were inhibited, a relatively mild STDP protocol induced LTP only within a very narrow timing window between presynaptic stimulation and postsynaptic response. The stimulus protocol produced timing-dependent LTP (tLTP) only when the presynaptic stimulation was followed 30 ms later by depolarization-induced postsynaptic action potentials. That is, the time between presynaptic stimulation and postsynaptic response was 30 ms (Δt = +30 ms). When D1-type receptors were activated, however, the same mild STDP protocol induced tLTP over a much broader timing window: tLTP was induced when −30 ms ≤ Δt ≤ +30 ms. The result indicated that D1-type receptor activation enabled synaptic potentiation even when postsynaptic activity preceded presynaptic stimulation within this Δt range. Results with null mice lacking the Kv4.2 potassium channel and with the potassium channel inhibitor, 4-aminopyridine, suggested that D1-type receptors enhanced tLTP induction by suppressing the transient IA-type K+ current. Results obtained with antagonists and DA receptor knock-out mice indicated that endogenous activity of both D1 and D5 receptors modulated plasticity in the mPP. The DA D5 receptors appeared particularly important in regulating plasticity of the mPP onto the dentate granule cells. PMID:25429131

  20. Comparing and correlating solubility parameters governing the self-assembly of molecular gels using 1,3:2,4-dibenzylidene sorbitol as the gelator.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yaqi; Corradini, Maria G; Liu, Xia; May, Tim E; Borondics, Ferenc; Weiss, Richard G; Rogers, Michael A

    2014-12-02

    Solvent properties play a central role in mediating the aggregation and self-assembly of molecular gelators and their growth into fibers. Numerous attempts have been made to correlate the solubility parameters of solvents and gelation abilities of molecular gelators, but a comprehensive comparison of the most important parameters has yet to appear. Here, the degree to which partition coefficients (log P), Henry's law constants (HLC), dipole moments, static relative permittivities (ε(r)), solvatochromic E(T)(30) parameters, Kamlet-Taft parameters (β, α, and π), Catalan's solvatochromic parameters (SPP, SB, and SA), Hildebrand solubility parameters (δ(i)), and Hansen solubility parameters (δ(p), δ(d), δ(h)) and the associated Hansen distance (R(ij)) of 62 solvents (covering a wide range of properties) can be correlated with the self-assembly and gelation of 1,3:2,4-dibenzylidene sorbitol (DBS) gelation, a classic molecular gelator, is assessed systematically. The approach presented describes the basis for each of the parameters and how it can be applied. As such, it is an instructional blueprint for how to assess the appropriate type of solvent parameter for use with other molecular gelators as well as with molecules forming other types of self-assembled materials. The results also reveal several important insights into the factors favoring the gelation of solvents by DBS. The ability of a solvent to accept or donate a hydrogen bond is much more important than solvent polarity in determining whether mixtures with DBS become solutions, clear gels, or opaque gels. Thermodynamically derived parameters could not be correlated to the physical properties of the molecular gels unless they were dissected into their individual HSPs. The DBS solvent phases tend to cluster in regions of Hansen space and are highly influenced by the hydrogen-bonding HSP, δ(h). It is also found that the fate of this molecular gelator, unlike that of polymers, is influenced not only by

  1. Consequence of dexmedetomidine on emergence delirium following sevoflurane anesthesia in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Kang, Dao-Lin; Na, He-Yi; Li, Bi-Lian; Xu, Ying-Yi; Ni, Jin; Wu, Jun-Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy can demonstrate irritability following emergence from general anaesthesia. As well, an elevated rate of emergence delirium (ED) in children has been associated with the application of sevoflurane. The current study’s intent is to administer dexmedetomidine, in a single dosage administration, at the initial phase of sevoflurane based anesthesia with regard to the occurrence and severity of ED in children afflicted with cerebral palsy. Participating in the study (American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II) are eighty children ranging in ages two through twelve years. They would be anaesthetised with sevoflurane based anesthesia while undergoing lower limb surgical procedures. The participants were equally distributed to either Group c or Group D. Group C was administered 10 ml saline 0.9%, and Group D was administered dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg•kg-1. Five minutes prior to commencement of the surgical procedures, the participants received the prescribed pharmaceutical dosages under the anesthesia of sevoflurane. In order to sustain the BIS values in a range of 45 and 55, at 60 second increments, endtidal sevoflurane concentrations (ETsev) were modified. After conclusion of the surgical procedures, in post anesthesia care unit (PACU), the frequency of ED was gauged with Aonos four point scale and the severity of ED was gauged with pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium scale upon admission (T0), after intervals of five minutes (T5), fifteen minutes (T15) and thirty minutes (T30). Extubation time, emergence time and length of at stay at the PACU were assessed. Relative to Group C, participants of Group D exhibited noticeably shortened times of emergence, extubation and PACU duration of stay. Prior to surgical incision, ETsev was elevated in the control group, (1.9±0.2 vs 1.6±0.3; P = 0.023) and amid the initial 20 minutes following the surgical incision (1.6±0.2 vs 1.1±0.2; P = 0.016). At intervals of commencement, T0, of five minutes

  2. What are the climate controls on @dD in precipitation in the Zongo Valley (Bolivia)? Implications for the Illimani ice core interpretation [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vimeux, Françoise; Gallaire, Robert; Bony, Sandrine; Hoffmann, Georg; Chiang, John C. H.

    2005-12-01

    Controversy has surrounded the interpretation of the water isotopic composition ( δD or δ18O) in tropical and subtropical ice cores in South America. Although recent modeling studies using AGCM have provided useful constraints at interannual time scales, no direct calibration based on modern observations has been achieved. In the context of the recent ice core drilling at Nevado Illimani (16°39'S-67°47'W) in Bolivia, we examine the climatic controls on the modern isotopic composition of precipitation in the Zongo Valley, located on the northeast side of the Cordillera Real, at about 55 km from Nevado Illimani. Monthly precipitation samples were collected from September 1999 to August 2004 at various altitudes along this valley. First we examine the local and regional controls on the common δD signal measured along this valley. We show that (1) local temperature has definitely no control on δD variations, and (2) local rainout is a poor factor to explain δD variations. We thus seek regional controls upstream the Valley potentially affecting air masses distillation. Based on backtrajectory calculations and using satellite data (TRMM precipitation, NOAA OLR) and direct observations of precipitation (IAEA/GNIP), we show that moisture transport history and the degree of rainout upstream are more important factors explaining seasonal δD variations. Analysis of a 92-yr simulation from the ECHAM-4 model (T30 version) implemented with water stable isotopes confirms our observations at seasonal time scale and emphasize the role of air masses distillation upstream as a prominent factor controlling interannual δD variations. Lastly, we focus on the isotopic depletion along the valley when air masses are lifted up. Our results suggest that, if the temperature gradient between the base and the top of the Andes was higher by a few degrees during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), less than 10% of the glacial to interglacial isotopic variation recorded in the Illimani ice

  3. Korean solar salts reduce obesity and alter its related markers in diet-induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Jaehyun; Song, Jia-Le; Park, Eui-Seong; Do, Myoung-Sool

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The aim of this experiments was to show anti-obesity effects of Korean solar salt from different salt fields in diet-induced obese mice. SUBJECTS/METHODS Diet-induced obesity (DIO) was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% cal from fat) in C57BL/6J mice for eight weeks. The mice were fed with the designated diets (chow diet for Normal, HFD for Control, 0.47%-salt-mixed HFD for purified salt (PS), Guerande solar salt from France (SS-G), solar salt from Y salt field (SS-Y), solar salts from T salt field (SS-T) and S salt field (SS-S)) for another eight weeks. We checked body weight, food efficiency ratio (FER) and tissue weights (liver and epididymal adipose tissue (EAT)), and observed serum concentrations of triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), leptin and insulin. We also evaluated gene expressions of adipogenic / lipogenic mRNAs of C/EBPα, PPARγ and FAS and beta-oxidation-related factors (PPARα and CPT-1) in liver and EAT. The mineral composition of salt samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). RESULTS SS-T and SS-S significantly reduced body weight gain, FER, and weight of EAT compared to control and other samples (P < 0.05). SS-T and SS-S also significantly decreased serum levels of TG, TC, leptin and insulin (P < 0.05). SS-T and SS-S suppressed expressions of adipogenic / lipogenic mRNAs in liver and EAT, while promoting expression of beta-oxidation-related factors. The lowest sodium concentration was observed in SS-T (30.30 ± 0.59%), and the lowest sodium-to-potassium (Na/K) ratio was found in SS-S (17.81). CONCLUSIONS Our study shows that well-processed Korean solar salt may have anti-obesity effects in vivo, probably owing to its differences in mineral composition and other components, presumably resulting from the manufacturing processes. Further research is needed into the mechanism and to explore optimal manufacturing processes. PMID:27909561

  4. Development of Fast, Background-Limited Transition-Edge Sensors for the Background-Limited Infrared/Sub-Millimetre Spectrograph (BLISS) for SPICA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, Andrew D.; Runyan, M. C.; Kenyon, M.; Echternach, P. M.; Chui, T.; Bumble, B.; Bradford, C. M.; Holmes, W. A.; Bock, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    We report experimental progress toward demonstrating background-limited arrays of membrane-isolated transition-edge sensors (TESs) for the Background Limited Infrared/Sub-mm Spectrograph (BLISS). BLISS is a space-borne instrument with grating spectrometers for wavelengths lambda = 35-435 microns and with R = lambda/(delta)lambda approx. 500. The goals for BLISS TESs are: noise equivalent power (NEP) = 5x10(exp -20) W/Hz(1/2) and response time t<30ms. We expect background-limited performance from bilayers TESs with T(sub c)=65mK and G=15fW/K. However, such TESs cannot be operated at 50mK unless stray power on the devices, or dark power PD, is less than 200aW. We describe criteria for measuring P? that requires accurate knowledge of TC. Ultimately, we fabricated superconducting thermistors from Ir (T(sub c) > or = 135mK) and Mo/Cu proximitized bilayers, where T(sub c) is the thermistor transition temperature. We measured the Ir TES arrays in our 50mK adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator test system, which can measure up to eight 1x32 arrays simultaneously using a time-division multiplexer, as well as our single-pixel test system which can measure down to 15mK. In our previous Ir array measurements our best reported performance was NEP=2.5x10(exp -19) W/Hz(1/2) and tapprox.5ms for straight-beam TESs. In fact, we expected NEPapprox.1.5x10(exp -19)W/Hz(1/2) for meander beam TESs, but did not achieve this previously due to 1/f noise. Here, we detail improvements toward measuring the expected NEP and demonstrate NEP=(1.3+0.2)x10(exp -19)W/Hz(1/2) in our single-pixel test system and NEP=(1.6+0.3)x10(exp -19)W/Hz(1/2) in our array test system.

  5. Halomonas stenophila sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium that produces sulphate exopolysaccharides with biological activity.

    PubMed

    Llamas, Inmaculada; Béjar, Victoria; Martínez-Checa, Fernando; Martínez-Cánovas, María José; Molina, Ignacio; Quesada, Emilia

    2011-10-01

    We have undertaken a polyphasic taxonomic study of two halophilic, Gram-negative bacterial strains, N12(T) and B-100, that produce sulphated exopolysaccharides with biological activity. They were isolated from two different saline soil samples. Both strains grow at NaCl concentrations within the range 3-15 % (w/v) [optimum 5-10 % (w/v)], at 15-37 °C (optimum 20-32 °C) and at pH 6-8 (optimum pH 7-8). Their 16S rRNA gene sequences indicate that they belong to the genus Halomonas in the class Gammaproteobacteria. Their closest relative is Halomonas nitroreducens, to which our strains show maximum 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 98.7 % (N12(T)) and 98.3 % (B-100). Their DNA G+C contents are 61.9 and 63.8 mol%, respectively. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations showed 43.9 % relatedness between strain N12(T) and H. nitroreducens CECT 7281(T), 30.5 % between N12(T) and Halomonas ventosae CECT 5797(T), 39.2 % between N12(T) and Halomonas fontilapidosi CECT 7341(T), 46.3 % between N12(T) and Halomonas maura CECT 5298(T), 52.9 % between N12(T) and Halomonas saccharevitans LMG 23976(T), 51.3 % between N12(T) and Halomonas koreensis JCM 12237(T) and 100 % between strains N12(T) and B-100. The major fatty acids of strain N12(T) are C(12 : 0) 3-OH (5.42 %), C(15 : 0) iso 2-OH/C(16 : 1)ω7c (17.37 %), C(16 : 0) (21.62 %) and C(18 : 1)ω7c (49.19 %). The proposed name for the novel species is Halomonas stenophila sp. nov. Strain N12(T) ( = CECT 7744(T)  = LMG 25812(T)) is the type strain.

  6. Interaction effects in high-mobility silicon MOSFETs at ultra-low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, Nikolai N.

    This dissertation focuses on the experimental study of the anomalous "metallic" behavior of the conductivity observed in high-mobility two-dimensional (2D) electron systems at low carrier densities (n ) and temperatures (T). This intriguing phenomenon seems to defy one of the paradigms of our understanding of electron transport in 2D, the scaling theory of localization that claims that all electron states in 2D are localized. Our experimental object is the high-mobility silicon metal-insulator-oxide field effect transistor (Si MOSFET) in which this anomalous behavior is the most pronounced in comparison with other high-mobility devices. We have explored in details the conductivity (sigma) in high-mobility Si MOSFETs over wide ranges of electron densities n=(2-30)x10 11cm-2, temperatures T = 30mK - 4K, and magnetic fields B = 0-5T. The low-temperature behavior of sigma in these systems is shaped by the interaction effects, which are amplified by the valley degeneracy and the interaction-driven renormalization of electron parameters. While exploring the temperature and magnetic field dependences of sigma far from the strongly localized regime ((sigma >> e2/h), we observed for the first time the crossover between the "metallic" (dsigma/ dT < 1) and "insulating" (dsigma/ dT > 1) regimes with lowering temperature below ˜0.3 K. We have attributed this crossover to the modification of the interaction correction to sigma at low T caused by a non-zero valley splitting and inter-valley scattering. All relevant quantities have been measured in independent experiments. In particular, the intervalley scattering rate t-1V has been extracted from the analysis of weak localization magnetoresistance. We found that the intervalley scattering rate is temperature-independent and the ratio tV/t increases monotonically with decreasing the electron density ( t is the momentum relaxation time). These observations suggest that the roughness of the Si-SiO2 interface plays the major role in

  7. Astrochemistry of transition metals? The selected cases of [FeN](+), [FeNH](+) and [(CO)2FeN](+): pathways toward CH3NH2 and HNCO.

    PubMed

    Fioroni, Marco

    2014-11-28

    Transition metals (TMs) are proposed to play a role in astrophysical environments in both gas and solid state astrochemistry by co-determining the homogeneous/heterogeneous chemistry represented by the gas-gas and gas-dust grain interactions. Their chemistry is a function of temperature, radiation field and chemical composition/coordination sphere and as a consequence, dependent on the astrophysical object in which TMs are localized. Here five main categories of TM compounds are proposed and classified as: (a) pure bulk and clusters; (b) TM naked ions; (c) TM oxides/minerals or inorganic compounds; (d) TM-L (L = ligand) with L = (σ and/or π)-donor/acceptor species like H/H2, N/N2, CO, and H2O and (e) TM-organoligands such as Cp, PAH, and R1=˙=˙=R2. Each of the classes is correlated to their possible localization within astrophysical objects. Because of this variety coupled with their ability to modulate reactivity and regio/enantioselectivity by ligand sphere composition, TM compounds can introduce a fine organic synthesis in astrochemistry. For the selection of small TM parental compounds to be analyzed as first examples, by constraining the TMs and the second element/molecule on the basis of their cosmic abundance and mutual reactivity, Fe atoms coupled with N and CO are studied by developing the chemistry of [FeN](+), [FeNH](+) and [(CO)2FeN](+). These molecules, due to their ability to perform C-C and C-H bond activation, are able to open the pathway toward nitrogenation/amination and carbonylation of organic substrates. By considering the simplest organic substrate CH4, the parental reaction schemes (gas phase, T = 30 K): (I) [FeN](+) + CH4 + H → [Fe](+) + H3C-NH2; (II) [FeNH](+) + CH4 → [Fe](+) + H3C-NH2 and (III) [(CO)2FeN](+) + H → [FeCO](+) + HNCO are analyzed by theoretical methods (B2PLYP double hybrid functional/TZVPPP basis set). All reactions are thermodynamically favored and first step transition states can follow a minimal energy path by

  8. Calcite precipitation from CO 2-H 2O-Ca(OH) 2 slurry under high pressure of CO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes-Hernandez, G.; Renard, F.; Geoffroy, N.; Charlet, L.; Pironon, J.

    2007-10-01

    The formation of solid calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) from aqueous solutions or slurries containing calcium and carbon dioxide (CO 2) is a complex process of considerable importance in the ecological, geochemical and biological areas. Moreover, the demand for powdered CaCO 3 has recently increased considerably in various fields of industry. The aim of this study was therefore to synthesize fine particles of calcite with controlled morphology by hydrothermal carbonation of calcium hydroxide at high CO 2 pressure (initial P=55 bar) and at moderate and high temperatures (30 and 90 °C). The morphology of precipitated particles was identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM/EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS). In addition, an X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to investigate the carbonation efficiency and purity of the solid product. Carbonation of dispersed calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2(s)+CO 2(aq)→CaCO 3(s)+H 2O) in the presence of supercritical ( PT=90 bar, T=90 °C) or gaseous ( PT=55 bar, T=30 °C) CO 2 led to the precipitation of sub-micrometric isolated particles (<1 μm) and micrometric agglomerates (<5 μm) of calcite. For this study, the carbonation efficiency (Ca(OH) 2-CaCO 3 conversion) was not significantly affected by pressure-temperature (PT) conditions after 24 h of reaction. In contrast, the initial rate of calcium carbonate precipitation increased from 4.3 mol/h in the "90 bar-90 °C" system to 15.9 mol/h in the "55 bar-30 °C" system. The use of high CO 2 pressure may therefore be desirable for increasing the production rate of CaCO 3, carbonation efficiency and purity, to approximately 48 kg/m 3 h, 95% and 96.3%, respectively, in this study. The dissipated heat for this exothermic reaction was estimated by calorimetry to be -32 kJ/mol in the "90 bar-90 °C" system and -42 kJ/mol in the "55 bar-30 °C" system.

  9. The effect of α- or β-casein addition to waxy maize starch on postprandial levels of glucose, insulin, and incretin hormones in pigs as a model for humans

    PubMed Central

    Kett, Anthony P.; Bruen, Christine M.; O'Halloran, Fiona; Chaurin, Valérie; Lawlor, Peadar G.; O'Mahony, James A.; Giblin, Linda; Fenelon, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Starch is a main source of glucose and energy in the human diet. The extent to which it is digested in the gastrointestinal tract plays a major role in variations in postprandial blood glucose levels. Interactions with other biopolymers, such as dairy proteins, during processing can influence both the duration and extent of this postprandial surge. Objective To evaluate the effect of the addition of bovine α- or β-casein to waxy maize starch on changes in postprandial blood glucose, insulin, and incretin hormones [glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)] in 30 kg pigs used as an animal model for humans. Design Gelatinised starch, starch gelatinised with α-casein, and starch gelatinised with β-casein were orally administered to trained pigs (n = 8) at a level of 60 g of available carbohydrate. Pre- and postprandial glucose measurements were taken every 15 min for the first hour and every 30 min thereafter up to 180 min. Insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 levels were measured in plasma samples up to 90 min postprandial. Results Starch gelatinised with α-casein had a significantly (p < 0.05) lower peak viscosity on pasting and resulted in significantly lower glucose release at 15, 30, and 90 min postprandial compared to starch gelatinised with β-casein. During the first 45-min postprandial, the area under the glucose curve (AUC) for starch gelatinised with α-casein was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than that for starch gelatinised with β-casein. There was also a significant (p < 0.05) difference at T30 in GIP levels in response to the control compared to starch gelatinised with α- or β-casein. Significant (p < 0.05) increases in several free amino acid concentrations were observed on ingestion of either α- or β-casein gelatinised with starch at 30 and 90 min postprandial compared to starch alone. In addition, plasma levels of six individual amino acids were increased on ingestion of starch gelatinised with

  10. Exogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 attenuates the glycaemic response to postpyloric nutrient infusion in critically ill patients with type-2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) attenuates the glycaemic response to small intestinal nutrient infusion in stress-induced hyperglycaemia and reduces fasting glucose concentrations in critically ill patients with type-2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute administration of GLP-1 on the glycaemic response to small intestinal nutrient infusion in critically ill patients with pre-existing type-2 diabetes. Methods Eleven critically ill mechanically-ventilated patients with known type-2 diabetes received intravenous infusions of GLP-1 (1.2 pmol/kg/minute) and placebo from t = 0 to 270 minutes on separate days in randomised double-blind fashion. Between t = 30 to 270 minutes a liquid nutrient was infused intraduodenally at a rate of 1 kcal/min via a naso-enteric catheter. Blood glucose, serum insulin and C-peptide, and plasma glucagon were measured. Data are mean ± SEM. Results GLP-1 attenuated the overall glycaemic response to nutrient (blood glucose AUC30-270 min: GLP-1 2,244 ± 184 vs. placebo 2,679 ± 233 mmol/l/minute; P = 0.02). Blood glucose was maintained at < 10 mmol/l in 6/11 patients when receiving GLP-1 and 4/11 with placebo. GLP-1 increased serum insulin at 270 minutes (GLP-1: 23.4 ± 6.7 vs. placebo: 16.4 ± 5.5 mU/l; P < 0.05), but had no effect on the change in plasma glucagon. Conclusions Exogenous GLP-1 in a dose of 1.2 pmol/kg/minute attenuates the glycaemic response to small intestinal nutrient in critically ill patients with type-2 diabetes. Given the modest magnitude of the reduction in glycaemia the effects of GLP-1 at higher doses and/or when administered in combination with insulin, warrant evaluation in this group. Trial registration ANZCTR:ACTRN12610000185066 PMID:21255422

  11. Correlations between VIMS and RADAR data over the surface of Titan: Implications for Titan's surface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, F.; Orosei, R.; Seu, R.; Coradini, A.; Lunine, J. I.; Filacchione, G.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Flamini, E.; Brown, R. H.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Lopes, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    We present new results combining the VIMS and RADAR medium resolution data on Titan’s surface. In RADAR data we consider two geophysical quantities: the normalized backscatter cross-section obtained from the scatterometer measurement, corrected for the incidence angle, and the calibrated antenna temperature determined from the radiometer measurement, as found in publicly available data products. In VIMS data, combining spatial and spectral information, we have selected some atmospheric windows in the spectral range between 2 and 5 μm, providing the best optical depth to measure surface reflectance. The two RADAR parameters are combined with VIMS data, with estimated errors, to produce an aggregate data set, that we process using multivariate classification methods to identify homogeneous taxonomic units in the multivariate space of the samples. Such units in fact reveal compositional trends in the surface, that are likely related to different abundances of simple ices and/or hydrocarbons. Our analysis relies on the G-mode method, which has been successfully used in the past for the classification of such diverse data sets as lunar rock samples, asteroids and planetary surfaces. Due to the large number of data of Titan, the classification work proceeds in several steps. In a previous work (Tosi et al., 2010), we analyzed the data acquired in Titan flybys: T3, T4, T8, T13 and T16, covering mostly the major bright and dark features seen around the equator, combined with VIMS infrared data, in order to validate the classification method. Now we focus on flybys: T23, T25, T28, T30, and T43, covering also regions of Titan located at higher latitudes, and partly including the polar regions. The obtained results are generally in agreement with previous work devoted both to the analysis of the scatterometry data through physical models and to the correlation between SAR and radiometry data at a high resolution scale. This classification can be expanded and refined as new

  12. Consequence of dexmedetomidine on emergence delirium following sevoflurane anesthesia in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Kang, Dao-Lin; Na, He-Yi; Li, Bi-Lian; Xu, Ying-Yi; Ni, Jin; Wu, Jun-Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy can demonstrate irritability following emergence from general anaesthesia. As well, an elevated rate of emergence delirium (ED) in children has been associated with the application of sevoflurane. The current study's intent is to administer dexmedetomidine, in a single dosage administration, at the initial phase of sevoflurane based anesthesia with regard to the occurrence and severity of ED in children afflicted with cerebral palsy. Participating in the study (American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II) are eighty children ranging in ages two through twelve years. They would be anaesthetised with sevoflurane based anesthesia while undergoing lower limb surgical procedures. The participants were equally distributed to either Group c or Group D. Group C was administered 10 ml saline 0.9%, and Group D was administered dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg•kg(-1). Five minutes prior to commencement of the surgical procedures, the participants received the prescribed pharmaceutical dosages under the anesthesia of sevoflurane. In order to sustain the BIS values in a range of 45 and 55, at 60 second increments, endtidal sevoflurane concentrations (ETsev) were modified. After conclusion of the surgical procedures, in post anesthesia care unit (PACU), the frequency of ED was gauged with Aonos four point scale and the severity of ED was gauged with pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium scale upon admission (T0), after intervals of five minutes (T5), fifteen minutes (T15) and thirty minutes (T30). Extubation time, emergence time and length of at stay at the PACU were assessed. Relative to Group C, participants of Group D exhibited noticeably shortened times of emergence, extubation and PACU duration of stay. Prior to surgical incision, ETsev was elevated in the control group, (1.9±0.2 vs 1.6±0.3; P = 0.023) and amid the initial 20 minutes following the surgical incision (1.6±0.2 vs 1.1±0.2; P = 0.016). At intervals of commencement, T0, of five minutes

  13. Three-year longitudinal study of genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Tuscany, Italy.

    PubMed

    Lari, Nicoletta; Rindi, Laura; Bonanni, Daniela; Rastogi, Nalin; Sola, Christophe; Tortoli, Enrico; Garzelli, Carlo

    2007-06-01

    The genetic diversity of 829 strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated during a 3-year period in Tuscany, Italy, a country with a low prevalence of tuberculosis, from 480 Italian-born and 349 foreign-born patients was determined by spoligotyping. The predominant spoligotype families were T (30.2% of isolates), Haarlem (19.9%), and the Latino-American and Mediterranean family (LAM) (11.2%); the remaining isolates were distributed among the Beijing (6.5%), S (4.2%), East Africa-India (EAI) (3.0%), Bovis (2.3%), Central Asia (CAS) (2.1%), Africanum (1.3%), and X (1.2%) families or were undefined (2.7%) or orphan (14.1%) isolates. Isolates of the families T, Haarlem, Bovis, and X were distributed among Italian- and foreign-born patients almost proportionally to the patients' numbers. Isolates of the LAM family were prevalent in foreign-born people (13.5%, versus 9.6% in Italian-born patients). Isolates of the S family were found almost exclusively in Italian-born patients, while strains of families EAI and CAS were isolated almost exclusively from foreign-born patients; Africanum isolates were all from African-born patients. The isolates of the Beijing family showed a trend to a steady increase during the survey. The prevalence of Beijing strains was 11.7% among foreign-born people and 2.7% among Italian-born patients. The Beijing strains were typed by the standardized IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism assay, which yielded a total of 38 distinct IS6110 patterns; 21 isolates (39.6%) occurred in six distinct clusters; of these, three contained two isolates and the other three contained four, five and six isolates, thus demonstrating that Beijing strains caused several tuberculosis outbreaks in the region. These findings indicate that transmission of Beijing strains between immigrants and the autochthonous population has occurred frequently and suggests an ongoing active transmission of the Beijing genotype in the region.

  14. Cold-batter mincing of hot-boned and crust-freezing air-chilled turkey breast improved meat turnover time and product quality.

    PubMed

    Medellin-Lopez, M; Sansawat, T; Strasburg, G; Marks, B P; Kang, I

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the combined effects of turkey hot-boning and cold-batter mincing technology on acceleration of meat turnover and meat quality improvement. For each of 3 replications, 15 turkeys were slaughtered and eviscerated. Three of the eviscerated carcasses were randomly assigned to water-immersion chilling for chill-boning (CB) and the remaining were immediately hot-boned (HB), half of which were used without chilling whereas the remaining were subjected to crust-freezing air chilling (CFAC) in an air-freezing room (1.0 m/s, -12°C) with/without 1/4; sectioning (HB-1/4;CFAC, HB-CFAC). As a result, CB and HB breasts were minced using 1 of 5 treatments: (1) CB and traditional mincing (CB-T), (2) HB and mincing with no chilling (HB-NC), (3) HB and mincing with CO2 (HB-CO2), (4) HB and mincing after CFAC (HB-CFAC), and (5) HB and mincing after quarter sectioning and CFAC (HB-1/4;CFAC). Traditional water-immersion chilling took an average of 5.5 h to reduce the breast temperature to 4°C, whereas HB-CFAC and HB-1/4;CFAC took 1.5 and 1 h, respectively. The breast of HB-CFAC and HB-1/4;CFAC showed significantly higher pH (6.0-6.1), higher fragmentation index (196-198), and lower R-value (1.0-1.1; P < 0.05) than those of the CB controls. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in sarcomere length were seen between CB-T and HB-CFAC filets regardless of quarter sectioning. When muscle was minced, the batter pH (5.9) of CB-T was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those (6.1-6.3) of HB-NC, HB-CO2, and HB-1/4;CFAC, with the intermediate pH (6.0) seen for the HB-CFAC. When meat batters were cooked, higher cooking yield (90 - 91%; P < 0.05) was found in HB-CFAC, HB-1/4;CFAC, and HB-CO2, followed by HB-NC (90%) and finally CB-T (86%). Stress values (47-51 kPa) of HB-CFAC gels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of CB-T (30 kPa) and HB-NC (36 kPa). A similar trend was found in strain values.

  15. The Madden-Julian oscillation in ECHAM4 coupled and uncoupled general circulation models

    DOE PAGES

    Sperber, Kenneth R.; Gualdi, Silvio; Legutke, Stephanie; ...

    2005-06-29

    flux anomalies. However, the integrations with ECHO-G and SINTEX, which used T30 atmospheres, produce westward propagation of the latent heat flux anomalies, contrary to reanalysis. Furthermore, it is suggested that the differing ability of the models to represent the near-surface westerlies over the Indian Ocean is related to the different horizontal resolutions of the atmospheric model employed.« less

  16. Aminophylline partially prevents the decrease of body temperature during laparoscopic abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Woo; Lee, Jung Ah; Jung, Hong Soo; Joo, Jin Deok; In, Jang Hyeok; Jeon, Yeon Soo; Chun, Ga Young; Choi, Jin Woo

    2014-08-01

    Aminophylline can elicit thermogenesis in rats or increase metabolic rate during cold stress in lambs. We tested the hypothesis that aminophylline would reduce the change in core body temperature during laparoscopic abdominal surgery requiring pneumoperitoneum. Fifty patients were randomly divided into an aminophylline group (n=25) and a saline control group (n=25). Esophageal temperature, index finger temperature, and hemodynamic variables, such as mean blood pressure and heart rate, were measured every 15 min during sevoflurane anesthesia. In the aminophylline group, esophageal temperatures at T45 (36.1±0.38 vs. 35.7±0.29, P=0.024), T60 (36.0±0.39 vs. 35.6±0.28, P=0.053), T75 (35.9±0.34 vs. 35.5±0.28, P=0.025), T90 (35.8±0.35 vs. 35.3±0.33, P=0.011), and T105 (35.8±0.36 vs. 35.1±0.53, P=0.017) and index finger temperatures at T15 (35.8±0.46 vs. 34.9±0.33, P<0.001), T30 (35.7±0.36 vs. 35.0±0.58, P=0.029), T45 (35.8±0.34 vs. 35.2±0.42, P=0.020), T60 (35.7±0.33 vs. 34.9±0.47, P=0.010), T75 (35.6±0.36 vs. 34.8±0.67, P=0.028), T90 (35.4±0.55 vs. 34.4±0.89, P=0.042), and T105 (34.9±0.53 vs. 33.9±0.85, P=0.024) were significantly higher than in the saline control group. Aminophylline is effective in maintaining the core temperature through a thermogenic effect, despite reduced peripheral thermoregulatory vasoconstriction.

  17. The Madden-Julian Oscillation in ECHAM4 Coupled and Uncoupled GCMs

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, K R; Gualdi, S; Legutke, S; Gayler, V

    2004-10-13

    with ECHO-G and SINTEX, which used T30 atmospheres, produce westward propagation of the latent heat flux anomalies, contrary to reanalysis. It is suggested that the differing ability of the models to represent the near-surface westerlies over the Indian Ocean is related to the different horizontal resolutions of the atmospheric model employed.

  18. Pyrophosphate-bridged Cu(II) chain magnet: {[Na3Cu(P2O7)(NO3)].3H2O}n.

    PubMed

    Sartoris, Rosana P; Santana, Ricardo C; Baggio, Ricardo F; Peña, Octavio; Perec, Mireille; Calvo, Rafael

    2010-06-21

    A Cu(II)...Cu(II) pyrophosphate-bridged compound of formula {[Na(3)Cu(P(2)O(7))(NO(3))].3H(2)O}(n) (1) has been characterized. X-ray diffraction measurements show that it crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/m, with unit cell dimensions a = 7.2492(5) A, b = 8.2446(6) A, c = 9.9050(7) A, beta = 107.123(1) degrees, and Z = 2. The structure consists of chains of Cu(II) cations at inversion symmetry sites bound to four equatorial oxygen atoms provided by two pyrophosphate anions halved by a symmetry plane and two axial oxygen atoms of nitrate anions. The molar magnetic susceptibility chi(0) of a powdered sample was measured in the temperature range 2 K < T < 273 K, and an isothermal magnetization curve, M(B(0),T), was obtained at T = 30 K, with the magnetic field B(0) between 0 and 5 T. Fitting a spin-chain model to the susceptibility data, we evaluate an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling 2J = -24.3(1) cm(-1) (defined as H(ex) = -2JS(i)S(j)) between Cu(II) neighbors. For any orientation of B(0), single-crystal electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra obtained at 9.8 and 33.9 GHz at 300 K display a single signal having a g matrix with orthorhombic symmetry, arising from the merger produced by the exchange interaction of the resonances corresponding to the two rotated Cu(II) sites. The g matrices of the individual molecules calculated assuming axial symmetry yielded principal values g(parallel) = 2.367(1) and g(perpendicular) = 2.074(1) at both frequencies, indicating a d(x(2)-y(2)) ground-state orbital for the Cu(II) ions. The angular variation of the EPR line width suggests exchange narrowing in a system with one-dimensional spin dynamics, as expected from the structure and susceptibility data. The results, discussed in terms of the crystal and electronic structures and of the spin dynamics of the compound, are compared with those obtained in other materials.

  19. Characterizing the audibility of sound field with diffusion in architectural spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utami, Sentagi Sesotya

    The significance of diffusion control in room acoustics is that it attempts to avoid echoes by dispersing reflections while removing less valuable sound energy. Some applications place emphasis on the enhancement of late reflections to promote a sense of envelopment, and on methods required to measure the performance of diffusers. What still remains unclear is the impact of diffusion on the audibility quality due to the geometric arrangement of architectural elements. The objective of this research is to characterize the audibility of the sound field with diffusion in architectural space. In order to address this objective, an approach utilizing various methods and new techniques relevant to room acoustics standards was applied. An array of microphones based on beam forming (i.e., an acoustic camera) was utilized for field measurements in a recording studio, classrooms, auditoriums, concert halls and sport arenas. Given the ability to combine a visual image with acoustical data, the impulse responses measured were analyzed to identify the impact of diffusive surfaces on the early, late, and reverberant sound fields. The effects of the room geometry and the proportions of the diffusive and absorptive surfaces were observed by utilizing geometrical room acoustics simulations. The degree of diffuseness in each space was measured by coherences from different measurement positions along with the acoustical conditions predicted by well-known objective parameters such as T30, EDT, C80, and C50. Noticeable differences of the auditory experience were investigated by utilizing computer-based survey techniques, including the use of an immersive virtual environment system, given the current software auralization capabilities. The results based on statistical analysis demonstrate the users' ability to localize the sound and to distinguish the intensity, clarity, and reverberation created within the virtual environment. Impact of architectural elements in diffusion control is

  20. An efficient climate model with water isotope physics: NEEMY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J.; Emile-Geay, J.

    2015-12-01

    This work describes the development of an isotope-enabled atmosphere-ocean global climate model, NEEMY. This is a model of intermediate complexity, which can run 100 model years in 30 hours using 33 CPUs. The atmospheric component is the SPEEDY-IER (Molteni et al. 2003; Dee et al. 2015a), which is a water isotope-enabled (with equilibrium and kinetic fractionation schemes in precipitation, evaporation and soil moisture) simplified atmospheric general circulation model, with T30 horizontal resolution and 8 vertical layers. The oceanic component is NEMO 3.4 (Madec 2008), a state-of-the-art oceanic model (~2° horizontal resolution and 31 vertical layers) with an oceanic isotope module (a passive tracer scheme). A 1000-year control run shows that NEEMY is stable and its energy is conserved. The mean state is comparable to that of CMIP3-era CGCMs, though much cheaper to run. Atmospheric teleconnections such as the NAO and PNA are simulated very well. NEEMY also simulates the oceanic meridional overturning circulation well. The tropical climate variability is weaker than observations, and the climatology exhibits a double ITCZ problem despite bias corrections. The standard deviation of the monthly mean Nino3.4 index is 0.61K, compared to 0.91K in observations (Reynolds et al. 2002). We document similarities and differences with a close cousin, SPEEDY-NEMO (Kucharski et al. 2015). With its fast speed and relatively complete physical processes, NEEMY is suitable for paleoclimate studies ; we will present some forced simulations of the past millennium and their use in forward-modeling climate proxies, via proxy system models (PSMs, Dee et al 2015b). References Dee, S., D. Noone, N. Buenning, J. Emile-Geay, and Y. Zhou, 2015a: SPEEDY-IER: A fast atmospheric GCM with water isotope physics. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120: 73-91. doi:10.1002/2014JD022194. Dee, S. G., J. Emile-Geay, M. N. Evans, Allam, A., D. M. Thompson, and E. J. Steig, 2015b: PRYSM: an open-source framework

  1. Dynamics of Rifting in two Active Rift Segments in Afar - Geodetic and Structural Studies - DoRA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubre, C.; Socquet, A.; Masson, F.; Jacques, E.; Grandin, R.; Nercessian, A.; Kassim, M.; Vergne, J.; Diament, M.; Hinderer, J.; Ayele, A.; Lewi, E.; Calais, E.; Peltzer, G.; Toussaint, R.; de Chaballier, J.; Ballu, V. S.; Luck, B.; King, G. C.; Vigny, C.; Cattin, R.; Tiberi, C.; Kidane, T.; Jalludin, M.; Maggi, A.; Dorbath, C.; Manatschal, G.; Schmittbuhl, J.; Le Moigne, N.; Deroussi, S.

    2009-12-01

    The DoRA project aims to conduct complementary studies in two volcano-tectonic rifts in the Afar Depression. In Northern Afar, the Wal’is Dabbahu Rift (WD, Ethiopia) is currently undergoing a major rifting episode. This event started in September 2005 with a significant seismic activity. InSAR data revealed the injection of a 65 km-long mega-dyke that opened by up to 8 m, the slip of numerous normal faults and opening of fissures, and a rhyolitic eruption. Similarly, the Asal-Ghoubbet Rift (AG, Djibouti) was affected in 1978 by a smaller episode of rifting associated with the intrusion of a 2 m wide dyke into the crust. Since then, a large catalog of geodetic data that includes recent InSAR time series reveals the importance of non-steady deformation controlling the rift dynamics. Our goal is to gain an understanding of such volcano-tectonic segments on several time scales, including the dyking period itself and the post-event period. The study of the behavior of the AG Rift during its whole post-rifting period offers an image at t+30 years of the WD segment, while keeping in mind important structural and scale differences. First, we propose to build a complete and accurate set of geodetic data (InSAR, cGPS, GPS), covering the period under study. With a narrow temporal sample window, we will precisely describe the aseismic slip affecting the normal faults of these rifts, the periods of sudden slip and/or slip acceleration but also measure the deformation associated with probable future dyke intrusion. Second, we aim to constrain the origin of these displacements and their relation with mass transfers within the crust. Series of gravity measurements will be pursue or initiated in both rifts. Third, the recording of seismic activity is essential to constrain the relative importance of seismic and aseismic deformation. This will also help to evaluate the thickness of the seismogenic layer. Together with structural data collected during a seismic survey in the AG

  2. Big Data and High-Performance Computing in Global Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozdag, Ebru; Lefebvre, Matthieu; Lei, Wenjie; Peter, Daniel; Smith, James; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Tromp, Jeroen

    2014-05-01

    Much of our knowledge of Earth's interior is based on seismic observations and measurements. Adjoint methods provide an efficient way of incorporating 3D full wave propagation in iterative seismic inversions to enhance tomographic images and thus our understanding of processes taking place inside the Earth. Our aim is to take adjoint tomography, which has been successfully applied to regional and continental scale problems, further to image the entire planet. This is one of the extreme imaging challenges in seismology, mainly due to the intense computational requirements and vast amount of high-quality seismic data that can potentially be assimilated. We have started low-resolution inversions (T > 30 s and T > 60 s for body and surface waves, respectively) with a limited data set (253 carefully selected earthquakes and seismic data from permanent and temporary networks) on Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Cray XK7 "Titan" system. Recent improvements in our 3D global wave propagation solvers, such as a GPU version of the SPECFEM3D_GLOBE package, will enable us perform higher-resolution (T > 9 s) and longer duration (~180 m) simulations to take the advantage of high-frequency body waves and major-arc surface waves, thereby improving imbalanced ray coverage as a result of the uneven global distribution of sources and receivers. Our ultimate goal is to use all earthquakes in the global CMT catalogue within the magnitude range of our interest and data from all available seismic networks. To take the full advantage of computational resources, we need a solid framework to manage big data sets during numerical simulations, pre-processing (i.e., data requests and quality checks, processing data, window selection, etc.) and post-processing (i.e., pre-conditioning and smoothing kernels, etc.). We address the bottlenecks in our global seismic workflow, which are mainly coming from heavy I/O traffic during simulations and the pre- and post-processing stages, by defining new data

  3. The Kemp elimination in membrane mimetic reaction media. Probing catalytic properties of cationic vesicles formed from a double-tailed amphiphile and linear long-tailed alcohols or alkyl pyranosides.

    PubMed

    Klijn, Jaap E; Engberts, Jan B F N

    2004-06-21

    Vesicles formed from synthetic, double-tailed amphiphiles are often used as mimics for biological membranes. However, biological membranes are a complex mixture of various compounds. In the present paper we describe a first attempt to study the importance of additives on vesicular catalysis. The rate-determining deprotonation of 5-nitrobenzisoxazole (Kemp elimination) by hydroxide ion is efficiently catalysed by vesicles formed from dimethyldi-n-octadecylammonium chloride (C(18)C(18)(+)) as a result of (partial) dehydration of the reactants (especially the hydroxide ion) at the vesicular binding sites. Gradual addition of linear alcohols, such as n-decanol (C(10)OH), n-octadecanol (C(18)OH) and batyl alcohol (C(18)GlyOH) leads to a decrease in the observed catalysis. By contrast, gradual addition of oleyl alcohol, n-dodecyl-beta-glucoside (C(12)Glu) and n-dodecyl-beta-maltoside (C(12)Mal) leads to an increase in the observed catalysis. A detailed kinetic analysis, taking into account substrate binding site polarities, counterion binding percentages and binding affinity of the kinetic probe, suggests that the catalytic changes depend strongly on subtle changes in the structure of the additive. Whereas the C(12)Glu-induced effect can be explained by an increase in the vesicular rate constant, the effect of C(12)Mal can only be explained by an increase in the binding constant of the kinetic probe. However, for these pyranoside-containing vesicles others factors, such as a more extensive dehydration of the hydroxide ion, and micelle formation have to be considered. For the linear alcohols, besides a decrease in the counterion binding, changes in the vesicular rate constant and the binding constant should be taken into account. These two parameters change to a different extent for the different alcohols. The kinetic analysis is supported by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), E(T)(30) absorbance data and Nile Red, Laurdan, ANS and pyrene fluorescence measurements

  4. Early rocket observations of auroral bremsstrahlung and its absorption in the mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Allen, James A.

    1995-08-01

    In the summer and autumn of 1957 the author and his colleagues at the University of Iowa conducted 10 successful balloon-launched rocket (rockoon) flights of Geiger-Mueller tubes during two shipboard expeditions, one to the arctic and the other to the antarctic. Summit altitudes ranged from 77 to 130 km. One flight was conducted in the equatorial zone, six in the northern auroral zone, and three in the southern auroral zone. Detailed results of each flight are presented. Auroral bremsstrahlung was detected on eight of the nine high-latitude flights. By virtue of physical shielding, the detectors were insensitive to photons of energy E<8 keV. Hence our derived absolute spectra refer to the high-energy tail of the auroral electron spectrum and the resulting bremmstrahlung. For the energy range E>8 keV, we find a typical e-folding energy E* of about 10 keV for a differential photon number spectrum of the form dn/dE=Aexp(-E/E*) with A in units of photons (cm2 s keV)-1. Essentially, the same value of E* is obtained by two complementary methods: (1) The dependence of counting rate on atmospheric depth Q and (2) the inverse ratio of counting rates of an ``unshielded'' tube and one with an added shield. A detailed discussion of the bases for interpretation of the flight data is given in an extended appendix. For a representative set of data (flight 64) we find an omnidirectional flux of downward moving photons of 2.4×104(cm2s)-1 at Q=0, the integral of the above spectrum from E=0 to E=∞ with the explicit understanding that this result does not include the presumably much greater flux of photons having E<8 keV and a much steeper spectrum. The corresponding electron number flux striking the top of the atmosphere is 9.3×107 electrons (cm2s)-1 with an e-folding energy T*=30 keV. The corresponding energy flux is 4.5 erg (cm2s)-1. Both of the two latter fluxes represent the integral from electron energy T=0 to T=∞ of the high-energy tail of the electron spectrum, again

  5. Interaction of a Cannabinoid-2 Agonist With Tramadol on Nociceptive Thresholds and Immune Responses in a Rat Model of Incisional Pain.

    PubMed

    Stachtari, Chrysoula C; Thomareis, Olympia N; Tsaousi, Georgia G; Karakoulas, Konstantinos A; Chatzimanoli, Foteini I; Chatzopoulos, Stavros A; Vasilakos, Dimitrios G

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the antinociceptive interaction between cannabinoids and tramadol and their impact on proinflammatory response, in terms of serum intereleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) release, in a rat model of incisional pain. Prospective randomized trial assessing the individual or combined application of intraperitoneal tramadol (10 mg/kg) and the selective cannabinoid-2 (CB-2) agonist (R,S)-AM1241 (1 mg/kg) applied postsurgical stress stimulus. Pharmacological specificity was established by antagonizing tramadol with naloxone (0.3 mg/kg) and (R,S)-AM1241 with SR144528 (1 mg/kg). Thermal allodynia was assessed by hot plate test 30 (T30), 60 (T60), and 120 (T120) minutes after incision. Blood samples for plasma IL-6 and IL-2 level determination were obtained 2 hours after incision. Data from 42 rats were included in the final analyses. Significant augmentation of thermal threshold was observed at all time points, after administration of either tramadol or (R,S)-AM1241 compared with the control group (P = 0.004 and P = 0.015, respectively). The combination of (R,S)-AM1241 plus tramadol promoted the induced antinociception in an important manner compared with control (P = 0.002) and (R,S)-AM1241 (P = 0.022) groups. Although the antiallodynic effect produced by tramadol was partially reversed by naloxone 30 and 60 minutes after incision (P = 0.028 and P = 0.016, respectively), SR144528 blocked the effects of (R,S)-AM1241 administration in a significant manner (P = 0.001) at all time points. Similarly, naloxone plus SR144528 also blocked the effects of the combination of (R,S)-AM1241 with tramadol at all time points (P = 0.000). IL-6 level in (R,S)-AM1241 plus tramadol group was significantly attenuated compared with control group (P = 0.000). Nevertheless, IL-2 levels remained unchanged in all experimental groups. It seems that the concomitant administration of a selective CB-2 agonist with tramadol in incisional pain model may

  6. The effect of volcanic eruptions on the North Atlantic ocean temperatures over the past millennium (800-2000 AD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyrina, M.; Wagner, S.; Zorita, E.

    2014-12-01

    Several studies suggest that the North Atlantic Ocean is of particular importance for the climate variability, especially that of western Europe (Schlesinger M. E. & Ramankutty 1994, Knight J., Folland C. K. & Scaife A. 2006). The changes in North Atlantic sea surface temperatures are related to the thermohaline's circulation strength (Kushnir Y., 1994) and affected by volcanic eruptions (Church J.A, White N.J. & Arblaster J.M. 2005), due to their release of aerosols into the stratosphere. In this study we examine the signal of tropical volcanic eruptions in the temperatures of the North Atlantic Ocean in various depths (6, 100, 560 and 3070 m from the sea surface), for the past millennium. The temperatures are derived from the comprehensive COSMOS Earth System Model (ECHAM5-OM at T30 spatial resolution) and are presented for a control run and for three fully forced ensemble simulations including changes in orbital, solar, volcanic, land use and greenhouse gas changes. The model shows a response in the years following volcanic eruptions, being mostly pronounced after the large eruptions that took place between 1200 and 1300 AD, as well as at the beginning of the 19thcentury. The strongest impact on the ocean temperatures, due to the increased atmospheric optical depth, is evident in the uppermost level, especially for two out of the three ensemble simulations. In these simulations a pronounced decrease in the ocean temperature between 1400 and 1500 AD is observed due to the increase of the aerosol effective radius. In the mixed ocean layers the response to volcanic aerosols is more obvious in the third ensemble simulation, whereas in the deep ocean the temperatures do not seem to be strongly affected by volcanic eruptions. Schlesinger, M. E. & Ramankutty, N. An oscillation in the global climate system of period 65-70 years. Nature 367, 723-726 (1994). Kushnir, Y. Interdecadal variations in North Atlantic sea surface temperature and associated atmospheric conditions

  7. Evaluation of a butorphanol, detomidine, and midazolam combination for immobilization of captive Nile lechwe antelopes (Kobus magaceros).

    PubMed

    Laricchiuta, Pietro; De Monte, Valentina; Campolo, Marco; Grano, Fabio; Iarussi, Fabrizio; Crovace, Antonio; Staffieri, Francesco

    2012-07-01

    Field immobilization of captive antelope may be required for medical examination, blood sample collection, and animal identification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of butorphanol, detomidine, and midazolam (BDM) and its partial reversibility in Nile lechwe antelope (Kobus megaceros). Nine captive lechwes, weighing 28-64 kg, were immobilized, in February 2011, with butorphanol 0.20 ± 0.05 (mean ± SD) mg/kg, detomidine 0.20 ± 0.05 mg/kg, and midazolam 0.31 ± 0.08 mg/kg administered intramuscularly (IM) with a blowpipe. Physiologic parameters and depth of anesthesia were recorded when the animals became recumbent at 19.55 ± 8.36 min after darting (T0) and after 10 (T10), 20 (T20), and 30 (T30) min. An arterial blood sample was collected at T20. At the end of the procedures, immobilization was partially reversed with atipamezole 0.25 mg/kg IM. Quality of induction, immobilization, and recovery was scored. The BDM combination induced immobilization and lateral recumbency in 13.44 ± 5.61 min. Median induction score (scored 1 [excellent] to 4 [poor]) was 1 (range 1-2). Heart rate varied 40-104 beats/min, respiratory rate 16-108 breaths/min, and rectal temperature 36.5-40.3 C. Hyperthermia was observed and rapidly treated in three animals that demonstrated insufficient immobilization after darting. Arterial blood gas analyses revealed a mean pH of 7.43 ± 0.07, partial arterial pressure of CO(2) of 44.1 ± 6.0 mmHg, partial arterial pressure of O(2) of 74.0 ± 13.5 mmHg, and an arterial O(2) saturation of 94.77 ± 3.96%. Recovery was smooth and animals were walking in 13.44 ± 7.85 min. Median recovery score (1 = excellent to 4 = poor) was 1 (range 1-2). The BDM was effective in immobilizing captive healthy lechwes with minimal cardiorespiratory changes.

  8. Downscaling of climate parameters using Active Learning Method (ALM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodoudi, S.; Reimer, E.

    2009-12-01

    This study is a part of main program RIMAX "risk management of extreme flood events“, which concerns itself of extremes floodwater and damage potential in the Bode river basin in Germany with the variable occurrence of flood events in this area for the past 1000 years. The objective of the project is to produce the local climate time series (climate downscaling) as the input for a runoff model in the Bode basin for the last 1000 years on a grid of 5x5 km as well as the estimation of the spatial distributions and temporal variability of the precipitation, the amount of precipitation and further meteorological parameter (temperature, radiation and relative humidity) for this area. A nonlinear downscaling based on Fuzzy rules has been used to produce 1000 year climate time series. The global model ECHO from Max Planck institute for Meteorology (MPI) with T30 resolution and 1000 years data has been used as the global model (GCM). The regional model REMO, with 10 km resolution and 20 years data has been used as the regional input. The observations, which include 30 years precipitation, radiation, temperature, wind and relative humidity, have been used as output (predictand). In this study, two set fuzzy rules have been trained to describe the relationship between ECHO/REMO and REMO/Observation. The Fuzzy method used in this work is Active Learning Method (ALM). The heart of calculation of ALM is a fuzzy interpolation and curve fitting which is entitled Ink Drop Spread (IDS). The IDS searches fuzzily for continuous possible paths of interpolated data points on data planes. The ability of ALM to simulate the high values as well as the fluctuation of time series is much better than Takagi-Sugeno models, which have been used for downscaling in the last decade. In the next steps, considering predictors from the ECHO time series As well as the predictands from the REMO grid points, some ALM models are developed, which describe the fuzzy rules and the relationship between

  9. Downscaling of climate parameters in Bode river basin in Germany using Active Learning Method (ALM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodoudi, S.; Reimer, E.

    2009-04-01

    This study is a part of main program RIMAX "risk management of extreme flood events", which concerns itself of "extremes floodwater and damage potential in the Bode river basin in Germany „with the variable occurrence of flood events in this area for the past 1000 years. The objective of the project is to produce the local climate time series (climate downscaling) as the input for a runoff model in the Bode basin for the last 1000 years on a grid of 5x5 km as well as the estimation of the spatial distributions and temporal variability of the precipitation, the amount of precipitation and further meteorological parameter (temperature, radiation and relative humidity) for this area. A nonlinear downscaling based on Fuzzy rules has been used to produce 1000 year climate time series. The global model ECHO from Max Planck institute for Meteorology (MPI) with T30 resolution and 1000 years data has been used as the global model (GCM). The regional model REMO, with 10 km resolution and 20 years data has been used as the regional input. The observations, which include 30 years precipitation, radiation, temperature, wind and relative humidity, have been used as output (predictand). In this study, two set fuzzy rules have been trained to describe the relationship between ECHO/REMO and REMO/Observation. The Fuzzy method used in this work is Active Learning Method (ALM). The heart of calculation of ALM is a fuzzy interpolation and curve fitting which is entitled Ink Drop Spread (IDS). The IDS searches fuzzily for continuous possible paths of interpolated data points on data planes. The ability of ALM to simulate the high values as well as the fluctuation of time series is much better than Takagi-Sugeno models, which have been used for downscaling in the last decade. In the next steps, considering predictors from the ECHO time series and predictands from the REMO grid points, some ALM models are developed, which describe the fuzzy rules and the relationship between global and

  10. A Double-Disruption Substorm Model - The Growth Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofko, G. J.; McWilliams, K. A.; Hussey, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    When the IMF turns from Bz- to Bz+, dayside merging forms open lobe field lines at low latitudes. These lobe lines are populated with shocked solar wind and dayside magnetospheric plasma from the reconnection inflow. As those lobe flux tubes pass tailward over the polar caps, they are also populated with outflow from the north and south polar cap ionospheres. As the lobe lines move tailward, they acquire a convex curvature that blocks the westward-flowing cross-tail current (XTJ). This constitutes the first stage of XTJ disruption, and it begins less than 10 min after the frontside merging.The disrupted XTJ closes dawn-to-dusk in the transition plasmasheet (TPS), where it produces a downward FAC to the ionosphere. This causes the proton arc, which is seen for the period from about 10 - 80 min after frontside merging begins at time t=0. The lobe lines eventually reconnect well downtail at about t=30 minutes. The middle section that closes the lobe lines has concave curvature and is called the Neutral Sheet (NSh). The resulting stretched field lines thus have a central NSh which separates the two convex-curvature regions to the north and south, regions which are called the Disruption Zones (DZs); the overall combination of the NDZ, NSh and SDZ is called the Stretched Plasmasheet (SPS). As the SPS continues to grow and the stretched lines are pulled earthward to relieve the magnetic tension, the filling of the NSh occurs both from the DTNL with the higher energy magnetospheric particle population on the lobe lines, but eventually also at about 25 earth radii when the polar cap ionospheric outflow (PCO) component finally reaches the NSh. A NSh FAC system forms, from which electrons flow down to the auroral ionosphere to create the pre-onset arc, starting at about t=65 min. At the same time, the Lyons-Speiser mechanism is initiated in the inner NSh, causing the PCO ions to become trapped and accelerated in the inner NSh region. Eventually, when the SPS grows earthward

  11. Dynamic nightside electron precipitation at Mars: ggeographical and solar wind dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillis, R. J.; Brain, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    -30 nT, 30-50 nT and >50 nT. The left and right columns are for IMF direction proxy ranges of 320-140° and 140-320°. Contour lines are represented on the vertical color bars by horizontal lines.

  12. Jet energy measurement with the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at √{s}=7 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, D.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Beck, G. A.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G. D.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A. M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S. A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Chapman, J. W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavda, V.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S. L.; Chevalier, L.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I. A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciba, K.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M. D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clifft, R. W.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coe, P.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C. D.; Colas, J.; Colijn, A. P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N. J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Consonni, M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Crescioli, F.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cuciuc, C.-M.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C. J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czirr, H.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Silva, P. V. M.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Daly, C. H.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Damiani, D. S.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G. L.; Daum, C.; Dauvergne, J. P.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, A. R.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J. W.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Castro Faria Salgado, P. E.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De La Taille, C.; De la Torre, H.; De Lotto, B.; de Mora, L.; De Nooij, L.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dean, S.; Debbe, R.; Dedovich, D. 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J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villani, E. G.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vujicic, M.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walbersloh, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Weydert, C.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wong, W. C.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, M.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ybeles Smit, G. V.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V. G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo. K.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Q.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2013-03-01

    The jet energy scale and its systematic uncertainty are determined for jets measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of sqrt{s}=7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 38 pb-1. Jets are reconstructed with the anti- k t algorithm with distance parameters R=0.4 or R=0.6. Jet energy and angle corrections are determined from Monte Carlo simulations to calibrate jets with transverse momenta p T≥20 GeV and pseudorapidities | η|<4.5. The jet energy systematic uncertainty is estimated using the single isolated hadron response measured in situ and in test-beams, exploiting the transverse momentum balance between central and forward jets in events with dijet topologies and studying systematic variations in Monte Carlo simulations. The jet energy uncertainty is less than 2.5 % in the central calorimeter region (| η|<0.8) for jets with 60≤ p T<800 GeV, and is maximally 14 % for p T<30 GeV in the most forward region 3.2≤| η|<4.5. The jet energy is validated for jet transverse momenta up to 1 TeV to the level of a few percent using several in situ techniques by comparing a well-known reference such as the recoiling photon p T, the sum of the transverse momenta of tracks associated to the jet, or a system of low- p T jets recoiling against a high- p T jet. More sophisticated jet calibration schemes are presented based on calorimeter cell energy density weighting or hadronic properties of jets, aiming for an improved jet energy resolution and a reduced flavour dependence of the jet response. The systematic uncertainty of the jet energy determined from a combination of in situ techniques is consistent with the one derived from single hadron response measurements over a wide kinematic range. The nominal corrections and uncertainties are derived for isolated jets in an inclusive sample of high- p T jets. Special cases such as event topologies with close-by jets, or selections of samples with an enhanced

  13. Transcription of TIR1-Controlled Genes Can be Regulated within 10 Min by an Auxin-Induced Process. Can TIR1 be the Receptor?

    PubMed Central

    Labusch, Corinna; Effendi, Yunus; Fulda, Martin; Scherer, Günther F. E.

    2016-01-01

    ABP1 and TIR1/AFBs are known as auxin receptors. ABP1 is linked to auxin responses several of which are faster than 10 min. TIR1 regulates auxin-induced transcription of early auxin genes also within minutes. We use transcription of such TIR1-dependent genes as indicator of TIR1 activity to show the rapid regulation of TIR1 by exogenous auxin. To this end, we used quantification of transcription of a set of fifteen early auxin-induced reporter genes at t = 10 and t = 30 min to measure this as a TIR1-dependent auxin response. We conducted this study in 22 mutants of auxin transporters (pin5, abcb1, abcb19, and aux1/lax3), protein kinases and phosphatases (ibr5, npr1, cpk3, CPK3-OX, d6pk1, d6pkl1-1, d6pkl3-2, d6pkl1-1/d6pkl2-2, and d6pkl1-1/d6pkl3-2), of fatty acid metabolism (fad2-1, fad6-1, ssi2, lacs4, lacs9, and lacs4/lacs9) and receptors (tir1, tir1/afb2, and tir1/afb3) and compared them to the wild type. After 10 min auxin application, in 18 out of 22 mutants mis-regulated expression of at least one reporter was found, and in 15 mutants transcription of two-to-three out of five selected auxin reporter genes was mis-regulated. After 30 min of auxin application to mutant plants, mis-regulation of reporter genes ranged from one to 13 out of 15 tested reporter genes. Those genes chosen as mutants were themselves not regulated in their expression by auxin for at least 1 h, excluding an influence of TIR1/AFBs on their transcription. The expression of TIR1/AFB genes was also not modulated by auxin for up to 3 h. Together, this excludes a feedback or feedforward of these mutant genes/proteins on TIR1/AFBs output of transcription in this auxin-induced response. However, an auxin-induced response needed an as yet unknown auxin receptor. We suggest that the auxin receptor necessary for the fast auxin-induced transcription modulation could be, instead, ABP1. The alternative hypothesis would be that auxin-induced expression of a protein, initiated by TIR1/AFBs receptors

  14. PREFACE: The 395th Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Seminar: `Time-dependent phenomena in Quantum Mechanics'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleber, Manfred; Kramer, Tobias

    2008-03-01

    The 395th Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Seminar: `Time-dependent phenomena in Quantum Mechanics' took place at the Heinrich Fabri Institute in Blaubeuren, Germany, 12-16 September 2007. The conference covered a wide range of topics connected with time-dependent phenomena in quantum mechanical systems. The 20 invited talks and 15 short talks with posters at the workshop covered the historical debate between Schrödinger, Dirac and Pauli about the role of time in Quantum Mechanics (the debate was carried out sometimes in footnotes) up to the almost direct observation of electron dynamics on the attosecond time-scale. Semiclassical methods, time-delay, monodromy, variational principles and quasi-resonances are just some of the themes which are discussed in more detail in the papers. Time-dependent methods also shed new light on energy-dependent systems, where the detour of studying the time-evolution of a quantum states allows one to solve previously intractable problems. Additional information is available at the conference webpage http://www.quantumdynamics.de The organizer would like to thank all speakers, contributors, session chairs and referees for their efforts in making the conference a success. We also gratefully acknowledge the generous financial support from the Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Foundation for the conference and the production of this special volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Manfred Kleber Physik Department T30, Technische Universität München, 85747 Garching, Germany mkleber@ph.tum.de Tobias Kramer Institut I: Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg, Germany tobias.kramer@physik.uni-regensburg.de Guest Editors Conference photograph Front row (from left): W Schleich, E J Heller, J B Delos, H Friedrich, K Richter, M Kleber, P Kramer, M Man'ko, A del Campo, V Man'ko, M Efremov, A Ruiz, M O Scully Middle row: A Zamora, R Aganoglu, T Kramer, J

  15. Grape harvest and yield responses to inter-annual changes in temperature and precipitation in an area of north-east Spain with a Mediterranean climate.

    PubMed

    Camps, Josep Odó; Ramos, María Concepción

    2012-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of temperature and precipitation trends and their impact on grape harvests in the Penedès region (NE Spain). It includes analyses of maximum, minimum and mean daily temperatures (for both the growing and ripening seasons) and daily rainfall (for the hydrological year, the growing season and each phenological stage) for three observatories in the immediate area. We analysed a series of factors: beginning and end harvest dates; the day on which a given potential alcoholic degree was reached; and yield for several varieties of grape grown in the area in relation to climatic variables. Maximum temperatures increased at all the observatories, with greater values being recorded in recent years (1996-2009) than in previous decades (1960s-2000s): we observed increases in average growing season temperatures of 0.11°C per year for the period 1996-2009 vs 0.04°C per year for the period 1960-2009 at Vilafranca del Penedès. These temperature changes were due mainly to increases in maximum temperatures and an increase in the incidence of extreme heat (number of days with T > 30°C). Crop evapotranspiration also increased significantly during the same period. The Winkler index also increased, so the study area would correspond to region IV according to that climatic classification. There were no significant trends in annual rainfall but rainfall recorded between bloom and veraison decreased significantly at the three observatories, with the greatest decrease corresponding to the period 1996-2009. The dates on which harvests started and ended showed a continuous advance (of between -0.7 and -1.1 days per year, depending on the variety), which was significantly correlated with the average mean and maximum daily growing season temperatures (up to -7.68 days for 1°C increase). Winegrape yield was influenced by the estimated water deficit (crop evapotranspiration minus precipitation) in the bloom-veraison period; this value increased due to a

  16. Grape harvest and yield responses to inter-annual changes in temperature and precipitation in an area of north-east Spain with a Mediterranean climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camps, Josep Odó; Ramos, María Concepción

    2012-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of temperature and precipitation trends and their impact on grape harvests in the Penedès region (NE Spain). It includes analyses of maximum, minimum and mean daily temperatures (for both the growing and ripening seasons) and daily rainfall (for the hydrological year, the growing season and each phenological stage) for three observatories in the immediate area. We analysed a series of factors: beginning and end harvest dates; the day on which a given potential alcoholic degree was reached; and yield for several varieties of grape grown in the area in relation to climatic variables. Maximum temperatures increased at all the observatories, with greater values being recorded in recent years (1996-2009) than in previous decades (1960s-2000s): we observed increases in average growing season temperatures of 0.11°C per year for the period 1996-2009 vs 0.04°C per year for the period 1960-2009 at Vilafranca del Penedès. These temperature changes were due mainly to increases in maximum temperatures and an increase in the incidence of extreme heat (number of days with T > 30°C). Crop evapotranspiration also increased significantly during the same period. The Winkler index also increased, so the study area would correspond to region IV according to that climatic classification. There were no significant trends in annual rainfall but rainfall recorded between bloom and veraison decreased significantly at the three observatories, with the greatest decrease corresponding to the period 1996-2009. The dates on which harvests started and ended showed a continuous advance (of between -0.7 and -1.1 days per year, depending on the variety), which was significantly correlated with the average mean and maximum daily growing season temperatures (up to -7.68 days for 1°C increase). Winegrape yield was influenced by the estimated water deficit (crop evapotranspiration minus precipitation) in the bloom-veraison period; this value increased due to a

  17. Seasonal and spatial variability of heterogeneous ice formation in stratiform clouds and its possible impact on precipitation formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, P.; Ansmann, A.; Baars, H.; Buehl, J.; Kanitz, T.; Bohlmann, S.; Engelmann, R.; Kunz, C.

    2015-12-01

    freezing efficiencies, the formation of precipitation via the ice phase (cold rain) is possibly affected as well. This may especially be the case for the approximately 50% of precipitation formed at T > -30°C, as it was found for the Leipzig dataset.

  18. Controlled-source seismic investigations of the crustal structure beneath Erebus volcano and Ross Island, Antarctica: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraj, S.; Kyle, P. R.; Zandomeneghi, D.; Knox, H. A.; Aster, R. C.; Snelson, C. M.; Miller, P. E.; Kaip, G. M.

    2009-12-01

    During the 2008-09 Austral summer field season we undertook a controlled-source seismic experiment (Tomo-Erebus, TE) to examine the shallow magmatic system beneath the active Erebus volcano (TE-3D) and the crustal structure beneath Ross Island. Here we report on the TE-2D component, which was designed to produce a two-dimensional P-wave velocity model along an east-west profile across Ross Island. Marine geophysical observations near Ross Island have identified the north-south trending Terror Rift within the older and broader Victoria Land Basin, which are a component of the intraplate West Antarctic Rift System. Mount Erebus and Ross Island are circumstantially associated with the Terror Rift and its thin (~20 km) crust. The nature, extent and role of the Terror Rift in controlling the evolution of Ross Island volcanism and the on-going eruptive activity of Erebus volcano are unknown. In TE-2D, we deployed 21 seismic recorders (Ref Tek 130) with three-component 4.5 Hz geophones (Sercel L-28-3D) along a 90-km east-west line between Capes Royds and Crozier. These were supplemented by 79 similar instruments deployed for the high-resolution TE-3D experiment within a 3 x 3 km grid around the summit crater of Erebus, an array of 8 permanent short period and broadband sensors used to monitor the activity of Erebus and 23 three-component sensors (Guralp CMG-40T, 30s-100 Hz) positioned around the flanks and summit of Erebus. Fifteen chemical sources were loaded in holes drilled about 15 m deep in the snow and ice. The size of these shots ranged from 75 to 600 kg of ANFO with the largest shots at the ends of the profile. An additional shot was detonated in the sea (McMurdo Sound) using 200 kg of dynamite. Due to the rugged terrain, short field seasons and large area to be covered, the seismometer spacing along the TE-2D profile is quite large (~ 5 km spacing), resulting in poor near-surface data resolution. However, the data have a high signal to noise ratio with clear

  19. The microphysical and radiative properties of tropical cirrus from the 2006 Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Jun Shik

    for the fresh anvil (i.e., 2 Feb) is larger than that for cirrus bands of varying ages (i.e., 27 and 29 Jan.) for -60 < T < -45°C and -45 < T < -30°C where the fractional contributions of small ice crystals to total cross sectional area are small. The impact using different models for small ice crystals on ḡ is largest at lower temperatures (T < -60°C). The impact of enhanced number concentrations of small ice crystals on the bulk scattering properties depends on the assumed shapes of small ice crystals, which is largest (smallest) in the temperature ranges of -45 < T < -30 T (T < -60°C) where the CAS/CDP ratio of N of small ice crystals is maximum (minimum).

  20. Influence of various environmental parameters on sweat gland activity.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Roger L; Gillece, Tim; Lu, Guojin; Laura, Donna; Chen, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The choice of environmental conditions when conducting antiperspirant studies greatly affects the quantity of sweat output. Our initial goal in this work was to develop an in-house procedure to test the efficacy of antiperspirant products using replica techniques in combination with image analysis. To ameliorate the skin replica method, we conducted rheological studies using dynamic mechanical analysis of the replica formulation. In terms of sweat output quantification, our preliminary results revealed a considerable amount of variation using the replica technique, leading us to conduct more fundamental studies of the factors that influence sweating behavior and how to best design the experimental strategy. In accordance with the FDA's protocol for antiperspirant testing, we carried out gravimetric analyses of axillae sweating under a variety of environmental conditions including temperature and humidity control. Subjects were first acclimatized in an environmentally controlled room for 30 min, and then placed in a sauna for an additional 30 or 45 min, depending on which test we administered. In Test 1 (30 min total in the sauna), the first 10 min in the sauna was another equilibration period, followed by a 20 min sweat production stage. We monitored axillae sweating during the last 20 min in the sauna by gravimetric analysis. At time (t) = 30 min in the sauna, skin replicas were taken and later analyzed using imaging and image analysis techniques. Test 1 was carried out on over 25 subjects, both male and female, from various racial backgrounds. In Test 2, subjects spent 45 min in the sauna after the initial 30-min period in the environmental room. During the 45 min, we obtained gravimetric readings of absorbent pads placed in the axillae. We conducted studies at various temperature and relative humidity settings. We also studied the influence of several external parameters on sudoriferous activity. Test 2 was a range-finding experiment on two subjects to determine

  1. Initial Evaluation of a Novel Adenosine A2A Receptor Ligand, (11)C-Preladenant, in Healthy Human Subjects.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Muneyuki; Ishibashi, Kenji; Imai, Masamichi; Wagatsuma, Kei; Ishii, Kenji; Zhou, Xiaoyun; de Vries, Erik F; Elsinga, Philip H; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Toyohara, Jun

    2017-03-09

    (11)C-Preladenant is a novel selective antagonist for mapping of cerebral adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) by positron emission tomography (PET). This is a first-in-human study to examine the safety, radiation dosimetry, and brain imaging of (11)C-preladenant in healthy human subjects. Methods: Dynamic (11)C-preladenant PET scans (90 min) were performed in 5 healthy male subjects. During the scan, arterial blood was sampled at various time intervals, and the fraction of the parent compound in plasma was determined. For anatomic coregistration, T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed. The total distribution volume (VT) was estimated using one- and two-tissue compartment models (1T and 2T, respectively). Distribution volume ratio (DVR) was calculated from VT of target and reference region, and obtained with a non-invasive Logan graphical reference tissue method (LGRM) (t* = 30 min). The applicability of a shortened protocol as an alternative to the 90 min PET scan was investigated. Tracer biodistribution and dosimetry were determined in 3 healthy male subjects, using serial whole-body PET scan acquired over 2 h post (11)C-preladenant injection. Results: There were no serious adverse events in any of the subjects throughout the study period. (11)C-Preladenat readily entered the brain, with a peak uptake in the putamen and head of the caudate nucleus 30-40 min after tracer injection. Other brain regions showed rapid clearance of radioactivity. The regional distribution of (11)C-preladenant was consistent with known A2AR densities in the brain. At pseudoequilibrium (reached at 40 min after injection), stable target-to-cerebellar cortex ratios of around 3.8-10.0 were obtained. The 2T fit better than the 1T in the low-density A2AR regions. In contrast, there were no significant differences between 1T and 2T in the high A2AR density regions. DVRs in putamen and head of the caudate nucleus were around 3.8-10.3 when estimated using a LGRM with cerebellum as the

  2. Effects of adding supplemental tallow to diets containing 30% distillers dried grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pork fat quality in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Davis, J M; Urriola, P E; Shurson, G C; Baidoo, S K; Johnston, L J

    2015-01-01

    Crossbred pigs (n = 315) were blocked by initial BW (6.8 ± 1.1 kg) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of tallow and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on pig growth, carcass traits, and pork fat quality. Diets consisted of a corn-soybean meal control diet (CON) and another 3 corn-soybean meal diets containing 5% tallow (T), 30% DDGS (D), or 5% tallow plus 30% DDGS (TD) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets were formulated to contain similar levels of available P and standardized ileal digestible Lys:ME among treatments. Pigs were housed in 40 pens, with 7 to 8 pigs per pen, to provide 10 replicates per treatment. Overall ADG did not differ among treatments. Compared with CON (2.76 kg/d) and T (2.59 kg/d), feeding 30% DDGS reduced the ADFI (interaction, P > 0.05) of pigs when fed with 5% tallow (2.45 kg/d for TD) but not when fed alone (2.76 kg/d for D). There was no effect of DDGS on overall G:F, but pigs fed diets with tallow had greater (P < 0.01) G:F (0.4) than pigs fed no tallow (0.37). Feeding tallow increased (P < 0.01) HCW, carcass yield, and backfat depth of pigs independent of DDGS. Feeding DDGS reduced (P < 0.01) belly firmness, as measured by belly flop angle, independent of tallow (D = 71.8° and TD = 57.7° vs. CON = 134.0° and T = 113.4°) and tallow also tended to reduce belly firmness (P < 0.10). Feeding DDGS and tallow reduced the concentration of SFA in belly fat, while the concentration of MUFA were increased (P < 0.01) by feeding tallow but not DDGS. Conversely, feeding DDGS increased (P < 0.01) the concentration of PUFA in belly fat but there was no effect of tallow. An interaction (P = 0.03) between DDGS and tallow for iodine value (IV) of belly fat was observed, in which addition of tallow or DDGS increased the IV of belly fat (64.22 for T and 71.22 for D vs. 59.01 for CON) but addition of both reduced IV (67.88 for TD). The IV of belly fat and

  3. Extremely high levels of estradiol and testosterone in a case of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Hormone and clinical similarities with the phenotype of the alpha estrogen receptor null mice.

    PubMed

    Bartolone, L; Smedile, G; Arcoraci, V; Trimarchi, F; Benvenga, S

    2000-01-01

    A 19-year-old nulliparous hirsute woman was evaluated for the very high serum levels of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) measured in an outside laboratory. Menarche had occurred at 11 years and was followed by regular menses. We confirmed the high levels of T (9-16 ng/ml, nv 0.2-0.8) and E2 (>1,000 pg/ml, nv 30-120). LH and FSH were consistently high (73-118 mU/l and 18-29 mU/l, respectively; LH/FSH ratio=4.1-4.7) and responsive to iv GnRH (LH baseline=118 mU/I, 30 min=290; FSH baseline=25 mU/l, 30 min=46). The unstimulated values contrasted with those (LH=12, FSH=8 mU/I) measured in the outside laboratory, suggesting antigenically anomalous gonadotropins. 17-OH-progesterone was normal (0.5 ng/ml). After 1 mg dexamethasone, serum cortisol was normally suppressed (24-->0.4 microg/dl), T declined minimally (9-->8.6 ng/ml) and E2 remained high (>1,000 pg/ml). An exploratory laparotomy was performed, and two enlarged ovaries with multiple cysts as in a typical polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) were seen. Before the wedge resection of the ovaries, hormones were assayed in the ovary veins (right ovary: T=30 ng/ml, Pg=17 ng/ml, E2=>5,000 pg/ml; left: T=14 ng/ml, Pg=14 ng/ml, E2=>5,000 pg/ml). Histologically, the follicle cysts showed luteinization of the theca interna; there was no evidence for ovary tumor in either ovary. After 21 days of 35 microg ethynyl-E2+2 mg cyproterone acetate (CA), E2=3,000 pg/ml, T=1.4 ng/ml, LH=10.5 mU/l and FSH=4.1 mU/I. After three cycles of the said therapy (but with 50 mg CA in the first 10 days of each cycle), E2 was 1,600 pg/ml, T 1.7 ng/ml, LH 7.1 and FSH 4.6 mU/I. Based on similarities with the phenotype of the alpha estrogen receptor knockout female mice (alphaERKO), one possible explanation for the puzzling clinical and biochemical picture of our patient is resistance of (alphaER to estrogens. This is the first case of PCOS with extremely high E2 and T. Thus, the differential diagnosis of high levels of E2 +/- T should include

  4. BRINE Distribution in Harite Rocks-Inference from Measured Electrical CONDUCTIVITY-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitano, M.; Watanabe, T.

    2013-12-01

    Intercrystalline fluid can significantly affect rheological and transport properties of rocks. Its influences are strongly depended on its distribution. The dihedral angle between solid and liquid phases has been widely accepted as a key parameter that controls solid-liquid textures. The liquid phase is not expected to be interconnected if the dihedral angle is larger than 60°. However, observations contradictory to dihedral angle values have been reported. Watanabe (2010) suggested that the grain boundary fluid coexist with a positive dihedral angle. Similar thin fluid films might exist in grain boundaries of crustal rocks, and play important roles in crustal processes. In order to understand the nature of this fluid, we have studied the distribution of brine in halite rocks through measurements of conductivity. A sample was prepared by cold-pressing (the axial stress of 140MPa, 40minutes) and annealing (the temperature of 160°C and 180MPa confining pressure for about 160hours) of wet NaCl powder. During annealing, conductivity of a sample was monitored (2-electrode method) to reach a quasi-stationary value. The volume fraction of water is estimated to be 0.1×0.01% based on the FTIR measurement. Grains are polygonal and their diameters are ~100 μm. The cylindrical (D=9mm, L=3mm) surface of an annealed sample was weakly dried and coated with RTV rubber to suppress the conduction on the surface. Conductivity measurements were made at various pressure and temperature conditions(P<180 MPa, T<180°C). The dihedral angle of NaCl-water system is 66° at P=30MPa and T=30°C, and it becomes smaller than 60° at high pressure and temperature conditions(Holness & Lewis, 1997). Measured conductivity was of the order of 10-7~10-9 (S/m). When the temperature was fixed, a lower conductivity was observed for a higher pressure. The decrease in conductivity was typically 50% for the increase in pressure of 30MPa. For a given pressure, the conductivity increased with increasing

  5. Addressing Value and Belief Systems on Climate Literacy in the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeal, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    The southeast (SEUS; AL, AR, GA, FL, KY, LA, NC, SC, TN, E. TX) faces the greatest impacts as a result of climate change of any region in the U.S. which presents considerable and costly adaptation challenges. Paradoxically, people in the SEUS hold attitudes and perceptions that are more dismissive of climate change than those of any other region. An additional mismatch exists between the manner in which climate science is generally communicated and the underlying core values and beliefs held by a large segment of people in the SEUS. As a result, people frequently misinterpret and/or distrust information sources, inhibiting efforts to productively discuss and consider climate change and related impacts on human and environmental systems, and possible solutions and outcomes. The Climate Literacy Partnership in the Southeast (CLiPSE) project includes an extensive network of partners throughout the SEUS from faith, agriculture, culturally diverse, leisure, and K-20 educator communities that aim to address this educational need through a shared vision. CLiPSE has conducted a Climate Stewardship Survey (CSS) to determine the knowledge and perceptions of individuals in and beyond the CLiPSE network. The descriptive results of the CSS indicate that religion, predominantly Protestantism, plays a minor role in climate knowledge and perceptions. Likewise, political affiliation plays a minimal role in climate knowledge and perceptions between religions. However, when Protestants were broken out by political affiliation, statistically significant differences (t(30)=2.44, p=0.02) in knowledge related to the causes of climate change exist. Those Protestants affiliated with the Democratic Party (n=206) tended to maintain a statistically significant stronger knowledge of the causes of global climate change than their Republican counterparts. When SEUS educator (n=277) group was only considered, similar trends were evidenced, indicating that strongly held beliefs potentially

  6. Short- and medium-term effects of three fire fighting chemicals on the properties of a burnt soil.

    PubMed

    Couto-Vázquez, A; González-Prieto, S J

    2006-12-01

    The impact of three fire fighting chemicals (FFC) on 11 chemical soil properties and on soil recovery (0-2 cm depth) was evaluated 1, 30, 90 and 365 days after a prescribed fire. Five treatments were considered: unburnt soil (US) and burnt soil with 2 l m(-2) of water alone (BS) or mixed with the foaming agent Auxquímica RFC-88 at 1% (BS+Fo), Firesorb at 1.5% (BS+Fi) and FR Cross ammonium polyphosphate at 20% (BS+Ap). At t=1 day, soil pH increases in the order USt=30 and t=90 days due to the nitrification of its large NH(4)(+)-N pool. Except in BS+Ap, whose soil P levels were 70-140x (t=1 days) and 10-20x (t=365 days) higher than in the other treatments, available P content in BS and BS+FFC was not

  7. Radiative association of He{sup +} with H{sub 2} at temperatures below 100 K

    SciTech Connect

    Mrugala, Felicja; Kraemer, Wolfgang P.

    2005-06-08

    The paper presents a theoretical study of the low-energy dynamics of radiative association processes in the He{sup +}+H{sub 2} collision system. Formation of the triatomic HeH{sub 2}{sup +} ion in its bound rotation-vibration states on the potential-energy surfaces of the ground and of the first excited electronic states is investigated. Close-coupling calculations are performed to determine detailed state-to-state characteristics (bound<-free transition rates, radiative and dissociative widths of resonances) as well as temperature-average characteristics (rate constants, photon emission spectra) of the two-state (X<-A) reaction He{sup +}({sup 2}S)+H{sub 2}(X{sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}){yields}HeH{sub 2}{sup +}(X{sup 2}A{sup '})+h{nu} and of the single-state (A<-A) reaction He{sup +}({sup 2}S)+H{sub 2}(X{sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}){yields}HeH{sub 2}{sup +}(A{sup 2}A{sup '})+h{nu}. The potential-energy surfaces of the X- and A-electronic states of HeH{sub 2}{sup +} and the dipole moment surfaces determined ab initio in an earlier work [Kraemer, Spirko, and Bludsky, Chem. Phys. 276, 225 (2002)] are used in the calculations. The rate constants k(T) as functions of temperature are calculated for the temperature interval 1{<=}T{<=}100 K. The maximum k(T) values are predicted as 3.3x10{sup -15} s{sup -1} cm{sup 3} for the X<-A reaction and 2.3x10{sup -20} s{sup -1} cm{sup 3} for the A<-A reaction at temperatures around 2 K. Rotationally predissociating states of the He{sup +}-H{sub 2} complex, correlating with the {upsilon}=0, j=2 state of free H{sub 2}, are found to play a crucial role in the dynamics of the association reactions at low temperatures; their contribution to the k(T) function of the X<-A reaction at T<30 K is estimated as larger than 80%. The calculated partial rate constants and emission spectra show that in the X<-A reaction the HeH{sub 2}{sup +}(X) ion is formed in its highly excited vibrational states. This is in contrast with the vibrational state

  8. Effects of ocean acidification on pelagic carbon fluxes in a mesocosm experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilling, Kristian; Schulz, Kai G.; Paul, Allanah J.; Boxhammer, Tim; Achterberg, Eric P.; Hornick, Thomas; Lischka, Silke; Stuhr, Annegret; Bermúdez, Rafael; Czerny, Jan; Crawfurd, Kate; Brussaard, Corina P. D.; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Riebesell, Ulf

    2016-11-01

    About a quarter of anthropogenic CO2 emissions are currently taken up by the oceans, decreasing seawater pH. We performed a mesocosm experiment in the Baltic Sea in order to investigate the consequences of increasing CO2 levels on pelagic carbon fluxes. A gradient of different CO2 scenarios, ranging from ambient ( ˜ 370 µatm) to high ( ˜ 1200 µatm), were set up in mesocosm bags ( ˜ 55 m3). We determined standing stocks and temporal changes of total particulate carbon (TPC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and particulate organic carbon (POC) of specific plankton groups. We also measured carbon flux via CO2 exchange with the atmosphere and sedimentation (export), and biological rate measurements of primary production, bacterial production, and total respiration. The experiment lasted for 44 days and was divided into three different phases (I: t0-t16; II: t17-t30; III: t31-t43). Pools of TPC, DOC, and DIC were approximately 420, 7200, and 25 200 mmol C m-2 at the start of the experiment, and the initial CO2 additions increased the DIC pool by ˜ 7 % in the highest CO2 treatment. Overall, there was a decrease in TPC and increase of DOC over the course of the experiment. The decrease in TPC was lower, and increase in DOC higher, in treatments with added CO2. During phase I the estimated gross primary production (GPP) was ˜ 100 mmol C m-2 day-1, from which 75-95 % was respired, ˜ 1 % ended up in the TPC (including export), and 5-25 % was added to the DOC pool. During phase II, the respiration loss increased to ˜ 100 % of GPP at the ambient CO2 concentration, whereas respiration was lower (85-95 % of GPP) in the highest CO2 treatment. Bacterial production was ˜ 30 % lower, on average, at the highest CO2 concentration than in the controls during phases II and III. This resulted in a higher accumulation of DOC and lower reduction in the TPC pool in the elevated CO2 treatments at the end of phase II extending throughout phase III

  9. Do We Still Have a Digital Divide in Mental Health? A Five-Year Survey Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Satkunanathan, Safarina; Doughty, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    their included peers (t30=3.3, P=.002) and had used services for longer (t97=2.5, P=.02). Younger people were more likely to use mobile phones. Digitally excluded participants cited a lack of knowledge as a barrier to digital inclusion, and most wanted to use the Internet via computers (rather than mobile phones). Conclusions Digital exclusion is lower, but some remain excluded. Facilitating inclusion among this population means helping them develop skills and confidence in using technology, and providing them with access. Providing mobile phones without basic information technology training may be counterproductive because excluded people may be excluded from mobile technology too. An evidence-based digital inclusion strategy is needed within the National Health Service to help digitally excluded populations access Internet-enabled services. PMID:27876684

  10. Pathway Study of Cl-cycle on Mars, Step-I & II: Oxychlorine Salts and Electrostatic Discharge Phenomenon in a Mars Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z.; Wang, A.; Ling, Z.; Li, B.; Zhang, J.; Xu, W.

    2015-12-01

    The directly measured high ClO4-/Cl- ratio (4.3-8.75) at Phoenix site and the implied ClO4- existences at Curiosity and Viking sites reminded Mars science community on the importance of (1) the global distribution of ClO4-/Cl- ratio; (2) the mechanisms that are responsible for Cl- to ClOy- (y=1,2,3,4) transformation; and (3) the current and historical Cl- cycle on Mars. Our goal is to study electrostatic discharge (ESD) in a Mars Chamber, as one of the four proposed mechanisms for the formation of Martian perchlorate. ESD was anticipated during dust storm/devil on Mars. A model estimated that ESD generated oxidants can be 200 times of those produced by photochemistry. Our study is conducted in three steps. Firstly, oxychlorine salts, NaClOy, Mg(ClO4)2.xH2O (x=0,6), and Ca(ClO4)2.xH2O (x=0,4), were analyzed at ambient conditions using MIR, NIR (1.4-2.6 µm), Raman spectroscopy, and in a Mars Chamber using in-situ NIR and Raman spectroscopy. Our purpose is to understand their phase transition and spectral change at Mars pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions. We have found: (1) Under current surface/subsurface P-T conditions in mid-latitudes/equatorial regions on Mars, Mg(ClO4)2.6H2O and Ca(ClO4)2.4H2O are stable, while the hydration degree of NaClO4.H2O would increase at T<-30℃ and decrease in 5

  11. The Earth's palaeorotation, postglacial rebound and lower mantle viscosity from analysis of ancient Chinese eclipse records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Kevin D.; Yau, Kevin; Chou, Hung-Hsiang

    1995-09-01

    160,000 oracle bones unearthed from the Shang dynasty capital Anyang (36.1°N, 114.3°E). Four of the 12th-century-B.C. inscriptions have cyclic days of 18, 42, 17 and 25. The chinese 60-day cycle is like our week in design, and has been in continuous use from time immemorial. These records have been uniquely matched to the sunrise eclipses of June 7, 1172 B.C. and October 31, 1161 B.C., and sunset eclipses of October 21, 1198 B.C. and June 27, 1163 B.C., respectively. Using visibility constraints on the rising and setting eclipsed Sun from Anyang we have derived upper or lower limits on Δ T. Three of them cluster around 7 hr 10 min, consistent with a Δ T of 7 hr 20 min, from the analysis of a record of the June 5, 1302 B.C. total solar eclipse, which states that “three flames ate the Sun, big stars were seen”. Analysis of our data gave an equation of best-fit of Δ T=(30±2.5) t 2, for the secular lunar acceleration ratedot n_{moon} = - 26''/cen^2 ( Williams et al., 1992). From this we derived andot ω /ω of -(19±1.6)×10-11/yr, where ω is the angular velocity of the Earth's rotation. Subtracting a tidaldot ω /ω of -27.8×10-11/yr ( Lambeck, 1980) gave a nontidaldot ω /ω of (9±1.6)×10-11/yr, which is equivalent to adot J_2 of -(4.5±0.8)×10-11/yr. The averagedot J_2 for the past 3,300 yr is larger than the presentdot J_2 from satellite laser ranging, -3×10-11/yr ( Cheng et al., 1989), as expected. Bothdot J_2 values are consistent with postglacial rebound from an upper mantle of viscosity 1021 Pa s, and a lower mantle of viscosity (2 4)×1021 Pa s, deformed by Pleistocene ice sheet loading ( Peltier, 1985). Our mantle viscosity values are consistent with those from the analyses of free air gravity anomalies and relative sea-level variations ( Mitrovica and Peltier, 1991, 1992). Accurate values of the mantle viscosity are critical to our understanding of thermal convection patterns, that are responsible for plate tectonics ( Peltier, 1986). Finally