Science.gov

Sample records for 301-492-2230 tdd 301-415-2100

  1. 75 FR 70041 - Sunshine Act Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Internet at: http://www.nrc.gov/about-nrc/policy-making/schedule.html . * * * * * The NRC provides... Bolduc, Chief, Employee/Labor Relations and Work Life Branch, at 301-492-2230, TDD: 301-415-2100, or by...

  2. 75 FR 53353 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ...: Rochelle Bavol, (301) 415- 1651. * * * * * The NRC Commission Meeting Schedule can be found on the Internet..., Employee/Labor Relations and Work Life Branch, at 301-492-2230, TDD: 301-415-2100, or by e-mail at...

  3. 75 FR 1657 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Internet at: http://www.nrc.gov/about-nrc/policy-making/schedule.html . * * * * * The NRC provides... Bolduc, Chief, Employee/Labor Relations and Work Life Branch, at 301-492-2230, TDD: 301-415-2100, or by...

  4. 75 FR 65674 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ...-1651. The NRC Commission Meeting Schedule can be found on the Internet at: http://www.nrc.gov/about-nrc... Life Branch, at 301-492-2230, TDD: 301-415-2100, or by e-mail at angela.bolduc@nrc.gov ....

  5. 77 FR 64835 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... address--www.nrc.gov. 9:30 a.m. Strategic Programmatic Overview of the Spent Fuel Storage and... Management Issues (Closed--Ex. 2) Week of November 12, 2012--Tentative There are no meetings scheduled for..., Work Life and Benefits Branch, at 301-415-6200, TDD: 301-415-2100, or by email at...

  6. 75 FR 58449 - Sunshine Act; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ..., 2010) (Tentative) b. Luminant Generation Company LLC (Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4), NRC Staff Notice of Appeal, Brief on Appeal, and Request for Stay of Sections IV and V.B of LBP-10-5...-2230, TDD: 301-415-2100, or by e-mail at angela.bolduc@nrc.gov . mailto: dlc@nrc.gov.mailto :...

  7. 28 CFR 35.161 - Telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD's). 35.161 Section 35.161 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... devices for the deaf (TDD's). Where a public entity communicates by telephone with applicants...

  8. Mass Spectrometry Characterization of the Thermal Decomposition/Digestion (TDD) at Cysteine in Peptides and Proteins in the Condensed Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile, Franco; Zhang, Shaofeng; Kandar, Sujit Kumar; Lu, Liang

    2011-11-01

    We report on the characterization by mass spectrometry (MS) of a rapid, reagentless and site-specific cleavage at the N-terminus of the amino acid cysteine (C) in peptides and proteins induced by the thermal decomposition at 220-250 °C for 10 s in solid samples. This thermally induced cleavage at C occurs under the same conditions and simultaneously to our previously reported thermally induced site-specific cleavage at the C-terminus of aspartic acid (D) (Zhang, S.; Basile, F. J. Proteome Res. 2007, 6, (5), 1700-1704). The C cleavage proceeds through cleavage of the nitrogen and α-carbon bond (N-terminus) of cysteine and produces modifications at the cleavage site with an amidation (-1 Da) of the N-terminal thermal decomposition product and a -32 Da mass change of the C-terminal thermal decomposition product, the latter yielding either an alanine or β-alanine residue at the N-terminus site. These modifications were confirmed by off-line thermal decomposition electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS, tandem MS (MS/MS) analyses and accurate mass measurements of standard peptides. Molecular oxygen was found to be required for the thermal decomposition and cleavage at C as it induced an initial cysteine thiol side chain oxidation to sulfinic acid. Similar to the thermally induced D cleavage, missed cleavages at C were also observed. The combined thermally induced digestion process at D and C, termed thermal decomposition/digestion (TDD), was observed on several model proteins tested under ambient conditions and the site-specificity of the method confirmed by MS/MS.

  9. Mass spectrometry characterization of the thermal decomposition/digestion (TDD) at cysteine in peptides and proteins in the condensed phase.

    PubMed

    Basile, Franco; Zhang, Shaofeng; Kandar, Sujit Kumar; Lu, Liang

    2011-11-01

    We report on the characterization by mass spectrometry (MS) of a rapid, reagentless and site-specific cleavage at the N-terminus of the amino acid cysteine (C) in peptides and proteins induced by the thermal decomposition at 220-250 °C for 10 s in solid samples. This thermally induced cleavage at C occurs under the same conditions and simultaneously to our previously reported thermally induced site-specific cleavage at the C-terminus of aspartic acid (D) (Zhang, S.; Basile, F. J. Proteome Res. 2007, 6, (5), 1700-1704). The C cleavage proceeds through cleavage of the nitrogen and α-carbon bond (N-terminus) of cysteine and produces modifications at the cleavage site with an amidation (-1 Da) of the N-terminal thermal decomposition product and a -32 Da mass change of the C-terminal thermal decomposition product, the latter yielding either an alanine or β-alanine residue at the N-terminus site. These modifications were confirmed by off-line thermal decomposition electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS, tandem MS (MS/MS) analyses and accurate mass measurements of standard peptides. Molecular oxygen was found to be required for the thermal decomposition and cleavage at C as it induced an initial cysteine thiol side chain oxidation to sulfinic acid. Similar to the thermally induced D cleavage, missed cleavages at C were also observed. The combined thermally induced digestion process at D and C, termed thermal decomposition/digestion (TDD), was observed on several model proteins tested under ambient conditions and the site-specificity of the method confirmed by MS/MS.

  10. Mass Spectrometry Characterization of the Thermal Decomposition/Digestion (TDD) at Cysteine in Peptides and Proteins in the Condensed Phase

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Franco; Zhang, Shaofeng; Kandar, Sujit Kumar; Lu, Liang

    2011-01-01

    We report on the characterization by mass spectrometry (MS) of a rapid, reagentless and site-specific cleavage at the N-terminus of the amino acid cysteine (C) in peptides and proteins induced by the thermal decomposition at 220–250 °C for 10 seconds in solid samples. This thermally induced cleavage at C occurs under the same conditions and simultaneously to our previously reported thermally induced site-specific cleavage at the C-terminus of aspartic acid (D) (Zhang, S.; Basile, F., J. Proteome Res. 2007, 6, (5), 1700–1704). The C cleavage proceeds through cleavage of the nitrogen and α–carbon bond (N-terminus) of cysteine and produces modifications at the cleavage site with an amidation (−1 amu) of the N-terminal thermal decomposition product and a −32 amu mass change of the C-terminal thermal decomposition product, the latter yielding either an alanine or β-alanine residue at the N-terminus site. These modifications were confirmed by off-line thermal decomposition electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS, tandem MS (MS/MS) analyses and accurate mass measurements of standard peptides. Molecular oxygen was found to be required for the thermal decomposition and cleavage at C as it induced an initial cysteine thiol side chain oxidation to sulfinic acid. Similar to the thermally induced D cleavage, missed cleavages at C were also observed. The combined thermally induced digestion process at D and C, termed Thermal Decomposition/Digestion (TDD), was observed on several model proteins tested under ambient conditions and the site-specificity of the method confirmed by MS/MS. PMID:21952765

  11. 77 FR 32174 - Innovative Transit Workforce Development Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... . TDD service is available via 1-800-877-8339 (TDD/FIRS). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I... areas in the lifecycle of the transit workforce: (1) Pre-employment training/preparation (2) Recruitment.... Proposals must have a minimum threshold of $100,000 and a maximum of $1,000,000. FTA reserves the right...

  12. 75 FR 25833 - Notice of Funding Availability of Applications (NOFA) for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ...) Participate in local green/energy efficient building standards. Applicants who participate in a city, county... 48823, (517) 324-5192, TDD (517) 337-6795, Julie Putnam. Minnesota State Office, 375 Jackson Street...-4325, TDD (601) 965- 5850, Darnella Smith-Murray. Missouri State Office, 601 Business Loop 70...

  13. 75 FR 8896 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for Loan Guarantees Under Section 538 Guaranteed Rural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    .... Minnesota State Office, 375 Jackson Street, Suite 410, St. Paul, MN 55101-1853, (651) 602-7804, TDD (651..., Jackson, MS 39269, (601) 965-4326, TDD (601) 965- 5717, Darnella Smith-Murray. Missouri State Office, 601... number. Borrower Address, including County. Insert borrower's address and county. Borrower Phone...

  14. 75 FR 22095 - Notice of Funds Availability for the Section 533 Housing Preservation Grants for Fiscal Year 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... OMB and published in the Federal Register on June 27, 2003 (68 FR 38402-38405). The Department of... Minnesota State Office 375 Jackson Street Building, Suite 410 St. Paul, Minnesota 55125 (651) 602-7804 TDD... Street Jackson, Mississippi 39269 (601) 965-4325 TDD (601) 965-5850 Darnella Smith-Murray Missouri...

  15. 76 FR 39836 - Notice of Funds Availability for the Section 533 Housing Preservation Grants for Fiscal Year 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... provided in a policy directive issued by OMB and published in the Federal Register on June 27, 2003 (68 FR... Avenue, Hilo, Hawaii 96720, (808) 933-8303, TDD (808) 933-8321, Nathan Riedel. Idaho State Office, Suite... Kirschling Court, Stevens Point, Wisconsin 54481, (715) 345-7620, TDD (715) 345-7614, Dave Schwobe....

  16. 77 FR 23276 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... is located along Mentasta Lake Road, approximately 1\\1/2\\ miles northeasterly of the village of... deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 to contact the...

  17. 76 FR 79665 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... payment on death, disability, closed school, and false certification claim payments to lenders; (3) remit... who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay...

  18. Laser diodes with 353 nm wavelength enabled by reduced-dislocation-density AlGaN templates

    DOE PAGES

    Crawford, Mary H.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Smith, Michael L.; Cross, Karen C.

    2015-10-30

    We fabricated optically pumped and electrically injected ultraviolet (UV) lasers on reduced-threading-dislocation-density (reduced-TDD) AlGaN templates. The overgrowth of sub-micron-wide mesas in the Al0.32Ga0.68N templates enabled a tenfold reduction in TDD, to (2–3) × 108 cm–2. Optical pumping of AlGaN hetero-structures grown on the reduced-TDD templates yielded a low lasing threshold of 34 kW/cm2 at 346 nm. Room-temperature pulsed operation of laser diodes at 353 nm was demonstrated, with a threshold of 22.5 kA/cm2. Furthermore, reduced-TDD templates have been developed across the entire range of AlGaN compositions, presenting a promising approach for extending laser diodes into the deep UV.

  19. Laser diodes with 353 nm wavelength enabled by reduced-dislocation-density AlGaN templates

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Mary H.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Smith, Michael L.; Cross, Karen C.

    2015-10-30

    We fabricated optically pumped and electrically injected ultraviolet (UV) lasers on reduced-threading-dislocation-density (reduced-TDD) AlGaN templates. The overgrowth of sub-micron-wide mesas in the Al0.32Ga0.68N templates enabled a tenfold reduction in TDD, to (2–3) × 108 cm–2. Optical pumping of AlGaN hetero-structures grown on the reduced-TDD templates yielded a low lasing threshold of 34 kW/cm2 at 346 nm. Room-temperature pulsed operation of laser diodes at 353 nm was demonstrated, with a threshold of 22.5 kA/cm2. Furthermore, reduced-TDD templates have been developed across the entire range of AlGaN compositions, presenting a promising approach for extending laser diodes into the deep UV.

  20. Laser diodes with 353 nm wavelength enabled by reduced-dislocation-density AlGaN templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Mary H.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Smith, Michael L.; Cross, Karen C.

    2015-11-01

    We fabricated optically pumped and electrically injected ultraviolet (UV) lasers on reduced-threading-dislocation-density (reduced-TDD) AlGaN templates. The overgrowth of sub-micron-wide mesas in the Al0.32Ga0.68N templates enabled a tenfold reduction in TDD, to (2-3) × 108 cm-2. Optical pumping of AlGaN hetero-structures grown on the reduced-TDD templates yielded a low lasing threshold of 34 kW/cm2 at 346 nm. Room-temperature pulsed operation of laser diodes at 353 nm was demonstrated, with a threshold of 22.5 kA/cm2. Reduced-TDD templates have been developed across the entire range of AlGaN compositions, presenting a promising approach for extending laser diodes into the deep UV.

  1. Test Driven Development of Scientific Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Test-Driven Development (TDD), a software development process that promises many advantages for developer productivity and software reliability, has become widely accepted among professional software engineers. As the name suggests, TDD practitioners alternate between writing short automated tests and producing code that passes those tests. Although this overly simplified description will undoubtedly sound prohibitively burdensome to many uninitiated developers, the advent of powerful unit-testing frameworks greatly reduces the effort required to produce and routinely execute suites of tests. By testimony, many developers find TDD to be addicting after only a few days of exposure, and find it unthinkable to return to previous practices.After a brief overview of the TDD process and my experience in applying the methodology for development activities at Goddard, I will delve more deeply into some of the challenges that are posed by numerical and scientific software as well as tools and implementation approaches that should address those challenges.

  2. 5 CFR 2600.102 - Contact information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... numbers. OGE's main telephone number is 202-482-9300. Persons who are deaf or speech impaired may contact OGE at the following TDD (Telecommunications Device for the Deaf and Speech Impaired) number:...

  3. 5 CFR 2600.102 - Contact information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... numbers. OGE's main telephone number is 202-482-9300. Persons who are deaf or speech impaired may contact OGE at the following TDD (Telecommunications Device for the Deaf and Speech Impaired) number:...

  4. 76 FR 64903 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... Annual Burden Hours: 888. Abstract The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provides $4.3... for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877- 8339....

  5. 78 FR 28240 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...; email: mschoder@blm.gov . Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the...; telephone (907) 271-5960. Copies may be obtained from this office for a minimum recovery fee. If a...

  6. 5 CFR 2600.102 - Contact information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... numbers. OGE's main telephone number is 202-482-9300. Persons who are deaf or speech impaired may contact OGE at the following TDD (Telecommunications Device for the Deaf and Speech Impaired) number:...

  7. 5 CFR 2600.102 - Contact information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... numbers. OGE's main telephone number is 202-482-9300. Persons who are deaf or speech impaired may contact OGE at the following TDD (Telecommunications Device for the Deaf and Speech Impaired) number:...

  8. 78 FR 49682 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... 20005, 202-326-4024. (TTY/TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-800-877-8339 and ask to be connected to 202-326-4024.) SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: PBGC's regulation on Benefits...

  9. 76 FR 2578 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ...., Washington, DC 20005, 202-326-4024. (TTY/TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-800-877-8339 and ask to be connected to 202-326- 4024.) SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: PBGC's regulation...

  10. 75 FR 63380 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ...., Washington, DC 20005, 202-326-4024. (TTY/TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-800-877-8339 and ask to be connected to 202-326- 4024.) SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: PBGC's regulation...

  11. 77 FR 41774 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Learning and Performance Improvement System, 69 FR 19171-19176 (April 12, 2004). Electronic Access to This... 20202- 4500. Telephone: (202) 401-1583. If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) or...

  12. 76 FR 22863 - Kern and Tulare Counties Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ...; or e-mail: pshibley@fs.fed.us . Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may... may file written statements with the RAC staff before or after the meeting. Public input sessions...

  13. 76 FR 40324 - Ravalli County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339... with the Council staff before or after the meeting. Public input sessions will be provided...

  14. 76 FR 22671 - Custer County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... . Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay.... Public input sessions will be provided and individuals who made written requests by May 5, 2011,...

  15. 77 FR 56241 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... Commission Meeting Schedule can be found on the Internet at: www.nrc.gov/about-nrc/policy-making/schedule..., large print), please notify Bill Dosch, Chief, Work Life and Benefits Branch, at 301-415-6200, TDD:...

  16. 77 FR 23666 - Information Collection; Submission for OMB Review, Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... email to zjackson@cns.gov . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY-TDD) may... for the Corporation for National and Community Service; and (2) Electronically by email to:...

  17. Research of Ultrasound-Mediated Transdermal Drug Delivery System Using Cymbal-Type Piezoelectric Composite Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Huiting; Gao, Chunming; Liu, Lixian; Sun, Qiming; Zhao, Binxing; Yan, Laijun

    2015-06-01

    Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) implemented by especially low-frequency ultrasound is generally known as sonophoresis or phonophoresis which has drawn considerable wide attention. However, TDD has not yet achieved its full potential as an alternative to conventional drug delivery methods due to its bulky instruments. In this paper, a cymbal-type piezoelectric composite transducer (CPCT) which has advantages over a traditional ultrasound generator in weight, flexibility, and power consumption, is used as a substitute ultrasonicator to realize TDD. First, theoretical research on a CPCT based on the finite element analysis was carried out according to which a series of applicable CPCTs with bandwidths of 20 kHz to 100 kHz were elaborated. Second, a TDD experimental setup was built with previously fabricated CPCTs aimed at the administration of glucose. Finally, the TDD performance of glucose molecule transport in porcine skin was measured in vitro by quantifying the concentration of glucose, and the time variation curves were subsequently obtained. During the experiment, the driving wave form, frequency, and power consumption of the transducers were selected as the main elements which determined the efficacy of glucose delivery. The results indicate that the effectiveness of the CPCT-based delivery is constrained more by the frequency and intensity of ultrasound rather than the driving waveform. The light-weight, flexibility, and low-power consumption of a CPCT can potentially achieve effective TDD.

  18. Test Driven Development of Scientific Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Test-Driven Development (TDD) is a software development process that promises many advantages for developer productivity and has become widely accepted among professional software engineers. As the name suggests, TDD practitioners alternate between writing short automated tests and producing code that passes those tests. Although this overly simplified description will undoubtedly sound prohibitively burdensome to many uninitiated developers, the advent of powerful unit-testing frameworks greatly reduces the effort required to produce and routinely execute suites of tests. By testimony, many developers find TDD to be addicting after only a few days of exposure, and find it unthinkable to return to previous practices. Of course, scientific/technical software differs from other software categories in a number of important respects, but I nonetheless believe that TDD is quite applicable to the development of such software and has the potential to significantly improve programmer productivity and code quality within the scientific community. After a detailed introduction to TDD, I will present the experience within the Software Systems Support Office (SSSO) in applying the technique to various scientific applications. This discussion will emphasize the various direct and indirect benefits as well as some of the difficulties and limitations of the methodology. I will conclude with a brief description of pFUnit, a unit testing framework I co-developed to support test-driven development of parallel Fortran applications.

  19. Nuclear tetrahedral symmetry: possibly present throughout the periodic table.

    PubMed

    Dudek, J; Goźdź, A; Schunck, N; Miśkiewicz, M

    2002-06-24

    More than half a century after the fundamental, spherical shell structure in nuclei had been established, theoretical predictions indicated that the shell gaps comparable or even stronger than those at spherical shapes may exist. Group-theoretical analysis supported by realistic mean-field calculations indicate that the corresponding nuclei are characterized by the TD(d) ("double-tetrahedral") symmetry group. Strong shell-gap structure is enhanced by the existence of the four-dimensional irreducible representations of TD(d); it can be seen as a geometrical effect that does not depend on a particular realization of the mean field. Possibilities of discovering the TD(d) symmetry in experiment are discussed.

  20. Polydimethyl siloxane wet etching for three dimensional fabrication of microneedle array and high-aspect-ratio micropillars

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yu-Luen; Juang, Yi-Je

    2014-01-01

    Among various transdermal drug delivery (TDD) approaches, utilizing the microneedles (MNs) not only can penetrate the skin but also deliver the drug with reduced tissue damage, reduced pain, and no bleeding. However, the MNs with larger height are required to overcome the skin barrier for effective TDD. Unlike 2D patterning, etching polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) micropillars for fabrication of 3D microstructures is presented. The PDMS micropillars were first constructed by casting PDMS on the computer numerical control-machined cylindrical microwells, which then went through etching process to obtain the MNs for subsequent fabrication of polymer MNs or high aspect ratio micropillars. PMID:24803970

  1. Polydimethyl siloxane wet etching for three dimensional fabrication of microneedle array and high-aspect-ratio micropillars.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu-Luen; Juang, Yi-Je

    2014-03-01

    Among various transdermal drug delivery (TDD) approaches, utilizing the microneedles (MNs) not only can penetrate the skin but also deliver the drug with reduced tissue damage, reduced pain, and no bleeding. However, the MNs with larger height are required to overcome the skin barrier for effective TDD. Unlike 2D patterning, etching polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) micropillars for fabrication of 3D microstructures is presented. The PDMS micropillars were first constructed by casting PDMS on the computer numerical control-machined cylindrical microwells, which then went through etching process to obtain the MNs for subsequent fabrication of polymer MNs or high aspect ratio micropillars. PMID:24803970

  2. WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL NUCLEAR SAFETY RELATED R AND D REPORT FOR CY2008

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, A.

    2009-10-15

    The Engineering and Technology Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks associated with key waste processing project decisions. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment (TDD). The Office of Waste Processing TDD program prioritizes and approves research and development scopes of work that address nuclear safety related to processing of highly radioactive nuclear wastes. Thirteen of the thirty-five R&D approved work scopes in FY2009 relate directly to nuclear safety, and are presented in this report.

  3. 75 FR 50751 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ..., 1999 regulations that implement section 673(h) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act... children with disabilities for a period of two years for every year for which assistance was received... . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information...

  4. 76 FR 38604 - Inviting Applications for Rural Business Opportunity Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Mall North, Lincoln, NE 68508, (402) 437-5551/TDD (402) 437-5093. Nevada USDA Rural Development State... may consider awarding these discretionary points to applications that propose to engage in regional economic development activities in the key strategy areas of: (1) Creating or supporting local and...

  5. 78 FR 28594 - Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... attend, they must contact Niki Shepperd by 5pm on May 28, 2013. If any person wishes auxiliary aids (such as a sign language interpreter) or other special accommodations, please contact, by March 19, 2013...: (202) 565-3202 or TDD (202) 565-3377. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For further information,...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Nitrogen Dioxide. NOX Oxides of nitrogen. O2 Oxygen. Table 2—Symbols Used in Subparts D and E Symbol Term... speed (average at the i'th mode during the cycle) 1/min Ps Dry atmospheric pressure kPa Pd Test ambient...) K TDd Absolute dewpoint temperature K Td, i Torque (average at the i'th mode during the cycle)...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Nitrogen Dioxide. NOX Oxides of nitrogen. O2 Oxygen. Table 2—Symbols Used in Subparts D and E Symbol Term... speed (average at the i'th mode during the cycle) 1/min Ps Dry atmospheric pressure kPa Pd Test ambient...) K TDd Absolute dewpoint temperature K Td, i Torque (average at the i'th mode during the cycle)...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Nitrogen Dioxide. NOX Oxides of nitrogen. O2 Oxygen. Table 2—Symbols Used in Subparts D and E Symbol Term... speed (average at the i'th mode during the cycle) 1/min Ps Dry atmospheric pressure kPa Pd Test ambient...) K TDd Absolute dewpoint temperature K Td, i Torque (average at the i'th mode during the cycle)...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Nitrogen Dioxide. NOX Oxides of nitrogen. O2 Oxygen. Table 2—Symbols Used in Subparts D and E Symbol Term... speed (average at the i'th mode during the cycle) 1/min Ps Dry atmospheric pressure kPa Pd Test ambient...) K TDd Absolute dewpoint temperature K Td, i Torque (average at the i'th mode during the cycle)...

  10. 77 FR 14353 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... can be provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is minimized... . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY-TDD) may call 1-800-833- 3722 between 8 a.m... information on those who are expected to respond, including the use of appropriate automated,...

  11. 77 FR 40897 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Direct Sale of Public Land in Harney County, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... comments concerning this proposed sale may be submitted to Three Rivers Resource Area Field Manager, BLM... use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service... the BLM Three Rivers Resource Management Plan (RMP) for Land Tenure. The 1992 BLM Three Rivers RMP...

  12. 76 FR 64328 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... data can be provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is... through http://www.regulations.gov . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY-TDD..., including the use of appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological...

  13. 77 FR 67344 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is minimized, and the impact....gov . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY-TDD) may call 1-800- 833-3722... information on those who are expected to respond, including the use of appropriate automated,...

  14. 77 FR 47090 - Notice of Realty Action; Proposed Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Washington County, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... telecommunication device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339... is in conformance with the BLM St. George Field Office Resource Management Plan approved in March... publication of this notice. Electronic mail (email) will also be accepted and should be sent to...

  15. 78 FR 41386 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is minimized, collection....regulations.gov . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY-TDD) may call 1-800-833... expected to respond, including the use of appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or...

  16. 78 FR 65298 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is minimized, collection....gov . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY- TDD) may call 1-800-833-3722... information on those who are expected to respond, including the use of appropriate automated,...

  17. 76 FR 9740 - National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ...: Nomination(s) must be ``received'' (not postmarked) by March 29, 2011. ADDRESSES: Please submit electronic.... Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay... professional renewable natural resource or arboriculture society. Dated: February 14, 2011. Robin L....

  18. 76 FR 2088 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... requested data can be provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is...://www.regulations.gov . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY-TDD) may call..., including the use of appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological...

  19. 75 FR 219 - Availability of Funds and Collection of Checks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... availability checks and local checks in Regulation CC to delete the reference to the head office of the Federal..., there will only be a single check- processing region for purposes of Regulation CC and there will no... Telecommunications Devices for the Deaf (TDD) only, contact 202/263-4869. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulation...

  20. 76 FR 30641 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for Loan Guarantees Under Section 538 Guaranteed Rural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Center, Suite 235, Columbia, MO 65203, (573) 876-0976, TDD (573) 876-9480. Montana State Office, 2229... Loan Division, U.S. Department of Agriculture, South Agriculture Building, Room 1263, STOP 0781,...

  1. 77 FR 27179 - Notice of Funds Availability for the Section 533 Housing Preservation Grants for Fiscal Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... Federal Register on June 27, 2003 (68 FR 38402-38405). Similarly, applicants may register for the CCR at..., Arkansas 72201-3225, (501) 301-3258, TDD (501) 301-3279, Clinton King. California State Office, 430 G... State Office, Stephens Federal Building, 355 East Hancock Avenue, Athens, Georgia 30601-2768, (706)...

  2. 76 FR 20310 - Snohomish County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ...) 436-2301, e-mail pforbes@fs.fed.us . Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD.... More information will be posted on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest Web site at http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/mbs/projects/rac.shtml . Comments may be sent via e-mail to pforbes@fs.fed.us or...

  3. 76 FR 51938 - Southwest Mississippi Resource Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... Prudhomme, District Ranger, 601- 384-5876, bprudhomme@fs.fed.us or Dave Chabreck, Operations Leader, 601-384-5876, dochabreck@fs.fed.us . Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may call... Homochitto District office during regular business hours or on the Web at...

  4. 76 FR 49432 - Wrangell-Petersburg Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    .... Box 1328, Petersburg, Alaska 99833, phone (907) 772-3871, e-mail csavage@fs.fed.us , or Robert... rdalrymple@fs.fed.us . Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal... available online at...

  5. 77 FR 50459 - South Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ...-8751, email jfranzel@fs.fed.us . Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may... at: http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/mbs/projects/rac.shtml . Comments may be sent via email to jfranzel@fs.fed.us or via facsimile to (425) 888-1910. All comments, including names and addresses when...

  6. 77 FR 49776 - El Dorado County Resource Advisory COMMITTEE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ..., fmosbacher@fs.fed.us . Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal..., or by email to fmosbacher@fs.fed.us or via facsimile to 530-621-5297. A summary of the meeting will be posted at...

  7. 77 FR 51965 - Southwest Mississippi Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ..., TTY 601-384-8056, bprudhomme@fs.fed.us or Dave Chabreck, Operations Leader, 601-384-5876, dochabreck@fs.fed.us , TTY 601-384- 8056. Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may... proposed projects. A full agenda may be previewed at:...

  8. 75 FR 36061 - Snohomish County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ...) 436-2301, e-mail pforbes@fs.fed.us . Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD.... More information will be posted on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest Web site at http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/mbs/projects/rac.shtml . Comments may be sent via e-mail to pforbes@fs.fed.us or...

  9. 77 FR 65773 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ..., as prescribed by Board regulations, for the purpose of implementing monetary policy. Section 11(a)(2... liabilities and assets from depository institutions to enable the Board to conduct monetary policy. The Board... Monetary Affairs; for users of Telecommunications Device for the Deaf (TDD) only, contact (202/263-...

  10. 78 FR 66249 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... time deposits, as prescribed by Board regulations, for the purpose of implementing monetary policy... of liabilities and assets from depository institutions to enable the Board to conduct monetary policy..., Division of Monetary Affairs; for users of Telecommunications Device for the Deaf (TDD) only, contact...

  11. 78 FR 57798 - Program Integrity Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... requirements, Selective Service System, Student aid, Vocational education. Dated: September 17, 2013. Arne... the deaf (TDD) or a text telephone (TTY), call the Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll free, at 1- 800.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The October 29, 2010, final regulations (75 FR 66832) amended the regulations...

  12. 76 FR 80347 - Applications for New Awards; Indian Education-Demonstration Grants for Indian Children

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... increase competency and skills in challenging subject matters, including math and science, to enable Indian... of Education, P.O. Box 22207, Alexandria, VA 22304. Telephone, toll free: 1-(877) 433-7827. FAX: (703) 605-6794. If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call, toll free: 1- (877)...

  13. 77 FR 75420 - Applications for New Awards; Indian Education-Demonstration Grants for Indian Children

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... increase competency and skills in challenging subject matters, including math and science, to enable Indian.... Telephone, toll free: 1-877-433-7827. FAX: (703) 605-6794. If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) or a text telephone (TTY), call, toll free: 1-877-567-7734. You can contact ED Pubs at...

  14. 40 CFR 350.16 - Address to send trade secrecy claims and petitions requesting disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....epa.gov/ceppo and http://www.epa.gov/tri. Any subsequent changes to the address and location will be...) 424-9346 or (703) 412-9810, TDD (800) 553-7672, http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/hotline/ to obtain...

  15. 47 CFR 0.441 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... information and general inquiries may be submitted by: (1) Internet at http://www.fcc.gov/cgb/fccinfo or http://www.fcc.gov/foia. (2) Telephone at 1-888-CALL-FCC (1-888-225-5322). (3) TDD/TDY at 1-888-TELL-FCC (1... in resolving any concerns related to a Freedom of Information Act request. See...

  16. 75 FR 66699 - Farm Loan Programs Loan Making Activities; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... (voice and TDD). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On September 23, 2010, FSA published a proposed rule (75 FR... Farm Service Agency 7 CFR Parts 761, 763, and 764 RIN 0560-AI03 Farm Loan Programs Loan Making... document contains a correction to the proposed rule titled ``Farm Loan Programs Loan Making...

  17. 76 FR 71935 - Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, Carson Ranger District, Nevada and California, Bordertown to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... comments or resource information can be submitted by any of the following methods: Email comments to... Transmission Line'' in the subject line. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For further information and/or to... (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-(800) 877-8339 between 8 a.m. and 8...

  18. 75 FR 57905 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... available one hour after a call ends. The toll-free phone number for the replay is 888-568-0542. The end... Brief can be found here: http://www.nationalservice.gov/about/focus_areas/index.asp along with.... Phone (202) 606-7564. Fax (202) 606-3460. TDD: (202) 606-3472. E-mail: esamose@cns.gov ....

  19. 75 FR 28542 - Notice of Funds Availability for the Section 533 Housing Preservation Grants for Fiscal Year 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ..., 2010, in FR Doc. 2010-9648, on page, 22098, in the first column, the listing for the Rural Development... listing for the Rural Development Ohio State Office telephone number, and TDD number and West Virginia..., USDA Rural Development, Stop 0781, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20250-0781,...

  20. 75 FR 33688 - Allocation of Assets in Single-Employer Plans; Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ...-326-4024. (TTY/TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-800-877-8339 and ask to be... covered by title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. The interest assumptions are... are also published on PBGC=s Web site ( http://www.pbgc.gov ). DATES: Effective July 1, 2010....

  1. 75 FR 69588 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...., Washington, DC 20005, 202-326-4024. (TTY/TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-800-877... title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. PBGC uses the interest assumptions in.... Interest assumptions are also published on PBGC's Web site ( http://www.pbgc.gov ). DATES:...

  2. 76 FR 8649 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ...., Washington, DC 20005, 202-326-4024. (TTY/TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-800-877... title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. PBGC uses the interest assumptions in.... Interest assumptions are also published on PBGC's Web site ( http://www.pbgc.gov ). DATES: Effective...

  3. 47 CFR 0.441 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information and general inquiries may be submitted by: (1) Internet at http://www.fcc.gov/cgb/fccinfo or http://www.fcc.gov/foia. (2) Telephone at 1-888-CALL-FCC (1-888-225-5322). (3) TDD/TDY at 1-888-TELL-FCC (1... in resolving any concerns related to a Freedom of Information Act request. See...

  4. Mefloquine (Lariam)

    MedlinePlus

    ... FDA) Malaria Contact Health Care 877-222-8387 Benefits 800-827-1000 TDD (Hearing Impaired) 800-829-4833 CONNECT Veterans Crisis Line: 1-800-273-8255 (Press 1) Social Media Complete Directory EMAIL UPDATES Email Address Required Button ...

  5. High-electron-mobility GaN grown on free-standing GaN templates by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, Erin C. H. Kaun, Stephen W.; Burke, Peter G.; Wu, Feng; Speck, James S.; Wu, Yuh-Renn

    2014-05-21

    The dependence of electron mobility on growth conditions and threading dislocation density (TDD) was studied for n{sup −}-GaN layers grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy. Electron mobility was found to strongly depend on TDD, growth temperature, and Si-doping concentration. Temperature-dependent Hall data were fit to established transport and charge-balance equations. Dislocation scattering was analyzed over a wide range of TDDs (∼2 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2} to ∼2 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}) on GaN films grown under similar conditions. A correlation between TDD and fitted acceptor states was observed, corresponding to an acceptor state for almost every c lattice translation along each threading dislocation. Optimized GaN growth on free-standing GaN templates with a low TDD (∼2 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2}) resulted in electron mobilities of 1265 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 296 K and 3327 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 113 K.

  6. 78 FR 28240 - Call for Nominations for the Utah Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... recommendations to the BLM on land use planning and management of the National System of Public Lands within Utah..., 440 West 200 South, Suite 500, Salt Lake City, UT 84101. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sherry Foot...: sfoot@blm.gov . Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the...

  7. 77 FR 33709 - Inviting Applications for Rural Cooperative Development Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ...) 287-1753 Virgin Islands (see Florida) Washington USDA Rural Development State Office, 1835 Black Lake...., Stop 9410, Washington, DC 20250- 9410, or call toll-free at (866) 632-9992 (English) or (800) 877-8339 (TDD) or (866) 377-8642 (English Federal-relay) or (800) 845-6136 (Spanish Federal-relay). USDA is...

  8. 77 FR 12792 - Inviting Applications for the Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Program for Fiscal Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... 23229-5014, (804) 287-1552/TDD (804) 287-1753 Washington USDA Rural Development State Office, 1835 Black...-free at (866) 632-9992 (English) or (800) 877-8339 (TTD) or (866) 377-8642 (English Federal-relay)...

  9. 29 CFR 4000.4 - Where do I file my submission?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... forms, or call our Customer Service Center (1-800-400-7242 for participants, or 1-800-736-2444 for practitioners; TTY/TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-800-877-8339 and ask to...

  10. 75 FR 70045 - Proposed Submission of Information Collections for OMB Review; Comment Request; Multiemployer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... hours. (TTY and TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-800-877-8339 and ask to be... rules are appropriate for the industry in which the plan functions and do not pose a significant risk to.... Variances for Sale of Assets (29 CFR Part 4204) (OMB control number 1212-0021) (expires April 30, 2011)...

  11. 75 FR 62420 - In the Matter of: Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice... that information on this matter can be obtained by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on...

  12. 75 FR 39971 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S... that information on this matter can be obtained by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on...

  13. 75 FR 63857 - In the Matter of: Certain Digital Televisions and Components Thereof; Notice of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Digital Televisions and Components Thereof; Notice of Investigation... this matter can be obtained by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on 202-205-1810. Persons...

  14. 75 FR 45663 - In the Matter of: Certain Inkjet Ink Supplies and Components Thereof; Corrected Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Inkjet Ink Supplies and Components Thereof; Corrected Notice of... that information on this matter can be obtained by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on...

  15. 75 FR 34483 - In the Matter of Certain Automotive Vehicles and Designs Therefore; Notice of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Automotive Vehicles and Designs Therefore; Notice of Investigation AGENCY... this matter can be obtained by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on 202-205-1810. Persons...

  16. 75 FR 51285 - In the Matter of Certain Flat Panel Digital Televisions and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Flat Panel Digital Televisions and Components Thereof; Notice of... that information on this matter can be obtained by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on...

  17. 77 FR 31837 - Information Collection; Submission for OMB Review, Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY-TDD) may call 1-800-833-3722 between 8:00 a.m. and 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time... Corps to describe their satisfaction with involvement in CNCS- supported service initiatives. CNCS... impact of serving. The information will be used to better understand participants' satisfaction with...

  18. 78 FR 76289 - Request for Information To Gather Technical Expertise Pertaining to Data Elements, Metrics, Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... increasingly expensive. The average tuition at a public four-year college has increased by more than 300... taxpayers to students; tuition has almost doubled as a share of public college revenues over the past 25... deaf (TDD) or a text telephone (TTY), call the Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll free, at...

  19. 77 FR 25893 - Federal Pell Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll free, at 1-800-877-8339... final ] regulations until October 29, 2009 (74 FR 55902). Those regulations were effective beginning... progress further in their academic pursuits, the institutions will lose some tuition and fee revenue...

  20. 75 FR 47573 - Career and Technical Education Program-Promoting Rigorous Career and Technical Education Programs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll free, at 1-800-877-8339... (75 FR 29732). That notice contained background information and our reasons for proposing the... colleges are not determined by the Department but, rather, by the States, the postsecondary...

  1. 77 FR 66087 - Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education Loan Program, and William D. Ford Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ... (TDD) or a text telephone (TTY), call the Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll free, at 1-800-877-8339... enrollment and rising tuition has contributed to a significant increase in student loan debt among Americans. The ability of recent college graduates to find immediate employment with wages adequate enough...

  2. 76 FR 66698 - Postsecondary Educational Institutions Invited To Participate in Experiments Under the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll free, at 1-800-877-8339... Sites Initiative (ESI). The first, published in the Federal Register on October 28, 2009 (74 FR 55542... vocational program at the community college or postsecondary vocational institution must provide...

  3. 78 FR 22467 - Negotiated Rulemaking Committee; Public Hearings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... (TDD) or text telephone (TTY), call the Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll free, at 1- 800-877-8339... INFORMATION: On May 1, 2012, we published a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 25658) announcing our intent... charges for tuition and fees and other educationally related costs, amending the regulations relating...

  4. 76 FR 65703 - List of Correspondence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... for the deaf (TDD), you can call the Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll free, at 1-800-877-8339... hearing officer, a local educational agency (LEA) can reach an agreement to provide tuition reimbursement...: Evaluations, Parental Consent and Reevaluations Letter dated January 6, 2011, to Lehigh University...

  5. 77 FR 6178 - FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunities: Bus and Bus Facilities Programs (State of Good...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... project will have a significant impact on service delivery. e. Planning and Prioritization at Local...Nitt, Office of Budget and Policy, (202) 366-2618, e-mail: bryce.mcnitt@dot.gov . A TDD is available at... management system. b. Planning and Local/Regional Prioritization: The extent to which the proposed project...

  6. Inferring spatial and temporal behavioral patterns of free-ranging manatees using saltwater sensors of telemetry tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castelblanco-Martínez, Delma Nataly; Morales-Vela, Benjamin; Slone, Daniel H.; Padilla-Saldívar, Janneth Adriana; Reid, James P.; Hernández-Arana, Héctor Abuid

    2015-01-01

    Diving or respiratory behavior in aquatic mammals can be used as an indicator of physiological activity and consequently, to infer behavioral patterns. Five Antillean manatees, Trichechus manatus manatus, were captured in Chetumal Bay and tagged with GPS tracking devices. The radios were equipped with a micropower saltwater sensor (SWS), which records the times when the tag assembly was submerged. The information was analyzed to establish individual fine-scale behaviors. For each fix, we established the following variables: distance (D), sampling interval (T), movement rate (D/T), number of dives (N), and total diving duration (TDD). We used logic criteria and simple scatterplots to distinguish between behavioral categories: ‘Travelling’ (D/T ≥ 3 km/h), ‘Surface’ (↓TDD, ↓N), ‘Bottom feeding’ (↑TDD, ↑N) and ‘Bottom resting’ (↑TDD, ↓N). Habitat categories were qualitatively assigned: Lagoon, Channels, Caye shore, City shore, Channel edge, and Open areas. The instrumented individuals displayed a daily rhythm of bottom activities, with surfacing activities more frequent during the night and early in the morning. More investigation into those cycles and other individual fine-scale behaviors related to their proximity to concentrations of human activity would be informative

  7. 77 FR 64127 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... persons can obtain information on this matter by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on 202-205- 1810... both the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (77 FR 39254, July 2... bar from Belarus, China, Indonesia, Poland, and Ukraine to promote administrative efficiency in...

  8. 78 FR 959 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct Full Five-Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... information on this matter by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on 202-205-1810. Persons with mobility... interested party group response to its notice of institution (77 FR 53909, September 4, 2012) was adequate... duty order on imports of certain pasta from Italy to promote administrative efficiency in light of...

  9. 76 FR 72212 - Silicomanganese From Brazil, China, and Ukraine; Notice of Commission determinations To Conduct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... 207), as amended, 76 FR 61937 (October 6, 2011). DATES: Effective Date: November 4, 2011. FOR FURTHER... matter by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on (202) 205-1810. Persons with mobility impairments... group response to its notice of institution (76 FR 45856, August 1, 2011) was adequate and that...

  10. 76 FR 72213 - Certain Lined Paper School Supplies From China, India, and Indonesia; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ..., and F (19 CFR part 207), as amended, 76 FR 61937 (October 6, 2011). DATES: Effective Date: November 4... information on this matter by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on (202) 205-1810. Persons with... the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (76 FR 45851, August 1,...

  11. 75 FR 49407 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Valuing and Paying...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Guaranty Corporation, 1200 K Street, NW., Washington, DC 20005, 202-326-4024. (TTY/TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-800-877-8339 and ask to be connected to 202-326- 4024.)...

  12. 75 FR 2437 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Valuing and Paying...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... Guaranty Corporation, 1200 K Street, NW., Washington, DC 20005, 202-326-4024. (TTY/TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-800-877-8339 and ask to be connected to 202-326- 4024.)...

  13. 77 FR 48951 - Inviting Applications for Value-Added Producer Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... funds. Awards may be made for either economic planning or working capital activities related to the... grant is $100,000 and the maximum grant amount for a working capital grant is $300,000. There is a... Building, Room 507, 200 North High Street, Columbus, OH 43215-2418, (614) 255-2400/TDD (614)...

  14. 75 FR 10455 - Information Collection; Timber Purchaser Cost and Sales Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Timber Purchaser Cost and Sales Data AGENCY... organizations on the extension of a currently approved information collection, Timber Purchaser Cost and Sales... CONTACT: Richard Fitzgerald, Timber Staff, Forest Management at 202-205-1753. Individuals who use TDD...

  15. 78 FR 78330 - Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the Maine Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the Maine Advisory Committee Date and Time: Thursday, January 9, 2014, 2:30 p.m. . ] Place: Via Teleconference. Public Dial-in 1-877-446-3914; Listen Line Code: 4558669. TDD: Dial Federal Relay Service...

  16. 78 FR 78330 - Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the New Hampshire Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the New Hampshire Advisory Committee Date and Time: Friday, January 10, 2014, 4:30 p.m. . Place: Via Teleconference. Public Dial-in 1-877-446-3914; Listen Line Code: 35378877. TDD: Dial Federal Relay Service...

  17. Analysis of nonradiative recombination mechanisms and their impacts on the device performance of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dong-Pyo; Oh, Chan-Hyoung; Zheng, Dong-Guang; Kim, Hyunsung; Shim, Jong-In; Kim, Kyu-Sang; Shin, Dong-Soo

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the nonradiative recombination mechanisms of two conventional InGaN/GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes with different threading dislocation densities (TDDs). The current-voltage, the ideality factor, and the slope of the light-versus-current curve on log scales are analyzed to distinguish the dominant nonradiative recombination mechanisms at room temperature. Through the analysis, we infer the dominant nonradiative recombination mechanisms to be the Shockley-Read-Hall process for the sample with a low TDD (˜1 × 108 cm-2) and the defect-assisted tunneling for the sample with a high TDD (˜1 × 109 cm-2). For more detailed analysis of the nonradiative recombination mechanisms and their impacts on the device performance, we execute the temperature-dependent photovoltage and temperature-dependent electroluminescence efficiency experiments. The sample with a low TDD is found to be more prone to the carrier spill-over at cryogenic temperatures due to the deactivation of point defects, while the sample with a high TDD is more robust to the operation at cryogenic temperatures owing to the relative insensitiveness of the defect-assisted tunneling to temperature.

  18. Molecular Communication Model for Targeted Drug Delivery in Multiple Disease Sites With Diversely Expressed Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Chude-Okonkwo, Uche A K; Malekian, Reza; Maharaj, B T Sunil

    2016-04-01

    Targeted drug delivery (TDD) for disease therapy using liposomes as nanocarriers has received extensive attention in the literature. The liposome's ability to incorporate capabilities such as long circulation, stimuli responsiveness, and targeting characteristics, makes it a versatile nanocarrier. Timely drug release at the targeted site requires that trigger stimuli such as pH, light, and enzymes be uniquely overexpressed at the targeted site. However, in some cases, the targeted sites may not express trigger stimuli significantly, hence, achieving effective TDD at those sites is challenging. In this paper, we present a molecular communication-based TDD model for the delivery of therapeutic drugs to multiple sites that may or may not express trigger stimuli. The nanotransmitter and nanoreceiver models for the molecular communication system are presented. Here, the nanotransmitter and nanoreceiver are injected into the targeted body system's blood network. The compartmental pharmacokinetics model is employed to model the transportation of these therapeutic nanocarriers to the targeted sites where they are meant to anchor before the delivery process commences. We also provide analytical expressions for the delivered drug concentration. The effectiveness of the proposed model is investigated for drug delivery on tissue surfaces. Results show that the effectiveness of the proposed molecular communication-based TDD depends on parameters such as the total transmitter volume capacity, the receiver radius, the diffusion characteristic of the microenvironment of the targeted sites, and the concentration of the enzymes associated with the nanotransmitter and the nanoreceiver designs.

  19. 75 FR 61631 - Marine Mammal Protection Act; Deterrence Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... written authorization or supervision. As discussed in the background section of the proposed rule (75 FR... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339... amended (ESA) (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), refer to the final listing rule published on May 15, 2008 (73...

  20. 77 FR 43813 - Information Collection; Submission for OMB Review, Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... (CNCS) has submitted a public information collection request (ICR) entitled VISTA Progress Report... to vista@americorps.gov . Individuals who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TTY-TDD) may... Notice. Description: CNCS is seeking approval of its VISTA Progress Report Supplement (VPRS) which...

  1. 77 FR 38319 - Renewal of Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... to continue, the collection of information pertaining to Federal and Indian oil and gas leasing and... telecommunication device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339... is provided for the information collection: ] Title: Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing and...

  2. 28 CFR 35.162 - Telephone emergency services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Communications § 35.162 Telephone emergency services. Telephone emergency services, including 911 services, shall provide direct access to individuals who use TDD... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Telephone emergency services....

  3. 28 CFR 35.162 - Telephone emergency services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Communications § 35.162 Telephone emergency services. Telephone emergency services, including 911 services, shall provide direct access to individuals who use TDD... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Telephone emergency services....

  4. 28 CFR 35.162 - Telephone emergency services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Communications § 35.162 Telephone emergency services. Telephone emergency services, including 911 services, shall provide direct access to individuals who use TDD... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Telephone emergency services....

  5. 28 CFR 35.162 - Telephone emergency services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Communications § 35.162 Telephone emergency services. Telephone emergency services, including 911 services, shall provide direct access to individuals who use TDD... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Telephone emergency services....

  6. 28 CFR 35.162 - Telephone emergency services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Communications § 35.162 Telephone emergency services. Telephone emergency services, including 911 services, shall provide direct access to individuals who use TDD... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Telephone emergency services....

  7. Two degree discontinuity as explained by boundary mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Minster, J.F.

    1985-09-20

    A three dimensional description of the two-degree discontinuity (TDD) in the North Atlantic western basin is made from the TTO and 1981 North Atlantic section data. In 1981 this break in the Theta-S slope of the Atlantic deep waters is found at Theta = 1.90/sup 0/C, S = 34.895 per thousand, near the western flank of the basin, and it seems to follow an isopycnal at sigma = 45.89 per thousand. It encounters the western boundary at the level of the Western Boundary Undercurrent (WBUC). Based on nutrient data, the TDD is more sharply defined along the western flank of the basin than along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where the TDD water is fresher and colder and where one finds more Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) above the discontinuity. The TDD is consistent with vertical mixing being dominantly a boundary process: along the western flank of the basin, upward mixing of AABW is stopped at the WBUC level by the strong southward flow of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Along the ridge, boundary mixing allows AABW to mix upward with waters from shallower levels. 22 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  8. High Tech and Library Access for People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roatch, Mary A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes tools that enable people with disabilities to access print information, including optical character recognition, synthetic voice output, other input devices, Braille access devices, large print displays, television and video, TDD (Telecommunications Devices for the Deaf), and Telebraille. Use of technology by libraries to meet mandates…

  9. 78 FR 5488 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management, Oregon State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days from the... State Office, 333 SW. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204, upon required payment. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION.... 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204. Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD)...

  10. 77 FR 73673 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management, Oregon State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days from the... State Office, 333 SW. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204, upon required payment. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION.... 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204. Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD)...

  11. 78 FR 29380 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management, Oregon State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days from the.... 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204, upon required payment. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kyle..., Portland, Oregon 97204. Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the...

  12. 78 FR 35313 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management, Oregon State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days from the... State Office, 333 SW 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204, upon required payment. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204. Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD)...

  13. 78 FR 44964 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management, Oregon State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days from the... Office, 333 SW. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204, upon required payment. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION.... 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204. Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD)...

  14. 78 FR 40766 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management, Oregon State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days from the.... 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204, upon required payment. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kyle..., Portland, Oregon 97204. Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the...

  15. 77 FR 37390 - Notice Inviting Informal Public Comment on Training and Technical Assistance and Disability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... appeared in the Federal Register of June 11, 2012 (75 FR 34354). That document incorrectly listed the TDD... Disability Inclusion Programming AGENCY: Corporation for National and Community Service. ACTION: Notice Inviting Informal Public Comment on Training and Technical Assistance and Disability Inclusion...

  16. 29 CFR 4000.4 - Where do I file my submission?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... forms, or call our Customer Service Center (1-800-400-7242 for participants, or 1-800-736-2444 for practitioners; TTY/TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-800-877-8339 and ask to...

  17. 29 CFR 4000.4 - Where do I file my submission?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... forms, or call our Customer Service Center (1-800-400-7242 for participants, or 1-800-736-2444 for practitioners; TTY/TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-800-877-8339 and ask to...

  18. 77 FR 49778 - Gallatin County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ..., Montana Please call ahead to 406-255-1411 to facilitate entry into the building to view comments. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mariah Leuschen, RAC Coordinator, Custer and Gallatin National Forests, (406... National Forests, (406) 587-6949. Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may...

  19. 76 FR 30094 - Central Montana Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Judith Ranger District. Please call ahead to (406) 566-2292 to facilitate entry into the building to view..., (406) 566-2292, rwiseman@fs.fed.us . Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD... , or via facsimile to (406) 566-2408. Dated: May 9, 2011. Ron B. Wiseman, District Ranger. BILLING...

  20. 76 FR 54490 - Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... part 201), and part 207, subparts A, D, E, and F (19 CFR part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR.... Hearing-impaired persons can obtain information on this matter by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal... (60 FR 35550). Following first five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission, effective June...

  1. 75 FR 8114 - In the Matter of Certain Cast Steel Railway Wheels, Processes for Manufacturing or Relating to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... can be obtained by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on (202) 205-1810. SUPPLEMENTARY... August 14, 2008, by Amsted Industries Incorporated of Chicago, Illinois (``Amsted''). 73 FR 53441-42... recommended that the ] Commission set a bond of five percent of entered value of accused products...

  2. 77 FR 60460 - Hardwood Plywood From China: Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Investigations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... value and alleged to be subsidized by the Government of China. Unless the Department of Commerce extends... persons can obtain information on this matter by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on 202-205-1810... amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly revised...

  3. 77 FR 13631 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China; Institution and Scheduling of Preliminary Phase...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... are alleged to be sold in the United States at less than fair value and alleged to be subsidized by... Commission's TDD terminal on 202-205-1810. Persons with mobility impairments who will need special assistance... amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the...

  4. 77 FR 35060 - Employment and Training Administration; Proposed Information Collection Request for the ETA 538...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... addresses section below on or before August 13, 2012. ADDRESSES: Submit written comments to Scott Gibbons... toll-free Federal Information Relay Service at 1-877-889-5627 (TTY/TDD). Email: gibbons.scott@dol.gov.... Gibbons. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The ETA 538 and ETA 539 reports are weekly reports...

  5. Potential of combined ultrasound and microneedles for enhanced transdermal drug permeation: a review.

    PubMed

    Han, Tao; Das, Diganta Bhusan

    2015-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) is limited by the outer layer of the skin, i.e., the stratum corneum. Research on TDD has become very active in the recent years and various technologies have been developed to overcome the resistance of the stratum corneum to molecular diffusion. In particular, researchers have started to consider the possibility of combining the TDD technologies in order to have further increase in drug permeability. Both microneedles (MNs) and ultrasound are promising technologies. They achieve enhancement in drug permeation via different mechanisms and therefore give a good potential for combining with each other. This review will focus on discussing the potential of this combinational technique along with other important issues, e.g., the mechanisms of ultrasound and MNs as it is and these mechanisms which are coupled via the two systems (i.e. MNs and ultrasound). We discuss the possible ways to achieve this combination as well as how this combination would increase the permeability. Some of the undeveloped (weaker) research areas of MNs and sonophoresis are also discussed in order to understand the true potential of combining the two technologies when they are developed further in the future. We propose several hypothetical combinations based on the possible mechanisms involved in MNs and ultrasound. Furthermore, we carry out a cluster analysis by which we determine the significance of this combinational method in comparison with some other selected combinational methods for TDD (e.g., MNs and iontophoresis). Using a time series analysis tool (ARIMA model), the current trend and the future development of combined MNs and ultrasound are also analysed. Overall, the review in this paper indicates that combining MNs and ultrasound is a promising TDD method for the future.

  6. The Discoidin I Gene Family of Dictyostelium Discoideum Is Linked to Genes Regulating Its Expression

    PubMed Central

    Welker, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    The discoidin I protein has been studied extensively as a marker of early development in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. However, like most other developmentally regulated proteins in this system, no reliable information was available on the linkage of the discoidin genes to other known genes. Analysis of the linkage of the discoidin I genes by use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms revealed that all three discoidin I genes as well as a pseudogene are located on linkage group II. This evidence is consistent with the discoidin I genes forming a gene cluster that may be under the control of a single regulatory element. The discoidin I genes are linked to three genetic loci (disA, motA, daxA) that affect the expression of the discoidin I protein. Linkage of the gene family members to regulatory loci may be important in the coordinate maintenance of the gene family and regulatory loci. A duplication affecting the entire discoidin gene family is also linked to group II; this appears to be a small tandem duplication. This duplication was mapped using a DNA polymorphism generated by insertion of the Tdd-3 mobile genetic element into a Tdd-2 element flanking the γ gene. A probe for Tdd-2 identified a restriction fragment length polymorphism in strain AX3K that was consistent with generation by a previously proposed Tdd-3 insertion event. A putative duplication or rearrangement of a second Tdd-2 element on linkage group IV of strain AX3K was also identified. This is the first linkage information available for mobile genetic elements in D. discoideum. PMID:3402731

  7. Directional Poincaré inequalities along mixing flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinerberger, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    We provide a refinement of the Poincaré inequality on the torus {T}d: there exists a set {B} subset {T} d of directions such that for every α in {B} there is a c_{α } > 0 with |nabla f|_{L2({T}d)}^{d-1} | < nabla f, α rangle |_{L2({T}d)} ≥ c_{α }|f| _{L2({T}d)}d quad for all fin H1bigl( {T}dbigr) with mean 0. The derivative < nabla f, α rangle does not detect any oscillation in directions orthogonal to α , however, for certain α the geodesic flow in direction α is sufficiently mixing to compensate for that defect. On the two-dimensional torus {T}2 the inequality holds for α = (1, √{2}) but is not true for α = (1,e). Similar results should hold at a great level of generality on very general domains.

  8. Control unit implementation for a reconfigurable ADC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojcevski, Aleksandar; Vibhute, Vidya; Singh, Jugdutt; Zayegh, Aladin

    2004-03-01

    A control unit has been proposed, which is used to reconfigure a pipeline ADC for a mobile terminal receiver that can drastically reduce the power dissipation dependent on adjacent channel interference. The proposed design automatically scales the word length by monitoring the quantization noise along the in-band and out-of-bands powers in the UTRA-TDD spectrum. The new ADC performance was evaluated in a simulation UTRA-TDD environment because of the large near far problem caused by adjacent channel interference from adjacent mobiles and base stations. Results show that by using the control unit to reconfigure the ADC, up to 88% power dissipation could be saved, when compared to a fixed 16 bits ADC without the use of the control unit. This will prolong talk and standby time in a moble terminal.

  9. Association between Total Daily Doses with duration of hospitalization among readmitted patients in a multi-ethnic Asian population

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Vivien; Toh, Ming Ren; Kwan, Yu Heng; Raaj, Sreemanee; Tan, Su-Yin Doreen; Tan, Joyce Zhen Yin

    2015-01-01

    Increased length of stay (LOS) in the hospital incurs substantial financial costs on the healthcare system. Multiple factors are associated with LOS. However, few studies have been done to associate the impact of Total Daily Doses (TDD) and LOS. Hence, the aim of this study is to examine the association between patients’ LOS upon readmission and their TDD before readmission. A retrospective cross-sectional study of readmission cases occurring from 1st January to 31st March 2013 was conducted at a regional hospital. Demographics and clinical variables were collected using electronic medical databases. Univariable and multiple linear regressions were used. Confounders such as comorbidities and drug related problems (DRP) were controlled for in this study. There were 432 patients and 649 readmissions examined. The average TDD and LOS were 18.04 ± 8.16 and 7.63 days ± 7.08 respectively. In the univariable analysis, variables that were significantly associated with the LOS included age above 75 year-old, race, comorbidity, number of comorbidities, number of medications, TDD and thrombocytopenia as DRPs. In the multiple linear regression, there was a statistically significant association between TDD (β = 0.0733, p = 0.030) and LOS. Variables that were found significant were age above 75 year-old (β = 1.5477, p = 0.008), Malay (β = −1.5123, p = 0.033), other races (β = −2.6174, p = 0.007), depression (β = 2.1551, p = 0.031) and thrombocytopenia as a type of DRP (β = 7.5548, p = 0.027). When TDD was replaced with number of medications, number of medications (β = 0.1487, p = 0.021), age of 75 year-old (β = 1.5303, p = 0.009), Malay (β = −1.4687, p = 0.038), race of others (β = −2.6499, p = 0.007), depression (β = 2.1951, p = 0.028) and thrombocytopenia as a type of DRP (β = 7.5260, p = 0.028) were significant. In conclusion, a significant relationship between TDD and number of medications before

  10. Structural properties of relaxed thin film germanium layers grown by low temperature RF-PECVD epitaxy on Si and Ge (100) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Cariou, R.; Ruggeri, R.; Tan, X.; Nassar, J.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.; Mannino, Giovanni

    2014-07-15

    We report on unusual low temperature (175 °C) heteroepitaxial growth of germanium thin films using a standard radio-frequency plasma process. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal a perfect crystalline quality of epitaxial germanium layers on (100) c-Ge wafers. In addition direct germanium crystal growth is achieved on (100) c-Si, despite 4.2% lattice mismatch. Defects rising from Ge/Si interface are mostly located within the first tens of nanometers, and threading dislocation density (TDD) values as low as 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2} are obtained. Misfit stress is released fast: residual strain of −0.4% is calculated from Moiré pattern analysis. Moreover we demonstrate a striking feature of low temperature plasma epitaxy, namely the fact that crystalline quality improves with thickness without epitaxy breakdown, as shown by TEM and depth profiling of surface TDD.

  11. 76 FR 6122 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Board may do so in writing or in person. Individuals may submit written comments to esamose@cns.gov... notify Ida Green at igreen@cns.gov or 202- 606-6861 by 5 p.m., February 4, 2011. CONTACT PERSON FOR MORE... (202) 606-3460. TDD: (202) 606-3472. E-mail: esamose@cns.gov . Dated: February 1, 2011. Wilsie Y....

  12. 76 FR 77270 - Proposed Submission of Information Collection for OMB Review; Comment Request; Annual Financial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Federal relay service toll-free at 1-(800) 877- 8339 and ask to be connected to (202) 326-4040.) FOR...; (202) 326-4024. (TTY/TDD users may call the Federal relay service toll-free at 1-(800) 877-8339 and ask... resources on situations that pose the greatest risk to the system. Because other sources of information...

  13. Test Driven Development: Lessons from a Simple Scientific Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clune, T. L.; Kuo, K.

    2010-12-01

    In the commercial software industry, unit testing frameworks have emerged as a disruptive technology that has permanently altered the process by which software is developed. Unit testing frameworks significantly reduce traditional barriers, both practical and psychological, to creating and executing tests that verify software implementations. A new development paradigm, known as test driven development (TDD), has emerged from unit testing practices, in which low-level tests (i.e. unit tests) are created by developers prior to implementing new pieces of code. Although somewhat counter-intuitive, this approach actually improves developer productivity. In addition to reducing the average time for detecting software defects (bugs), the requirement to provide procedure interfaces that enable testing frequently leads to superior design decisions. Although TDD is widely accepted in many software domains, its applicability to scientific modeling still warrants reasonable skepticism. While the technique is clearly relevant for infrastructure layers of scientific models such as the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF), numerical and scientific components pose a number of challenges to TDD that are not often encountered in commercial software. Nonetheless, our experience leads us to believe that the technique has great potential not only for developer productivity, but also as a tool for understanding and documenting the basic scientific assumptions upon which our models are implemented. We will provide a brief introduction to test driven development and then discuss our experience in using TDD to implement a relatively simple numerical model that simulates the growth of snowflakes. Many of the lessons learned are directly applicable to larger scientific models.

  14. Prototyping scalable digital signal processing systems for radio astronomy using dataflow models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sane, N.; Ford, J.; Harris, A. I.; Bhattacharyya, S. S.

    2012-05-01

    There is a growing trend toward using high-level tools for design and implementation of radio astronomy digital signal processing (DSP) systems. Such tools, for example, those from the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER), are usually platform-specific, and lack high-level, platform-independent, portable, scalable application specifications. This limits the designer's ability to experiment with designs at a high-level of abstraction and early in the development cycle. We address some of these issues using a model-based design approach employing dataflow models. We demonstrate this approach by applying it to the design of a tunable digital downconverter (TDD) used for narrow-bandwidth spectroscopy. Our design is targeted toward an FPGA platform, called the Interconnect Break-out Board (IBOB), that is available from the CASPER. We use the term TDD to refer to a digital downconverter for which the decimation factor and center frequency can be reconfigured without the need for regenerating the hardware code. Such a design is currently not available in the CASPER DSP library. The work presented in this paper focuses on two aspects. First, we introduce and demonstrate a dataflow-based design approach using the dataflow interchange format (DIF) tool for high-level application specification, and we integrate this approach with the CASPER tool flow. Secondly, we explore the trade-off between the flexibility of TDD designs and the low hardware cost of fixed-configuration digital downconverter (FDD) designs that use the available CASPER DSP library. We further explore this trade-off in the context of a two-stage downconversion scheme employing a combination of TDD or FDD designs.

  15. Towards Test Driven Development for Computational Science with pFUnit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rilee, Michael L.; Clune, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Developers working in Computational Science & Engineering (CSE)/High Performance Computing (HPC) must contend with constant change due to advances in computing technology and science. Test Driven Development (TDD) is a methodology that mitigates software development risks due to change at the cost of adding comprehensive and continuous testing to the development process. Testing frameworks tailored for CSE/HPC, like pFUnit, can lower the barriers to such testing, yet CSE software faces unique constraints foreign to the broader software engineering community. Effective testing of numerical software requires a comprehensive suite of oracles, i.e., use cases with known answers, as well as robust estimates for the unavoidable numerical errors associated with implementation with finite-precision arithmetic. At first glance these concerns often seem exceedingly challenging or even insurmountable for real-world scientific applications. However, we argue that this common perception is incorrect and driven by (1) a conflation between model validation and software verification and (2) the general tendency in the scientific community to develop relatively coarse-grained, large procedures that compound numerous algorithmic steps.We believe TDD can be applied routinely to numerical software if developers pursue fine-grained implementations that permit testing, neatly side-stepping concerns about needing nontrivial oracles as well as the accumulation of errors. We present an example of a successful, complex legacy CSE/HPC code whose development process shares some aspects with TDD, which we contrast with current and potential capabilities. A mix of our proposed methodology and framework support should enable everyday use of TDD by CSE-expert developers.

  16. 47 CFR 64.601 - Definitions and provisions of general applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in 47 CFR 64.3000; the terms pseudo-ANI and Wireline E911 Network are defined in 47 CFR 9.3; the term affiliate is defined in 47 CFR 52.12(a)(1)(i), and the terms majority and debt are defined in 47 CFR 52.12(a... interprets conversation between two or more end users of TRS. CA supersedes the term “TDD operator.”...

  17. Role of substrate quality on the performance of semipolar ( 11 2 ¯ 2 ) InGaN light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Duc V.; Corbett, Brian; Parbrook, Peter J.; Koslow, Ingrid. L.; Rychetsky, Monir; Guttmann, Martin; Wernicke, Tim; Kneissl, Michael; Mounir, Christian; Schwarz, Ulrich; Glaab, Johannes; Netzel, Carsten; Brunner, Frank; Weyers, Markus

    2016-10-01

    We compare the optical properties and device performance of unpackaged InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting at ˜430 nm grown simultaneously on a high-cost small-size bulk semipolar ( 11 2 ¯ 2 ) GaN substrate (Bulk-GaN) and a low-cost large-size ( 11 2 ¯ 2 ) GaN template created on patterned ( 10 1 ¯ 2 ) r-plane sapphire substrate (PSS-GaN). The Bulk-GaN substrate has the threading dislocation density (TDD) of ˜105 cm-2-106 cm-2 and basal-plane stacking fault (BSF) density of 0 cm-1, while the PSS-GaN substrate has the TDD of ˜2 × 108 cm-2 and BSF density of ˜1 × 103 cm-1. Despite an enhanced light extraction efficiency, the LED grown on PSS-GaN has two-times lower internal quantum efficiency than the LED grown on Bulk-GaN as determined by photoluminescence measurements. The LED grown on PSS-GaN substrate also has about two-times lower output power compared to the LED grown on Bulk-GaN substrate. This lower output power was attributed to the higher TDD and BSF density.

  18. Decentralized Dynamic Sub-Carrier Assignment for OFDMA-Based Adhoc and Cellular Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Van-Duc; Haas, Harald; Kyamakya, Kyandoghere; Chedjou, Jean-Chamerlain; Nguyen, Tien-Hoa; Yoon, Seokho; Choo, Hyunseung

    In this paper, a novel decentralised dynamic sub-carrier assignment (DSA) algorithm for orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA)-based adhoc and cellular networks operating in time division duplexing (TDD) mode is proposed to solve the hidden and exposed node problem in media access control (MAC). This method reduces the co-channel interference (CCI), and thus increases the overall throughput of the network. Reduced CCI and increased throughput can be achieved, if time and frequency selectivity of the multi-path fading channel and the channel reciprocity offered by the TDD are fully exploited. The time and frequency selectivity of the channel are usually the main problem in mobile communication. However, in the context of channel assignment for OFDMA-based networks in TDD mode, the time and frequency selectivity of the channel are the key to reduce the interference. In the proposed channel assignment mechanism, several clusters of sub-carriers are assigned for data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver only if the corresponding channels of those sub-carriers linking this transmitter to potential victim receivers are deeply faded. In addition, the proposed algorithm works in a fully decentralised fashion and, therefore, it is able to effectively support ad hoc and multihop communication as well as network self-organisation. Numerical results show that the throughput obtained by the proposed approach for a given quality of service is higher than those of the conventional methods in any precondition of adhoc geographic scenario.

  19. Uplink scheduling and adjacent-channel coupling loss analysis for TD-LTE deployment.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    TD-LTE, one of the two duplexing modes in LTE, operates in unpaired spectrum and has the advantages of TDD-based technologies. It is expected that TD-LTE will be more rapidly deployed in near future and most of WiMax operators will upgrade their networks to TD-LTE gradually. Before completely upgrading to TD-LTE, WiMax may coexist with TD-LTE in an adjacent frequency band. In addition, multiple TD-LTE operators may deploy their networks in adjacent bands. When more than one TDD network operates in adjacent frequency bands, severe interference may happen due to adjacent channel interference (ACI) and unsynchronized operations. In this paper, coexistence issues between TD-LTE and other systems are analyzed and coexistence requirements are provided. This paper has three research objectives. First, frame synchronization between TD-LTE and WiMax is discussed by investigating possible combinations of TD-LTE and WiMax configurations. Second, an uplink scheduling algorithm is proposed to utilize a leakage pattern of ACI in synchronized operations. Third, minimum requirements for coexistence in unsynchronized operations are analyzed by introducing a concept of adjacent-channel coupling loss. From the analysis and simulation results, we can see that coexistence of TD-LTE with other TDD systems is feasible if the two networks are synchronized. For the unsynchronized case, some special cell-site engineering techniques may be required to reduce the ACI. PMID:24707214

  20. The comparison of the efficacy of radiofrequency nucleoplasty and targeted disc decompression in lumbar radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Adakli, Barıs; Turhan, K. Sanem Cakar; Asik, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Chronic low back pain is a common clinical condition causing medical, socioeconomic, and treatment difficulties. In our study, we aimed to compare early and long-term efficacy of lumbar radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RFTC) nucleoplasty and targeted disc decompression (TDD) in patients with lumbar radiculopathy in whom previous conventional therapy had failed. The medical records of 37 patients undergoing TDD and 36 patients undergoing lumbar RFTC nucleoplasty were retrospectively examined and assigned to the Group D and Group N, respectively. In all patients Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Functional Rating Index (FRI) were recorded before treatment and after one, six and twelve months after the procedure. The North American Spine Society Satisfaction Scale (NASSSS) was also recoreded twelve months after the therapeutic procedure. Statistically significant postprocedural improvement in VAS and FRI was evident in both groups. VAS scores after one, six, and twelve month were slightly higher in Group N, compared to Group D. The overall procedure-related patient satisfaction ratio was 67.5% in the Group D, compared to 75% in the Group N. Regardless of the different mechanism of action, both methods are effective therapies for lumbar radiculopathy, with TDD showing long-term lower pain scores. PMID:26042514

  1. Grouped and Multistep Nanoheteroepitaxy: Toward High-Quality GaN on Quasi-Periodic Nano-Mask.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaohui; Yu, Tongjun; Wei, Yang; Ji, Cheng; Cheng, Yutian; Zong, Hua; Wang, Kun; Yang, Zhijian; Kang, Xiangning; Zhang, Guoyi; Fan, Shoushan

    2016-07-20

    A novel nanoheteroepitaxy method, namely, the grouped and multistep nanoheteroepitaxy (GM-NHE), is proposed to attain a high-quality gallium nitride (GaN) epilayer by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. This method combines the effects of sub-100 nm nucleation and multistep lateral growth by using a low-cost but unique carbon nanotube mask, which consists of nanoscale growth windows with a quasi-periodic 2D fill factor. It is found that GM-NHE can facilely reduce threading dislocation density (TDD) and modulate residual stress on foreign substrate without any regrowth. As a result, high-quality GaN epilayer is produced with homogeneously low TDD of 4.51 × 10(7) cm(-2) and 2D-modulated stress, and the performance of the subsequent 410 nm near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode is greatly boosted. In this way, with the facile fabrication of nanomask and the one-off epitaxy procedure, GaN epilayer is prominently improved with the assistance of nanotechnology, which demonstrates great application potential for high-efficiency TDD-sensitive optoelectronic and electronic devices. PMID:27351723

  2. Uplink scheduling and adjacent-channel coupling loss analysis for TD-LTE deployment.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    TD-LTE, one of the two duplexing modes in LTE, operates in unpaired spectrum and has the advantages of TDD-based technologies. It is expected that TD-LTE will be more rapidly deployed in near future and most of WiMax operators will upgrade their networks to TD-LTE gradually. Before completely upgrading to TD-LTE, WiMax may coexist with TD-LTE in an adjacent frequency band. In addition, multiple TD-LTE operators may deploy their networks in adjacent bands. When more than one TDD network operates in adjacent frequency bands, severe interference may happen due to adjacent channel interference (ACI) and unsynchronized operations. In this paper, coexistence issues between TD-LTE and other systems are analyzed and coexistence requirements are provided. This paper has three research objectives. First, frame synchronization between TD-LTE and WiMax is discussed by investigating possible combinations of TD-LTE and WiMax configurations. Second, an uplink scheduling algorithm is proposed to utilize a leakage pattern of ACI in synchronized operations. Third, minimum requirements for coexistence in unsynchronized operations are analyzed by introducing a concept of adjacent-channel coupling loss. From the analysis and simulation results, we can see that coexistence of TD-LTE with other TDD systems is feasible if the two networks are synchronized. For the unsynchronized case, some special cell-site engineering techniques may be required to reduce the ACI.

  3. Potential of Essential Oils as Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Administration of Ibuprofen to Treat Dysmenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Jiang, Qiu-Dong; Wu, Ye-Ming; Liu, Pei; Yao, Jun-Hong; Lu, Qing; Zhang, Hui; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2015-10-07

    The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare five essential oils (EOs) as penetration enhancers (PEs) to improve the transdermal drug delivery (TDD) of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhoea. The EOs were prepared using the steam distillation method and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. The corresponding cytotoxicities were evaluated in epidermal keartinocyte HaCaT cell lines by an MTT assay. Furthermore, the percutaneous permeation studies were carried out to compare the permeation enhancement effect of EOs. Then the therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen with EOs was evaluated using dysmenorrheal model mice. The data supports a decreasing trend of skin cell viability in which Clove oil >Angelica oil > Chuanxiong oil > Cyperus oil > Cinnamon oil > Azone. Chuanxiong oil and Angelica oil had been proved to possess a significant permeation enhancement for TDD of ibuprofen. More importantly, the pain inhibitory intensity of ibuprofen hydrogel was demonstrated to be greater with Chuanxiong oil when compared to ibuprofen without EOs (p < 0.05). The contents of calcium ion and nitric oxide (NO) were also significantly changed after the addition of Chuanxiong oil (p < 0.05). In summary, we suggest that Chuanxiong oil should be viewed as the best PE for TDD of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhea.

  4. Uplink Scheduling and Adjacent-Channel Coupling Loss Analysis for TD-LTE Deployment

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Moon, Sung Ho

    2014-01-01

    TD-LTE, one of the two duplexing modes in LTE, operates in unpaired spectrum and has the advantages of TDD-based technologies. It is expected that TD-LTE will be more rapidly deployed in near future and most of WiMax operators will upgrade their networks to TD-LTE gradually. Before completely upgrading to TD-LTE, WiMax may coexist with TD-LTE in an adjacent frequency band. In addition, multiple TD-LTE operators may deploy their networks in adjacent bands. When more than one TDD network operates in adjacent frequency bands, severe interference may happen due to adjacent channel interference (ACI) and unsynchronized operations. In this paper, coexistence issues between TD-LTE and other systems are analyzed and coexistence requirements are provided. This paper has three research objectives. First, frame synchronization between TD-LTE and WiMax is discussed by investigating possible combinations of TD-LTE and WiMax configurations. Second, an uplink scheduling algorithm is proposed to utilize a leakage pattern of ACI in synchronized operations. Third, minimum requirements for coexistence in unsynchronized operations are analyzed by introducing a concept of adjacent-channel coupling loss. From the analysis and simulation results, we can see that coexistence of TD-LTE with other TDD systems is feasible if the two networks are synchronized. For the unsynchronized case, some special cell-site engineering techniques may be required to reduce the ACI. PMID:24707214

  5. Adopting the Test-Driven Development to Developing Numerical Weather Prediction Model by Using the pFUnit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, S. Y.; Kim, J.; Song, I. S.

    2014-12-01

    Modern Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model is a complex software that consists of scientific and computational components over multiple software layers. Development of NWP model is complicated process bringing many risks arise from the software complexity and long-term developing period. The software engineering suggests that software testing is a requisite for developing the complex software because it can improve software quality and reduce risk. In particular, the Test-Driven Development (TDD) is known to the useful way in software testing enable to develop more productive software with writing more unit-tests. We utilize the pFUnit, which is the unit testing framework for Fortran with MPI extensions under the NASA open source license, for adopting TDD to developing the KIAPS-GM (Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems-Global Model) framework. It is known that the pFUnit offers a convenient, lightweight mechanism for Fortran developers to create and run software tests that specify the desired behavior for a given piece of code. Our implementation of TDD with the pFUnit will be presented with test suite and unit-tests for infrastructure of the KIAPS-GM framework.

  6. Grouped and Multistep Nanoheteroepitaxy: Toward High-Quality GaN on Quasi-Periodic Nano-Mask.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaohui; Yu, Tongjun; Wei, Yang; Ji, Cheng; Cheng, Yutian; Zong, Hua; Wang, Kun; Yang, Zhijian; Kang, Xiangning; Zhang, Guoyi; Fan, Shoushan

    2016-07-20

    A novel nanoheteroepitaxy method, namely, the grouped and multistep nanoheteroepitaxy (GM-NHE), is proposed to attain a high-quality gallium nitride (GaN) epilayer by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. This method combines the effects of sub-100 nm nucleation and multistep lateral growth by using a low-cost but unique carbon nanotube mask, which consists of nanoscale growth windows with a quasi-periodic 2D fill factor. It is found that GM-NHE can facilely reduce threading dislocation density (TDD) and modulate residual stress on foreign substrate without any regrowth. As a result, high-quality GaN epilayer is produced with homogeneously low TDD of 4.51 × 10(7) cm(-2) and 2D-modulated stress, and the performance of the subsequent 410 nm near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode is greatly boosted. In this way, with the facile fabrication of nanomask and the one-off epitaxy procedure, GaN epilayer is prominently improved with the assistance of nanotechnology, which demonstrates great application potential for high-efficiency TDD-sensitive optoelectronic and electronic devices.

  7. Surface microanalysis and chemical imaging of early dentin remineralization.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Manuel; Cabello, Inmaculada; Vílchez, Miguel Angel Cabrerizo; Fernández, Miguel Angel; Osorio, Raquel

    2014-02-01

    This study reports physical and chemical changes that occur at early dentin remineralization stages. Extracted human third molars were sectioned to obtain dentin discs. After polishing the dentin surfaces, three groups were established: (1) untreated dentin (UD), (2) 37% phosphoric acid application for 15 s (partially demineralized dentin-PDD), and (3) 10% phosphoric acid for 12 h at 25° C (totally demineralized dentin-TDD). Five different remineralizing solutions were used: chlorhexidine (CHX), artificial saliva (AS), phosphate solution (PS), ZnCl2, and ZnO. Wettability (contact angle), ζ potential and Raman spectroscopy analysis were determined on dentin surfaces. Demineralization of dentin resulted in a higher contact angle. Wettability decreased after immersion in all solutions. ζ potential analysis showed dissimilar performance ranging from -6.21 mV (TDD + AS) up to 3.02 mV (PDD + PS). Raman analysis showed an increase in mineral components after immersing the dentin specimens, in terms of crystallinity, mineral content, and concentration. This confirmed the optimal incorporation and deposition of mineral on dentin collagen. Organic content reflected scarce changes, except in TDD that appeared partially denatured. Pyridinium, as an expression of cross-linking, appeared in all spectra except in specimens immersed in PS. PMID:24160361

  8. Potential of Essential Oils as Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Administration of Ibuprofen to Treat Dysmenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Jiang, Qiu-Dong; Wu, Ye-Ming; Liu, Pei; Yao, Jun-Hong; Lu, Qing; Zhang, Hui; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare five essential oils (EOs) as penetration enhancers (PEs) to improve the transdermal drug delivery (TDD) of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhoea. The EOs were prepared using the steam distillation method and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. The corresponding cytotoxicities were evaluated in epidermal keartinocyte HaCaT cell lines by an MTT assay. Furthermore, the percutaneous permeation studies were carried out to compare the permeation enhancement effect of EOs. Then the therapeutic efficacy of ibuprofen with EOs was evaluated using dysmenorrheal model mice. The data supports a decreasing trend of skin cell viability in which Clove oil >Angelica oil > Chuanxiong oil > Cyperus oil > Cinnamon oil > Azone. Chuanxiong oil and Angelica oil had been proved to possess a significant permeation enhancement for TDD of ibuprofen. More importantly, the pain inhibitory intensity of ibuprofen hydrogel was demonstrated to be greater with Chuanxiong oil when compared to ibuprofen without EOs (p < 0.05). The contents of calcium ion and nitric oxide (NO) were also significantly changed after the addition of Chuanxiong oil (p < 0.05). In summary, we suggest that Chuanxiong oil should be viewed as the best PE for TDD of ibuprofen to treat dysmenorrhea. PMID:26457698

  9. Performance of transdermal therapeutic systems: Effects of biological factors

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Inderjeet; Morris, Andrew Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) is a technique that is used to deliver a drug into the systemic circulation across the skin. This mechanism of drug delivery route has many advantages, including steady drug plasma concentrations, improved patient compliance, elimination of hepatic first pass, and degradation in the gastrointestinal tract. Over the last 30 years, many transdermal products have been launched in the market. Despite the inherent advantages of TDD and the growing list of transdermal products, one of the major drawbacks to TDD is the occurrence of inter- and intraindividual variation in the absorption of the drug across the skin. A majority of these variations are caused by biological factors, such as gender, age, ethnicity, and skin hydration and metabolism. These factors affect the integrity and the barrier qualities of the skin, which subsequently result in the variation in the amount of drug absorbed. The main objective of this review article is to provide a concise commentary on the biological factors that contribute to the variation in transdermal permeation of drugs across human skin and the available transdermal therapeutic systems that may reduce the variations caused by biological factors. PMID:23071913

  10. GaN-Ready Aluminum Nitride Substrates for Cost-Effective, Very Low Dislocation Density III-Nitride LED's

    SciTech Connect

    Sandra Schujman; Leo Schowalter

    2010-10-15

    The objective of this project was to develop and then demonstrate the efficacy of a costeffective approach for a low defect density substrate on which AlInGaN LEDs can be fabricated. The efficacy of this “GaN-ready” substrate would then be tested by growing high efficiency, long lifetime InxGa1-xN blue LEDs. The approach used to meet the project objectives was to start with low dislocation density AlN single-crystal substrates and grow graded AlxGa1-xN layers on top. Pseudomorphic AlxGa1-xN epitaxial layers grown on bulk AlN substrates were used to fabricate light emitting diodes and demonstrate better device performance as a result of the low defect density in these layers when benched marked against state-of-the-art LEDs fabricated on sapphire substrates. The pseudomorphic LEDs showed excellent output powers compared to similar wavelength devices grown on sapphire substrates, with lifetimes exceeding 10,000 hours (which was the longest time that could reliably be estimated). In addition, high internal quantum efficiencies were demonstrated at high driving current densities even though the external quantum efficiencies were low due to poor photon extraction. Unfortunately, these pseudomorphic LEDs require high Al content so they emit in the ultraviolet. Sapphire based LEDs typically have threading dislocation densities (TDD) > 108 cm-2 while the pseudomorphic LEDs have TDD ≤ 105 cm-2. The resulting TDD, when grading the AlxGa1-xN layer all the way to pure GaN to produce a “GaN-ready” substrate, has varied between the mid 108 down to the 106 cm-2. These inconsistencies are not well understood. Finally, an approach to improve the LED structures on AlN substrates for light extraction efficiency was developed by thinning and roughening the substrate.

  11. Sustained efficacy of insulin pump therapy compared with multiple daily injections in type 2 diabetes: 12‐month data from the OpT2mise randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Reznik, Y.; Conget, I.; Castañeda, J. A.; Runzis, S.; Lee, S. W.; Cohen, O.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To compare insulin pump therapy and multiple daily injections (MDI) in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving basal and prandial insulin analogues. Methods After a 2‐month dose‐optimization period, 331 patients with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels ≥8.0% and ≤12% were randomized to pump therapy or continued MDI for 6 months [randomization phase (RP)]. The MDI group was subsequently switched to pump therapy during a 6‐month continuation phase (CP). The primary endpoint was the between‐group difference in change in mean HbA1c from baseline to the end of the RP. Results The mean HbA1c at baseline was 9% in both groups. At the end of the RP, the reduction in HbA1c was significantly greater with pump therapy than with MDI (−1.1 ± 1.2% vs −0.4 ± 1.1%; p < 0.001). The pump therapy group maintained this improvement to 12 months while the MDI group, which was switched to pump therapy, showed a 0.8% reduction: the final HbA1c level was identical in both arms. In the RP, total daily insulin dose (TDD) was 20.4% lower with pump therapy than with MDI and remained stable in the CP. The MDI–pump group showed a 19% decline in TDD, such that by 12 months TDD was equivalent in both groups. There were no differences in weight gain or ketoacidosis between groups. In the CP, one patient in each group experienced severe hypoglycaemia. Conclusions Pump therapy has a sustained durable effect on glycaemic control in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. PMID:26854123

  12. Natural substrate lift-off technique for vertical light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chia-Yu; Lan, Yu-Pin; Tu, Po-Min; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Lin, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Chi, Gou-Chung; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2014-04-01

    Hexagonal inverted pyramid (HIP) structures and the natural substrate lift-off (NSLO) technique were demonstrated on a GaN-based vertical light-emitting diode (VLED). The HIP structures were formed at the interface between GaN and the sapphire substrate by molten KOH wet etching. The threading dislocation density (TDD) estimated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was reduced to 1 × 108 cm-2. Raman spectroscopy indicated that the compressive strain from the bottom GaN/sapphire was effectively released through the HIP structure. With the adoption of the HIP structure and NSLO, the light output power and yield performance of leakage current could be further improved.

  13. Influence of semi-volatile aerosol on physical and optical properties of aerosol in Kathmandu valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Sujan; Praveen, Ps; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Shrestha, Kundan; Panday, Arnico

    2016-04-01

    A field study was conducted in the urban atmosphere of Kathmandu valley to study the influence of the semi-volatile aerosol fraction on physical and optical properties of aerosols. The study was carried out during the 2015 pre-monsoon period. Experimental setup consisted of air from an ambient air inlet being split to two sets of identical sampling instruments. The first instrument received the ambient sample directly, while the second instrument received the air sample through a thermodenuder (TDD). Four sets of experiments were conducted to understand aerosol number, size distribution, scattering and absorption properties using Condensation Particle Counter (CPC), Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), Aethalometer (AE33) and Nephelometer. The influence of semi-volatile aerosols was calculated from the fraction of particles evaporated in the TDD at set temparetures: room temperature, 50°C, 100°C, 150°C, 200°C, 250°C and 300°C. Results show that, with increasing temperature, the evaporated fraction of semi-volatile aerosol also increased. At room temperature the fraction of semi-volatile aerosols was 12% while at 300°C it was as high as to 49%. Aerosol size distribution analysis shows that with an increase in TDD temperature from 50°C to 300°C, peak mobility diameter of particles shifted from around 60nm to 40nm. However we found little change in effective diameter of aerosol size distribution with increase in set TDD temperature. The change in size of aerosols due to loss of semi-volatile component has a stronger influence (~70%) in higher size bins when compared to at lower size bins (~20%). Studies using the AE33 showed that absorption by black carbon (BC) is amplified due to influence of semi-volatile aerosols by upto 37% at 880nm wavelength. Similarly nephelometer measurements showed that upto 71% of total scattering was found to be contributed by semi-volatile aerosol fraction. The scattering Angstrom Exponent (SAE) of semi-volatile aerosol

  14. Biological Nitrogen Removal through Nitritation Coupled with Thiosulfate-Driven Denitritation

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jin; Zhou, Junmei; Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Rulong; Wang, Qilin

    2016-01-01

    A novel biological nitrogen removal system based on nitritation coupled with thiosulfate-driven denitritation (Nitritation-TDD) was developed to achieve a high nitrogen removal rate and low sludge production. A nitritation sequential batch reactor (nitritation SBR) and an anoxic up-flow sludge bed (AnUSB) reactor were applied for effective nitritation and denitritation, respectively. Above 75% nitrite was accumulated in the nitritation SBR with an influent ammonia loading rate of 0.43 kg N/d/m3. During Nitritation-TDD operation, particle sizes (d50) of the sludge decreased from 406 to 225 um in nitritation SBR and from 327–183 um in AnUSB reactor. Pyrosequencing tests revealed that ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) population was stabilized at approximately 7.0% (calculated as population of AOB-related genus divided by the total microbial population) in the nitritation SBR. In contrast, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) population decreased from 6.5–0.6% over the same time, indicating the effective nitrite accumulation in the nitritation SBR. Thiobacillus, accounting for 34.2% in the AnUSB reactor, was mainly responsible for nitrogen removal via autotrophic denitritation, using an external source of thiosulfate as electron donor. Also, it was found that free nitrous acid could directly affect the denitritation activity. PMID:27272192

  15. Applicator for in-vitro ultrasound-activated targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerold, B.; Gourevich, D.; Volovick, A.; Xu, D.; Arditti, F.; Prentice, P.; Cochran, S.; Gnaim, J.; Medan, Y.; Wang, L.; Melzer, A.

    2012-10-01

    Reducing toxicity and improving uptake of cancer drugs in tumors are important goals of targeted drug delivery (TDD). Ultrasonic drug release from various encapsulants has been a focus of many research groups. However, a single standard ultrasonic device, viable for use by biologists, is not currently present in the market. The device reported here is designed to allow investigation of the impact of ultrasound on cellular uptake and cell viability in-vitro. In it, single-element transducers with different operating frequencies are mounted below a standard 96-well plate. The plate is moved above the transducers, such that each line of wells can be sonicated at a different frequency. To assess the device, 96-well plates were seeded with cells and sonicated using different ultrasonic parameters, with and without doxorubicin. Cell viability was measured by colorimetric MTT assay and the uptake of doxorubicin by cells was also determined. The device proved to be highly viable in preliminary tests; it demonstrated that change in ultrasonic parameters produces different effect on cells. For example, increase in uptake of doxorubicin was demonstrated following ultrasound application. The growing interest in ultrasound-activated TDD emphasizes the need for standardization of the ultrasound device and the one reported here may offer some indications of how that may be achieved. It is planned to further improve the prototype by increasing the number of ultrasonic frequencies and degrees of freedom for each transducer.

  16. Dislocation Reduction and Stress Relaxation of GaN and InGaN Multiple Quantum Wells with Improved Performance via Serpentine Channel Patterned Mask.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qingbin; Li, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jia; Liu, Peichi; Xie, Yahong; Yan, Tongxing; Yang, Wei; Chen, Weihua; Hu, Xiaodong

    2016-08-24

    The existence of high threading dislocation density (TDD) in GaN-based epilayers is a long unsolved problem, which hinders further applications of defect-sensitive GaN-based devices. Multiple-modulation of epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) is used to achieve high-quality GaN template on a novel serpentine channel patterned sapphire substrate (SCPSS). The dislocation blocking brought by the serpentine channel patterned mask, coupled with repeated dislocation bending, can reduce the dislocation density to a yet-to-be-optimized level of ∼2 × 10(5) to 2 × 10(6) cm(-2). About 80% area utilization rate of GaN with low TDD and stress relaxation is obtained. The periodical variations of dislocation density, optical properties and residual stress in GaN-based epilayers on SCPSS are analyzed. The quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) on it can be increased by 52% compared with the conventional sapphire substrate. The reduced nonradiative recombination centers, the enhanced carrier localization, and the suppressed quantum confined Stark effect, are the main determinants of improved luminous performance in MQWs on SCPSS. This developed ELOG on serpentine shaped mask needs no interruption and regrowth, which can be a promising candidate for the heteroepitaxy of semipolar/nonpolar GaN and GaAs with high quality.

  17. Reduced threading dislocation densities in high-T/N-rich grown InN films by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Loitsch, Bernhard; Schuster, Fabian; Stutzmann, Martin; Koblmueller, Gregor

    2013-02-04

    We explore the effect of growth kinetics on the structural properties of In-polar InN films on GaN templates grown near the thermal dissociation limit by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Unlike the common growth temperature limit (T Almost-Equal-To 500 Degree-Sign C) for In-polar InN grown under In-rich conditions, slightly N-rich conditions are demonstrated to shift the available growth temperature window to much higher temperatures (by >50 Degree-Sign C). InN films grown in this high-T/N-rich regime show significantly reduced off-axis X-ray diffraction rocking curve peak widths and record low threading dislocation densities (TDD {approx} 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}) even for film thicknesses <1 {mu}m, as compared to state of the art In-rich growth. The reduction of TDD is attributed to more effective TD inclination and annihilation under N-rich growth, delineating prospective routes for improved InN-based materials.

  18. Dislocation Reduction and Stress Relaxation of GaN and InGaN Multiple Quantum Wells with Improved Performance via Serpentine Channel Patterned Mask.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qingbin; Li, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jia; Liu, Peichi; Xie, Yahong; Yan, Tongxing; Yang, Wei; Chen, Weihua; Hu, Xiaodong

    2016-08-24

    The existence of high threading dislocation density (TDD) in GaN-based epilayers is a long unsolved problem, which hinders further applications of defect-sensitive GaN-based devices. Multiple-modulation of epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) is used to achieve high-quality GaN template on a novel serpentine channel patterned sapphire substrate (SCPSS). The dislocation blocking brought by the serpentine channel patterned mask, coupled with repeated dislocation bending, can reduce the dislocation density to a yet-to-be-optimized level of ∼2 × 10(5) to 2 × 10(6) cm(-2). About 80% area utilization rate of GaN with low TDD and stress relaxation is obtained. The periodical variations of dislocation density, optical properties and residual stress in GaN-based epilayers on SCPSS are analyzed. The quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) on it can be increased by 52% compared with the conventional sapphire substrate. The reduced nonradiative recombination centers, the enhanced carrier localization, and the suppressed quantum confined Stark effect, are the main determinants of improved luminous performance in MQWs on SCPSS. This developed ELOG on serpentine shaped mask needs no interruption and regrowth, which can be a promising candidate for the heteroepitaxy of semipolar/nonpolar GaN and GaAs with high quality. PMID:27484167

  19. High quality relaxed Ge layers grown directly on a Si(0 0 1) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, V. A.; Dobbie, A.; Myronov, M.; Leadley, D. R.

    2011-08-01

    After a long period of developing integrated circuit technology through simple scaling of silicon devices, the semiconductor industry is now embracing technology boosters such as strain for higher mobility channel material. Germanium is the logical supplement to enhance existing technologies, as its material behaviour is very close to silicon, and to create new functional devices that cannot be fabricated from silicon alone (Hartmann et al. (2004) [1]). Germanium wafers are, however, both expensive and less durable than their silicon counterparts. Hence it is highly desirable to create a relaxed high quality Ge layer on a Si substrate, with the provision that this does not unduly compromise the planarity of the system. The two temperature method, proposed by Colace et al. (1997) [2], can give smooth (RMS surface roughness below 1 nm) and low threading dislocation density (TDD <10 8 cm -2) Ge layers directly on a Si(0 0 1) wafer (Halbwax et al. (2005) [3]), but these are currently of the order of 1-2 μm thick (Hartmann et al. (2009) [4]). We present an in depth study of two temperature Ge layers, grown by reduced pressure chemical vapour deposition (RP-CVD), in an effort to reduce the thickness. We report the effect of changing the thickness, of both the low temperature (LT) and the high temperature (HT) layers, emphasising the variation of TDD, surface morphology and relaxation. Within this study, the LT Ge layer is deposited directly on a Si(0 0 1) substrate at a low temperature of 400 °C. This low temperature is known to generate monolayer islands (Park et al. (2006) [5]), but is sufficiently high to maintain crystallinity whilst keeping the epitaxial surface as smooth as possible by suppressing further island growth and proceeding in a Frank-van der Merwe growth mode. This LT growth also generates a vast number of dislocations, of the order of 10 8-10 9 cm -2, that enable the next HT step to relax the maximum amount of strain possible. The effect of varying

  20. High-quality vertical light emitting diodes fabrication by mechanical lift-off technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Po-Min; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2011-10-01

    We report the fabrication of mechanical lift-off high quality thin GaN with Hexagonal Inversed Pyramid (HIP) structures for vertical light emitting diodes (V-LEDs). The HIP structures were formed at the GaN/sapphire substrate interface under high temperature during KOH wet etching process. The average threading dislocation density (TDD) was estimated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and found the reduction from 2×109 to 1×108 cm-2. Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed that the compressive stress of GaN epilayer was effectively relieved in the thin-GaN LED with HIP structures. Finally, the mechanical lift-off process is claimed to be successful by using the HIP structures as a sacrificial layer during wafer bonding process.

  1. [Design of transdermal ultrasonophoresis equipment].

    PubMed

    Li, Liangcheng; Zhang, Yongshun; Li, Zhonghong

    2009-02-01

    The recent fast development in biotechnology has resulted in a large number of therapeutic biologicals coming in the foreground for clinical application. Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) is designed for patching the drug on the skin, and then the drug molecules permeate through the skin into the subcutaneous capillary vessels. However,very few drugs can be administered transdermally at the therapeutic levels to pass through the barrier of stratum corneum. Several physical and chemical methods are applied to improve the permeability of skin. Research result shows that the low-frequency ultrasonic technique can extraordinarily increase the rate of permeation. As a result, it is becoming one of the potential methods that serve as the substitutes for traditional methods. In this paper is presented a type of equipment based on MSP430. The principle of design, the structure of hardware, and the applied function in this area are described. PMID:19334582

  2. pFUnit 3.0 Tutorial Advanced

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This tutorial will introduce Fortran developers to unit-testing and test-driven development (TDD) using pFUnit. As with other unit-testing frameworks, pFUnit, simplifies the process of writing, collecting, and executing tests while providing clear diagnostic messages for failing tests. pFUnit specifically targets the development of scientific-technical software written in Fortran and includes customized features such as: assertions for multi-dimensional arrays, distributed (MPI) and thread-based (OpenMP) parallellism, and flexible parameterized tests.These sessions will include numerous examples and hands-on exercises that gradually build in complexity. Attendees are expected to have working knowledge of F90, but familiarity with object-oriented syntax in F2003 and MPI will be of benefit for the more advanced examples. By the end of the tutorial the audience should feel comfortable in applying pFUnit within their own development environment.

  3. Thermal conditions within the supraglacial debris cover of Pasterze Glacier, Austria, and its effects on glacier ablation between 2006 and 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Hirschmann, Simon

    2015-04-01

    three sites focussed on (a) mean temperature values (annual, monthly), (b) temperature ranges, (c) thawing degree days, (d) freezing degree days, (e) snow cover duration, (f) snowpack ripening date, and (g) duration of the zero curtain period. Results indicate for instance that the mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) at the surface of the supraglacial debris cover was positive (or at the most slightly negative) during all glaciological years with available data. In contrast, the MAGT at 10 and 15/20 cm depth was commonly negative with minimum values of -2.6°C. Furthermore, the cumulative thawing degree days (TDD) and glacier ablation show a statistically significant negative correlation allowing a quantitative assessment of total glacier ablation. This indicate for instance that in order to melt 4 m of glacier ice under a 15 cm thick debris layer a cumulative value of c.100 TDD is necessary at 15 cm depth, a value of c.500 TDD at 10 cm depth and a value of c.1000 TDD at the surface of the supraglacial debris cover.

  4. Kinetics of Heterogeneous Reaction of Sulfur Dioxide on Authentic Mineral Dust: Effects of Relative Humidity and Hydrogen Peroxide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liubin; Zhao, Yue; Li, Huan; Chen, Zhongming

    2015-09-15

    Heterogeneous reaction of SO2 on mineral dust seems to be an important sink for SO2. However, kinetic data about this reaction on authentic mineral dust are scarce and are mainly limited to low relative humidity (RH) conditions. In addition, little is known about the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in this reaction. Here, we investigated the uptake kinetics of SO2 on three authentic mineral dusts (i.e., Asian mineral dust (AMD), Tengger desert dust (TDD), and Arizona test dust (ATD)) in the absence and presence of H2O2 at different RHs using a filter-based flow reactor, and applied a parameter (effectiveness factor) to the estimation of the effective surface area of particles for the calculation of the corrected uptake coefficient (γc). We found that with increasing RH, the γc decreases on AMD particles, but increases on ATD and TDD particles. This discrepancy is probably due to the different mineralogy compositions and aging extents of these dust samples. Furthermore, the presence of H2O2 can promote the uptake of SO2 on mineral dust at different RHs. The probable explanations are that H2O2 rapidly reacts with SO2 on mineral dust in the presence of adsorbed water, and OH radicals, which can be produced from the heterogeneous decomposition of H2O2 on the mineral dust, immediately react with adsorbed SO2 as well. Our results suggest that the removal of SO2 via the heterogeneous reaction on mineral dust is an important sink for SO2 and has the potential to alter the physicochemical properties (e.g., ice nucleation ability) of mineral dust particles in the atmosphere. PMID:26281003

  5. Concise NMR approach for molecular dynamics characterizations in organic solids.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Abil E; Courtier-Murias, Denis

    2013-08-22

    Molecular dynamics characterisations in solids can be carried out selectively using dipolar-dephasing experiments. Here we show that the introduction of a sum of Lorentzian and Gaussian functions greatly improve fittings of the "intensity versus time" data for protonated carbons in dipolar-dephasing experiments. The Lorentzian term accounts for remote intra- and intermolecular (1)H-(13)C dipole-dipole interactions, which vary from one molecule to another or for different carbons within the same molecule. Thus, by separating contributions from weak remote interactions, more accurate Gaussian decay constants, T(dd), can be extracted for directly bonded (1)H-(13)C dipole-dipole interactions. Reorientations of the (1)H-(13)C bonds lead to the increase of T(dd), and by measuring dipolar-dephasing constants, insight can be gained into dynamics in solids. We have demonstrated advantages of the method using comparative dynamics studies in the α and γ polymorphs of glycine, cyclic amino acids L-proline, DL-proline and trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline, the Ala residue in different dipeptides, as well as adamantane and hexamethylenetetramine. It was possible to distinguish subtle differences in dynamics of different carbon sites within a molecule in polymorphs and in L- and DL-forms. The presence of overall molecular motions is shown to lead to particularly large differences in dipolar-dephasing experiments. The differences in dynamics can be attributed to differences in noncovalent interactions. In the case of hexamethylenetetramine, for example, the presence of C-H···N interactions leads to nearly rigid molecules. Overall, the method allows one to gain insight into the role of noncovalent interactions in solids and their influence on the molecular dynamics.

  6. Simulation study of GaAsP/Si tandem cells including the impact of threading dislocations on the luminescent coupling between the cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onno, Arthur; Harder, Nils-Peter; Oberbeck, Lars; Liu, Huiyun

    2016-03-01

    A model, derived from the detailed balance model from Shockley and Queisser, has been adapted to monolithically grown GaAsP/Si tandem dual junction solar cells. In this architecture, due to the difference of lattice parameters between the silicon bottom cell - acting as the substrate - and the GaAsP top cell, threading dislocations (TDs) arise at the IIIV/ Si interface and propagate in the top cell. These TDs act as non-radiative recombination centers, degrading the performances of the tandem cell. Our model takes into account the impact of TDs by integrating the NTT model developed by Yamaguchi et. al.. Two surface geometries have been investigated: flat and ideally textured. Finally the model considers the luminescent coupling (LC) between the cells due to reemitted photons from the top cell cascading to the bottom cell. Without dislocations, LC allows a greater flexibility in the cell design by rebalancing the currents between the two cells when the top cell presents a higher short-circuit current. However we show that, as the TD density (TDD) increases, nonradiative recombinations take over radiative recombinations in the top cell and the LC is quenched. As a result, nonoptimized tandem cells with higher short-circuit current in the top cell experience a very fast degradation of efficiency for TDDs over 104cm-2. On the other hand optimized cells with matching currents only experience a small efficiency drop for TDDs up to 105cm-2. High TDD cells therefore need to be current-matched for optimal performances as the flexibility due to LC is lost.

  7. Kinetics of Heterogeneous Reaction of Sulfur Dioxide on Authentic Mineral Dust: Effects of Relative Humidity and Hydrogen Peroxide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liubin; Zhao, Yue; Li, Huan; Chen, Zhongming

    2015-09-15

    Heterogeneous reaction of SO2 on mineral dust seems to be an important sink for SO2. However, kinetic data about this reaction on authentic mineral dust are scarce and are mainly limited to low relative humidity (RH) conditions. In addition, little is known about the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in this reaction. Here, we investigated the uptake kinetics of SO2 on three authentic mineral dusts (i.e., Asian mineral dust (AMD), Tengger desert dust (TDD), and Arizona test dust (ATD)) in the absence and presence of H2O2 at different RHs using a filter-based flow reactor, and applied a parameter (effectiveness factor) to the estimation of the effective surface area of particles for the calculation of the corrected uptake coefficient (γc). We found that with increasing RH, the γc decreases on AMD particles, but increases on ATD and TDD particles. This discrepancy is probably due to the different mineralogy compositions and aging extents of these dust samples. Furthermore, the presence of H2O2 can promote the uptake of SO2 on mineral dust at different RHs. The probable explanations are that H2O2 rapidly reacts with SO2 on mineral dust in the presence of adsorbed water, and OH radicals, which can be produced from the heterogeneous decomposition of H2O2 on the mineral dust, immediately react with adsorbed SO2 as well. Our results suggest that the removal of SO2 via the heterogeneous reaction on mineral dust is an important sink for SO2 and has the potential to alter the physicochemical properties (e.g., ice nucleation ability) of mineral dust particles in the atmosphere.

  8. Substantivity of Chlorhexidine to Human Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Carrilho, Marcela R.; Carvalho, Ricardo M.; Sousa, Ethan N.; Nicolau, José; Breschi, Lorenzo; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Tjäderhane, Leo; Tay, Franklin R.; Agee, Kelli; Pashley, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To better comprehend the role of CHX in the preservation of resin-dentin bonds, this study investigated the substantivity of CHX to human dentin. Material and Methods Dentin disks (n= 45) were obtained from the mid-coronal portion of human third molars. One-third of dentin disks were kept mineralized (MD), while the other two-thirds had one of the surfaces partially demineralized with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 s (PDD) or they were totally demineralized with 10% phosphoric acid (TDD). Disks of hydroxyapatite (HA) were also prepared. Specimens were treated with: 1) 10 μL of distilled water (controls), 2) 10 μL of 0.2% chlorhexidine diacetate (0.2% CHX) or 3) 10 μL of 2% chlorhexidine diacetate (2% CHX). Then, they were incubated in 1 mL of PBS (pH 7.4, 37 °C). Substantivity was evaluated as a function of the CHX-applied dose after: 0.5h, 1h, 3h, 6h, 24h, 168h (1wk), 672h (4wks) and 1344h (8wks) of incubation. CHX concentration in eluates was spectrophotometrically analyzed at 260 nm. Results Significant amounts of CHX remained retained in dentin substrates (MD, PPD or TDD), independent on the CHX-applied dose or time of incubation (p<0.05). High amounts of retained CHX onto HA were observed only for specimens treated with the highest concentration of CHX (2%) (p<0.05). Conclusion The outstanding substantivity of CHX to dentin and its reported effect on the inhibition of dentinal proteases may explain why CHX can prolong the durability of resin-dentin bonds. PMID:20472282

  9. Active layer thermal monitoring of a Dry Valley of the Ellsworth Mountains, Continental Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto; Michel, Roberto; Souza, Karoline; Senra, Eduardo; Bremer, Ulisses

    2015-04-01

    The Ellsworth Mountains occur along the southern edge of the Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf and are subdivided by the Minnesota Glacier into the Heritage Range to the east and the Sentinel Range to the West. The climate of the Ellsworth Mountains is strongly controlled by proximity to the Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf and elevation. The mean annual air temperature at the 1,000 m level is estimated to be -25°C, and the average annual accumulation of water-equivalent precipitation likely ranges from 150 to 175 mm yr-1 (Weyant, 1966). The entire area is underlain by continuous permafrost of unknown thickness. Based on data collected from 22 pits, 41% of the sites contained dry permafrost below 70 cm, 27% had ice-cemented permafrost within 70 cm of the surface, 27% had bedrock within 70 cm, and 5% contained an ice-core (Bockheim, unpublished; Schaefer et al., 2015). Dry-frozen permafrost, which may be unique to Antarctica, appears to form from sublimation of moisture in ice-cemented permafrost over time. Active-layer depths in drift sheets of the Ellsworth Mountains range from 15 to 50 cm (Bockheim, unpublished); our understanding of Antarctic permafrost is poor, especially at the continent. The active layer monitoring sites were installed at Edson Hills, Ellsworth_Mountains, in the summer of 2012, and consist of thermistors (accuracy ± 0.2 °C) installed at 1 m above ground for air temperature measurements at two soil profiles on quartzite drift deposits, arranged in a vertical array (Lithic Haplorthel 886 m asl, 5 cm, 10 cm, 30 cm and Lithic Anyorthel 850 m asl, 5 cm, 10 cm, 30 cm). All probes were connected to a Campbell Scientific CR 1000 data logger recording data at hourly intervals from January 2nd 2012 until December 29th 2013. We calculated the thawing days (TD), freezing days (FD); isothermal days (ID), freeze thaw days (FTD), thawing degree days (TDD) and freezing degree days (FDD); all according to Guglielmin et al. (2008). Temperature at 5 cm reaches a maximum

  10. Algorithms for network-based identification of differential regulators from transcriptome data: a systematic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Mitra, Ramkrishna; Yang, Jing; Li, YuanYuan; Zhao, ZhongMing

    2014-11-01

    Identification of differential regulators is critical to understand the dynamics of cellular systems and molecular mechanisms of diseases. Several computational algorithms have recently been developed for this purpose by using transcriptome and network data. However, it remains largely unclear which algorithm performs better under a specific condition. Such knowledge is important for both appropriate application and future enhancement of these algorithms. Here, we systematically evaluated seven main algorithms (TED, TDD, TFactS, RIF1, RIF2, dCSA_t2t, and dCSA_r2t), using both simulated and real datasets. In our simulation evaluation, we artificially inactivated either a single regulator or multiple regulators and examined how well each algorithm detected known gold standard regulators. We found that all these algorithms could effectively discern signals arising from regulatory network differences, indicating the validity of our simulation schema. Among the seven tested algorithms, TED and TFactS were placed first and second when both discrimination accuracy and robustness against data variation were considered. When applied to two independent lung cancer datasets, both TED and TFactS replicated a substantial fraction of their respective differential regulators. Since TED and TFactS rely on two distinct features of transcriptome data, namely differential co-expression and differential expression, both may be applied as mutual references during practical application.

  11. Coordinate Update Algorithms for Robust Power Loading for the MU-MISO Downlink With Outage Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, Foad; Davidson, Timothy N.

    2016-06-01

    We consider the problem of power allocation for the single-cell multi-user (MU) multiple-input single-output (MISO) downlink with quality-of-service (QoS) constraints. The base station acquires an estimate of the channels and, for a given beamforming structure, designs the power allocation so as to minimize the total transmission power required to ensure that target signal-to-interference-and-noise ratios at the receivers are met, subject to a specified outage probability. We consider scenarios in which the errors in the base station's channel estimates can be modelled as being zero-mean and Gaussian. Such a model is particularly suitable for time division duplex (TDD) systems with quasi-static channels, in which the base station estimates the channel during the uplink phase. Under that model, we employ a precise deterministic characterization of the outage probability to transform the chance-constrained formulation to a deterministic one. Although that deterministic formulation is not convex, we develop a coordinate descent algorithm that can be shown to converge to a globally optimal solution when the starting point is feasible. Insight into the structure of the deterministic formulation yields approximations that result in coordinate update algorithms with good performance and significantly lower computational cost. The proposed algorithms provide better performance than existing robust power loading algorithms that are based on tractable conservative approximations, and can even provide better performance than robust precoding algorithms based on such approximations.

  12. Development and parallelization of a direct numerical simulation to study the formation and transport of nanoparticle clusters in a viscous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, Gregory James

    The direct numerical simulation (DNS) offers the most accurate approach to modeling the behavior of a physical system, but carries an enormous computation cost. There exists a need for an accurate DNS to model the coupled solid-fluid system seen in targeted drug delivery (TDD), nanofluid thermal energy storage (TES), as well as other fields where experiments are necessary, but experiment design may be costly. A parallel DNS can greatly reduce the large computation times required, while providing the same results and functionality of the serial counterpart. A D2Q9 lattice Boltzmann method approach was implemented to solve the fluid phase. The use of domain decomposition with message passing interface (MPI) parallelism resulted in an algorithm that exhibits super-linear scaling in testing, which may be attributed to the caching effect. Decreased performance on a per-node basis for a fixed number of processes confirms this observation. A multiscale approach was implemented to model the behavior of nanoparticles submerged in a viscous fluid, and used to examine the mechanisms that promote or inhibit clustering. Parallelization of this model using a masterworker algorithm with MPI gives less-than-linear speedup for a fixed number of particles and varying number of processes. This is due to the inherent inefficiency of the master-worker approach. Lastly, these separate simulations are combined, and two-way coupling is implemented between the solid and fluid.

  13. TamiR1123 originated from a family of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITE) including one inserted in the Vrn-A1a promoter in wheat.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming; Carver, Brett F; Yan, Liuling

    2014-02-01

    More than half of spring wheat cultivars have a dominant Vrn-A1a allele that has an insertion of a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) in its promoter. In this study, we found that the MITE present in the Vrn-A1a gene (MITE_VRN) is a nearly perfect palindrome and it can form highly stable hairpin loops when expressed as RNA. MITE_VRN also possessed sequences of a microRNA in Triticum aestivum (TamiR1123). The P(32) labeled TamiR1123 probe detected two RNA molecules on a small RNA gel blot, one expected for MITE_VRN, and the other expected for TamiR1123. These results demonstrated that MITE_VRN was expressed as RNAs and TamiR1123 was originated from the MITE_VRN family. The isogenic line TDD carrying the dominant Vrn-A1a allele with MITE_VRN showed higher TamiR1123 and Vrn-A1a transcript levels than the isogenic line TDE carrying the recessive vrn-A1a allele without MITE_VRN. TamiR1123 were greatly up-regulated by plant age but slightly down-regulated by low temperature and short days. These findings have pointed to alternative regulatory mechanisms for plant development governed by Vrn-A1a in spring wheat.

  14. A Rate-Dependent Viscoelastic Damage Model for Simulation of Solid Propellant Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, Erik

    2005-07-01

    A viscoelastic deformation and damage model (VED) for solid rocket propellants has been developed based on an extensive set of mechanical properties experiments. Monotonic tensile tests performed at several strain rates showed rate and dilatation effects. During cyclic tensile tests, hysteresis and a rate-dependent shear modulus were observed. A tensile relaxation experiment showed significant stress decay in the sample. Taylor impact tests exhibited large dilatations without significant crack growth. Extensive modifications to a viscoelastic-viscoplastic model (VEP) necessary to capture these experimental results have led to development of the VED model. In particular, plasticity has been eliminated in the model, and the multiple Maxwell viscoelastic formulation has been replaced with a time-dependent shear modulus. Furthermore, the loading and unloading behaviors of the material are modeled independently. To characterize the damage and dilatation behavior, the Tensile Damage and Distention (TDD) model is run in conjunction with VED. The VED model is connected to a single-cell driver as well as to the CTH shock physics code. Simulations of tests show good comparisons with tensile tests and some aspects of the Taylor tests.

  15. A Rate-Dependent Viscoelastic Damage Model for Simulation of Solid Propellant Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, E. R.; Nguyen, D. Q.

    2006-07-01

    A viscoelastic deformation and damage model (VED) for solid rocket propellants has been developed based on an extensive set of mechanical properties experiments. Monotonic tensile tests performed at several strain rates showed rate and dilatation effects. During cyclic tensile tests, hysteresis and a rate-dependent shear modulus were observed. A tensile relaxation experiment showed significant stress decay in the sample. Taylor impact tests exhibited large dilatations without significant crack growth. Extensive modifications to a viscoelastic-viscoplastic model (VEP) necessary to capture these experimental results have led to development of the VED model. In particular, plasticity has been eliminated in the model, and the multiple Maxwell viscoelastic formulation has been replaced with a time-dependent shear modulus. Furthermore, the loading and unloading behaviors of the material are modeled independently. To characterize the damage and dilatation behavior, the Tensile Damage and Distention (TDD) model is run in conjunction with VED. The VED model is connected to a single-cell driver as well as to the CTH shock physics code. Simulations of tests show good comparisons with tensile tests and some aspects of the Taylor tests.

  16. Bioinspired Nanonetworks for Targeted Cancer Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Raz, Nasibeh Rady; Akbarzadeh-T, Mohammad-R; Tafaghodi, Mohsen

    2015-12-01

    A biomimicry approach to nanonetworks is proposed here for targeted cancer drug delivery (TDD). The swarm of bioinspired nanomachines utilizes the blood distribution network and chemotaxis to carry drug through the vascular system to the cancer site, recognized by a high concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Our approach is multi-scale and includes processes that occur both within cells and with their neighbors. The proposed bionanonetwork takes advantage of several organic processes, some of which already occur within the human body, such as a plate-like structure similar to those of red blood cells for more environmental contact; a berry fruit architecture for its internal multi-foams architecture; the penetrable structure of cancer cells, tissue, as well as the porous structure of the capillaries for drug penetration; state of glycocalyx for ligand-receptor adhesion; as well as changes in pH state of blood and O 2 release for nanomachine communication. For a more appropriate evaluation, we compare our work with a conventional chemotherapy approach using a mathematical model of cancer under actual experimental parameter settings. Simulation results show the merits of the proposed method in targeted cancer therapy by improving the densities of the relevant cancer cell types and VEGF concentration, while following more organic and natural processes.

  17. Fluidized bed steam reformed mineral waste form performance testing to support Hanford Supplemental Low Activity Waste Immobilization Technology Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C. M.; Pierce, E. M.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Crawford, C. L.; Daniel, W. E.; Fox, K. M.; Herman, C. C.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.; Brown, C. F.; Qafoku, N. P.; Neeway, J. J.; Valenta, M. M.; Gill, G. A.; Swanberg, D. J.; Robbins, R. A.; Thompson, L. E.

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the benchscale testing with simulant and radioactive Hanford Tank Blends, mineral product characterization and testing, and monolith testing and characterization. These projects were funded by DOE EM-31 Technology Development & Deployment (TDD) Program Technical Task Plan WP-5.2.1-2010-001 and are entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-Level Waste Form Qualification”, Inter-Entity Work Order (IEWO) M0SRV00054 with Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) entitled “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Savannah River Site (SRS) Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”, and IEWO M0SRV00080, “Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form Qualification Testing Using SRS Low Activity Waste and Hanford Low Activity Waste Tank Samples”. This was a multi-organizational program that included Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), THOR® Treatment Technologies (TTT), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Office of River Protection (ORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS). The SRNL testing of the non-radioactive pilot-scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) products made by TTT, subsequent SRNL monolith formulation and testing and studies of these products, and SRNL Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) radioactive campaign were funded by DOE Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) Phase 2 Project in connection with a Work-For-Others (WFO) between SRNL and TTT.

  18. Influence of AlN thickness on AlGaN epilayer grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasakthi, M.; Juillaguet, S.; Peyre, H.; Konczewicz, L.; Baskar, K.; Contreras, S.

    2016-10-01

    AlGaN/AlN layers were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on sapphire substrates. The AlN buffer thickness was varied from 400 nm to 800 nm. The AlGaN layer thickness was 1000 nm. The crystalline quality, thickness and composition of AlGaN were determined using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The threading dislocation density (TDD) was found to decrease with increase of AlN layer thickness. Reciprocal space mapping (RSM) was used to estimate the strain and relaxation between AlGaN and AlN. The optical properties of AlGaN layers were investigated by temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL). PL intensities of AlGaN layers increases with increasing the AlN thickness. The surface morphology of AlGaN was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Root mean square (RMS) roughness values were found to be decreased while increase of AlN thickness.

  19. Direct simulation of heterogeneous diffusion and inversion procedure applied to an out-diffusion experiment. Test case of Palmottu granite.

    PubMed

    Sardini, P; Robinet, J C; Siitari-Kauppi, M; Delay, F; Hellmuth, K H

    2007-08-15

    An out-diffusion laboratory experiment using a non-reactive tracer was fitted using the Time Domain Diffusion (TDD) method. This rapid particle tracking method allows simulation of the heterogeneous diffusion based on pore-scale images and local values of diffusivities. The superimposed porosity and mineral 2D maps act as computation grids to condition diffusion pathways. We focused on a Palmottu granite sample, in which the connected pore space has a composite microstructure with cracks linking microporous minerals and is above the percolation threshold. Three main results were achieved: (i) When compared to the fitting obtained with one coefficient (best mean square residual R = 1.6 x 10(-2)), diffusion is shown to be suitably characterised with two coefficients related to cracks and microporous minerals (best R = 6.5 x 10(-4)), (ii) rather than imposing a local apparent diffusion coefficient D(a) independent of the local porosity Phi, a best fit is obtained by applying Archie's relationship D(a) = D(0) x G with G = Phi(m) to each pixel of the calculation grids (G is the geometry factor, D(0) is the diffusion coefficient in free fluid, and m is Archie's exponent), and (iii) the order of magnitude of the fitted diffusion coefficient or Archie's exponents (m=0 for microcracks and m=1.82 for microporous minerals) is physically realistic.

  20. Behavior of nitrogen in Si crystal during irradiation and post-annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Naohisa; Oyama, Hidenori; Watanabe, Kaori; Seki, Hirofumi; Kawamura, Yuichi

    2014-02-21

    Radiation induced complexes in nitrogen (N) -doped silicon crystal was investigated by highly sensitive infrared absorption spectroscopy. The absorption by N{sub 2} pair was reduced by the electron irradiation in FZ crystals. The absorptions appeared on both sides of N{sub 2} line at 766 cm{sup −1}, at about 725 and 778 cm{sup −1}. By the annealing, N{sub 2} lines recovered a little at 600 °C and mostly at 800 °C. The above new absorption lines reduced by the annealing at lower temperatures and other absorption appeared. In CZ silicon, N{sub 2} lines did not change by the irradiation. Dominant absorption in low carbon FZ silicon was that of C-rich type complexes, VO and I{sub n}C{sub i}O{sub im}(n=0–3, m=0,1). Dominant absorption in the irradiated low carbon CZ silicon was that of C-lean type complexes I{sub n}O{sub 2+mi}(n=1, 2, m=0, 1), and the decrease of C-lean type O{sub 2i} and TDD was observed. By the annealing of CZ Si, VO{sub n} (n=2–4) formation and annihilation was observed.

  1. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT ENHANCERS ON THE TRANSDERMAL PERMEATION OF INSLUIN ANALOG

    PubMed Central

    Yerramsetty, K. M.; Rachakonda, V. K.; Neely, B. J.; Madihally, S. V.; Gasem, K. A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Using chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs), transdermal drug delivery (TDD) offers an alternative route for insulin administration, wherein the CPEs reversibly reduce the barrier resistance of the skin. However, there is a lack of sufficient information concerning the effect of CPE chemical structure on insulin permeation. To address this limitation, we examined the effect of CPE functional groups on the permeation of insulin. A virtual design algorithm that incorporates quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models for predicting the CPE properties was used to identify 43 potential CPEs. This set of CPEs was prescreened using a resistance technique, and the 22 best CPEs were selected. Next, standard permeation experiments in Franz cells were performed to quantify insulin permeation. Our results indicate that specific functional groups are not directly responsible for enhanced insulin permeation. Rather, permeation enhancement is produced by molecules that exhibit positive log Kow values and possess at least one hydrogen donor or acceptor. Toluene was the only exception among the 22 potential CPEs considered. In addition, toxicity analyses of the 22 CPEs were performed. A total of eight CPEs were both highly enhancing (permeability coefficient at least four times the control value) and non-toxic, five of which are new discoveries. PMID:20667506

  2. Reconfigurable cognitive transceiver for opportunistic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maso, Marco; Baştuğ, Ejder; Cardoso, Leonardo S.; Debbah, Mérouane; Özdemir, Özgür

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we provide the implementation and analysis of a cognitive transceiver for opportunistic networks. We focus on a previously introduced dynamic spectrum access (DSA) - cognitive radio (CR) solution for primary-secondary coexistence in opportunistic orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) networks, called cognitive interference alignment (CIA). The implementation is based on software-defined radio (SDR) and uses GNU Radio and the universal software radio peripheral (USRP) as the implementation toolkit. The proposed flexible transceiver architecture allows efficient on-the-fly reconfigurations of the physical layer into OFDM, CIA or a combination of both. Remarkably, its responsiveness is such that the uplink and downlink channel reciprocity from the medium perspective, inherent to time division duplex (TDD) communications, can be effectively verified and exploited. We show that CIA provides approximately 10 dB of interference isolation towards the OFDM receiver with respect to a fully random precoder. This result is obtained under suboptimal conditions, which indicates that further gains are possible with a better optimization of the system. Our findings point towards the usefulness of a practical CIA implementation, as it yields a non-negligible performance for the secondary system, while providing interference shielding to the primary receiver.

  3. Bioinspired Nanonetworks for Targeted Cancer Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Raz, Nasibeh Rady; Akbarzadeh-T, Mohammad-R; Tafaghodi, Mohsen

    2015-12-01

    A biomimicry approach to nanonetworks is proposed here for targeted cancer drug delivery (TDD). The swarm of bioinspired nanomachines utilizes the blood distribution network and chemotaxis to carry drug through the vascular system to the cancer site, recognized by a high concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Our approach is multi-scale and includes processes that occur both within cells and with their neighbors. The proposed bionanonetwork takes advantage of several organic processes, some of which already occur within the human body, such as a plate-like structure similar to those of red blood cells for more environmental contact; a berry fruit architecture for its internal multi-foams architecture; the penetrable structure of cancer cells, tissue, as well as the porous structure of the capillaries for drug penetration; state of glycocalyx for ligand-receptor adhesion; as well as changes in pH state of blood and O 2 release for nanomachine communication. For a more appropriate evaluation, we compare our work with a conventional chemotherapy approach using a mathematical model of cancer under actual experimental parameter settings. Simulation results show the merits of the proposed method in targeted cancer therapy by improving the densities of the relevant cancer cell types and VEGF concentration, while following more organic and natural processes. PMID:26529771

  4. Diffusion in Altered Tonalite Sample Using Time Domain Diffusion Simulations in Tomographic Images Combined with Lab-scale Diffusion Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voutilainen, M.; Sardini, P.; Togneri, L.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Timonen, J.

    2010-12-01

    In this work an effect of rock heterogeneity on diffusion was investigated. Time domain diffusion simulations were used to compare behavior of diffusion in homogeneous and heterogeneous 3D media. Tomographic images were used as heterogeneous rock media. One altered tonalite sample from Sievi, Finland, was chosen as test case for introduced analysis procedure. Effective diffusion coefficient of tonalite sample was determined with lab-scale experiments and the same coefficient was used also for homogeneous media. Somewhat technically complicated mathematical solution for analysis of through diffusion experiment is shortly described. Computed tomography (CT) is already quite widely used in many geological, petrological, and paleontological applications when the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the material is of interest, and is an excellent method for gaining information especially about its heterogeneity, grain size, or porosity. In addition to offering means for quantitative characterization, CT provides a lot of qualitative information [1]. A through -diffusion laboratory experiment using radioactive tracer was fitted using the Time Domain Diffusion (TDD) method. This rapid particle tracking method allows simulation of the heterogeneous diffusion based on pore-scale images and local values of diffusivities [2]. As a result we found out that heterogeneity has only a small effect to diffusion coefficient and in-diffusion profile for used geometry. Also direction dependency was tested and was found to be negligible. Whereas significant difference between generally accepted value and value obtained from simulations for constant m in Archie’s law was found. [1] Voutilainen, M., Siitari-Kauppi, M., Sardini, P., and Timonen, J., (2010). On pore-space characterization of an altered tonalite by X-ray µCT and the 14C-PMMA method (in progress). [2] Sardini, P., Robinet, J., Siitari-Kauppi, M., Delay, F., and Hellmuth, K-H, (2007). On direct simulation of heterogeneous

  5. Weight-based antibiotic dosing in a real-world European study of complicated skin and soft-tissue infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Lawson, W; Nathwani, D; Eckmann, C; Corman, S; Stephens, J; Solem, C; Macahilig, C; Li, J; Baillon-Plot, N; Charbonneau, C; Haider, S

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to characterize real-world dosing of weight-based intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy in patients hospitalized for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) complicated skin and soft-tissue infections (cSSTIs). This was a subgroup analysis of a retrospective chart review that captured data from 12 European countries. The study included patients ≥18 years old, hospitalized with an MRSA cSSTI between 1 July 2010 and 30 June 2011 and discharged alive by 31 July 2011. Patients treated with IV vancomycin, teicoplanin or daptomycin at any stage during hospitalization were included in this analysis. Analyses were conducted at the regimen level (dosing in mg/kg or in mg, frequency, and total daily dose (TDD)), with potentially multiple regimens per patient, and the patient level, categorizing patients into low, standard (labelled) and high dosing groups according to their initial MRSA-targeted regimen. Among the 1502 patients in the parent study, 998 patients contributed a total of 1050 daptomycin, teicoplanin or vancomycin regimens. Across all regimens, the mean initial TDDs were 6.3 ± 1.9 mg/kg for daptomycin, 10.5 ± 4.9 mg/kg for teicoplanin and 28.5 ± 11.5 mg/kg for vancomycin. A total of 789 patients received first-line therapy with one of the above antibiotics. The majority of patients receiving first-line teicoplanin and daptomycin (96% and 80%, respectively) received higher than labelled cSSTI doses, whereas vancomycin doses were lower than labelled doses in >40% of patients. These real-world data reveal significant deviation from labelled antibiotic dosing in 12 European countries and the potential for suboptimal outcomes in patients with MRSA cSSTIs.

  6. A new paradigm for numerical simulation of microneedle-based drug delivery aided by histology of microneedle-pierced skin.

    PubMed

    Han, Tao; Das, Diganta Bhusan

    2015-06-01

    Microneedle (MN) is a relatively recent invention and an efficient technology for transdermal drug delivery (TDD). Conventionally, mathematical models of MNs drug delivery define the shape of the holes created by the MNs in the skin as the same as their actual geometry. Furthermore, the size of the MN holes in the skin is considered to be either the same or a certain fraction of the length of the MNs. However, the histological images of the MN-treated skin indicate that the real insertion depth is much shorter than the length of the MNs and the shapes may vary significantly from one case to another. In addressing these points, we propose a new approach for modeling MN-based drug delivery, which incorporates the histology of MN-pierced skin using a number of concepts borrowed from image processing tools. It is expected that the developed approach will provide better accuracy of the drug diffusion profile. A new computer program is developed to automatically obtain the outline of the MNs-treated holes and import these images into computer software for simulation of drug diffusion from MN systems. This method can provide a simple and fast way to test the quality of MNs design and modeling, as well as simulate experimental studies, for example, permeation experiments on MN-pierced skin using diffusion cell. The developed methodology is demonstrated using two-dimensional (2D) numerical modeling of flat MNs (2D). However, the methodology is general and can be implemented for three dimensional (3D) MNs if there is sufficient number of images for reconstructing a 3D image for numerical simulation. Numerical modeling for 3D geometry is demonstrated by using images of an ideal 3D MN. The methodology is not demonstrated for real 3D MNs, as there are not sufficient numbers of images for the purpose of this paper.

  7. Downlink Training Techniques for FDD Massive MIMO Systems: Open-Loop and Closed-Loop Training With Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Junil; Love, David J.; Bidigare, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    The concept of deploying a large number of antennas at the base station, often called massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), has drawn considerable interest because of its potential ability to revolutionize current wireless communication systems. Most literature on massive MIMO systems assumes time division duplexing (TDD), although frequency division duplexing (FDD) dominates current cellular systems. Due to the large number of transmit antennas at the base station, currently standardized approaches would require a large percentage of the precious downlink and uplink resources in FDD massive MIMO be used for training signal transmissions and channel state information (CSI) feedback. To reduce the overhead of the downlink training phase, we propose practical open-loop and closed-loop training frameworks in this paper. We assume the base station and the user share a common set of training signals in advance. In open-loop training, the base station transmits training signals in a round-robin manner, and the user successively estimates the current channel using long-term channel statistics such as temporal and spatial correlations and previous channel estimates. In closed-loop training, the user feeds back the best training signal to be sent in the future based on channel prediction and the previously received training signals. With a small amount of feedback from the user to the base station, closed-loop training offers better performance in the data communication phase, especially when the signal-to-noise ratio is low, the number of transmit antennas is large, or prior channel estimates are not accurate at the beginning of the communication setup, all of which would be mostly beneficial for massive MIMO systems.

  8. A new paradigm for numerical simulation of microneedle-based drug delivery aided by histology of microneedle-pierced skin.

    PubMed

    Han, Tao; Das, Diganta Bhusan

    2015-06-01

    Microneedle (MN) is a relatively recent invention and an efficient technology for transdermal drug delivery (TDD). Conventionally, mathematical models of MNs drug delivery define the shape of the holes created by the MNs in the skin as the same as their actual geometry. Furthermore, the size of the MN holes in the skin is considered to be either the same or a certain fraction of the length of the MNs. However, the histological images of the MN-treated skin indicate that the real insertion depth is much shorter than the length of the MNs and the shapes may vary significantly from one case to another. In addressing these points, we propose a new approach for modeling MN-based drug delivery, which incorporates the histology of MN-pierced skin using a number of concepts borrowed from image processing tools. It is expected that the developed approach will provide better accuracy of the drug diffusion profile. A new computer program is developed to automatically obtain the outline of the MNs-treated holes and import these images into computer software for simulation of drug diffusion from MN systems. This method can provide a simple and fast way to test the quality of MNs design and modeling, as well as simulate experimental studies, for example, permeation experiments on MN-pierced skin using diffusion cell. The developed methodology is demonstrated using two-dimensional (2D) numerical modeling of flat MNs (2D). However, the methodology is general and can be implemented for three dimensional (3D) MNs if there is sufficient number of images for reconstructing a 3D image for numerical simulation. Numerical modeling for 3D geometry is demonstrated by using images of an ideal 3D MN. The methodology is not demonstrated for real 3D MNs, as there are not sufficient numbers of images for the purpose of this paper. PMID:25821048

  9. Adoption of Test Driven Development and Continuous Integration for the Development of the Trick Simulation Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, John M.

    2013-01-01

    fundamental design flaw. The benefits became obvious almost immediately, not just in the correctness of the individual functions and classes but also in the correctness and flexibility being added to the overall design. Creating code to be testable, and testing as it was created resulted not only in better working code, but also in better-organized, flexible, and readable (i.e., articulate) code. This was, in essence the Test-driven development (TDD) methodology created by Kent Beck. Seeing the benefits of Test Driven Development, other Trick components were refactored to make them more testable and tests were designed and implemented for them.

  10. The Impact of Software Culture on the Management of Community Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, J. A.; Pulsifer, P. L.; Sheffield, E.; Lewis, S.; Oldenburg, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge of the Arctic (ELOKA), a program hosted at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), supports the collection, curation, and distribution of Local and Traditional Knowledge (LTK) data, as well as some quantitative data products. Investigations involving LTK data often involve community participation, and therefore require flexible and robust user interfaces to support a reliable process of data collection and management. Often, investigators focused on LTK and community-based monitoring choose to use ELOKA's data services based on our ability to provide rapid proof-of-concepts and economical delivery of a usable product. To satisfy these two overarching criteria, ELOKA is experimenting with modifications to its software development culture both in terms of how the software applications are developed as well as the kind of software applications (or components) being developed. Over the past several years, NSIDC has shifted its software development culture from one of assigning individual scientific programmers to support particular principal investigators or projects, to an Agile Software Methodology implementation using Scrum practices. ELOKA has participated in this process by working with other product owners to schedule and prioritize development work which is then implemented by a team of application developers. Scrum, along with practices such as Test Driven Development (TDD) and paired programming, improves the quality of the software product delivered to the user community. To meet the need for rapid prototyping and to maximize product development and support with limited developer input, our software development efforts are now focused on creating a platform of application modules that can be quickly customized to suit the needs of a variety of LTK projects. This approach is in contrast to the strategy of delivering custom applications for individual projects. To date, we have integrated components of

  11. Nano-enabled sensors, electronics and energy source on polymer, paper and thread substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafalu, Pooria

    of tissues in a 3D topology would be a significant surgical advance. We have devised an integrated thread-based diagnostic (TDD) system with the ability to measure physical (strain and temperature) and chemical (pH and glucose) markers in the body in vivo. Such device was made from threads, which have been widely used in the apparel industry and is readily available as a low-cost biocompatible material.

  12. Epitaxial Deposition of Low-Defect Aluminum Nitride and Aluminum Gallium Nitride Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Rakesh

    ) emission line along with broader deep level-related bands, presumably due to donor-acceptor and band-acceptor transitions. Etch-pit density measurement revealed threading dislocation density of 1x109 cm-2, which is at least 5 times smaller than conventionally grown MOCVD films. AlN and AlGaN films grown on sapphire substrate tend to crack and even peel off beyond a critical thickness of 2 -- 5 mum. To prevent thick films from cracking, ELOG technique was utilized. This technique has been successfully employed to deposit several hundred micrometers thick crack-free GaN films, which demonstrate 2-3 orders of magnitude reduction in TDD. Crack-free thick layers of AlN and AlGaN were deposited using ELOG technique. MOCVD was used as the growth method due to improved material quality. Trimethylaluminum (TMAl), trimethylgallium (TMGa) and ammonia (NH3) were used as the precursors. The growth was performed under low pressure with H2 as the carrier gas. First about 2 mum thick AlGaN layers were deposited on c-plane sapphire substrates. Such thin AlGaN layers, grown without any dislocation reduction technique, usually show TDD in the mid 1010 cm-2 range. Linear trench patterns along [11¯00] AlGaN were fabricated in the AlGaN layers using conventional photolithography and RIE (reactive ion etching). The patterns included 2 mum wide mesas with 5 mum wide trenches. The trenched templates were reloaded into the MOCVD chamber for overgrowth of AlN and high Al-content AlGaN. The overgrowth was carried out at a temperature of 1200 °C with the growth rate of 1 to 2 mum/hr. Migration enhanced MOCVD (MEMOCVDRTM) [3] was combined with ELOG approach to develop a novel Migration Enhanced Lateral Epitaxial Overgrowth (MELEO) technique [4]. As part of this novel technique, precursor pulses were varied to control the ratio of lateral/vertical growth rate. Coalescence related low-angle grain boundaries and edge dislocations were reduced by promoting coherent coalescence using MELEO technique

  13. Rapid Prototyping of High Performance Signal Processing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sane, Nimish

    -level application specification consisting of topological patterns in various aspects of the design flow. 2. We have formulated the core functional dataflow (CFDF) model of computation, which can be used to model a wide variety of deterministic dynamic dataflow behaviors. We have also presented key features of the CFDF model and tools based on these features. These tools provide support for heterogeneous dataflow behaviors, an intuitive and common framework for functional specification, support for functional simulation, portability from several existing dataflow models to CFDF, integrated emphasis on minimally-restricted specification of actor functionality, and support for efficient static, quasi-static, and dynamic scheduling techniques. 3. We have developed a generalized scheduling technique for CFDF graphs based on decomposition of a CFDF graph into static graphs that interact at run-time. Furthermore, we have refined this generalized scheduling technique using a new notion of "mode grouping," which better exposes the underlying static behavior. We have also developed a scheduling technique for a class of dynamic applications that generates parameterized looped schedules (PLSs), which can handle dynamic dataflow behavior without major limitations on compile-time predictability. 4. We have demonstrated the use of dataflow-based approaches for design and implementation of radio astronomy DSP systems using an application example of a tunable digital downconverter (TDD) for spectrometers. Design and implementation of this module has been an integral part of this thesis work. This thesis demonstrates a design flow that consists of a high-level software prototype, analysis, and simulation using the dataflow interchange format (DIF) tool, and integration of this design with the existing tool flow for the target implementation on an FPGA platform, called interconnect break-out board (IBOB). We have also explored the trade-off between low hardware cost for fixed configurations of

  14. Sorption and diffusion of selenium oxyanions in granitic rock.

    PubMed

    Ikonen, Jussi; Voutilainen, Mikko; Söderlund, Mervi; Jokelainen, Lalli; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Martin, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The processes controlling diffusion and sorption of radionuclides have been studied extensively in the laboratory, whereas, only a few in-situ experiments have been carried out in order to study in-situ diffusion over the long-term (several years). This is largely due to the fact that in-situ experiments are typically time consuming and cost intensive, and it is commonly accepted that laboratory scale tests are well-established approaches to characterizing the properties of geological media. In order to assess the relevance of laboratory experiments, the Swiss National Cooperative for Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) have been conducting extensive experiments in the Underground Rock Laboratory (URL) at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in order to study radionuclide transport and retention in-situ. One of the elements used in these experiments is non-radioactive selenium, as an analog for the radiotoxic isotope Se-79, which is present in radioactive waste. In this work, two laboratory through-diffusion experiments using selenium as a tracer were carried out in block (decimeter) scale rock specimens to support one of the ongoing radionuclide transport and retention in-situ experiment at the GTS mentioned above. The though-diffusion tests of selenium were performed under atmospheric conditions in both Kuru grey granite (KGG) and Grimsel granodiorite (GG). The decrease of selenium concentration in an inlet hole drilled into each of the rock samples and the breakthrough of selenium into sampling holes drilled around the inlet were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The effective diffusion (De) and distribution coefficients (Kd) of selenium were then determined from the changes of selenium concentration in the inlet and sampling holes using a Time-Domain Diffusion (TDD) simulations. In addition, Kd of selenium was measured by batch sorption experiments as a function of pH and Se concentration in atmospheric conditions and nitrogen

  15. Sorption and diffusion of selenium oxyanions in granitic rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikonen, Jussi; Voutilainen, Mikko; Söderlund, Mervi; Jokelainen, Lalli; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Martin, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The processes controlling diffusion and sorption of radionuclides have been studied extensively in the laboratory, whereas, only a few in-situ experiments have been carried out in order to study in-situ diffusion over the long-term (several years). This is largely due to the fact that in-situ experiments are typically time consuming and cost intensive, and it is commonly accepted that laboratory scale tests are well-established approaches to characterizing the properties of geological media. In order to assess the relevance of laboratory experiments, the Swiss National Cooperative for Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) have been conducting extensive experiments in the Underground Rock Laboratory (URL) at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in order to study radionuclide transport and retention in-situ. One of the elements used in these experiments is non-radioactive selenium, as an analog for the radiotoxic isotope Se-79, which is present in radioactive waste. In this work, two laboratory through-diffusion experiments using selenium as a tracer were carried out in block (decimeter) scale rock specimens to support one of the ongoing radionuclide transport and retention in-situ experiment at the GTS mentioned above. The though-diffusion tests of selenium were performed under atmospheric conditions in both Kuru grey granite (KGG) and Grimsel granodiorite (GG). The decrease of selenium concentration in an inlet hole drilled into each of the rock samples and the breakthrough of selenium into sampling holes drilled around the inlet were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The effective diffusion (De) and distribution coefficients (Kd) of selenium were then determined from the changes of selenium concentration in the inlet and sampling holes using a Time-Domain Diffusion (TDD) simulations. In addition, Kd of selenium was measured by batch sorption experiments as a function of pH and Se concentration in atmospheric conditions and nitrogen

  16. Peak power minimization in indoor CDMA communications using clusters of antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolhassani, Bahman

    "Battery life" and "cost" constraints are presenting new challenges for the design of wireless networks. The major focus of past research on transmit power control, diversity, modulation and coding techniques has been limited to maximizing coverage and/or capacity for cellular telephone systems. However, for battery powered wireless handsets connected through indoor wireless links, the optimization objective is shifting from link efficiency to battery efficiency and cost. In this thesis, the battery life of handsets and the cost of network are both addressed for an indoor code division multiple access (CDMA) communications system using time division duplex (TDD). A wireless handset needs a large dynamic range transmitter amplifier in order to overcome channel path loss and fading. This makes the amplifier inefficient such that its power consumption becomes proportional to the peak transmit power. Therefore, the amplifier needs a large, heavy and expensive battery which lasts for only a few hours. Indoor wireless users, however, need small, light, low cost handsets with batteries that last for days rather than for a few hours. To achieve a long battery life for handsets, a system architecture is proposed in which each cell uses a central base station along with several radioports. The radioports placed at optimal or near-optimal locations in order to minimize the maximum path loss experienced by handsets. Each radioport may use more than one antenna to combat Rayleigh fading. The central base station selects the radioport that provides the strongest maximally ratio combined signal. An infra-structure cost model is developed for the proposed system, which depends on the peak transmit power capability of handsets and of other system parameters and performances. The number of parameters affecting the network infra-structure cost is high, which makes the cost minimization problematic. To avoid large computation time, a new network planning approach is proposed: its

  17. Sorption and diffusion of selenium oxyanions in granitic rock.

    PubMed

    Ikonen, Jussi; Voutilainen, Mikko; Söderlund, Mervi; Jokelainen, Lalli; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Martin, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The processes controlling diffusion and sorption of radionuclides have been studied extensively in the laboratory, whereas, only a few in-situ experiments have been carried out in order to study in-situ diffusion over the long-term (several years). This is largely due to the fact that in-situ experiments are typically time consuming and cost intensive, and it is commonly accepted that laboratory scale tests are well-established approaches to characterizing the properties of geological media. In order to assess the relevance of laboratory experiments, the Swiss National Cooperative for Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) have been conducting extensive experiments in the Underground Rock Laboratory (URL) at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in order to study radionuclide transport and retention in-situ. One of the elements used in these experiments is non-radioactive selenium, as an analog for the radiotoxic isotope Se-79, which is present in radioactive waste. In this work, two laboratory through-diffusion experiments using selenium as a tracer were carried out in block (decimeter) scale rock specimens to support one of the ongoing radionuclide transport and retention in-situ experiment at the GTS mentioned above. The though-diffusion tests of selenium were performed under atmospheric conditions in both Kuru grey granite (KGG) and Grimsel granodiorite (GG). The decrease of selenium concentration in an inlet hole drilled into each of the rock samples and the breakthrough of selenium into sampling holes drilled around the inlet were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The effective diffusion (De) and distribution coefficients (Kd) of selenium were then determined from the changes of selenium concentration in the inlet and sampling holes using a Time-Domain Diffusion (TDD) simulations. In addition, Kd of selenium was measured by batch sorption experiments as a function of pH and Se concentration in atmospheric conditions and nitrogen

  18. Developing New Electrolytes for Advanced Li-ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McOwen, Dennis Wayne

    synthesized for this investigation: dilithium 1,2,5-thiadiazolidine-3,4-dione-1,1-dioxide (Li2TDD), lithium ethyl N-trifluoroacetylcarbamate (LiETAC), lithium hexafluoroisopropoxide (LiHFI), lithium pentafluorophenolate (LiPFPO), and lithium 2-trifluoromethyl-4,5-dicyanoimidazolide (LiTDI). Using crystalline solvate structure analysis and electrolyte solvation numbers, each of these lithium salts were compared to more well-characterized lithium salts, such as LiPF6 and LiBF4. From this study, links between anion structural characteristics and the anion...Li+ cation interactions (i.e., ionic association strength) were made. From the screening of the five lithium salts that were synthesized, LiTDI was determined to be a promising candidate for Li-ion battery electrolytes. Further characterization of carbonate- and mixed carbonate-LiTDI electrolytes (e.g., ionic conductivity) confirmed this to be the case. Coin cells containing LiTDI or LiPF6 electrolytes showed that cells with either electrolyte could deliver nearly identical power density at 25 °C. Additionally, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and NMR suggested that the LiTDI salt and carbonate-LiTDI electrolytes are thermally stable up to at least 60 °C. Further supporting this finding, coin cells cycled at 60 °C with LiPF6 lost significantly more capacity than those with LiTDI. Therefore, LiTDI is a prime candidate for the complete replacement of LiPF6 to significantly increase Li-ion battery tolerance to heat, improving the safety characteristics. In addition to searching for new lithium salts, the effect of lithium salt concentration on electrolyte physicochemical properties was investigated. This radically different approach to modifying electrolyte properties determined that amorphous, highly concentrated carbonate-lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) electrolytes have drastically different behavior than more dilute electrolytes. For example, the thermal stability and anodic stability vs. a Pt

  19. In-Tank Elutriation Test Report And Independent Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, H. H.; Adamson, D. J.; Qureshi, Z. H.; Steeper, T. J.

    2011-04-13

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) funded Technology Development and Deployment (TDD) to solve technical problems associated with waste tank closure for sites such as Hanford Site and Savannah River Site (SRS). One of the tasks supported by this funding at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNNL) was In-Tank Elutriation. Elutriation is the process whereby physical separation occurs based on particle size and density. This report satisfies the first phase of Task WP_1.3.1.1 In-Tank Elutriation, which is to assess the feasibility of this method of separation in waste tanks at Hanford Site and SRS. This report includes an analysis of scoping tests performed in the Engineering Development Laboratory of SRNL, analysis of Hanford's inadvertent elutriation, the viability of separation methods such as elutriation and hydrocyclones and recommendations for a path forward. This report will demonstrate that the retrieval of Hanford salt waste tank S-112 very successfully decreased the tank's inventories of radionuclides. Analyses of samples collected from the tank showed that concentrations of the major radionuclides Cs-136 and Sr-90 were decreased by factors of 250 and 6 and their total curie tank inventories decreased by factors of 60,000 and 2000. The total tank curie loading decreased from 300,000 Ci to 55 Ci. The remaining heel was nearly all innocuous gibbsite, Al(OH){sub 3}. However, in the process of tank retrieval approximately 85% of the tank gibbsite was also removed. Significant amounts of money and processing time could be saved if more gibbsite could be left in tanks while still removing nearly all of the radionuclides. There were factors which helped to make the elutriation of Tank S-112 successful which would not necessarily be present in all salt tanks. 1. The gibbsite particles in the tank were surprisingly large, as much as 200 {micro}m. The gibbsite crystals had probably grown in

  20. Large-area, wafer-scale epitaxial growth of germanium on silicon and integration of high-performance transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Swapnadip

    simulation shows that the oval air gaps around the SiO2 template can reduce the thermal stress by 50% and help reduce the DD. We have then compared the structural and electrical characteristics of n-type Ge films with its p-type counter parts. In n-type Ge, the DD decreases from ˜109cm-2 near the Ge-Si interface to ˜105 cm-2 at the film surface. In contrast, we observe 5x107 cm-2 TDD at the film surface in p-type Ge. The full width at half-maximum for our n-type Ge(004) XRD peak is ~70% narrower than that of p-type Ge. As a stringent test of the dislocation reduction, we have also fabricated and characterized high-carrier-mobility MOSFETs on GoS substrates. We also report p- and n-MOSFETs with microeff of 401 and 940 cm2/V-s and a subthreshold slope of 100 and 200 mV/decade, respectively. These effective mobilities show an exceptional 82 and 30% improvement over that of conventional Si channel MOSFETs. We also investigate the optical quality of ultra-low DD GoS film by measuring photoluminescence (PL). The n-type Ge PL main peak shows pronounced tensile-strain (x0.8%) than that of p-type which is an indicator of direct BG shrinking at the \\Gcy band-edge. Going beyond epitaxial engineering and device fabrication, we have also recently demonstrated a scalable path to create a 2D array of Ge quantum dots (QDs) on responsive SiGe substrates based on elastic mechanical deformation and subsequent SiGe compositional redistribution, coupled with MBE growth. For large-scale manufacturing of single-electron transistors, we have also demonstrated that a spatially structured elastic compressive stress to the SiGe substrate with thermally annealing leads to a compositional redistribution of Si and Ge in the near-surface region of SiGe substrates, forming a 2D array of Ge-depleted nanoscale regions. Based on these latest findings, we have also begun to chart a future direction for my research group, where one can explore new advanced device architectures, such as Si