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Sample records for 301-492-2230 tdd 301-415-2100

  1. 28 CFR 35.161 - Telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD's). 35.161 Section 35.161 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Communications § 35.161 Telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD's). Where a...

  2. BER analysis of TDD downlink multiuser MIMO systems with imperfect channel state information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Baolong; Jiang, Lingge; Zhao, Shengjie; He, Chen

    2011-12-01

    In downlink multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) systems, the zero-forcing (ZF) transmission is a simple and effective technique for separating users and data streams of each user at the transmitter side, but its performance depends greatly on the accuracy of the available channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter side. In time division duplex (TDD) systems, the base station estimates CSI based on uplink pilots and then uses it through channel reciprocity to generate the precoding matrix in the downlink transmission. Because of the constraints of the TDD frame structure and the uplink pilot overhead, there inevitably exists CSI delay and channel estimation error between CSI estimation and downlink transmission channel, which degrades system performance significantly. In this article, by characterizing CSI inaccuracies caused by CSI delay and channel estimation error, we develop a novel bit error rate (BER) expression for M-QAM signal in TDD downlink MU-MIMO systems. We find that channel estimation error causes array gain loss while CSI delay causes diversity gain loss. Moreover, CSI delay causes more performance degradation than channel estimation error at high signal-to-noise ratio for time varying channel. Our research is especially valuable for the design of the adaptive modulation and coding scheme as well as the optimization of MU-MIMO systems. Numerical simulations show accurate agreement with the proposed analytical expressions.

  3. Mass spectrometry characterization of the thermal decomposition/digestion (TDD) at cysteine in peptides and proteins in the condensed phase.

    PubMed

    Basile, Franco; Zhang, Shaofeng; Kandar, Sujit Kumar; Lu, Liang

    2011-11-01

    We report on the characterization by mass spectrometry (MS) of a rapid, reagentless and site-specific cleavage at the N-terminus of the amino acid cysteine (C) in peptides and proteins induced by the thermal decomposition at 220-250 °C for 10 s in solid samples. This thermally induced cleavage at C occurs under the same conditions and simultaneously to our previously reported thermally induced site-specific cleavage at the C-terminus of aspartic acid (D) (Zhang, S.; Basile, F. J. Proteome Res. 2007, 6, (5), 1700-1704). The C cleavage proceeds through cleavage of the nitrogen and α-carbon bond (N-terminus) of cysteine and produces modifications at the cleavage site with an amidation (-1 Da) of the N-terminal thermal decomposition product and a -32 Da mass change of the C-terminal thermal decomposition product, the latter yielding either an alanine or β-alanine residue at the N-terminus site. These modifications were confirmed by off-line thermal decomposition electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS, tandem MS (MS/MS) analyses and accurate mass measurements of standard peptides. Molecular oxygen was found to be required for the thermal decomposition and cleavage at C as it induced an initial cysteine thiol side chain oxidation to sulfinic acid. Similar to the thermally induced D cleavage, missed cleavages at C were also observed. The combined thermally induced digestion process at D and C, termed thermal decomposition/digestion (TDD), was observed on several model proteins tested under ambient conditions and the site-specificity of the method confirmed by MS/MS. PMID:21952765

  4. TDD antenna: Foil formed, substrate loaded laser welded assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfing, N. L.

    1986-05-01

    The antenna assembly is formed by building a shell housing by punch press operation. The housing contains the antenna features. The dielectric with load and connector is placed into the housing. Then a back is placed onto the assembly and the unit is enclosed by laser welding. This design allows the fabrication of the housing to be constructed with the antenna features built in and is simpler and less costly than prior designs.

  5. Pressure-sensitive adhesives for transdermal drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Tan; Pfister

    1999-02-01

    Adhesives are a critical component in transdermal drug delivery (TDD) devices. In addition to the usual requirements of functional adhesive properties, adhesives for TDD applications must have good biocompatibility with the skin, chemical compatibility with the drug, various components of the formulation, and provide consistent, effective delivery of the drug. This review discusses the three most commonly used adhesives (polyisobutylenes, polyacrylates and silicones) in TDD devices, and provides an update on recently introduced TDD products and recent developments of new adhesives. PMID:10234208

  6. A terD Domain-Encoding Gene (SCO2368) Is Involved in Calcium Homeostasis and Participates in Calcium Regulation of a DosR-Like Regulon in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, François; Lerat, Sylvain; Bucca, Giselda; Sanssouci, Édith; Smith, Colin P.; Malouin, François

    2014-01-01

    Although Streptomyces coelicolor is not resistant to tellurite, it possesses several TerD domain-encoding (tdd) genes of unknown function. To elucidate the function of tdd8, the transcriptomes of S. coelicolor strain M145 and of a tdd8 deletion mutant derivative (the Δtdd8 strain) were compared. Several orthologs of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes involved in dormancy survival were upregulated in the deletion mutant at the visual onset of prodiginine production. These genes are organized in a putative redox stress response cluster comprising two large loci. A binding motif similar to the dormancy survival regulator (DosR) binding site of M. tuberculosis has been identified in the upstream sequences of most genes in these loci. A predicted role for these genes in the redox stress response is supported by the low NAD+/NADH ratio in the Δtdd8 strain. This S. coelicolor gene cluster was shown to be induced by hypoxia and NO stress. While the tdd8 deletion mutant (the Δtdd8 strain) was unable to maintain calcium homeostasis in a calcium-depleted medium, the addition of Ca2+ in Δtdd8 culture medium reduced the expression of several genes of the redox stress response cluster. The results shown in this work are consistent with Tdd8 playing a significant role in calcium homeostasis and redox stress adaptation. PMID:25535276

  7. Defect selective etching of GaAsyP1-y photovoltaic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaung, Kevin Nay; Tomasulo, Stephanie; Lang, Jordan R.; Faucher, Joseph; Lee, Minjoo Larry

    2014-10-01

    Rapid and accurate threading dislocation density (TDD) characterization of direct-gap GaAsyP1-y photovoltaic materials using molten KOH defect selective etching (DSE) is demonstrated. TDDs measured using molten KOH DSE show close agreement with those from both electron beam-induced current mapping and planar view transmission electron microscopy, provided TDD<107 cm-2. H3PO4 DSE is also demonstrated as an accurate method for characterizing TDD of GaP substrates. Taken together, the DSE methods described here enable TDD characterization over large areas (>105 μm2) from substrate to GaAsyP1-y device layer.

  8. 75 FR 54857 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Sciences to conduct a rigorous national evaluation, utilizing randomized controlled methodology to the... who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay...

  9. 16 CFR 6.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....160 Communications. (a) The Commission shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication... devices for deaf persons (TDD's), or equally effective telecommunication systems shall be used. (b)...

  10. 32 CFR 1807.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants, personnel of other Federal entities..., telecommunication devices for deaf persons (TDD's) or equally effective telecommunication systems shall be used...

  11. 75 FR 25833 - Notice of Funding Availability of Applications (NOFA) for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ...) Participate in local green/energy efficient building standards. Applicants who participate in a city, county... 48823, (517) 324-5192, TDD (517) 337-6795, Julie Putnam. Minnesota State Office, 375 Jackson Street...-4325, TDD (601) 965- 5850, Darnella Smith-Murray. Missouri State Office, 601 Business Loop 70...

  12. Ring/Flash: Telephone Skills for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students. Teacher Guide and Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deyo, David

    The curriculum is designed to teach elementary level deaf and hard of hearing students telephone skills. The program provides sequential activities to teach both voice and TDD communication methods. Suggested activities are detailed for each skill. The first unit on TDD communication is divided into the following sections: keyboard skills,…

  13. Genomic instability and mobile genetic elements in regions surrounding two discoidin I genes of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Poole, S J; Firtel, R A

    1984-01-01

    We have found that the genomic regions surrounding the linked discoidin I genes of various Dictyostelium discoideum strains have undergone rapid changes. Wild-type strain NC-4 has three complete discoidin I genes; its axenic derivative strain Ax-3L has duplicated a region starting approximately 1 kilobase upstream from the two linked genes and extending for at least 8 kilobases past the genes. A separately maintained stock, strain Ax-3K, does not have this duplication but has undergone a different rearrangement approximately 3 kilobases farther upstream. We show that there are repeat elements in these rapidly changing regions. At least two of these elements, Tdd-2 and Tdd-3, have characteristics associated with mobile genetic elements. The Tdd-3 element is found in different locations in related strains and causes a 9- to 10-base-pair duplication of the target site DNA. The Tdd-2 and Tdd-3 elements do not cross-hybridize, but they share a 22-base-pair homology near one end. At two separate sites, the Tdd-3 element has transposed into the Tdd-2 element, directly adjacent to the 22-base-pair homology. The Tdd-3 element may use this 22-base-pair region as a preferential site of insertion. Images PMID:6325889

  14. 78 FR 48152 - Notice Inviting Publishers To Submit Tests for a Determination of Suitability for Use in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... or by email: Michelle.Meier@ed.gov . If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) or a... Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF). To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat...

  15. 78 FR 7764 - Information Collection; Submission for OMB Review, Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... email to cclay@cns.gov . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY-TDD) may call... for the Corporation for National and Community Service; and (2) Electronically by email to:...

  16. 77 FR 23666 - Information Collection; Submission for OMB Review, Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... email to zjackson@cns.gov . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY-TDD) may... for the Corporation for National and Community Service; and (2) Electronically by email to:...

  17. Test Driven Development of Scientific Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Test-Driven Development (TDD), a software development process that promises many advantages for developer productivity and software reliability, has become widely accepted among professional software engineers. As the name suggests, TDD practitioners alternate between writing short automated tests and producing code that passes those tests. Although this overly simplified description will undoubtedly sound prohibitively burdensome to many uninitiated developers, the advent of powerful unit-testing frameworks greatly reduces the effort required to produce and routinely execute suites of tests. By testimony, many developers find TDD to be addicting after only a few days of exposure, and find it unthinkable to return to previous practices.After a brief overview of the TDD process and my experience in applying the methodology for development activities at Goddard, I will delve more deeply into some of the challenges that are posed by numerical and scientific software as well as tools and implementation approaches that should address those challenges.

  18. 75 FR 38770 - El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ..., California. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self... mu ni ca tion devices for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at...

  19. 5 CFR 2600.102 - Contact information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... numbers. OGE's main telephone number is 202-482-9300. Persons who are deaf or speech impaired may contact OGE at the following TDD (Telecommunications Device for the Deaf and Speech Impaired) number:...

  20. 5 CFR 2600.102 - Contact information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... numbers. OGE's main telephone number is 202-482-9300. Persons who are deaf or speech impaired may contact OGE at the following TDD (Telecommunications Device for the Deaf and Speech Impaired) number:...

  1. 5 CFR 2600.102 - Contact information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... numbers. OGE's main telephone number is 202-482-9300. Persons who are deaf or speech impaired may contact OGE at the following TDD (Telecommunications Device for the Deaf and Speech Impaired) number:...

  2. 5 CFR 2600.102 - Contact information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... numbers. OGE's main telephone number is 202-482-9300. Persons who are deaf or speech impaired may contact OGE at the following TDD (Telecommunications Device for the Deaf and Speech Impaired) number:...

  3. 78 FR 57411 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ..._public_room@blm.gov . Persons who use a Telecommunications Device for the Deaf (TDD) may call the Federal.... The BLM will reply during normal business hours. Joe J. Labay, Land Transfer Resolution...

  4. 78 FR 26064 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ...: blm_ak_akso_public_room@blm.gov . Persons who use a Telecommunications Device for the Deaf (TDD) may... question with the BLM. The BLM will reply during normal business hours. Joe J. Labay, Land...

  5. 78 FR 57411 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... blm_ak_akso_public_room@blm.gov . Persons who use a Telecommunications Device for the Deaf (TDD) may... question with the BLM. The BLM will reply during normal business hours. Joe J. Labay, Land...

  6. 24 CFR 585.308 - Relocation assistance and real property acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 1970, as amended (URA) and implementing regulations at 49 CFR part 24. HUD Handbook 1378, Tenant... Seventh Street, SW, Washington, DC 20410; telephone: (202) 708-0336. TDD: (202) 708-1455. Fax: (202)...

  7. 77 FR 6141 - Filing of Plats of Survey; Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ..., Reno, Nevada 89520, (775) 861- 6541. Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may... Office, Reno, Nevada on October 17, 2011: This plat represents the dependent resurvey of a portion...

  8. 77 FR 41774 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Learning and Performance Improvement System, 69 FR 19171-19176 (April 12, 2004). Electronic Access to This... 20202- 4500. Telephone: (202) 401-1583. If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) or...

  9. Laser diodes with 353 nm wavelength enabled by reduced-dislocation-density AlGaN templates

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Mary H.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Smith, Michael L.; Cross, Karen C.

    2015-10-30

    We fabricated optically pumped and electrically injected ultraviolet (UV) lasers on reduced-threading-dislocation-density (reduced-TDD) AlGaN templates. The overgrowth of sub-micron-wide mesas in the Al0.32Ga0.68N templates enabled a tenfold reduction in TDD, to (2–3) × 108 cm–2. Optical pumping of AlGaN hetero-structures grown on the reduced-TDD templates yielded a low lasing threshold of 34 kW/cm2 at 346 nm. Room-temperature pulsed operation of laser diodes at 353 nm was demonstrated, with a threshold of 22.5 kA/cm2. Furthermore, reduced-TDD templates have been developed across the entire range of AlGaN compositions, presenting a promising approach for extending laser diodes into the deep UV.

  10. Laser diodes with 353 nm wavelength enabled by reduced-dislocation-density AlGaN templates

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Crawford, Mary H.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Smith, Michael L.; Cross, Karen C.

    2015-10-30

    We fabricated optically pumped and electrically injected ultraviolet (UV) lasers on reduced-threading-dislocation-density (reduced-TDD) AlGaN templates. The overgrowth of sub-micron-wide mesas in the Al0.32Ga0.68N templates enabled a tenfold reduction in TDD, to (2–3) × 108 cm–2. Optical pumping of AlGaN hetero-structures grown on the reduced-TDD templates yielded a low lasing threshold of 34 kW/cm2 at 346 nm. Room-temperature pulsed operation of laser diodes at 353 nm was demonstrated, with a threshold of 22.5 kA/cm2. Furthermore, reduced-TDD templates have been developed across the entire range of AlGaN compositions, presenting a promising approach for extending laser diodes into the deep UV.

  11. 76 FR 29006 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... of Indian Affairs, Rocky Mountain Region, Billings, Montana, and was necessary to determine... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-...

  12. 76 FR 21778 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... of Indian Affairs, Rocky Mountain Region, Billings, Montana, and was necessary to determine... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-...

  13. 77 FR 19267 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; Study of Promising Features...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877- 8339... teachers who have not done so. Using a randomized controlled trial, students will be randomly assigned to...

  14. 77 FR 23276 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... is located along Mentasta Lake Road, approximately 1\\1/2\\ miles northeasterly of the village of... deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 to contact the...

  15. 45 CFR 707.9 - Access to communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conducted by the Agency. (b) The Agency shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with... for deaf persons (TDD) or equally effective telecommunications device. (ii) The Agency shall...

  16. 76 FR 63600 - Meeting of the Land Between The Lakes Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... to William P. Lisowsky, Area Supervisor, Land Between The Lakes, 100 Van Morgan Drive, Golden Pond..., Golden Pond, KY 42211, 270-924-2002. Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD)...

  17. 76 FR 17618 - Meeting of the Land Between The Lakes Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... to William P. Lisowsky, Area Supervisor, Land Between The Lakes, 100 Van Morgan Drive, Golden Pond... Pond, KY 42211, 270-924-2002. Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may...

  18. Protective Effect of 2,4',5'-Trihydroxyl-5,2'-dibromo diphenylmethanone, a New Halophenol, against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced EA.hy926 Cells Injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianguo; Feng, Xiue; Ge, Rui; Li, Jiankuan; Li, Qingshan

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the process of energy metabolism in aerobic respiration. A growing body of evidence indicates that excessive ROS is implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis. The newly synthesized halophenol, 2,4',5'-trihydroxyl-5,2'-dibromo diphenylmethanone (TDD), exhibits antioxidative and cytoprotective activities in vitro. In this study, the protective effect of TDD against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative injury of EA.hy926 cells was investigated. Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-dephenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, while the effect of TDD on the transcription profile of EA.hy926 cells subjected to H2O2-induced oxidative injury was evaluated by microarray analysis. Several signaling pathways, including apoptosis, were significantly associated with TDD. Flow cytometric analysis was used to evaluate anti-apoptotic effect of TDD. Subsequently, RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expressions of the apoptosis-associated protein, Bcl-2 and Bax. Meanwhile the expression of cleaved caspase-3, an executioner of apoptosis, was also detected by Western blot. The results showed that pretreatment of EA.hy926 cells with TDD prevented the decrease of cell viability induced by H2O2, and attenuated H2O2-induced elevation of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 while increased Bcl-2 expressions. In summary, TDD inhibited H2O2-induced oxidative injury of EA.hy926 cells through negative regulation of apoptosis. These findings suggest that TDD is a potential candidate for therapeutic intervention in oxidative stress-associated cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26251890

  19. Research of Ultrasound-Mediated Transdermal Drug Delivery System Using Cymbal-Type Piezoelectric Composite Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Huiting; Gao, Chunming; Liu, Lixian; Sun, Qiming; Zhao, Binxing; Yan, Laijun

    2015-06-01

    Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) implemented by especially low-frequency ultrasound is generally known as sonophoresis or phonophoresis which has drawn considerable wide attention. However, TDD has not yet achieved its full potential as an alternative to conventional drug delivery methods due to its bulky instruments. In this paper, a cymbal-type piezoelectric composite transducer (CPCT) which has advantages over a traditional ultrasound generator in weight, flexibility, and power consumption, is used as a substitute ultrasonicator to realize TDD. First, theoretical research on a CPCT based on the finite element analysis was carried out according to which a series of applicable CPCTs with bandwidths of 20 kHz to 100 kHz were elaborated. Second, a TDD experimental setup was built with previously fabricated CPCTs aimed at the administration of glucose. Finally, the TDD performance of glucose molecule transport in porcine skin was measured in vitro by quantifying the concentration of glucose, and the time variation curves were subsequently obtained. During the experiment, the driving wave form, frequency, and power consumption of the transducers were selected as the main elements which determined the efficacy of glucose delivery. The results indicate that the effectiveness of the CPCT-based delivery is constrained more by the frequency and intensity of ultrasound rather than the driving waveform. The light-weight, flexibility, and low-power consumption of a CPCT can potentially achieve effective TDD.

  20. Insulin requirement profiles in Japanese hospitalized subjects with type 2 diabetes treated with basal-bolus insulin therapy.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Seiya; Okubo, Mina; Koga, Kotaro; Sekigami, Taiji; Kawashima, Junji; Kukidome, Daisuke; Igata, Motoyuki; Ishii, Norio; Shimakawa, Akiko; Matsumura, Takeshi; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Furukawa, Noboru; Nishida, Kenro; Araki, Eiichi

    2015-01-01

    To assess the total daily inulin dose (TDD) and contribution of basal insulin to TDD and to identify the predictive factors for insulin requirement profiles in subjects with type 2 diabetes, we retrospectively examined insulin requirement profiles of 275 hospitalized subjects treated with basal-bolus insulin therapy (BBT) (mean age, 60.1 ± 12.9 years; HbA1c, 10.2 ± 4.5%). Target plasma glucose level was set between 80 and 129 mg/dL before breakfast and between 80 and 179 mg/dL at 2-hour after each meal without causing hypoglycemia. We also analyzed the relationship between the insulin requirement profiles (TDD and basal/total daily insulin ratio [B/TD ratio]) and insulin-associated clinical parameters. The mean TDD was 0.463 ± 0.190 unit/kg/day (range, 0.16-1.13 unit/kg/day). The mean B/TD ratio was 0.300 ± 0.099 (range, 0.091-0.667). A positive correlation of TDD with B/TD ratio was revealed by linear regression analysis (r=0.129, p=0.03). Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified post-breakfast glucose levels before titrating insulin as an independent determinant of the insulin requirement profile [Std β (standard regression coefficient) = 0.228, p<0.01 for TDD, Std β = -0.189, p<0.01 for B/TD ratio]. The TDD was <0.6 unit/kg/day and the B/TD ratio was <0.4 in the majority (70.2%) of subjects in the present study. These findings may have relevance in improving glycemic control and decreasing the risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain in subjects with type 2 diabetes treated with BBT. PMID:25392020

  1. Test Driven Development of Scientific Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Test-Driven Development (TDD) is a software development process that promises many advantages for developer productivity and has become widely accepted among professional software engineers. As the name suggests, TDD practitioners alternate between writing short automated tests and producing code that passes those tests. Although this overly simplified description will undoubtedly sound prohibitively burdensome to many uninitiated developers, the advent of powerful unit-testing frameworks greatly reduces the effort required to produce and routinely execute suites of tests. By testimony, many developers find TDD to be addicting after only a few days of exposure, and find it unthinkable to return to previous practices. Of course, scientific/technical software differs from other software categories in a number of important respects, but I nonetheless believe that TDD is quite applicable to the development of such software and has the potential to significantly improve programmer productivity and code quality within the scientific community. After a detailed introduction to TDD, I will present the experience within the Software Systems Support Office (SSSO) in applying the technique to various scientific applications. This discussion will emphasize the various direct and indirect benefits as well as some of the difficulties and limitations of the methodology. I will conclude with a brief description of pFUnit, a unit testing framework I co-developed to support test-driven development of parallel Fortran applications.

  2. Dramatic reduction of dislocations on a GaN point seed crystal by coalescence of bunched steps during Na-flux growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanishi, Masayuki; Todoroki, Yuma; Murakami, Kosuke; Matsuo, Daisuke; Imabayashi, Hiroki; Takazawa, Hideo; Maruyama, Mihoko; Imade, Mamoru; Yoshimura, Masashi; Mori, Yusuke

    2015-10-01

    In our study, we found that threading dislocation density (TDD) in GaN crystals naturally reduced from ~109 cm-2 in a seed to less than ~103 cm-2, just by using the small-sized seed called a "point seed". However, the mechanism of the dramatic reduction was unclear. In order to reveal the mechanism of this substantial reduction of TDD, we investigated the relationship between TDD and the crystal habit during the growth. Cathodoluminescence (CL) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that TDD was dramatically reduced after the c face became small (<50×50 μm2) in the habit-change process caused by changes of supersaturation during growth, in which bunched steps growing from the edge of the c face coalesced at the center. It is thought that the shrinking of the c face in the growth process enabled the coalescence of bunched steps, which led to the gathering of threading dislocations (TDs), and resulted in the dramatic reduction of TDD. We concluded that the natural reduction of TDs was caused by coalescence of bunched steps, which easily occurs in during the Na-flux growth on small-sized "point seeds", and which allowed fabrication of low-dislocation-density GaN wafers.

  3. Globalstar communications payload for global mobile communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, Ming; Monte, Paul; Tyner, Randy; Rouffet, Denis; Gilhousen, Klein S.

    1992-03-01

    The Globalstar LEO satellite-based mobile-communications system is evaluated with respect to its potential for global digital communications and for radio-determination satellite service. The significant novel attributes of the Globalsat payload are examined including code-division multiple-access technologies, beam-hopping and time-domain-duplexing (TDD) capabilities, and six elliptical spot-beam L/S-band antennas. The antennas are designed to address the 'near-far' problem associated with mobile systems through the use of the Isoflux design. The Isoflux beams provide gain contours that compensate for differences in the spacecraft/earth slant range and that provide low spillover illumination. Two candidate payloads are presented - one which incorporates TDD and beam hopping - and found to provide efficient global mobile-communications services for the Globalstar system. A single satellite can provide up to 2800 full-duplex voice channels, and TDD allows uplink and downlink signals to share the same frequency.

  4. Advanced robust tracking control of a powered wheelchair system.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nghia T; Nguyen, Hung T; Su, Steven

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamic multivariable model of the wheelchair system is obtained including the presence of transportation lags. The triangular diagonal dominance (TDD) decoupling technique is applied to reduce this multivariable control problem into two independent scalar control problems. An advanced robust control technique for the wheelchair has been developed based on the combination of a TDD decoupling strategy and neural network controller design. The results obtained from the real-time implementation confirm that robust performance for this multivariable wheelchair control system can indeed be achieved. PMID:18003071

  5. Polydimethyl siloxane wet etching for three dimensional fabrication of microneedle array and high-aspect-ratio micropillars

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yu-Luen; Juang, Yi-Je

    2014-01-01

    Among various transdermal drug delivery (TDD) approaches, utilizing the microneedles (MNs) not only can penetrate the skin but also deliver the drug with reduced tissue damage, reduced pain, and no bleeding. However, the MNs with larger height are required to overcome the skin barrier for effective TDD. Unlike 2D patterning, etching polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) micropillars for fabrication of 3D microstructures is presented. The PDMS micropillars were first constructed by casting PDMS on the computer numerical control-machined cylindrical microwells, which then went through etching process to obtain the MNs for subsequent fabrication of polymer MNs or high aspect ratio micropillars. PMID:24803970

  6. WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL NUCLEAR SAFETY RELATED R AND D REPORT FOR CY2008

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, A.

    2009-10-15

    The Engineering and Technology Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks associated with key waste processing project decisions. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment (TDD). The Office of Waste Processing TDD program prioritizes and approves research and development scopes of work that address nuclear safety related to processing of highly radioactive nuclear wastes. Thirteen of the thirty-five R&D approved work scopes in FY2009 relate directly to nuclear safety, and are presented in this report.

  7. 45 CFR 707.9 - Access to communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... headquarters and each regional office shall maintain and reliably answer at least one telecommunications device for deaf persons (TDD) or equally effective telecommunications device. (ii) The Agency shall ensure... Agency shall establish a system to provide to individuals with disabilities appropriate reader or...

  8. 45 CFR 707.9 - Access to communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... headquarters and each regional office shall maintain and reliably answer at least one telecommunications device for deaf persons (TDD) or equally effective telecommunications device. (ii) The Agency shall ensure... Agency shall establish a system to provide to individuals with disabilities appropriate reader or...

  9. 78 FR 72851 - Proposed Priority-Promise Zones

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... Secretary of Education (Secretary) published in the Federal Register (78 FR 63913) a notice of proposed.... Or by email: Jane.Hodgdon@ed.gov . If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) or a...). To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at the site. You may...

  10. 76 FR 5363 - Intent To Compromise Claim Against the State of Oklahoma Department of Education

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... site: http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/leaving.cgi?from=leavingFR.html&log=linklog&to=http://www... Regulations is available on GPO Access at: http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/leaving.cgi?from=leavingFR.... Petracca, Telephone: (202) 401-6008. If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), you...

  11. 75 FR 25221 - Notice Extending the Deadline Date for Transmittal of Applications and the Deadline Date for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ..., we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 16446) a notice inviting applications for new awards for... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll free, at 1-800-877-8339...: http://www.ed.gov/news/fedregister . To use PDF you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is...

  12. 43 CFR 418.20 - Diversions from the Truckee River to Lahontan Reservoir, January through June.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... upon water availability and Project demand as expressed in the following relationship: TRD=TDD+ TCL+CDD... diversion requirements for the Carson Division. The Bureau, in consultation with the District, Federal Water... during this period. (6) Values for TSM/J will vary with the Carson Division water demand as shown...

  13. 43 CFR 418.20 - Diversions from the Truckee River to Lahontan Reservoir, January through June.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... upon water availability and Project demand as expressed in the following relationship: TRD=TDD+ TCL+CDD... diversion requirements for the Carson Division. The Bureau, in consultation with the District, Federal Water... during this period. (6) Values for TSM/J will vary with the Carson Division water demand as shown...

  14. 43 CFR 418.20 - Diversions from the Truckee River to Lahontan Reservoir, January through June.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... upon water availability and Project demand as expressed in the following relationship: TRD=TDD+ TCL+CDD... diversion requirements for the Carson Division. The Bureau, in consultation with the District, Federal Water... during this period. (6) Values for TSM/J will vary with the Carson Division water demand as shown...

  15. 76 FR 49432 - Wrangell-Petersburg Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    .... Box 1328, Petersburg, Alaska 99833, phone (907) 772-3871, e-mail csavage@fs.fed.us , or Robert... rdalrymple@fs.fed.us . Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal... available online at...

  16. Two degree discontinuity as explained by boundary mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Minster, J.F.

    1985-09-20

    A three dimensional description of the two-degree discontinuity (TDD) in the North Atlantic western basin is made from the TTO and 1981 North Atlantic section data. In 1981 this break in the Theta-S slope of the Atlantic deep waters is found at Theta = 1.90/sup 0/C, S = 34.895 per thousand, near the western flank of the basin, and it seems to follow an isopycnal at sigma = 45.89 per thousand. It encounters the western boundary at the level of the Western Boundary Undercurrent (WBUC). Based on nutrient data, the TDD is more sharply defined along the western flank of the basin than along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where the TDD water is fresher and colder and where one finds more Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) above the discontinuity. The TDD is consistent with vertical mixing being dominantly a boundary process: along the western flank of the basin, upward mixing of AABW is stopped at the WBUC level by the strong southward flow of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Along the ridge, boundary mixing allows AABW to mix upward with waters from shallower levels. 22 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  17. 78 FR 78330 - Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the New Hampshire Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the New Hampshire Advisory Committee Date and Time: Friday, January 10, 2014, 4:30 p.m. . Place: Via Teleconference. Public Dial-in 1-877-446-3914; Listen Line Code: 35378877. TDD: Dial Federal Relay Service...

  18. 78 FR 78330 - Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the Maine Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the Maine Advisory Committee Date and Time: Thursday, January 9, 2014, 2:30 p.m. . ] Place: Via Teleconference. Public Dial-in 1-877-446-3914; Listen Line Code: 4558669. TDD: Dial Federal Relay Service...

  19. Inferring spatial and temporal behavioral patterns of free-ranging manatees using saltwater sensors of telemetry tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Morales-Vela, Benjamin; Slone, Daniel H.; Padilla-Saldívar, Janneth Adriana; Reid, James P.; Hernández-Arana, Héctor Abuid

    2015-01-01

    Diving or respiratory behavior in aquatic mammals can be used as an indicator of physiological activity and consequently, to infer behavioral patterns. Five Antillean manatees, Trichechus manatus manatus, were captured in Chetumal Bay and tagged with GPS tracking devices. The radios were equipped with a micropower saltwater sensor (SWS), which records the times when the tag assembly was submerged. The information was analyzed to establish individual fine-scale behaviors. For each fix, we established the following variables: distance (D), sampling interval (T), movement rate (D/T), number of dives (N), and total diving duration (TDD). We used logic criteria and simple scatterplots to distinguish between behavioral categories: ‘Travelling’ (D/T ≥ 3 km/h), ‘Surface’ (↓TDD, ↓N), ‘Bottom feeding’ (↑TDD, ↑N) and ‘Bottom resting’ (↑TDD, ↓N). Habitat categories were qualitatively assigned: Lagoon, Channels, Caye shore, City shore, Channel edge, and Open areas. The instrumented individuals displayed a daily rhythm of bottom activities, with surfacing activities more frequent during the night and early in the morning. More investigation into those cycles and other individual fine-scale behaviors related to their proximity to concentrations of human activity would be informative

  20. 40 CFR 350.16 - Address to send trade secrecy claims and petitions requesting disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... chemical identities claimed as trade secret are posted on the following EPA Program Web sites, http://www.epa.gov/ceppo and http://www.epa.gov/tri. Any subsequent changes to the address and location will be...) 424-9346 or (703) 412-9810, TDD (800) 553-7672, http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/hotline/ to obtain...

  1. 77 FR 45606 - Policy Statement Concerning Assistance to Troubled Farm Credit System Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... policy statement and invites all interested parties to review and provide comments. \\1\\ See 77 FR 37399... to James M. Morris, General Counsel, Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation, McLean, Virginia 22102...Lean, Virginia 22102, (703) 883- 4380, TDD (703) 883-4390. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On June 21,...

  2. 12 CFR 626.6025 - Equal housing lender poster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Credit Drive, McLean, VA 22102-5090, 703-883-4056, 703-883-4444 (TDD), for processing under Farm Credit... Administration, Office of Congressional and Public Affairs, 1501 Farm Credit Drive, McLean, VA 22102-5090,...

  3. 75 FR 62420 - In the Matter of: Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice... that information on this matter can be obtained by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on...

  4. 75 FR 36442 - In the Matter of Certain Inkjet Ink Cartridges With Printheads and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Inkjet Ink Cartridges With Printheads and Components Thereof; Notice of... that information on this matter can be obtained by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on...

  5. 75 FR 34483 - In the Matter of Certain Automotive Vehicles and Designs Therefore; Notice of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Automotive Vehicles and Designs Therefore; Notice of Investigation AGENCY... this matter can be obtained by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on 202-205-1810. Persons...

  6. 75 FR 51285 - In the Matter of Certain Flat Panel Digital Televisions and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Flat Panel Digital Televisions and Components Thereof; Notice of... that information on this matter can be obtained by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on...

  7. 77 FR 5760 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for Loan Guarantees Under the Guaranteed Rural Rental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ..., WY 82602, (307) 233- 6700, TDD (307) 233-6733. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Monica Cole..., STOP 0781, 1400 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20250-0781. Email: monica.cole@wdc.usda.gov... Housing Service. cc: MFH-GLD--Cole MFH-GLD-Alonso MFH-GLD-Steininger BILLING CODE 3410-XV-P...

  8. The Initial Assessment of Daily Insulin Dose in Chinese Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huan; Xu, Hua; Chen, Xie; Teng, Xiangyu; Liu, Qianjing; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background. It has been well accepted that insulin therapy is the ideal treatment for newly diagnosed diabetic patients. However, there was no study about assessment of the initial insulin dosage in new onset Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Research Design and Methods. 65 newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes (39 males/26 females; HbA1c ≥ 11.80 ± 0.22%) were investigated. All patients had random hyperglycaemia (at 21.8 ± 3.9 mmol/L) on the first day of admission and received insulin infusion intravenously (5 U/per hour). When the blood glucose level dropped to around 10 mmol/L, patients were then transferred to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). The reduction of blood glucose levels in response to per unit of insulin (RBG/RI) was recorded. The target glucose level was achieved in about 3 days. The total daily insulin dose (TDD) and basal insulin dose (TBD) were calculated. Results. TDD was 45.97 ± 1.28 units and TBD was 19.00 ± 0.54 units. TBD was about 40% of the total daily insulin requirement. There was a negative correlation between the ratio of RBG/RI and TDD. Conclusions. TDD was correlated with blood glucose reduction in response to intravenous insulin infusion in Chinese new onset patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26697503

  9. 75 FR 66699 - Farm Loan Programs Loan Making Activities; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... (voice and TDD). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On September 23, 2010, FSA published a proposed rule (75 FR... part 766, the changes in the proposed rule for equine loans would require use of the forms currently... eligibility for EM to cover equine losses; and when approved will be incorporated into the existing...

  10. 77 FR 51823 - Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... at 920 NE Main, Lewistown, Montana. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gary L. ``Stan'' Benes, Central..._benes@blm.gov . Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal... comment and time available, the time for individual oral comments may be limited. Gary L. ``Stan''...

  11. 77 FR 41173 - Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA); 2013-2014 Award Year

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Free..., Department of Education. ACTION: Notice. Overview Information: Free Application for Federal Student Aid... use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll...

  12. Improved on-line thoracic duct drainage for lymphocytapheresis.

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Koga, N; Nagano, T; Ohteki, H; Masuda, T; Agishi, T

    1991-12-01

    Lymphocytapheresis using thoracic duct drainage (TDD) is a recognized technique of extracorporeal immunomodulation for various autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and its clinical benefit has been reported and generally accepted. Lymphocytapheresis using TDD is very selective for removing lymphocytes (especially helper T-cells) but raises some problems such as hypoproteinemia due to the massive removal of lymph, and difficulties in repeated treatment. Along with the development of a new polyester fiber filter, we have developed a simple and effective method of lymphocytapheresis for wide adoption for these techniques. We performed lymphocytapheresis using TDD in patients with RA and previously reported its clinical efficacy indicated by the significantly lower number of peripheral lymphocytes and T4/T8 ratio. We present here our newly-developed on-line system designed to prevent hypoproteinemia. Furthermore we report on the advantages with a new subcutaneous vascular access device set up to manage the problems of repeated treatments. A small reservoir for keeping the thoracic duct open and returning lymph to the patient permitted sufficient lymph drainage and removal of lymphocytes and the clinical application of TDD is discussed. PMID:1783455

  13. 75 FR 63141 - Information Collection; Research Data Archive Use Tracking

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Research Data Archive Use Tracking AGENCY... organizations on the currently approved information collection, Research Data Archive Use Tracking. DATES... Research Station, 608-231-9234. Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may...

  14. 76 FR 42015 - Prohibition Against Payment of Interest on Demand Deposits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... group commented that `` ny changes would be limited'' and would have no long-term effects on such...-4885), Division of Monetary Affairs; for users of Telecommunications Device for the Deaf (TDD) only... Section 19(a) of the Act to authorize the Board, ``for the purposes of this section, to define the...

  15. 77 FR 35060 - Employment and Training Administration; Proposed Information Collection Request for the ETA 538...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... addresses section below on or before August 13, 2012. ADDRESSES: Submit written comments to Scott Gibbons... toll-free Federal Information Relay Service at 1-877-889-5627 (TTY/TDD). Email: gibbons.scott@dol.gov.... Gibbons. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The ETA 538 and ETA 539 reports are weekly reports...

  16. 77 FR 73053 - Comment Request for Information Collection on Administrative Procedures Including Form MA 8-7...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... February 5, 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit written comments to Scott Gibbons, Office of Unemployment Insurance... Information Relay Service at 1-877-889-5627 (TTY/TDD). Email: gibbons.scott@dol.gov . A copy of the proposed information collection request (ICR) can be obtained by contacting Mr. Gibbons. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  17. 77 FR 31879 - Comment Request for Information Collection for 1205-0179: Unemployment Compensation for Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... 30, 2012. ADDRESSES: Submit written comments to Scott Gibbons, Office of Unemployment Insurance... Information Relay Service at 1-877-889-5627 (TTY/TDD). Email: gibbons.scott@dol.gov . A copy of the proposed information collection request (ICR) can be obtained by contacting Mr. Gibbons. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  18. 77 FR 69503 - Comment Request for Information Collection on the ETA 218, Benefit Rights and Experience Report...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... January 18, 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit written comments to Scott Gibbons, Office of Unemployment Insurance... Information Relay Service at 1-877-889-5627 (TTY/TDD). Email: gibbons.scott@dol.gov . A copy of the proposed information collection request (ICR) can be obtained by contacting Mr. Gibbons. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  19. 77 FR 70833 - Comment Request for Information Collection on the ETA 9048, Worker Profiling and Reemployment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ...: Submit written comments to Scott Gibbons, Office of Unemployment Insurance, Employment and Training...-877-889-5627 (TTY/TDD). Email: gibbons.scott@dol.gov . A copy of the proposed information collection request (ICR) can be obtained by contacting Mr. Gibbons. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background...

  20. 76 FR 38604 - Inviting Applications for Rural Business Opportunity Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... an automatic acknowledgement from Grants.gov that contains a Grants.gov tracking number. USDA Rural..., large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDA's TARGET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD). To... Rural Business-Cooperative Service Inviting Applications for Rural Business Opportunity Grants...

  1. 75 FR 31413 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) Inviting Applications for the Rural Microentrepreneur...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... contains a Grants.gov tracking number. USDA Rural Development may request that the applicant provide..., large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDA's TARGET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD). To... Rural Business--Cooperative Service Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) Inviting Applications for...

  2. 76 FR 9757 - Information Collection; Submission for OMB Review, Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... for the Corporation for National and Community Service; and (2) Electronically by e-mail to: smar@omb... by calling the Corporation for National and Community Service, Bruce Kellogg, at (202) 606-6954 or e-mail to bkellogg@cns.gov . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY-TDD)...

  3. 76 FR 20961 - Information Collection; Submission for OMB Review, Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... e-mail to ndietz@cns.gov . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY-TDD... for the Corporation for National and Community Service; and (2) Electronically by e-mail to smar@omb..., mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology,...

  4. 76 FR 42590 - Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563; Improving Common Acreage Reporting Processes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ...) published in the Federal Register on April 20, 2011, included the initiative to simplify and reduce the... contact the USDA Target Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On April 20, 2011, USDA published an RFI in the Federal Register (76 FR 22058-22059) to announce that USDA...

  5. 75 FR 39971 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S... that information on this matter can be obtained by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on...

  6. 75 FR 63857 - In the Matter of: Certain Digital Televisions and Components Thereof; Notice of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Digital Televisions and Components Thereof; Notice of Investigation... this matter can be obtained by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on 202-205-1810. Persons...

  7. 75 FR 45663 - In the Matter of: Certain Inkjet Ink Supplies and Components Thereof; Corrected Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Inkjet Ink Supplies and Components Thereof; Corrected Notice of... that information on this matter can be obtained by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on...

  8. Mefloquine (Lariam)

    MedlinePlus

    ... FDA) Malaria Contact Health Care 877-222-8387 Benefits 800-827-1000 TDD (Hearing Impaired) 800-829-4833 CONNECT Veterans Crisis Line: 1-800-273-8255 (Press 1) Social Media Complete Directory EMAIL UPDATES Email Address Required Button ...

  9. 78 FR 27208 - Applications for New Awards; Rehabilitation Services Administration-Centers for Independent Living

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... consumers who achieve their individual goals in the first two areas and on the percentage of their staff... for the deaf (TDD) or a text telephone (TTY), call, toll free: 1-877-576-7734. You can contact ED Pubs.... Individuals with disabilities can obtain a copy of the application package in an accessible format...

  10. 78 FR 54268 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-677-8339 to contact the above individual during normal business hours. The FIRS is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to leave a message or question with the above individual. You...

  11. 78 FR 49446 - Notice of Funds Availability for the Rural Microentrepreneur Assistance Program for Fiscal Year 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... Rural Development State Office, 1390 South Curry Street, Carson City, NV 89703-9910, (775) 887-1222/TDD..., Wallace F. Bennett Federal Building, 125 South State Street, Room 4311, Salt Lake City, UT 84138- 1106..., gender identity, religion, reprisal, and where applicable, political beliefs, marital status, familial...

  12. 76 FR 63188 - Notification of Employee Rights Under the National Labor Relations Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... date of the final rule published at 76 FR 54006, August 30, 2011, is delayed from November 14, 2011 to...), 1-866-315-6572 (TTY/TDD). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On August 30, 2011 (76 FR 54006), the National... National Labor Relations Act, further public education and outreach efforts would be helpful. The Board...

  13. High-electron-mobility GaN grown on free-standing GaN templates by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, Erin C. H. Kaun, Stephen W.; Burke, Peter G.; Wu, Feng; Speck, James S.; Wu, Yuh-Renn

    2014-05-21

    The dependence of electron mobility on growth conditions and threading dislocation density (TDD) was studied for n{sup −}-GaN layers grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy. Electron mobility was found to strongly depend on TDD, growth temperature, and Si-doping concentration. Temperature-dependent Hall data were fit to established transport and charge-balance equations. Dislocation scattering was analyzed over a wide range of TDDs (∼2 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2} to ∼2 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}) on GaN films grown under similar conditions. A correlation between TDD and fitted acceptor states was observed, corresponding to an acceptor state for almost every c lattice translation along each threading dislocation. Optimized GaN growth on free-standing GaN templates with a low TDD (∼2 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2}) resulted in electron mobilities of 1265 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 296 K and 3327 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 113 K.

  14. 75 FR 219 - Availability of Funds and Collection of Checks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeffrey S. H. Yeganeh, Financial Services Manager (202/728-5801), or... Telecommunications Devices for the Deaf (TDD) only, contact 202/263-4869. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulation CC...'' are defined in terms of ``check-processing regions''--the geographic areas served by a Federal...

  15. 77 FR 37390 - Notice Inviting Informal Public Comment on Training and Technical Assistance and Disability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... appeared in the Federal Register of June 11, 2012 (75 FR 34354). That document incorrectly listed the TDD... Disability Inclusion Programming AGENCY: Corporation for National and Community Service. ACTION: Notice Inviting Informal Public Comment on Training and Technical Assistance and Disability Inclusion...

  16. 75 FR 77008 - Notice of Intent To Extend an Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ...; telephone (703) 292-7556; or send e-mail to splimpto@nsf.gov . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 between... information on respondents, including through the use of automated collection techniques or other forms...

  17. 75 FR 61778 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... in the Federal Register at 75 FR 47645, and no comments were received. NSF is forwarding the proposed... calling 703-292-7556. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Suzanne H. Plimpton at (703) 292-7556 or send e-mail to splimpto@nsf.gov . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may...

  18. 75 FR 456 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection, Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... splimpto@nsf.gov . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal... college and STEM record assessments; telephone and face-to-face interviews with governing board members... respondents, including through the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of...

  19. 28 CFR 35.162 - Telephone emergency services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Communications § 35.162 Telephone emergency services. Telephone emergency services, including 911 services, shall provide direct access to individuals who use TDD... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Telephone emergency services....

  20. 28 CFR 35.162 - Telephone emergency services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Communications § 35.162 Telephone emergency services. Telephone emergency services, including 911 services, shall provide direct access to individuals who use TDD... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Telephone emergency services....

  1. 28 CFR 35.162 - Telephone emergency services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Communications § 35.162 Telephone emergency services. Telephone emergency services, including 911 services, shall provide direct access to individuals who use TDD... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Telephone emergency services....

  2. 28 CFR 35.162 - Telephone emergency services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Communications § 35.162 Telephone emergency services. Telephone emergency services, including 911 services, shall provide direct access to individuals who use TDD... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Telephone emergency services....

  3. 28 CFR 35.162 - Telephone emergency services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Communications § 35.162 Telephone emergency services. Telephone emergency services, including 911 services, shall provide direct access to individuals who use TDD... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Telephone emergency services....

  4. 76 FR 5841 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... comment; the first was published in the Federal Register at 75 FR 68829, and no substantial comments were... calling (703) 292-7556. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Suzanne H. Plimpton at (703) 292-7556 or send e-mail to splimpto@nsf.gov . Individuals who use a telecommunications devise for the deaf (TDD) may...

  5. 78 FR 3453 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Establish an Information Collection System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... Wilson Boulevard, Suite 295, Arlington, Virginia 22230; telephone (703) 292-7556; or send email to splimpto@nsf.gov . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal... automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. DATES: Written comments on...

  6. 76 FR 27369 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ...; telephone (703) 292-7556; or send e-mail to splimpto@nsf.gov . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339, which... information on those who are to respond, including through the use of automated collection techniques or...

  7. 77 FR 3009 - Notice of Intent To Extend an Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ..., Virginia 22230; telephone (703) 292- 7556; or send email to splimpto@nsf.gov . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-(800) 877... burden of the collection of information on respondents, including through the use of automated...

  8. 77 FR 48168 - Folding Gift Boxes From China; Postponement of Release of Staff Report and Date for Final Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... July 6, 2012, the Commission established a schedule for this expedited review (77 FR 42762, July 20, 2012). On July 31, 2012 (77 FR 45337), the Department of Commerce published a notice extending its time... information on this matter by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on 202-205-1810. Persons with...

  9. 76 FR 71935 - Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, Carson Ranger District, Nevada and California, Bordertown to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... comments or resource information can be submitted by any of the following methods: Email comments to... Transmission Line'' in the subject line. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For further information and/or to... (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-(800) 877-8339 between 8 a.m. and 8...

  10. 75 FR 21603 - Information Collection; Submission for OMB Review, Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY-TDD) may call (202) 606-3472 between 8:30 a.m. and 5 p.m. Eastern time... the National Council on Aging (NCOA) to adapt its SMART (Strategic Metrics and Results...

  11. 75 FR 1359 - Information Collection; Submission for OMB Review, Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... Longitudinal Evaluation of AmeriCorps Members: Respondent Tracking to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB... who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY-TDD) may call (202) 606-3472 between 8:30 a.m... Tracking. The proposed locating effort will be completed by longitudinal sample members only,...

  12. High Tech and Library Access for People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roatch, Mary A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes tools that enable people with disabilities to access print information, including optical character recognition, synthetic voice output, other input devices, Braille access devices, large print displays, television and video, TDD (Telecommunications Devices for the Deaf), and Telebraille. Use of technology by libraries to meet mandates…

  13. 77 FR 13073 - Meeting of the Land Between The Lakes Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... to William P. Lisowsky, Area Supervisor, Land Between The Lakes, 100 Van Morgan Drive, Golden Pond... at the Energy Lake Campground, 5501 Energy Lake Drive, Golden Pond, KY 42211. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... Pond, KY 42211, 270-924-2002. Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may...

  14. 75 FR 68748 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA): Section 515 Multi-Family Housing Preservation Revolving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... by telephone at (202) 720-1094 or (202) 720-1610, TDD (302) 857-3585 or via e-mail at Michael... Loan Division, Multi- Family Housing STOP 0781 (Room 1263-S) or by telephone at (202) 720- 1094 or...

  15. 78 FR 34035 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... 2008 (P.L. 110-246). The purpose of the committee is to coordinate non-industrial private forestry... Program Coordinator, Cooperative Forestry staff, 202-205-1376 or Ted Beauvais, Designated Federal Officer, Cooperative Forestry staff, 202-205-1190. Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD)...

  16. The Discoidin I Gene Family of Dictyostelium Discoideum Is Linked to Genes Regulating Its Expression

    PubMed Central

    Welker, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    The discoidin I protein has been studied extensively as a marker of early development in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. However, like most other developmentally regulated proteins in this system, no reliable information was available on the linkage of the discoidin genes to other known genes. Analysis of the linkage of the discoidin I genes by use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms revealed that all three discoidin I genes as well as a pseudogene are located on linkage group II. This evidence is consistent with the discoidin I genes forming a gene cluster that may be under the control of a single regulatory element. The discoidin I genes are linked to three genetic loci (disA, motA, daxA) that affect the expression of the discoidin I protein. Linkage of the gene family members to regulatory loci may be important in the coordinate maintenance of the gene family and regulatory loci. A duplication affecting the entire discoidin gene family is also linked to group II; this appears to be a small tandem duplication. This duplication was mapped using a DNA polymorphism generated by insertion of the Tdd-3 mobile genetic element into a Tdd-2 element flanking the γ gene. A probe for Tdd-2 identified a restriction fragment length polymorphism in strain AX3K that was consistent with generation by a previously proposed Tdd-3 insertion event. A putative duplication or rearrangement of a second Tdd-2 element on linkage group IV of strain AX3K was also identified. This is the first linkage information available for mobile genetic elements in D. discoideum. PMID:3402731

  17. Association between Total Daily Doses with duration of hospitalization among readmitted patients in a multi-ethnic Asian population

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Vivien; Toh, Ming Ren; Kwan, Yu Heng; Raaj, Sreemanee; Tan, Su-Yin Doreen; Tan, Joyce Zhen Yin

    2015-01-01

    Increased length of stay (LOS) in the hospital incurs substantial financial costs on the healthcare system. Multiple factors are associated with LOS. However, few studies have been done to associate the impact of Total Daily Doses (TDD) and LOS. Hence, the aim of this study is to examine the association between patients’ LOS upon readmission and their TDD before readmission. A retrospective cross-sectional study of readmission cases occurring from 1st January to 31st March 2013 was conducted at a regional hospital. Demographics and clinical variables were collected using electronic medical databases. Univariable and multiple linear regressions were used. Confounders such as comorbidities and drug related problems (DRP) were controlled for in this study. There were 432 patients and 649 readmissions examined. The average TDD and LOS were 18.04 ± 8.16 and 7.63 days ± 7.08 respectively. In the univariable analysis, variables that were significantly associated with the LOS included age above 75 year-old, race, comorbidity, number of comorbidities, number of medications, TDD and thrombocytopenia as DRPs. In the multiple linear regression, there was a statistically significant association between TDD (β = 0.0733, p = 0.030) and LOS. Variables that were found significant were age above 75 year-old (β = 1.5477, p = 0.008), Malay (β = −1.5123, p = 0.033), other races (β = −2.6174, p = 0.007), depression (β = 2.1551, p = 0.031) and thrombocytopenia as a type of DRP (β = 7.5548, p = 0.027). When TDD was replaced with number of medications, number of medications (β = 0.1487, p = 0.021), age of 75 year-old (β = 1.5303, p = 0.009), Malay (β = −1.4687, p = 0.038), race of others (β = −2.6499, p = 0.007), depression (β = 2.1951, p = 0.028) and thrombocytopenia as a type of DRP (β = 7.5260, p = 0.028) were significant. In conclusion, a significant relationship between TDD and number of medications before

  18. Control unit implementation for a reconfigurable ADC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojcevski, Aleksandar; Vibhute, Vidya; Singh, Jugdutt; Zayegh, Aladin

    2004-03-01

    A control unit has been proposed, which is used to reconfigure a pipeline ADC for a mobile terminal receiver that can drastically reduce the power dissipation dependent on adjacent channel interference. The proposed design automatically scales the word length by monitoring the quantization noise along the in-band and out-of-bands powers in the UTRA-TDD spectrum. The new ADC performance was evaluated in a simulation UTRA-TDD environment because of the large near far problem caused by adjacent channel interference from adjacent mobiles and base stations. Results show that by using the control unit to reconfigure the ADC, up to 88% power dissipation could be saved, when compared to a fixed 16 bits ADC without the use of the control unit. This will prolong talk and standby time in a moble terminal.

  19. Structural properties of relaxed thin film germanium layers grown by low temperature RF-PECVD epitaxy on Si and Ge (100) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Cariou, R.; Ruggeri, R.; Tan, X.; Nassar, J.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.; Mannino, Giovanni

    2014-07-15

    We report on unusual low temperature (175 °C) heteroepitaxial growth of germanium thin films using a standard radio-frequency plasma process. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal a perfect crystalline quality of epitaxial germanium layers on (100) c-Ge wafers. In addition direct germanium crystal growth is achieved on (100) c-Si, despite 4.2% lattice mismatch. Defects rising from Ge/Si interface are mostly located within the first tens of nanometers, and threading dislocation density (TDD) values as low as 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2} are obtained. Misfit stress is released fast: residual strain of −0.4% is calculated from Moiré pattern analysis. Moreover we demonstrate a striking feature of low temperature plasma epitaxy, namely the fact that crystalline quality improves with thickness without epitaxy breakdown, as shown by TEM and depth profiling of surface TDD.

  20. A Review of Insulin-Dosing Formulas for Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII) for Adults with Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    King, Allen B; Kuroda, Akio; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Hobbs, Todd

    2016-09-01

    Dosing guidelines for patients with type 1 diabetes using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), which are historically based on clinical experience and retrospective studies of patients consuming an American diet, recommend that basal insulin should represent approximately 50 % of the total daily dose (TDD). Recent prospective studies in the USA and Japan conclude that the more appropriate proportion is closer to 30-40 % of TDD. In addition, currently used formulas for calculating the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio (CIR) and correction factor (CF) may lead to underdosing of bolus insulin by as much as 12.8-50 % for a hypothetical patient. The discrepancies between traditional formulas and data from newer studies can be accounted for by the more rigorous design of the newer studies (e.g., prospective design, controlled diets, meal omission, and frequent glucose monitoring). International differences in diet composition may also be important to consider when developing dosing recommendations for CSII. PMID:27457238

  1. Towards Test Driven Development for Computational Science with pFUnit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rilee, Michael L.; Clune, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Developers working in Computational Science & Engineering (CSE)/High Performance Computing (HPC) must contend with constant change due to advances in computing technology and science. Test Driven Development (TDD) is a methodology that mitigates software development risks due to change at the cost of adding comprehensive and continuous testing to the development process. Testing frameworks tailored for CSE/HPC, like pFUnit, can lower the barriers to such testing, yet CSE software faces unique constraints foreign to the broader software engineering community. Effective testing of numerical software requires a comprehensive suite of oracles, i.e., use cases with known answers, as well as robust estimates for the unavoidable numerical errors associated with implementation with finite-precision arithmetic. At first glance these concerns often seem exceedingly challenging or even insurmountable for real-world scientific applications. However, we argue that this common perception is incorrect and driven by (1) a conflation between model validation and software verification and (2) the general tendency in the scientific community to develop relatively coarse-grained, large procedures that compound numerous algorithmic steps.We believe TDD can be applied routinely to numerical software if developers pursue fine-grained implementations that permit testing, neatly side-stepping concerns about needing nontrivial oracles as well as the accumulation of errors. We present an example of a successful, complex legacy CSE/HPC code whose development process shares some aspects with TDD, which we contrast with current and potential capabilities. A mix of our proposed methodology and framework support should enable everyday use of TDD by CSE-expert developers.

  2. Test Driven Development: Lessons from a Simple Scientific Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clune, T. L.; Kuo, K.

    2010-12-01

    In the commercial software industry, unit testing frameworks have emerged as a disruptive technology that has permanently altered the process by which software is developed. Unit testing frameworks significantly reduce traditional barriers, both practical and psychological, to creating and executing tests that verify software implementations. A new development paradigm, known as test driven development (TDD), has emerged from unit testing practices, in which low-level tests (i.e. unit tests) are created by developers prior to implementing new pieces of code. Although somewhat counter-intuitive, this approach actually improves developer productivity. In addition to reducing the average time for detecting software defects (bugs), the requirement to provide procedure interfaces that enable testing frequently leads to superior design decisions. Although TDD is widely accepted in many software domains, its applicability to scientific modeling still warrants reasonable skepticism. While the technique is clearly relevant for infrastructure layers of scientific models such as the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF), numerical and scientific components pose a number of challenges to TDD that are not often encountered in commercial software. Nonetheless, our experience leads us to believe that the technique has great potential not only for developer productivity, but also as a tool for understanding and documenting the basic scientific assumptions upon which our models are implemented. We will provide a brief introduction to test driven development and then discuss our experience in using TDD to implement a relatively simple numerical model that simulates the growth of snowflakes. Many of the lessons learned are directly applicable to larger scientific models.

  3. 77 FR 27253 - Proposed Collection, Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program Evaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ...The Institute of Museum and Library Services announces the following information collection has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget for review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35). Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY/TDD) may call 202-653-4614. This review helps to ensure that requested data can be......

  4. Prototyping scalable digital signal processing systems for radio astronomy using dataflow models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sane, N.; Ford, J.; Harris, A. I.; Bhattacharyya, S. S.

    2012-05-01

    There is a growing trend toward using high-level tools for design and implementation of radio astronomy digital signal processing (DSP) systems. Such tools, for example, those from the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER), are usually platform-specific, and lack high-level, platform-independent, portable, scalable application specifications. This limits the designer's ability to experiment with designs at a high-level of abstraction and early in the development cycle. We address some of these issues using a model-based design approach employing dataflow models. We demonstrate this approach by applying it to the design of a tunable digital downconverter (TDD) used for narrow-bandwidth spectroscopy. Our design is targeted toward an FPGA platform, called the Interconnect Break-out Board (IBOB), that is available from the CASPER. We use the term TDD to refer to a digital downconverter for which the decimation factor and center frequency can be reconfigured without the need for regenerating the hardware code. Such a design is currently not available in the CASPER DSP library. The work presented in this paper focuses on two aspects. First, we introduce and demonstrate a dataflow-based design approach using the dataflow interchange format (DIF) tool for high-level application specification, and we integrate this approach with the CASPER tool flow. Secondly, we explore the trade-off between the flexibility of TDD designs and the low hardware cost of fixed-configuration digital downconverter (FDD) designs that use the available CASPER DSP library. We further explore this trade-off in the context of a two-stage downconversion scheme employing a combination of TDD or FDD designs.

  5. Near-interfacial thermal donor generation during processing of (100)Si/low-κ Si-oxycarbide insulator structures revealed by electron spin resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stesmans, A.; Iacovo, S.; Nguyen, S.; Afanas'ev, V. V.; Baklanov, M. R.; Urbanowicz, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    A low-temperature multifrequency electron spin resonance (ESR) study has been carried out on Cz-(110)Si/insulator structures with organosilicate films of low dielectric constant κ grown at 300 °C using the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method (PECVD). After subjection to a short-term UV-irradiation-assisted thermal curing treatment at 430 °C to remove the organic component from the low-κ film and obtain optimal porosity, the NL8 ESR spectrum of C2v symmetry is observed, characterized by g1 (//[100] = 1.999 83(8), g2(//[011] = 1.992 74(8), g3 = (//[1\\bar{1}0]) = 2.001 15(8). Based on previous insight, this reveals the generation in the c-Si substrate of singly ionized thermal double donor (TDD) defects with a core containing oxygen atoms. Remarkably, the generation is found to be highly nonuniform, and the defect density depth profile shows an exponential-like decay (decay length ˜3.8 μm) from the oxide/Si interface inward the Si substrate, thus exposing the defect formation as an interface-administered effect. Upon analysis, the strain induced by interfacial stress in the c-Si beneath the interface is suggested as the major driving component in the enhancement of TDD formation during thermal treatment, suggesting that substantial stress is involved with PECVD organosilicate low-κ glasses. The result represents a different and affirmative illustration of the influence of strain on TDD formation. Based on the principal g values, the observed TDD is closest to the NL81 type, the one formed first in bulk c-Si through oxygen agglomeration during short-term thermal treatment.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of once and twice daily dosing of intravenous tobramycin in paediatric patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Brigg Turner, R; Elbarbry, Fawzy; Biondo, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    The optimal dosing of intravenous tobramycin for treatment of pulmonary exacerbations in paediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) patients has not been completely delineated. We performed a retrospective study evaluating the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of once daily dosing (ODD) of IV tobramycin compared to twice daily dosing (TDD). Fifty-nine and 44 patients were included in the ODD and TDD groups, respectively. Once daily dosing achieved higher Cmax as compared to TDD (29.5 ± 11.0 vs 19.0 ± 4.9, P < 0.001), lower 24 hour AUC (92.8 ± 28.7 vs 128.5 ± 34.6, P < 0.001), and greater time that drug concentration was below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (13.4 ± 1.7 vs 3.9 ± 3.1 hour, P < 0.001). Twice daily dosing failed to achieve goal Cmax:MIC for MICs >1.0 mg/l. Twice daily dosing may be a viable alternative to ODD in treating organisms with MICs ≤ 1.0 mg/l; however, with MICs >1.0 mg/l, ODD is likely necessary to achieve goal Cmax:MIC ratios. PMID:26430825

  7. Characterisation of defects in p-GaN by admittance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsherif, O. S.; Vernon-Parry, K. D.; Evans-Freeman, J. H.; Airey, R. J.; Kappers, M.; Humphreys, C. J.

    2012-08-01

    Mg-doped GaN films have been grown on (0 0 0 1) sapphire using metal organic vapour phase epitaxy. Use of different buffer layer strategies caused the threading dislocation density (TDD) in the GaN to be either approximately 2×109 cm-2 or 1×1010 cm-2. Frequency-dependent capacitance and conductance measurements at temperatures up to 450 K have been used to study the electronic states associated with the Mg doping, and to determine how these are affected by the TDD. Admittance spectroscopy of the films finds a single impurity-related acceptor level with an activation energy of 160±10 meV for [Mg] of about 1×1019 cm-3, and 120±10 eV as the Mg precursor flux decreased. This level is thought to be associated with the Mg acceptor state. The TDD has no discernible effect on the trap detected by admittance spectroscopy. We compare these results with cathodoluminescence measurements reported in the literature, which reveal that most threading dislocations are non-radiative recombination centres, and discuss possible reasons why our admittance spectroscopy have not detected electrically active defects associated with threading dislocations.

  8. Pulp response to high fluoride releasing glass ionomer, silver diamine fluoride, and calcium hydroxide used for indirect pulp treatment: An in-vivo comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Korwar, Atish; Sharma, Sidhartha; Logani, Ajay; Shah, Naseem

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The study aims at determining pulp response of two high fluoride releasing materials silver diamine fluoride (SDF) and Type VII glass ionomer cement (GIC) when used as indirect pulp treatment (IPT) materials. Materials and Methods: Deep Class V cavities were made on four first premolars indicated for extraction for orthodontic reasons. SDF, Type VII GIC, and calcium hydroxide base are given in three premolars, and one is kept control. Premolars were extracted 6 weeks after the procedure and subjected to histopathological examination to determine the pulp response. The results were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: No inflammatory changes were observed in any of the groups. Significantly more number of specimens in SDF and Type VII GIC groups showed tertiary dentin deposition (TDD) when compared to control group. No significant difference was seen in TDD when intergroup comparison was made. Odontoblasts were seen as short cuboidal cells with dense basophilic nucleus in SDF and Type VII GIC group. Conclusion: The study demonstrated TDD inducing ability of SDF and Type VII GIC and also established the biocompatibility when used as IPT materials. PMID:26321822

  9. Potential of Essential Oils as Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Administration of Ibuprofen to Treat Dysmenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Jiang, Qiu-Dong; Wu, Ye-Ming; Liu, Pei; Yao, Jun-Hong; Lu, Qing; Zhang, Hui; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare five essential oils (EOs) as penetration enhancers (PEs) to improve the transdermal drug delivery (TDD) of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhoea. The EOs were prepared using the steam distillation method and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. The corresponding cytotoxicities were evaluated in epidermal keartinocyte HaCaT cell lines by an MTT assay. Furthermore, the percutaneous permeation studies were carried out to compare the permeation enhancement effect of EOs. Then the therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen with EOs was evaluated using dysmenorrheal model mice. The data supports a decreasing trend of skin cell viability in which Clove oil >Angelica oil > Chuanxiong oil > Cyperus oil > Cinnamon oil > Azone. Chuanxiong oil and Angelica oil had been proved to possess a significant permeation enhancement for TDD of ibuprofen. More importantly, the pain inhibitory intensity of ibuprofen hydrogel was demonstrated to be greater with Chuanxiong oil when compared to ibuprofen without EOs (p < 0.05). The contents of calcium ion and nitric oxide (NO) were also significantly changed after the addition of Chuanxiong oil (p < 0.05). In summary, we suggest that Chuanxiong oil should be viewed as the best PE for TDD of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhea. PMID:26457698

  10. Dynamic self-assembly of charge-transfer nanofibers of tetrathiafulvalene derivatives with F4TCNQ.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ankit; Rao, K Venkata; Mogera, Umesha; Sagade, Abhay A; George, Subi J

    2011-10-24

    One-dimensional charge-transfer nanostructures were constructed by the supramolecular coassembly of amphiphilic (Amph-TTF) and hydrophobic (TDD-TTF) tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) donor derivatives with the acceptor 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F(4)TCNQ), in appropriate solvent composition mixtures. Microscopic analyses show that TDD-TTF retains its self-assembled fibrillar morphology even in the charge-transfer state, whereas Amph-TTF undergoes a spherical to nanorod transition upon coassembly. Time-dependent optical spectroscopy studies have shown a spontaneous change in molecular organization in TDD-TTF-based donor-acceptor costacks, which suggests a dynamic behavior, in contrast to the kinetically stable amphiphilic TTF assemblies. We have also tried to get an insight into the observed time-dependent change in molecular packing of these nanostructures through spectroscopic analyses by commenting on whether the TTF-TCNQ pair is cofacially arranged or present in the classical herringbone (orthogonal) fashion. Furthermore, our two-probe electrical measurements showed that these charge-transfer fibers are conducting. A supramolecular approach that yields 1D charge-transfer nanostructures of donor and acceptor molecules will be an alternative to existing crystalline substances with high conductivity and hence can be a viable tool for nanoelectronics. PMID:21922580

  11. Surface microanalysis and chemical imaging of early dentin remineralization.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Manuel; Cabello, Inmaculada; Vílchez, Miguel Angel Cabrerizo; Fernández, Miguel Angel; Osorio, Raquel

    2014-02-01

    This study reports physical and chemical changes that occur at early dentin remineralization stages. Extracted human third molars were sectioned to obtain dentin discs. After polishing the dentin surfaces, three groups were established: (1) untreated dentin (UD), (2) 37% phosphoric acid application for 15 s (partially demineralized dentin-PDD), and (3) 10% phosphoric acid for 12 h at 25° C (totally demineralized dentin-TDD). Five different remineralizing solutions were used: chlorhexidine (CHX), artificial saliva (AS), phosphate solution (PS), ZnCl2, and ZnO. Wettability (contact angle), ζ potential and Raman spectroscopy analysis were determined on dentin surfaces. Demineralization of dentin resulted in a higher contact angle. Wettability decreased after immersion in all solutions. ζ potential analysis showed dissimilar performance ranging from -6.21 mV (TDD + AS) up to 3.02 mV (PDD + PS). Raman analysis showed an increase in mineral components after immersing the dentin specimens, in terms of crystallinity, mineral content, and concentration. This confirmed the optimal incorporation and deposition of mineral on dentin collagen. Organic content reflected scarce changes, except in TDD that appeared partially denatured. Pyridinium, as an expression of cross-linking, appeared in all spectra except in specimens immersed in PS. PMID:24160361

  12. Uplink Scheduling and Adjacent-Channel Coupling Loss Analysis for TD-LTE Deployment

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Moon, Sung Ho

    2014-01-01

    TD-LTE, one of the two duplexing modes in LTE, operates in unpaired spectrum and has the advantages of TDD-based technologies. It is expected that TD-LTE will be more rapidly deployed in near future and most of WiMax operators will upgrade their networks to TD-LTE gradually. Before completely upgrading to TD-LTE, WiMax may coexist with TD-LTE in an adjacent frequency band. In addition, multiple TD-LTE operators may deploy their networks in adjacent bands. When more than one TDD network operates in adjacent frequency bands, severe interference may happen due to adjacent channel interference (ACI) and unsynchronized operations. In this paper, coexistence issues between TD-LTE and other systems are analyzed and coexistence requirements are provided. This paper has three research objectives. First, frame synchronization between TD-LTE and WiMax is discussed by investigating possible combinations of TD-LTE and WiMax configurations. Second, an uplink scheduling algorithm is proposed to utilize a leakage pattern of ACI in synchronized operations. Third, minimum requirements for coexistence in unsynchronized operations are analyzed by introducing a concept of adjacent-channel coupling loss. From the analysis and simulation results, we can see that coexistence of TD-LTE with other TDD systems is feasible if the two networks are synchronized. For the unsynchronized case, some special cell-site engineering techniques may be required to reduce the ACI. PMID:24707214

  13. Uplink scheduling and adjacent-channel coupling loss analysis for TD-LTE deployment.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    TD-LTE, one of the two duplexing modes in LTE, operates in unpaired spectrum and has the advantages of TDD-based technologies. It is expected that TD-LTE will be more rapidly deployed in near future and most of WiMax operators will upgrade their networks to TD-LTE gradually. Before completely upgrading to TD-LTE, WiMax may coexist with TD-LTE in an adjacent frequency band. In addition, multiple TD-LTE operators may deploy their networks in adjacent bands. When more than one TDD network operates in adjacent frequency bands, severe interference may happen due to adjacent channel interference (ACI) and unsynchronized operations. In this paper, coexistence issues between TD-LTE and other systems are analyzed and coexistence requirements are provided. This paper has three research objectives. First, frame synchronization between TD-LTE and WiMax is discussed by investigating possible combinations of TD-LTE and WiMax configurations. Second, an uplink scheduling algorithm is proposed to utilize a leakage pattern of ACI in synchronized operations. Third, minimum requirements for coexistence in unsynchronized operations are analyzed by introducing a concept of adjacent-channel coupling loss. From the analysis and simulation results, we can see that coexistence of TD-LTE with other TDD systems is feasible if the two networks are synchronized. For the unsynchronized case, some special cell-site engineering techniques may be required to reduce the ACI. PMID:24707214

  14. Grouped and Multistep Nanoheteroepitaxy: Toward High-Quality GaN on Quasi-Periodic Nano-Mask.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaohui; Yu, Tongjun; Wei, Yang; Ji, Cheng; Cheng, Yutian; Zong, Hua; Wang, Kun; Yang, Zhijian; Kang, Xiangning; Zhang, Guoyi; Fan, Shoushan

    2016-07-20

    A novel nanoheteroepitaxy method, namely, the grouped and multistep nanoheteroepitaxy (GM-NHE), is proposed to attain a high-quality gallium nitride (GaN) epilayer by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. This method combines the effects of sub-100 nm nucleation and multistep lateral growth by using a low-cost but unique carbon nanotube mask, which consists of nanoscale growth windows with a quasi-periodic 2D fill factor. It is found that GM-NHE can facilely reduce threading dislocation density (TDD) and modulate residual stress on foreign substrate without any regrowth. As a result, high-quality GaN epilayer is produced with homogeneously low TDD of 4.51 × 10(7) cm(-2) and 2D-modulated stress, and the performance of the subsequent 410 nm near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode is greatly boosted. In this way, with the facile fabrication of nanomask and the one-off epitaxy procedure, GaN epilayer is prominently improved with the assistance of nanotechnology, which demonstrates great application potential for high-efficiency TDD-sensitive optoelectronic and electronic devices. PMID:27351723

  15. Adopting the Test-Driven Development to Developing Numerical Weather Prediction Model by Using the pFUnit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, S. Y.; Kim, J.; Song, I. S.

    2014-12-01

    Modern Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model is a complex software that consists of scientific and computational components over multiple software layers. Development of NWP model is complicated process bringing many risks arise from the software complexity and long-term developing period. The software engineering suggests that software testing is a requisite for developing the complex software because it can improve software quality and reduce risk. In particular, the Test-Driven Development (TDD) is known to the useful way in software testing enable to develop more productive software with writing more unit-tests. We utilize the pFUnit, which is the unit testing framework for Fortran with MPI extensions under the NASA open source license, for adopting TDD to developing the KIAPS-GM (Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems-Global Model) framework. It is known that the pFUnit offers a convenient, lightweight mechanism for Fortran developers to create and run software tests that specify the desired behavior for a given piece of code. Our implementation of TDD with the pFUnit will be presented with test suite and unit-tests for infrastructure of the KIAPS-GM framework.

  16. Clinical Use of U-500 Regular Insulin: Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Reutrakul, Sirimon; Wroblewski, Kristen; Brown, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    The use of U-500 regular insulin (U-500R) to treat diabetic patients with severe insulin resistance has increased. In this review, we performed a meta-analysis of PubMed studies reporting the use of U-500R to evaluate the effects of U-500R on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), body weight, and total daily insulin dose (TDD). These studies included 310 patients using U-500R as multiple daily injections (MDI) and 55 patients using U-500R via continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). Overall, the use of U-500R as MDI resulted in a significant HbA1c reduction of 1.59%, a significant weight gain of 4.38 kg, and a significant increase in TDD by 51.9 units. The use of U-500R via CSII resulted in a similarly significant HbA1c reduction of 1.64% but a nonsignificant weight gain and a nonsignificant change in TDD. The use of U-500 regular insulin both as MDI and via CSII was not reported to be associated with severe hypoglycemia but was associated with an increase in patient satisfaction as well as in cost savings. Suggestions in initiating U-500R in the outpatient setting using U-500R in hospitalized patients are reviewed. In addition, precautions for avoiding prescription and patient errors are discussed. PMID:22538155

  17. The comparison of the efficacy of radiofrequency nucleoplasty and targeted disc decompression in lumbar radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Adakli, Barıs; Turhan, K. Sanem Cakar; Asik, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Chronic low back pain is a common clinical condition causing medical, socioeconomic, and treatment difficulties. In our study, we aimed to compare early and long-term efficacy of lumbar radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RFTC) nucleoplasty and targeted disc decompression (TDD) in patients with lumbar radiculopathy in whom previous conventional therapy had failed. The medical records of 37 patients undergoing TDD and 36 patients undergoing lumbar RFTC nucleoplasty were retrospectively examined and assigned to the Group D and Group N, respectively. In all patients Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Functional Rating Index (FRI) were recorded before treatment and after one, six and twelve months after the procedure. The North American Spine Society Satisfaction Scale (NASSSS) was also recoreded twelve months after the therapeutic procedure. Statistically significant postprocedural improvement in VAS and FRI was evident in both groups. VAS scores after one, six, and twelve month were slightly higher in Group N, compared to Group D. The overall procedure-related patient satisfaction ratio was 67.5% in the Group D, compared to 75% in the Group N. Regardless of the different mechanism of action, both methods are effective therapies for lumbar radiculopathy, with TDD showing long-term lower pain scores. PMID:26042514

  18. Validation of the Concept of a Common Typical Time of Disease Duration for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Using the Fisher Information Processing of Tumor Imaging Results Combined With Network Phenotyping Strategy Quantification of Individual Patient Clinical Profile Patterns.

    PubMed

    Pančoška, Petr; Skála, Lubomír; Nešetřil, Jaroslav; Carr, Brian I

    2015-08-01

    A primary goal of current clinical cancer research is the identification of prognostic tumor subtypes. It is increasingly clear that tumor growth depends on both internal tumor factors, and factors that are external to the tumor, such as microenvironment. We recently showed that parameter values alone are less important than the patterns of all patient parameters together for the identification of prognostic subtypes and have identified a network phenotyping strategy method to quantitatively describe the dependency of the tumor on the environment, to characterize hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) subtypes. We have also shown that information about tumor mass together with patterns of other prognostic factors is related to survival. We now use a different patient cohort to validate this prognostic approach. A main finding is our identification of a common time of total disease duration (TDD) for every HCC patient. Clinical prognosis at the time of baseline patient evaluation is then calculable as the difference between TDD and the time from disease onset to diagnosis (T(onset)). We show that the total pattern of all parameter values and the differences in the relationships between this pattern and a reference pattern that, together with the tumor mass, best reflects the patient's prognosis at baseline. Our approach led us to identify 15 different composite HCC subtypes. Our results highlight the nearly identical TDD in all patients, which must therefore be a characteristic of the HCC disease, as opposed to the variable quantity of T(onset), which is impacted by multiple macro- and micro-environmental factors. PMID:26320070

  19. GaN-Ready Aluminum Nitride Substrates for Cost-Effective, Very Low Dislocation Density III-Nitride LED's

    SciTech Connect

    Sandra Schujman; Leo Schowalter

    2010-10-15

    The objective of this project was to develop and then demonstrate the efficacy of a costeffective approach for a low defect density substrate on which AlInGaN LEDs can be fabricated. The efficacy of this “GaN-ready” substrate would then be tested by growing high efficiency, long lifetime InxGa1-xN blue LEDs. The approach used to meet the project objectives was to start with low dislocation density AlN single-crystal substrates and grow graded AlxGa1-xN layers on top. Pseudomorphic AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers grown on bulk AlN substrates were used to fabricate light emitting diodes and demonstrate better device performance as a result of the low defect density in these layers when benched marked against state-of-the-art LEDs fabricated on sapphire substrates. The pseudomorphic LEDs showed excellent output powers compared to similar wavelength devices grown on sapphire substrates, with lifetimes exceeding 10,000 hours (which was the longest time that could reliably be estimated). In addition, high internal quantum efficiencies were demonstrated at high driving current densities even though the external quantum efficiencies were low due to poor photon extraction. Unfortunately, these pseudomorphic LEDs require high Al content so they emit in the ultraviolet. Sapphire based LEDs typically have threading dislocation densities (TDD) > 108 cm-2 while the pseudomorphic LEDs have TDD ≤ 105 cm-2. The resulting TDD, when grading the AlxGa1-xN layer all the way to pure GaN to produce a “GaN-ready” substrate, has varied between the mid 108 down to the 106 cm-2. These inconsistencies are not well understood. Finally, an approach to improve the LED structures on AlN substrates for light extraction efficiency was developed by thinning and roughening the substrate.

  20. Natural substrate lift-off technique for vertical light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chia-Yu; Lan, Yu-Pin; Tu, Po-Min; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Lin, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Chi, Gou-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2014-04-01

    Hexagonal inverted pyramid (HIP) structures and the natural substrate lift-off (NSLO) technique were demonstrated on a GaN-based vertical light-emitting diode (VLED). The HIP structures were formed at the interface between GaN and the sapphire substrate by molten KOH wet etching. The threading dislocation density (TDD) estimated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was reduced to 1 × 108 cm-2. Raman spectroscopy indicated that the compressive strain from the bottom GaN/sapphire was effectively released through the HIP structure. With the adoption of the HIP structure and NSLO, the light output power and yield performance of leakage current could be further improved.

  1. Reduction of threading dislocation density in Ge/Si using a heavily As-doped Ge seed layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kwang Hong; Bao, Shuyu; Wang, Bing; Wang, Cong; Yoon, Soon Fatt; Michel, Jurgen; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.; Tan, Chuan Seng

    2016-02-01

    High quality germanium (Ge) epitaxial film is grown directly on silicon (001) substrate with 6° off-cut using a heavily arsenic (As) doped Ge seed layer. The growth steps consists of (i) growth of a heavily As-doped Ge seed layer at low temperature (LT, at 400 °C), (ii) Ge growth with As gradually reduced to zero at high temperature (HT, at 650 °C), (iii) pure Ge growth at HT. This is followed by thermal cyclic annealing in hydrogen at temperature ranging from 600 to 850 °C. Analytical characterization have shown that the Ge epitaxial film with a thickness of ˜1.5 µm experiences thermally induced tensile strain of 0.20% with a treading dislocation density (TDD) of mid 106/cm2 which is one order of magnitude lower than the control group without As doping and surface roughness of 0.37 nm. The reduction in TDD is due to the enhancement in velocity of dislocations in an As-doped Ge film.

  2. Dislocation Reduction and Stress Relaxation of GaN and InGaN Multiple Quantum Wells with Improved Performance via Serpentine Channel Patterned Mask.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qingbin; Li, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jia; Liu, Peichi; Xie, Yahong; Yan, Tongxing; Yang, Wei; Chen, Weihua; Hu, Xiaodong

    2016-08-24

    The existence of high threading dislocation density (TDD) in GaN-based epilayers is a long unsolved problem, which hinders further applications of defect-sensitive GaN-based devices. Multiple-modulation of epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) is used to achieve high-quality GaN template on a novel serpentine channel patterned sapphire substrate (SCPSS). The dislocation blocking brought by the serpentine channel patterned mask, coupled with repeated dislocation bending, can reduce the dislocation density to a yet-to-be-optimized level of ∼2 × 10(5) to 2 × 10(6) cm(-2). About 80% area utilization rate of GaN with low TDD and stress relaxation is obtained. The periodical variations of dislocation density, optical properties and residual stress in GaN-based epilayers on SCPSS are analyzed. The quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) on it can be increased by 52% compared with the conventional sapphire substrate. The reduced nonradiative recombination centers, the enhanced carrier localization, and the suppressed quantum confined Stark effect, are the main determinants of improved luminous performance in MQWs on SCPSS. This developed ELOG on serpentine shaped mask needs no interruption and regrowth, which can be a promising candidate for the heteroepitaxy of semipolar/nonpolar GaN and GaAs with high quality. PMID:27484167

  3. Effects of ultrasound and sodium lauryl sulfate on the transdermal delivery of hydrophilic permeants: Comparative in vitro studies with full-thickness and split-thickness pig and human skin.

    PubMed

    Seto, Jennifer E; Polat, Baris E; Lopez, Renata F V; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2010-07-01

    The simultaneous application of ultrasound and the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (referred to as US/SLS) to skin enhances transdermal drug delivery (TDD) in a synergistic mechanical and chemical manner. Since full-thickness skin (FTS) and split-thickness skin (STS) differ in mechanical strength, US/SLS treatment may have different effects on their transdermal transport pathways. Therefore, we evaluated STS as an alternative to the well-established US/SLS-treated FTS model for TDD studies of hydrophilic permeants. We utilized the aqueous porous pathway model to compare the effects of US/SLS treatment on the skin permeability and the pore radius of pig and human FTS and STS over a range of skin electrical resistivity values. Our findings indicate that the US/SLS-treated pig skin models exhibit similar permeabilities and pore radii, but the human skin models do not. Furthermore, the US/SLS-enhanced delivery of gold nanoparticles and quantum dots (two model hydrophilic macromolecules) is greater through pig STS than through pig FTS, due to the presence of less dermis that acts as an artificial barrier to macromolecules. In spite of greater variability in correlations between STS permeability and resistivity, our findings strongly suggest the use of 700microm-thick pig STS to investigate the in vitro US/SLS-enhanced delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules. PMID:20346994

  4. Biological Nitrogen Removal through Nitritation Coupled with Thiosulfate-Driven Denitritation.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jin; Zhou, Junmei; Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Rulong; Wang, Qilin

    2016-01-01

    A novel biological nitrogen removal system based on nitritation coupled with thiosulfate-driven denitritation (Nitritation-TDD) was developed to achieve a high nitrogen removal rate and low sludge production. A nitritation sequential batch reactor (nitritation SBR) and an anoxic up-flow sludge bed (AnUSB) reactor were applied for effective nitritation and denitritation, respectively. Above 75% nitrite was accumulated in the nitritation SBR with an influent ammonia loading rate of 0.43 kg N/d/m(3). During Nitritation-TDD operation, particle sizes (d50) of the sludge decreased from 406 to 225 um in nitritation SBR and from 327-183 um in AnUSB reactor. Pyrosequencing tests revealed that ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) population was stabilized at approximately 7.0% (calculated as population of AOB-related genus divided by the total microbial population) in the nitritation SBR. In contrast, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) population decreased from 6.5-0.6% over the same time, indicating the effective nitrite accumulation in the nitritation SBR. Thiobacillus, accounting for 34.2% in the AnUSB reactor, was mainly responsible for nitrogen removal via autotrophic denitritation, using an external source of thiosulfate as electron donor. Also, it was found that free nitrous acid could directly affect the denitritation activity. PMID:27272192

  5. Applicator for in-vitro ultrasound-activated targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerold, B.; Gourevich, D.; Volovick, A.; Xu, D.; Arditti, F.; Prentice, P.; Cochran, S.; Gnaim, J.; Medan, Y.; Wang, L.; Melzer, A.

    2012-10-01

    Reducing toxicity and improving uptake of cancer drugs in tumors are important goals of targeted drug delivery (TDD). Ultrasonic drug release from various encapsulants has been a focus of many research groups. However, a single standard ultrasonic device, viable for use by biologists, is not currently present in the market. The device reported here is designed to allow investigation of the impact of ultrasound on cellular uptake and cell viability in-vitro. In it, single-element transducers with different operating frequencies are mounted below a standard 96-well plate. The plate is moved above the transducers, such that each line of wells can be sonicated at a different frequency. To assess the device, 96-well plates were seeded with cells and sonicated using different ultrasonic parameters, with and without doxorubicin. Cell viability was measured by colorimetric MTT assay and the uptake of doxorubicin by cells was also determined. The device proved to be highly viable in preliminary tests; it demonstrated that change in ultrasonic parameters produces different effect on cells. For example, increase in uptake of doxorubicin was demonstrated following ultrasound application. The growing interest in ultrasound-activated TDD emphasizes the need for standardization of the ultrasound device and the one reported here may offer some indications of how that may be achieved. It is planned to further improve the prototype by increasing the number of ultrasonic frequencies and degrees of freedom for each transducer.

  6. Sonophoresis using ultrasound contrast agents for transdermal drug delivery: an in vivo experimental study.

    PubMed

    Park, Donghee; Ryu, Heungil; Kim, Han Sung; Kim, Young-Sun; Choi, Kyu-Sil; Park, Hyunjin; Seo, Jongbum

    2012-04-01

    Sonophoresis temporally increases skin permeability such that various medications can be delivered noninvasively. Previous sonophoresis studies have suggested that cavitation plays an important role in enhancing transdermal drug delivery (TDD). In this study, the feasibility of controlled cavitation using ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) at high frequency was explored through in vivo experiments in a rat model. Two commercially available UCAs, SonoVue® and Definity®, were used at 2.47 MHz and 1.12 MHz, respectively. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran with 0.1% UCA was used as the drug to be delivered through the skin. Ultrasound with a 10 ms pulse and a 1% duty cycle at 1 MPa acoustic pressure for 30 min was applied in all sonication sessions. The efficacy of sonophoresis with UCAs was quantitatively analyzed using an optical imaging system that was used to count photons emitted from fluorescein. The results showed that the proposed sonophoresis method significantly improved drug penetration compared with the traditional sonophoresis method with 4 kD, 20 kD and 150 kD FITC-dextrans at 1.12 MHz, and with 4 kD and 20 kD FITC-dextrans at 2.47 MHz. Sonophoresis for TDD was performed more effectively with the aid of UCAs. Sonophoresis with UCAs has excellent potential for broad applications in drug delivery for diseases requiring the chronic administration of medications such as diabetes. PMID:22341597

  7. A Location-Based Duplex Scheme for Cost Effective Rural Broadband Connectivity Using IEEE 802.22 Cognitive Radio Based Wireless Regional Area Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalidoss, R.; Bhagyaveni, M. A.; Vishvaksenan, K. S.

    2014-08-01

    The search for a method of utilizing the scarce spectrum in an efficient manner is an active area of research in both academic and industrial communities. IEEE 802.22 is a standard for wireless regional area network (WRAN) based on cognitive radio (CR) that operates over underutilized portions of TV bands (54-862 MHz). Time division duplex (TDD)-based WRAN cells have such advantages as dynamic traffic allocation, traffic asymmetry to users and ease of spectrum allocation. However, these cells suffer from severe cross time slot (CTS) interference when the frames of the cells are not synchronized with adjacent WRAN cells. In this paper, we evaluate the location-based duplex (LBD) scheme for eliminating the CTS interference. The proposed LBD system is much more flexible and efficient in providing asymmetric data service and eliminating CTS interference by exploiting the advantages of both TDD and frequency division duplex (FDD) schemes. We also compare the performance of LBD systems with virtual cell concepts. Furthermore, our simulation results reveal that LBD-based systems outperform the virtual cell approach in terms of the low signal-to-interference (SIR) ratio requirement by mitigating the effects of CTS.

  8. Biological Nitrogen Removal through Nitritation Coupled with Thiosulfate-Driven Denitritation

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jin; Zhou, Junmei; Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Rulong; Wang, Qilin

    2016-01-01

    A novel biological nitrogen removal system based on nitritation coupled with thiosulfate-driven denitritation (Nitritation-TDD) was developed to achieve a high nitrogen removal rate and low sludge production. A nitritation sequential batch reactor (nitritation SBR) and an anoxic up-flow sludge bed (AnUSB) reactor were applied for effective nitritation and denitritation, respectively. Above 75% nitrite was accumulated in the nitritation SBR with an influent ammonia loading rate of 0.43 kg N/d/m3. During Nitritation-TDD operation, particle sizes (d50) of the sludge decreased from 406 to 225 um in nitritation SBR and from 327–183 um in AnUSB reactor. Pyrosequencing tests revealed that ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) population was stabilized at approximately 7.0% (calculated as population of AOB-related genus divided by the total microbial population) in the nitritation SBR. In contrast, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) population decreased from 6.5–0.6% over the same time, indicating the effective nitrite accumulation in the nitritation SBR. Thiobacillus, accounting for 34.2% in the AnUSB reactor, was mainly responsible for nitrogen removal via autotrophic denitritation, using an external source of thiosulfate as electron donor. Also, it was found that free nitrous acid could directly affect the denitritation activity. PMID:27272192

  9. Defect distribution and compositional inhomogeneities in Al0.5Ga0.5N layers grown on stepped surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogilatenko, A.; Knauer, A.; Zeimer, U.; Weyers, M.

    2016-02-01

    This study reports on defect distribution and compositional homogeneity of Al x Ga1-x N layers with a nominal composition x of 0.5 grown on AlN by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. The AlN layers with a low threading dislocation density (TDD) of a few 108 cm-2 were obtained by ELO and showed periodic surface macrosteps. Al x Ga1-x N growth on these AlN surfaces results in inhomogeneous Ga distribution due to enhanced Ga incorporation on the macrostep sidewalls. Variation of AlGaN deposition rate strongly influences the Ga distribution as well as the defect structure in the layers. Low growth rates (0.2 μm h-1) result in an inhomogeneous TD distribution with formation of alternating stripes with lower and higher defect densities. Additionally, self-organized formation of additional Ga-rich areas at the top edge of the steps is observed. In contrast, at a higher growth rate of 1 μm h-1 the formation of additional Ga-rich areas can be completely suppressed, but the defect density increases. This leads to an optimum growth rate to minimize the TDD.

  10. A model for time-independent and time-dependent damage evolution and their influence on creep of multidirectional polymer composite laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, Amir

    Application of polymer matrix composites in engineering structures has been steadily increasing over the past five decades. Multidirectional polymer composites are one class of continuous fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites used in aerospace structures, where the desired mechanical performance outweighs the cost. Their modulus and strength degrade with time (known as creep and creep rupture) during the service, owing to the viscos-elasticity of the polymer matrix. Additional contribution to this degradation comes from various damage modes developed in the plies of the composite with time and identified in this thesis as TDD (Time Dependent Damage). These damage modes may also develop due to process-induced residual stresses, and during loading to the service load, identified as TID (Time Independent Damage). TID influences the TDD, the creep and the creep rupture. The objective of this thesis is to develop a model to predict the evolution of TID and TDD in multiple plies of a laminate and their influence on creep. The predominant damage mode, transverse cracking, is modeled in this study. The model consists of four modules, PIS, QSL, SL, and VA. The PIS, QSL, and SL moduli predict changes in ply stresses for incremental change in temperature, stress, and time respectively, using lamination theory and assuming linear elastic behavior of the plies during an incremental step. In parallel, each module predicts the stored elastic energy in each ply after each incremental step and compares it with a critical stored elastic energy criterion to determine if a ply would crack. If fracture is predicted, the VA module based on variational analysis, is invoked to determine the crack density and the perturbation in ply stresses due to cracking. The perturbation stresses are used by the module that invoked the VA module to determine the ply stresses after cracking during the current incremental step. The model predictions for a [+/-45/90]s laminate, at two test

  11. Remission of Walking Parameters in Peripheral Arterial Disease through Association of Galvanic Baths and Kinesytherapy

    PubMed Central

    PĂTRU, SIMONA; BIGHEA, A.C.; POPESCU, ROXANA

    2014-01-01

    Chronic peripheral obstructive arteriopathies (CPOA), together with their determinations, play an important role in the elderly pathology and represent one of the most frequent causes of disability, thus having a negative impact on the patient’s quality of life. Therefore, in this clinical randomized trial we proposed to study the efficiency of several treatment methods based on physical exercise together with other therapeutical approaches specific to physical medicine such as galvanic baths. We formed a group of 111 patients diagnosed with peripheral arterial disease in inferior limbs randomized into three groups: the control group (drug treatment and hygiene-dietary), the exercise group (12 weeks supervised exercises program, followed by another 12 weeks home unsupervised exercises) and the exercise and procedure group (kinesitherapy and galvanic baths). All the subjects performed the exercise treadmill test, according to the Gardner protocol, at the beginning of the study, after 12 weeks and after 24 weeks, at the end of the study and were measured: the time to pain onset (TDC) and the time to maximum pain onset (maximum walking time=TDD). We observed quite high TDC differences in the two groups that performed physical exercises compared to the control group, while the amelioration of walking periods was recorded after the first 12 weeks, and after 24 weeks they reached walking periods 2.5 times higher than at the beginning of the study. Adding hydrotherapy to the physical exercise led to even higher TDC values. After 12 weeks, we obtained a 54% TDD remission in the exercise group (p<0.005) and a 65% remission in the exercise and hydrotherapy group (p<0.005) and at the end of period, the TDD remission was 90% in the exercise group (p<0.005) and 100% in the exercise and hydrotherapy group (p<0.05). The kinetic-physical modalities show its efficiency in ameliorating the walking parameters in the patients with claudication and may offer low risks compared to the

  12. Thermal conditions within the supraglacial debris cover of Pasterze Glacier, Austria, and its effects on glacier ablation between 2006 and 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Hirschmann, Simon

    2015-04-01

    three sites focussed on (a) mean temperature values (annual, monthly), (b) temperature ranges, (c) thawing degree days, (d) freezing degree days, (e) snow cover duration, (f) snowpack ripening date, and (g) duration of the zero curtain period. Results indicate for instance that the mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) at the surface of the supraglacial debris cover was positive (or at the most slightly negative) during all glaciological years with available data. In contrast, the MAGT at 10 and 15/20 cm depth was commonly negative with minimum values of -2.6°C. Furthermore, the cumulative thawing degree days (TDD) and glacier ablation show a statistically significant negative correlation allowing a quantitative assessment of total glacier ablation. This indicate for instance that in order to melt 4 m of glacier ice under a 15 cm thick debris layer a cumulative value of c.100 TDD is necessary at 15 cm depth, a value of c.500 TDD at 10 cm depth and a value of c.1000 TDD at the surface of the supraglacial debris cover.

  13. Design of Radio Frequency Link in Automatic Test System for Multimode Mobile Communication Base Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weipeng

    2015-12-01

    A modularized design for the radio frequency (RF) link in automatic test system of multimode mobile communication base station is presented, considering also the characteristics of wireless communication indices and composition of signals of base stations. The test link is divided into general module, time division duplex (TDD) module, module of spurious noise filter, module of downlink intermodulation, module of uplink intermodulation and uplink block module. The composition of modules and link functions are defined, and the interfaces of the general module and the module of spurious noise filter are described. Finally, the estimated gain budget of the test link is presented. It is verified by experiments that the system is reliable and the test efficiency is improved.

  14. [Design of transdermal ultrasonophoresis equipment].

    PubMed

    Li, Liangcheng; Zhang, Yongshun; Li, Zhonghong

    2009-02-01

    The recent fast development in biotechnology has resulted in a large number of therapeutic biologicals coming in the foreground for clinical application. Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) is designed for patching the drug on the skin, and then the drug molecules permeate through the skin into the subcutaneous capillary vessels. However,very few drugs can be administered transdermally at the therapeutic levels to pass through the barrier of stratum corneum. Several physical and chemical methods are applied to improve the permeability of skin. Research result shows that the low-frequency ultrasonic technique can extraordinarily increase the rate of permeation. As a result, it is becoming one of the potential methods that serve as the substitutes for traditional methods. In this paper is presented a type of equipment based on MSP430. The principle of design, the structure of hardware, and the applied function in this area are described. PMID:19334582

  15. III-V semiconductors on silicon-germanium substrates for multi-junction photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andre, Carrie L.

    The epitaxial integration of high quality III-V semiconductors with Si is of fundamental interest for photovoltaic devices since Si substrates offer a lighter, stronger, and cost effective platform for device production. However, the lattice-mismatch between conventional III-V photovoltaic materials and Si generates threading dislocations in the epitaxial device layers, which can limit solar cell performance, depending of the density of such defects, the particular III-V material, and the device design. By using compositionally step-graded SiGe interlayers up to 100% Ge, which is lattice-matched to GaAs, the ˜4% lattice-mismatch between Si and GaAs and In0.49 Ga0.51P is accommodated in the Group IV alloy system; this has produced defect densities less than 1 x 106 cm -2 in fully relaxed the Ge/SiGe/Si (SiGe) virtual substrates. This unique approach to III-V/Si integration is employed in this dissertation for the development of GaAs and In0.49Ga0.51P single junction (SJ) solar cells and ultimately In0.49Ga0.51P/GaAs dual junction (DJ) solar cells, integrated on a Si platform. The residual threading dislocation density (TDD) present in the SiGe substrates transfers to the epitaxially grown III-V layers and thus can influence III-V solar cell performance. In this dissertation we report, for the first time, on the impact of TDD on the minority carrier electron lifetime in GaAs grown on SiGe. The electron lifetime in metamorphic p-type GaAs was found to be lower than that of holes in n-type GaAs at a given TDD. This resulted from the higher mobility of electrons compared to holes and thus enhanced interactions with the TD array. Incorporating a TDD dependent lifetime into metamorphic GaAs solar cell device models, higher reverse saturation current densities and lower open-circuit voltages for n+/p compared to p+/n were predicted. This result was experimentally confirmed in this dissertation by diode and solar cell device measurements of both n +/p and p+/n GaAs cells

  16. pFUnit 3.0 Tutorial Advanced

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This tutorial will introduce Fortran developers to unit-testing and test-driven development (TDD) using pFUnit. As with other unit-testing frameworks, pFUnit, simplifies the process of writing, collecting, and executing tests while providing clear diagnostic messages for failing tests. pFUnit specifically targets the development of scientific-technical software written in Fortran and includes customized features such as: assertions for multi-dimensional arrays, distributed (MPI) and thread-based (OpenMP) parallellism, and flexible parameterized tests.These sessions will include numerous examples and hands-on exercises that gradually build in complexity. Attendees are expected to have working knowledge of F90, but familiarity with object-oriented syntax in F2003 and MPI will be of benefit for the more advanced examples. By the end of the tutorial the audience should feel comfortable in applying pFUnit within their own development environment.

  17. An isoflux antenna for a low earth orbit satellite mobile communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, C.-H. A.; Jung, P.; Raguenet, G.

    1992-03-01

    In this paper a satellite antenna for a low earth orbit satellite mobile communication system is described. The proposed communication system employs TDD-FD-CDMA (time division duplexing-frequency division-code division multiple access) technique which imposes certain constraints on the antenna design. The antenna discussed in this paper employs six spot beams in conjunction with the CDMA technology to allow the frequency spectrum reuse. The antenna radiation pattern in each beam is shaped to compensate for the path loss differences caused by the slant range differences from the spacecraft to different points on earth. This design provides an isometric radiation flux density on earth within each beam to mitigate the potential near/far problems in a CDMA system. Additional constraints on the antenna design include low profile, light weight and easy deployment to meet the requirements of small satellite implementation of the system.

  18. High-quality vertical light emitting diodes fabrication by mechanical lift-off technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Po-Min; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2011-10-01

    We report the fabrication of mechanical lift-off high quality thin GaN with Hexagonal Inversed Pyramid (HIP) structures for vertical light emitting diodes (V-LEDs). The HIP structures were formed at the GaN/sapphire substrate interface under high temperature during KOH wet etching process. The average threading dislocation density (TDD) was estimated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and found the reduction from 2×109 to 1×108 cm-2. Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed that the compressive stress of GaN epilayer was effectively relieved in the thin-GaN LED with HIP structures. Finally, the mechanical lift-off process is claimed to be successful by using the HIP structures as a sacrificial layer during wafer bonding process.

  19. Concise NMR approach for molecular dynamics characterizations in organic solids.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Abil E; Courtier-Murias, Denis

    2013-08-22

    Molecular dynamics characterisations in solids can be carried out selectively using dipolar-dephasing experiments. Here we show that the introduction of a sum of Lorentzian and Gaussian functions greatly improve fittings of the "intensity versus time" data for protonated carbons in dipolar-dephasing experiments. The Lorentzian term accounts for remote intra- and intermolecular (1)H-(13)C dipole-dipole interactions, which vary from one molecule to another or for different carbons within the same molecule. Thus, by separating contributions from weak remote interactions, more accurate Gaussian decay constants, T(dd), can be extracted for directly bonded (1)H-(13)C dipole-dipole interactions. Reorientations of the (1)H-(13)C bonds lead to the increase of T(dd), and by measuring dipolar-dephasing constants, insight can be gained into dynamics in solids. We have demonstrated advantages of the method using comparative dynamics studies in the α and γ polymorphs of glycine, cyclic amino acids L-proline, DL-proline and trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline, the Ala residue in different dipeptides, as well as adamantane and hexamethylenetetramine. It was possible to distinguish subtle differences in dynamics of different carbon sites within a molecule in polymorphs and in L- and DL-forms. The presence of overall molecular motions is shown to lead to particularly large differences in dipolar-dephasing experiments. The differences in dynamics can be attributed to differences in noncovalent interactions. In the case of hexamethylenetetramine, for example, the presence of C-H···N interactions leads to nearly rigid molecules. Overall, the method allows one to gain insight into the role of noncovalent interactions in solids and their influence on the molecular dynamics. PMID:23879450

  20. Balancing Uplink and Downlink under Asymmetric Traffic Environments Using Distributed Receive Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Illsoo; Lee, Byong Ok; Lee, Kwang Bok

    Recently, multimedia services are increasing with the widespread use of various wireless applications such as web browsers, real-time video, and interactive games, which results in traffic asymmetry between the uplink and downlink. Hence, time division duplex (TDD) systems which provide advantages in efficient bandwidth utilization under asymmetric traffic environments have become one of the most important issues in future mobile cellular systems. It is known that two types of intercell interference, referred to as crossed-slot interference, additionally arise in TDD systems; the performances of the uplink and downlink transmissions are degraded by BS-to-BS crossed-slot interference and MS-to-MS crossed-slot interference, respectively. The resulting performance unbalance between the uplink and downlink makes network deployment severely inefficient. Previous works have proposed intelligent time slot allocation algorithms to mitigate the crossed-slot interference problem. However, they require centralized control, which causes large signaling overhead in the network. In this paper, we propose to change the shape of the cellular structure itself. The conventional cellular structure is easily transformed into the proposed cellular structure with distributed receive antennas (DRAs). We set up statistical Markov chain traffic model and analyze the bit error performances of the conventional cellular structure and proposed cellular structure under asymmetric traffic environments. Numerical results show that the uplink and downlink performances of the proposed cellular structure become balanced with the proper number of DRAs and thus the proposed cellular structure is notably cost-effective in network deployment compared to the conventional cellular structure. As a result, extending the conventional cellular structure into the proposed cellular structure with DRAs is a remarkably cost-effective solution to support asymmetric traffic environments in future mobile cellular

  1. Systemic antifungal prescribing in neonates and children: outcomes from the Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children (ARPEC) Study.

    PubMed

    Lestner, J M; Versporten, A; Doerholt, K; Warris, A; Roilides, E; Sharland, M; Bielicki, J; Goossens, H

    2015-02-01

    The appropriate use of systemic antifungals is vital in the prevention and treatment of invasive fungal infection (IFI) in immunosuppressed children and neonates. This multicenter observational study describes the inpatient prescribing practice of antifungal drugs for children and neonates and identifies factors associated with prescribing variability. A single-day point prevalence study of antimicrobial use in hospitalized neonates and children was performed between October and December 2012. The data were entered through a study-specific Web-based portal using a standardized data entry protocol. Data were recorded from 17,693 patients from 226 centers. A total of 136 centers recorded data from 1,092 children and 380 neonates receiving at least one antifungal agent. The most frequently prescribed systemic antifungals were fluconazole (n=355) and amphotericin B deoxycholate (n=195). The most common indications for antifungal administration in children were medical prophylaxis (n=325), empirical treatment of febrile neutropenia (n=122), and treatment of confirmed or suspected IFI (n=100 [14%]). The treatment of suspected IFI in low-birthweight neonates accounted for the majority of prescriptions in the neonatal units (n=103). An analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated no significant effect of clinical indication (prophylaxis or treatment of systemic or localized infection) on the total daily dose (TDD). Fewer than one-half of the patients (n=371) received a TDD within the dosing range recommended in the current guidelines. Subtherapeutic doses were prescribed in 416 cases (47%). The predominance of fluconazole and high incidence of subtherapeutic doses in participating hospitals may contribute to suboptimal clinical outcomes and an increased predominance of resistant pathogenic fungi. A global consensus on antifungal dosing and coordinated stewardship programs are needed to promote the consistent and appropriate use of antifungal drugs in neonates and children

  2. Active layer thermal monitoring of a Dry Valley of the Ellsworth Mountains, Continental Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto; Michel, Roberto; Souza, Karoline; Senra, Eduardo; Bremer, Ulisses

    2015-04-01

    The Ellsworth Mountains occur along the southern edge of the Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf and are subdivided by the Minnesota Glacier into the Heritage Range to the east and the Sentinel Range to the West. The climate of the Ellsworth Mountains is strongly controlled by proximity to the Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf and elevation. The mean annual air temperature at the 1,000 m level is estimated to be -25°C, and the average annual accumulation of water-equivalent precipitation likely ranges from 150 to 175 mm yr-1 (Weyant, 1966). The entire area is underlain by continuous permafrost of unknown thickness. Based on data collected from 22 pits, 41% of the sites contained dry permafrost below 70 cm, 27% had ice-cemented permafrost within 70 cm of the surface, 27% had bedrock within 70 cm, and 5% contained an ice-core (Bockheim, unpublished; Schaefer et al., 2015). Dry-frozen permafrost, which may be unique to Antarctica, appears to form from sublimation of moisture in ice-cemented permafrost over time. Active-layer depths in drift sheets of the Ellsworth Mountains range from 15 to 50 cm (Bockheim, unpublished); our understanding of Antarctic permafrost is poor, especially at the continent. The active layer monitoring sites were installed at Edson Hills, Ellsworth_Mountains, in the summer of 2012, and consist of thermistors (accuracy ± 0.2 °C) installed at 1 m above ground for air temperature measurements at two soil profiles on quartzite drift deposits, arranged in a vertical array (Lithic Haplorthel 886 m asl, 5 cm, 10 cm, 30 cm and Lithic Anyorthel 850 m asl, 5 cm, 10 cm, 30 cm). All probes were connected to a Campbell Scientific CR 1000 data logger recording data at hourly intervals from January 2nd 2012 until December 29th 2013. We calculated the thawing days (TD), freezing days (FD); isothermal days (ID), freeze thaw days (FTD), thawing degree days (TDD) and freezing degree days (FDD); all according to Guglielmin et al. (2008). Temperature at 5 cm reaches a maximum

  3. V-Go Insulin Delivery System Versus Multiple Daily Insulin Injections for Patients With Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Winter, Abigail; Lintner, Michaela; Knezevich, Emily

    2015-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus affects over 29.1 million Americans, diagnosed and undiagnosed. Achieving and maintaining glycemic control for these patients is of extreme importance when working to prevent complications and improve quality of life for patients. The V-Go is a newly developed insulin delivery system. The push of a button inserts a needle into the patient once daily and remains attached for 24 hours. The V-Go is designed to release a set basal rate throughout the day, while allowing patients to provide up to 36 units of on-demand bolus insulin with the manual click of 2 buttons. It is a spring-loaded device filled daily with rapid-acting insulin that runs without the use of batteries or computer software. The main objective of this prospective active comparator study was to observe the A1C lowering effects of multiple daily insulin injections (MDII) versus the use of the V-Go insulin delivery system for patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus over a 3-month period. In addition, the effect on insulin requirement for these patients was assessed with secondary comparisons of weight, blood pressure, prevalence of hypoglycemic events, and quality of life before and after 3 months of intensified insulin therapy with regular monitoring by a clinical pharmacist at an internal medicine clinic. The average A1C lowering experienced by the 3 patients in the V-Go group was 1.5%, while the average A1C change in the 3 patients in the MDII group was an increase of 0.2%. All patients in the V-Go group experienced a decrease in insulin total daily dose (TDD), with an average decrease of 26.3 units. All patients in the MDII group experienced an increase in insulin TDD with an average of 15 units daily to achieve therapeutic goals individualized for each patient. All patients who underwent intensification of insulin therapy experienced an increase in subjective quality of life (QOL) as determined using the Diabetes-39 (D-39) questionnaire, though QOL results lacked

  4. Hydrothermal processing of lead titanate powders and thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Chad Robert

    The influence of processing parameters on the formation and morphology of hydrothermally derived lead titanate (PbTiO3) powders was investigated. These experimental findings were then used to establish hydrothermal synthesis conditions under which continuous sub-micron PbTiO3 thin films could be processed. PbTiO3 powder was synthesized by suspending nanocrystalline powders of TiO2 in aqueous solutions of KOH and Pb(CH3COO) 2.3H2O at temperatures ranging from 120 to 200°C. PbTiO3 growth initiated in the <100> exposing (001) surfaces, and resulted in a faceted platelet morphology. Particle growth proceeded by further nucleation and growth on existing (001) surfaces. Through repeated dissolution and precipitation, the platelet clusters coarsened into larger cuboidal particles. PbTiO3 particle size was controlled by either inhibiting or promoting dissolution-precipitation. Dissolution-precipitation was inhibited by lowering the KOH concentration, reaction temperature, or maintaining an excess of Pb relative to Ti ions in solution, while it was promoted by increasing the KOH concentration and temperature. Coarsening of PbTiO3 particles coincided with decreases in: the x-ray diffraction (XRD) peak breadth, the asymmetry of l component XRD reflections, and the c-axis length. PbTiO3 and PbTiO3/polymer thin films were synthesized from a metallo-organic precursor on metallized quartz substrates. Titanium dimethoxy dineodecanoate (TDD) was spin-cast onto the substrates and converted to polycrystalline TiO2 via hydrolysis in deionized water for 5 h at 80°C. Polycrystalline PbTiO3 films were then formed by reacting the TiO2 films for 4 h at 200°C in aqueous solutions of KOH and Pb(CH3COO)2.3H 2O. Low KOH concentrations suppressed film coarsening, thereby facilitating the formation of fine-grain continuous PbTiO3 films. PbTiO 3/polymer thin films were processed in the same manner after first dissolving TDD and a polystyrene/polybutadiene triblock copolymer in p-xylene. Pb

  5. Clinical Data Miner: An Electronic Case Report Form System With Integrated Data Preprocessing and Machine-Learning Libraries Supporting Clinical Diagnostic Model Research

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bosch, Thierry; De Moor, Bart; Timmerman, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Background Using machine-learning techniques, clinical diagnostic model research extracts diagnostic models from patient data. Traditionally, patient data are often collected using electronic Case Report Form (eCRF) systems, while mathematical software is used for analyzing these data using machine-learning techniques. Due to the lack of integration between eCRF systems and mathematical software, extracting diagnostic models is a complex, error-prone process. Moreover, due to the complexity of this process, it is usually only performed once, after a predetermined number of data points have been collected, without insight into the predictive performance of the resulting models. Objective The objective of the study of Clinical Data Miner (CDM) software framework is to offer an eCRF system with integrated data preprocessing and machine-learning libraries, improving efficiency of the clinical diagnostic model research workflow, and to enable optimization of patient inclusion numbers through study performance monitoring. Methods The CDM software framework was developed using a test-driven development (TDD) approach, to ensure high software quality. Architecturally, CDM’s design is split over a number of modules, to ensure future extendability. Results The TDD approach has enabled us to deliver high software quality. CDM’s eCRF Web interface is in active use by the studies of the International Endometrial Tumor Analysis consortium, with over 4000 enrolled patients, and more studies planned. Additionally, a derived user interface has been used in six separate interrater agreement studies. CDM's integrated data preprocessing and machine-learning libraries simplify some otherwise manual and error-prone steps in the clinical diagnostic model research workflow. Furthermore, CDM's libraries provide study coordinators with a method to monitor a study's predictive performance as patient inclusions increase. Conclusions To our knowledge, CDM is the only eCRF system

  6. Efficiency improvement of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with reactive plasma deposited AlN nucleation layer on patterned sapphire substrate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The flip chip ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (FC UV-LEDs) with a wavelength of 365 nm are developed with the ex situ reactive plasma deposited (RPD) AlN nucleation layer on patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) by an atmospheric pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (AP MOCVD). The ex situ RPD AlN nucleation layer can significantly reduce dislocation density and thus improve the crystal quality of the GaN epitaxial layers. Utilizing high-resolution X-ray diffraction, the full width at half maximum of the rocking curve shows that the crystalline quality of the epitaxial layer with the (RPD) AlN nucleation layer is better than that with the low-temperature GaN (LT-GaN) nucleation layer. The threading dislocation density (TDD) is estimated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which shows the reduction from 6.8 × 107 cm−2 to 2.6 × 107 cm−2. Furthermore, the light output power (LOP) of the LEDs with the RPD AlN nucleation layer has been improved up to 30 % at a forward current of 350 mA compared to that of the LEDs grown on PSS with conventional LT-GaN nucleation layer. PMID:25258616

  7. Reconfigurable cognitive transceiver for opportunistic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maso, Marco; Baştuğ, Ejder; Cardoso, Leonardo S.; Debbah, Mérouane; Özdemir, Özgür

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we provide the implementation and analysis of a cognitive transceiver for opportunistic networks. We focus on a previously introduced dynamic spectrum access (DSA) - cognitive radio (CR) solution for primary-secondary coexistence in opportunistic orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) networks, called cognitive interference alignment (CIA). The implementation is based on software-defined radio (SDR) and uses GNU Radio and the universal software radio peripheral (USRP) as the implementation toolkit. The proposed flexible transceiver architecture allows efficient on-the-fly reconfigurations of the physical layer into OFDM, CIA or a combination of both. Remarkably, its responsiveness is such that the uplink and downlink channel reciprocity from the medium perspective, inherent to time division duplex (TDD) communications, can be effectively verified and exploited. We show that CIA provides approximately 10 dB of interference isolation towards the OFDM receiver with respect to a fully random precoder. This result is obtained under suboptimal conditions, which indicates that further gains are possible with a better optimization of the system. Our findings point towards the usefulness of a practical CIA implementation, as it yields a non-negligible performance for the secondary system, while providing interference shielding to the primary receiver.

  8. Incremental refinement of a multi-user-detection algorithm (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.; Götze, J.

    2003-05-01

    Multi-user detection is a technique proposed for mobile radio systems based on the CDMA principle, such as the upcoming UMTS. While offering an elegant solution to problems such as intra-cell interference, it demands very significant computational resources. In this paper, we present a high-level approach for reducing the required resources for performing multi-user detection in a 3GPP TDD multi-user system. This approach is based on a displacement representation of the parameters that describe the transmission system, and a generalized Schur algorithm that works on this representation. The Schur algorithm naturally leads to a highly parallel hardware implementation using CORDIC cells. It is shown that this hardware architecture can also be used to compute the initial displacement representation. It is very beneficial to introduce incremental refinement structures into the solution process, both at the algorithmic level and in the individual cells of the hardware architecture. We detail these approximations and present simulation results that confirm their effectiveness.

  9. Hand held analog television over WiMAX executed in SW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iancu, Daniel; Ye, Hua; Senthilvelan, Murugappan; Kotlyar, Vladimir; Glossner, John; Moudgill, Mayan; Agrawal, Sitij; Jinturkar, Sanjay; Iancu, Andrei; Ramadurai, Vaidyanathan; Nacer, Gary; Stanley, Stuart; Sima, Mihai; Takala, Jarmo

    2007-02-01

    This paper describes a device capable of performing the following tasks: it samples and decodes the composite video analog TV signal, it encodes the resulting RGB data into a MPEG-4 stream and sends it over a WiMAX link. On the other end of the link a similar device receives the WiMAX signal, in either TDD or FDD mode, decodes the MPEG data and displays it on the LCD display. The device can be a hand held device, such as a mobile phone or a PDA. The algorithms for the analog TV, WiMAX physical layer, WiMAX MAC and the MPEG encoder/decoder are executed entirely in software in real time, using the Sandbridge Technologies' low power SB3011 digital signal processor. The SB3011 multithreaded digital signal processor includes four DSP cores with eight threads each, and one ARM processor. The execution of the algorithms requires the entire four cores for the FDD mode. The WiMAX MAC is executed on the ARM processor.

  10. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT ENHANCERS ON THE TRANSDERMAL PERMEATION OF INSLUIN ANALOG

    PubMed Central

    Yerramsetty, K. M.; Rachakonda, V. K.; Neely, B. J.; Madihally, S. V.; Gasem, K. A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Using chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs), transdermal drug delivery (TDD) offers an alternative route for insulin administration, wherein the CPEs reversibly reduce the barrier resistance of the skin. However, there is a lack of sufficient information concerning the effect of CPE chemical structure on insulin permeation. To address this limitation, we examined the effect of CPE functional groups on the permeation of insulin. A virtual design algorithm that incorporates quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models for predicting the CPE properties was used to identify 43 potential CPEs. This set of CPEs was prescreened using a resistance technique, and the 22 best CPEs were selected. Next, standard permeation experiments in Franz cells were performed to quantify insulin permeation. Our results indicate that specific functional groups are not directly responsible for enhanced insulin permeation. Rather, permeation enhancement is produced by molecules that exhibit positive log Kow values and possess at least one hydrogen donor or acceptor. Toluene was the only exception among the 22 potential CPEs considered. In addition, toxicity analyses of the 22 CPEs were performed. A total of eight CPEs were both highly enhancing (permeability coefficient at least four times the control value) and non-toxic, five of which are new discoveries. PMID:20667506

  11. Free and bound excitonic effects in Al0.5Ga0.5N/Al0.35Ga0.65N MQWs with different Si-doping levels in the well layers

    PubMed Central

    He, Chenguang; Qin, Zhixin; Xu, Fujun; Hou, Mengjun; Zhang, Shan; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Xinqiang; Ge, Weikun; Shen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Free exciton (FX) and bound exciton (BX) in Al0.5Ga0.5N/Al0.35Ga0.65N multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with different Si-doping levels in the well layers are investigated by photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Low temperature (10 K) PL spectra identify a large binding energy of 87.4 meV for the BX in undoped sample, and 63.6 meV for the BX in Si-doped (2 × 1018 cm−3) sample. They are attributed to O-bound and Si-bound excitons, respectively. The large binding energies of BX are assumed to originate from the strong quantum confinement in the quantum wells, which also leads to a stronger FX PL peak intensity in comparison with BX at 10 K. Si-doping is found to suppress the FX quenching by reducing threading dislocation density (TDD) in the well layers, leading to a significant improvement of IQE from 33.7% to 45%. PMID:26267249

  12. Silicon doping of HVPE GaN bulk-crystals avoiding tensile strain generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Patrick; Röder, Christian; Habel, Frank; Leibiger, Gunnar; Beyer, Franziska C.; Gärtner, Günter; Eichler, Stefan; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Doped GaN:Si crystals were grown in a commercially available vertical HVPE reactor. The templates used for the HVPE heteroepitaxy were so-called FACELO seeds, with a starting GaN layer thickness of 3-4 μm. The FWHM of the 0002 and the 30\\bar{3}2 reflection of the HVPE-grown GaN:Si crystals with a thickness of 3 mm are {{31}\\prime\\prime} and {{78}\\prime\\prime} , respectively, indicating excellent crystal quality. Hall measurements resulted in a charge carrier concentration of 1.5× {{10}18} cm-3, while exhibiting a mobility of 250 cm-2V-1 s-1. These values coincide with the values extracted from FTIR measurements and the lineshape fitting of the A1(LO)/plasmon coupled phonon mode of the confocal Raman measurements. SIMS investigations yielded a silicon atom concentration of 1.8× {{10}18} cm-3. This indicates an activation of the dopant atoms of approximately 90%. The TDD determined by CL dark spot counting was 2× {{10}6} cm-2. Within the measurement accuracy, the confocal Raman measurements did not show a tensile strain generation due to the silicon doping with resulting charge carrier concentrations of 1.5× {{10}18} cm-3.

  13. Bioinspired Nanonetworks for Targeted Cancer Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Raz, Nasibeh Rady; Akbarzadeh-T, Mohammad-R; Tafaghodi, Mohsen

    2015-12-01

    A biomimicry approach to nanonetworks is proposed here for targeted cancer drug delivery (TDD). The swarm of bioinspired nanomachines utilizes the blood distribution network and chemotaxis to carry drug through the vascular system to the cancer site, recognized by a high concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Our approach is multi-scale and includes processes that occur both within cells and with their neighbors. The proposed bionanonetwork takes advantage of several organic processes, some of which already occur within the human body, such as a plate-like structure similar to those of red blood cells for more environmental contact; a berry fruit architecture for its internal multi-foams architecture; the penetrable structure of cancer cells, tissue, as well as the porous structure of the capillaries for drug penetration; state of glycocalyx for ligand-receptor adhesion; as well as changes in pH state of blood and O 2 release for nanomachine communication. For a more appropriate evaluation, we compare our work with a conventional chemotherapy approach using a mathematical model of cancer under actual experimental parameter settings. Simulation results show the merits of the proposed method in targeted cancer therapy by improving the densities of the relevant cancer cell types and VEGF concentration, while following more organic and natural processes. PMID:26529771

  14. Behavior of nitrogen in Si crystal during irradiation and post-annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Naohisa; Oyama, Hidenori; Watanabe, Kaori; Seki, Hirofumi; Kawamura, Yuichi

    2014-02-21

    Radiation induced complexes in nitrogen (N) -doped silicon crystal was investigated by highly sensitive infrared absorption spectroscopy. The absorption by N{sub 2} pair was reduced by the electron irradiation in FZ crystals. The absorptions appeared on both sides of N{sub 2} line at 766 cm{sup −1}, at about 725 and 778 cm{sup −1}. By the annealing, N{sub 2} lines recovered a little at 600 °C and mostly at 800 °C. The above new absorption lines reduced by the annealing at lower temperatures and other absorption appeared. In CZ silicon, N{sub 2} lines did not change by the irradiation. Dominant absorption in low carbon FZ silicon was that of C-rich type complexes, VO and I{sub n}C{sub i}O{sub im}(n=0–3, m=0,1). Dominant absorption in the irradiated low carbon CZ silicon was that of C-lean type complexes I{sub n}O{sub 2+mi}(n=1, 2, m=0, 1), and the decrease of C-lean type O{sub 2i} and TDD was observed. By the annealing of CZ Si, VO{sub n} (n=2–4) formation and annihilation was observed.

  15. Fluidized bed steam reformed mineral waste form performance testing to support Hanford Supplemental Low Activity Waste Immobilization Technology Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C. M.; Pierce, E. M.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Crawford, C. L.; Daniel, W. E.; Fox, K. M.; Herman, C. C.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.; Brown, C. F.; Qafoku, N. P.; Neeway, J. J.; Valenta, M. M.; Gill, G. A.; Swanberg, D. J.; Robbins, R. A.; Thompson, L. E.

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the benchscale testing with simulant and radioactive Hanford Tank Blends, mineral product characterization and testing, and monolith testing and characterization. These projects were funded by DOE EM-31 Technology Development & Deployment (TDD) Program Technical Task Plan WP-5.2.1-2010-001 and are entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-Level Waste Form Qualification”, Inter-Entity Work Order (IEWO) M0SRV00054 with Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Savannah River Site (SRS) Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”, and IEWO M0SRV00080, “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form Qualification Testing Using SRS Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”. This was a multi-organizational program that included Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), THOR® Treatment Technologies (TTT), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Office of River Protection (ORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS). The SRNL testing of the non-radioactive pilot-scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) products made by TTT, subsequent SRNL monolith formulation and testing and studies of these products, and SRNL Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) radioactive campaign were funded by DOE Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) Phase 2 Project in connection with a Work-For-Others (WFO) between SRNL and TTT.

  16. Transdermal Drug Delivery Aided by an Ultrasound Contrast Agent: An In Vitro Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Donghee; Yoon, Jinhee; Park, Jingam; Jung, Byungjo; Park, Hyunjin; Seo, Jongbum

    2010-01-01

    Sonophoresis temporarily increases skin permeability such that medicine can be delivered transdermally. Cavitation is believed to be the predominant mechanism in sonophoresis. In this study, an ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) strategy was adopted instead of low frequency ultrasound to assure that cavitation occurred, and the efficacy of sonophoresis with UCA was quantitatively analyzed by optical measurements. The target drug used in this study was 0.1 % Definity® in 70% glycerol, which was delivered into porcine skin samples. Glycerol was used because it is an optical clearing agent, and the efficiency of glycerol delivery could be analyzed with optical measurements. The applied acoustic pressure was approximately 600 kPa at 1 MHz ultrasound with a 10% duty cycle for 60 minutes. Experimental results indicated that the measured relative contrast (RC) after sonophoresis with UCA was approximately 80% higher than RC after sonophoresis without UCA. In addition, the variance of RC was also reduced by more than 50% with the addition of a UCA. The use of a UCA appeared to increase cavitation, demonstrating that the use of a UCA can be effective in transdermal drug delivery (TDD). PMID:20448793

  17. Rapid Prototyping of High Performance Signal Processing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sane, Nimish

    -level application specification consisting of topological patterns in various aspects of the design flow. 2. We have formulated the core functional dataflow (CFDF) model of computation, which can be used to model a wide variety of deterministic dynamic dataflow behaviors. We have also presented key features of the CFDF model and tools based on these features. These tools provide support for heterogeneous dataflow behaviors, an intuitive and common framework for functional specification, support for functional simulation, portability from several existing dataflow models to CFDF, integrated emphasis on minimally-restricted specification of actor functionality, and support for efficient static, quasi-static, and dynamic scheduling techniques. 3. We have developed a generalized scheduling technique for CFDF graphs based on decomposition of a CFDF graph into static graphs that interact at run-time. Furthermore, we have refined this generalized scheduling technique using a new notion of "mode grouping," which better exposes the underlying static behavior. We have also developed a scheduling technique for a class of dynamic applications that generates parameterized looped schedules (PLSs), which can handle dynamic dataflow behavior without major limitations on compile-time predictability. 4. We have demonstrated the use of dataflow-based approaches for design and implementation of radio astronomy DSP systems using an application example of a tunable digital downconverter (TDD) for spectrometers. Design and implementation of this module has been an integral part of this thesis work. This thesis demonstrates a design flow that consists of a high-level software prototype, analysis, and simulation using the dataflow interchange format (DIF) tool, and integration of this design with the existing tool flow for the target implementation on an FPGA platform, called interconnect break-out board (IBOB). We have also explored the trade-off between low hardware cost for fixed configurations of

  18. Delimiting the genus Staphylococcus through description of Macrococcus caseolyticus gen. nov., comb. nov. and Macrococcus equipercicus sp. nov., and Macrococcus bovicus sp. no. and Macrococcus carouselicus sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Kloos, W E; Ballard, D N; George, C G; Webster, J A; Hubner, R J; Ludwig, W; Schleifer, K H; Fiedler, F; Schubert, K

    1998-07-01

    Four species of the newly proposed genus Macrococcus, namely macrococcus caseolyticus gen. nov., comb. nov. (formerly Staphylococcus caseolyticus Schleifer, Kilpper-Bälz, Fischer, Faller and Endl 1982, 19VP), Macrococcus equipercicus sp. nov., Macrococcus bovicus sp. nov. Macrococcus carouselicus sp. nov., are described on the basis of a phylogenetic analysis comparing 16S rRNA sequences, DNA-DNA liquid hybridization, DNA base composition, normalized ribotype patterns, macrorestriction pattern analysis and estimation of genome size using PFGE, cell wall composition, phenotypic characteristics and plasmid profiles. Compared with their closet relatives, members of the genus Staphylococcus, these organisms demonstrated significantly lower 16S rRNA sequence similarities (93.4-95.3%), higher DNA G+C content (38-45 mol%), absence of cell wall teichoic acids (with the possible exception of M. caseolyticus), unique ribotype pattern types and macrorestriction patterns, smaller genome size (approx. 1500-1800 kb) and generally larger Gram-stained cell size (1.1-2.5% microns in diameter). Macrococci can be distinguished from most species of staphylococci (except Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus vitulus and Staphylococcus lentus) by thier oxidase activity. The four Macrococcus species can be distinguished from one another on the basis of DNA-DNA hybridization, ribotype pattern types, macrorestriction patterns and their phenotypic properties, including colony morphology, cell morphology, haemolysins, Staphy Latex agglutination, acid production from a variety of carbohydrates, acetoin production, nitrate reduction, aesculin hydrolysis, and DNase and urease activities. The type species is M. equipercicus. The type strains of M. equipercicus, M. caseolyticus, M. bovicus and M. carouselicus are ATTCC 51831T (= DD 9350T) ATCC 13548T (= TDD 4508T) (Schleifer et al. 1982, ATCC 51825T (= DD 4516T) and ATCC 51828T (= DD 9348), respectively. PMID:9734040

  19. Subcomponent Vaccine Based on CTA1-DD Adjuvant with Incorporated UreB Class II Peptides Stimulates Protective Helicobacter pylori Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Nedrud, John G.; Bagheri, Nayer; Schön, Karin; Xin, Wei; Bergroth, Hilda; Eliasson, Dubravka Grdic; Lycke, Nils Y.

    2013-01-01

    A mucosal vaccine against Helicobacter pylori infection could help prevent gastric cancers and peptic ulcers. While previous attempts to develop such a vaccine have largely failed because of the requirement for safe and effective adjuvants or large amounts of well defined antigens, we have taken a unique approach to combining our strong mucosal CTA1-DD adjuvant with selected peptides from urease B (UreB). The protective efficacy of the selected peptides together with cholera toxin (CT) was first confirmed. However, CT is a strong adjuvant that unfortunately is precluded from clinical use because of its toxicity. To circumvent this problem we have developed a derivative of CT, the CTA1-DD adjuvant, that has been found safe in non-human primates and equally effective compared to CT when used intranasally. We genetically fused the selected peptides into the CTA1-DD plasmid and found after intranasal immunizations of Balb/c mice using purified CTA1-DD with 3 copies of an H. pylori urease T cell epitope (CTA1-UreB3T-DD) that significant protection was stimulated against a live challenge infection. Protection was, however, weaker than with the gold standard, bacterial lysate+CT, but considering that we only used a single epitope in nanomolar amounts the results convey optimism. Protection was associated with enhanced Th1 and Th17 immunity, but immunizations in IL-17A-deficient mice revealed that IL-17 may not be essential for protection. Taken together, we have provided evidence for the rational design of an effective mucosal subcomponent vaccine against H. pylori infection based on well selected protective epitopes from relevant antigens incorporated into the CTA1-DD adjuvant platform. PMID:24391754

  20. Subcomponent vaccine based on CTA1-DD adjuvant with incorporated UreB class II peptides stimulates protective Helicobacter pylori immunity.

    PubMed

    Nedrud, John G; Bagheri, Nayer; Schön, Karin; Xin, Wei; Bergroth, Hilda; Eliasson, Dubravka Grdic; Lycke, Nils Y

    2013-01-01

    A mucosal vaccine against Helicobacter pylori infection could help prevent gastric cancers and peptic ulcers. While previous attempts to develop such a vaccine have largely failed because of the requirement for safe and effective adjuvants or large amounts of well defined antigens, we have taken a unique approach to combining our strong mucosal CTA1-DD adjuvant with selected peptides from urease B (UreB). The protective efficacy of the selected peptides together with cholera toxin (CT) was first confirmed. However, CT is a strong adjuvant that unfortunately is precluded from clinical use because of its toxicity. To circumvent this problem we have developed a derivative of CT, the CTA1-DD adjuvant, that has been found safe in non-human primates and equally effective compared to CT when used intranasally. We genetically fused the selected peptides into the CTA1-DD plasmid and found after intranasal immunizations of Balb/c mice using purified CTA1-DD with 3 copies of an H. pylori urease T cell epitope (CTA1-UreB3T-DD) that significant protection was stimulated against a live challenge infection. Protection was, however, weaker than with the gold standard, bacterial lysate+CT, but considering that we only used a single epitope in nanomolar amounts the results convey optimism. Protection was associated with enhanced Th1 and Th17 immunity, but immunizations in IL-17A-deficient mice revealed that IL-17 may not be essential for protection. Taken together, we have provided evidence for the rational design of an effective mucosal subcomponent vaccine against H. pylori infection based on well selected protective epitopes from relevant antigens incorporated into the CTA1-DD adjuvant platform. PMID:24391754

  1. Weight-based antibiotic dosing in a real-world European study of complicated skin and soft-tissue infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Lawson, W; Nathwani, D; Eckmann, C; Corman, S; Stephens, J; Solem, C; Macahilig, C; Li, J; Baillon-Plot, N; Charbonneau, C; Haider, S

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to characterize real-world dosing of weight-based intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy in patients hospitalized for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) complicated skin and soft-tissue infections (cSSTIs). This was a subgroup analysis of a retrospective chart review that captured data from 12 European countries. The study included patients ≥18 years old, hospitalized with an MRSA cSSTI between 1 July 2010 and 30 June 2011 and discharged alive by 31 July 2011. Patients treated with IV vancomycin, teicoplanin or daptomycin at any stage during hospitalization were included in this analysis. Analyses were conducted at the regimen level (dosing in mg/kg or in mg, frequency, and total daily dose (TDD)), with potentially multiple regimens per patient, and the patient level, categorizing patients into low, standard (labelled) and high dosing groups according to their initial MRSA-targeted regimen. Among the 1502 patients in the parent study, 998 patients contributed a total of 1050 daptomycin, teicoplanin or vancomycin regimens. Across all regimens, the mean initial TDDs were 6.3 ± 1.9 mg/kg for daptomycin, 10.5 ± 4.9 mg/kg for teicoplanin and 28.5 ± 11.5 mg/kg for vancomycin. A total of 789 patients received first-line therapy with one of the above antibiotics. The majority of patients receiving first-line teicoplanin and daptomycin (96% and 80%, respectively) received higher than labelled cSSTI doses, whereas vancomycin doses were lower than labelled doses in >40% of patients. These real-world data reveal significant deviation from labelled antibiotic dosing in 12 European countries and the potential for suboptimal outcomes in patients with MRSA cSSTIs. PMID:26206621

  2. Impact of the H 2 anneal on the structural and optical properties of thin and thick Ge layers on Si; Low temperature surface passivation of Ge by Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, J. M.; Abbadie, A.; Barnes, J. P.; Fédéli, J. M.; Billon, T.; Vivien, L.

    2010-02-01

    Using a low temperature/high temperature strategy, we have grown thin (0.27 μm) and thick (2.45 μm) Ge layers on Si(0 0 1) substrates that we have submitted to various constant temperature (750 °C) or cyclic (750 °C/890 °C) H 2 anneals, the objective being to identify those yielding the smoothest surfaces, the lowest threading dislocations densities (TDDs) and the highest near infra-red optical absorptions. The best trade-off for thin layers was 750 °C, 60 min H 2 anneals. Using longer duration 750 °C anneals and especially 750 °C/890 °C cyclic anneals indeed yielded rougher surfaces and vastly degraded optical absorption (deleterious formation of GeSi alloys). By contrast, short 750 °C/890 °C thermal cyclings yielded the best metrics in thick Ge layers (while being at the same time the best in terms of throughput): root mean square surface roughness around 0.8 nm, TDD around 10 7 cm -2, slightly tensily-strained layers (which a plus for optical absorption as the absorption edge is shifted to higher wavelengths), a limited penetration of Si into Ge (and thus absorption coefficients at 1.3 and 1.55 μm almost equal to those of as-grown layers), etc. We have also described the low temperature (450 °C/525 °C) process that we have developed to passivate Ge surfaces thanks to SiH 4 prior to gate stack deposition. Si layer thickness should be below 20 Å in order to have conformal deposition. A transition of the growth front to 3 dimensions has indeed been evidenced for 20 Å and higher.

  3. Bidirectional MIMO Channel Tracking Based on PASTd and Performance Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenberg, Livnat; Gannot (Eurasipmember), Sharon; Shayevitz, Ofer; Leshem, Amir; Zehavi, Ephraim

    2010-12-01

    We consider a bidirectional time division duplex (TDD) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system with time-varying channel and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). A blind bidirectional channel tracking algorithm, based on the projection approximation subspace tracking (PAST) algorithm, is applied in both terminals. The resulting singular value decomposition (SVD) of the channel matrix is then used to approximately diagonalize the channel. The proposed method is applied to an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing-(OFDM-)MIMO setting with a typical indoor time-domain reflection model. The computational cost of the proposed algorithm, compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms, is relatively small. The Kalman filter is utilized for establishing a benchmark for the obtained performance of the proposed tracking algorithm. The performance degradation relative to a full channel state information (CSI) due to the application of the tracking algorithm is evaluated in terms of average effective rate and the outage probability and compared with alternative tracking algorithms. The obtained results are also compared with a benchmark obtained by the Kalman filter with known input signal and channel characteristics. It is shown that the expected degradation in performance of frequency-domain algorithms (which do not exploit the smooth frequency response of the channel) is only minor compared with time-domain algorithms in a range of reasonable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels. The proposed bidirectional frequency-domain tracking algorithm, proposed in this paper, is shown to attain communication rates close to the benchmark and to outperform a competing algorithm. The paper is concluded by evaluating the proposed blind tracking method in terms of the outage probability and the symbol error rate (SER) versus. SNR for binary phase shift keying (BPSK) and 4-Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellations.

  4. A Multi-billion Parcel Atmospheric Trajectory Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, C.; Clune, T. L.; Lait, L. R.; Ranawake, U.; Burns, R. W.

    2009-12-01

    We present a new parallel implementation of an atmospheric trajectory modelling framework which provides improved numerical accuracy, greater flexibility for specifying experiments, and sufficient raw performance to simultaneously simulate billions of parcel trajectories on suitable computing platforms. The application is parallelized using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library and can scale efficiently on a wide variety of modern computing platforms. The ability to treat such large numbers of parcels is expected to enable a new generation of experiments to explore questions related to global stratosphere-troposphere exchange, age-of-air spectra, and transport of trace gases and aerosols. The modelling framework is written in C++ for easy integration with other computing technologies. It also provides a great deal of flexibility by allowing users to select from (or add to) alternative subclasses for vertical coordinates (pressure, potential temperature), integration schemes (Runge-Kutta, Euler), meteorological data sources (NCEP/NCAR Reanalsyis, MERRA), data interpolation methods (linear, log-linear, splines), and output (parcel histories, summary statistics, min/max quantities encountered). Significantly improved numerical accuracy, especially near the poles, is provided by expressing integration in terms of purely geometric constructs which avoid various complications associated with spherical coordinates near the poles. The entire package has been rigorously developed using Test-Driven Development (TDD) which both provides confidence in the implementation and should also assist other developers that wish to extend the framework. Several tests are performed to demonstrate the fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration scheme with our spherical geometric constructs. Tilted solid body rotation provides a baseline synthetic wind field for assessing model performance, and a time-varying case is used to examine the errors introduced by interpolating linearly in time

  5. Growth Optimization of III-N Electronic Devices by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Elaheh

    InAlN has received significant attention due to its great potential for electronic and optoelectronic applications. In particular, In 0.18Al0.82N presents the advantage of being lattice-matched to GaN and simultaneously exhibiting a high spontaneous polarization charge, making In0.18 Al0.82N attractive for use as the barrier layer in high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs). However, in the case of InAlN growth by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE), a strong non-uniformity in the in-plane In distribution was observed for both N-face and metal-face In0.18Al 0.82N. This compositional inhomogeneity manifests itself as a columnar microstructure with AlN-rich cores (5-10 nm in width) and InN-rich intercolumn boundaries. Because of the large differences between the bandgaps and polarization of InN and AlN, this non-uniformity in InAlN composition could be a source of scattering, leading to mobility degradation in HEMTs. In this work, the growth conditions for high quality lattice-matched InAlN layers on free-standing GaN substrates were explored by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) in the N-rich regime. The microstructure of N-face InAlN layers, lattice-matched to GaN, was investigated by scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. Microstructural analysis showed an absence of the lateral composition modulation that was previously observed in InAlN films grown by PAMBE. Using same growth conditions for InAlN layer, N-face GaN/AlN/GaN/InAlN high-electron-mobility transistors with lattice-matched InAlN back barriers were grown directly on SiC. A room temperature two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) mobility of 1100cm2 V-1s-1 and 2DEG sheet charge density of 1.9 x1013 cm 2 was measured on these devices. However, the threading dislocation density (TDD) of GaN grown directly on SiC by PAMBE (≈2 x10 10 cm-2 ) is two orders of magnitude higher than GaN grown by MOCVD on SiC or sapphire (≈5 x10 8 cm-2). This high TDD can

  6. Alteration of skin hydration and its barrier function by vehicle and permeation enhancers: a study using TGA, FTIR, TEWL and drug permeation as markers.

    PubMed

    Shah, D K; Khandavilli, S; Panchagnula, R

    2008-09-01

    Vehicles and permeation enhancers (PEs) used in transdermal drug delivery (TDD) of a drug can affect skin hydration, integrity and permeation of the solute administered. This investigation was designed to study the effect of the most commonly used vehicles and PEs on rat skin hydration, barrier function and permeation of an amphiphilic drug, imipramine hydrochloride (IMH). An array of well-established techniques were used to confirm the findings of the study. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to determine changes in skin hydration. Alteration of the stratum corneum (SC) structure was investigated using FTIR studies. To monitor the barrier function alteration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurement and permeation studies were performed. Our findings indicate that with hydration, there was an increase in the bound water content of the skin, and pseudoequilibrium of hydration (a drastic decrease in hydration rate) was achieved at around 12 h. Hydration increased the ratio between amide-I and amide-II peaks in FTIR and reduced the C-H stretching peak area. Both propylene glycol (PG) and ethanol (EtOH) dehydrated skin, with the latter showing a predominant effect. Furthermore, it was confirmed that PG and EtOH decreased the bound water content due to alteration in the protein domains and extraction of SC lipids, respectively. The effect of hydration on the SC was found to be similar to that reported for temperature. Permeation studies revealed that the dehydration caused by vehicles decreased IMH flux, whereas the flux was enhanced by PEs. The role of partition was predominant for the permeation of IMH through dehydrated skin. A synergistic effect was observed for PG and menthol in the enhancement of IMH. Further findings provided strong evidence that PG affects protein domains and EtOH extracts lipids from the bilayer. Both PG and EtOH, with or without PEs, increased TEWL. Initial TEWL was well

  7. III-V/silicon germanium tandem solar cells on silicon substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, Kenneth J.

    The development of a cost-effective high voltage tandem solar cell that can be grown directly on a silicon (Si) platform can lead to a 34% increase in efficiency over the present best monocrystalline Si laboratory device. III-V devices are known to yield some of the highest efficiencies in photovoltaics, but the high cost of lattice matched substrates and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and device development make them prohibitively expensive in many markets. By utilizing silicon substrates and limiting the thickness of the III-V MOCVD material growth, this cost can be reduced. The leveraging technology of this initiative is a metamorphic silicon:germanium (SiGe) buffer between the silicon substrate and the active device layers. As developed by AmberWave Inc., it provides a low-dislocation interface for III-V nucleation and a high quality bottom cell grown by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition (RPCVD). This research first reports on the theoretical limits of a III-V/SiGe tandem solar cell. Results will evaluate multiple III-V materials for the determination of optimal material composition to be lattice-matched with SiGe. Following this, a more complex device simulation, incorporating all major loss mechanisms, is accomplished in order to predict ideal efficiency targets and evaluate present experimental structures. Results demonstrate a robust model capable of simulating a wide range of binary and ternary III-V devices. Predictions show the capability of a tandem device operating at 32.5% 1-sun efficiency without requiring TDD improvement beyond that of the present SiGe layers. Following simulations, experimental III-V structures are grown via MOCVD and characterized, indicating successful process development for growth of III-V materials on the SiGe platform. This growth is then validated via the design and development of experimental solar device structures. Each iteration, beginning with the single-junction windowless GaAsP solar cell and

  8. Adoption of Test Driven Development and Continuous Integration for the Development of the Trick Simulation Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, John M.

    2013-01-01

    fundamental design flaw. The benefits became obvious almost immediately, not just in the correctness of the individual functions and classes but also in the correctness and flexibility being added to the overall design. Creating code to be testable, and testing as it was created resulted not only in better working code, but also in better-organized, flexible, and readable (i.e., articulate) code. This was, in essence the Test-driven development (TDD) methodology created by Kent Beck. Seeing the benefits of Test Driven Development, other Trick components were refactored to make them more testable and tests were designed and implemented for them.

  9. The Impact of Software Culture on the Management of Community Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, J. A.; Pulsifer, P. L.; Sheffield, E.; Lewis, S.; Oldenburg, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge of the Arctic (ELOKA), a program hosted at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), supports the collection, curation, and distribution of Local and Traditional Knowledge (LTK) data, as well as some quantitative data products. Investigations involving LTK data often involve community participation, and therefore require flexible and robust user interfaces to support a reliable process of data collection and management. Often, investigators focused on LTK and community-based monitoring choose to use ELOKA's data services based on our ability to provide rapid proof-of-concepts and economical delivery of a usable product. To satisfy these two overarching criteria, ELOKA is experimenting with modifications to its software development culture both in terms of how the software applications are developed as well as the kind of software applications (or components) being developed. Over the past several years, NSIDC has shifted its software development culture from one of assigning individual scientific programmers to support particular principal investigators or projects, to an Agile Software Methodology implementation using Scrum practices. ELOKA has participated in this process by working with other product owners to schedule and prioritize development work which is then implemented by a team of application developers. Scrum, along with practices such as Test Driven Development (TDD) and paired programming, improves the quality of the software product delivered to the user community. To meet the need for rapid prototyping and to maximize product development and support with limited developer input, our software development efforts are now focused on creating a platform of application modules that can be quickly customized to suit the needs of a variety of LTK projects. This approach is in contrast to the strategy of delivering custom applications for individual projects. To date, we have integrated components of

  10. Nano-enabled sensors, electronics and energy source on polymer, paper and thread substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafalu, Pooria

    of tissues in a 3D topology would be a significant surgical advance. We have devised an integrated thread-based diagnostic (TDD) system with the ability to measure physical (strain and temperature) and chemical (pH and glucose) markers in the body in vivo. Such device was made from threads, which have been widely used in the apparel industry and is readily available as a low-cost biocompatible material.

  11. Epitaxial Deposition of Low-Defect Aluminum Nitride and Aluminum Gallium Nitride Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Rakesh

    ) emission line along with broader deep level-related bands, presumably due to donor-acceptor and band-acceptor transitions. Etch-pit density measurement revealed threading dislocation density of 1x109 cm-2, which is at least 5 times smaller than conventionally grown MOCVD films. AlN and AlGaN films grown on sapphire substrate tend to crack and even peel off beyond a critical thickness of 2 -- 5 mum. To prevent thick films from cracking, ELOG technique was utilized. This technique has been successfully employed to deposit several hundred micrometers thick crack-free GaN films, which demonstrate 2-3 orders of magnitude reduction in TDD. Crack-free thick layers of AlN and AlGaN were deposited using ELOG technique. MOCVD was used as the growth method due to improved material quality. Trimethylaluminum (TMAl), trimethylgallium (TMGa) and ammonia (NH3) were used as the precursors. The growth was performed under low pressure with H2 as the carrier gas. First about 2 mum thick AlGaN layers were deposited on c-plane sapphire substrates. Such thin AlGaN layers, grown without any dislocation reduction technique, usually show TDD in the mid 1010 cm-2 range. Linear trench patterns along [11¯00] AlGaN were fabricated in the AlGaN layers using conventional photolithography and RIE (reactive ion etching). The patterns included 2 mum wide mesas with 5 mum wide trenches. The trenched templates were reloaded into the MOCVD chamber for overgrowth of AlN and high Al-content AlGaN. The overgrowth was carried out at a temperature of 1200 °C with the growth rate of 1 to 2 mum/hr. Migration enhanced MOCVD (MEMOCVDRTM) [3] was combined with ELOG approach to develop a novel Migration Enhanced Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth (MELEO) technique [4]. As part of this novel technique, precursor pulses were varied to control the ratio of lateral/vertical growth rate. Coalescence related low-angle grain boundaries and edge dislocations were reduced by promoting coherent coalescence using MELEO technique

  12. Sorption and diffusion of selenium oxyanions in granitic rock.

    PubMed

    Ikonen, Jussi; Voutilainen, Mikko; Söderlund, Mervi; Jokelainen, Lalli; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Martin, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The processes controlling diffusion and sorption of radionuclides have been studied extensively in the laboratory, whereas, only a few in-situ experiments have been carried out in order to study in-situ diffusion over the long-term (several years). This is largely due to the fact that in-situ experiments are typically time consuming and cost intensive, and it is commonly accepted that laboratory scale tests are well-established approaches to characterizing the properties of geological media. In order to assess the relevance of laboratory experiments, the Swiss National Cooperative for Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) have been conducting extensive experiments in the Underground Rock Laboratory (URL) at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in order to study radionuclide transport and retention in-situ. One of the elements used in these experiments is non-radioactive selenium, as an analog for the radiotoxic isotope Se-79, which is present in radioactive waste. In this work, two laboratory through-diffusion experiments using selenium as a tracer were carried out in block (decimeter) scale rock specimens to support one of the ongoing radionuclide transport and retention in-situ experiment at the GTS mentioned above. The though-diffusion tests of selenium were performed under atmospheric conditions in both Kuru grey granite (KGG) and Grimsel granodiorite (GG). The decrease of selenium concentration in an inlet hole drilled into each of the rock samples and the breakthrough of selenium into sampling holes drilled around the inlet were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The effective diffusion (De) and distribution coefficients (Kd) of selenium were then determined from the changes of selenium concentration in the inlet and sampling holes using a Time-Domain Diffusion (TDD) simulations. In addition, Kd of selenium was measured by batch sorption experiments as a function of pH and Se concentration in atmospheric conditions and nitrogen

  13. Peak power minimization in indoor CDMA communications using clusters of antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolhassani, Bahman

    "Battery life" and "cost" constraints are presenting new challenges for the design of wireless networks. The major focus of past research on transmit power control, diversity, modulation and coding techniques has been limited to maximizing coverage and/or capacity for cellular telephone systems. However, for battery powered wireless handsets connected through indoor wireless links, the optimization objective is shifting from link efficiency to battery efficiency and cost. In this thesis, the battery life of handsets and the cost of network are both addressed for an indoor code division multiple access (CDMA) communications system using time division duplex (TDD). A wireless handset needs a large dynamic range transmitter amplifier in order to overcome channel path loss and fading. This makes the amplifier inefficient such that its power consumption becomes proportional to the peak transmit power. Therefore, the amplifier needs a large, heavy and expensive battery which lasts for only a few hours. Indoor wireless users, however, need small, light, low cost handsets with batteries that last for days rather than for a few hours. To achieve a long battery life for handsets, a system architecture is proposed in which each cell uses a central base station along with several radioports. The radioports placed at optimal or near-optimal locations in order to minimize the maximum path loss experienced by handsets. Each radioport may use more than one antenna to combat Rayleigh fading. The central base station selects the radioport that provides the strongest maximally ratio combined signal. An infra-structure cost model is developed for the proposed system, which depends on the peak transmit power capability of handsets and of other system parameters and performances. The number of parameters affecting the network infra-structure cost is high, which makes the cost minimization problematic. To avoid large computation time, a new network planning approach is proposed: its

  14. Developing New Electrolytes for Advanced Li-ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McOwen, Dennis Wayne

    synthesized for this investigation: dilithium 1,2,5-thiadiazolidine-3,4-dione-1,1-dioxide (Li2TDD), lithium ethyl N-trifluoroacetylcarbamate (LiETAC), lithium hexafluoroisopropoxide (LiHFI), lithium pentafluorophenolate (LiPFPO), and lithium 2-trifluoromethyl-4,5-dicyanoimidazolide (LiTDI). Using crystalline solvate structure analysis and electrolyte solvation numbers, each of these lithium salts were compared to more well-characterized lithium salts, such as LiPF6 and LiBF4. From this study, links between anion structural characteristics and the anion...Li+ cation interactions (i.e., ionic association strength) were made. From the screening of the five lithium salts that were synthesized, LiTDI was determined to be a promising candidate for Li-ion battery electrolytes. Further characterization of carbonate- and mixed carbonate-LiTDI electrolytes (e.g., ionic conductivity) confirmed this to be the case. Coin cells containing LiTDI or LiPF6 electrolytes showed that cells with either electrolyte could deliver nearly identical power density at 25 °C. Additionally, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and NMR suggested that the LiTDI salt and carbonate-LiTDI electrolytes are thermally stable up to at least 60 °C. Further supporting this finding, coin cells cycled at 60 °C with LiPF6 lost significantly more capacity than those with LiTDI. Therefore, LiTDI is a prime candidate for the complete replacement of LiPF6 to significantly increase Li-ion battery tolerance to heat, improving the safety characteristics. In addition to searching for new lithium salts, the effect of lithium salt concentration on electrolyte physicochemical properties was investigated. This radically different approach to modifying electrolyte properties determined that amorphous, highly concentrated carbonate-lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) electrolytes have drastically different behavior than more dilute electrolytes. For example, the thermal stability and anodic stability vs. a Pt

  15. In-Tank Elutriation Test Report And Independent Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, H. H.; Adamson, D. J.; Qureshi, Z. H.; Steeper, T. J.

    2011-04-13

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) funded Technology Development and Deployment (TDD) to solve technical problems associated with waste tank closure for sites such as Hanford Site and Savannah River Site (SRS). One of the tasks supported by this funding at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNNL) was In-Tank Elutriation. Elutriation is the process whereby physical separation occurs based on particle size and density. This report satisfies the first phase of Task WP_1.3.1.1 In-Tank Elutriation, which is to assess the feasibility of this method of separation in waste tanks at Hanford Site and SRS. This report includes an analysis of scoping tests performed in the Engineering Development Laboratory of SRNL, analysis of Hanford's inadvertent elutriation, the viability of separation methods such as elutriation and hydrocyclones and recommendations for a path forward. This report will demonstrate that the retrieval of Hanford salt waste tank S-112 very successfully decreased the tank's inventories of radionuclides. Analyses of samples collected from the tank showed that concentrations of the major radionuclides Cs-136 and Sr-90 were decreased by factors of 250 and 6 and their total curie tank inventories decreased by factors of 60,000 and 2000. The total tank curie loading decreased from 300,000 Ci to 55 Ci. The remaining heel was nearly all innocuous gibbsite, Al(OH){sub 3}. However, in the process of tank retrieval approximately 85% of the tank gibbsite was also removed. Significant amounts of money and processing time could be saved if more gibbsite could be left in tanks while still removing nearly all of the radionuclides. There were factors which helped to make the elutriation of Tank S-112 successful which would not necessarily be present in all salt tanks. 1. The gibbsite particles in the tank were surprisingly large, as much as 200 {micro}m. The gibbsite crystals had probably grown in

  16. Large-area, wafer-scale epitaxial growth of germanium on silicon and integration of high-performance transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Swapnadip

    simulation shows that the oval air gaps around the SiO2 template can reduce the thermal stress by 50% and help reduce the DD. We have then compared the structural and electrical characteristics of n-type Ge films with its p-type counter parts. In n-type Ge, the DD decreases from ˜109cm-2 near the Ge-Si interface to ˜105 cm-2 at the film surface. In contrast, we observe 5x107 cm-2 TDD at the film surface in p-type Ge. The full width at half-maximum for our n-type Ge(004) XRD peak is ~70% narrower than that of p-type Ge. As a stringent test of the dislocation reduction, we have also fabricated and characterized high-carrier-mobility MOSFETs on GoS substrates. We also report p- and n-MOSFETs with microeff of 401 and 940 cm2/V-s and a subthreshold slope of 100 and 200 mV/decade, respectively. These effective mobilities show an exceptional 82 and 30% improvement over that of conventional Si channel MOSFETs. We also investigate the optical quality of ultra-low DD GoS film by measuring photoluminescence (PL). The n-type Ge PL main peak shows pronounced tensile-strain (x0.8%) than that of p-type which is an indicator of direct BG shrinking at the \\Gcy band-edge. Going beyond epitaxial engineering and device fabrication, we have also recently demonstrated a scalable path to create a 2D array of Ge quantum dots (QDs) on responsive SiGe substrates based on elastic mechanical deformation and subsequent SiGe compositional redistribution, coupled with MBE growth. For large-scale manufacturing of single-electron transistors, we have also demonstrated that a spatially structured elastic compressive stress to the SiGe substrate with thermally annealing leads to a compositional redistribution of Si and Ge in the near-surface region of SiGe substrates, forming a 2D array of Ge-depleted nanoscale regions. Based on these latest findings, we have also begun to chart a future direction for my research group, where one can explore new advanced device architectures, such as Si