Science.gov

Sample records for 301-492-2230 tdd 301-415-2100

  1. 77 FR 66874 - Notice of Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... Licensing Program (Public Meeting) (Contact: Jack McHale, 301-415-3254). This meeting will be webcast live...), please notify Bill Dosch, Chief, Work Life and Benefits Branch, at 301-415-6200, TDD: 301-415-2100, or...

  2. 28 CFR 35.161 - Telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Telecommunication devices for the deaf... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Communications § 35.161 Telecommunication... beneficiaries, TDD's or equally effective telecommunication systems shall be used to communicate...

  3. The California Connection: Interfacing a Telecommunication Device for the Deaf (TDD) and an Apple Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pflaum, Michael E.

    1982-01-01

    California's legislation mandating free telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDDs) to hearing and/or speech impaired persons is discussed, as are approaches used in San Diego to distribute them. The TDD's capabilities of communicating with other computer systems are described and an example of an electronic mail system is given. (CL)

  4. Using adaline neural network for performance improvement of smart antennas in TDD wireless communications.

    PubMed

    Kavak, Adnan; Yigit, Halil; Ertunc, H Metin

    2005-11-01

    In time-division-duplex (TDD) mode wireless communications, downlink beamforming performance of a smart antenna system at the base station can be degraded due to variation of spatial signature vectors corresponding to mobile users especially in fast fading scenarios. To mitigate this, downlink beams must be controlled by properly adjusting their weight vectors in response to changing propagation dynamics. This can be achieved by modeling the spatial signature vectors in the uplink period and then predicting them to be used as beamforming weight vectors for the new mobile position in the downlink transmission period. We show that ADAptive LInear NEuron (ADALINE) network modeling based prediction of spatial signatures provides certain level of performance improvement compared to conventional beamforming method that employs spatial signature obtained in previous uplink interval. We compare the performance of ADALINE with autoregressive (AR) modeling based predictions under varying channel propagation (mobile speed, multipath angle spread, and number of multipaths), and filter order/delay conditions. ADALINE modeling outperforms AR modeling in terms of downlink SNR improvement and relative error improvement especially under high mobile speeds, i.e., V = 100 km/h.

  5. Demonstration of bi-directional LED visible light communication using TDD traffic with mitigation of reflection interference.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y F; Yeh, C H; Chow, C W; Liu, Y; Liu, Y L; Tsang, H K

    2012-10-08

    In this work, we experimentally demonstrate a bi-directional transmission link using light emitting diode (LED) visible light communication (VLC) for both downlink and uplink paths. Time-division-duplex (TDD) is proposed and demonstrated to significantly eliminate the reflection interference in VLC. A free space bi-directional transmission of 2 m using simple on-off keying (OOK) modulation with bit error rate (BER) of < 10(-5) in both directions are achieved. Moreover, the influence of reflection interference is analyzed, showing the proposed scheme can significantly eliminate the reflection interference.

  6. Analysis and design of a 1.8-2.7 GHz tunable 8-band TDD LTE receiver front-end

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wang; Yuji, Wang; Weiwei, Wang; Xuegui, Chang; Na, Yan; Xi, Tan; Hao, Min

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes the analysis and design of a 0.13 μm CMOS tunable receiver front-end that supports 8 TDD LTE bands, covering the 1.8-2.7 GHz frequency band and supporting the 5/10/15/20 MHz bandwidth and QPSK/16QAM/64QAM modulation schemes. The novel zero-IF receiver core consists of a tunable narrowband variable gain low-noise amplifier (LNA), a current commutating passive down-conversion mixer with a 2nd order low pass trans-impedance amplifier, an LO divider, a rough gain step variable gain pre-amplifier, a tunable 4th order Chebyshev channel select active-RC low pass filter with cutoff frequency calibration circuit and a fine gain step variable gain amplifier. The LNA can be tuned by reconfiguring the output parallel LC tank to the responding frequency band, eliminating the fixed center frequency multiple LNA array for a multi-mode receiver. The large various gain range and bandwidth of the analog baseband can also be tuned by digital configuration to satisfy the specification requirement of various bandwidth and modulation schemes. The test chip is implemented in an SMIC 0.13 μm 1P8M CMOS process. The full receiver achieves 4.6 dB NF, -14.5 dBm out of band IIP3, 30-94 dB gain range and consumes 54 mA with a 1.2 V power supply.

  7. Mass Spectrometry Characterization of the Thermal Decomposition/Digestion (TDD) at Cysteine in Peptides and Proteins in the Condensed Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile, Franco; Zhang, Shaofeng; Kandar, Sujit Kumar; Lu, Liang

    2011-11-01

    We report on the characterization by mass spectrometry (MS) of a rapid, reagentless and site-specific cleavage at the N-terminus of the amino acid cysteine (C) in peptides and proteins induced by the thermal decomposition at 220-250 °C for 10 s in solid samples. This thermally induced cleavage at C occurs under the same conditions and simultaneously to our previously reported thermally induced site-specific cleavage at the C-terminus of aspartic acid (D) (Zhang, S.; Basile, F. J. Proteome Res. 2007, 6, (5), 1700-1704). The C cleavage proceeds through cleavage of the nitrogen and α-carbon bond (N-terminus) of cysteine and produces modifications at the cleavage site with an amidation (-1 Da) of the N-terminal thermal decomposition product and a -32 Da mass change of the C-terminal thermal decomposition product, the latter yielding either an alanine or β-alanine residue at the N-terminus site. These modifications were confirmed by off-line thermal decomposition electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS, tandem MS (MS/MS) analyses and accurate mass measurements of standard peptides. Molecular oxygen was found to be required for the thermal decomposition and cleavage at C as it induced an initial cysteine thiol side chain oxidation to sulfinic acid. Similar to the thermally induced D cleavage, missed cleavages at C were also observed. The combined thermally induced digestion process at D and C, termed thermal decomposition/digestion (TDD), was observed on several model proteins tested under ambient conditions and the site-specificity of the method confirmed by MS/MS.

  8. Equal Telecommunications Access for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Virginians (TDD/Message Relay Programs). Report to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia. House Document No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing, Richmond.

    The report addresses issues of telecommunications access for hearing and speech impaired persons in Virginia. Six analyses were performed: (1) Accessibility of service organizations--over 89% of sample organizations were not accessible by a telecommunications device for the deaf and existing TDDs were underutilized; (2) Telephone use by persons…

  9. 45 CFR 707.9 - Access to communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... requirements regarding oral communications—(1) Telecommunications devices for deaf persons. (i) The Agency... for deaf persons (TDD) or equally effective telecommunications device. (ii) The Agency shall...

  10. 45 CFR 707.9 - Access to communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... requirements regarding oral communications—(1) Telecommunications devices for deaf persons. (i) The Agency... for deaf persons (TDD) or equally effective telecommunications device. (ii) The Agency shall...

  11. 77 FR 6172 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program and National Research Program Funds.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ...://www.grants.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For general program information, as well as proposal...) 366-0705. A TDD is available at 1-800-877-8339 (TDD/FIRS). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Funding Opportunity Description II. FTA and Other Partnership Award Information...

  12. Computers for the Hearing-Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auslander, Rudy

    1983-01-01

    Discusses use of microcomputers with the hearing-impaired, focusing on use of Telecommunication Devices for the Deaf (TDD) with a TRS-80 microcomputer. A special modem which handles the TDD's five-level Baudot code and the computer's eight-level ASCII code is needed. (JN)

  13. Sexually Transmitted Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... 866-284-4107 (TDD: 800-877-8339) American Sexual Health Association Phone Number: 800-227-8922 Planned Parenthood ... 866-284-4107 (TDD: 800-877-8339) American Sexual Health Association Phone Number: 800-227-8922 Planned Parenthood ...

  14. 75 FR 78682 - Renewal of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... can be properly assessed. Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY-TDD) may... telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY-TDD) may call (202) 606-3472 between 8:30 a.m. and 5 p.m. Eastern...

  15. 76 FR 72160 - Funding for the Guaranteed Loan Interest Assistance Program; Farm Loan Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... TDD). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92... to fund their farming operations without the guarantee. Pursuant to section 351 of the CONACT (7...

  16. 7 CFR 2610.4 - Requests for service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 20250. Additionally, persons may call or write the hotline office at 202-690-1622, 1-800-424-9121, TDD... USDA programs may be reported using the 24 hour bribery hotline number at 202 720-7257....

  17. 40 CFR 350.16 - Address to send trade secrecy claims and petitions requesting disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sites. Submitters may also contact the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Hotline at (800) 424-9346 or (703) 412-9810, TDD (800) 553-7672, http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/hotline/ to obtain...

  18. 78 FR 48932 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ...., Washington, DC 20551. Telecommunications Device for the Deaf (TDD) users may call (202) 263-4869. FDIC: Gary..., treasury stock) from its common equity tier 1 capital elements, it does not need to make such...

  19. 11 CFR 6.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... provide handicapped persons with information regarding their section 504 rights under the Commission's... handicapped person. (ii) The Commission need not provide individually prescribed devices, readers for personal... applicants and beneficiaries by telephone, telecommunications devices for deaf persons (TDD's), or...

  20. 76 FR 67472 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... lands are located east of Teller, Alaska, and contain 47.87 acres. Notice of the decision will also be... email at ak.blm.conveyance@blm.gov . Persons who use a Telecommunications Device for the Deaf (TDD)...

  1. 77 FR 13621 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Arizona

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... described lands were officially filed in the Arizona State Office, Bureau of Land Management, Phoenix..., Phoenix, Arizona, 85004-4427. Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call...

  2. 76 FR 51004 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... the Binational Migrant Education Initiative to serve children who migrate between Mexico and the U.S.... Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information...

  3. 77 FR 8846 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Education Act, as amended by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Copies of the proposed information... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-...

  4. 75 FR 57742 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... Children with Disabilities, CFDA No. 84.325. Data obtained are used to evaluate and monitor the... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-...

  5. 75 FR 1359 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ..., reading, writing, science, U.S. history, civics, geography, economics, and the arts. The No Child Left... a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service...

  6. 77 FR 58818 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; William D. Ford Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... 685.202 provide that the maximum interest rate (as defined in 50 U.S.C. 527, App. Section 207 (d... who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay...

  7. 77 FR 22606 - Proposed Information Collection; Visitor Use Surveys for Headwaters Forest Reserve and King Range...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... a telecommunication device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS... distributing mail-back questionnaires. The study will take place during the summer season when visitation...

  8. 75 FR 61709 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... retention rates. Study findings will be presented in two reports, one scheduled for release in Fall 2013 and... for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877- 8339....

  9. 75 FR 63258 - Vessel Re-Designations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339..., dry cargo liners, and tankers) to the extent such vessels are available at fair and reasonable...

  10. Test Driven Development of Scientific Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Test-Driven Development (TDD), a software development process that promises many advantages for developer productivity and software reliability, has become widely accepted among professional software engineers. As the name suggests, TDD practitioners alternate between writing short automated tests and producing code that passes those tests. Although this overly simplified description will undoubtedly sound prohibitively burdensome to many uninitiated developers, the advent of powerful unit-testing frameworks greatly reduces the effort required to produce and routinely execute suites of tests. By testimony, many developers find TDD to be addicting after only a few days of exposure, and find it unthinkable to return to previous practices.After a brief overview of the TDD process and my experience in applying the methodology for development activities at Goddard, I will delve more deeply into some of the challenges that are posed by numerical and scientific software as well as tools and implementation approaches that should address those challenges.

  11. 75 FR 37842 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ...-4040 during normal business hours. (TTY and TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1... of an issue necessary to resolve an appeal. 6. The name and social security number of a...

  12. Laser diodes with 353 nm wavelength enabled by reduced-dislocation-density AlGaN templates

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Mary H.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Smith, Michael L.; Cross, Karen C.

    2015-10-30

    We fabricated optically pumped and electrically injected ultraviolet (UV) lasers on reduced-threading-dislocation-density (reduced-TDD) AlGaN templates. The overgrowth of sub-micron-wide mesas in the Al0.32Ga0.68N templates enabled a tenfold reduction in TDD, to (2–3) × 108 cm–2. Optical pumping of AlGaN hetero-structures grown on the reduced-TDD templates yielded a low lasing threshold of 34 kW/cm2 at 346 nm. Room-temperature pulsed operation of laser diodes at 353 nm was demonstrated, with a threshold of 22.5 kA/cm2. Furthermore, reduced-TDD templates have been developed across the entire range of AlGaN compositions, presenting a promising approach for extending laser diodes into the deep UV.

  13. Laser diodes with 353 nm wavelength enabled by reduced-dislocation-density AlGaN templates

    DOE PAGES

    Crawford, Mary H.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; ...

    2015-10-30

    We fabricated optically pumped and electrically injected ultraviolet (UV) lasers on reduced-threading-dislocation-density (reduced-TDD) AlGaN templates. The overgrowth of sub-micron-wide mesas in the Al0.32Ga0.68N templates enabled a tenfold reduction in TDD, to (2–3) × 108 cm–2. Optical pumping of AlGaN hetero-structures grown on the reduced-TDD templates yielded a low lasing threshold of 34 kW/cm2 at 346 nm. Room-temperature pulsed operation of laser diodes at 353 nm was demonstrated, with a threshold of 22.5 kA/cm2. Furthermore, reduced-TDD templates have been developed across the entire range of AlGaN compositions, presenting a promising approach for extending laser diodes into the deep UV.

  14. 77 FR 4986 - Inviting Rural Business Enterprise Grant Program Applications for Grants To Provide Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ..., Mt. Laurel, NJ 08054, (856) 787-7700/TDD (856) 787-7784. New Mexico USDA Rural Development State... (English) or (800) 877-8339 (TTD) or (866) 377-8642 (English Federal-relay) or (800) 845-6136...

  15. 77 FR 63927 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 15 Species on Hawaii Island as Endangered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... facsimile at 808-792-9581. If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal... Juvik 1998, p. 22). The highest and lowest recorded temperatures in the State occur on Hawaii...

  16. 78 FR 64637 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for 15...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... facsimile at 808-792-9581. If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal... crater on Hualalai, Papa in South Kona, Manuka FR, Kipuka 9 along Saddle Road, Bird Park in HVNP,...

  17. 76 FR 53940 - Notice of Public Meeting; Western Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... comments may be limited. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Abrams, Western Montana Resource Advisory..., e-mail david_abrams@blm.gov . Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD)...

  18. Simulation of the kinetics of oxygen complexes in crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo Lee, Young; von Boehm, J.; Nieminen, R. M.

    2002-10-01

    The formation kinetics of thermal double donors (TDD's) is studied by a general kinetic model with parameters based on accurate ab initio total-energy calculations. The kinetic model includes all relevant association, dissociation, and restructuring processes. The simulated kinetics agrees qualitatively and in most cases quantitatively with the experimentally found consecutive kinetics of TDD's. It also supports our earlier assignments of the ring-type oxygen chains to TDD's [Pesola et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5343 (2000)]. We demonstrate with the kinetic model that the most common assumption that only the O2 dimer acts as a fast diffusing species would lead to an unrealistic steady increase of the concentration of O3. The neglect of restructuring processes leads to an anomalous increase of oxygen dimers and negligible concentrations of TDD's. The capture of interstitial oxygens by diffusing oxygen chains and the escaping of interstitial oxygens from the chains fully dominate the formation kinetics.

  19. 78 FR 57878 - Notice of Availability of the Proposed Bureau of Land Management Tres Rios Field Office and San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... 81401; email gmjones@blm.gov . Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call... (Alternative B) would establish two Areas of Environmental Concern (ACEC), Gypsum Valley and Anasazi...

  20. 76 FR 47538 - Sacred Sites; Executive Order 13007

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ....fed.us . Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Relay... engaged not only tribal leadership but also culture keepers, traditional practitioners, and...

  1. 77 FR 27179 - Notice of Funds Availability for the Section 533 Housing Preservation Grants for Fiscal Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ..., Arkansas 72201-3225, (501) 301-3258, TDD (501) 301-3279, Clinton King. California State Office, 430 G... State Office, Stephens Federal Building, 355 East Hancock Avenue, Athens, Georgia 30601-2768, (706)...

  2. Protective Effect of 2,4',5'-Trihydroxyl-5,2'-dibromo diphenylmethanone, a New Halophenol, against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced EA.hy926 Cells Injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianguo; Feng, Xiue; Ge, Rui; Li, Jiankuan; Li, Qingshan

    2015-08-05

    Vascular endothelial cells produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the process of energy metabolism in aerobic respiration. A growing body of evidence indicates that excessive ROS is implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis. The newly synthesized halophenol, 2,4',5'-trihydroxyl-5,2'-dibromo diphenylmethanone (TDD), exhibits antioxidative and cytoprotective activities in vitro. In this study, the protective effect of TDD against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative injury of EA.hy926 cells was investigated. Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-dephenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, while the effect of TDD on the transcription profile of EA.hy926 cells subjected to H2O2-induced oxidative injury was evaluated by microarray analysis. Several signaling pathways, including apoptosis, were significantly associated with TDD. Flow cytometric analysis was used to evaluate anti-apoptotic effect of TDD. Subsequently, RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expressions of the apoptosis-associated protein, Bcl-2 and Bax. Meanwhile the expression of cleaved caspase-3, an executioner of apoptosis, was also detected by Western blot. The results showed that pretreatment of EA.hy926 cells with TDD prevented the decrease of cell viability induced by H2O2, and attenuated H2O2-induced elevation of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 while increased Bcl-2 expressions. In summary, TDD inhibited H2O2-induced oxidative injury of EA.hy926 cells through negative regulation of apoptosis. These findings suggest that TDD is a potential candidate for therapeutic intervention in oxidative stress-associated cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Analyses of Acceptability Judgments Made Toward the Use of Nanocarrier-Based Targeted Drug Delivery: Interviews with Researchers and Research Trainees in the Field of New Technologies.

    PubMed

    Chenel, Vanessa; Boissy, Patrick; Cloarec, Jean-Pierre; Patenaude, Johane

    The assessment of nanotechnology applications such as nanocarrier-based targeted drug delivery (TDD) has historically been based mostly on toxicological and safety aspects. The use of nanocarriers for TDD, a leading-edge nanomedical application, has received little study from the angle of experts' perceptions and acceptability, which may be reflected in how TDD applications are developed. In recent years, numerous authors have maintained that TDD assessment should also take into account impacts on ethical, environmental, economic, legal, and social (E(3)LS) issues in order to lead to socially responsible innovation. Semi-structured interviews (n = 22) were conducted with French and Canadian researchers and research trainees with diverse disciplinary backgrounds and involved in research related to emerging technologies. The interviews focussed on scenarios presenting two types of TDD nanocarriers (carbon, synthetic DNA) in two contexts of use (lung cancer, seasonal flu). Content and inductive analyses of interviews showed how facets of perceived impacts such as health, environment, social cohabitation, economy, life and death, representations of the human being and nature, and technoscience were weighed in acceptability judgments. The analyses also revealed that contextual factors related to device (nature of the treatment), to use (gravity of the disease), and to user (culture) influenced the weighting assigned to perceived impacts and thus contributed to variability in interviewees' judgments of acceptability. Giving consideration to researchers' perspective could accompany first steps of implementation and development of nanomedicine by producing a first, but wide, picture of the acceptability of nanocarrier-based TDD.

  4. Research of Ultrasound-Mediated Transdermal Drug Delivery System Using Cymbal-Type Piezoelectric Composite Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Huiting; Gao, Chunming; Liu, Lixian; Sun, Qiming; Zhao, Binxing; Yan, Laijun

    2015-06-01

    Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) implemented by especially low-frequency ultrasound is generally known as sonophoresis or phonophoresis which has drawn considerable wide attention. However, TDD has not yet achieved its full potential as an alternative to conventional drug delivery methods due to its bulky instruments. In this paper, a cymbal-type piezoelectric composite transducer (CPCT) which has advantages over a traditional ultrasound generator in weight, flexibility, and power consumption, is used as a substitute ultrasonicator to realize TDD. First, theoretical research on a CPCT based on the finite element analysis was carried out according to which a series of applicable CPCTs with bandwidths of 20 kHz to 100 kHz were elaborated. Second, a TDD experimental setup was built with previously fabricated CPCTs aimed at the administration of glucose. Finally, the TDD performance of glucose molecule transport in porcine skin was measured in vitro by quantifying the concentration of glucose, and the time variation curves were subsequently obtained. During the experiment, the driving wave form, frequency, and power consumption of the transducers were selected as the main elements which determined the efficacy of glucose delivery. The results indicate that the effectiveness of the CPCT-based delivery is constrained more by the frequency and intensity of ultrasound rather than the driving waveform. The light-weight, flexibility, and low-power consumption of a CPCT can potentially achieve effective TDD.

  5. Practical experience with test-driven development during commissioning of the multi-star AO system ARGOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulas, M.; Borelli, Jose Luis; Gässler, Wolfgang; Peter, Diethard; Rabien, Sebastian; Orban de Xivry, Gilles; Busoni, Lorenzo; Bonaglia, Marco; Mazzoni, Tommaso; Rahmer, Gustavo

    2014-07-01

    Commissioning time for an instrument at an observatory is precious, especially the night time. Whenever astronomers come up with a software feature request or point out a software defect, the software engineers have the task to find a solution and implement it as fast as possible. In this project phase, the software engineers work under time pressure and stress to deliver a functional instrument control software (ICS). The shortness of development time during commissioning is a constraint for software engineering teams and applies to the ARGOS project as well. The goal of the ARGOS (Advanced Rayleigh guided Ground layer adaptive Optics System) project is the upgrade of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) with an adaptive optics (AO) system consisting of six Rayleigh laser guide stars and wavefront sensors. For developing the ICS, we used the technique Test- Driven Development (TDD) whose main rule demands that the programmer writes test code before production code. Thereby, TDD can yield a software system, that grows without defects and eases maintenance. Having applied TDD in a calm and relaxed environment like office and laboratory, the ARGOS team has profited from the benefits of TDD. Before the commissioning, we were worried that the time pressure in that tough project phase would force us to drop TDD because we would spend more time writing test code than it would be worth. Despite this concern at the beginning, we could keep TDD most of the time also in this project phase This report describes the practical application and performance of TDD including its benefits, limitations and problems during the ARGOS commissioning. Furthermore, it covers our experience with pair programming and continuous integration at the telescope.

  6. Determining starting basal rates of insulin infusion for insulin pump users: a comparison between methods

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Nelson; Shearer, Daniel; Tildesley, Hamish G; Aydin Plaa, Jessica; Pottinger, Betty; Pawlowska, Monika; White, Adam; Priestman, Anne; Ross, Stuart A; Tildesley, Hugh D

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess the accuracy and safety of presently available methods of estimating starting basal insulin rates for patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes, and to compare them against an empirically derived standard basal rate and a newly developed regression formula. Research design and methods Data on 61 patients with type 1 diabetes on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy and 34 patients with type 2 diabetes on CSII were reviewed. Patient data were first analyzed for correlations between initial patient parameters and final basal rates. Starting basal rates were then retrospectively calculated for these patients according to the weight-based method (WB-M), the total daily dose (TDD) of insulin method (TDD-M), a flat empiric value, and a new formula developed by regression analysis of clinical data. These 4 methods were subsequently compared in their accuracy and potential risk of hypoglycemia. Results For type 1 diabetes, patient weight and TDD of long-acting insulin correlated with final basal rates. Both the regression formula and the TDD-M appeared safer than the WB-M and empirical estimates. For type 2 diabetes, only patient TDD of long-acting insulin correlated with final basal rates. The regression formula was significantly more accurate for patients with type 2 diabetes overall, but the TDD-M estimate was marginally safer. Conclusions The pre-existing TDD-M was found to be the safest presently recommended estimate of initial basal rates for pump initiation in both type 1 and 2 diabetes. The best-fit regression was found to have potential use for type 2 CSII initiation. PMID:26977305

  7. Test Driven Development of Scientific Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Test-Driven Development (TDD) is a software development process that promises many advantages for developer productivity and has become widely accepted among professional software engineers. As the name suggests, TDD practitioners alternate between writing short automated tests and producing code that passes those tests. Although this overly simplified description will undoubtedly sound prohibitively burdensome to many uninitiated developers, the advent of powerful unit-testing frameworks greatly reduces the effort required to produce and routinely execute suites of tests. By testimony, many developers find TDD to be addicting after only a few days of exposure, and find it unthinkable to return to previous practices. Of course, scientific/technical software differs from other software categories in a number of important respects, but I nonetheless believe that TDD is quite applicable to the development of such software and has the potential to significantly improve programmer productivity and code quality within the scientific community. After a detailed introduction to TDD, I will present the experience within the Software Systems Support Office (SSSO) in applying the technique to various scientific applications. This discussion will emphasize the various direct and indirect benefits as well as some of the difficulties and limitations of the methodology. I will conclude with a brief description of pFUnit, a unit testing framework I co-developed to support test-driven development of parallel Fortran applications.

  8. Nuclear tetrahedral symmetry: possibly present throughout the periodic table.

    PubMed

    Dudek, J; Goźdź, A; Schunck, N; Miśkiewicz, M

    2002-06-24

    More than half a century after the fundamental, spherical shell structure in nuclei had been established, theoretical predictions indicated that the shell gaps comparable or even stronger than those at spherical shapes may exist. Group-theoretical analysis supported by realistic mean-field calculations indicate that the corresponding nuclei are characterized by the TD(d) ("double-tetrahedral") symmetry group. Strong shell-gap structure is enhanced by the existence of the four-dimensional irreducible representations of TD(d); it can be seen as a geometrical effect that does not depend on a particular realization of the mean field. Possibilities of discovering the TD(d) symmetry in experiment are discussed.

  9. Sonophoresis in transdermal drug deliverys.

    PubMed

    Park, Donghee; Park, Hyunjin; Seo, Jongbum; Lee, Seunghun

    2014-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) has several significant advantages compared to oral drug delivery, including elimination of pain and sustained drug release. However, the use of TDD is limited by low skin permeability due to the stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the skin. Sonophoresis is a technique that temporarily increases skin permeability such that various medications can be delivered noninvasively. For the past several decades, various studies of sonophoresis in TDD have been performed focusing on parameter optimization, delivery mechanism, transport pathway, or delivery of several drug categories including hydrophilic and high molecular weight compounds. Based on these various studies, several possible mechanisms of sonophoresis have been suggested. For example, cavitation is believed to be the predominant mechanism responsible for drug delivery in sonophoresis. This review presents details of various studies on sonophoresis including the latest trends, delivery of various therapeutic drugs, sonophoresis pathways and mechanisms, and outlook of future studies.

  10. Globalstar communications payload for global mobile communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, Ming; Monte, Paul; Tyner, Randy; Rouffet, Denis; Gilhousen, Klein S.

    1992-03-01

    The Globalstar LEO satellite-based mobile-communications system is evaluated with respect to its potential for global digital communications and for radio-determination satellite service. The significant novel attributes of the Globalsat payload are examined including code-division multiple-access technologies, beam-hopping and time-domain-duplexing (TDD) capabilities, and six elliptical spot-beam L/S-band antennas. The antennas are designed to address the 'near-far' problem associated with mobile systems through the use of the Isoflux design. The Isoflux beams provide gain contours that compensate for differences in the spacecraft/earth slant range and that provide low spillover illumination. Two candidate payloads are presented - one which incorporates TDD and beam hopping - and found to provide efficient global mobile-communications services for the Globalstar system. A single satellite can provide up to 2800 full-duplex voice channels, and TDD allows uplink and downlink signals to share the same frequency.

  11. Impact of dislocation densities on n+/p and p+/n junction GaAs diodes and solar cells on SiGe virtual substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andre, C. L.; Wilt, D. M.; Pitera, A. J.; Lee, M. L.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Ringel, S. A.

    2005-07-01

    Recent experimental measurements have shown that in GaAs with elevated threading dislocation densities (TDDs) the electron lifetime is much lower than the hole lifetime [C. L. Andre, J. J. Boeckl, D. M. Wilt, A. J. Pitera, M. L. Lee, E. A. Fitzgerald, B. M. Keyes, and S. A. Ringel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3884 (2004)]. This lower electron lifetime suggests an increase in depletion region recombination and thus in the reverse saturation current (J0 for an n+/p diode compared with a p+/n diode at a given TDD. To confirm this, GaAs diodes of both polarities were grown on compositionally graded Ge /Si1-xGex/Si (SiGe) substrates with a TDD of 1×106cm-2. It is shown that the ratio of measured J0 values is consistent with the inverse ratio of the expected lifetimes. Using a TDD-dependent lifetime in solar cell current-voltage models we found that the Voc, for a given short-circuit current, also exhibits a poorer TDD tolerance for GaAs n+/p solar cells compared with GaAs p+/n solar cells. Experimentally, the open-circuit voltage (Voc) for the n+/p GaAs solar cell grown on a SiGe substrate with a TDD of ˜1×106cm-2 was ˜880mV which was significantly lower than the ˜980mV measured for a p+/n GaAs solar cell grown on SiGe at the same TDD and was consistent with the solar cell modeling results reported in this paper. We conclude that p+/n polarity GaAs junctions demonstrate superior dislocation tolerance than n+/p configured GaAs junctions, which is important for optimization of lattice-mismatched III-V devices.

  12. WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL NUCLEAR SAFETY RELATED R AND D REPORT FOR CY2008

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, A.

    2009-10-15

    The Engineering and Technology Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks associated with key waste processing project decisions. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment (TDD). The Office of Waste Processing TDD program prioritizes and approves research and development scopes of work that address nuclear safety related to processing of highly radioactive nuclear wastes. Thirteen of the thirty-five R&D approved work scopes in FY2009 relate directly to nuclear safety, and are presented in this report.

  13. 75 FR 51285 - In the Matter of Certain Flat Panel Digital Televisions and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Flat Panel Digital Televisions and Components Thereof; Notice of... that information on this matter can be obtained by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on...

  14. 75 FR 34483 - In the Matter of Certain Automotive Vehicles and Designs Therefore; Notice of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Automotive Vehicles and Designs Therefore; Notice of Investigation AGENCY... this matter can be obtained by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on 202-205-1810. Persons...

  15. 77 FR 24690 - Exemplary Charter School Collaboration Awards; Proposed Definitions, Requirements, and Selection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... device for the deaf (TDD) or a text telephone (TTY), call the Federal Relay Service, toll free, at 1-800... An applicant for a Collaboration Award must-- (1) Provide a detailed narrative describing (a) the... the competition; and Agree to have the executive summary or narrative of the application,...

  16. 76 FR 15961 - Funding Priorities and Selection Criterion; Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll free, at 1-800-877-8339...: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/322713-overview . Proposed Priority 1--Spinal Cord Injury Model... can be used to improve outcomes of individuals with SCI in one or more domains identified in...

  17. 78 FR 35570 - Application Procedures, Execution and Filing of Forms: Correction of State Office Address for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339.... This rule changes the street address for the personal filing of documents relating to public lands in... significant adverse effects on competition, employment, investment, productivity, innovation, or the...

  18. 76 FR 38352 - Notice of Funding Availability: Rural Development Voucher Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    .... Persons with hearing or speech impairments may access this number via TDD by calling the toll-free Federal... Program. Rural Development must inspect the unit and ensure that the unit meets the housing inspection... determines the unit meets the housing inspection standards. In the case of properties financed by...

  19. 75 FR 38829 - Renewal of Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... contact Barbara Gamble at 202- 912-7148. Persons who use a telecommunication device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) on 1-800-877- 8339, to contact Ms. Gamble. You may also contact Ms. Gamble to obtain a copy, at no cost, of the regulations and forms that require...

  20. 76 FR 71935 - Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, Carson Ranger District, Nevada and California, Bordertown to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... comments or resource information can be submitted by any of the following methods: Email comments to... Transmission Line'' in the subject line. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For further information and/or to... (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-(800) 877-8339 between 8 a.m. and 8...

  1. 78 FR 4165 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Arturo Mine Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... related to the Arturo Mine Project by any of the following methods: Email: ArturoMiningEIS@blm.gov . Fax...: ArturoMiningEIS@blm.gov . Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the...: Barrick-Dee Mining Venture Inc., proposes to develop the Arturo Mine Project by expansion of the...

  2. 76 FR 6121 - Information Collection; Submission for OMB Review, Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... deaf (TTY-TDD) may call (202) 606-3472 between 8:30 a.m. and 5 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday... Survey which is used by NCCC projects and partnerships office to collect project performance data. Type.../maintenance): None. Dated: January 26, 2011. Charles Davenport, Director of Projects and...

  3. 76 FR 46839 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease NDM 95192

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease NDM 95192... oil and gas lease NDM 95192, McKenzie County, North Dakota. The lessees paid the required rental... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at...

  4. 45 CFR 1153.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... inaccessible facilities, directing users to a location at which they can obtain information about accessible... person. (ii) The agency need not provide individually prescribed devices, readers for personal use or... beneficiaries by telephone, telecommunication devices for deaf person (TDD's) or equally...

  5. 3 CFR 102.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., directing users to a location at which they can obtain information about accessible facilities. The... individual with handicaps. (ii) The agency need not provide individually prescribed devices, readers for... applicants and beneficiaries by telephone, telecommunication devices for deaf persons (TDD's) or...

  6. 19 CFR 201.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap in Programs or Activities Conducted by the U.S. International Trade... consideration to the requests of the handicapped person. (ii) The agency need not provide individually... persons (TDD's) or equally effective telecommunication systems shall be used. (b) The agency shall...

  7. 5 CFR 2416.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inaccessible facilities, directing users to a location at which they can obtain information about accessible... consideration to the requests of the individual with disabilities. (ii) The agency need not provide individually... persons (TDD's) or equally effective telecommunication systems shall be used to communicate with...

  8. 13 CFR 136.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consideration to the requests of the individual with handicaps. (ii) The Agency need not provide individually... persons (TDD's) or equally effective telecommunication systems shall be used. (b) The Agency shall ensure that interested persons, including persons with impaired vision or hearing, can obtain information...

  9. 45 CFR 606.60 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... give primary consideration to the requests of the individual with handicaps. (ii) The Foundation need..., telecommunications devices for deaf persons (TDD's) or equally effective telecommunication systems shall be used to..., including persons with impaired vision or hearing, can obtain information as to the existence and...

  10. 45 CFR 1181.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... handicapped person. (ii) The agency need not provide individually prescribed devices, readers for personal use... and beneficiaries by telephone, telecommunication devices for deaf persons (TDD's) or equally..., including persons with impaired vision or hearing, can obtain information as to the existence and...

  11. 45 CFR 1175.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... handicapped person. (ii) The agency need not provide individually prescribed devices, readers for personal use... and beneficiaries by telephone, telecommunication devices for deaf persons (TDD's) or equally..., including persons with impaired vision or hearing, can obtain information as to the existence and...

  12. 18 CFR 1313.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... users to a location at which they can obtain information about accessible facilities. The international... primary consideration to the requests of the handicapped person. (ii) The agency need not provide... for deaf person (TDD's) or equally effective telecommunication systems shall be used. (b) The...

  13. 5 CFR 1850.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., directing users to a location at which they can obtain information about accessible facilities. The... individual with handicaps. (ii) The agency need not provide individually prescribed devices, readers for... applicants and beneficiaries by telephone, telecommunication devices for deaf persons (TDD's) or...

  14. 5 CFR 1636.160 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inaccessible facilities, directing users to a location at which they can obtain information about accessible... consideration to the requests of the individual with handicaps. (ii) The agency need not provide individually... persons (TDD's) or equally effective telecommunication systems shall be used to communicate with...

  15. Inferring spatial and temporal behavioral patterns of free-ranging manatees using saltwater sensors of telemetry tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Morales-Vela, Benjamin; Slone, Daniel H.; Padilla-Saldívar, Janneth Adriana; Reid, James P.; Hernández-Arana, Héctor Abuid

    2015-01-01

    Diving or respiratory behavior in aquatic mammals can be used as an indicator of physiological activity and consequently, to infer behavioral patterns. Five Antillean manatees, Trichechus manatus manatus, were captured in Chetumal Bay and tagged with GPS tracking devices. The radios were equipped with a micropower saltwater sensor (SWS), which records the times when the tag assembly was submerged. The information was analyzed to establish individual fine-scale behaviors. For each fix, we established the following variables: distance (D), sampling interval (T), movement rate (D/T), number of dives (N), and total diving duration (TDD). We used logic criteria and simple scatterplots to distinguish between behavioral categories: ‘Travelling’ (D/T ≥ 3 km/h), ‘Surface’ (↓TDD, ↓N), ‘Bottom feeding’ (↑TDD, ↑N) and ‘Bottom resting’ (↑TDD, ↓N). Habitat categories were qualitatively assigned: Lagoon, Channels, Caye shore, City shore, Channel edge, and Open areas. The instrumented individuals displayed a daily rhythm of bottom activities, with surfacing activities more frequent during the night and early in the morning. More investigation into those cycles and other individual fine-scale behaviors related to their proximity to concentrations of human activity would be informative

  16. 77 FR 48855 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 158... pension insurance system administered by PBGC. DATES: Effective September 1, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... 20005, 202-326-4024. (TTY/TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-800- 877-8339...

  17. 77 FR 33235 - Public Land Order No. 7789; Partial Withdrawal Revocation and Transfer of Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... public land reserved for military purposes on behalf of the United States Department of the Army for the... Park Service to be managed as part of the Vancouver National Historical Site. DATES: Effective Date... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at...

  18. 77 FR 20728 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery; Framework Adjustment 23

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... Management Council and includes measures to: Minimize impacts on sea turtles through the requirement of a turtle deflector dredge; improve the effectiveness of the scallop fishery's accountability measures... to use a turtle deflector dredge (TDD), including where, when, and to which vessels this...

  19. 75 FR 7458 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ..., Kindergarten Class of 2010-11 (ECLS-K:2011) is a survey that focuses on children's early school experiences..., teachers, school administrators, and non-parental care providers, as well as direct child assessments. This... a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service...

  20. 77 FR 42760 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ..._jacobsen@blm.gov . Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal... that the council may raise. All meetings are open to the public and the public may present written... comments may be limited. Individuals who plan to attend and need special assistance, such as sign...

  1. 78 FR 50025 - Del Norte County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... District, Redwood Room, 301 West Washington Boulevard, Crescent City, California. Written comments may be... who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service... who would like to bring related matters to the attention of the Committee may file written...

  2. 76 FR 49431 - Juneau Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... collaborative relationships and to provide advice and recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects... Forest Service Juneau Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting... telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at...

  3. 76 FR 47537 - Huron Manistee Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... improve collaborative relationships and to provide advice and recommendations to the Forest Service... Forest Service Huron Manistee Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 between 8...

  4. 76 FR 81526 - Notice of Realty Action: Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classification of Public Land...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... right-of-way line on a curve to the right having a radius of 1372.69 feet for a distance of 863.68 feet... Medicine Park proposes to use the land for a public recreational park. DATES: Interested parties may submit..., or by email at gfitzpat@blm.gov . Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD)...

  5. 77 FR 50459 - Siskiyou County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... purpose of the committee is to improve collaborative relationships and to provide advice and... meeting is open to the public. The purpose of the meeting is for the committee to hear project status....fed.us . Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may call the...

  6. 77 FR 44579 - Siskiyou County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... purpose of the committee is to improve collaborative relationships and to provide advice and... meeting is open to the public. The purpose of the meeting is for the committee to hear project status... telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at...

  7. 77 FR 45575 - Central Idaho Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    .... Notices of hearings #0;and investigations, committee meetings, agency decisions and rulings, #0... committee is to improve collaborative relationships and to provide advice and recommendations to the Forest....us . Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may call the...

  8. 78 FR 30854 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for Loan Guarantees Under Section 538 Guaranteed Rural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... 601 Business Loop 70 West, Parkade Center, Suite 235, Columbia, MO 65203, (573) 876-0976, TDD (573... the Section 538 GRRHP as required by 7 CFR 3565.102 must be a licensed business entity or Housing Finance Agency (HFA) in good standing in the state or states where it conducts business....

  9. High Tech and Library Access for People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roatch, Mary A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes tools that enable people with disabilities to access print information, including optical character recognition, synthetic voice output, other input devices, Braille access devices, large print displays, television and video, TDD (Telecommunications Devices for the Deaf), and Telebraille. Use of technology by libraries to meet mandates…

  10. Violence against Women: Safety Planning for Abusive Situations

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuser Discuss how to deal with emergencies Suggest safe places to go, such as a shelter or the home of a friend or family member where your abuser might not look Help you learn ... Hotline at 800-799-SAFE (7233) or TDD 800-787-3224. You can ...

  11. 78 FR 46600 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Land (N-91073) for Affordable Housing Purposes in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 to contact the above... Disposal Boundary Final Environmental Impact Statement and approved by Record of Decision on December 23, 2004. The BLM has completed a site specific Determination of National Environmental Act...

  12. 75 FR 8139 - Institute of Museum and Library Services; Sunshine Act Meeting of the National Museum and Library...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    .... Telephone: (202) 653-4676 or E-mail: elyons@imls.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The National Museum and Library Services Board is established under the Museum and Library Services Act, 20 U.S.C. 9101 et seq..., DC 20036. Telephone: (202) 653-4676; TDD (202) 653-4614 at least seven (7) days prior to the...

  13. 78 FR 53055 - Regulations Governing Fees for Services Performed in Connection With Licensing and Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... effective September 27, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David T. Groves, (202) 245-0327, or Barbara Saddler (202) 245-0362. [TDD for the hearing impaired: 1-800- 877-8339.] SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Board's regulations at 49 CFR 1002.3 provide for an annual update of the Board's entire...

  14. The two-degree discontinuity as explained by boundary mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minster, Jean-Francois

    1985-01-01

    A three dimensional description of the two-degree discontinuity (TDD) in the North Atlantic western basin is made from the TTO and 1981 North Atlantic section data. In 1981 this break in the θ-S slope of the Atlantic deep waters is found at θ = 1.90°C, S = 34.895‰, near the western flank of the basin, and it seems to follow an isopycnal at σ4 = 45.89‰. It encounters the western boundary at the level of the Western Boundary Undercurrent (WBUC). Based on nutrient data, the TDD is more sharply defined along the western flank of the basin than along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where the TDD water is fresher and colder and where one finds more Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) above the discontinuity. The TDD is consistent with vertical mixing being dominantly a boundary process: along the western flank of the basin, upward mixing of AABW is stopped at the WBUC level by the strong southward flow of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Along the ridge, boundary mixing allows AABW to mix upward with waters from shallower levels.

  15. 29 CFR 4000.4 - Where do I file my submission?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... forms, or call our Customer Service Center (1-800-400-7242 for participants, or 1-800-736-2444 for practitioners; TTY/TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-800-877-8339 and ask to...

  16. 29 CFR 4000.4 - Where do I file my submission?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... forms, or call our Customer Service Center (1-800-400-7242 for participants, or 1-800-736-2444 for practitioners; TTY/TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-800-877-8339 and ask to...

  17. 77 FR 21106 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Leases LAES 052403 and LAES 052404...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1- 800-877-8339 to contact... conditions of the lease, excepting increased rental and royalty rates. The lessee agrees to pay higher rental and royalties at rates of $10 per acre or fraction thereof, per year, and 16\\2/3\\...

  18. 78 FR 41077 - Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment and Notice of Public Hearing for Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ...@blm.gov . Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal... employed to obtain MER of the coal, including specifications of seams to be mined, and timing and rate of... annual production tonnage(s); 9. The percentage rate at which anticipated income streams should...

  19. 76 FR 46838 - Notice of Proposed Class II Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Leases, Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 to contact the... rates of $10 per acre and 16-\\2/3\\%, respectively. The $500 administrative fee for both leases has been... increased rental and royalty rates cited above. Jeff Rawson, Associate State Director. BILLING CODE...

  20. 75 FR 68748 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA): Section 515 Multi-Family Housing Preservation Revolving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... by telephone at (202) 720-1094 or (202) 720-1610, TDD (302) 857-3585 or via e-mail at Michael... Loan Division, Multi- Family Housing STOP 0781 (Room 1263-S) or by telephone at (202) 720- 1094 or...

  1. 76 FR 68064 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... time deposits, as prescribed by Board regulations, for the purpose of implementing monetary policy... of liabilities and assets from depository institutions to enable the Board to conduct monetary policy... of Monetary Affairs; for users of Telecommunications Device for the Deaf (TDD) only, contact...

  2. 78 FR 66249 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... time deposits, as prescribed by Board regulations, for the purpose of implementing monetary policy... of liabilities and assets from depository institutions to enable the Board to conduct monetary policy..., Division of Monetary Affairs; for users of Telecommunications Device for the Deaf (TDD) only, contact...

  3. 77 FR 65773 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ..., as prescribed by Board regulations, for the purpose of implementing monetary policy. Section 11(a)(2... liabilities and assets from depository institutions to enable the Board to conduct monetary policy. The Board... Monetary Affairs; for users of Telecommunications Device for the Deaf (TDD) only, contact (202/263-...

  4. 76 FR 19741 - Draft Environmental Assessment; Giant Miscanthus in Arkansas, Missouri, Ohio, and Pennsylvania

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... a dedicated energy crop to be grown in the Aloterra Energy and MFA Oil Biomass Company (project... (voice and TDD). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Aloterra Energy and MFA Oil Biomass Company submitted a... Energy LLC and MFA Oil Biomass LLC is now available to review for the environmental impact. The draft...

  5. 75 FR 28542 - Notice of Funds Availability for the Section 533 Housing Preservation Grants for Fiscal Year 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... set-aside funding for the Rural Economic Area Partnership Zones was excluded from the notice and the... (202) 690-0759 (voice) (this is not a toll free number) or (800) 877-8339 (TDD-Federal Information... in Rural Economic Area Partnership Zones and other funds will be distributed under a...

  6. The Initial Assessment of Daily Insulin Dose in Chinese Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huan; Xu, Hua; Chen, Xie; Teng, Xiangyu; Liu, Qianjing; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background. It has been well accepted that insulin therapy is the ideal treatment for newly diagnosed diabetic patients. However, there was no study about assessment of the initial insulin dosage in new onset Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Research Design and Methods. 65 newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes (39 males/26 females; HbA1c ≥ 11.80 ± 0.22%) were investigated. All patients had random hyperglycaemia (at 21.8 ± 3.9 mmol/L) on the first day of admission and received insulin infusion intravenously (5 U/per hour). When the blood glucose level dropped to around 10 mmol/L, patients were then transferred to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). The reduction of blood glucose levels in response to per unit of insulin (RBG/RI) was recorded. The target glucose level was achieved in about 3 days. The total daily insulin dose (TDD) and basal insulin dose (TBD) were calculated. Results. TDD was 45.97 ± 1.28 units and TBD was 19.00 ± 0.54 units. TBD was about 40% of the total daily insulin requirement. There was a negative correlation between the ratio of RBG/RI and TDD. Conclusions. TDD was correlated with blood glucose reduction in response to intravenous insulin infusion in Chinese new onset patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26697503

  7. 76 FR 64296 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 112 RIN 2050-AG59 Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and... Federal Register. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 112 Oil pollution prevention, Farms, Compliance date... Superfund, TRI, EPCRA, RMP and Oil Information Center at (800) 424-9346 or TDD (800) 553-7672...

  8. 76 FR 63601 - Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the Louisiana Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... p.m. and adjourn at approximately 5 p.m. on Monday, November 7, 2011. The purpose of this meeting is... conference call number and contact name Farella E. Robinson. To ensure that the Commission secures an... Central Regional Office and TTY/TDD telephone number, by 4 p.m. on November 1, 2011. Members of the...

  9. 47 CFR 0.441 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information and general inquiries may be submitted by: (1) Internet at http://www.fcc.gov/cgb/fccinfo or http://www.fcc.gov/foia. (2) Telephone at 1-888-CALL-FCC (1-888-225-5322). (3) TDD/TDY at 1-888-TELL-FCC (1... in resolving any concerns related to a Freedom of Information Act request. See...

  10. 76 FR 28244 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ...; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information on respondents, including... (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339, which is accessible 24...-performing colleges and universities and approximately 163 nonprofit biomedical research...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix to Part 38 - Guidance Material

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... systems (“Airport TDD Access: Two Case Studies,” (1990)). B. Assistive Listening Systems. Assistive... (using an upper case “X”) of 1 inch for signs on the boarding side and a minimum character height of 2... height of upper case letters), and shall contrast with the background, either dark-on-light or...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix to Part 38 - Guidance Material

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... systems (“Airport TDD Access: Two Case Studies,” (1990)). B. Assistive Listening Systems. Assistive... (using an upper case “X”) of 1 inch for signs on the boarding side and a minimum character height of 2... height of upper case letters), and shall contrast with the background, either dark-on-light or...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix to Part 38 - Guidance Material

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... information on these systems (“Airport TDD Access: Two Case Studies,” (1990)). B. Assistive Listening Systems... (using an upper case “X”) of 1 inch for signs on the boarding side and a minimum character height of 2... height of upper case letters), and shall contrast with the background, either dark-on-light or...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix to Part 38 - Guidance Material

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... systems (“Airport TDD Access: Two Case Studies,” (1990)). B. Assistive Listening Systems. Assistive... (using an upper case “X”) of 1 inch for signs on the boarding side and a minimum character height of 2... height of upper case letters), and shall contrast with the background, either dark-on-light or...

  15. 76 FR 50051 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Six Foreign Birds as Endangered Throughout...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Six Foreign Birds as Endangered Throughout Their Range... Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Six Foreign Birds as Endangered Throughout Their Range...-358-1735. If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal...

  16. 76 FR 20463 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for the Three Forks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877- 8339... feathers of migratory birds (Roscoe 1955, p. 66; Dundee et al. 1967, pp. 89-90). Springsnails in the family..., dissolved carbon dioxide, dissolved oxygen, temperature, conductivity, and water depth, have been shown...

  17. 76 FR 60431 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the American...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... by facsimile (413-253-8482). If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), please call... temperature (SST), or larvae and glass eel food availability, either directly or indirectly through changes in... Sea. It is hypothesized that there is an abrupt temperature change (referred to as a temperature...

  18. 78 FR 63573 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for Dakota Skipper and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... facsimile (612) 725-3609. Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the... edaphic (soil) features, such as soil moisture, compaction, surface temperature, pH, and humidity, may be... percent sand, and 14 to 39 percent silt (Royer et al. 2008, p. 12). Seasonal soil temperatures,...

  19. 78 FR 62529 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Agave...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877-8339... Northern Hemisphere indicate warmer air temperatures, more intense precipitation events, and increased... if new information available at the time of these planning efforts calls for a different...

  20. 76 FR 48722 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Cumberland Darter, Rush...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ...-528-6481; facsimile 931-528-7075. If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the... listing. We call this list the Candidate Notice of Review (CNOR). A candidate species is one for which we... the collection of males in breeding condition in April and May, with water temperatures ranging...

  1. 77 FR 48934 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Bicknell...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... the deaf (TDD), please call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877- 8339... candidate species in 1996, the species was identified by the North American Bird Conservation Initiative as... Turdidae, which includes all birds related to the robins (Rimmer et al. 2001, p. 2). Rimmer et al....

  2. 77 FR 8631 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for the Rayed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Field Office (see ADDRESSES). If you use a telecommunications devise for the deaf (TDD), call the..., obligatory parasitic stage on fish. Eggs develop into microscopic larvae called glochidia within special gill... (Call 1900; Watters 1994, p. 105; West et al. 2000, p. 251; Badra 2002, pers. comm.). The rayed bean...

  3. 78 FR 77289 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Arctostaphylos...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... 916-414-6600; facsimile 916-414-6612. If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call... we call a Federal nexus). Because critical habitat only applies to activities implemented by a... identified by SFRPD as important bird habitat, and expressed concern that designation of these locations...

  4. 77 FR 33143 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ...; fax (303) 236-4005. If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), please call the Federal... white-tailed ptarmigan is a small bird in the order Galliformes, family Phasianidae, and the subfamily Tetraoninae, which includes the grouse, or ground-feeding game birds (Hoffman 2006, p. 11; NatureServe 2011,...

  5. 75 FR 11808 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Boa Constrictor, Four Python Species, and Four Anaconda...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ...; telephone 772-562-3909 ext. 256. If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), please call the... establishment and negative effects in the United States. The USGS risk assessment used a method called ``climate... feeding on a wide range of size-appropriate vertebrates (reptiles, mammals, birds, amphibians, and...

  6. 76 FR 25149 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877-8339... submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) to list a number of foreign bird and butterfly species as endangered or threatened under the Act. We received petitions to list foreign bird species...

  7. 76 FR 33923 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Abronia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... facsimile at 307-772-2358. If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), please call the... common name of Yellowstone sand verbena, A. ammophila has been called Tweedy's sand verbena (Clark et al... mostly bare sand due to increased ground temperatures (due to changes within the Yellowstone...

  8. 78 FR 63795 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for Chromolaena...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... device for the deaf (TDD), may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877-8339... and is characterized by distinct wet and dry seasons, a monthly mean temperature above 18 degrees... seaside oxeye), Caesalpinia bonduc (grey nicker), Capsicum annuum (bird pepper), Galactia striata...

  9. 76 FR 46251 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Redrock...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... deaf (TDD), please call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877-8339. SUPPLEMENTARY....) (Service 2010a, p. 1). There is substantial variation in the stream size, elevation, and water temperature...) increases as temperature decreases (Hauer and Hill 1996, p. 96). High organic nutrient levels can also...

  10. 78 FR 62523 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Ashy Storm...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), please call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877... biological status of the bird and threats potentially affecting its continued existence. The ashy storm... current global population of breeding and nonbreeding individuals between about 18,700 and 20,600...

  11. 75 FR 35398 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the Least...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service... availability, genetically based traits, population density, and water temperatures (Mills et al. 2004a, p. 411... April and May, they use the flooded, warmer, vegetated marsh areas at water temperatures of about 16...

  12. 76 FR 23265 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Smooth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... facsimile to 772-562-4288. If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), please call the..., Florida, requesting that the smooth- billed ani (Crotophaga ani), a bird, be listed as endangered under... been included on the list of birds of conservation concern in peninsular Florida in 2002 and that...

  13. 77 FR 39965 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Hyacinth Macaw

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS... are defined in the Act. Species Description The hyacinth macaw is the largest bird of the parrot..., have feathered faces and lores (areas of a bird's face from the base of the bill to the front of...

  14. 75 FR 22012 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List Susan's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... facsimile (970-245-6933). Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the... habitat will hereafter simply be called Trout Creek Spring unless specific areas are mentioned. Trout...). Water temperatures in the spring habitat were cold and varied little (14.4 to 15.8 \\o\\C (57.9 to 60.4...

  15. 77 FR 40221 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Scarlet Macaw

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ...; telephone 703-358-2171. If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal..., and immature birds are similar to adults, except that immature birds have shorter tails (Collar 1997... wild birds from known locations throughout the range of the species, which extends from...

  16. 76 FR 31685 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Riverside Fairy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Information Relay Service... chemistry (dissolved solutes, alkalinity, salinity, and temperature) and length of time vernal pools are..., p. 5). Riverside fairy shrimp are typically found in water temperatures ranging between 50 and...

  17. 77 FR 73827 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken as a Threatened...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Wildlife Service, propose to list the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), a grassland bird... device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877-8339.... The agreement calls for the payment of a total of $2.5 million, with the money being used to...

  18. 76 FR 38503 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List a Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ...-5225. If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Information Relay..., Clethrionomys, and Peromyscus spp.), and birds (numerous spp.) (reviewed in Powell 1993, pp. 18, 102). Carrion... unfamiliarity with the area (Roy 1991, p. 56). Snow conditions and ambient temperatures may affect...

  19. 77 FR 73739 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Lost River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    .... If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Information Relay Service... preliminary tag- return data indicate that bird predation could substantially affect juvenile Lost River... reviewer suggested that management that reduces bird-fish interactions could improve Lost River sucker...

  20. 76 FR 29107 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... (see ADDRESSES). If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal... shrub canopy cover results in increased ground temperature and light intensity within the host shrub... temperature and precipitation, even if these are not well-understood. Our Response: While climate...

  1. 78 FR 61081 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Withdrawal of the Proposed Rule To List Coral Pink...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877-8339... temperature of 12.4 Celsius ( C) (54.4 Fahrenheit ( F)) and mean annual precipitation of 33.8 centimeters (cm... activity towards behavior that controls their internal body temperature (Pearson and Vogler 2001, p....

  2. 77 FR 25791 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Sonoran...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), please call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877... and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) (16 U.S.C. 703-712) in 1972. A 1962 amendment to the Bald...). Literally translated, H. leucocephalus means white-headed sea eagle. Bald eagles are birds of prey of...

  3. 78 FR 62560 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Agave eggersiana and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    .... Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay... wettest and hottest months are from July to October. The average mid island temperature is 78.8 degrees..., http://www.srh.noaa.gov/sju/?n=climo_cayey ). The mean temperature is 22.7 C (72.3 F), varying from...

  4. 75 FR 43844 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination on Listing the Black-Breasted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... telecommunications devise for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877-8339... Stattersfield, of the International Council for Bird Preservation (ICBP), to list 53 foreign birds under the Act... 30 African birds. We made subsequent warranted-but-precluded findings for all outstanding...

  5. 77 FR 56481 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for the Jemez Mountains...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877-8339... aboveground microhabitat (under or inside cover objects) temperature for 577 Jemez Mountains salamanders... temperatures are closest to the average temperature (54.5 F (12.5 C)) than inside logs where...

  6. 75 FR 35375 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Roswell...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... 505-246-2542. If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Information... available at the time these planning efforts calls for a different outcome. Primary Constituent Elements In... with variable water temperatures (10-20 degrees Celsius (\\o\\C) (50-68 degrees Fahrenheit (\\o\\F))....

  7. 78 FR 2239 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Blue-Throated Macaw

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800- 877-8339. SUPPLEMENTARY... International Council for Bird Preservation (ICBP), to list 53 foreign birds under the Act, including the blue... Spanish for the blue-throated macaw include guacamayo barba azul and guacamayo caninde. Both...

  8. 78 FR 24603 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS.... Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) to list a number of foreign bird and butterfly species as endangered or threatened under the Act. We received petitions to list foreign bird species on November...

  9. 76 FR 58649 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Van Rossem...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... facsimile to 760- 431-9624. If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), you may call the... recognize a western race'' (i.e., subspecies) of gull-billed tern in their authoritative review of the birds... its 1957 (fifth) edition of its checklist of North American birds (AOU 1957, p. 233), which was...

  10. 77 FR 3329 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing Three Python Species and One Anaconda Species as Injurious...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), please call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at (800) 877..., wild birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, mollusks, and crustaceans that are injurious even if they are... of the Interior is authorized to prescribe by regulation those wild mammals, wild birds,...

  11. 77 FR 67784 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Heller...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... device for the deaf (TDD), please call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800- 877-8339... in temperature, humidity, water quality, and water quantity; and trampling of flora and fauna... collapses or facilitates changes in temperature, humidity, water quality, or water quantity. Therefore,...

  12. 76 FR 62503 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Black...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877-8339... throughout its range to determine if listing under the Act is warranted. This analysis is called a ``Five... behind the eye, and white feathers over the base of the tail and undertail coverts. Birds of all...

  13. 78 FR 63625 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Dakota Skipper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877-8339... Northern Hemisphere indicate warmer air temperatures, more intense precipitation events, and increased... planning efforts calls for a different outcome. Prudency Determination Section 4(a)(3) of the Act,...

  14. 78 FR 61045 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Eastern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), please call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877... include caves and abandoned mines (e.g., limestone, coal, iron). Because they tolerate colder temperatures... humidity is low and temperature fluctuations may be high relative to more interior areas (Hitchcock 1949,...

  15. 78 FR 61003 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for the Florida Bonneted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... (TDD), call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877-8339. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION..., 2012a, 2013). After prolonged cold temperatures killed and displaced several bats in early 2010, a total..., audible calls when flying; calls are easily recognized by some humans (Belwood 1992, p. 221; Best et...

  16. 78 FR 41227 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for Six...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877- 8339...). Historically there was an additional, smaller nearby spring outlet called West Sandia Spring. Brune (1981, pp.../Leon Creek that drains northeast to the Pecos River. Diamond Y Spring (previously called...

  17. 78 FR 61451 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for the Taylor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    .... Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay... weather is extremely inhospitable or when the larval food resources are restricted (Ehrlich and Hanski... horned lark (Eremophila alpestris). Horned larks are small, ground-dwelling birds, approximately...

  18. 78 FR 1941 - Marine Mammals; Incidental Take During Specified Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339, 24 hours a day... potential to injure a marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild'' [the MMPA calls this Level A..., breeding, feeding, or sheltering'' [the MMPA calls this Level B harassment] (16 U.S.C. 1362). The...

  19. 75 FR 3424 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To Remove the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ..., and observed changes in the quality of the bird's marine food supply. Population surveys conducted... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), you may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at (800) 877... Conservation Zones 1-5, they estimated the 2007 Conservation Zone 6 population to be 367 birds (95 percent...

  20. 77 FR 47003 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To List the Two Spring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877-8339... many vertebrate and invertebrate wildlife (for example, birds, herptofauna, and other insects), but it... summer; (2) more variable weather patterns and more severe storms; (3) more winter precipitation in...

  1. 75 FR 32728 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List van Rossem's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877-8339... U.S.C. 2901 et seq.), our Division of Migratory Bird Management included the gull-billed tern (the species as a whole) in the list of Birds of Conservation Concern (USFWS 2002, pp. 1-99; USFWS 2008, pp....

  2. 78 FR 60607 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for Echinomastus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... facsimile (602) 242-2513. Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the... both wet and dry years, the BLM recorded increases in some populations. No weather data was recorded at the sites during these studies, and nearby weather station data is inadequate to draw conclusions....

  3. 76 FR 304 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Red Knot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), please call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877... Littoral Society, American Bird Conservancy, Delaware Audubon, Delaware Nature Society, Delaware... subspecies and the roselaari subspecies.'' The petition further calls for a ``national listing based...

  4. 7 CFR 273.2 - Office operations and application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office operations and application processing. 273.2..., age, religion, political beliefs, or disability. “To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA..., D.C. 20250-9410 or call (202) 720-5964 (voice and TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider...

  5. 7 CFR 273.2 - Office operations and application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Office operations and application processing. 273.2..., age, religion, political beliefs, or disability. “To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA..., D.C. 20250-9410 or call (202) 720-5964 (voice and TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider...

  6. 7 CFR 273.2 - Office operations and application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office operations and application processing. 273.2..., age, religion, political beliefs, or disability. “To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA..., D.C. 20250-9410 or call (202) 720-5964 (voice and TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider...

  7. 7 CFR 273.2 - Office operations and application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Office operations and application processing. 273.2..., age, religion, political beliefs, or disability. “To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA..., D.C. 20250-9410 or call (202) 720-5964 (voice and TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider...

  8. Defense Logistics: Actions Needed to Improve the Availability of Critical Items during Current and Future Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    and aluminium oxide. The tile is backed by multiple layers of polyethylene fiber. 2 Additional attachments include throat and groin protectors...20548 To order by Phone: Voice: (202) 512-6000 TDD: (202) 512-2537 Fax: (202) 512- 6061 Contact: Web site: www.gao.gov/fraudnet/fraudnet.htm E

  9. 77 FR 56236 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology should be addressed to: Office of... to splimpto@nsf.gov . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the... research. As the National Science Foundation is committed to funding cutting-edge science, these...

  10. 76 FR 59383 - Notice of Funds Availability for the Rural Microentrepreneur Assistance Program for Fiscal Year 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... Center, 3rd Floor, 89 Main Street, Montpelier, VT 05602-4449, (802) 828-6000/TDD (802) 223-6365. Virginia... applicants, in accordance with 2 CFR part 25, must have a Dun and Bradstreet Data Universal Number System... at http://fedgov.dnb.com/webform . Similarly, in accordance with 2 CFR Part 25, all applicants...

  11. 75 FR 8896 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for Loan Guarantees Under Section 538 Guaranteed Rural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

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  12. Guidelines for Preventing Workplace Violence for Health Care and Social Service Workers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 219-8615; Telecommunications Device for the Deaf (TDD) message...423 Indianapolis, IN 46204 (317) 226-7290 US Department of Labor - OSHA 210 Walnut Street, Room 815 Des Moines, IA 50309 (515) 284-4794 US Department

  13. 77 FR 74825 - Information Collection: Federal and Non-Federal Financial Assistant Instruments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... Forest Service, Director of Acquisitions Management, 1400 Independence Ave. SW., Mailstop 1138... Suite 707, Arlington, VA 22209 during normal business hours. Visitors are encouraged to call ahead to..., Acquisitions Management, 703-605-4654. Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD)...

  14. 78 FR 78330 - Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the Maine Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the Maine Advisory Committee Date and Time: Thursday, January 9, 2014, 2:30 p.m. . ] Place: Via Teleconference. Public Dial-in 1-877-446-3914; Listen Line Code: 4558669. TDD: Dial Federal Relay Service...

  15. 78 FR 78330 - Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the New Hampshire Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the New Hampshire Advisory Committee Date and Time: Friday, January 10, 2014, 4:30 p.m. . Place: Via Teleconference. Public Dial-in 1-877-446-3914; Listen Line Code: 35378877. TDD: Dial Federal Relay Service...

  16. 77 FR 56241 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... has been moved up one hour and is now scheduled to begin at 10 a.m. instead of 11 a.m. The NRC..., large print), please notify Bill Dosch, Chief, Work Life and Benefits Branch, at 301-415-6200, TDD:...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Nitrogen Dioxide. NOX Oxides of nitrogen. O2 Oxygen. Table 2—Symbols Used in Subparts D and E Symbol Term... speed (average at the i'th mode during the cycle) 1/min Ps Dry atmospheric pressure kPa Pd Test ambient...) K TDd Absolute dewpoint temperature K Td, i Torque (average at the i'th mode during the cycle)...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Nitrogen Dioxide. NOX Oxides of nitrogen. O2 Oxygen. Table 2—Symbols Used in Subparts D and E Symbol Term... speed (average at the i'th mode during the cycle) 1/min Ps Dry atmospheric pressure kPa Pd Test ambient...) K TDd Absolute dewpoint temperature K Td, i Torque (average at the i'th mode during the cycle)...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Nitrogen Dioxide. NOX Oxides of nitrogen. O2 Oxygen. Table 2—Symbols Used in Subparts D and E Symbol Term... speed (average at the i'th mode during the cycle) 1/min Ps Dry atmospheric pressure kPa Pd Test ambient...) K TDd Absolute dewpoint temperature K Td, i Torque (average at the i'th mode during the cycle)...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Nitrogen Dioxide. NOX Oxides of nitrogen. O2 Oxygen. Table 2—Symbols Used in Subparts D and E Symbol Term... speed (average at the i'th mode during the cycle) 1/min Ps Dry atmospheric pressure kPa Pd Test ambient...) K TDd Absolute dewpoint temperature K Td, i Torque (average at the i'th mode during the cycle)...

  1. 75 FR 26941 - Information Collection; Submission for OMB Review, Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ...Corps Application Instructions: Administrative, Program Development, and Training grants to the Office... documentation, may be obtained by calling the Corporation for National and Community Service, Ms. Amy Borgstrom at (202) 606-6930. Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY-TDD) may...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... assessed. Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY-TDD) may call (202) 565-2799... information collection request in order to apply for funding through these grant competitions. Copies of the... instructions will be used by applicants for funding through AmeriCorps State and National grant...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... (CNCS) has submitted a public information collection request (ICR) entitled Social Innovation Fund Grant... documentation, may be obtained by calling the Corporation for National and Community Service, Lois Nembhard, at... deaf (TTY-TDD) may call 1-800-833-3722 between 8:00 a.m. and 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday...

  4. 77 FR 44220 - Information Collection; Submission for OMB Review, Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ...) entitled Senior Corps Grant Application for review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction... documentation, may be obtained by calling the Corporation for National and Community Service, Wanda Carney, at... deaf (TTY-TDD) may call 1-800-833- 3722 between 8 a.m. and 8 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through...

  5. Potential of combined ultrasound and microneedles for enhanced transdermal drug permeation: a review.

    PubMed

    Han, Tao; Das, Diganta Bhusan

    2015-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) is limited by the outer layer of the skin, i.e., the stratum corneum. Research on TDD has become very active in the recent years and various technologies have been developed to overcome the resistance of the stratum corneum to molecular diffusion. In particular, researchers have started to consider the possibility of combining the TDD technologies in order to have further increase in drug permeability. Both microneedles (MNs) and ultrasound are promising technologies. They achieve enhancement in drug permeation via different mechanisms and therefore give a good potential for combining with each other. This review will focus on discussing the potential of this combinational technique along with other important issues, e.g., the mechanisms of ultrasound and MNs as it is and these mechanisms which are coupled via the two systems (i.e. MNs and ultrasound). We discuss the possible ways to achieve this combination as well as how this combination would increase the permeability. Some of the undeveloped (weaker) research areas of MNs and sonophoresis are also discussed in order to understand the true potential of combining the two technologies when they are developed further in the future. We propose several hypothetical combinations based on the possible mechanisms involved in MNs and ultrasound. Furthermore, we carry out a cluster analysis by which we determine the significance of this combinational method in comparison with some other selected combinational methods for TDD (e.g., MNs and iontophoresis). Using a time series analysis tool (ARIMA model), the current trend and the future development of combined MNs and ultrasound are also analysed. Overall, the review in this paper indicates that combining MNs and ultrasound is a promising TDD method for the future.

  6. Ultrasound-mediated transdermal drug delivery of fluorescent nanoparticles and hyaluronic acid into porcine skin in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huan-Lei; Fan, Peng-Fei; Guo, Xia-Sheng; Tu, Juan; Ma, Yong; Zhang, Dong

    2016-12-01

    Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) can effectively bypass the first-pass effect. In this paper, ultrasound-facilitated TDD on fresh porcine skin was studied under various acoustic parameters, including frequency, amplitude, and exposure time. The delivery of yellow-green fluorescent nanoparticles and high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA) in the skin samples was observed by laser confocal microscopy and ultraviolet spectrometry, respectively. The results showed that, with the application of ultrasound exposures, the permeability of the skin to these markers (e.g., their penetration depth and concentration) could be raised above its passive diffusion permeability. Moreover, ultrasound-facilitated TDD was also tested with/without the presence of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs). When the ultrasound was applied without UCAs, low ultrasound frequency will give a better drug delivery effect than high frequency, but the penetration depth was less likely to exceed 200 μm. However, with the help of the ultrasound-induced microbubble cavitation effect, both the penetration depth and concentration in the skin were significantly enhanced even more. The best ultrasound-facilitated TDD could be achieved with a drug penetration depth of over 600 μm, and the penetration concentrations of fluorescent nanoparticles and HA increased up to about 4-5 folds. In order to get better understanding of ultrasound-facilitated TDD, scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the surface morphology of skin samples, which showed that the skin structure changed greatly under the treatment of ultrasound and UCA. The present work suggests that, for TDD applications (e.g., nanoparticle drug carriers, transdermal patches and cosmetics), protocols and methods presented in this paper are potentially useful. Project partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 81127901, 81227004, 81473692, 81673995, 11374155, 11574156, 11274170, 11274176, 11474001

  7. Structural properties of relaxed thin film germanium layers grown by low temperature RF-PECVD epitaxy on Si and Ge (100) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Cariou, R.; Ruggeri, R.; Tan, X.; Nassar, J.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.; Mannino, Giovanni

    2014-07-15

    We report on unusual low temperature (175 °C) heteroepitaxial growth of germanium thin films using a standard radio-frequency plasma process. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal a perfect crystalline quality of epitaxial germanium layers on (100) c-Ge wafers. In addition direct germanium crystal growth is achieved on (100) c-Si, despite 4.2% lattice mismatch. Defects rising from Ge/Si interface are mostly located within the first tens of nanometers, and threading dislocation density (TDD) values as low as 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2} are obtained. Misfit stress is released fast: residual strain of −0.4% is calculated from Moiré pattern analysis. Moreover we demonstrate a striking feature of low temperature plasma epitaxy, namely the fact that crystalline quality improves with thickness without epitaxy breakdown, as shown by TEM and depth profiling of surface TDD.

  8. Test design description, Volume 1B, Part 2; FSP-1R FFTF test assembly (HF191A): Revision

    SciTech Connect

    McWethy, L.M.

    1989-07-01

    The principal objective of the FSP-1 test series is to provide the required fuel behavior data needed for fuel modeling and data on the performance of Reference Flight System prototypic cladding and liners at goal burnup. The test series includes two reconstitutions, designated FSP-1R and FSP-1RR, respectively. The irradiation times specified are: 150 equivalent full power days (EFPDs) for the initial FSP-1, 300 EFPDs for FSP-1R, and 400 EFPDs for FSP-1RR. A TDD-IB, part 1 document was issued to specify the design and fabrication requirements for fuel pins in the FSP-1R test. This TDD-IB, Part 2 document will specify the requirements for encapsulation of the FSP-1R fuel pins and fabrication of the FSP-1R test assembly. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. A Heuristic Approach to the Theater Distribution Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    The particular problem determined vehicle routes and schedules in order to achieve time definite delivery (TDD) for a list of demands. Their detailed...methodology resulted in near optimal routing and scheduling of vehicles , and was applied to a number of problems of varying size, each with up to 90...may be requirements in the list that are too large to fit on a single vehicle . In this case, it should be possible to split the delivery into several

  10. Control Channel Vulnerability Analysis of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 802.16m-2011 and 802.16- 2009 Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Constant defined for Initial Ranging RangingSinr TBCC Tail-Biting Convolutional Code TDD Time Division Duplexing TDM Time Division...a ARQ block to ensure that the cyclic redundancy check (CRC) test passes and the message is accepted. The position uncertainty of the MS, BS, and...summarized in Figure 16. For control channels, a tail-biting convolutional code ( TBCC ) with minimum rate of ¼ is used for control channels. This form of

  11. Performance Analysis of 802.16A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Subchannels (From Ref. [1].).....................18 Figure 9. Sample OFDMA TDD Frame (From Ref. [1].) ...............................................19 Figure...the various subcarriers into subchan- nels. Figure 8 illustrates several subchannels . Since data shall be divided among sub- channels, OFDMA symbols...will not only be mapped in the time domain but will be mapped to the particular subchannel on which each symbol will be transmitted, resulting in a

  12. Prototyping scalable digital signal processing systems for radio astronomy using dataflow models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sane, N.; Ford, J.; Harris, A. I.; Bhattacharyya, S. S.

    2012-05-01

    There is a growing trend toward using high-level tools for design and implementation of radio astronomy digital signal processing (DSP) systems. Such tools, for example, those from the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER), are usually platform-specific, and lack high-level, platform-independent, portable, scalable application specifications. This limits the designer's ability to experiment with designs at a high-level of abstraction and early in the development cycle. We address some of these issues using a model-based design approach employing dataflow models. We demonstrate this approach by applying it to the design of a tunable digital downconverter (TDD) used for narrow-bandwidth spectroscopy. Our design is targeted toward an FPGA platform, called the Interconnect Break-out Board (IBOB), that is available from the CASPER. We use the term TDD to refer to a digital downconverter for which the decimation factor and center frequency can be reconfigured without the need for regenerating the hardware code. Such a design is currently not available in the CASPER DSP library. The work presented in this paper focuses on two aspects. First, we introduce and demonstrate a dataflow-based design approach using the dataflow interchange format (DIF) tool for high-level application specification, and we integrate this approach with the CASPER tool flow. Secondly, we explore the trade-off between the flexibility of TDD designs and the low hardware cost of fixed-configuration digital downconverter (FDD) designs that use the available CASPER DSP library. We further explore this trade-off in the context of a two-stage downconversion scheme employing a combination of TDD or FDD designs.

  13. Towards Test Driven Development for Computational Science with pFUnit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rilee, Michael L.; Clune, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Developers working in Computational Science & Engineering (CSE)/High Performance Computing (HPC) must contend with constant change due to advances in computing technology and science. Test Driven Development (TDD) is a methodology that mitigates software development risks due to change at the cost of adding comprehensive and continuous testing to the development process. Testing frameworks tailored for CSE/HPC, like pFUnit, can lower the barriers to such testing, yet CSE software faces unique constraints foreign to the broader software engineering community. Effective testing of numerical software requires a comprehensive suite of oracles, i.e., use cases with known answers, as well as robust estimates for the unavoidable numerical errors associated with implementation with finite-precision arithmetic. At first glance these concerns often seem exceedingly challenging or even insurmountable for real-world scientific applications. However, we argue that this common perception is incorrect and driven by (1) a conflation between model validation and software verification and (2) the general tendency in the scientific community to develop relatively coarse-grained, large procedures that compound numerous algorithmic steps.We believe TDD can be applied routinely to numerical software if developers pursue fine-grained implementations that permit testing, neatly side-stepping concerns about needing nontrivial oracles as well as the accumulation of errors. We present an example of a successful, complex legacy CSE/HPC code whose development process shares some aspects with TDD, which we contrast with current and potential capabilities. A mix of our proposed methodology and framework support should enable everyday use of TDD by CSE-expert developers.

  14. Information Management: Army Information Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the deaf (TDD), telephone amplifiers, listening devices, closed captioned decoders, and visual signaling devices for those with hearing problems. j...new equipment, paper-based training, and similar costs) and mixed-media contracts. (10) Captioning for Hearing-Impaired. In the design, development...drug/alcohol abuse, or equal opportunity) will be open or closed captioned for the hearing impaired. Remastering of existing multimedia/VI productions

  15. Near-interfacial thermal donor generation during processing of (100)Si/low-κ Si-oxycarbide insulator structures revealed by electron spin resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stesmans, A.; Iacovo, S.; Nguyen, S.; Afanas'ev, V. V.; Baklanov, M. R.; Urbanowicz, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    A low-temperature multifrequency electron spin resonance (ESR) study has been carried out on Cz-(110)Si/insulator structures with organosilicate films of low dielectric constant κ grown at 300 °C using the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method (PECVD). After subjection to a short-term UV-irradiation-assisted thermal curing treatment at 430 °C to remove the organic component from the low-κ film and obtain optimal porosity, the NL8 ESR spectrum of C2v symmetry is observed, characterized by g1 (//[100] = 1.999 83(8), g2(//[011] = 1.992 74(8), g3 = (//[1\\bar{1}0]) = 2.001 15(8). Based on previous insight, this reveals the generation in the c-Si substrate of singly ionized thermal double donor (TDD) defects with a core containing oxygen atoms. Remarkably, the generation is found to be highly nonuniform, and the defect density depth profile shows an exponential-like decay (decay length ˜3.8 μm) from the oxide/Si interface inward the Si substrate, thus exposing the defect formation as an interface-administered effect. Upon analysis, the strain induced by interfacial stress in the c-Si beneath the interface is suggested as the major driving component in the enhancement of TDD formation during thermal treatment, suggesting that substantial stress is involved with PECVD organosilicate low-κ glasses. The result represents a different and affirmative illustration of the influence of strain on TDD formation. Based on the principal g values, the observed TDD is closest to the NL81 type, the one formed first in bulk c-Si through oxygen agglomeration during short-term thermal treatment.

  16. Application of Financial Risk-reward Theory to Link and Network Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    plan to take a more practical approach, where we assume that transmitter uses a finite QAM modulation schemes. One of the fundamental assumptions in...amplitude modulation ( QAM ) with 2, 4, 16, and 64 constellation points [39]. In a spatial multiplexer, data symbols are converted from serial to parallel...orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing QAM quadrature amplitude modulation Qos quality of servise SINR Signal-to-Noise-plus-Interference Ratio TDD

  17. A targeted door-to-door strategy for sleeping sickness detection in low-prevalence settings in Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Koffi, Mathurin; N’Djetchi, Martial; Ilboudo, Hamidou; Kaba, Dramane; Coulibaly, Bamoro; N’Gouan, Emmanuel; Kouakou, Lingué; Bucheton, Bruno; Solano, Philippe; Courtin, Fabrice; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Jamonneau, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Significant efforts to control human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) over the three past decades have resulted in drastic reductions of disease prevalence in Côte d’Ivoire. In this context, the costly and labor-intensive active mass screening strategy is no longer efficient. In addition to a more cost-effective passive surveillance system being implemented in this low-prevalence context, our aim was to develop an alternative targeted active screening strategy. In 2012, we carried out a targeted door-to-door (TDD) survey focused on the immediate vicinities of former HAT patients detected in the HAT focus of Bonon and compared the results to those obtained during classical active mass screening (AMS) surveys conducted from 2000 to 2012 in the same area. The TDD that provides a friendlier environment, inviting inhabitants to participate and gain awareness of the disease, detected significantly more HAT cases than the AMS. These results suggest that the TDD is an efficient and useful strategy in low-prevalence settings where very localized transmission cycles may persist and, in combination with passive surveillance, could help in eliminating HAT. PMID:27849517

  18. The comparison of the efficacy of radiofrequency nucleoplasty and targeted disc decompression in lumbar radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Adakli, Barıs; Turhan, K. Sanem Cakar; Asik, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Chronic low back pain is a common clinical condition causing medical, socioeconomic, and treatment difficulties. In our study, we aimed to compare early and long-term efficacy of lumbar radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RFTC) nucleoplasty and targeted disc decompression (TDD) in patients with lumbar radiculopathy in whom previous conventional therapy had failed. The medical records of 37 patients undergoing TDD and 36 patients undergoing lumbar RFTC nucleoplasty were retrospectively examined and assigned to the Group D and Group N, respectively. In all patients Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Functional Rating Index (FRI) were recorded before treatment and after one, six and twelve months after the procedure. The North American Spine Society Satisfaction Scale (NASSSS) was also recoreded twelve months after the therapeutic procedure. Statistically significant postprocedural improvement in VAS and FRI was evident in both groups. VAS scores after one, six, and twelve month were slightly higher in Group N, compared to Group D. The overall procedure-related patient satisfaction ratio was 67.5% in the Group D, compared to 75% in the Group N. Regardless of the different mechanism of action, both methods are effective therapies for lumbar radiculopathy, with TDD showing long-term lower pain scores. PMID:26042514

  19. Uplink scheduling and adjacent-channel coupling loss analysis for TD-LTE deployment.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    TD-LTE, one of the two duplexing modes in LTE, operates in unpaired spectrum and has the advantages of TDD-based technologies. It is expected that TD-LTE will be more rapidly deployed in near future and most of WiMax operators will upgrade their networks to TD-LTE gradually. Before completely upgrading to TD-LTE, WiMax may coexist with TD-LTE in an adjacent frequency band. In addition, multiple TD-LTE operators may deploy their networks in adjacent bands. When more than one TDD network operates in adjacent frequency bands, severe interference may happen due to adjacent channel interference (ACI) and unsynchronized operations. In this paper, coexistence issues between TD-LTE and other systems are analyzed and coexistence requirements are provided. This paper has three research objectives. First, frame synchronization between TD-LTE and WiMax is discussed by investigating possible combinations of TD-LTE and WiMax configurations. Second, an uplink scheduling algorithm is proposed to utilize a leakage pattern of ACI in synchronized operations. Third, minimum requirements for coexistence in unsynchronized operations are analyzed by introducing a concept of adjacent-channel coupling loss. From the analysis and simulation results, we can see that coexistence of TD-LTE with other TDD systems is feasible if the two networks are synchronized. For the unsynchronized case, some special cell-site engineering techniques may be required to reduce the ACI.

  20. Potential of Essential Oils as Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Administration of Ibuprofen to Treat Dysmenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Jiang, Qiu-Dong; Wu, Ye-Ming; Liu, Pei; Yao, Jun-Hong; Lu, Qing; Zhang, Hui; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2015-10-07

    The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare five essential oils (EOs) as penetration enhancers (PEs) to improve the transdermal drug delivery (TDD) of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhoea. The EOs were prepared using the steam distillation method and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. The corresponding cytotoxicities were evaluated in epidermal keartinocyte HaCaT cell lines by an MTT assay. Furthermore, the percutaneous permeation studies were carried out to compare the permeation enhancement effect of EOs. Then the therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen with EOs was evaluated using dysmenorrheal model mice. The data supports a decreasing trend of skin cell viability in which Clove oil >Angelica oil > Chuanxiong oil > Cyperus oil > Cinnamon oil > Azone. Chuanxiong oil and Angelica oil had been proved to possess a significant permeation enhancement for TDD of ibuprofen. More importantly, the pain inhibitory intensity of ibuprofen hydrogel was demonstrated to be greater with Chuanxiong oil when compared to ibuprofen without EOs (p < 0.05). The contents of calcium ion and nitric oxide (NO) were also significantly changed after the addition of Chuanxiong oil (p < 0.05). In summary, we suggest that Chuanxiong oil should be viewed as the best PE for TDD of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhea.

  1. Uplink Scheduling and Adjacent-Channel Coupling Loss Analysis for TD-LTE Deployment

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Moon, Sung Ho

    2014-01-01

    TD-LTE, one of the two duplexing modes in LTE, operates in unpaired spectrum and has the advantages of TDD-based technologies. It is expected that TD-LTE will be more rapidly deployed in near future and most of WiMax operators will upgrade their networks to TD-LTE gradually. Before completely upgrading to TD-LTE, WiMax may coexist with TD-LTE in an adjacent frequency band. In addition, multiple TD-LTE operators may deploy their networks in adjacent bands. When more than one TDD network operates in adjacent frequency bands, severe interference may happen due to adjacent channel interference (ACI) and unsynchronized operations. In this paper, coexistence issues between TD-LTE and other systems are analyzed and coexistence requirements are provided. This paper has three research objectives. First, frame synchronization between TD-LTE and WiMax is discussed by investigating possible combinations of TD-LTE and WiMax configurations. Second, an uplink scheduling algorithm is proposed to utilize a leakage pattern of ACI in synchronized operations. Third, minimum requirements for coexistence in unsynchronized operations are analyzed by introducing a concept of adjacent-channel coupling loss. From the analysis and simulation results, we can see that coexistence of TD-LTE with other TDD systems is feasible if the two networks are synchronized. For the unsynchronized case, some special cell-site engineering techniques may be required to reduce the ACI. PMID:24707214

  2. Adopting the Test-Driven Development to Developing Numerical Weather Prediction Model by Using the pFUnit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, S. Y.; Kim, J.; Song, I. S.

    2014-12-01

    Modern Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model is a complex software that consists of scientific and computational components over multiple software layers. Development of NWP model is complicated process bringing many risks arise from the software complexity and long-term developing period. The software engineering suggests that software testing is a requisite for developing the complex software because it can improve software quality and reduce risk. In particular, the Test-Driven Development (TDD) is known to the useful way in software testing enable to develop more productive software with writing more unit-tests. We utilize the pFUnit, which is the unit testing framework for Fortran with MPI extensions under the NASA open source license, for adopting TDD to developing the KIAPS-GM (Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems-Global Model) framework. It is known that the pFUnit offers a convenient, lightweight mechanism for Fortran developers to create and run software tests that specify the desired behavior for a given piece of code. Our implementation of TDD with the pFUnit will be presented with test suite and unit-tests for infrastructure of the KIAPS-GM framework.

  3. GaN-Ready Aluminum Nitride Substrates for Cost-Effective, Very Low Dislocation Density III-Nitride LED's

    SciTech Connect

    Sandra Schujman; Leo Schowalter

    2010-10-15

    The objective of this project was to develop and then demonstrate the efficacy of a costeffective approach for a low defect density substrate on which AlInGaN LEDs can be fabricated. The efficacy of this “GaN-ready” substrate would then be tested by growing high efficiency, long lifetime InxGa1-xN blue LEDs. The approach used to meet the project objectives was to start with low dislocation density AlN single-crystal substrates and grow graded AlxGa1-xN layers on top. Pseudomorphic AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers grown on bulk AlN substrates were used to fabricate light emitting diodes and demonstrate better device performance as a result of the low defect density in these layers when benched marked against state-of-the-art LEDs fabricated on sapphire substrates. The pseudomorphic LEDs showed excellent output powers compared to similar wavelength devices grown on sapphire substrates, with lifetimes exceeding 10,000 hours (which was the longest time that could reliably be estimated). In addition, high internal quantum efficiencies were demonstrated at high driving current densities even though the external quantum efficiencies were low due to poor photon extraction. Unfortunately, these pseudomorphic LEDs require high Al content so they emit in the ultraviolet. Sapphire based LEDs typically have threading dislocation densities (TDD) > 108 cm-2 while the pseudomorphic LEDs have TDD ≤ 105 cm-2. The resulting TDD, when grading the AlxGa1-xN layer all the way to pure GaN to produce a “GaN-ready” substrate, has varied between the mid 108 down to the 106 cm-2. These inconsistencies are not well understood. Finally, an approach to improve the LED structures on AlN substrates for light extraction efficiency was developed by thinning and roughening the substrate.

  4. Reduced Dislocation Density in GaxIn1-xP Compositionally Graded Buffer Layers through Engineered Glide Plane Switch

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Kevin L.; France, Ryan M.; McMahon, William E.; Norman, Andrew G.; Guthrey, Harvey L.; Geisz, John F.

    2016-11-17

    In this work we develop control over dislocation glide dynamics in GaxIn1-xP compositionally graded buffer layers (CGBs) through control of CuPt ordering on the group-III sublattice. The ordered structure is metastable in the bulk, so any glissile dislocation that disrupts the ordered pattern will release stored energy, and experience an increased glide force. Here we show how this connection between atomic ordering and dislocation glide force can be exploited to control the threading dislocation density (TDD) in GaxIn1-xP CGBs. When ordered GaxIn1-xP is graded from the GaAs lattice constant to InP, the order parameter ..eta.. decreases as x decreases, and dislocation glide switches from one set of glide planes to the other. This glide plane switch (GPS) is accompanied by the nucleation of dislocations on the new glide plane, which typically leads to increased TDD. We develop control of the GPS position within a GaxIn1-xP CGB through manipulation of deposition temperature, surfactant concentration, and strain-grading rate. We demonstrate a two-stage GaxIn1-xP CGB from GaAs to InP with sufficiently low TDD for high performance devices, such as the 4-junction inverted metamorphic multi-junction solar cell, achieved through careful control the GPS position. Experimental results are analyzed within the context of a model that considers the force balance on dislocations on the two competing glide planes as a function of the degree of ordering.

  5. Reduced dislocation density in GaxIn1-xP compositionally graded buffer layers through engineered glide plane switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, K. L.; France, R. M.; McMahon, W. E.; Norman, A. G.; Guthrey, H. L.; Geisz, J. F.

    2017-04-01

    In this work we develop control over dislocation glide dynamics in GaxIn1-xP compositionally graded buffer layers (CGBs) through control of CuPt ordering on the group-III sublattice. The ordered structure is metastable in the bulk, so any glissile dislocation that disrupts the ordered pattern will release stored energy, and experience an increased glide force. Here we show how this connection between atomic ordering and dislocation glide force can be exploited to control the threading dislocation density (TDD) in GaxIn1-xP CGBs. When ordered GaxIn1-xP is graded from the GaAs lattice constant to InP, the order parameter η decreases as x decreases, and dislocation glide switches from one set of glide planes to the other. This glide plane switch (GPS) is accompanied by the nucleation of dislocations on the new glide plane, which typically leads to increased TDD. We develop control of the GPS position within a GaxIn1-xP CGB through manipulation of deposition temperature, surfactant concentration, and strain-grading rate. We demonstrate a two-stage GaxIn1-xP CGB from GaAs to InP with sufficiently low TDD for high performance devices, such as the 4-junction inverted metamorphic multi-junction solar cell, achieved through careful control the GPS position. Experimental results are analyzed within the context of a model that considers the force balance on dislocations on the two competing glide planes as a function of the degree of ordering.

  6. Sustained efficacy of insulin pump therapy compared with multiple daily injections in type 2 diabetes: 12‐month data from the OpT2mise randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Reznik, Y.; Conget, I.; Castañeda, J. A.; Runzis, S.; Lee, S. W.; Cohen, O.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To compare insulin pump therapy and multiple daily injections (MDI) in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving basal and prandial insulin analogues. Methods After a 2‐month dose‐optimization period, 331 patients with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels ≥8.0% and ≤12% were randomized to pump therapy or continued MDI for 6 months [randomization phase (RP)]. The MDI group was subsequently switched to pump therapy during a 6‐month continuation phase (CP). The primary endpoint was the between‐group difference in change in mean HbA1c from baseline to the end of the RP. Results The mean HbA1c at baseline was 9% in both groups. At the end of the RP, the reduction in HbA1c was significantly greater with pump therapy than with MDI (−1.1 ± 1.2% vs −0.4 ± 1.1%; p < 0.001). The pump therapy group maintained this improvement to 12 months while the MDI group, which was switched to pump therapy, showed a 0.8% reduction: the final HbA1c level was identical in both arms. In the RP, total daily insulin dose (TDD) was 20.4% lower with pump therapy than with MDI and remained stable in the CP. The MDI–pump group showed a 19% decline in TDD, such that by 12 months TDD was equivalent in both groups. There were no differences in weight gain or ketoacidosis between groups. In the CP, one patient in each group experienced severe hypoglycaemia. Conclusions Pump therapy has a sustained durable effect on glycaemic control in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. PMID:26854123

  7. Influence of semi-volatile aerosol on physical and optical properties of aerosol in Kathmandu valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Sujan; Praveen, Ps; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Shrestha, Kundan; Panday, Arnico

    2016-04-01

    A field study was conducted in the urban atmosphere of Kathmandu valley to study the influence of the semi-volatile aerosol fraction on physical and optical properties of aerosols. The study was carried out during the 2015 pre-monsoon period. Experimental setup consisted of air from an ambient air inlet being split to two sets of identical sampling instruments. The first instrument received the ambient sample directly, while the second instrument received the air sample through a thermodenuder (TDD). Four sets of experiments were conducted to understand aerosol number, size distribution, scattering and absorption properties using Condensation Particle Counter (CPC), Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), Aethalometer (AE33) and Nephelometer. The influence of semi-volatile aerosols was calculated from the fraction of particles evaporated in the TDD at set temparetures: room temperature, 50°C, 100°C, 150°C, 200°C, 250°C and 300°C. Results show that, with increasing temperature, the evaporated fraction of semi-volatile aerosol also increased. At room temperature the fraction of semi-volatile aerosols was 12% while at 300°C it was as high as to 49%. Aerosol size distribution analysis shows that with an increase in TDD temperature from 50°C to 300°C, peak mobility diameter of particles shifted from around 60nm to 40nm. However we found little change in effective diameter of aerosol size distribution with increase in set TDD temperature. The change in size of aerosols due to loss of semi-volatile component has a stronger influence (~70%) in higher size bins when compared to at lower size bins (~20%). Studies using the AE33 showed that absorption by black carbon (BC) is amplified due to influence of semi-volatile aerosols by upto 37% at 880nm wavelength. Similarly nephelometer measurements showed that upto 71% of total scattering was found to be contributed by semi-volatile aerosol fraction. The scattering Angstrom Exponent (SAE) of semi-volatile aerosol

  8. Digital Servocontroller System. Volume 1. Operations Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    8217Op fw c Ian , A ftP ate error lop rate,el"Or VA, bre. CWt I* I Tr V dump rate x/S Obd abort W. 0 ,,vtvgral oad c 󈧬. Lrkln Cm f ST&TIK oad abort X...14.0?04V _Z(.W -k047 44 -load alar% X -M.0 _ W. 0 -%. D -ft. 0-load abort Z JDO G . J00.0 100.0 -tD-D. 0 zuwm LLILL Cyn f RTATHK LL = error abort Z LO.0

  9. CONTRACT MANAGEMENT: Trends and Challenges in Acquiring Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Address(es) General Accounting Office, PO Box 37050, Washington, DC 20013 Performing Organization Number(s) GAO-01-753t Sponsoring/Monitoring Agency...General Accounting Office P.O. Box 37050 Washington, DC 20013 Orders by visiting: Room 1100 700 4th St., NW (corner of 4th and G Sts. NW) Washington, DC... 20013 Orders by phone: (202) 512-6000 fax: (202) 512-6061 TDD (202) 512-2537 Each day, GAO issues a list of newly available reports and testimony

  10. A Mobile Device App to Reduce Time to Drug Delivery and Medication Errors During Simulated Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Combescure, Christophe; Lacroix, Laurence; Haddad, Kevin; Sanchez, Oliver; Gervaix, Alain; Lovis, Christian; Manzano, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Background During pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), vasoactive drug preparation for continuous infusion is both complex and time-consuming, placing children at higher risk than adults for medication errors. Following an evidence-based ergonomic-driven approach, we developed a mobile device app called Pediatric Accurate Medication in Emergency Situations (PedAMINES), intended to guide caregivers step-by-step from preparation to delivery of drugs requiring continuous infusion. Objective The aim of our study was to determine whether the use of PedAMINES reduces drug preparation time (TDP) and time to delivery (TDD; primary outcome), as well as medication errors (secondary outcomes) when compared with conventional preparation methods. Methods The study was a randomized controlled crossover trial with 2 parallel groups comparing PedAMINES with a conventional and internationally used drugs infusion rate table in the preparation of continuous drug infusion. We used a simulation-based pediatric CPR cardiac arrest scenario with a high-fidelity manikin in the shock room of a tertiary care pediatric emergency department. After epinephrine-induced return of spontaneous circulation, pediatric emergency nurses were first asked to prepare a continuous infusion of dopamine, using either PedAMINES (intervention group) or the infusion table (control group), and second, a continuous infusion of norepinephrine by crossing the procedure. The primary outcome was the elapsed time in seconds, in each allocation group, from the oral prescription by the physician to TDD by the nurse. TDD included TDP. The secondary outcome was the medication dosage error rate during the sequence from drug preparation to drug injection. Results A total of 20 nurses were randomized into 2 groups. During the first study period, mean TDP while using PedAMINES and conventional preparation methods was 128.1 s (95% CI 102-154) and 308.1 s (95% CI 216-400), respectively (180 s reduction, P=.002). Mean

  11. Biological Nitrogen Removal through Nitritation Coupled with Thiosulfate-Driven Denitritation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jin; Zhou, Junmei; Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Rulong; Wang, Qilin

    2016-06-01

    A novel biological nitrogen removal system based on nitritation coupled with thiosulfate-driven denitritation (Nitritation-TDD) was developed to achieve a high nitrogen removal rate and low sludge production. A nitritation sequential batch reactor (nitritation SBR) and an anoxic up-flow sludge bed (AnUSB) reactor were applied for effective nitritation and denitritation, respectively. Above 75% nitrite was accumulated in the nitritation SBR with an influent ammonia loading rate of 0.43 kg N/d/m3. During Nitritation-TDD operation, particle sizes (d50) of the sludge decreased from 406 to 225 um in nitritation SBR and from 327–183 um in AnUSB reactor. Pyrosequencing tests revealed that ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) population was stabilized at approximately 7.0% (calculated as population of AOB-related genus divided by the total microbial population) in the nitritation SBR. In contrast, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) population decreased from 6.5–0.6% over the same time, indicating the effective nitrite accumulation in the nitritation SBR. Thiobacillus, accounting for 34.2% in the AnUSB reactor, was mainly responsible for nitrogen removal via autotrophic denitritation, using an external source of thiosulfate as electron donor. Also, it was found that free nitrous acid could directly affect the denitritation activity.

  12. DFT investigation of the mecahanism and stereochemistry of electrophilic transannular addition reaction of bromine to tricyclo[4.2.2.02,5]deca-3,7-diene.

    PubMed

    Abbasoglu, Rza; Misir, Miraç Nedim

    2012-03-01

    Full geometric optimization of tricyclo[4.2.2.02,5]deca-3,7-diene (TDD) has been done by DFT/B3LYP methods and the structure of the molecule was investigated. Cyclobuten double bond (I) of molecule is syn pyramidalized, and bicyclookten double bond (II) is also exo pyramidalized. The double bond (I) is more pyramidalized than the double bond (II) and it has higher reactivity. The TDD-Br2 system has been investigated by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method and their stable configurations have been determined. The cationic intermediates and products obtained as a result of the addition reaction has been studied using B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) methods. Bridged bromonium cation is more stable than U-type cation. Considering that the bridged cation does not isomerize to the less stable U-type cation, it is not possible for the U-type product to be obtained in the reaction. The bridged bromonium cation transformed into the more stable N-type cation and the N-type product was obtained via this cation. The thermodynamic stability of the anti, exo and anti, endo isomers of N-type dibromide molecule were almost identical. N-type product is 11.759 kcal mol more stable than U-type product.

  13. Applicator for in-vitro ultrasound-activated targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerold, B.; Gourevich, D.; Volovick, A.; Xu, D.; Arditti, F.; Prentice, P.; Cochran, S.; Gnaim, J.; Medan, Y.; Wang, L.; Melzer, A.

    2012-10-01

    Reducing toxicity and improving uptake of cancer drugs in tumors are important goals of targeted drug delivery (TDD). Ultrasonic drug release from various encapsulants has been a focus of many research groups. However, a single standard ultrasonic device, viable for use by biologists, is not currently present in the market. The device reported here is designed to allow investigation of the impact of ultrasound on cellular uptake and cell viability in-vitro. In it, single-element transducers with different operating frequencies are mounted below a standard 96-well plate. The plate is moved above the transducers, such that each line of wells can be sonicated at a different frequency. To assess the device, 96-well plates were seeded with cells and sonicated using different ultrasonic parameters, with and without doxorubicin. Cell viability was measured by colorimetric MTT assay and the uptake of doxorubicin by cells was also determined. The device proved to be highly viable in preliminary tests; it demonstrated that change in ultrasonic parameters produces different effect on cells. For example, increase in uptake of doxorubicin was demonstrated following ultrasound application. The growing interest in ultrasound-activated TDD emphasizes the need for standardization of the ultrasound device and the one reported here may offer some indications of how that may be achieved. It is planned to further improve the prototype by increasing the number of ultrasonic frequencies and degrees of freedom for each transducer.

  14. Low-temperature growth of AlN and GaN by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy for polarization engineered water splitting photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Akihiro; Suzuki, Michihiro; Fujii, Katsushi; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Sugiyama, Masakazu

    2017-04-01

    Crystal properties of low-temperature grown AlN (LT-AlN) combined with low temperature GaN (LT-GaN) grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) were investigated to obtain a high quality GaN/AlN/GaN structure with a few-nm-thick AlN layer. LT-AlN suppresses unintentional Ga incorporation and can be pseudomorphically grown on GaN with a relatively smooth surface morphology. The lattice of LT-AlN coherent to GaN, however, was found to relax after reactor conditions were changed to grow the subsequent GaN layer at higher temperature. The top GaN layer grown on the relaxed LT-AlN, thus, exhibited a rough surface morphology and a threading dislocation density (TDD) higher than 109 cm-2 estimated from an X-ray diffraction measurement. An LT-GaN capping layer was found to be highly effective for avoiding such lattice relaxation of LT-AlN. The combination of LT-AlN and LT-GaN enables us to obtain a GaN/AlN/GaN junction with high Al content, a low TDD, and abrupt interfaces. As a result, introducing an LT-GaN layer improved the photoelectrochemical (PEC) property of a polarization engineered un-doped GaN/AlN/n-type GaN (u-GaN/AlN/n-GaN) photocathode for water splitting.

  15. Sonophoresis. I. The use of high-frequency ultrasound to enhance transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Bommannan, D; Okuyama, H; Stauffer, P; Guy, R H

    1992-04-01

    Previous attempts to use ultrasound (less than or equal to 1-MHz frequency and 1 to 3-W/cm2 intensity) to enhance transdermal drug delivery (so-called sonophoresis) have produced inconsistent results. Theoretical analysis of ultrasound propagation in tissue predicts that higher-frequency ultrasound (greater than 1 MHz) will increase the concentration of energy deposition in the stratum corneum (SC) (typically, the rate-limiting barrier to percutaneous penetration). This hypothesis was tested by comparing the passive transdermal delivery of salicylic acid with that under the influence of ultrasound at 2-, 10-, and 16-MHz frequency; measurements were performed in vivo in hairless guinea pigs. Total drug absorbed was quantified by determining the amount of salicylic acid (1) present in SC tape strips and (2) eliminated in urine. Sonophoresis for 20 min at 2 MHz caused no significant increase in salicylic acid delivery over passive diffusion; treatment with ultrasound at 10 and 16 MHz, on the other hand, significantly elevated salicylic acid transport, by 4-fold and 2.5-fold, respectively. Kinetic analysis of the sonophoretic data at 10 and 16 MHz also revealed that the diffusion lag time associated with transdermal drug delivery (TDD) was reduced. A shorter period (5 min) of sonophoresis again resulted in enhanced TDD (relative to the corresponding control) at the higher frequencies; the delivered dose, and the level of enhancement, however, were lower than those after the 20-min treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Sonophoresis using ultrasound contrast agents for transdermal drug delivery: an in vivo experimental study.

    PubMed

    Park, Donghee; Ryu, Heungil; Kim, Han Sung; Kim, Young-Sun; Choi, Kyu-Sil; Park, Hyunjin; Seo, Jongbum

    2012-04-01

    Sonophoresis temporally increases skin permeability such that various medications can be delivered noninvasively. Previous sonophoresis studies have suggested that cavitation plays an important role in enhancing transdermal drug delivery (TDD). In this study, the feasibility of controlled cavitation using ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) at high frequency was explored through in vivo experiments in a rat model. Two commercially available UCAs, SonoVue® and Definity®, were used at 2.47 MHz and 1.12 MHz, respectively. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran with 0.1% UCA was used as the drug to be delivered through the skin. Ultrasound with a 10 ms pulse and a 1% duty cycle at 1 MPa acoustic pressure for 30 min was applied in all sonication sessions. The efficacy of sonophoresis with UCAs was quantitatively analyzed using an optical imaging system that was used to count photons emitted from fluorescein. The results showed that the proposed sonophoresis method significantly improved drug penetration compared with the traditional sonophoresis method with 4 kD, 20 kD and 150 kD FITC-dextrans at 1.12 MHz, and with 4 kD and 20 kD FITC-dextrans at 2.47 MHz. Sonophoresis for TDD was performed more effectively with the aid of UCAs. Sonophoresis with UCAs has excellent potential for broad applications in drug delivery for diseases requiring the chronic administration of medications such as diabetes.

  17. Natural Terpenes as Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Jiang, Qiu-Dong; Chai, Ya-Ping; Zhang, Hui; Peng, Pei; Yang, Xi-Xiong

    2016-12-11

    The greatest hindrance for transdermal drug delivery (TDD) is the barrier property of skin, especially the stratum corneum (SC). Various methodologies have been investigated and developed to enhance the penetration of drugs through the skin. Among them, the most popular approach is the application of penetration enhancers (PEs), including natural terpenes, a very safe and effective class of PEs. In the present paper, we focused on terpenes as skin PEs for TDD. The mechanism of their action, the factors affecting their penetration enhancement effect, as well as their possible skin toxicity were discussed. Terpenes abundant in nature have great potential in the development of PEs. Compared to synthetic PEs, natural terpenes have been proved to possess higher enhancement activity. Interaction with SC intercellular lipids is the main mechanism of action for terpenes. The key factor affecting the enhancement effect is the lipophilicity of both terpenes and drug molecules. In addition, a lot of terpenes have also been proved to be much less toxic compared to azone, the classic synthetic PE. In summary, terpenes may be preferred over the chemically synthesized compounds as safe and effective PEs to promote the percutaneous absorption of drugs.

  18. Biological Nitrogen Removal through Nitritation Coupled with Thiosulfate-Driven Denitritation

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jin; Zhou, Junmei; Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Rulong; Wang, Qilin

    2016-01-01

    A novel biological nitrogen removal system based on nitritation coupled with thiosulfate-driven denitritation (Nitritation-TDD) was developed to achieve a high nitrogen removal rate and low sludge production. A nitritation sequential batch reactor (nitritation SBR) and an anoxic up-flow sludge bed (AnUSB) reactor were applied for effective nitritation and denitritation, respectively. Above 75% nitrite was accumulated in the nitritation SBR with an influent ammonia loading rate of 0.43 kg N/d/m3. During Nitritation-TDD operation, particle sizes (d50) of the sludge decreased from 406 to 225 um in nitritation SBR and from 327–183 um in AnUSB reactor. Pyrosequencing tests revealed that ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) population was stabilized at approximately 7.0% (calculated as population of AOB-related genus divided by the total microbial population) in the nitritation SBR. In contrast, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) population decreased from 6.5–0.6% over the same time, indicating the effective nitrite accumulation in the nitritation SBR. Thiobacillus, accounting for 34.2% in the AnUSB reactor, was mainly responsible for nitrogen removal via autotrophic denitritation, using an external source of thiosulfate as electron donor. Also, it was found that free nitrous acid could directly affect the denitritation activity. PMID:27272192

  19. Physiological range of mechanical synchronicity of the human heart: comparison between different echocardiographic assessment modalities.

    PubMed

    Poerner, Tudor C; Goebel, Björn; Geiger, Tobias; Haghi, Dariusch; Borggrefe, Martin; Haase, Karl K

    2005-09-01

    Tissue Doppler was performed to assess physiological ranges of mechanical synchronicity in 47 patients aged 38 to 81 y with normal coronary angiograms, ECG recordings and echocardiographic findings. Maximal time delays between two different left ventricular (LV) walls in long axis time-to-peak tissue displacement (TD_D), respectively in time-to-peak strain (TD_S), time-to-peak strain rate (TD_SR), time-to-peak systolic (TD_VS) and early diastolic (TD_VE) velocities of basal and midwall segments were determined as values corrected for heart rate in a 16-segment LV model and in the right ventricle (RV). Strain (TD_S: LV = 212 +/- 108 ms, RV = 195 +/- 15 ms) and strain rate (TD_SR: LV = 183 +/- 67 ms, RV = 120 +/- 60 ms) showed the highest dyssynchrony values (TD_D: LV = 110 +/- 96 ms, RV = 42 +/- 38 ms; TD_VS: LV = 82 +/- 47 ms, RV = 36 +/- 36 ms; TD_VE: LV = 73 +/- 36 ms, RV = 46 +/- 20 ms) in both ventricles. There was no significant association between a certain LV wall and the occurrence of the earliest, respectively latest peak values of any parameter.

  20. Characterization of time delayed diversity to mitigate fading in atmospheric turbulence channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trisno, Sugianto; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Milner, Stuart D.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2005-08-01

    Atmospheric turbulence is caused by inhomogeneities in the temperature and pressure of the atmosphere, resulting in random variations of the refractive index. A laser beam propagating through such turbulences experiences random amplitude and phase fluctuations, which can severely degrade the performance of free space optical (FSO) communication systems. In our time delayed diversity (TDD) technique, we transmit twice and take advantage of the fact that propagation along an atmospheric path is statistically uncorrelated with an earlier-time path for a time interval greater than the atmospheric turbulence correlation time. Communications performance is improved because the joint probability of error is less than the probability of error from individual channels. In this paper, we describe the theoretical and experimental analyses of FSO systems implementing this novel scheme in various performance scenarios. Theoretical models and performance of TDD systems are derived and characterized. The experimental performance results obtained under weak turbulence conditions are shown to be in good agreement with the theory. Related system design and implementation issues, such as: atmospheric turbulence statistics, laser beam depolarization, and diversity receiver architecture are also discussed.

  1. pFUnit 3.0 Tutorial Advanced

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This tutorial will introduce Fortran developers to unit-testing and test-driven development (TDD) using pFUnit. As with other unit-testing frameworks, pFUnit, simplifies the process of writing, collecting, and executing tests while providing clear diagnostic messages for failing tests. pFUnit specifically targets the development of scientific-technical software written in Fortran and includes customized features such as: assertions for multi-dimensional arrays, distributed (MPI) and thread-based (OpenMP) parallellism, and flexible parameterized tests.These sessions will include numerous examples and hands-on exercises that gradually build in complexity. Attendees are expected to have working knowledge of F90, but familiarity with object-oriented syntax in F2003 and MPI will be of benefit for the more advanced examples. By the end of the tutorial the audience should feel comfortable in applying pFUnit within their own development environment.

  2. GaAs/Ge/Si epitaxial substrates: Development and characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzynin, Yury; Shengurov, Vladimir; Zvonkov, Boris; Buzynin, Alexander; Denisov, Sergey; Baidus, Nikolay; Drozdov, Michail; Pavlov, Dmitry; Yunin, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    We developed high quality 2-inch GaAs/Ge/Si (100) epitaxial substrates, which may be used instead of GaAs monolithic substrates for fabrication of solar cells, photodetectors, LEDs, lasers, etc. A 200-300 nm Ge buffer layer was grown on Si substrates using the HW-CVD technique at 300°C, a tantalum strip heated to 1400°C was used as the "hotwire". The MOCVD method was used to grow a 1 μ GaAs layer on a Ge buffer. The TDD in the GaAs layers did not exceed (1-2)•105 cm-2 and the surface RMS roughness value was under 1 nm.

  3. Studies of aggregated nanoparticles steering during magnetic-guided drug delivery in the blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshiar, Ali Kafash; Le, Tuan-Anh; Amin, Faiz Ul; Kim, Myeong Ok; Yoon, Jungwon

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic-guided targeted drug delivery (TDD) systems can enhance the treatment of diverse diseases. Despite the potential and promising results of nanoparticles, aggregation prevents precise particle guidance in the vasculature. In this study, we developed a simulation platform to investigate aggregation during steering of nanoparticles using a magnetic field function. The magnetic field function (MFF) comprises a positive and negative pulsed magnetic field generated by electromagnetic coils, which prevents adherence of particles to the vessel wall during magnetic guidance. A commonly used Y-shaped vessel was simulated and the performance of the MFF analyzed; the experimental data were in agreement with the simulation results. Moreover, the effects of various parameters on magnetic guidance were evaluated and the most influential identified. The simulation results presented herein will facilitate more precise guidance of nanoparticles in vivo.

  4. Independent safety evaluation of the CR562 (CR6) control rod test

    SciTech Connect

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1988-10-01

    This report documents the Independent Safety Evaluation performed for the CR562 control rod. CR562 is a reference Series II control rod which has been designated as an experiment (CR-6) since post- irradiation examination has been planned as part of the surveillance program for FFTF control rods. Prior analysis as an experiment has not been required since the test operated within the Technical Specification Limits up to this time. The control rod will be operated beyond the Technical Specification fluence limit during the last 30 days of Cycle 10B. A TDD-1A has been written to support this extension, and this ISE documents the independent review. A similar procedure was used for the CR544 control rod. 9 refs.

  5. Balancing Uplink and Downlink under Asymmetric Traffic Environments Using Distributed Receive Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Illsoo; Lee, Byong Ok; Lee, Kwang Bok

    Recently, multimedia services are increasing with the widespread use of various wireless applications such as web browsers, real-time video, and interactive games, which results in traffic asymmetry between the uplink and downlink. Hence, time division duplex (TDD) systems which provide advantages in efficient bandwidth utilization under asymmetric traffic environments have become one of the most important issues in future mobile cellular systems. It is known that two types of intercell interference, referred to as crossed-slot interference, additionally arise in TDD systems; the performances of the uplink and downlink transmissions are degraded by BS-to-BS crossed-slot interference and MS-to-MS crossed-slot interference, respectively. The resulting performance unbalance between the uplink and downlink makes network deployment severely inefficient. Previous works have proposed intelligent time slot allocation algorithms to mitigate the crossed-slot interference problem. However, they require centralized control, which causes large signaling overhead in the network. In this paper, we propose to change the shape of the cellular structure itself. The conventional cellular structure is easily transformed into the proposed cellular structure with distributed receive antennas (DRAs). We set up statistical Markov chain traffic model and analyze the bit error performances of the conventional cellular structure and proposed cellular structure under asymmetric traffic environments. Numerical results show that the uplink and downlink performances of the proposed cellular structure become balanced with the proper number of DRAs and thus the proposed cellular structure is notably cost-effective in network deployment compared to the conventional cellular structure. As a result, extending the conventional cellular structure into the proposed cellular structure with DRAs is a remarkably cost-effective solution to support asymmetric traffic environments in future mobile cellular

  6. Substantivity of Chlorhexidine to Human Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Carrilho, Marcela R.; Carvalho, Ricardo M.; Sousa, Ethan N.; Nicolau, José; Breschi, Lorenzo; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Tjäderhane, Leo; Tay, Franklin R.; Agee, Kelli; Pashley, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To better comprehend the role of CHX in the preservation of resin-dentin bonds, this study investigated the substantivity of CHX to human dentin. Material and Methods Dentin disks (n= 45) were obtained from the mid-coronal portion of human third molars. One-third of dentin disks were kept mineralized (MD), while the other two-thirds had one of the surfaces partially demineralized with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 s (PDD) or they were totally demineralized with 10% phosphoric acid (TDD). Disks of hydroxyapatite (HA) were also prepared. Specimens were treated with: 1) 10 μL of distilled water (controls), 2) 10 μL of 0.2% chlorhexidine diacetate (0.2% CHX) or 3) 10 μL of 2% chlorhexidine diacetate (2% CHX). Then, they were incubated in 1 mL of PBS (pH 7.4, 37 °C). Substantivity was evaluated as a function of the CHX-applied dose after: 0.5h, 1h, 3h, 6h, 24h, 168h (1wk), 672h (4wks) and 1344h (8wks) of incubation. CHX concentration in eluates was spectrophotometrically analyzed at 260 nm. Results Significant amounts of CHX remained retained in dentin substrates (MD, PPD or TDD), independent on the CHX-applied dose or time of incubation (p<0.05). High amounts of retained CHX onto HA were observed only for specimens treated with the highest concentration of CHX (2%) (p<0.05). Conclusion The outstanding substantivity of CHX to dentin and its reported effect on the inhibition of dentinal proteases may explain why CHX can prolong the durability of resin-dentin bonds. PMID:20472282

  7. The pretreatment effect of chemical skin penetration enhancers in transdermal drug delivery using iontophoresis.

    PubMed

    Choi, E H; Lee, S H; Ahn, S K; Hwang, S M

    1999-01-01

    The transdermal drug delivery (TDD) system has largely been divided into physical, biochemical and chemical methods. Recently, combinations of these methods were introduced for more effective delivery with less side effects. We performed this study to identify the effectiveness and mechanism of TDD using the physical method, 'iontophoresis', plus the chemical method, 'pretreatment with chemical enhancer'. The action sites of chemical enhancers in the stratum corneum (SC) were observed by electron microscope. We also studied whether this combined method synergistically impaired the skin barrier. To confirm the synergistic effect on skin penetration by this combined method, we measured the blood glucose level after insulin iontophoresis following a chemical enhancer pretreatment in rabbits. The results were that (1) dilatation of the intercellular lipid layers of the SC and lacunae was prominent in pretreatment with chemical enhancers inducing high transepidermal water loss (TEWL); (2) the skin barrier impairment, with repeated treatments showing an increased TEWL and also epidermal proliferation, was increased with the chemical enhancers that showed a high TEWL immediately after treatment; (3) the combination of chemical enhancer pretreatment and iontophoresis showed no synergistic impairment of the skin barrier, and (4) the chemical enhancer pretreatment with greater impairment of the skin barrier could increase the delivery of insulin by iontophoresis. The results showed that a combination of chemical enhancer pretreatment and iontophoresis could deliver drugs more effectively than iontophoresis alone. Our proposed theory is that iontophoretic drug delivery may be easier through the dilated intercellular spaces of the SC which have a lower electrical impedance following the chemical enhancer pretreatment. Because the effect and the side effects in the combination are decided by the chemical enhancer rather than iontophoresis, the development of proper chemical

  8. Performance improvement for epitaxially grown SiGe on Si solar cell using a compositionally graded SiGe base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dun; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Li; Conrad, Brianna; Soeriyadi, Anastasia; Lochtefeld, Anthony; Gerger, Andrew; Perez-Wurfl, Ivan; Barnett, Allen

    2016-12-01

    Silicon germanium (SiGe) is a material with high mobility and relatively low bandgap making it an attractive candidate for the bottom subcell in a III-V tandem solar cell grown on silicon (Si) substrate. This paper reports on the performance improvement of an epitaxially grown SiGe on Si solar cell by growing a higher Ge composition SiGe layer in the base. The purpose of growing a higher Ge composition SiGe layer in the base is to improve the light absorption. The first iteration of this structure was an Si0.18Ge0.82 solar cell fabricated with a 1 μm thick Si0.12Ge0.88 layer in the base. This solar cell had a lower efficiency compared with the reference solar cell without the Si0.12Ge0.88 layer. One of the main reasons for the lower efficiency is believed to be the high threading dislocation density (TDD) caused by the abrupt change of lattice constant between Si0.18Ge0.82 and Si0.12Ge0.88 in the base. In order to reduce the TDD, the second iteration of the structure was fabricated with a compositionally graded SiGe base. With the new structure, an SiGe on Si solar cell with an efficiency of 3.1%, when filtered by a GaAs0.79P0.21 top cell, was fabricated. The Ge composition in the base of this solar cell gradually increased from 82% to 85% and then decreased again to 82%. The developed SiGe solar cell with graded base provides more flexibility for a highly efficient GaAsP/SiGe dual junction solar cell grown on an Si substrate.

  9. Concise NMR approach for molecular dynamics characterizations in organic solids.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Abil E; Courtier-Murias, Denis

    2013-08-22

    Molecular dynamics characterisations in solids can be carried out selectively using dipolar-dephasing experiments. Here we show that the introduction of a sum of Lorentzian and Gaussian functions greatly improve fittings of the "intensity versus time" data for protonated carbons in dipolar-dephasing experiments. The Lorentzian term accounts for remote intra- and intermolecular (1)H-(13)C dipole-dipole interactions, which vary from one molecule to another or for different carbons within the same molecule. Thus, by separating contributions from weak remote interactions, more accurate Gaussian decay constants, T(dd), can be extracted for directly bonded (1)H-(13)C dipole-dipole interactions. Reorientations of the (1)H-(13)C bonds lead to the increase of T(dd), and by measuring dipolar-dephasing constants, insight can be gained into dynamics in solids. We have demonstrated advantages of the method using comparative dynamics studies in the α and γ polymorphs of glycine, cyclic amino acids L-proline, DL-proline and trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline, the Ala residue in different dipeptides, as well as adamantane and hexamethylenetetramine. It was possible to distinguish subtle differences in dynamics of different carbon sites within a molecule in polymorphs and in L- and DL-forms. The presence of overall molecular motions is shown to lead to particularly large differences in dipolar-dephasing experiments. The differences in dynamics can be attributed to differences in noncovalent interactions. In the case of hexamethylenetetramine, for example, the presence of C-H···N interactions leads to nearly rigid molecules. Overall, the method allows one to gain insight into the role of noncovalent interactions in solids and their influence on the molecular dynamics.

  10. Active layer thermal monitoring of a Dry Valley of the Ellsworth Mountains, Continental Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto; Michel, Roberto; Souza, Karoline; Senra, Eduardo; Bremer, Ulisses

    2015-04-01

    The Ellsworth Mountains occur along the southern edge of the Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf and are subdivided by the Minnesota Glacier into the Heritage Range to the east and the Sentinel Range to the West. The climate of the Ellsworth Mountains is strongly controlled by proximity to the Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf and elevation. The mean annual air temperature at the 1,000 m level is estimated to be -25°C, and the average annual accumulation of water-equivalent precipitation likely ranges from 150 to 175 mm yr-1 (Weyant, 1966). The entire area is underlain by continuous permafrost of unknown thickness. Based on data collected from 22 pits, 41% of the sites contained dry permafrost below 70 cm, 27% had ice-cemented permafrost within 70 cm of the surface, 27% had bedrock within 70 cm, and 5% contained an ice-core (Bockheim, unpublished; Schaefer et al., 2015). Dry-frozen permafrost, which may be unique to Antarctica, appears to form from sublimation of moisture in ice-cemented permafrost over time. Active-layer depths in drift sheets of the Ellsworth Mountains range from 15 to 50 cm (Bockheim, unpublished); our understanding of Antarctic permafrost is poor, especially at the continent. The active layer monitoring sites were installed at Edson Hills, Ellsworth_Mountains, in the summer of 2012, and consist of thermistors (accuracy ± 0.2 °C) installed at 1 m above ground for air temperature measurements at two soil profiles on quartzite drift deposits, arranged in a vertical array (Lithic Haplorthel 886 m asl, 5 cm, 10 cm, 30 cm and Lithic Anyorthel 850 m asl, 5 cm, 10 cm, 30 cm). All probes were connected to a Campbell Scientific CR 1000 data logger recording data at hourly intervals from January 2nd 2012 until December 29th 2013. We calculated the thawing days (TD), freezing days (FD); isothermal days (ID), freeze thaw days (FTD), thawing degree days (TDD) and freezing degree days (FDD); all according to Guglielmin et al. (2008). Temperature at 5 cm reaches a maximum

  11. V-Go Insulin Delivery System Versus Multiple Daily Insulin Injections for Patients With Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Winter, Abigail; Lintner, Michaela; Knezevich, Emily

    2015-04-21

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus affects over 29.1 million Americans, diagnosed and undiagnosed. Achieving and maintaining glycemic control for these patients is of extreme importance when working to prevent complications and improve quality of life for patients. The V-Go is a newly developed insulin delivery system. The push of a button inserts a needle into the patient once daily and remains attached for 24 hours. The V-Go is designed to release a set basal rate throughout the day, while allowing patients to provide up to 36 units of on-demand bolus insulin with the manual click of 2 buttons. It is a spring-loaded device filled daily with rapid-acting insulin that runs without the use of batteries or computer software. The main objective of this prospective active comparator study was to observe the A1C lowering effects of multiple daily insulin injections (MDII) versus the use of the V-Go insulin delivery system for patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus over a 3-month period. In addition, the effect on insulin requirement for these patients was assessed with secondary comparisons of weight, blood pressure, prevalence of hypoglycemic events, and quality of life before and after 3 months of intensified insulin therapy with regular monitoring by a clinical pharmacist at an internal medicine clinic. The average A1C lowering experienced by the 3 patients in the V-Go group was 1.5%, while the average A1C change in the 3 patients in the MDII group was an increase of 0.2%. All patients in the V-Go group experienced a decrease in insulin total daily dose (TDD), with an average decrease of 26.3 units. All patients in the MDII group experienced an increase in insulin TDD with an average of 15 units daily to achieve therapeutic goals individualized for each patient. All patients who underwent intensification of insulin therapy experienced an increase in subjective quality of life (QOL) as determined using the Diabetes-39 (D-39) questionnaire, though QOL results lacked

  12. Reconfigurable cognitive transceiver for opportunistic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maso, Marco; Baştuğ, Ejder; Cardoso, Leonardo S.; Debbah, Mérouane; Özdemir, Özgür

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we provide the implementation and analysis of a cognitive transceiver for opportunistic networks. We focus on a previously introduced dynamic spectrum access (DSA) - cognitive radio (CR) solution for primary-secondary coexistence in opportunistic orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) networks, called cognitive interference alignment (CIA). The implementation is based on software-defined radio (SDR) and uses GNU Radio and the universal software radio peripheral (USRP) as the implementation toolkit. The proposed flexible transceiver architecture allows efficient on-the-fly reconfigurations of the physical layer into OFDM, CIA or a combination of both. Remarkably, its responsiveness is such that the uplink and downlink channel reciprocity from the medium perspective, inherent to time division duplex (TDD) communications, can be effectively verified and exploited. We show that CIA provides approximately 10 dB of interference isolation towards the OFDM receiver with respect to a fully random precoder. This result is obtained under suboptimal conditions, which indicates that further gains are possible with a better optimization of the system. Our findings point towards the usefulness of a practical CIA implementation, as it yields a non-negligible performance for the secondary system, while providing interference shielding to the primary receiver.

  13. Transdermal Drug Delivery Aided by an Ultrasound Contrast Agent: An In Vitro Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Donghee; Yoon, Jinhee; Park, Jingam; Jung, Byungjo; Park, Hyunjin; Seo, Jongbum

    2010-01-01

    Sonophoresis temporarily increases skin permeability such that medicine can be delivered transdermally. Cavitation is believed to be the predominant mechanism in sonophoresis. In this study, an ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) strategy was adopted instead of low frequency ultrasound to assure that cavitation occurred, and the efficacy of sonophoresis with UCA was quantitatively analyzed by optical measurements. The target drug used in this study was 0.1 % Definity® in 70% glycerol, which was delivered into porcine skin samples. Glycerol was used because it is an optical clearing agent, and the efficiency of glycerol delivery could be analyzed with optical measurements. The applied acoustic pressure was approximately 600 kPa at 1 MHz ultrasound with a 10% duty cycle for 60 minutes. Experimental results indicated that the measured relative contrast (RC) after sonophoresis with UCA was approximately 80% higher than RC after sonophoresis without UCA. In addition, the variance of RC was also reduced by more than 50% with the addition of a UCA. The use of a UCA appeared to increase cavitation, demonstrating that the use of a UCA can be effective in transdermal drug delivery (TDD). PMID:20448793

  14. Impact and Mitigation of Multiantenna Analog Front-End Mismatch in Transmit Maximum Ratio Combining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian; Khaled, Nadia; Petré, Frederik; Bourdoux, André; Barel, Alain

    2006-12-01

    Transmit maximum ratio combining (MRC) allows to extend the range of wireless local area networks (WLANs) by exploiting spatial diversity and array gains. These gains, however, depend on the availability of the channel state information (CSI). In this perspective, an open-loop approach in time-division-duplex (TDD) systems relies on channel reciprocity between up- and downlink to acquire the CSI. Although the propagation channel can be assumed to be reciprocal, the radio-frequency (RF) transceivers may exhibit amplitude and phase mismatches between the up- and downlink. In this contribution, we present a statistical analysis to assess the impact of these mismatches on the performance of transmit-MRC. Furthermore, we propose a novel mixed-signal calibration scheme to mitigate these mismatches, which allows to reduce the implementation loss to as little as a few tenths of a dB. Finally, we also demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed calibration scheme in a real-time wireless MIMO-OFDM prototyping platform.

  15. Algorithms for network-based identification of differential regulators from transcriptome data: a systematic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Hui, YU; Ramkrishna, MITRA; Jing, YANG; YuanYuan, LI; ZhongMing, ZHAO

    2016-01-01

    Identification of differential regulators is critical to understand the dynamics of cellular systems and molecular mechanisms of diseases. Several computational algorithms have recently been developed for this purpose by using transcriptome and network data. However, it remains largely unclear which algorithm performs better under a specific condition. Such knowledge is important for both appropriate application and future enhancement of these algorithms. Here, we systematically evaluated seven main algorithms (TED, TDD, TFactS, RIF1, RIF2, dCSA_t2t, and dCSA_r2t), using both simulated and real datasets. In our simulation evaluation, we artificially inactivated either a single regulator or multiple regulators and examined how well each algorithm detected known gold standard regulators. We found that all these algorithms could effectively discern signals arising from regulatory network differences, indicating the validity of our simulation schema. Among the seven tested algorithms, TED and TFactS were placed first and second when both discrimination accuracy and robustness against data variation were considered. When applied to two independent lung cancer datasets, both TED and TFactS replicated a substantial fraction of their respective differential regulators. Since TED and TFactS rely on two distinct features of transcriptome data, namely differential co-expression and differential expression, both may be applied as mutual references during practical application. PMID:25326829

  16. Optical properties of monolithic and granular SiO2 aerogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, A.; Linsmeier, J.; Koerner, W.; Scheller, H.; Fricke, Jochen

    1994-09-01

    The optical and thermal properties of aerogels play an important role for their application in transparent insulation (TI) or daylighting systems. In this paper the directional-directional transmission tdd as well as the directional-hemispherical transmission tdh are presented for 20 mm thick aerogel specimens. For optimized monolithic aerogels we obtained solar averaged values of -tdh,sol equals (91 +/- 1/4)% and -tdh,vis equals (84 +/- 2)% in the solar and visible spectral region, respectively. The investigated granular aerogels show a visual transmission of -tdh,vis equals (58 +/- 4)% for waterglass as a precursor and of -tdh,vis equals (78 +/- 4)% for tetramethoxysilane. In order to correlate the structural build-up of the SiO2-network of the aerogels with their light scattering properties angular-dependent light and X-ray scattering measurements are performed. To characterize the visual image transmission the modulation transfer function (MTF) was measured for 20 mm thick monolithic layers. In order to explain the measured data a Monte Carlo based simulation model was developed. The analysis yields that the MTF is mainly effected by surface scattering.

  17. Transdermal drug delivery aided by an ultrasound contrast agent: an in vitro experimental study.

    PubMed

    Park, Donghee; Yoon, Jinhee; Park, Jingam; Jung, Byungjo; Park, Hyunjin; Seo, Jongbum

    2010-02-11

    Sonophoresis temporarily increases skin permeability such that medicine can be delivered transdermally. Cavitation is believed to be the predominant mechanism in sonophoresis. In this study, an ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) strategy was adopted instead of low frequency ultrasound to assure that cavitation occurred, and the efficacy of sonophoresis with UCA was quantitatively analyzed by optical measurements. The target drug used in this study was 0.1 % Definity(R) in 70% glycerol, which was delivered into porcine skin samples. Glycerol was used because it is an optical clearing agent, and the efficiency of glycerol delivery could be analyzed with optical measurements. The applied acoustic pressure was approximately 600 kPa at 1 MHz ultrasound with a 10% duty cycle for 60 minutes. Experimental results indicated that the measured relative contrast (RC) after sonophoresis with UCA was approximately 80% higher than RC after sonophoresis without UCA. In addition, the variance of RC was also reduced by more than 50% with the addition of a UCA. The use of a UCA appeared to increase cavitation, demonstrating that the use of a UCA can be effective in transdermal drug delivery (TDD).

  18. TamiR1123 originated from a family of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITE) including one inserted in the Vrn-A1a promoter in wheat.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming; Carver, Brett F; Yan, Liuling

    2014-02-01

    More than half of spring wheat cultivars have a dominant Vrn-A1a allele that has an insertion of a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) in its promoter. In this study, we found that the MITE present in the Vrn-A1a gene (MITE_VRN) is a nearly perfect palindrome and it can form highly stable hairpin loops when expressed as RNA. MITE_VRN also possessed sequences of a microRNA in Triticum aestivum (TamiR1123). The P(32) labeled TamiR1123 probe detected two RNA molecules on a small RNA gel blot, one expected for MITE_VRN, and the other expected for TamiR1123. These results demonstrated that MITE_VRN was expressed as RNAs and TamiR1123 was originated from the MITE_VRN family. The isogenic line TDD carrying the dominant Vrn-A1a allele with MITE_VRN showed higher TamiR1123 and Vrn-A1a transcript levels than the isogenic line TDE carrying the recessive vrn-A1a allele without MITE_VRN. TamiR1123 were greatly up-regulated by plant age but slightly down-regulated by low temperature and short days. These findings have pointed to alternative regulatory mechanisms for plant development governed by Vrn-A1a in spring wheat.

  19. From digital elevation model data to terrain depiction data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmetag, Arnd; Smietanski, Guillaume; Baumgart, Michael; Kubbat, Wolfgang

    1999-07-01

    The analysis of accidents focused our work on the avoidance of 'Controlled Flight Into Terrain' caused by insufficient situation awareness. Analysis of safety concepts led us to the design of the proposed synthetic vision system that will be described. Since most information on these 3D-Displays is shown in a graphical way, it can intuitively be seized by the pilot. One key element of SVS is terrain depiction, that is the topic of this paper. Real time terrain depiction has to face two requirements. On the one hand spatial awareness requires recognition of synthetic environment demanding characteristics. On the other hand the number of rendered polygons has to be minimized due to limitations of real time image generation performance. Visual quality can significantly be enhanced if equidistant data like Digital Elevation Model data (DEM) are vectorized. One method of data vectorization will be explained in detail and advantages will be mentioned. In Virtual Reality (VR) applications, conventional decimation software degrades the visual quality of geometry that is compensated by complex textures and lighting. Since terrain decimated with those tools looses its characteristics, and textures are not acceptable for several reasons, a terrain specific decimation has to be performed. How can a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) be decimated without decreasing the visualization value? In this paper, extraction of terrain characteristics and adapted decimation will be proposed. Steps from DEM to Terrain Depiction Data (TDD) are discussed in detail.

  20. Coordinate Update Algorithms for Robust Power Loading for the MU-MISO Downlink With Outage Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, Foad; Davidson, Timothy N.

    2016-06-01

    We consider the problem of power allocation for the single-cell multi-user (MU) multiple-input single-output (MISO) downlink with quality-of-service (QoS) constraints. The base station acquires an estimate of the channels and, for a given beamforming structure, designs the power allocation so as to minimize the total transmission power required to ensure that target signal-to-interference-and-noise ratios at the receivers are met, subject to a specified outage probability. We consider scenarios in which the errors in the base station's channel estimates can be modelled as being zero-mean and Gaussian. Such a model is particularly suitable for time division duplex (TDD) systems with quasi-static channels, in which the base station estimates the channel during the uplink phase. Under that model, we employ a precise deterministic characterization of the outage probability to transform the chance-constrained formulation to a deterministic one. Although that deterministic formulation is not convex, we develop a coordinate descent algorithm that can be shown to converge to a globally optimal solution when the starting point is feasible. Insight into the structure of the deterministic formulation yields approximations that result in coordinate update algorithms with good performance and significantly lower computational cost. The proposed algorithms provide better performance than existing robust power loading algorithms that are based on tractable conservative approximations, and can even provide better performance than robust precoding algorithms based on such approximations.

  1. Behavior of nitrogen in Si crystal during irradiation and post-annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Naohisa; Oyama, Hidenori; Watanabe, Kaori; Seki, Hirofumi; Kawamura, Yuichi

    2014-02-21

    Radiation induced complexes in nitrogen (N) -doped silicon crystal was investigated by highly sensitive infrared absorption spectroscopy. The absorption by N{sub 2} pair was reduced by the electron irradiation in FZ crystals. The absorptions appeared on both sides of N{sub 2} line at 766 cm{sup −1}, at about 725 and 778 cm{sup −1}. By the annealing, N{sub 2} lines recovered a little at 600 °C and mostly at 800 °C. The above new absorption lines reduced by the annealing at lower temperatures and other absorption appeared. In CZ silicon, N{sub 2} lines did not change by the irradiation. Dominant absorption in low carbon FZ silicon was that of C-rich type complexes, VO and I{sub n}C{sub i}O{sub im}(n=0–3, m=0,1). Dominant absorption in the irradiated low carbon CZ silicon was that of C-lean type complexes I{sub n}O{sub 2+mi}(n=1, 2, m=0, 1), and the decrease of C-lean type O{sub 2i} and TDD was observed. By the annealing of CZ Si, VO{sub n} (n=2–4) formation and annihilation was observed.

  2. Channel capacity of next generation large scale MIMO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshammari, A.; Albdran, S.; Matin, M.

    2016-09-01

    Information rate that can be transferred over a given bandwidth is limited by the information theory. Capacity depends on many factors such as the signal to noise ratio (SNR), channel state information (CSI) and the spatial correlation in the propagation environment. It is very important to increase spectral efficiency in order to meet the growing demand for wireless services. Thus, Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technology has been developed and applied in most of the wireless standards and it has been very successful in increasing capacity and reliability. As the demand is still increasing, attention now is shifting towards large scale multiple input multiple output (MIMO) which has a potential of bringing orders of magnitude of improvement in spectral and energy efficiency. It has been shown that users channels decorrelate after increasing the number of antennas. As a result, inter-user interference can be avoided since energy can be focused on precise directions. This paper investigates the limits of channel capacity for large scale MIMO. We study the relation between spectral efficiency and the number of antenna N. We use time division duplex (TDD) system in order to obtain CSI using training sequence in the uplink. The same CSI is used for the downlink because the channel is reciprocal. Spectral efficiency is measured for channel model that account for small scale fading while ignoring the effect of large scale fading. It is shown the spectral efficiency can be improved significantly when compared to single antenna systems in ideal circumstances.

  3. Design, fabrication and analysis of silicon hollow microneedles for transdermal drug delivery system for treatment of hemodynamic dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, M W; Tayyaba, S; Nisar, A; Afzulpurkar, N; Bodhale, D W; Lomas, T; Poyai, A; Tuantranont, A

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we present design, fabrication and coupled multifield analysis of hollow out-of-plane silicon microneedles with piezoelectrically actuated microfluidic device for transdermal drug delivery (TDD) system for treatment of cardiovascular or hemodynamic disorders such as hypertension. The mask layout design and fabrication process of silicon microneedles and reservoir involving deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) is first presented. This is followed by actual fabrication of silicon hollow microneedles by a series of combined isotropic and anisotropic etching processes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching technology. Then coupled multifield analysis of a MEMS based piezoelectrically actuated device with integrated silicon microneedles is presented. The coupledfield analysis of hollow silicon microneedle array integrated with piezoelectric micropump has involved structural and fluid field couplings in a sequential structural-fluid analysis on a three-dimensional model of the microfluidic device. The effect of voltage and frequency on silicon membrane deflection and flow rate through the microneedle is investigated in the coupled field analysis using multiple code coupling method. The results of the present study provide valuable benchmark and prediction data to fabricate optimized designs of the silicon hollow microneedle based microfluidic devices for transdermal drug delivery applications.

  4. Direct simulation of heterogeneous diffusion and inversion procedure applied to an out-diffusion experiment. Test case of Palmottu granite.

    PubMed

    Sardini, P; Robinet, J C; Siitari-Kauppi, M; Delay, F; Hellmuth, K H

    2007-08-15

    An out-diffusion laboratory experiment using a non-reactive tracer was fitted using the Time Domain Diffusion (TDD) method. This rapid particle tracking method allows simulation of the heterogeneous diffusion based on pore-scale images and local values of diffusivities. The superimposed porosity and mineral 2D maps act as computation grids to condition diffusion pathways. We focused on a Palmottu granite sample, in which the connected pore space has a composite microstructure with cracks linking microporous minerals and is above the percolation threshold. Three main results were achieved: (i) When compared to the fitting obtained with one coefficient (best mean square residual R = 1.6 x 10(-2)), diffusion is shown to be suitably characterised with two coefficients related to cracks and microporous minerals (best R = 6.5 x 10(-4)), (ii) rather than imposing a local apparent diffusion coefficient D(a) independent of the local porosity Phi, a best fit is obtained by applying Archie's relationship D(a) = D(0) x G with G = Phi(m) to each pixel of the calculation grids (G is the geometry factor, D(0) is the diffusion coefficient in free fluid, and m is Archie's exponent), and (iii) the order of magnitude of the fitted diffusion coefficient or Archie's exponents (m=0 for microcracks and m=1.82 for microporous minerals) is physically realistic.

  5. A Rate-Dependent Viscoelastic Damage Model for Simulation of Solid Propellant Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, E. R.; Nguyen, D. Q.

    2006-07-01

    A viscoelastic deformation and damage model (VED) for solid rocket propellants has been developed based on an extensive set of mechanical properties experiments. Monotonic tensile tests performed at several strain rates showed rate and dilatation effects. During cyclic tensile tests, hysteresis and a rate-dependent shear modulus were observed. A tensile relaxation experiment showed significant stress decay in the sample. Taylor impact tests exhibited large dilatations without significant crack growth. Extensive modifications to a viscoelastic-viscoplastic model (VEP) necessary to capture these experimental results have led to development of the VED model. In particular, plasticity has been eliminated in the model, and the multiple Maxwell viscoelastic formulation has been replaced with a time-dependent shear modulus. Furthermore, the loading and unloading behaviors of the material are modeled independently. To characterize the damage and dilatation behavior, the Tensile Damage and Distention (TDD) model is run in conjunction with VED. The VED model is connected to a single-cell driver as well as to the CTH shock physics code. Simulations of tests show good comparisons with tensile tests and some aspects of the Taylor tests.

  6. Influence of AlN thickness on AlGaN epilayer grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasakthi, M.; Juillaguet, S.; Peyre, H.; Konczewicz, L.; Baskar, K.; Contreras, S.

    2016-10-01

    AlGaN/AlN layers were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on sapphire substrates. The AlN buffer thickness was varied from 400 nm to 800 nm. The AlGaN layer thickness was 1000 nm. The crystalline quality, thickness and composition of AlGaN were determined using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The threading dislocation density (TDD) was found to decrease with increase of AlN layer thickness. Reciprocal space mapping (RSM) was used to estimate the strain and relaxation between AlGaN and AlN. The optical properties of AlGaN layers were investigated by temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL). PL intensities of AlGaN layers increases with increasing the AlN thickness. The surface morphology of AlGaN was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Root mean square (RMS) roughness values were found to be decreased while increase of AlN thickness.

  7. Coexistence Analysis of Adjacent Long Term Evolution (LTE) Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aulama, Mohannad M.; Olama, Mohammed M

    2013-01-01

    As the licensing and deployment of Long term evolution (LTE) systems are ramping up, the study of coexistence of LTE systems is an essential topic in civil and military applications. In this paper, we present a coexistence study of adjacent LTE systems aiming at evaluating the effect of inter-system interference on system capacity and performance as a function of some of the most common mitigation techniques: frequency guard band, base station (BS) antenna coupling loss, and user equipment (UE) antenna spacing. A system model is constructed for two collocated macro LTE networks. The developed model takes into consideration the RF propagation environment, power control scheme, and adjacent channel interference. Coexistence studies are performed for a different combination of time/frequency division duplex (TDD/FDD) systems under three different guard-bands of 0MHz, 5MHz, and 10MHz. Numerical results are presented to advice the minimum frequency guard band, BS coupling loss, and UE antenna isolation required for a healthy system operation.

  8. Neoclassic drug discovery: the case for lead generation using phenotypic and functional approaches.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonathan A; Berg, Ellen L

    2013-12-01

    Innovation and new molecular entity production by the pharmaceutical industry has been below expectations. Surprisingly, more first-in-class small-molecule drugs approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) between 1999 and 2008 were identified by functional phenotypic lead generation strategies reminiscent of pre-genomics pharmacology than contemporary molecular targeted strategies that encompass the vast majority of lead generation efforts. This observation, in conjunction with the difficulty in validating molecular targets for drug discovery, has diminished the impact of the "genomics revolution" and has led to a growing grassroots movement and now broader trend in pharma to reconsider the use of modern physiology-based or phenotypic drug discovery (PDD) strategies. This "From the Guest Editors" column provides an introduction and overview of the two-part special issues of Journal of Biomolecular Screening on PDD. Terminology and the business case for use of PDD are defined. Key issues such as assay performance, chemical optimization, target identification, and challenges to the organization and implementation of PDD are discussed. Possible solutions for these challenges and a new neoclassic vision for PDD that combines phenotypic and functional approaches with technology innovations resulting from the genomics-driven era of target-based drug discovery (TDD) are also described. Finally, an overview of the manuscripts in this special edition is provided.

  9. Free and bound excitonic effects in Al0.5Ga0.5N/Al0.35Ga0.65N MQWs with different Si-doping levels in the well layers

    PubMed Central

    He, Chenguang; Qin, Zhixin; Xu, Fujun; Hou, Mengjun; Zhang, Shan; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Xinqiang; Ge, Weikun; Shen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Free exciton (FX) and bound exciton (BX) in Al0.5Ga0.5N/Al0.35Ga0.65N multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with different Si-doping levels in the well layers are investigated by photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Low temperature (10 K) PL spectra identify a large binding energy of 87.4 meV for the BX in undoped sample, and 63.6 meV for the BX in Si-doped (2 × 1018 cm−3) sample. They are attributed to O-bound and Si-bound excitons, respectively. The large binding energies of BX are assumed to originate from the strong quantum confinement in the quantum wells, which also leads to a stronger FX PL peak intensity in comparison with BX at 10 K. Si-doping is found to suppress the FX quenching by reducing threading dislocation density (TDD) in the well layers, leading to a significant improvement of IQE from 33.7% to 45%. PMID:26267249

  10. Fluidized bed steam reformed mineral waste form performance testing to support Hanford Supplemental Low Activity Waste Immobilization Technology Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C. M.; Pierce, E. M.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Crawford, C. L.; Daniel, W. E.; Fox, K. M.; Herman, C. C.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.; Brown, C. F.; Qafoku, N. P.; Neeway, J. J.; Valenta, M. M.; Gill, G. A.; Swanberg, D. J.; Robbins, R. A.; Thompson, L. E.

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the benchscale testing with simulant and radioactive Hanford Tank Blends, mineral product characterization and testing, and monolith testing and characterization. These projects were funded by DOE EM-31 Technology Development & Deployment (TDD) Program Technical Task Plan WP-5.2.1-2010-001 and are entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-Level Waste Form Qualification”, Inter-Entity Work Order (IEWO) M0SRV00054 with Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Savannah River Site (SRS) Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”, and IEWO M0SRV00080, “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form Qualification Testing Using SRS Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”. This was a multi-organizational program that included Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), THOR® Treatment Technologies (TTT), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Office of River Protection (ORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS). The SRNL testing of the non-radioactive pilot-scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) products made by TTT, subsequent SRNL monolith formulation and testing and studies of these products, and SRNL Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) radioactive campaign were funded by DOE Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) Phase 2 Project in connection with a Work-For-Others (WFO) between SRNL and TTT.

  11. Development and parallelization of a direct numerical simulation to study the formation and transport of nanoparticle clusters in a viscous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, Gregory James

    The direct numerical simulation (DNS) offers the most accurate approach to modeling the behavior of a physical system, but carries an enormous computation cost. There exists a need for an accurate DNS to model the coupled solid-fluid system seen in targeted drug delivery (TDD), nanofluid thermal energy storage (TES), as well as other fields where experiments are necessary, but experiment design may be costly. A parallel DNS can greatly reduce the large computation times required, while providing the same results and functionality of the serial counterpart. A D2Q9 lattice Boltzmann method approach was implemented to solve the fluid phase. The use of domain decomposition with message passing interface (MPI) parallelism resulted in an algorithm that exhibits super-linear scaling in testing, which may be attributed to the caching effect. Decreased performance on a per-node basis for a fixed number of processes confirms this observation. A multiscale approach was implemented to model the behavior of nanoparticles submerged in a viscous fluid, and used to examine the mechanisms that promote or inhibit clustering. Parallelization of this model using a masterworker algorithm with MPI gives less-than-linear speedup for a fixed number of particles and varying number of processes. This is due to the inherent inefficiency of the master-worker approach. Lastly, these separate simulations are combined, and two-way coupling is implemented between the solid and fluid.

  12. Efficiency improvement of GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with reactive plasma deposited AlN nucleation layer on patterned sapphire substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chia-Yu; Tzou, An-Jye; Lin, Bing-Cheng; Lan, Yu-Pin; Chiu, Ching-Hsueh; Chi, Gou-Chung; Chen, Chi-Hsiang; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Lin, Ray-Ming; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2014-09-01

    The flip chip ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (FC UV-LEDs) with a wavelength of 365 nm are developed with the ex situ reactive plasma deposited (RPD) AlN nucleation layer on patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) by an atmospheric pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (AP MOCVD). The ex situ RPD AlN nucleation layer can significantly reduce dislocation density and thus improve the crystal quality of the GaN epitaxial layers. Utilizing high-resolution X-ray diffraction, the full width at half maximum of the rocking curve shows that the crystalline quality of the epitaxial layer with the (RPD) AlN nucleation layer is better than that with the low-temperature GaN (LT-GaN) nucleation layer. The threading dislocation density (TDD) is estimated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which shows the reduction from 6.8 × 107 cm-2 to 2.6 × 107 cm-2. Furthermore, the light output power (LOP) of the LEDs with the RPD AlN nucleation layer has been improved up to 30 % at a forward current of 350 mA compared to that of the LEDs grown on PSS with conventional LT-GaN nucleation layer.

  13. Investigation and development of high quality gallium arsenide-on-silicon for space photovoltaics using a graded germanium silicon buffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlin, John Anthony

    The ability to integrate the optical properties of III--V semiconductors with the current capabilities of Si microelectronics on a single substrate has been of great interest for many years. In addition, III--V/Si integration is also of great interest for space photovoltaics applications in order to combine high performance space cells with a strong, lightweight and inexpensive substrate. However, due to fundamental materials incompatibilities, namely the 4% lattice mismatch between GaAs and Si and the >63% mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient, epitaxial GaAs/Si integration has been largely unsuccessful due to uncontrolled threading dislocation (TD) nucleation resulting in thread densities greater than 109 cm-2. Although many integration techniques have been able to successfully reduce TD's to ˜3--7 x 106 cm-2 (including thermal cycle annealing and the insertion of various III--V buffer layers), none has achieved device performance equivalent to homoepitaxial GaAs due to the residual threading dislocation density. Recently, GeSi graded buffers have provided an integration technique, which has successfully reduced threading dislocation densities (TDD's) below 1 x 106 cm-3 for a 100% Ge cap on a Si substrate. This integration approach is unique in the respect that it does not attempt to provide strain management or dislocation engineering within the III--V layers (similar to other techniques) but rather through the gradual and controlled introduction of strain during a GexSi1-x grade from a 100% Si to a 100% Ge surface. In this research, we investigate the application of the GeSi graded buffer for GaAs/Si integration, specifically for application to high efficiency single junction solar cells. Through atomic control of the GaAs/GeSi interface via MBE, the elimination of anti-phase boundary and TD nucleation as well as the minimization of atomic diffusion at the GaAs/GeSi interface was achieved for the GaAs/GeSi system. Combined with the low TDD enabled by the

  14. Role of iron impurity complexes in degradation of GaN/AlGaN HEMTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puzyrev, Yevgeniy; Pantelides, Sokrates; Vanderbilt University Team

    2014-03-01

    GaN/AlGaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are leading candidates for power RF devices, but they suffer from reliability issues, in particular, a current collapse. Experiments have shown that the current collapse is correlated with the presence of a Tp1 trap in either the GaN substrate or at the surface with an energy level at about 0.55 eV below the GaN conduction band. Recent experiments demonstrated that the Ec-0.55eV level increases with the decrease of the distance from the channel to the Fe-doped GaN. Another study found a correlation between threading dislocation density (TDD) and the concentration of Ec-0.55eV trap. Drastic decrease of Ec-0.55eV trap concentration is observed after hydrogenation of the samples. During OFF state stress, the population of the generated Tp1 trap is proportional to the square root of the stress time, suggesting Tp1 generation is correlated to the diffusion of a point defect. We present results of first-principle calculations and show that degradation occurs by the dehydrogenation of Fe and Fe-vacancy complexes. Using these results we analyze available experimental data and provide a comprehensive picture of the generation of the Ec-0.55eV trap level. This work was supported in part by the Office of Naval research MURI grant N-00014-08-100655 and by the McMinn Endowment at Vanderbilt University.

  15. Groundwater discharge in high-mountain watersheds: A valuable resource for downstream semi-arid zones. The case of the Bérchules River in Sierra Nevada (Southern Spain).

    PubMed

    Jódar, Jorge; Cabrera, José Antonio; Martos-Rosillo, Sergio; Ruiz-Constán, Ana; González-Ramón, Antonio; Lambán, Luis Javier; Herrera, Christian; Custodio, Emilio

    2017-03-29

    Aquifers in permeable formations developed in high-mountain watersheds slow down the transfer of snowmelt to rivers, modifying rivers' flow pattern. To gain insight into the processes that control the hydrologic response of such systems the role played by groundwater in an alpine basin located at the southeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula is investigated. As data in these environments is generally scarce and its variability is high, simple lumped parameter hydrological models that consider the groundwater component and snow accumulation and melting are needed. Instead of using existing models that use many parameters, the Témez lumped hydrological model of common use in Spain and Ibero-American countries is selected and modified to consider snow to get a simplified tool to separate hydrograph components. The result is the TDD model (Témez-Degree Day) which is applied in a high mountain watershed with seasonal snow cover in Southern Spain to help in quantifying groundwater recharge and determining the groundwater contribution to the outflow. Average groundwater recharge is about 23% of the precipitation, and groundwater contribution to total outflow ranges between 70 and 97%. Direct surface runoff is 1% of precipitation. These values depend on the existence of snow. Results are consistent with those obtained with chloride atmospheric deposition mass balances by other authors. They highlight the important role of groundwater in high mountain areas, which is enhanced by seasonal snow cover. Results compare well with other areas. This effect is often neglected in water planning, but can be easily taken into account just by extending the water balance tool in use, or any other, following the procedure that has being developed.

  16. Properties of radiation cured vinyl-divinyl copolymers. Part I. Thermomechanical properties of crosslinked methyl methacrylate polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Micko, M.M.; Paszner, L.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation copolymerization (crosslinking) of methyl methacrylate (MMA) with a series of divinyl monomers containing 1 to 4 ethyleneglycol connecting units between the terminal reactive divinyl units was found to provide numerous improvements in the thermomechanical properties of the copolymers. Thermoplastic poly-MMA was converted to a thermoset copolymer with only small additions (2 to 5%) of the divinyl crosslinking agent. When the measured thermomechanical properties (glass transition temperature, Tg, thermal distortion temperature, TDT; and thermomechanical deformation degree, TDD) of the above crosslinked copolymers were related to the respective crosslink densities (expressed by the copolymer connection number, CN/sub co/) the crosslink efficiency increased in terms of the above parameters in a reverse order as observed for acceleration, i.e., TEGDMA < TrEGDMA < DEGDMA < EGDMA. This observation is readily explained by the relation between segmental mobility of the respective macromolecules of the copolymers formed and the critical thermomechanical parameters which can be determined for such solid copolymers. Segmental mobility of the crosslinking agent increases with increasing molecular bridge length and hence the increased temperature sensitivity of the copolymers to thermal softening and distortion as the bridge length increases from a single ethyleneglycol (EGDMA) to four ethyleneglycol (TEGDMA) units in the bridge connecting the vinyl functions of the divinyl monomers. For all copolymers of this study, the linear thermomechanical deformation coefficient, representing thermal deformation between the plastic and rubbery states, remained relatively constant across a broad temperature interval until the respective TDT temperatures are reached, and decreased exponentially with the divinyl monomer concentration in the copolymer regardless of the connecting bridge length.

  17. Rules of thumb to increase the software quality through testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttu, M.; Bartolini, M.; Migoni, C.; Orlati, A.; Poppi, S.; Righini, S.

    2016-07-01

    The software maintenance typically requires 40-80% of the overall project costs, and this considerable variability mostly depends on the software internal quality: the more the software is designed and implemented to constantly welcome new changes, the lower will be the maintenance costs. The internal quality is typically enforced through testing, which in turn also affects the development and maintenance costs. This is the reason why testing methodologies have become a major concern for any company that builds - or is involved in building - software. Although there is no testing approach that suits all contexts, we infer some general guidelines learned during the Development of the Italian Single-dish COntrol System (DISCOS), which is a project aimed at producing the control software for the three INAF radio telescopes (the Medicina and Noto dishes, and the newly-built SRT). These guidelines concern both the development and the maintenance phases, and their ultimate goal is to maximize the DISCOS software quality through a Behavior-Driven Development (BDD) workflow beside a continuous delivery pipeline. We consider different topics and patterns; they involve the proper apportion of the tests (from end-to-end to low-level tests), the choice between hardware simulators and mockers, why and how to apply TDD and the dependency injection to increase the test coverage, the emerging technologies available for test isolation, bug fixing, how to protect the system from the external resources changes (firmware updating, hardware substitution, etc.) and, eventually, how to accomplish BDD starting from functional tests and going through integration and unit tests. We discuss pros and cons of each solution and point out the motivations of our choices either as a general rule or narrowed in the context of the DISCOS project.

  18. Downlink Training Techniques for FDD Massive MIMO Systems: Open-Loop and Closed-Loop Training With Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Junil; Love, David J.; Bidigare, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    The concept of deploying a large number of antennas at the base station, often called massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), has drawn considerable interest because of its potential ability to revolutionize current wireless communication systems. Most literature on massive MIMO systems assumes time division duplexing (TDD), although frequency division duplexing (FDD) dominates current cellular systems. Due to the large number of transmit antennas at the base station, currently standardized approaches would require a large percentage of the precious downlink and uplink resources in FDD massive MIMO be used for training signal transmissions and channel state information (CSI) feedback. To reduce the overhead of the downlink training phase, we propose practical open-loop and closed-loop training frameworks in this paper. We assume the base station and the user share a common set of training signals in advance. In open-loop training, the base station transmits training signals in a round-robin manner, and the user successively estimates the current channel using long-term channel statistics such as temporal and spatial correlations and previous channel estimates. In closed-loop training, the user feeds back the best training signal to be sent in the future based on channel prediction and the previously received training signals. With a small amount of feedback from the user to the base station, closed-loop training offers better performance in the data communication phase, especially when the signal-to-noise ratio is low, the number of transmit antennas is large, or prior channel estimates are not accurate at the beginning of the communication setup, all of which would be mostly beneficial for massive MIMO systems.

  19. A new paradigm for numerical simulation of microneedle-based drug delivery aided by histology of microneedle-pierced skin.

    PubMed

    Han, Tao; Das, Diganta Bhusan

    2015-06-01

    Microneedle (MN) is a relatively recent invention and an efficient technology for transdermal drug delivery (TDD). Conventionally, mathematical models of MNs drug delivery define the shape of the holes created by the MNs in the skin as the same as their actual geometry. Furthermore, the size of the MN holes in the skin is considered to be either the same or a certain fraction of the length of the MNs. However, the histological images of the MN-treated skin indicate that the real insertion depth is much shorter than the length of the MNs and the shapes may vary significantly from one case to another. In addressing these points, we propose a new approach for modeling MN-based drug delivery, which incorporates the histology of MN-pierced skin using a number of concepts borrowed from image processing tools. It is expected that the developed approach will provide better accuracy of the drug diffusion profile. A new computer program is developed to automatically obtain the outline of the MNs-treated holes and import these images into computer software for simulation of drug diffusion from MN systems. This method can provide a simple and fast way to test the quality of MNs design and modeling, as well as simulate experimental studies, for example, permeation experiments on MN-pierced skin using diffusion cell. The developed methodology is demonstrated using two-dimensional (2D) numerical modeling of flat MNs (2D). However, the methodology is general and can be implemented for three dimensional (3D) MNs if there is sufficient number of images for reconstructing a 3D image for numerical simulation. Numerical modeling for 3D geometry is demonstrated by using images of an ideal 3D MN. The methodology is not demonstrated for real 3D MNs, as there are not sufficient numbers of images for the purpose of this paper.

  20. Diffusion in Altered Tonalite Sample Using Time Domain Diffusion Simulations in Tomographic Images Combined with Lab-scale Diffusion Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voutilainen, M.; Sardini, P.; Togneri, L.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Timonen, J.

    2010-12-01

    In this work an effect of rock heterogeneity on diffusion was investigated. Time domain diffusion simulations were used to compare behavior of diffusion in homogeneous and heterogeneous 3D media. Tomographic images were used as heterogeneous rock media. One altered tonalite sample from Sievi, Finland, was chosen as test case for introduced analysis procedure. Effective diffusion coefficient of tonalite sample was determined with lab-scale experiments and the same coefficient was used also for homogeneous media. Somewhat technically complicated mathematical solution for analysis of through diffusion experiment is shortly described. Computed tomography (CT) is already quite widely used in many geological, petrological, and paleontological applications when the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the material is of interest, and is an excellent method for gaining information especially about its heterogeneity, grain size, or porosity. In addition to offering means for quantitative characterization, CT provides a lot of qualitative information [1]. A through -diffusion laboratory experiment using radioactive tracer was fitted using the Time Domain Diffusion (TDD) method. This rapid particle tracking method allows simulation of the heterogeneous diffusion based on pore-scale images and local values of diffusivities [2]. As a result we found out that heterogeneity has only a small effect to diffusion coefficient and in-diffusion profile for used geometry. Also direction dependency was tested and was found to be negligible. Whereas significant difference between generally accepted value and value obtained from simulations for constant m in Archie’s law was found. [1] Voutilainen, M., Siitari-Kauppi, M., Sardini, P., and Timonen, J., (2010). On pore-space characterization of an altered tonalite by X-ray µCT and the 14C-PMMA method (in progress). [2] Sardini, P., Robinet, J., Siitari-Kauppi, M., Delay, F., and Hellmuth, K-H, (2007). On direct simulation of heterogeneous

  1. Bidirectional MIMO Channel Tracking Based on PASTd and Performance Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenberg, Livnat; Gannot (Eurasipmember), Sharon; Shayevitz, Ofer; Leshem, Amir; Zehavi, Ephraim

    2010-12-01

    We consider a bidirectional time division duplex (TDD) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system with time-varying channel and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). A blind bidirectional channel tracking algorithm, based on the projection approximation subspace tracking (PAST) algorithm, is applied in both terminals. The resulting singular value decomposition (SVD) of the channel matrix is then used to approximately diagonalize the channel. The proposed method is applied to an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing-(OFDM-)MIMO setting with a typical indoor time-domain reflection model. The computational cost of the proposed algorithm, compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms, is relatively small. The Kalman filter is utilized for establishing a benchmark for the obtained performance of the proposed tracking algorithm. The performance degradation relative to a full channel state information (CSI) due to the application of the tracking algorithm is evaluated in terms of average effective rate and the outage probability and compared with alternative tracking algorithms. The obtained results are also compared with a benchmark obtained by the Kalman filter with known input signal and channel characteristics. It is shown that the expected degradation in performance of frequency-domain algorithms (which do not exploit the smooth frequency response of the channel) is only minor compared with time-domain algorithms in a range of reasonable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels. The proposed bidirectional frequency-domain tracking algorithm, proposed in this paper, is shown to attain communication rates close to the benchmark and to outperform a competing algorithm. The paper is concluded by evaluating the proposed blind tracking method in terms of the outage probability and the symbol error rate (SER) versus. SNR for binary phase shift keying (BPSK) and 4-Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellations.

  2. Adoption of Test Driven Development and Continuous Integration for the Development of the Trick Simulation Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, John M.

    2013-01-01

    fundamental design flaw. The benefits became obvious almost immediately, not just in the correctness of the individual functions and classes but also in the correctness and flexibility being added to the overall design. Creating code to be testable, and testing as it was created resulted not only in better working code, but also in better-organized, flexible, and readable (i.e., articulate) code. This was, in essence the Test-driven development (TDD) methodology created by Kent Beck. Seeing the benefits of Test Driven Development, other Trick components were refactored to make them more testable and tests were designed and implemented for them.

  3. Alteration of skin hydration and its barrier function by vehicle and permeation enhancers: a study using TGA, FTIR, TEWL and drug permeation as markers.

    PubMed

    Shah, D K; Khandavilli, S; Panchagnula, R

    2008-09-01

    Vehicles and permeation enhancers (PEs) used in transdermal drug delivery (TDD) of a drug can affect skin hydration, integrity and permeation of the solute administered. This investigation was designed to study the effect of the most commonly used vehicles and PEs on rat skin hydration, barrier function and permeation of an amphiphilic drug, imipramine hydrochloride (IMH). An array of well-established techniques were used to confirm the findings of the study. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to determine changes in skin hydration. Alteration of the stratum corneum (SC) structure was investigated using FTIR studies. To monitor the barrier function alteration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurement and permeation studies were performed. Our findings indicate that with hydration, there was an increase in the bound water content of the skin, and pseudoequilibrium of hydration (a drastic decrease in hydration rate) was achieved at around 12 h. Hydration increased the ratio between amide-I and amide-II peaks in FTIR and reduced the C-H stretching peak area. Both propylene glycol (PG) and ethanol (EtOH) dehydrated skin, with the latter showing a predominant effect. Furthermore, it was confirmed that PG and EtOH decreased the bound water content due to alteration in the protein domains and extraction of SC lipids, respectively. The effect of hydration on the SC was found to be similar to that reported for temperature. Permeation studies revealed that the dehydration caused by vehicles decreased IMH flux, whereas the flux was enhanced by PEs. The role of partition was predominant for the permeation of IMH through dehydrated skin. A synergistic effect was observed for PG and menthol in the enhancement of IMH. Further findings provided strong evidence that PG affects protein domains and EtOH extracts lipids from the bilayer. Both PG and EtOH, with or without PEs, increased TEWL. Initial TEWL was well

  4. The Impact of Software Culture on the Management of Community Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, J. A.; Pulsifer, P. L.; Sheffield, E.; Lewis, S.; Oldenburg, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge of the Arctic (ELOKA), a program hosted at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), supports the collection, curation, and distribution of Local and Traditional Knowledge (LTK) data, as well as some quantitative data products. Investigations involving LTK data often involve community participation, and therefore require flexible and robust user interfaces to support a reliable process of data collection and management. Often, investigators focused on LTK and community-based monitoring choose to use ELOKA's data services based on our ability to provide rapid proof-of-concepts and economical delivery of a usable product. To satisfy these two overarching criteria, ELOKA is experimenting with modifications to its software development culture both in terms of how the software applications are developed as well as the kind of software applications (or components) being developed. Over the past several years, NSIDC has shifted its software development culture from one of assigning individual scientific programmers to support particular principal investigators or projects, to an Agile Software Methodology implementation using Scrum practices. ELOKA has participated in this process by working with other product owners to schedule and prioritize development work which is then implemented by a team of application developers. Scrum, along with practices such as Test Driven Development (TDD) and paired programming, improves the quality of the software product delivered to the user community. To meet the need for rapid prototyping and to maximize product development and support with limited developer input, our software development efforts are now focused on creating a platform of application modules that can be quickly customized to suit the needs of a variety of LTK projects. This approach is in contrast to the strategy of delivering custom applications for individual projects. To date, we have integrated components of

  5. Solution structure investigation of Ru(II) complex ion pairs: quantitative NOE measurements and determination of average interionic distances.

    PubMed

    Zuccaccia, C; Bellachioma, G; Cardaci, G; Macchioni, A

    2001-11-07

    The structure of the Ru(II) ion pairs trans-[Ru(COMe)[(pz(2))CH(2)](CO)(PMe(3))(2)]X (X(-) = BPh(4)(-), 1a; BPh(3)Me(-), 1b; BPh(3)(n-Bu)(-), 1c; BPh(3)(n-Hex)(-), 1d; B(3, 5-(CF(3))(2)(C(6)H(3)))(4)(-), 1e; PF(6)(-), 1f; and BF(4)(-), 1g; pz = pyrazol-1-yl-ring) was investigated in solution from both a qualitative (chloroform-d, methylene chloride-d(2), nithromethane-d(3)) and quantitative (methylene chloride-d(2)) point of view by performing 1D- and 2D-NOE NMR experiments. In particular, the relative anion-cation localization (interionic structure) was qualitatively determined by (1)H-NOESY and (19)F, (1)H-HOESY (heteronuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy) NMR experiments. The counteranion locates close to the peripheral protons of the bispyrazolyl ligand independent of its nature and that of the solvent. In complexes 1c and 1d bearing unsymmetrical counteranions, the aliphatic chain points away from the metal center as indicated by the absence of NOE between the terminal Me group and any cationic protons. An estimation of the average interionic distances in solution was obtained by the quantification of the NOE build-up versus the mixing time under the assumption that the interionic and intramolecular correlation times (tau(c)) are the same. Such an assumption was checked by the experimental measurements of tau(c) from both the dipolar contribution to the carbon-13 longitudinal relaxation time T(DD-1)and the comparison of the intramolecular and interionic cross relaxation rate constant (sigma) dependence on the temperature. Both the methodologies indicate that anion and cation have comparable tau(c) values. The determined correlation time values were compared with those obtained for the neutral trans-[Ru(COMe)[(pz(2))BH(2)](CO)(PMe(3))(2)] complex (2), isosteric with the cation of 1. They were significantly shorter (approximately 3.8 times), indicating that the main contribution to dipolar relaxation processes comes from the overall ion pair rotation. As a

  6. Nano-enabled sensors, electronics and energy source on polymer, paper and thread substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafalu, Pooria

    of tissues in a 3D topology would be a significant surgical advance. We have devised an integrated thread-based diagnostic (TDD) system with the ability to measure physical (strain and temperature) and chemical (pH and glucose) markers in the body in vivo. Such device was made from threads, which have been widely used in the apparel industry and is readily available as a low-cost biocompatible material.

  7. Efficacy of a new once daily hydromorphone formulation in comparison with twice daily administration in chronic pain: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Nold, Gudrun Edelgard; Maritz, Martina Alice; Schwittay, Andreas; Schumann, Claudia; Rey, Hélène

    2016-05-01

    Objective Efficacy and safety of a novel multiple-unit hydromorphone once daily (HOD) was compared to an established hydromorphone twice daily (HTD) regimen in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic pain. Design and methods The results from a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, cross-over trial in patients (n = 37) with chronic malignant or non-malignant pain are reported. The primary efficacy parameter was current pain on 0-100 mm VAS assessed four times daily and prior to intake of rescue medication (immediate-release hydromorphone) throughout the last 5 days with each treatment (after an 8 day build-up period to avoid carry-over effects). Total daily dose of hydromorphone (TDD: 8-32 mg/day) was kept stable during the double-blind treatment phase. Results The difference observed in mean current pain (-0.92 mm VAS) over the 5 day assessment period between HOD and HTD (28.44 mm vs. 29.36 mm VAS) was found to lack clinical relevance, as the 95% CI (-4.10 to 2.28 mm VAS) did not exceed the prespecified limit for non-inferiority of 9 mm VAS. Results from the full analysis set were consistent with per protocol data confirming robustness, as did the data for 12 h recalled pain assessed at 08:00 h and 20:00 h, showing no significant differences between once and twice daily medication. Both treatments produced effective and stable pain control with only minor day-to-day and intra-day fluctuations. Switching between treatments was suitable, considering both efficacy and safety, as no relevant or significant differences in adverse events were seen (25.0% HOD, 24.3% HTD). Most frequently typical side-effects of opioid therapy were observed, such as nausea, vomiting and headache. Conclusion Although this study was of short duration and included a limited number of patients, the results confirm that the new HOD is as effective and safe as the established HTD.

  8. III-V/silicon germanium tandem solar cells on silicon substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, Kenneth J.

    The development of a cost-effective high voltage tandem solar cell that can be grown directly on a silicon (Si) platform can lead to a 34% increase in efficiency over the present best monocrystalline Si laboratory device. III-V devices are known to yield some of the highest efficiencies in photovoltaics, but the high cost of lattice matched substrates and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and device development make them prohibitively expensive in many markets. By utilizing silicon substrates and limiting the thickness of the III-V MOCVD material growth, this cost can be reduced. The leveraging technology of this initiative is a metamorphic silicon:germanium (SiGe) buffer between the silicon substrate and the active device layers. As developed by AmberWave Inc., it provides a low-dislocation interface for III-V nucleation and a high quality bottom cell grown by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition (RPCVD). This research first reports on the theoretical limits of a III-V/SiGe tandem solar cell. Results will evaluate multiple III-V materials for the determination of optimal material composition to be lattice-matched with SiGe. Following this, a more complex device simulation, incorporating all major loss mechanisms, is accomplished in order to predict ideal efficiency targets and evaluate present experimental structures. Results demonstrate a robust model capable of simulating a wide range of binary and ternary III-V devices. Predictions show the capability of a tandem device operating at 32.5% 1-sun efficiency without requiring TDD improvement beyond that of the present SiGe layers. Following simulations, experimental III-V structures are grown via MOCVD and characterized, indicating successful process development for growth of III-V materials on the SiGe platform. This growth is then validated via the design and development of experimental solar device structures. Each iteration, beginning with the single-junction windowless GaAsP solar cell and

  9. Rapid Prototyping of High Performance Signal Processing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sane, Nimish

    -level application specification consisting of topological patterns in various aspects of the design flow. 2. We have formulated the core functional dataflow (CFDF) model of computation, which can be used to model a wide variety of deterministic dynamic dataflow behaviors. We have also presented key features of the CFDF model and tools based on these features. These tools provide support for heterogeneous dataflow behaviors, an intuitive and common framework for functional specification, support for functional simulation, portability from several existing dataflow models to CFDF, integrated emphasis on minimally-restricted specification of actor functionality, and support for efficient static, quasi-static, and dynamic scheduling techniques. 3. We have developed a generalized scheduling technique for CFDF graphs based on decomposition of a CFDF graph into static graphs that interact at run-time. Furthermore, we have refined this generalized scheduling technique using a new notion of "mode grouping," which better exposes the underlying static behavior. We have also developed a scheduling technique for a class of dynamic applications that generates parameterized looped schedules (PLSs), which can handle dynamic dataflow behavior without major limitations on compile-time predictability. 4. We have demonstrated the use of dataflow-based approaches for design and implementation of radio astronomy DSP systems using an application example of a tunable digital downconverter (TDD) for spectrometers. Design and implementation of this module has been an integral part of this thesis work. This thesis demonstrates a design flow that consists of a high-level software prototype, analysis, and simulation using the dataflow interchange format (DIF) tool, and integration of this design with the existing tool flow for the target implementation on an FPGA platform, called interconnect break-out board (IBOB). We have also explored the trade-off between low hardware cost for fixed configurations of

  10. Sorption and diffusion of selenium oxyanions in granitic rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikonen, Jussi; Voutilainen, Mikko; Söderlund, Mervi; Jokelainen, Lalli; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Martin, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The processes controlling diffusion and sorption of radionuclides have been studied extensively in the laboratory, whereas, only a few in-situ experiments have been carried out in order to study in-situ diffusion over the long-term (several years). This is largely due to the fact that in-situ experiments are typically time consuming and cost intensive, and it is commonly accepted that laboratory scale tests are well-established approaches to characterizing the properties of geological media. In order to assess the relevance of laboratory experiments, the Swiss National Cooperative for Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) have been conducting extensive experiments in the Underground Rock Laboratory (URL) at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in order to study radionuclide transport and retention in-situ. One of the elements used in these experiments is non-radioactive selenium, as an analog for the radiotoxic isotope Se-79, which is present in radioactive waste. In this work, two laboratory through-diffusion experiments using selenium as a tracer were carried out in block (decimeter) scale rock specimens to support one of the ongoing radionuclide transport and retention in-situ experiment at the GTS mentioned above. The though-diffusion tests of selenium were performed under atmospheric conditions in both Kuru grey granite (KGG) and Grimsel granodiorite (GG). The decrease of selenium concentration in an inlet hole drilled into each of the rock samples and the breakthrough of selenium into sampling holes drilled around the inlet were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The effective diffusion (De) and distribution coefficients (Kd) of selenium were then determined from the changes of selenium concentration in the inlet and sampling holes using a Time-Domain Diffusion (TDD) simulations. In addition, Kd of selenium was measured by batch sorption experiments as a function of pH and Se concentration in atmospheric conditions and nitrogen

  11. Peak power minimization in indoor CDMA communications using clusters of antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolhassani, Bahman

    "Battery life" and "cost" constraints are presenting new challenges for the design of wireless networks. The major focus of past research on transmit power control, diversity, modulation and coding techniques has been limited to maximizing coverage and/or capacity for cellular telephone systems. However, for battery powered wireless handsets connected through indoor wireless links, the optimization objective is shifting from link efficiency to battery efficiency and cost. In this thesis, the battery life of handsets and the cost of network are both addressed for an indoor code division multiple access (CDMA) communications system using time division duplex (TDD). A wireless handset needs a large dynamic range transmitter amplifier in order to overcome channel path loss and fading. This makes the amplifier inefficient such that its power consumption becomes proportional to the peak transmit power. Therefore, the amplifier needs a large, heavy and expensive battery which lasts for only a few hours. Indoor wireless users, however, need small, light, low cost handsets with batteries that last for days rather than for a few hours. To achieve a long battery life for handsets, a system architecture is proposed in which each cell uses a central base station along with several radioports. The radioports placed at optimal or near-optimal locations in order to minimize the maximum path loss experienced by handsets. Each radioport may use more than one antenna to combat Rayleigh fading. The central base station selects the radioport that provides the strongest maximally ratio combined signal. An infra-structure cost model is developed for the proposed system, which depends on the peak transmit power capability of handsets and of other system parameters and performances. The number of parameters affecting the network infra-structure cost is high, which makes the cost minimization problematic. To avoid large computation time, a new network planning approach is proposed: its

  12. III-V compound semiconductor growth on silicon via germanium buffer and surface passivation for CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Donghun

    Integration of III-V compound semiconductors on silicon substrates has recently received much attention for the development of optoelectronic and high speed electronic devices. However, it is well known that there are some key challenges for the realization of III-V device fabrication on Si substrates: (i) the large lattice mismatch (in case of GaAs: 4.1%), and (ii) the formation of antiphase domain (APD) due to the polar compound semiconductor growth on non-polar elemental structure. Besides these growth issues, the lack of a useful surface passivation technology for compound semiconductors has precluded development of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices and causes high surface recombination parasitics in scaled devices. This work demonstrates the growth of high quality III-V materials on Si via an intermediate Ge buffer layer and some surface passivation methods to reduce interface defect density for the fabrication of MOS devices. The initial goal was to achieve both low threading dislocation density (TDD) and low surface roughness on Ge-on-Si heterostructure growth. This was achieved by repeating a deposition-annealing cycle consisting of low temperature deposition + high temperature-high rate deposition + high temperature hydrogen annealing, using reduced-pressure chemical-vapor deposition (CVD). We then grew III-V materials on the Ge/Si virtual substrates using molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). The relationship between initial Ge surface configuration and antiphase boundary formation was investigated using surface reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns and atomic force microscopy (AFM) image analysis. In addition, some MBE growth techniques, such as migration enhanced epitaxy (MEE) and low temperature GaAs growth, were adopted to improve surface roughness and solve the Ge self-doping problem. Finally, an Al2O3 gate oxide layer was deposited using atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) system after HCl native oxide etching and ALD in-situ pre

  13. In-Tank Elutriation Test Report And Independent Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, H. H.; Adamson, D. J.; Qureshi, Z. H.; Steeper, T. J.

    2011-04-13

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) funded Technology Development and Deployment (TDD) to solve technical problems associated with waste tank closure for sites such as Hanford Site and Savannah River Site (SRS). One of the tasks supported by this funding at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNNL) was In-Tank Elutriation. Elutriation is the process whereby physical separation occurs based on particle size and density. This report satisfies the first phase of Task WP_1.3.1.1 In-Tank Elutriation, which is to assess the feasibility of this method of separation in waste tanks at Hanford Site and SRS. This report includes an analysis of scoping tests performed in the Engineering Development Laboratory of SRNL, analysis of Hanford's inadvertent elutriation, the viability of separation methods such as elutriation and hydrocyclones and recommendations for a path forward. This report will demonstrate that the retrieval of Hanford salt waste tank S-112 very successfully decreased the tank's inventories of radionuclides. Analyses of samples collected from the tank showed that concentrations of the major radionuclides Cs-136 and Sr-90 were decreased by factors of 250 and 6 and their total curie tank inventories decreased by factors of 60,000 and 2000. The total tank curie loading decreased from 300,000 Ci to 55 Ci. The remaining heel was nearly all innocuous gibbsite, Al(OH){sub 3}. However, in the process of tank retrieval approximately 85% of the tank gibbsite was also removed. Significant amounts of money and processing time could be saved if more gibbsite could be left in tanks while still removing nearly all of the radionuclides. There were factors which helped to make the elutriation of Tank S-112 successful which would not necessarily be present in all salt tanks. 1. The gibbsite particles in the tank were surprisingly large, as much as 200 {micro}m. The gibbsite crystals had probably grown in

  14. Developing New Electrolytes for Advanced Li-ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McOwen, Dennis Wayne

    synthesized for this investigation: dilithium 1,2,5-thiadiazolidine-3,4-dione-1,1-dioxide (Li2TDD), lithium ethyl N-trifluoroacetylcarbamate (LiETAC), lithium hexafluoroisopropoxide (LiHFI), lithium pentafluorophenolate (LiPFPO), and lithium 2-trifluoromethyl-4,5-dicyanoimidazolide (LiTDI). Using crystalline solvate structure analysis and electrolyte solvation numbers, each of these lithium salts were compared to more well-characterized lithium salts, such as LiPF6 and LiBF4. From this study, links between anion structural characteristics and the anion...Li+ cation interactions (i.e., ionic association strength) were made. From the screening of the five lithium salts that were synthesized, LiTDI was determined to be a promising candidate for Li-ion battery electrolytes. Further characterization of carbonate- and mixed carbonate-LiTDI electrolytes (e.g., ionic conductivity) confirmed this to be the case. Coin cells containing LiTDI or LiPF6 electrolytes showed that cells with either electrolyte could deliver nearly identical power density at 25 °C. Additionally, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and NMR suggested that the LiTDI salt and carbonate-LiTDI electrolytes are thermally stable up to at least 60 °C. Further supporting this finding, coin cells cycled at 60 °C with LiPF6 lost significantly more capacity than those with LiTDI. Therefore, LiTDI is a prime candidate for the complete replacement of LiPF6 to significantly increase Li-ion battery tolerance to heat, improving the safety characteristics. In addition to searching for new lithium salts, the effect of lithium salt concentration on electrolyte physicochemical properties was investigated. This radically different approach to modifying electrolyte properties determined that amorphous, highly concentrated carbonate-lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) electrolytes have drastically different behavior than more dilute electrolytes. For example, the thermal stability and anodic stability vs. a Pt

  15. Large-area, wafer-scale epitaxial growth of germanium on silicon and integration of high-performance transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Swapnadip

    simulation shows that the oval air gaps around the SiO2 template can reduce the thermal stress by 50% and help reduce the DD. We have then compared the structural and electrical characteristics of n-type Ge films with its p-type counter parts. In n-type Ge, the DD decreases from ˜109cm-2 near the Ge-Si interface to ˜105 cm-2 at the film surface. In contrast, we observe 5x107 cm-2 TDD at the film surface in p-type Ge. The full width at half-maximum for our n-type Ge(004) XRD peak is ~70% narrower than that of p-type Ge. As a stringent test of the dislocation reduction, we have also fabricated and characterized high-carrier-mobility MOSFETs on GoS substrates. We also report p- and n-MOSFETs with microeff of 401 and 940 cm2/V-s and a subthreshold slope of 100 and 200 mV/decade, respectively. These effective mobilities show an exceptional 82 and 30% improvement over that of conventional Si channel MOSFETs. We also investigate the optical quality of ultra-low DD GoS film by measuring photoluminescence (PL). The n-type Ge PL main peak shows pronounced tensile-strain (x0.8%) than that of p-type which is an indicator of direct BG shrinking at the \\Gcy band-edge. Going beyond epitaxial engineering and device fabrication, we have also recently demonstrated a scalable path to create a 2D array of Ge quantum dots (QDs) on responsive SiGe substrates based on elastic mechanical deformation and subsequent SiGe compositional redistribution, coupled with MBE growth. For large-scale manufacturing of single-electron transistors, we have also demonstrated that a spatially structured elastic compressive stress to the SiGe substrate with thermally annealing leads to a compositional redistribution of Si and Ge in the near-surface region of SiGe substrates, forming a 2D array of Ge-depleted nanoscale regions. Based on these latest findings, we have also begun to chart a future direction for my research group, where one can explore new advanced device architectures, such as Si