Science.gov

Sample records for 3038-3052 national ambient

  1. National Ambient Radiation Database

    SciTech Connect

    Dziuban, J.; Sears, R.

    2003-02-25

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently developed a searchable database and website for the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) data. This site contains nationwide radiation monitoring data for air particulates, precipitation, drinking water, surface water and pasteurized milk. This site provides location-specific as well as national information on environmental radioactivity across several media. It provides high quality data for assessing public exposure and environmental impacts resulting from nuclear emergencies and provides baseline data during routine conditions. The database and website are accessible at www.epa.gov/enviro/. This site contains (1) a query for the general public which is easy to use--limits the amount of information provided, but includes the ability to graph the data with risk benchmarks and (2) a query for a more technical user which allows access to all of the data in the database, (3) background information on ER AMS.

  2. 78 FR 34177 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements AGENCY: Environmental... 2008 ozone national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) (the ``2008 ozone NAAQS'') that...

  3. 78 FR 34964 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... proposed rule ``Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State... proposed rulemaking proposes to implement the 2008 ozone national ambient air quality standards...

  4. 77 FR 38760 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 52, 53, and 58 RIN 2060-AO47 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... revise the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). This action...: Questions concerning the ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter'' proposed...

  5. 75 FR 2935 - Extension of Deadline for Promulgating Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 50, 58 and 81 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Final Rule and... Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... promulgating initial area designations for the ozone national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) that...

  6. 76 FR 72097 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... IQ Intelligence Quotient NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NTTAA National Technology... systems (including their brains) arising from Pb exposure may include intelligence quotient (IQ)...

  7. Pediatric asthma and ambient pollutant levels in industrializing nations.

    PubMed

    Jassal, Mandeep S

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood and its prevalence has been increasing within industrializing nations. The contribution of ambient pollutants to asthma symptomatology has been explored in some countries through epidemiological investigations, molecular analysis and monitoring functional outcomes. The health effects of rising environmental pollution have been of increasing concern in industrializing nations with rising urbanization patterns. This review article provides an overview of the link between pediatric asthma and exposure to rising sources of urban air pollution. It primarily focuses on the asthma-specific effects of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and particulate matter. Worldwide trends of asthma prevalence are also provided which detail the prominent rise in asthma symptoms in many urban areas of Africa, Latin America and Asia. The molecular and functional correlation of ambient pollutants with asthma-specific airway inflammation in the pediatric population are also highlighted. The final aspect of the review considers the correlation of motor vehicle, industrial and cooking energy sources, ascribed as the major emitters among the pollutants in urban settings, with asthma epidemiology in children.

  8. Ambient resonance of Mesa Arch, Canyonlands National Park, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, Alison M.; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Thorne, Michael S.

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed the resonance characteristics of a prominent natural arch in Canyonlands National Park, Mesa Arch, as measured from ambient seismic data. Evaluating spectral and polarization attributes, we distinguished the first four resonant frequencies of the arch, 2.9, 6.0, 6.9, and 8.5 Hz, as well as basic properties of the associated mode shapes. We then affirmed experimental data using 3-D numerical modal analysis, providing estimates of material properties and clarifying vibrational mode shapes. Monitoring resonant frequencies over time, we searched for shifts associated with changing environmental conditions and long-term progressive damage. We measured ~3% direct daily variation in resonant frequency associated with changing rock temperature, thermal stress, and stiffening of the rock matrix. Independent tilt data showed similar diurnal cycles associated with thermoelastic stresses and deformation of the arch. We observed no permanent resonant frequency shifts related to irreversible damage of Mesa Arch during our study period.

  9. 75 FR 71033 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Agency FR Federal Register FRM Federal Reference Method IQ Intelligence Quotient NAAQS National Ambient... include IQ loss, poor academic achievement, long- term learning disabilities, and an increased risk...

  10. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... 21, 2012 Part III Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 50, 51 and 81 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area Classifications Approach, Attainment Deadlines...

  11. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.16 Section 50.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) The national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead (Pb) and its compounds are 0.15 micrograms per cubic...

  12. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference...

  13. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  14. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  15. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  16. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  17. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  18. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  19. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  20. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  1. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  2. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  3. 77 FR 39205 - Public Hearings for Proposed Rules-National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... titled, ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter,'' that is scheduled to be... and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) to...

  4. 75 FR 6473 - Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Dioxide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 50 and 58 Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Dioxide... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Dioxide AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Based on its review of the air quality criteria for oxides of nitrogen and...

  5. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  6. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  7. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  8. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  9. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  10. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  11. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  12. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  13. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  14. PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE ON ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES FOR SETTING NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverrse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-bas...

  15. Estimates of the national benefits and costs of improving ambient air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, G.L.; Bower, B.T.; Lakhani, H.A.

    1983-04-01

    This paper examines the estimates of national benefits and national costs of ambient air quality improvement in the United States for the period 1970 to 1978. Analysis must be at the micro-level for both receptors of pollution and the dischargers of residuals. Section 2 discusses techniques for estimating the national benefits from improving ambient air quality. The literature on national benefits to health (mortality and morbidity) and non-health (avoiding damages to materials, plants, crops, etc.) is critically reviewed in this section. For the period 1970 to 1978, the value of these benefits ranged from about $5 billion to $51 billion, with a point estimate of about $22 billion. The national cost estimates by the Council on Environmental Quality, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and McGraw-Hill are provided in section 2. Cost estimates must include not only the end-of-pipe treatment measures, but also the alternatives: changes in product specification, product mix, processes, etc. These types of responses are not generally considered in estimates of national costs. For the period 1970 to 1978, estimates provided in section 3 of national costs of improving ambient air quality ranged from $8 to $9 billion in 1978 dollars. Section 4 concludes that the national benefits for improving ambient air quality exceed the national costs for the average and the high values of benefits, but not for the low estimates. Section 5 discusses the requirements for establishing a national regional computational framework for estimating national benefits and national costs. 49 references, 2 tables

  16. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) 1. General (a) This... national ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen dioxide (“NO2...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) 1. General (a) This... national ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen dioxide (“NO2...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) 1. General (a) This... national ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen dioxide (“NO2...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) 1. General (a) This... national ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen dioxide (“NO2...

  20. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  1. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  2. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  3. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  4. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  5. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  6. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  7. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  8. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  9. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  10. Estimates of the national benefits and costs of improving ambient air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, G.L.; Bower, B.T.; Lakhani, H.A.

    1983-04-01

    This paper examines the estimates of national benefits and national costs of ambient air quality improvement in the US for the period 1970 to 1978. Analysis must be at the micro-level for both receptors of pollution and the dischargers of residuals. Section 2 discusses techniques for estimating the national benefits from improving ambient air quality. The literature on national benefits to health (mortality and morbidity) and non-health (avoiding damages to materials, plants, crops, etc.) is critically reviewed in this section. For the period 1970 to 1978, the value of these benefits ranged from about $5 billion to $51 billion, with a point estimate of about $22 billion. The national cost estimates by the Council on Environmental Quality, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and McGraw-Hill are provided in section 2. Cost estimates must include not only the end-of-pipe treatment measures, but also the alternatives: changes in product specification, product mix, processes, etc. These types of responses are not generally considered in estimates of national costs of improving ambient air quality ranged from $8 to $9 billion in 1978 dollars. Section 4 concludes that the national benefits for improving ambient air quality exceed the national costs for the average and the high values of benefits, but not for the low estimates.

  11. 77 FR 30280 - Final National Recommended Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Carbaryl-2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... AGENCY Final National Recommended Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Carbaryl--2012 AGENCY: Environmental...(a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing the availability of final national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life...

  12. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues...

  13. 78 FR 3085 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 10..., 51, 52, 53 and 58 RIN 2060-AO47 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Based on its review of the air...

  14. 78 FR 52893 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 70 and 71 RIN 2060-AR34 Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements Correction In proposed rule...

  15. 75 FR 35519 - Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Sulfur Dioxide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ...Based on its review of the air quality criteria for oxides of sulfur and the primary national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for oxides of sulfur as measured by sulfur dioxide (SO2), EPA is revising the primary SO2 NAAQS to provide requisite protection of public health with an adequate margin of safety. Specifically, EPA is establishing a new 1-hour SO2......

  16. 76 FR 46083 - Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No... RIN 2060-AO72 Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur... nitrogen and oxides of sulfur. Based on its review, EPA proposes to retain the current nitrogen dioxide...

  17. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Link to an... to or greater than 0.005 ppm shall be rounded up). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the...

  18. 77 FR 65310 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Supplemental... particle (PM 2.5 ) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) air quality designations for the...

  19. 75 FR 39253 - Release of Second Draft Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... AGENCY Release of Second Draft Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality... Assessment for the Review of the Particulate Matter National Ambient Air Quality Standards--Second External...: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/pm/s_pm_2007_risk.html . The second draft Policy...

  20. 75 FR 51960 - Proposed Rule To Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard: New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 51 RIN 2060-AP30 Proposed Rule To Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard: New Source Review Anti-Backsliding Provisions for Former 1-Hour Ozone Standard AGENCY... designated nonattainment for the 1997 8-hour ozone national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS). The...

  1. 75 FR 80420 - Reasonable Further Progress Requirements for the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... 1997 8-hour ozone national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). Specifically, EPA is proposing that... nitrogen oxides (NO X )] that contribute to ground-level ozone concentrations. B. What should I consider...

  2. 76 FR 48073 - Public Hearing for Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Announcement... titled ``Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur'' which was... ``Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur'' proposed rule should...

  3. Ambient air monitoring for organic compounds, acids, and metals at Los Alamos National Laboratory, January 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.H.; Eberhart, C.F.

    1992-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) contracted Radian Corporation (Radian) to conduct a short-term, intensive air monitoring program whose goal was to estimate the impact of chemical emissions from LANL on the ambient air environment. A comprehensive emission inventory had identified more than 600 potential air contaminants in LANL`s emissions. A subset of specific target chemicals was selected for monitoring: 20 organic vapors, 6 metals and 5 inorganic acid vapors. These were measured at 5 ground level sampling sites around LANL over seven consecutive days in January 1991. The sampling and analytical strategy used a combination of EPA and NIOSH methods modified for ambient air applications.

  4. Ambient air monitoring for organic compounds, acids, and metals at Los Alamos National Laboratory, January 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.H. ); Eberhart, C.F. )

    1992-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) contracted Radian Corporation (Radian) to conduct a short-term, intensive air monitoring program whose goal was to estimate the impact of chemical emissions from LANL on the ambient air environment. A comprehensive emission inventory had identified more than 600 potential air contaminants in LANL's emissions. A subset of specific target chemicals was selected for monitoring: 20 organic vapors, 6 metals and 5 inorganic acid vapors. These were measured at 5 ground level sampling sites around LANL over seven consecutive days in January 1991. The sampling and analytical strategy used a combination of EPA and NIOSH methods modified for ambient air applications.

  5. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  10. The National Ambient Air Monitoring Stategy: Rethinking the Role of National Networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    A current re-engineering of the United States routine ambient monitoring networks intended to improve the balance in addressing both regulatory and scientific objectives is addressed in this paper. Key attributes of these network modifications include the addition of collocated ...

  11. A Direct sensitivity approach to predict hourly ozone resulting from compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard

    EPA Science Inventory

    In setting primary ambient air quality standards, the EPA’s responsibility under the law is to establish standards that protect public health. As part of the current review of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), the US EPA evaluated the health exposure and ...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  13. 75 FR 1566 - Public Hearings for Reconsideration of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... proposed rule, ``Reconsideration of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone,'' which was... the following Web site: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/ozone/s_o3_cr_fr.html for the...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  18. 75 FR 44790 - Second Draft Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... AGENCY Second Draft Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... Ambient Air Quality Standards--Second External Review Draft. The EPA is extending the comment period for... chapter 4 of the second draft Policy Assessment. The original comment period was to end on August 16,...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt... data shall be processed at face value; that is, without any transformation or scaling. Data...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt... data shall be processed at face value; that is, without any transformation or scaling. Data...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt... data shall be processed at face value; that is, without any transformation or scaling. Data...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 50, App. N Appendix N to Part 50—Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2... accordance with part 58 of this chapter. Design values are the metrics (i.e., statistics) that are...

  3. Workshop in Support of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen (NOx) and Sulfur Oxides (SOx)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing a workshop to discuss policy-relevant science to Inform EPA’s "Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur" report. The workshop is being organized by EPA’s Office of Research and Development’s, Nation...

  4. Transient climate and ambient health impacts due to national solid fuel cookstove emissions.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Forrest G; Henze, Daven K; Lee, Colin J; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V

    2017-02-07

    Residential solid fuel use contributes to degraded indoor and ambient air quality and may affect global surface temperature. However, the potential for national-scale cookstove intervention programs to mitigate the latter issues is not yet well known, owing to the spatial heterogeneity of aerosol emissions and impacts, along with coemitted species. Here we use a combination of atmospheric modeling, remote sensing, and adjoint sensitivity analysis to individually evaluate consequences of a 20-y linear phase-out of cookstove emissions in each country with greater than 5% of the population using solid fuel for cooking. Emissions reductions in China, India, and Ethiopia contribute to the largest global surface temperature change in 2050 [combined impact of -37 mK (11 mK to -85 mK)], whereas interventions in countries less commonly targeted for cookstove mitigation such as Azerbaijan, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan have the largest per cookstove climate benefits. Abatement in China, India, and Bangladesh contributes to the largest reduction of premature deaths from ambient air pollution, preventing 198,000 (102,000-204,000) of the 260,000 (137,000-268,000) global annual avoided deaths in 2050, whereas again emissions in Ukraine and Azerbaijan have the largest per cookstove impacts, along with Romania. Global cookstove emissions abatement results in an average surface temperature cooling of -77 mK (20 mK to -278 mK) in 2050, which increases to -118 mK (-11 mK to -335 mK) by 2100 due to delayed CO2 response. Health impacts owing to changes in ambient particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) amount to ∼22.5 million premature deaths prevented between 2000 and 2100.

  5. Ambient noise and temporal patterns of boat activity in the US Virgin Islands National Park.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Maxwell B; Mooney, T Aran

    2015-09-15

    Human activity is contributing increasing noise to marine ecosystems. Recent studies have examined the effects of boat noise on marine fishes, but there is limited understanding of the prevalence of this type of sound source. This investigation tracks vessel noise on three reefs in the US Virgin Islands National Park over four months in 2013. Ambient noise levels ranged from 106 to 129dBrms re 1μPa (100Hz-20kHz). Boat noise occurred in 6-12% of samples. In the presence of boat noise, ambient noise in a low-frequency band (100-1000Hz) increased by >7dB above baseline levels and sound levels were significantly higher. The frequency with the most acoustic energy shifted to a significantly lower frequency when boat noise was present during the day. These results indicate the abundance of boat noise and its overlap with reef organism sound production, raising concern for the communication abilities of these animals.

  6. 78 FR 47191 - Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Primary National Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR18 Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO ) Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule establishes air quality designations for certain areas in the United States for...

  7. Review of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Dioxide: Risk and Exposure Assessment Planning Document

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting a review of the air quality criteria and the primary (health-based) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The major phases of the process for reviewing NAAQS include the following: (...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Air Quality Standards for PM2.5 N Appendix N to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL.... 50, App. N Appendix N to Part 50—Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2... used for performing calculations in appendix N. It represents data for the primary monitors...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Air Quality Standards for PM2.5 N Appendix N to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL.... 50, App. N Appendix N to Part 50—Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2... used for performing calculations in appendix N. It represents data for the primary monitors...

  10. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  11. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  12. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  13. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  14. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion...

  15. 75 FR 57220 - Rule To Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard: New Source Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 51 RIN 2060-AP30 Rule To Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard: New Source Review Anti-Backsliding Provisions for Former 1-Hour Ozone Standard--Public Hearing... is announcing a public hearing to be held for the proposed ``Rule to Implement the 1997 8-Hour...

  16. 75 FR 32178 - Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... final document titled, Quantitative Risk and Exposure Assessment for Carbon Monoxide (REA). The REA describes ] quantitative analyses that have been conducted as part of the review of the National Ambient Air... Standards (Mail code C504-06), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711;...

  17. 77 FR 42495 - Release of Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... Ozone, First External Review Draft. These two draft assessment documents describe the quantitative analyses the EPA is conducting as part of the review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS... NAAQS,\\3\\ the Agency is conducting quantitative assessments characterizing the: (1) Health...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air Quality Standards for PM2.5 N Appendix N to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL.... 50, App. N Appendix N to Part 50—Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2...) for the annual creditable number of samples for year y (cny). The corresponding “n” value in the...

  19. 76 FR 59599 - Extension of Comment Period for Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... comment period for the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur... Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur'' proposed rule should be addressed to Rich Scheffe, U.S....

  20. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General This appendix explains how to... associated examples are contained in the “Guideline for Interpretation of Ozone Air Quality Standards.”...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General This appendix explains how to... associated examples are contained in the “Guideline for Interpretation of Ozone Air Quality Standards.”...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General This appendix explains how to... associated examples are contained in the “Guideline for Interpretation of Ozone Air Quality Standards.”...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General This appendix explains how to... associated examples are contained in the “Guideline for Interpretation of Ozone Air Quality Standards.”...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General This appendix explains how to... associated examples are contained in the “Guideline for Interpretation of Ozone Air Quality Standards.”...

  5. Evaluation of the causal framework used for setting national ambient air quality standards.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Julie E; Prueitt, Robyn L; Sax, Sonja N; Bailey, Lisa A; Rhomberg, Lorenz R

    2013-11-01

    Abstract A scientifically sound assessment of the potential hazards associated with a substance requires a systematic, objective and transparent evaluation of the weight of evidence (WoE) for causality of health effects. We critically evaluated the current WoE framework for causal determination used in the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) assessments of the scientific data on air pollutants for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) review process, including its methods for literature searches; study selection, evaluation and integration; and causal judgments. The causal framework used in recent NAAQS evaluations has many valuable features, but it could be more explicit in some cases, and some features are missing that should be included in every WoE evaluation. Because of this, it has not always been applied consistently in evaluations of causality, leading to conclusions that are not always supported by the overall WoE, as we demonstrate using EPA's ozone Integrated Science Assessment as a case study. We propose additions to the NAAQS causal framework based on best practices gleaned from a previously conducted survey of available WoE frameworks. A revision of the NAAQS causal framework so that it more closely aligns with these best practices and the full and consistent application of the framework will improve future assessments of the potential health effects of criteria air pollutants by making the assessments more thorough, transparent, and scientifically sound.

  6. Research on ambient temperature passive magnetic bearings at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.; Ryitov, D.D.` Smith, J.R.; Tung, L.S.

    1997-04-01

    Research performed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the equilibrium and stability of a new class of ambient-temperature passive bearing systems is described. The basic concepts involved are: (1) Stability of the rotating system is only achieved in the rotating state. That is, disengaging mechanical systems are used to insure stable levitation at rest (when Earnshaw`s theorem applies). (2) Stable levitation by passive magnetic elements can be achieved if the vector sum of the force derivatives of the several elements of the system is net negative (i.e. restoring) for axial, transverse, and tilt-type perturbations from equilibrium. To satisfy the requirements of (2) using only permanent magnet elements we have employed periodic ``Halbach arrays.`` These interact with passive inductive loaded circuits and act as stabilizers, with the primary forces arising from axially symmetric permanent-magnet elements. Stabilizers and other elements needed to create compact passive magnetic bearing systems have been constructed. Novel passive means for stabilizing classes of rotor-dynamic instabilities in such systems have also been investigated.

  7. Integrating Susceptibility into Environmental Policy: An Analysis of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Lead

    PubMed Central

    Chari, Ramya; Burke, Thomas A.; White, Ronald H.; Fox, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    Susceptibility to chemical toxins has not been adequately addressed in risk assessment methodologies. As a result, environmental policies may fail to meet their fundamental goal of protecting the public from harm. This study examines how characterization of risk may change when susceptibility is explicitly considered in policy development; in particular we examine the process used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set a National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for lead. To determine a NAAQS, EPA estimated air lead-related decreases in child neurocognitive function through a combination of multiple data elements including concentration-response (CR) functions. In this article, we present alternative scenarios for determining a lead NAAQS using CR functions developed in populations more susceptible to lead toxicity due to socioeconomic disadvantage. The use of CR functions developed in susceptible groups resulted in cognitive decrements greater than original EPA estimates. EPA’s analysis suggested that a standard level of 0.15 µg/m3 would fulfill decision criteria, but by incorporating susceptibility we found that options for the standard could reasonably be extended to lower levels. The use of data developed in susceptible populations would result in the selection of a more protective NAAQS under the same decision framework applied by EPA. Results are used to frame discussion regarding why cumulative risk assessment methodologies are needed to help inform policy development. PMID:22690184

  8. Table of Historical Nitrogen Dioxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    See the history of limits to the level of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air, set through the NAAQS review and rulemaking process under the Clean Air Act. This includes both primary and secondary standards.

  9. Table of Historical Sulfur Dioxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    See the history of limits to the level of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in ambient air, set through the NAAQS review and rulemaking process under the Clean Air Act. This includes both primary and secondary standards.

  10. Analysis of primary fine particle national ambient air quality standard metrics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip R S; Graham, John J

    2006-02-01

    In accordance with the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently reviewing its National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter, which are required to provide an adequate margin of safety to populations, including susceptible subgroups. Based on the latest scientific, health, and technical information about particle pollution, EPA staff recommends establishing more protective health-based fine particle standards. Since the last standards review, epidemiologic studies have continued to find associations between short-term and long-term exposure to particulate matter and cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality at current pollution levels. This study analyzed the spatial and temporal variability of fine particulate (PM2.5) monitoring data for the Northeast and the continental United States to assess the protectiveness of various levels, forms, and combinations of 24-hr and annual health-based standards currently recommended by EPA staff and the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee. Recommended standards have the potential for modest or substantial increases in protection in the Northeast, ranging from an additional 13-83% of the population of the region who are living in areas not likely to meet new standards and thereby benefiting from compliance with more protective air pollution controls. Within recommended standard ranges, an optimal 24-hr (98th percentile)/annual standard suite occurs at 30/12 microg/m3, providing short- and long-term health protection for a substantial percentage of both Northeast (84%) and U.S. (78%) populations. In addition, the Northeast region will not benefit as widely as the nation as a whole if less stringent standards are selected. Should the 24-hr (98th percentile) standard be set at 35 microg/m3, Northeast and U.S. populations will receive 16-48% and 7-17% less protection than a 30 microg/m3 standard, respectively, depending on the level of the annual standard. A 30/12 microg/m3 standard

  11. National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Lead (Pb) and Implementation Plans for Lead NAAQS: 1978 Final Rule (43 FR 46246 & 46264)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is a copy of the Federal Register publication of the October 5, 1978 Final Rules for National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead (Pb) and Implementation Plans for Lead (Pb) NAAQS.

  12. Fact Sheets on Review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone Staff Papers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The second draft Staff Paper points to an expanded body of health effects evidence suggesting a wide range of adverse health effects associated with exposure to ambient ozone. This is part of the process for review of the NAAQS for ground-level ozone.

  13. Summary of available state ambient stream-water-quality data, 1990-98, and limitations for national assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Larry M.; Rosner, Stacy M.; Hoffman, Darren C.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2004-01-01

    The investigation described in this report summarized data from State ambient stream-water-quality monitoring sites for 10 water-quality constituents or measurements (suspended solids, fecal coliform bacteria, ammonia as nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total phosphorus, total arsenic, dissolved solids, chloride, sulfate, and pH). These 10 water-quality constituents or measurements commonly are listed nationally as major contributors to degradation of surface water. Water-quality data were limited to that electronically accessible from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Storage and Retrieval System (STORET), the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System (NWIS), or individual State databases. Forty-two States had ambient stream-water-quality data electronically accessible for some or all of the constituents or measurements summarized during this investigation. Ambient in this report refers to data collected for the purpose of evaluating stream ecosystems in relation to human health, environmental and ecological conditions, and designated uses. Generally, data were from monitoring sites assessed for State 305(b) reports. Comparisons of monitoring data among States are problematic for several reasons, including differences in the basic spatial design of monitoring networks; water-quality constituents for which samples are analyzed; water-quality criteria to which constituent concentrations are compared; quantity and comprehensiveness of water-quality data; sample collection, processing, and handling; analytical methods; temporal variability in sample collection; and quality-assurance practices. Large differences among the States in number of monitoring sites precluded a general assumption that statewide water-quality conditions were represented by data from these sites. Furthermore, data from individual monitoring sites may not represent water-quality conditions at the sites because sampling conditions and protocols are unknown. Because

  14. A direct sensitivity approach to predict hourly ozone resulting from compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard.

    PubMed

    Simon, Heather; Baker, Kirk R; Akhtar, Farhan; Napelenok, Sergey L; Possiel, Norm; Wells, Benjamin; Timin, Brian

    2013-03-05

    In setting primary ambient air quality standards, the EPA's responsibility under the law is to establish standards that protect public health. As part of the current review of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), the US EPA evaluated the health exposure and risks associated with ambient ozone pollution using a statistical approach to adjust recent air quality to simulate just meeting the current standard level, without specifying emission control strategies. One drawback of this purely statistical concentration rollback approach is that it does not take into account spatial and temporal heterogeneity of ozone response to emissions changes. The application of the higher-order decoupled direct method (HDDM) in the community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model is discussed here to provide an example of a methodology that could incorporate this variability into the risk assessment analyses. Because this approach includes a full representation of the chemical production and physical transport of ozone in the atmosphere, it does not require assumed background concentrations, which have been applied to constrain estimates from past statistical techniques. The CMAQ-HDDM adjustment approach is extended to measured ozone concentrations by determining typical sensitivities at each monitor location and hour of the day based on a linear relationship between first-order sensitivities and hourly ozone values. This approach is demonstrated by modeling ozone responses for monitor locations in Detroit and Charlotte to domain-wide reductions in anthropogenic NOx and VOCs emissions. As seen in previous studies, ozone response calculated using HDDM compared well to brute-force emissions changes up to approximately a 50% reduction in emissions. A new stepwise approach is developed here to apply this method to emissions reductions beyond 50% allowing for the simulation of more stringent reductions in ozone concentrations. Compared to previous rollback methods, this

  15. Particulate matter concentration in ambient air and its effects on lung functions among residents in the National Capital Region, India.

    PubMed

    Kesavachandran, C; Pangtey, B S; Bihari, V; Fareed, M; Pathak, M K; Srivastava, A K; Mathur, N

    2013-02-01

    The World Health Organization has estimated that air pollution is responsible for 1.4 % of all deaths and 0.8 % of disability-adjusted life years. NOIDA, located at the National Capital Region, India, was declared as one of the critically air-polluted areas by the Central Pollution Control Board of the Government of India. Studies on the relationship of reduction in lung functions of residents living in areas with higher concentrations of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air were inconclusive since the subjects of most of the studies are hospital admission cases. Very few studies, including one from India, have shown the relationship of PM concentration and its effects of lung functions in the same location. Hence, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to study the effect of particulate matter concentration in ambient air on the lung functions of residents living in a critically air-polluted area in India. PM concentrations in ambient air (PM(1,) PM(2.5)) were monitored at residential locations and identified locations with higher (NOIDA) and lower concentrations (Gurgaon). Lung function tests (FEV(1), PEFR) were conducted using a spirometer in 757 residents. Both air monitoring and lung function tests were conducted on the same day. Significant negative linear relationship exists between higher concentrations of PM(1) with reduced FEV(1) and increased concentrations of PM(2.5) with reduced PEFR and FEV(1). The study shows that reductions in lung functions (PEFR and FEV(1)) can be attributed to higher particulate matter concentrations in ambient air. Decline in airflow obstruction in subjects exposed to high PM concentrations can be attributed to the fibrogenic response and associated airway wall remodeling. The study suggests the intervention of policy makers and stake holders to take necessary steps to reduce the emissions of PM concentrations, especially PM(1,) PM(2.5), which can lead to serious respiratory health concerns in residents.

  16. Estimating contribution of wildland fires to ambient ozone levels in National Parks in the Sierra Nevada, California.

    PubMed

    Preisler, Haiganoush K; Zhong, Shiyuan Sharon; Esperanza, Annie; Brown, Timothy J; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Tarnay, Leland

    2010-03-01

    Data from four continuous ozone and weather monitoring sites operated by the National Park Service in Sierra Nevada, California, are used to develop an ozone forecasting model and to estimate the contribution of wildland fires on ambient ozone levels. The analyses of weather and ozone data pointed to the transport of ozone precursors from the Central Valley as an important source of pollution in these National Parks. Comparisons of forecasted and observed values demonstrated that accurate forecasts of next-day hourly ozone levels may be achieved by using a time series model with historic averages, expected local weather and modeled PM values as explanatory variables. Results on fire smoke influence indicated occurrence of significant increases in average ozone levels with increasing fire activity. The overall effect on diurnal ozone values, however, was small when compared with the amount of variability attributed to sources other than fire.

  17. Applicability of ambient toxicity testing to national or regional water-quality assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Comprehensive assessment of the quality of natural waters requires a multifaceted approach. Based on experimentation designed to monitor responses of organisms to environmental stresses, toxicity testing may have diverse purposes in water quality assessments. These purposes may include identification that warrant further study because of poor water quality or unusual ecological features, verification of other types of monitoring, or assessment of contaminant effects on aquatic communities. A wide variety of toxicity test methods have been developed to fulfill the needs of diverse applications. The methods differ primarily in the full selections made relative to four characteristics: (1) test species, (2) endpoints (acute or chronic), (3) test enclosure type, and (4) test substance (toxicant) that functions as the environmental stress. Toxicity test approachs vary in their capacity to meet the needs of large-scale assessments of existing water quality. Ambient testing is more likely to meet these needs than are the procedures that call for exposure of the test organisms to known concentrations of a single toxicant. However, meaningful interpretation of ambient test results depend on the existence of accompanying chemical analysis of the ambient media. The ambient test substance may be water or sediments. Sediment tests have had limited application, but they are useful because of the fact that most toxicants tend to accumulate in sediments, and many test species either inhabit the sediments or are in frequent contact with them. Biochemical testing methods, which have been developing rapidly in recent years, are likely to be among the most useful procedures for large-scale water quality assessments. They are relatively rapid and simple, and more importantly, they focus on biochemical changes that are the initial responses of virtually all organisms to environmental stimuli. Most species are sensitive to relatively few toxicants and their sensitivities vary as

  18. Prioritization of constituents for national- and regional-scale ambient monitoring of water and sediment in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Valder, Joshua F.; Carter, Janet M.; Zogorski, John S.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2,541 constituents were evaluated and prioritized for national- and regional-scale ambient monitoring of water and sediment in the United States. This prioritization was done by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in preparation for the upcoming third decade (Cycle 3; 2013–23) of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. This report provides the methods used to prioritize the constituents and the results of that prioritization. Constituents were prioritized by the NAWQA National Target Analyte Strategy (NTAS) work group on the basis of available information on physical and chemical properties, observed or predicted environmental occurrence and fate, and observed or anticipated adverse effects on human health or aquatic life. Constituents were evaluated within constituent groups that were determined on the basis of physical or chemical properties or on uses or sources. Some constituents were evaluated within more than one constituent group. Although comparable objectives were used in the prioritization of constituents within the different constituent groups, differences in the availability of information accessed for each constituent group led to the development of separate prioritization approaches adapted to each constituent group to make best use of available resources. Constituents were assigned to one of three prioritization tiers: Tier 1, those having the highest priority for inclusion in ambient monitoring of water or sediment on a national or regional scale (including NAWQA Cycle 3 monitoring) on the basis of their likelihood of environmental occurrence in ambient water or sediment, or likelihood of effects on human health or aquatic life; Tier 2, those having intermediate priority for monitoring on the basis of their lower likelihood of environmental occurrence or lower likelihood of effects on human health or aquatic life; and Tier 3, those having low or no priority for monitoring on the basis of evidence of nonoccurrence or lack of

  19. Applicability of ambient toxicity testing to national or regional water-quality assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, John F.

    1990-01-01

    Comprehensive assessment of the quality of natural waters requires a multifaceted approach. Descriptions of existing conditions may be achieved by various kinds of chemical and hydrologic analyses, whereas information about the effects of such conditions on living organisms depends on biological monitoring. Toxicity testing is one type of biological monitoring that can be used to identify possible effects of toxic contaminants. Based on experimentation designed to monitor responses of organisms to environmental stresses, toxicity testing may have diverse purposes in water-quality assessments. These purposes may include identification of areas that warrant further study because of poor water quality or unusual ecological features, verification of other types of monitoring, or assessment of contaminant effects on aquatic communities. Toxicity-test results are most effective when used as a complement to chemical analyses, hydrologic measurements, and other biological monitoring. However, all toxicity-testing procedures have certain limitations that must be considered in developing the methodology and applications of toxicity testing in any large-scale water-quality-assessment program. A wide variety of toxicity-test methods have been developed to fulfill the needs of diverse applications. The methods differ primarily in the selections made relative to four characteristics: (1) test species, (2) endpoint (acute or chronic), (3) test-enclosure type, and (4) test substance (toxicant) that functions as the environmental stress. Toxicity-test approaches vary in their capacity to meet the needs of large-scale assessments of existing water quality. Ambient testing, whereby the test organism is exposed to naturally occurring substances that contain toxicant mixtures in an organic or inorganic matrix, is more likely to meet these needs than are procedures that call for exposure of the test organisms to known concentrations of a single toxicant. However, meaningful

  20. Will the circle be unbroken: a history of the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, John

    2007-06-01

    In celebration of the 100th anniversary of the Air & Waste Management Association, this review examines the history of air quality management (AQM) in the United States over the last century, with an emphasis on the ambient standards programs established by the landmark 1970 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments. The current CAA system is a hybrid of several distinct air pollution control philosophies, including the recursive or circular system driven by ambient standards. Although this evolving system has resulted in tremendous improvements in air quality, it has been far from perfect in terms of timeliness and effectiveness. The paper looks at several periods in the history of the U.S. program, including: (1) 1900-1970, spanning the early smoke abatement and smog control programs, the first federal involvement, and the development of a hybrid AQM approach in the 1970 CAA; (2) 1971-1976, when the first National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) were set and implemented; (3) 1977-1993, a period of the first revisions to the standards, new CAA Amendments, delays in implementation and decision-making, and key science/policy/legislative developments that would alter both the focus and scale of air pollution programs and how they are implemented; and (4) 1993-2006, the second and third wave of NAAQS revisions and their implementation in the context of the 1990 CAA. This discussion examines where NAAQS have helped drive implementation programs and how improvements in both effects and air quality/control sciences influenced policy and legislation to enhance the effectiveness of the system over time. The review concludes with a look toward the future of AQM, emphasizing challenges and ways to meet them. The most significant of these is the need to make more efficient progress toward air quality goals, while adjusting the system to address the growing intersections between air quality management and climate change.

  1. Carbon monoxide analysis of future attainment of the NAAQS (National Ambient Air Quality Standard) in Wichita, Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schewe, G. J.

    1985-06-01

    In order to comply with the NAAQS for CO in Wichita, Kansas, a special study was performed to demonstrate that CO concentrations at a special purpose monitor (SPM) located near Douglas and Main Streets would give results less than the NAAQS by 1987. The SPM site is located near the urban core in an area characterized by high nighttime traffic volumes and congested traffic flow. A dispersion modeling analysis was performed using the CALINE-3 Model for dispersion, the MOBILE-3 Model for vehicle emissions and local or national traffic and ambient conditions. Results of modeling the SPM site for baseline (1983) emissions were calibrated with maximum measured CO concentrations. Several scenarios were analyzed in this analysis including with and without the inspection/maintenance program and with and without the left-turn ban from Douglas to Main Streets.

  2. Areas Nacionales de Estudio Ambiental: Una Guia. (National Environmental Study Area: A Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This booklet, the Spanish version of SE 014 817, is a guide for teachers and resource managers who are interested in establishing National Environmental Study Areas (NESA) or interested in receiving NESA recognition for their on-going environmental study area programs. It outlines the characteristics and procedures of the program; the nature,…

  3. NAAQS (National Ambient Air Quality Standards) exposure model (NEM) applied to carbon monoxide: addendum. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, R.A.; Johnson, T.

    1985-04-01

    The report describes the results obtained when the carbon monoxide (CO) version of NEM is used to estimate national exposures associated with attaining the current CO standard (9 ppm, one observed exceedance). This standard was not analyzed in the basic report of the same title (EPA-450/5-83-003). NEM is a simulation model that simulates the intersection of a population with pollutant concentrations over space and time to estimate exposures that would obtain if various alternative NAAQs were just met. Estimates are presented for adults with cardiovascular disease in four urban study areas and for a nationwide extrapolation.

  4. Nonradioactive Ambient Air Monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2001--2002

    SciTech Connect

    E. Gladney; J.Dewart, C.Eberhart; J.Lochamy

    2004-09-01

    During the spring of 2000, the Cerro Grande forest fire reached Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and ignited both above-ground vegetation and disposed materials in several landfills. During and after the fire, there was concern about the potential human health impacts from chemicals emitted by the combustion of these Laboratory materials. Consequently, short-term, intensive air-monitoring studies were performed during and shortly after the fire. Unlike the radiological data from many years of AIRNET sampling, LANL did not have an adequate database of nonradiological species under baseline conditions with which to compare data collected during the fire. Therefore, during 2001 the Meteorology and Air Quality Group designed and implemented a new air-monitoring program, entitled NonRadNET, to provide nonradiological background data under normal conditions. The objectives of NonRadNET were to: (1) develop the capability for collecting nonradiological air-monitoring data, (2) conduct monitoring to develop a database of typical background levels of selected nonradiological species in the communities nearest the Laboratory, and (3) determine LANL's potential contribution to nonradiological air pollution in the surrounding communities. NonRadNET ended in late December 2002 with five quarters of data. The purpose of this paper is to organize and describe the NonRadNET data collected over 2001-2002 to use as baseline data, either for monitoring during a fire, some other abnormal event, or routine use. To achieve that purpose, in this paper we will: (1) document the NonRadNET program procedures, methods, and quality management, (2) describe the usual origins and uses of the species measured, (3) compare the species measured to LANL and other area emissions, (4) present the five quarters of data, (5) compare the data to known typical environmental values, and (6) evaluate the data against exposure standards.

  5. Are the elements of the proposed ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards informed by the best available science?

    PubMed

    Goodman, Julie E; Sax, Sonja N; Lange, Sabine; Rhomberg, Lorenz R

    2015-06-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) issues National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six criteria pollutants, including ozone. Each standard has four elements: an indicator, level, averaging time, and form. Ozone levels (i.e., air concentrations) alone in scientific studies are not directly comparable to the "level" element of the NAAQS because the standard considers the level in the context of its relation to the remaining elements. Failure to appreciate this has led to misunderstandings regarding NAAQS that would be health-protective. This can be seen with controlled human ozone exposure studies, which often involved small numbers of people exercising quasi-continuously for a long duration at an intensity not common in the general population (and unlikely achievable by most sensitive individuals), under worst-case exposure profiles. In addition, epidemiology studies have used different averaging times and have had methodological limitations that may have biased results. Such considerations can make it difficult to compare ozone levels and results across studies and to appropriately apply them in a NAAQS evaluation. Relating patterns and circumstances of exposure, and exposure measurements, to all elements of the NAAQS can be challenging, but if US EPA fully undertook this, it would be evident that available evidence does not indicate that proposed lower ozone standards would be more health protective than the current one.

  6. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Interpretation of the Primary... be submitted to EPA's Air Quality System (AQS), or otherwise available to EPA, meeting...

  7. Role of science and judgment in setting national ambient air quality standards: how low is low enough?

    PubMed

    McClellan, Roger O

    2012-06-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires listing as criteria air pollutants those pollutants that arise from multiple sources and are found across the United States. The original list included carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, photochemical oxidants (later regulated as ozone), and hydrocarbons. Later, the listing of hydrocarbons was revoked and lead was listed. The CAA requires the EPA Administrator to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for these pollutants using the "latest scientific knowledge" at levels that, in the judgment of the Administrator, are "requisite to protect public health" while "allowing an adequate margin of safety" without considering the cost of implementing the NAAQS. The NAAQS are set using scientific knowledge to inform the Administrator's policy judgments on each NAAQS. Recently, there has been increasing tension and debate over the role of scientific knowledge versus policy judgment in the setting of NAAQS. This paper reviews key elements of this debate drawing on the opinion of Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer, in Whitman v. American Trucking Associations, to resolve the conundrum posed by the CAA language. I conclude that scientists should carefully distinguish between their interpretations of scientific knowledge on specific pollutants and their personal preferences as to a given policy outcome (i.e., specific level and form of the NAAQS), recognizing that these are policy judgments as to acceptable levels of risk if the science does not identify a threshold level below which there are no identifiable health risks. These policy judgments are exclusively delegated by the CAA to the EPA Administrator who needs to articulate the basis for their policy judgments on the level and form of the NAAQS and associated level of acceptable risk.

  8. Review of the national ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide assessment of scientific and technical information. OAQPS staff paper. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, D.J.; McCurdy, T.R.; Richmond, H.M.

    1992-08-01

    The paper evaluates and interprets the updated scientific and technical information that EPA staff believes is most relevant to the review of primary (health) national ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. The assessment is intended to bridge the gap between the scientific review in the EPA criteria document for carbon monoxide and the judgements required of the Administrator in setting ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. The major recommendations of the staff paper include the following: (1) There continues to be a need to control ambient levels of carbon monoxide to protect public health; (2) Both 1-hour and 8-hour averaging times should be retained for primary carbon monoxide standards; (3) Exposure analysis results indicate relatively few individuals with angina pectoris would experience carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels of 2.1% or greater when exposed to carbon monoxide levels in ambient air only if current standards are attained; (4) Public health risk for COHb levels of 2.0% or lower appears to be small, if any; (5) Current 1-hour (35 ppm) and 8-hour (9 ppm) standards for carbon monoxide should be reaffirmed.

  9. Fine particulate matter national ambient air quality standards: public health impact on populations in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip R S; Graham, John J

    2005-09-01

    In this article we identify the magnitude of general and susceptible populations within the northeastern United States that would benefit from compliance with alternative U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) annual and 24-hr mass-based standards for particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5). Understanding the scale of susceptibility in relation to the stringency or protectiveness of PM standards is important to achieving the public health protection required by the Clean Air Act of 1970. Evaluative tools are therefore necessary to place into regulatory context available health and monitoring data appropriate to the current review of the PM National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Within the New England, New Jersey, and New York study area, 38% of the total population are < 18 or > or =65 years of age, 4-18% of adults have cardiopulmonary or diabetes health conditions, 12-15% of children have respiratory allergies or lifetime asthma, and 72% of all persons (across child, adult, and elderly age groups) live in densely populated urban areas with elevated PM2.5 concentrations likely creating heightened exposure scenarios. The analysis combined a number of data sets to show that compliance with a range of alternative annual and 24-hr PM2.5 standard groupings would affect a large fraction of the total population in the Northeast. This work finds that current PM2.5 standards in the eight-state study area affect only 16% of the general population, who live in counties that do not meet the existing annual/24-hr standard of 15/65 microg/m3. More protective PM2.5 standards recommended or enacted by California and Canada would protect 84-100% of the Northeast population. Standards falling within current ranges recommended by the U.S. EPA would protect 29-100% of the Northeast population. These considerations suggest that the size of general and susceptible populations affected by the stringency of alternative PM standards has

  10. Preliminary information on ambient concentrations measured at the Las Vegas National Near-Road MSAT study site

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides preliminary information on the trends in ambient concentrations observed near a heavily traveled highway in Las Vegas, Nevada. As part of a joint effort by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Federal Highway Administration, an air monitoring pro...

  11. 75 FR 11877 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... of Sulfur AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability of draft... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: First External Review Draft... (welfare-based) NAAQS for oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) and oxides of sulfur (SO X ). Because NO X , SO...

  12. 75 FR 57463 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... of Sulfur AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability of draft... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: Second External Review Draft... for oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) and oxides of sulfur (SO X ). Because NO X , SO X , and...

  13. Technical comments on EPA`s proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1997-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed new ambient air quality standards specifically for fine particulate matter, regulating concentrations of particles with median aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}). Two new standards have been proposed: a maximum 24-hr concentration that is intended to protect against acute health effects, and an annual concentration limit that is intended to protect against longer-term health effects. EPA has also proposed a slight relaxation of the 24-hr standard for inhalable particles (PM{sub 10}), by allowing additional exceedances each year. Fine particles are currently being indirectly controlled by means of regulations for PM{sub 10} and TSP, under the Clean Air Act of 1970 and subsequent amendments. Although routine monitoring of PM{sub 2.5} is rare and data are sparse, the available data indicate that ambient concentrations have been declining at about 6% per year under existing regulations.

  14. Comparison of air dispersion modeling results with ambient air sampling data: A case study at Tacoma Landfill, a National Priorities List Site

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, L.R. ); Rutherford, T.L. )

    1994-08-01

    Air dispersion modeling, ambient air sampling, and emissions testing of landfill sources have been performed to evaluate the effects of remedial activities on ambient air surrounding the Tacoma Landfill. In 1983, the Tacoma Landfill was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) as part of the Commencement Bay/South Tacoma Channel Superfund site. Remedial activities completed, or near completion, at the 190 acre (768,903 m[sup 2]) Tacoma Landfill include a groundwater extraction system and air stripping units used to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from groundwater, landfill gas extraction and flare system to control gas migration from the landfill, landfill liner and leachate collection system for an active section of the landfill, and a landfill cap that covers the inactive portions of the landfill. Dispersion modeling was performed with measured stack emission data using Industrial Source Complex (ISC) to determine the groundlevel concentrations of VOCs from the air stripper, flares, and active portion of the landfill for comparison with the measured ambient air data collected during 1992. 9 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Regulatory Impact Analysis of the Final Revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ground-Level Ozone

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA performed an illustrative analysis of the potential costs, human health benefits, and welfare benefits of nationally attaining a revised primary ozone standard of 70 ppb and a primary alternative ozone standard level of 65 ppb.

  16. 77 FR 34221 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Several...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... emissions are emitted by many types of pollution sources, including power plants and industrial emissions... recommendations. These factors include air quality data, emissions data, traffic and commuting patterns, growth... pollution control, National parks, Wilderness areas. Dated: May 31, 2012. Lisa P. Jackson,...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) T Appendix T to Part 50 Protection of... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) 1. General (a) This appendix explains... ambient air quality standards for Oxides of Sulfur as measured by Sulfur Dioxide (“SO2 NAAQS”)...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) T Appendix T to Part 50 Protection of... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) 1. General (a) This appendix explains... ambient air quality standards for Oxides of Sulfur as measured by Sulfur Dioxide (“SO2 NAAQS”)...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) T Appendix T to Part 50 Protection of... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) 1. General (a) This appendix explains... ambient air quality standards for Oxides of Sulfur as measured by Sulfur Dioxide (“SO2 NAAQS”)...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) T Appendix T to Part 50 Protection of... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) 1. General (a) This appendix explains... ambient air quality standards for Oxides of Sulfur as measured by Sulfur Dioxide (“SO2 NAAQS”)...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) T Appendix T to Part 50 Protection of... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) 1. General (a) This appendix explains... ambient air quality standards for Oxides of Sulfur as measured by Sulfur Dioxide (“SO2 NAAQS”)...

  2. Ambient monitoring of volatile organic compounds at Los Alamos National Laboratory in technical area 54, areas G and L. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mischler, S.; Anderson, E.; Vold, E.L.

    1994-03-15

    Ambient air monitoring for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was conducted at TA-54 to characterize non-radioactive air emissions to determine if the Laboratory`s waste operations are releasing significant amounts of VOCs to the ambient environment. Samples were collected at four locations along the northern fenceline (dominant downwind side) of Areas G & L and at a background site located in Bandelier National Monument. Eight-hour integrated samples were collected in evacuated canisters during daylight hours on each of eight days during the summer of 1994, for a total of 40 samples. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography following EPA Method TO-14 for a target list of 68 analytes. In general, about two dozen volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified in each sample, including those collected at the background site, but the concentration levels were very low (e.g.; < 1 to 10 ppbv). The average total non-methane hydrocarbon (TNMHC) concentration ranged from 4.3 to 22.8 ppbv at the Area G and L sites as compared with an average of 4.2 ppbv at the background site. The measured concentrations were compared with action levels developed by the New Mexico Environment Department and were well below the action levels in all cases. Methanol and benzene were the only compounds that ever exceeded 1 % of the action level. The measured VOC concentrations were collected during the warmest months of the year and therefore should represent worst-case air impacts. Based on the results of this study, VOC emissions from Areas G and L have an insignificant impact on local air quality and pose no health risk to workers or nearby populations.

  3. Addition of PM 2.5 into the national ambient air quality standards of China and the contribution to air pollution control: the case study of Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    You, Mingqing

    2014-01-01

    PM2.5 has gradually become a major environmental problem of China with its rapid economic development, urbanization, and increasing of motor vehicles. Findings and awareness of serious PM2.5 pollution make the PM2.5 a new criterion pollutant of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) revised in 2012. The 2012 NAAQS sets the PM2.5 concentrate limitation with the 24-hour average value and the annual mean value. Wuhan is quite typical among central and southern China in climate, economy, development level, and energy consumption. The data are cited from the official website of Wuhan Environmental Protection Bureau and cover the period from 1 January to 30 June 2013. The data definitely confirm the existence of serious PM2.5 pollution in Wuhan and indicate that the addition of PM2.5 as a criterion pollutant significantly brings down the attainment rate of air quality. The example of Wuhan reveals that local governments should take measures to reduce the emission of PM2.5 if it affects the attainment rate and the performance evaluation value of air quality. The main contribution of 2012 NAAQS is that it brings down the attainment rate of the air quality and forces local governmental officials to take the measures accordingly.

  4. Ambient air concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, coplanar PCBs, and PAHs at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge, Jackson County, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Hardy, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the levels of selected airborne contaminants in ambient air at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge, Mississippi, that might be affecting the health of endangered cranes living there. Two high-volume air samplers were operated at separate locations on the Refuge during May?September 1991. The sampling media were micro-quartz filters in combination with polyurethane foam plugs. Composite bimonthly samples from each station were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Overall, residue concentrations were low. The toxic PCDD isomer 2,3,7,8-tetra-CDD was not detected, nor was penta-CDD. There was no difference (P>0.05) in residue concentrations between stations or over time and meteorological parameters were not correlated with residue concentrations. Because contaminant levels and patterns may differ seasonally, we recommend that air samples collected during winter months also be analyzed for these same chemical groups.

  5. Addition of PM2.5 into the National Ambient Air Quality Standards of China and the Contribution to Air Pollution Control: The Case Study of Wuhan, China

    PubMed Central

    You, Mingqing

    2014-01-01

    PM2.5 has gradually become a major environmental problem of China with its rapid economic development, urbanization, and increasing of motor vehicles. Findings and awareness of serious PM2.5 pollution make the PM2.5 a new criterion pollutant of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) revised in 2012. The 2012 NAAQS sets the PM2.5 concentrate limitation with the 24-hour average value and the annual mean value. Wuhan is quite typical among central and southern China in climate, economy, development level, and energy consumption. The data are cited from the official website of Wuhan Environmental Protection Bureau and cover the period from 1 January to 30 June 2013. The data definitely confirm the existence of serious PM2.5 pollution in Wuhan and indicate that the addition of PM2.5 as a criterion pollutant significantly brings down the attainment rate of air quality. The example of Wuhan reveals that local governments should take measures to reduce the emission of PM2.5 if it affects the attainment rate and the performance evaluation value of air quality. The main contribution of 2012 NAAQS is that it brings down the attainment rate of the air quality and forces local governmental officials to take the measures accordingly. PMID:24982994

  6. Inorganic ions in ambient fine particles over a National Park in central India: Seasonality, dependencies between SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+, and neutralization of aerosol acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Samresh; Sunder Raman, Ramya

    2016-10-01

    Twelve hour integrated ambient fine particles (PM2.5) were collected over an Van Vihar National Park (VVNP), in Bhopal, Central India. Samples were collected on filter substrates every-other-day for two years (2012 and 2013). In addition to PM2.5 mass concentration, water soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) were also measured. Further, on-site meteorological parameters including temperature, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, rainfall and atmospheric pressure were recorded. During 2012, the average PM2.5 concentration was 40 ± 31 μgm-3 while during 2013 it was 48 ± 50 μgm-3. Further, in about 20% of the samples the 12 h integrated fine PM mass exceeded the daily (24 h) average standards (60 μgm-3). This observation suggests that the PM2.5 mass concentration at the study site is likely to be in violation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), India. During the study period the sum of three major ions (SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+) accounted for 19.4% of PM2.5 mass on average. Air parcel back trajectory ensembles revealed that emissions from thermal power plants were likely to be the main regional source of particulate SO42- and NO3- measured over VVNP. Further, local traffic activities appeared to have no significant impact on the concentrations of PM2.5 and its WSIIs constituents, as revealed by a day-of-the-week analysis. PM2.5 mass, SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ showed a pronounced seasonal trend with winter (Jan, Feb) and post-monsoon (Oct, Nov, Dec) highs and pre-monsoon (Mar, Apr, May) and monsoon (Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep) lows, during both 2012 and 2013. Further, when the sum of SO42- and NO3- constituted greater than 90% of water soluble inorganic anions by mass, they were linearly dependent on one another and moderately anti-correlated (r2 = 0.60). The molar ratios of NH4+ and non-sea salt SO42- were examined to understand the aerosol neutralization mechanisms and particulate NO3- formation. An assessment of these ratios and subsequent analyses

  7. The A&WMA 2007 Critical Review. Will the circle be unbroken: a history of the U.S. national ambient air quality standards

    SciTech Connect

    John Bachmann

    2007-06-15

    In celebration of the 100th anniversary of the Air & Waste Management Association, this review examines the history of air quality management (AQM) in the United States over the last century, with an emphasis on the programs established by the 1970 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments. The current CAA system is a hybrid of several distinct air pollution control philosophies. The paper looks at several periods in the history of the U.S. program, including: (1) 1900-1970, spanning the early smoke abatement and smog control programs, the first federal involvement, and the development of a hybrid AQM approach in the 1970 CAA; (2) 1971-1976, when the first National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) were set and implemented; (3) 1977-1993, a period of the first revisions to the standards, new CAA Amendments, delays in implementation and decision-making, and key science/policy/legislative developments that would alter both the focus and scale of air pollution programs and how they are implemented; and (4) 1993-2006, the second and third wave of NAAQS revisions and their implementation in the context of the 1990 CAA. This discussion examines where NAAQS have helped drive implementation programs and how improvements in both effects and air quality/control sciences influenced policy and legislation to enhance the effectiveness of the system over time. The review concludes with a look toward the future of AQM, emphasizing challenges and ways to meet them. Supplemental tables 1 to 7, available to subscribers at www.awma.org/journals/pdfs/2007/6/10.3155-1047-3289.57.6.652_supplmat erial.pdf present detailed chronology and commentary on the development of criteria and establishing, reviewing, and revising the NAAQS for each of the seven pollutants that were listed and regulated under Sections 108 and 109 between 1971 and 2006. 250 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. NIF Ambient Vibration Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, C.R.; Hoehler, M.S., S.C. Sommer

    1999-11-29

    LLNL has an ongoing research and development project that includes developing data acquisition systems with remote wireless communication for monitoring the vibrations of large civil engineering structures. In order to establish the capability of performing remote sensing over an extended period of time, the researchers needed to apply this technology to a real structure. The construction of the National Ignition Facility provided an opportunity to test the data acquisition system on a large structure to monitor whether the facility is remaining within the strict ambient vibration guidelines. This document will briefly discuss the NIF ambient vibration requirements and summarize the vibration measurements performed during the Spring and Summer of 1999. In addition, a brief description of the sensors and the data acquisition systems will be provided in Appendix B.

  9. Using Continuous Monitoring of Ambient CO2 and H2S to Assess Toxic Gas Hazards in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, T.; Sutton, A.; Lowenstern, J.; Heasler, H.; Eagan, S.

    2007-12-01

    The mysterious death of five bison in the Norris Geyser Basin area of Yellowstone in 2004 was apparently due to an increase in the output of CO2 or H2S, coupled with unusually cold, still weather. This event of nature may support a long-held claim of geochemists: near-surface changes in pressure, temperature, hydrologic flow, ground permeability, and wind conditions can reasonably be expected to produce attendant variability in the output and ambient concentration of gases emitted from hydrothermal areas. Monitoring these changes at the surface provides a window to processes occurring below, and a continuous assessment of gas hazards for frequently visited places like Norris. To characterize subsurface processes and identify hazards, we developed a transportable monitoring system to measure ambient gas concentrations and meteorological parameters. The solar-powered system uses industrial grade sensors for CO2 and H2S gas, along with sensors for wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, and ambient temperature. In order to reduce power use and prolong sensor life, every 10-minutes the gas sensors are powered on and allowed to stabilize, and the average values for the gas and met sensors are then recorded. The system can be configured for on-site data logging or radio telemetry. During the first year of operation in a thermal area adjacent to where the bison died, the system recorded diurnal variations. Although CO2 build-up was observed at night during cool windless conditions, ambient concentrations of CO2 and H2S remained below hazardous levels. Encouraged by the robust performance of the sensors, a second system was built to use as a roving monitor within the park as conditions permit and opportunities arise to track thermal variations. The performance of this system during the first year of operation reinforces the importance of continuous monitoring for processes such as gas-release events. Such occurrences, while evidenced in nature by events like the

  10. Ambient ozone effects on gas exchange and total non-structural carbohydrate levels in cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) growing in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ozone-sensitive and -tolerant individuals of the perennial herbaceous cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) were compared for their gas exchange characteristics and total non-structural carbohydrates in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park USA. Net photosynthesis decreased with increased f...

  11. Ambient air quality in Slovak Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Violova, A.; Cremonini, M.G.; Lombardo, P.; Stenhouse, I.A.; Kocan, A.

    1998-07-01

    The National Government of the Slovak Republic is committed to develop an integrated strategy that will take into account global, regional and local aspects of the national emissions of pollutants. Priority is given to ambient air quality, with particular reference to human health protection. Only limited information on ambient air concentrations of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) was available in Slovakia. A comprehensive ambient air quality project has been recently funded by the European Union Phare Programme. The project was performed under the technical supervision of the Slovak Ministry of the Environment and aimed at monitoring the ambient air quality with respect to Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals (HMs), identifying and evaluating main potential pollution sources, and defining general strategies to reduce impacts.

  12. The future is 'ambient'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugmayr, Artur

    2006-02-01

    The research field of ambient media starts to spread rapidly and first applications for consumer homes are on the way. Ambient media is the logical continuation of research around media. Media has been evolving from old media (e.g. print media), to integrated presentation in one form (multimedia - or new media), to generating a synthetic world (virtual reality), to the natural environment is the user-interface (ambient media), and will be evolving towards real/synthetic undistinguishable media (bio-media or bio-multimedia). After the IT bubble was bursting, multimedia was lacking a vision of potential future scenarios and applications. Within this research paper the potentials, applications, and market available solutions of mobile ambient multimedia are studied. The different features of ambient mobile multimedia are manifold and include wearable computers, adaptive software, context awareness, ubiquitous computers, middleware, and wireless networks. The paper especially focuses on algorithms and methods that can be utilized to realize modern mobile ambient systems.

  13. Ambient Tropospheric Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles suspended in ambient air (also known as the atmospheric aerosol). Ambient PM arises from a wide-range of sources and/or processes, and consists of particles of different shapes, sizes, and com...

  14. Ambient levels and temporal trends of VOCs, including carbonyl compounds, and ozone at Cabañeros National Park border, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Florentina; Tapia, Araceli; Notario, Alberto; Albaladejo, José; Martínez, Ernesto

    2014-03-01

    Concentration levels of 15 carbonyls, 17 VOCs and ozone were studied at Cabañeros National Park border, Spain, in an area mainly constituted by holm oaks (Quercus ilex) and cork oaks (Quercus suber), along with scrubland formations such as rock-rose and heather. The compounds were collected by means of diffusive samplers from August-November 2010 and February-August 2011. Carbonyl compounds, VOCs and O3 were analysed by HPLC with diode array UV-Vis detector, GC-FID and by UV-visible spectrophotometry, respectively. The most abundant carbonyls were hexanal, acetone-acrolein, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Seasonal variation was apparent with maximum values observed in summer months. Total carbonyl concentrations ranged from 2.8 to 19.7 μg m-3. Most VOCs studied (using chemically desorbable cartridges) were either not detected or were below their detection limits, however, a parallel sampling using thermally desorbable cartridges, from May 22 to June 19, revealed the presence of much more VOCs, identified using GC-MS. O3 concentration ranged from 27.2 to 90.5 μg m-3, reaching the maximum monthly mean concentration in March (84.4 μg m-3). The analysis of back trajectories indicates the transport of polluted air masses from remote areas, mainly from the Mediterranean basin that should contribute to the high levels of ozone observed.

  15. Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources

    SciTech Connect

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2000-10-03

    This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  16. 77 FR 64244 - Revision to Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide Monitoring Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 58 RIN 2060-AR59 Revision to Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide Monitoring Requirements AGENCY... deadlines established in the national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 )...

  17. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  18. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. T.

    2015-07-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry emerged as a new scientific discipline only about ten years ago. A considerable body of information has been reported since that time. Keeping the sensitivity, performance and informativity of classical mass spectrometry methods, the new approach made it possible to eliminate laborious sample preparation procedures and triggered the development of miniaturized instruments to work directly in the field. The review concerns the theoretical foundations and design of ambient ionization methods. Their advantages and drawbacks, as well as prospects for application in chemistry, biology, medicine, environmetal analysis, etc., are discussed. The bibliography includes 194 references.

  19. Care services ecosystem for ambient assisted living

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarinha-Matos, Luis M.; Rosas, Joao; Ines Oliveira, Ana; Ferrada, Filipa

    2015-08-01

    Effective provision of care and assistance services in ambient assisted living requires the involvement and collaboration of multiple stakeholders. To support such collaboration, the development of an ecosystem of products and services for active ageing plays an important role. This article introduces a conceptual architecture that supports such care ecosystem. In order to facilitate understanding and better interrelate concepts, a 3-layered model is adopted: Infrastructure layer, Care and assistance services layer and Ambient Assisted Living ecosystem layer. A holistic perspective of ambient assisted living, namely considering four important life settings is adopted: (1) independent living; (2) health and care in life; (3) occupation in life and (4) recreation in life. The proposed architecture is designed in the context of a national Portuguese project and in accordance with the findings of a large European road mapping initiative on ICT and ageing.

  20. Yellowstone Attenuation Tomography from Ambient Seismic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doungkaew, N.; Seats, K.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study is to create a tomographic attenuation image for the Yellowstone region by analyzing ambient seismic noise. An attenuation image generated from ambient noise should provide more information about the structure and properties beneath Yellowstone, especially the caldera, which is known to be active. I applied the method of Lawrence & Prieto [2011] to examine lateral variations in the attenuation structure of Yellowstone. Ambient noise data were collected from broadband seismic stations located around Yellowstone National Park from 1999-2013. Noise correlation functions derived from cross correlations of the ambient noise at two stations were used to calculate a distance dependent decay (an attenuation coefficient) at each period and distance. An inversion was then performed to isolate and localize the spatial attenuation coefficients within the study area. I observe high amplitude decay of the ambient noise at the Yellowstone caldera, most likely due to elevated temperature and crustal melts caused by volcanism, geothermal heat flow, and hydrothermal activity such as geysers.

  1. 78 FR 57631 - Information Collection Request Submitted to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request; Ambient...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... is given below, including its estimated burden and cost to the public. An Agency may not conduct or... measurements reporting and recordkeeping activities associated with the Ambient Air Quality Surveillance Rule... consist of ambient air concentration measurements for the seven air pollutants with National Ambient...

  2. Cross-correlations of ambient noise recorded by accelerometers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rábade García, S. E.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the ambient noise cross-correlations obtained by using properly corrected accelerometric recordings, and determine velocity structure in central Mexico based on a dispersion analysis. The data used comprise ten months of continuous recordings - from April 2013 to January 2014 - of ambient seismic noise at stations operated by the National Seismological Service of Mexico and the Engineering Strong Ground Motion Network of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The vertical component of ambient noise was base-line corrected, filtered, and properly integrated before extracting Green's functions (GF), which were compared successfully against GF obtained using recordings from broadband velocity sensors. In order to obtain dispersion curves, we estimated group and phase velocities applying the FTAN analysis technique and obtained s-wave velocity profiles at selected regions. We conclude and highlight that the use of widely deployed accelerographs to conduct regional studies using ambient noise tomography is feasible

  3. 40 CFR 63.11956 - What are my compliance requirements for ambient monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for ambient monitoring? 63.11956 Section 63.11956 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions...

  4. Imaging with ambient noise

    SciTech Connect

    Snieder, Roel; Wapenaar, Kees

    2010-09-15

    Recent developments in seismology, ultrasonics, and underwater acoustics have led to a radical change in the way scientists think about ambient noise--the diffuse waves generated by pressure fluctuations in the atmosphere, the scattering of water waves in the ocean, and any number of other sources that pervade our world. Because diffuse waves consist of the superposition of waves propagating in all directions, they appear to be chaotic and random. That appearance notwithstanding, diffuse waves carry information about the medium through which they propagate.

  5. Ambient ion soft landing.

    PubMed

    Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K; Wu, Chunping; Cooks, R Graham

    2011-04-01

    Ambient ion soft landing, a process in which polyatomic ions are deposited from air onto a surface at a specified location under atmospheric pressure, is described. Ions generated by electrospray ionization are passed pneumatically through a heated metal drying tube, their ion polarity is selected using ion deflectors, and the dry selected ions are soft-landed onto a selected surface. Unlike the corresponding vacuum soft-landing experiment, where ions are mass-selected and soft-landed within a mass spectrometer, here the ions to be deposited are selected through the choice of a compound that gives predominantly one ionic species upon ambient ionization; no mass analysis is performed during the soft landing experiment. The desired dry ions, after electrical separation from neutrals and counterions, are deposited on a surface. Characterization of the landed material was achieved by dissolution and analysis using mass spectrometry or spectrofluorimetry. The treated surface was also characterized using fluorescence microscopy, which allowed surfaces patterned with fluorescent compounds to be imaged. The pure dry ions were used as reagents in heterogeneous ion/surface reactions including the reaction of pyrylium cations with d-lysine to form the N-substituted pyridinium cation. The charged microdroplets associated with incompletely dried ions could be selected for soft landing or surface reaction by choice of the temperature of a drying tube inserted between the ion source and the electrical ion deflectors.

  6. METHODOLOGY FOR SITING AMBIENT AIR MONITORS AT THE NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In siting a monitor to measure compliance with U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter (PM), there is a need to characterize variations in PM concentration within a neighborhood-scale region in order to achieve monitor siting objectives.

    We p...

  7. 77 FR 12482 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule... Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)...

  8. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality...

  9. BIOGENIC CONTRIBUTION TO PM-2.5 AMBIENT AEROSOL FROM RADIOCARBON MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knowledge of the relative contributions of biogenic versus anthropogenic sources to ambient aerosol is of great interest in the formulation of strategies to achieve nationally mandated air quality standards. Radiocarbon (Carbon-14) measurements provide a means to quantify the ...

  10. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DESPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS. Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu**, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; **IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL; *S...

  11. Ambient curing fire resistant foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamermesh, C. L.; Hogenson, P. A.; Tung, C. Y.; Sawko, P. M.; Riccitiello, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of development of an ambient curing foam is described. The thermal stability and flame spread index of the foams were found to be comparable to those of the high-temperature cured polyimide foams by Monsanto two-foot tunnel test and NASA T-3 Fire test. Adaptation of the material to spray in place applications is described

  12. Low ambient oxygen prevents atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ju-Gyeong; Sung, Ho Joong; Amar, Marcelo J; Pryor, Milton; Remaley, Alan T; Allen, Michele D; Noguchi, Audrey C; Springer, Danielle A; Kwon, Jaeyul; Chen, Jichun; Park, Ji-hoon; Wang, Ping-yuan; Hwang, Paul M

    2016-03-01

    Large population studies have shown that living at higher altitudes, which lowers ambient oxygen exposure, is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease mortality. However, hypoxia has also been reported to promote atherosclerosis by worsening lipid metabolism and inflammation. We sought to address these disparate reports by reducing the ambient oxygen exposure of ApoE-/- mice. We observed that long-term adaptation to 10% O2 (equivalent to oxygen content at ∼5000 m), compared to 21% O2 (room air at sea level), resulted in a marked decrease in aortic atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice. This effect was associated with increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10), known to be anti-atherogenic and regulated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α). Supporting these observations, ApoE-/- mice that were deficient in IL-10 (IL10-/- ApoE-/- double knockout) failed to show reduced atherosclerosis in 10% oxygen. Our study reveals a specific mechanism that can help explain the decreased prevalence of ischemic heart disease in populations living at high altitudes and identifies ambient oxygen exposure as a potential factor that could be modulated to alter pathogenesis. Key messages: Chronic low ambient oxygen exposure decreases atherosclerosis in mice. Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 levels are increased by low ambient O2. This is consistent with the established role of HIF-1α in IL10 transactivation. Absence of IL-10 results in the loss of the anti-atherosclerosis effect of low O2. This mechanism may contribute to decreased atherosclerosis at high altitudes.

  13. Structural lubricity under ambient conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cihan, Ebru; İpek, Semran; Durgun, Engin; Baykara, Mehmet Z.

    2016-01-01

    Despite its fundamental importance, physical mechanisms that govern friction are poorly understood. While a state of ultra-low friction, termed structural lubricity, is expected for any clean, atomically flat interface consisting of two different materials with incommensurate structures, some associated predictions could only be quantitatively confirmed under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions so far. Here, we report structurally lubric sliding under ambient conditions at mesoscopic (∼4,000–130,000 nm2) interfaces formed by gold islands on graphite. Ab initio calculations reveal that the gold–graphite interface is expected to remain largely free from contaminant molecules, leading to structurally lubric sliding. The experiments reported here demonstrate the potential for practical lubrication schemes for micro- and nano-electromechanical systems, which would mainly rely on an atomic-scale structural mismatch between the slider and substrate components, via the utilization of material systems featuring clean, atomically flat interfaces under ambient conditions. PMID:27350035

  14. Ambient pressure fuel cell system

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2000-01-01

    An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

  15. Structural lubricity under ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cihan, Ebru; Ipek, Semran; Durgun, Engin; Baykara, Mehmet Z.

    2016-06-01

    Despite its fundamental importance, physical mechanisms that govern friction are poorly understood. While a state of ultra-low friction, termed structural lubricity, is expected for any clean, atomically flat interface consisting of two different materials with incommensurate structures, some associated predictions could only be quantitatively confirmed under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions so far. Here, we report structurally lubric sliding under ambient conditions at mesoscopic (~4,000-130,000 nm2) interfaces formed by gold islands on graphite. Ab initio calculations reveal that the gold-graphite interface is expected to remain largely free from contaminant molecules, leading to structurally lubric sliding. The experiments reported here demonstrate the potential for practical lubrication schemes for micro- and nano-electromechanical systems, which would mainly rely on an atomic-scale structural mismatch between the slider and substrate components, via the utilization of material systems featuring clean, atomically flat interfaces under ambient conditions.

  16. Comments on: Chari, R.; Burke, T.A.; White, R.H.; Fox, M.A. Integrating Susceptibility into environmental policy: an analysis of the national ambient air quality standard for lead. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 1077-1096.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Deirdre L; Patel, Molini; Kirrane, Ellen; Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa

    2013-02-08

    In their recent article [1], Chari et al. call attention to the important subject of setting National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to provide requisite protection for public health, including the health of sensitive groups, as specified under the Clean Air Act (73 FR 66965) [2]. The authors focus on consideration of susceptibility to inform policy choices, using lead (Pb)-related neurocognitive effects and children from low socioeconomic status (SES) families in the context of alternative Pb standard levels. Our comments focus on the authors' analysis of the scientific evidence and not on policy. We agree with the authors that the health effects evidence for Pb indicates a role (or roles) for SES-related factors in influencing childhood Pb exposure and associated health effects. We disagree, however, with the authors' interpretation of the literature on SES influence on the shape of the concentration-response (C-R) relationship between children's blood Pb and IQ (e.g., steepness of the slope). We further address aspects of the scientific evidence that are important to the consideration of sensitive populations in the context of the Pb NAAQS, and how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considered this evidence in setting the Pb NAAQS in 2008.

  17. Nonlinear Elasticity in a Deforming Ambient Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavari, Arash; Ozakin, Arkadas; Sadik, Souhayl

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we formulate a nonlinear elasticity theory in which the ambient space is evolving. For a continuum moving in an evolving ambient space, we model time dependency of the metric by a time-dependent embedding of the ambient space in a larger manifold with a fixed background metric. We derive both the tangential and the normal governing equations. We then reduce the standard energy balance written in the larger ambient space to that in the evolving ambient space. We consider quasi-static deformations of the ambient space and show that a quasi-static deformation of the ambient space results in stresses, in general. We linearize the nonlinear theory about a reference motion and show that variation of the spatial metric corresponds to an effective field of body forces.

  18. 75 FR 76336 - Notice of Data Availability Regarding Two Studies of Ambient Lead Concentrations Near a General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 58 Notice of Data Availability Regarding Two Studies of Ambient Lead Concentrations Near a General Aviation Airport AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Data..., 2009) that revised the primary and secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for...

  19. Ambient Temperature Rechargeable Lithium Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    AD-AI O297 EIC LA BS INC NEWTON MA F/6 10/3 AMB IENT TEMPERATURE RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM BATTERAU AG(MARHMU)L TI ARI AK IC07 UNCLASSIFIED C-655DEE TB6...036FL -T Research and Development Technical Report -N DELET-TR-81-0378-F AMBIENT TEMPERATURE RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM BATTERY K. M. Abraham D. L. Natwig...WORDS (Cenimne an revee filf Of ~"#amp Pu l41"lfr bg’ 61WA amober) Rechargeable lithium battery, CrO.5VO.5S2 positive electrode, 2Me-THF/LiAsF6, cell

  20. Response of macaque bronchiolar epithelium to ambient concentrations of ozone.

    PubMed Central

    Harkema, J. R.; Plopper, C. G.; Hyde, D. M.; St George, J. A.; Wilson, D. W.; Dungworth, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, we reported that exposure to ambient concentrations of ozone, near the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard (0.12 ppm), induced significant nasal epithelial lesions in a non-human primate, the bonnet monkey. The present study defines the effects of ambient concentrations of ozone on the surface epithelium lining respiratory bronchioles and on the underlying bronchiolar interstitium in these same monkeys. Bonnet monkeys were exposed to filtered air or to 0.15 or 0.30 ppm ozone 8 hours/day for 6 or 90 days. At the end of exposures, monkeys were anesthetized and killed by exsanguination. Microdissected bronchiolar airways of infusion-fixed lungs were evaluated morphometrically by light microscopy and quantitatively by scanning and transmission electron microscopy for ozone-induced epithelial changes. Hyperplasia of nonciliated, cuboidal epithelial cells and intraluminal accumulation of macrophages characterized ozone-induced lesions in respiratory bronchioles. There were no significant differences in epithelial thickness or cell numbers among ozone-exposed groups. Ozone-exposed epithelium was composed of 80% cuboidal and 20% squamous cells compared with 40% cuboidal and 60% squamous cells in filtered air controls. In addition, the arithmetic mean thickness of the surface epithelium, a measure of tissue mass per unit area of basal lamina, was significantly increased in all of the ozone-exposed groups. The number of cuboidal epithelial cells per surface area of basal lamina was increased above control values by 780% after 6 days exposure to 0.15 ppm, 777% after 90 days to 0.15 ppm, and 996% after 90 days exposure to 0.30 ppm. There was also a significant ozone-induced increase in the thickness of the bronchiolar interstitium that was due to an increase in both cellular and acellular components. These results demonstrate that exposure to low ambient concentrations of ozone, near the current. National Ambient Air Quality Standard, induces pulmonary lesions

  1. 75 FR 8698 - Extension of Request for Scientific Views for Draft 2009 Update Aquatic Life Ambient Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Criteria for Ammonia--Freshwater AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice; extension... availability of draft national recommended water quality criteria for ammonia for the ] protection of aquatic life entitled ``Draft 2009 Update Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for...

  2. 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Infrastructure Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Read about the EPA's infrastructure actions for the 2008 Ozone NAAQS. These actions are regarding states' failure to submit SIPs addressing various parts of the standards. Here you can read the federal register notices, fact sheets, and the docket folder.

  3. 75 FR 2938 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    .... (local time) or later, if necessary, depending on the number of speakers wishing to participate. The EPA will make every effort to accommodate all speakers that arrive and register before 7:30 p.m. A lunch... schedules, including lists of speakers, will be posted on EPA's Web site for the proposal at...

  4. Turbine airfoil with ambient cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jr, Christian X.; Marra, John J.; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-06-07

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one ambient air cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels configured to receive ambient air at about atmospheric pressure. The ambient air cooling system may have a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of at least 0.5, and in at least one embodiment, may include a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of between about 0.5 and about 3.0. The cooling system may also be configured such that an under root slot chamber in the root is large to minimize supply air velocity. One or more cooling channels of the ambient air cooling system may terminate at an outlet at the tip such that the outlet is aligned with inner surfaces forming the at least one cooling channel in the airfoil to facilitate high mass flow.

  5. Deep Water Ambient Noise and Mode Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Deep Water Ambient Noise and Mode Processing Kathleen E. Wage George Mason University Electrical and Computer Engineering Department 4400...specific objectives of the project are: 1) to characterize the ambient noise in the PhilSea data set using spectral analysis and to compare the results...to those for other deep water data sets; 2) to analyze the acoustic modes in the ambient noise and moored source data sets acquired in the PhilSea

  6. Below-Ambient and Cryogenic Thermal Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal insulation systems operating in below-ambient temperature conditions are inherently susceptible to moisture intrusion and vapor drive toward the cold side. The subsequent effects may include condensation, icing, cracking, corrosion, and other problems. Methods and apparatus for real-world thermal performance testing of below-ambient systems have been developed based on cryogenic boiloff calorimetry. New ASTM International standards on cryogenic testing and their extension to future standards for below-ambient testing of pipe insulation are reviewed.

  7. Clinical Application of Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li-Hua; Hsieh, Hua-Yi; Hsu, Cheng-Chih

    2017-01-01

    Ambient ionization allows mass spectrometry analysis directly on the sample surface under atmospheric pressure with almost zero sample pretreatment. Since the development of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) in 2004, many other ambient ionization techniques were developed. Due to their simplicity and low operation cost, rapid and on-site clinical mass spectrometry analysis becomes real. In this review, we will highlight some of the most widely used ambient ionization mass spectrometry approaches and their applications in clinical study. PMID:28337399

  8. Tritium monitoring system for near ambient measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Falter, K.G.; Bauer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of research on an improved tritium measurement system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Navy. Present tritium-in-air monitoring systems installed by the Navy can reliably measure to less than 10 {mu}Ci/m{sup 3}, but medical and safety issues are pushing measurement needs to below 1 {mu}Ci/m{sup 3}, which is equivalent to 1--10 nCi/ml in liquid samples, using calcium metal converter. A significant effort has been expended over the past 10 years by the Navy RADIAC Development Program at ORNL on various schemes to improve the detection of tritium in both air and liquid at near ambient levels. One such scheme includes a liquid flow-through system based on an NE102 sponge scintillator with dual photomultiplier tubes for the tube noise rejection. (This document also contains copies of the slides used for presentation of this paper to the IEEE 1991 Nuclear Science Symposium). 4 refs., 17 figs.

  9. INTERPOLATING VANCOUVER'S DAILY AMBIENT PM 10 FIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this article we develop a spatial predictive distribution for the ambient space- time response field of daily ambient PM10 in Vancouver, Canada. Observed responses have a consistent temporal pattern from one monitoring site to the next. We exploit this feature of the field b...

  10. 40 CFR 1033.505 - Ambient conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1033.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... presumed that combustion air will be drawn from the ambient air. Thus, the ambient temperature limits of this paragraph (a) apply for intake air upstream of the engine. If you do not draw combustion air...

  11. 40 CFR 1033.505 - Ambient conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1033.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... presumed that combustion air will be drawn from the ambient air. Thus, the ambient temperature limits of this paragraph (a) apply for intake air upstream of the engine. If you do not draw combustion air...

  12. 40 CFR 1033.505 - Ambient conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1033.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... presumed that combustion air will be drawn from the ambient air. Thus, the ambient temperature limits of this paragraph (a) apply for intake air upstream of the engine. If you do not draw combustion air...

  13. 40 CFR 1033.505 - Ambient conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1033.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... presumed that combustion air will be drawn from the ambient air. Thus, the ambient temperature limits of this paragraph (a) apply for intake air upstream of the engine. If you do not draw combustion air...

  14. 40 CFR 1033.505 - Ambient conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1033.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... presumed that combustion air will be drawn from the ambient air. Thus, the ambient temperature limits of this paragraph (a) apply for intake air upstream of the engine. If you do not draw combustion air...

  15. Ambient air contamination: Characterization and detection techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nulton, C. P.; Silvus, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques to characterize and detect sources of ambient air contamination are described. Chemical techniques to identify indoor contaminants are outlined, they include gas chromatography, or colorimetric detection. Organics generated from indoor materials at ambient conditions and upon combustion are characterized. Piezoelectric quartz crystals are used as precision frequency determining elements in electronic oscillators.

  16. Ambient clumsiness in virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzanka, Silvia; Behar, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental pursuit of Virtual Reality is the experience of a seamless connection between the user's body and actions within the simulation. Virtual worlds often mediate the relationship between the physical and virtual body through creating an idealized representation of the self in an idealized space. This paper argues that the very ubiquity of the medium of virtual environments, such as the massively popular Second Life, has now made them mundane, and that idealized representations are no longer appropriate. In our artwork we introduce the attribute of clumsiness to Second Life by creating and distributing scripts that cause users' avatars to exhibit unpredictable stumbling, tripping, and momentary poor coordination, thus subtly and unexpectedly intervening with, rather than amplifying, a user's intent. These behaviors are publicly distributed, and manifest only occasionally - rather than intentional, conscious actions, they are involuntary and ambient. We suggest that the physical human body is itself an imperfect interface, and that the continued blurring of distinctions between the physical body and virtual representations calls for the introduction of these mundane, clumsy elements.

  17. Ambient Concentrations and Mobile Sources of Ammonia in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorter, J. H.; Herndon, S. C.; Zahniser, M. S.; Wormhoudt, J.; Zavala, M.; Dunlea, E. J.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Kolb, C. E.

    2004-12-01

    Emission of ammonia (NH3) to the atmosphere is a major environmental concern and a potential health hazard. As the dominant gaseous alkaline species in the atmosphere, ammonia plays an important role in the dynamics of the atmospheric environment and on air quality. Ammonia is a major source of secondary PM-2.5 particulates including ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfates. These important constituents of airborne PM-2.5 can contribute significantly to regional haze and visibility problems. They are also regulated under the U.S. "National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Particulate Matter" as a human health hazard. Models of the formation of these particulates are being developed but they depend on both detailed inventories of NH3 emissions and on comparison of model results with ambient ammonia measurements. A real time tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS) instrument was deployed on the Aerodyne Research, Inc. Mobile Laboratory in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in spring 2003. The Quantum Cascade laser (QCL) based instrument collected ammonia concentration data to characterize fleet average and individual vehicle emissions. Ambient concentration data at several stationary sites were also studied. Gas phase ammonia data will be used to elucidate the formation of ammonium particles in Mexico City. Implications of the results on air quality modeling will be discussed.

  18. The Relationship between the Disability Prevalence of Cataracts and Ambient Erythemal Ultraviolet Radiation in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Yu, Jiaming; Gao, Qian; Hu, Liwen; Gao, Na; Gong, Huizhi; Liu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    In Western countries, ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin cancer has been studied extensively regarding the high incidence of skin cancers in the white population; however, for people of color, cataracts are the main public health issue in relation to increased ambient ultraviolet radiation (UVR). To our knowledge, few studies have been conducted examining the relationship between cataracts and ambient UVR in China. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between and the factors influencing the disability prevalence of cataracts and annual ambient erythemal UVR exposure in 31 regions of China. The data used to determine the disability prevalence of cataracts was obtained from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability. The regional annual erythemal UVR was calculated using Geographic Information System (GIS) methods based on data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) database. The relationship between the disability prevalence of cataracts and the annual ambient erythemal UVR was examined by using logistic regression. Both the age-standardized disability prevalence of cataracts (OR = 3.97, 95%CI 1.30–12.13, per 100KJ/m2 increase in annual ambient erythemal UVR) and the disability prevalence of cataracts among a population ≥65 years old (OR = 3.97, 95%CI 1.30–12.13, per 100KJ/m2 increase in annual ambient erythemal UVR) were higher in association with higher ambient erythemal UVR. Regions with higher urbanization and educational levels had lower disability prevalence of cataracts. We found positive associations of the age-standardized disability prevalence of cataracts and the disability prevalence of cataracts among a population ≥65 years old with ambient erythemal UVR in 31 regions of China. PMID:23226480

  19. Ambient pressure and single-bubble sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondic, Ljubinko; Yuan, Chi; Chan, C. K.

    1998-01-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the influence of ambient pressure on single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL). By combining simulations of gas dynamics, mass diffusion theory, and stability analysis we find a narrow region of the parameter space where stable SBSL is possible. In particular, the theory predicts a 200% increase in SL radiation if ambient pressure is decreased only 5%. The results are compared with preliminary experimental data, and a good agreement is found. Variation of ambient pressure provides a simple and interesting test for the validity of various SL theories, diffusive or nondiffusive mass flow ideas, and stability analyses.

  20. Timelapse: Webb's Ambient Optical Assembly Stand

    NASA Video Gallery

    The clean room at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., has received a giant structural steel frame called "AOAS," the Ambient Optical Assembly Stand that will be used to assemble t...

  1. Association of trends in US ambient air quality and cardiovascular mortality for 2000-2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the implementation of the Clean Air Act’s National Ambient Air Quality Standards, air quality in the United States has notably improved. Here we investigate whether declining levels of air pollutants are associated with improvements in human health. We examine the re...

  2. A Literature Review of Concentrations and Size Distributions of Ambient Airborne Pb-Containing Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    The final 2008 lead (Pb) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) revision maintains Pb in total suspended particulate matter as the indicator. However, the final rule permits the use of low-volume PM10 (particulate matter sampled with a 50% cut-point of 10 μm) F...

  3. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS.
    Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu**, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; **IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL; *South...

  4. 76 FR 67437 - Draft Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Carbaryl-2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... AGENCY Draft Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Carbaryl-- 2011 AGENCY: Environmental...) of the Clean Water Act (CWA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing the availability of draft national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life...

  5. SPS emissions and comparison with ambient loadings

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, E.; Brubaker, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of propulsion injections into the atmosphere due to Satellite Power System (SPS) transportation vehicles, and relates the magnitudes of these injections to the ambient burdens of the different chemical species. The significance of the different injections is discussed in terms of a dimensionless perturbation factor, the magnitude of which is a measure of the expected concentration change relative to the existing ambient concentration.

  6. Forensic applications of ambient ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ifa, Demian R; Jackson, Ayanna U; Paglia, Giuseppe; Cooks, R Graham

    2009-08-01

    This review highlights and critically assesses forensic applications in the developing field of ambient ionization mass spectrometry. Ambient ionization methods permit the ionization of samples outside the mass spectrometer in the ordinary atmosphere, with minimal sample preparation. Several ambient ionization methods have been created since 2004 and they utilize different mechanisms to create ions for mass-spectrometric analysis. Forensic applications of these techniques--to the analysis of toxic industrial compounds, chemical warfare agents, illicit drugs and formulations, explosives, foodstuff, inks, fingerprints, and skin--are reviewed. The minimal sample pretreatment needed is illustrated with examples of analysis from complex matrices (e.g., food) on various substrates (e.g., paper). The low limits of detection achieved by most of the ambient ionization methods for compounds of forensic interest readily offer qualitative confirmation of chemical identity; in some cases quantitative data are also available. The forensic applications of ambient ionization methods are a growing research field and there are still many types of applications which remain to be explored, particularly those involving on-site analysis. Aspects of ambient ionization currently undergoing rapid development include molecular imaging and increased detection specificity through simultaneous chemical reaction and ionization by addition of appropriate chemical reagents.

  7. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Rooftop Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S.; Shen, Bo; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Bargach, Youssef

    2016-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for Low-Global Warming Potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants relative to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in packaged or Rooftop Unit (RTU) air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  8. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  9. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  10. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  11. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  12. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  13. Ambient noise analysis of underwater acoustic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Mark A.; Orlin, Pete; Schulte, Annette; Newcomb, Joal

    2003-04-01

    The Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center (LADC) deployed three Environmental Acoustic Recording System (EARS) buoys in the northern Gulf of Mexico during the summers of 2001 and 2002. The buoys recorded frequencies up to 5859 Hz continuously for 36 days in 2001 and for 72 days in 2002. The acoustic signals recorded include sperm whale vocalizations, seismic airguns, and shipping traffic. The variability of the ambient noise is analyzed using spectrograms, time series, and statistical measurements. Variations in ambient noise before, during, and after tropical storm/hurricane passage are also investigated.

  14. Ambient taxes when polluters have multiple choices

    SciTech Connect

    Horan, R.D.; Shortle, J.S.; Abler, D.G.

    1998-09-01

    Economic research on environmental policy design has largely been concerned with the merits of emissions-based economic incentives (e.g., emissions charges, emissions reduction subsidies, transferable discharge permits). Ambient-based tax-subsidy schemes have drawn considerable interest in nonpoint pollution literature as alternatives to emissions-based instruments. Expanding especially on Segerson`s seminal article, this article examines the optimal design and budget-balancing properties of ambient tax-subsidy schemes under more realistic assumptions about the dimensions of firms` choice sets than prior research.

  15. Proton affinities of candidates for positively charged ambient ions in boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruusuvuori, K.; Kurtén, T.; Ortega, I. K.; Faust, J.; Vehkamäki, H.

    2013-10-01

    The optimized structures and proton affinities of a total of 81 nitrogen-containing bases, chosen based on field measurements of ambient positive ions, were studied using the CBS-QB3 quantum chemical method. The results were compared to values given in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Chemistry WebBook in cases where a value was listed. The computed values show good agreement with the values listed in NIST. Grouping the molecules based on their molecular formula, the largest calculated proton affinities for each group were also compared with experimentally observed ambient cation concentrations in a boreal forest. This comparison allows us to draw qualitative conclusions about the relative ambient concentrations of different nitrogen-containing organic base molecules.

  16. Proton affinities of candidates for positively charged ambient ions in the boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruusuvuori, K.; Kurtén, T.; Ortega, I. K.; Faust, J.; Vehkamäki, H.

    2013-04-01

    The optimized structures and proton affinities of a total of 81 nitrogen-containing bases, chosen based on field measurements of ambient positive ions, were studied using the CBS-QB3 quantum chemical method. The results were compared to values given in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Chemistry WebBook in cases where a value was listed. The computed values show good agreement with the values listed in NIST. Grouping the molecules based on their molecular formula, the largest calculated proton affinities for each group were also compared with experimentally observed ambient cation concentrations in the boreal forest. This comparison allows us to draw qualitative conclusions about the relative ambient concentrations of different nitrogen-containing organic base molecules.

  17. Ambient noise levels and detection threshold in Norway.

    PubMed

    Demuth, Andrea; Ottemöller, Lars; Keers, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Ambient seismic noise is caused by a number of sources in specific frequency bands. The quantification of ambient noise makes it possible to evaluate station and network performance. We evaluate noise levels in Norway from the 2013 data set of the Norwegian National Seismic Network as well as two temporary deployments. Apart from the station performance, we studied the geographical and temporal variations, and developed a local noise model for Norway. The microseism peaks related to the ocean are significant in Norway. We, therefore, investigated the relationship between oceanic weather conditions and noise levels. We find a correlation of low-frequency noise (0.125-0.25 Hz) with wave heights up to 900 km offshore. High (2-10 Hz) and intermediate (0.5-5 Hz) frequency noise correlates only up to 450 km offshore with wave heights. From a geographic perspective, stations in southern Norway show lower noise levels for low frequencies due to a larger distance to the dominant noise sources in the North Atlantic. Finally, we studied the influence of high-frequency noise levels on earthquake detectability and found that a noise level increase of 10 dB decreases the detectability by 0.5 magnitude units. This method provides a practical way to consider noise variations in detection maps.

  18. Analysis of available ambient and stationary source HAP sampling results to verify emission rate estimates for sources in Ambos Nogales

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, B.; Fernandez, C.; Oliver, B.; Dickson, R.

    1996-12-31

    The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) is funding a project to develop comprehensive hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions inventories for the cross-border communities of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. Ambient VOC and PAH data were collected in downtown Nogales, Sonora in July 1994 by the ADEQ. This paper addresses the analysis of the ambient HAP data performed by the project team. The ambient HAP data evaluation will serve as a cross-check of the accuracy of the RAP emission estimates developed for each source type included in the HAP emissions inventory. The data show that benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene (BTXE) and aldehydes are the dominant volatile organic compound (VOC) HAPs in the ambient air. The quantity of BTXE in the ambient air, and ratio of these compounds to each other, implies that mobile sources are the principal source of BTXE in Nogales, Sonora. Significant levels of olefinic VOCs were also detected. Ambient test data also indicate ethane, propane, butane, pentane are the predominant VOC species in the ambient air. Liquified petroleum gas (LPG) cylinders are the probable source of these VOCs. Almost all residential and commercial cooking performed in Nogales, Sonora is done from LPG cylinders containing a mixture of propane (primarily) and butane. These cylinders are ubiquitous, and many are equipped with potentially leaky valves. VOC and VOC HAP test protocols are currently being developed by the Mexican National Institute of Ecology for these cylinders and associated cooking ranges. Periodic open burning of municipal solid waste (MSW) is performed at a site located on the border in Nogales, Sonora. Ambient VOC HAP data collected in July 1994 during both MSW burning periods and {open_quotes}no burn{close_quotes} periods is being evaluated to determine if the contribution of open burning to the ambient HAP burden can be estimated for both particulate and VOC HAPs from the ambient data. 7 refs.

  19. Providing Context for Ambient Particulate Matter and Estimates of Attributable Mortality.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Roger O

    2016-09-01

    Four papers on fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) by Anenberg et al., Fann et al., Shin et al., and Smith contribute to a growing body of literature on estimated epidemiological associations between ambient PM2.5 concentrations and increases in health responses relative to baseline notes. This article provides context for the four articles, including a historical review of provisions of the U.S. Clean Air Act as amended in 1970, requiring the setting of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria pollutants such as particulate matter (PM). The substantial improvements in both air quality for PM and population health as measured by decreased mortality rates are illustrated. The most recent revision of the NAAQS for PM2.5 in 2013 by the Environmental Protection Agency distinguished between (1) uncertainties in characterizing PM2.5 as having a causal association with various health endpoints, and as all-cause mortality, and (2) uncertainties in concentration--excess health response relationships at low ambient PM2.5 concentrations below the majority of annual concentrations studied in the United States in the past. In future reviews, and potential revisions, of the NAAQS for PM2.5 , it will be even more important to distinguish between uncertainties in (1) characterizing the causal associations between ambient PM2.5 concentrations and specific health outcomes, such as all-source mortality, irrespective of the concentrations, (2) characterizing the potency of major constituents of PM2.5 , and (3) uncertainties in the association between ambient PM2.5 concentrations and specific health outcomes at various ambient PM2.5 concentrations. The latter uncertainties are of special concern as ambient PM2.5 concentrations and health morbidity and mortality rates approach background or baseline rates.

  20. Anode for rechargeable ambient temperature lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Attia, Alan I. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An ambient room temperature, high density, rechargeable lithium battery includes a Li(x)Mg2Si negative anode which intercalates lithium to form a single crystalline phase when x is up to 1.0 and an amorphous phase when x is from 1 to 2.0. The electrode has good reversibility and mechanical strength after cycling.

  1. Ocean Remote Sensing Using Ambient Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Ocean Remote Sensing Using Ambient Noise Michael G...frequency sound propagation in the ocean , and the effects of environmental variability on signal stability and coherence. We seek to understand the...fundamental limits to signal processing imposed by ocean variability to enable advanced signal processing techniques, including matched field processing

  2. Projection screen having reduced ambient light scattering

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.

    2010-05-11

    An apparatus and method for improving the contrast between incident projected light and ambient light reflected from a projection screen are described. The efficiency of the projection screen for reflection of the projected light remains high, while permitting the projection screen to be utilized in a brightly lighted room. Light power requirements from the projection system utilized may be reduced.

  3. All inorganic ambient temperature rechargeable lithium battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, H. C.; Dey, A. N.; Schlaikjer, C.; Foster, D.; Kallianidis, M.

    Research and development was carried out on ambient-temperature rechargeable lithium batteries with inorganic SO2 electrolytes. The following solutes in SO2 were studied: tetrachloroaluminates, LiAlCl4, Li2B10Cl10, and LiGaCl4. Copper chloride (CuCl2) was used as one of the electrode materials.

  4. EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS): REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies support a participation of fine particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 0.1 to 2.5 microm in the effects of air pollution particles on human health. The ambient fine particle concentrator is a recently developed technology that can enrich the mass of ambi...

  5. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    S. Magnuson

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  6. Assessment of ambient air quality in Eskişehir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozden, O; Döğeroğlu, T; Kara, S

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents an assessment of air quality of the city Eskişehir, located 230 km southwest to the capital of Turkey. Only five of the major air pollutants, most studied worldwide and available for the region, were considered for the assessment. Available sulphur dioxide (SO(2)), particulate matter (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), ozone (O(3)), and non-methane volatile organic carbons (NMVOCs) data from local emission inventory studies provided relative source contributions of the selected pollutants to the region. The contributions of these typical pollution parameters, selected for characterizing such an urban atmosphere, were compared with the data established for other cities in the nation and world countries. Additionally, regional ambient SO(2) and PM concentrations, determined by semi-automatic monitoring at two sites, were gathered from the National Ambient Air Monitoring Network (NAAMN). Regional data for ambient NO(2) (as a precursor of ozone as VOCs) and ozone concentrations, through the application of the passive sampling method, were provided by the still ongoing local air quality monitoring studies conducted at six different sites, as representatives of either the traffic-dense-, or coal/natural gas burning residential-, or industrial/rural-localities of the city. Passively sampled ozone data at a single rural site were also verified with the data from a continuous automatic ozone monitoring system located at that site. Effects of variations in seasonal-activities, newly established railway system, and switching to natural gas usage on the temporal changes of air quality were all considered for the assessment. Based on the comparisons with the national [AQCR (Air Quality Control Regulation). Ministry of Environment (MOE), Ankara. Official Newspaper 19269; 1986.] and a number of international [WHO (World Health Organization). Guidelines for Air Quality. Geneva; 2000. Downloaded in January 2006, website: http://www.who.int/peh/; EU (European Union

  7. Ambient tectonic stress as fragile geological feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, Norman H.

    2014-09-01

    seismic waves produce frictional failure within shallow pervasively cracked rocks. Distributed failure preferentially relaxes ambient tectonic stresses, providing a fragility measure of past strong shaking. Relaxation of the regional fault-normal compression appears to have occurred within granite from 768 m down to ˜1000-1600 m depth at the Pilot Hole near Parkfield, California. Subsequent movements on the main fault have imposed strike-slip stress within the relaxed region. Peak ground velocities of ˜2 m s-1 are inferred for infrequent (few 1000 yr recurrence) past earthquakes from stress relaxation within the granite and from the variation of S wave velocity with depth in the overlying sandstone. Conversely, frequent strong shaking in slowly deforming regions relaxes shallow ambient tectonic stress. This situation is expected beneath Whittier Narrows, where strong Love waves from numerous San Andreas events repeatedly produced nonlinear behavior.

  8. Ambient-temperature co-oxidation catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Billy T.; Schryer, David R.; Brown, Kenneth G.; Kielin, Erik J.

    1991-01-01

    Oxidation catalysts which operate at ambient temperature were developed for the recombination of carbon monoxide (CO) and oxygen (O2) dissociation products which are formed during carbon dioxide (CO2) laser operation. Recombination of these products to regenerate CO2 allows continuous operation of CO2 lasers in a closed cycle mode. Development of these catalyst materials provides enabling technology for the operation of such lasers from space platforms or in ground based facilities without constant gas consumption required for continuous open cycle operation. Such catalysts also have other applications in various areas outside the laser community for removal of CO from other closed environments such as indoor air and as an ambient temperature catalytic converter for control of auto emissions.

  9. Thermal explosion in oscillating ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novozhilov, Vasily

    2016-07-01

    Thermal explosion problem for a medium with oscillating ambient temperature at its boundaries is considered. This is a new problem in thermal explosion theory, not previously considered in a distributed system formulation, but important for combustion and fire science. It describes autoignition of wide range of fires (such as but not limited to piles of biosolids and other organic matter; storages of munitions, explosives, propellants) subjected to temperature variations, such as seasonal or day/night variation. The problem is considered in formulation adopted in classical studies of thermal explosion. Critical conditions are determined by frequency and amplitude of ambient temperature oscillations, as well as by a number of other parameters. Effects of all the parameters on critical conditions are quantified. Results are presented for the case of planar symmetry. Development of thermal explosion in time is also considered, and a new type of unsteady thermal explosion development is discovered where thermal runaway occurs after several periods of temperature oscillations within the medium.

  10. Ambient Intelligence Research Landscapes: Introduction and Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streitz, Norbert

    This paper starts out by introducing the "Landscapes" category at the Joint International Conference on Ambient Intelligence (AmI-2010) and provides an overview over the two sessions. The main part of the paper presents a framework for the role of Ambient Intelligence in the development of the cities of the future. This includes the integration of real and virtual worlds resulting in Hybrid Cities and their transformation into Smart Cities. In the context, it is argued that the technological development has to be monitored by guidelines and goals for maintaining and improving the quality of life leading to what is called Humane Cities, addressing, e.g., social awareness and privacy, trust and identity. The paper closes with proposals for a future research agenda.

  11. Improved Ambient Pressure Pyroelectric Ion Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beegle, Luther W.; Kim, Hugh I.; Kanik, Isik; Ryu, Ernest K.; Beckett, Brett

    2011-01-01

    The detection of volatile vapors of unknown species in a complex field environment is required in many different applications. Mass spectroscopic techniques require subsystems including an ionization unit and sample transport mechanism. All of these subsystems must have low mass, small volume, low power, and be rugged. A volatile molecular detector, an ambient pressure pyroelectric ion source (APPIS) that met these requirements, was recently reported by Caltech researchers to be used in in situ environments.

  12. Ambient temperature sodium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Yu, Xingwen

    2015-05-13

    Ambient- or room-temperature sodium-sulfur batteries (RT Na-S) are gaining much attention as a low-cost option for large-scale electrical energy storage applications. However, their adoption is hampered by severe challenges. This concept paper summarizes first the operating principles, history, recent progress, and challenges of RT Na-S battery technology, and then suggests future directions towards enhancing performance in order for it to be a viable technology.

  13. Mass Spectrometry Imaging under Ambient Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chunping; Dill, Allison L.; Eberlin, Livia S.; Cooks, R. Graham; Ifa, Demian R.

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has emerged as an important tool in the last decade and it is beginning to show potential to provide new information in many fields owing to its unique ability to acquire molecularly specific images and to provide multiplexed information, without the need for labeling or staining. In MSI, the chemical identity of molecules present on a surface is investigated as a function of spatial distribution. In addition to now standard methods involving MSI in vacuum, recently developed ambient ionization techniques allow MSI to be performed under atmospheric pressure on untreated samples outside the mass spectrometer. Here we review recent developments and applications of MSI emphasizing the ambient ionization techniques of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI), probe electrospray ionization (PESI), desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI), femtosecond laser desorption ionization (fs-LDI), laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS), infrared laser ablation metastable-induced chemical ionization (IR-LAMICI), liquid microjunction surface sampling probe mass spectrometry (LMJ-SSP MS), nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI), and plasma sources such as the low temperature plasma (LTP) probe and laser ablation coupled to flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (LA-FAPA). Included are discussions of some of the features of ambient MSI including the ability to implement chemical reactions with the goal of providing high abundance ions characteristic of specific compounds of interest and the use of tandem mass spectrometry to either map the distribution of targeted molecules with high specificity or to provide additional MS information in the structural identification of compounds. We also describe the role of bioinformatics in acquiring and interpreting the chemical and spatial information obtained through MSI, especially in biological applications for tissue

  14. Characterizing and Classifying Acoustical Ambient Sound Profiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    of sound . The value for the speed of sound varies depending on the medium which the sound wave travels through as well as the temperature and...Characterizing and Classifying Acoustical Ambient Sound Profiles THESIS MARCH 2015 Paul T. Gaski, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT-ENS-MS-15-M-122... SOUND PROFILES THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of

  15. Work function measurements in gas ambient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Wilford N.; Johnson, Kendall B.

    1994-09-01

    A simple, practical method for making work function measurements in gas ambient is presented. The method makes use of a Kelvin probe that has been calibrated using a clean solution surface of an electrochemical half-cell. We find that the outer potential of a typical half-cell solution is constant and reproducible, much more so even than gold in air. It is suggested that the concept and definition of work function be extended to electrochemical half-cells.

  16. Horizontal Directionality of Ambient Sea Noise in the North Pacific Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    Division Undersea Surveillance and Ocean Sciences Department NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Unauthorized Diselosurte Subject to Criminal Sanctions...is a beamwidth-related phcnoincnon and not a *requetwy- : dependnt propierty of the noist field. 6i) ]he no-ximln tine TASS occupid one station w•s...Center for Ocean Sciences , Plan MC-O01, CHURCH ANCHOR Data Analysis Plan (U), October 1973, (S). 7. Naval Undersea Center, NUC TN-I 039, Ambient Noise

  17. Surface Wave Dispersion Measurements and Tomography from Ambient Seismic Noise Correlation in China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    30 Sep 2008 REPRINT 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER SURFACE WAVE DISPERSION MEASUREMENTS AND TOMOGRAPHY FROM FA8718-07-C-0006 C AMIBIENT...25 September 2008, Portsmouth, VA, Volume I pp 268 - 278. 14. ABSTRACT We perform ambient noise tomography of China using the data from the China...National Seismic Network and global and PASSCAL stations. The results so far are summarized below. (I) Dispersion measurements and tomography . For most of

  18. Quantification of furandiones in ambient aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Naiema, Ibrahim M.; Roppo, Hannah M.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2017-03-01

    Furandiones are products of the photooxidation of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC), like toluene, and contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Because few molecular tracers of anthropogenic SOA are used to assess this source in ambient aerosol, developing a quantification method for furandiones holds a great importance. In this study, we developed a direct and highly sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the quantitative analysis of furandiones in fine particulate matter that is mainly free from interference by structurally-related dicarboxylic acids. Our application of this method in Iowa City, IA provides the first ambient measurements of four furandiones: 2,5-furandione, 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, dihydro-2,5-furandione, and dihydro-3-methyl-2,5-furandione. Furandiones were detected in all collected samples with a daily average concentration of 9.1 ± 3.8 ng m-3. The developed method allows for the accurate measurement of the furandiones concentrations in ambient aerosol, which will support future evaluation of these compounds as tracers for anthropogenic SOA and assessment of their potential health impacts.

  19. Exercise and outdoor ambient air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Carlisle, A; Sharp, N

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To establish by literature survey: (a) levels at which air pollutants are considered damaging to human health and to exercisers in particular; (b) the current ambient levels experienced in the United Kingdom; (c) whether athletes are especially at risk. Methods—Six major urban air pollutants were examined: carbon monoxide (CO); nitrogen oxides (NOX); ozone (O3); particulate matter (PM10); sulphur dioxide (SO2); volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Results—CO is detrimental to athletic performance. NO2 is of concern to human health, but outdoor levels are low. O3 poses a potentially serious risk to exercising athletes. Decrements in lung function result from exposure, and there is evidence that athletic performance may be affected. Detrimental effects may occur at low ambient levels, but there is no scientific consensus on this matter. PM10 is causing concern in the scientific community. Blood lead accumulation during exercise indicates that personal exposure to toxic compounds associated with PM10 may be magnified. Generally, outdoor ambient levels of SO2 are too low to cause a problem to the athlete, except the asthmatic athlete. The few studies on exposure of exercisers to VOCs are reviewed. Conclusions—Athletes and exercisers should avoid exercising by the road side even though levels of the more noxious air pollutants have been controlled in the United Kingdom. O3 is particularly damaging to athletes; it reaches its highest concentrations on hot bright days in rural areas. Key Words: exercise; air pollution PMID:11477012

  20. Object detectability at increased ambient lighting conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, Benjamin J.; Chawla, Amarpreet S.; Delong, David M.; Hashimoto, Noriyuki; Samei, Ehsan

    2008-06-15

    Under typical dark conditions encountered in diagnostic reading rooms, a reader's pupils will contract and dilate as the visual focus intermittently shifts between the high luminance display and the darker background wall, resulting in increased visual fatigue and the degradation of diagnostic performance. A controlled increase of ambient lighting may, however, reduce the severity of these pupillary adjustments by minimizing the difference between the luminance level to which the eyes adapt while viewing an image (L{sub adp}) and the luminance level of diffusely reflected light from the area surrounding the display (L{sub s}). Although ambient lighting in reading rooms has conventionally been kept at a minimum to maintain the perceived contrast of film images, proper Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) calibration of modern medical-grade liquid crystal displays can compensate for minor lighting increases with very little loss of image contrast. This paper describes two psychophysical studies developed to evaluate and refine optimum reading room ambient lighting conditions through the use of observational tasks intended to simulate real clinical practices. The first study utilized the biologic contrast response of the human visual system to determine a range of representative L{sub adp} values for typical medical images. Readers identified low contrast horizontal objects in circular foregrounds of uniform luminance (5, 12, 20, and 30 cd/m{sup 2}) embedded within digitized mammograms. The second study examined the effect of increased ambient lighting on the detection of subtle objects embedded in circular foregrounds of uniform luminance (5, 12, and 35 cd/m{sup 2}) centered within a constant background of 12 cd/m{sup 2} luminance. The images were displayed under a dark room condition (1 lux) and an increased ambient lighting level (50 lux) such that the luminance level of the diffusely reflected light from the background wall was approximately

  1. Object detectability at increased ambient lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Benjamin J; Chawla, Amarpreet S; Delong, David M; Hashimoto, Noriyuki; Samei, Ehsan

    2008-06-01

    Under typical dark conditions encountered in diagnostic reading rooms, a reader's pupils will contract and dilate as the visual focus intermittently shifts between the high luminance display and the darker background wall, resulting in increased visual fatigue and the degradation of diagnostic performance. A controlled increase of ambient lighting may, however, reduce the severity of these pupillary adjustments by minimizing the difference between the luminance level to which the eyes adapt while viewing an image (L(adp)) and the luminance level of diffusely reflected light from the area surrounding the display (L(s)). Although ambient lighting in reading rooms has conventionally been kept at a minimum to maintain the perceived contrast of film images, proper Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) calibration of modern medical-grade liquid crystal displays can compensate for minor lighting increases with very little loss of image contrast. This paper describes two psychophysical studies developed to evaluate and refine optimum reading room ambient lighting conditions through the use of observational tasks intended to simulate real clinical practices. The first study utilized the biologic contrast response of the human visual system to determine a range of representative L(adp) values for typical medical images. Readers identified low contrast horizontal objects in circular foregrounds of uniform luminance (5, 12, 20, and 30 cd/m2) embedded within digitized mammograms. The second study examined the effect of increased ambient lighting on the detection of subtle objects embedded in circular foregrounds of uniform luminance (5, 12, and 35 cd/m2) centered within a constant background of 12 cd/m2 luminance. The images were displayed under a dark room condition (1 lux) and an increased ambient lighting level (50 lux) such that the luminance level of the diffusely reflected light from the background wall was approximately equal to the image L(adp) value of

  2. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING AT GROUND ZERO AND LOWER MANHATTAN FOLLOWING THE COLLAPSE OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) collaborated with EPA's Regional offices to establish a monitoring network to characterize ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and air toxics in lower Manhattan following the collapse of the World Trade...

  3. Source Apportionment of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter in Dearborn, Michigan, using Hourly Resolved PM Chemical Composition Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    High time-resolution aerosol sampling was conducted for one month during July–August 2007 in Dearborn, MI, a non-attainment area for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Measurements of more than 30 PM2.5 species were made using a suite o...

  4. Determination of beryllium concentrations in UK ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Sharon L.; Brown, Richard J. C.; Ghatora, Baljit K.

    2016-12-01

    Air quality monitoring of ambient air is essential to minimise the exposure of the general population to toxic substances such as heavy metals, and thus the health risks associated with them. In the UK, ambient air is already monitored under the UK Heavy Metals Monitoring Network for a number of heavy metals, including nickel (Ni), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) to ensure compliance with legislative limits. However, the UK Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards (EPAQS) has highlighted a need to limit concentrations of beryllium (Be) in air, which is not currently monitored, because of its toxicity. The aim of this work was to analyse airborne particulate matter (PM) sampled onto filter papers from the UK Heavy Metals Monitoring Network for quantitative, trace level beryllium determination and compare the results to the guideline concentration specified by EPAQS. Samples were prepared by microwave acid digestion in a matrix of 2% sulphuric acid and 14% nitric acid, verified by the use of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs). The digested samples were then analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The filters from the UK Heavy Metals Monitoring Network were tested using this procedure and the average beryllium concentration across the network for the duration of the study period was 7.87 pg m-3. The highest site average concentration was 32.0 pg m-3 at Scunthorpe Low Santon, which is significantly lower than levels that are thought to cause harm. However the highest levels were observed at sites monitoring industrial point sources, indicating that beryllium is being used and emitted, albeit at very low levels, from these point sources. Comparison with other metals concentrations and data from the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory suggests that current emissions of beryllium may be significantly overestimated.

  5. Antimicrobial Applications of Ambient--Air Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovich, Matthew John

    The emerging field of plasma biotechology studies the applications of the plasma phase of matter to biological systems. "Ambient-condition" plasmas created at or near room temperature and atmospheric pressure are especially promising for biomedical applications because of their convenience, safety to patients, and compatibility with existing medical technology. Plasmas can be created from many different gases; plasma made from air contains a number of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, or RONS, involved in various biological processes, including immune activity, signaling, and gene expression. Therefore, ambient-condition air plasma is of particular interest for biological applications. To understand and predict the effects of treating biological systems with ambient-air plasma, it is necessary to characterize and measure the chemical species that these plasmas produce. Understanding both gaseous chemistry and the chemistry in plasma-treated aqueous solution is important because many biological systems exist in aqueous media. Existing literature about ambient-air plasma hypothesizes the critical role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; a major aim of this dissertation is to better quantify RONS by produced ambient-air plasma and understand how RONS chemistry changes in response to different plasma processing conditions. Measurements imply that both gaseous and aqueous chemistry are highly sensitive to operating conditions. In particular, chemical species in air treated by plasma exist in either a low-power ozone-dominated mode or a high-power nitrogen oxide-dominated mode, with an unstable transition region at intermediate discharge power and treatment time. Ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, or NOx) are mutually exclusive in this system and that the transition region corresponds to the transition from ozone- to nitrogen oxides-mode. Aqueous chemistry agrees well with to air plasma chemistry, and a similar transition in liquid-phase composition

  6. Ambient Experience in Restitutive Treatment of Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    McClung, Jill S.; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; Nadeau, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges to language rehabilitation is reconciling the fact that the same therapeutic intervention, provided to different individuals with similar types of stroke-induced aphasia, may result in divergent outcomes. In this paper, the authors reviewed existing literature to identify relevant ambient factors – those outside the control of the clinician – that may potentially influence functional language recovery in aphasia and response to treatment. The goal was to develop a clinical history-taking tool to assist clinicians in gathering information germane to each individual's unique circumstances and environment, elements that may have previously been underestimated, to provide a complete inventory of potentially potent prognostic factors. First, two of the authors, speech–language pathologists experienced in aphasia rehabilitation, identified and categorized factors that seemed likely to influence aphasia outcomes. Then, a wide range of literature was reviewed in an effort to identify factors empirically found to be potent influences on aphasia recovery. Where studies relating these factors to aphasia were not found, relevant research from allied fields that examined recovery from brain injury is reported. Moreover, some factors thought to be potentially potent have yet to be examined. Finally, the ambient factors supported by evidence were categorized as facilitators or barriers to functional improvement, and the Ambient Influences on Outcome Checklist (AOC) was developed, including only those factors shown to be potent in the recovery process. It is hoped that this checklist can be used to more broadly assess potential prognostic influences in aphasia restitution, as well as spawn further research. PMID:21103021

  7. The TOMPs ambient air monitoring network - Continuous data on UK air quality for over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Graf, Carola; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    Long-term air monitoring datasets are needed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to assess the effectiveness of source abatement measures and the factors controlling ambient levels. The Toxic Organic Micro Pollutants (TOMPs) Network, which has operated since 1991, collects ambient air samples at six sites across England and Scotland, using high-volume active air samplers. The network provides long-term ambient air trend data for a range of POPs at both urban and rural locations. Data from the network provides the UK Government, regulators and researchers with valuable information on emission/source controls and on the effectiveness of international chemicals regulation such as the Stockholm Convention and UN/ECE Protocol on POPs. The target chemicals of TOMPs have been polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and, since 2010, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The continuous monitoring of these compounds demonstrates the constant decline in UK air concentrations over the last two decades, with average clearance rates for PCDD/Fs in urban locations of 5.1 years and for PCBs across all sites 6.6 years. No significant declines in rural locations for PCDD/Fs have been observed. There is a strong observable link between the declining ambient air concentrations and the emission reductions estimated in the annually produced National Atmospheric Emission Inventory (NAEI) dataset. These findings clearly demonstrate the unique strengths of long-term consistent datasets for the evaluation of the success of chemical regulation and control.

  8. Head wave correlations in ambient noise.

    PubMed

    Gebbie, John; Siderius, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Ambient ocean noise is processed with a vertical line array to reveal coherent time-separated arrivals suggesting the presence of head wave multipath propagation. Head waves, which are critically propagating water waves created by seabed waves traveling parallel to the water-sediment interface, can propagate faster than water-only waves. Such eigenrays are much weaker than water-only eigenrays, and are often completely overshadowed by them. Surface-generated noise is different whereby it amplifies the coherence between head waves and critically propagating water-only waves, which is measured by cross-correlating critically steered beams. This phenomenon is demonstrated both experimentally and with a full wave simulation.

  9. Ambient temperature modelling with soft computing techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bertini, Ilaria; Ceravolo, Francesco; Citterio, Marco; Di Pietra, Biagio; Margiotta, Francesca; Pizzuti, Stefano; Puglisi, Giovanni; De Felice, Matteo

    2010-07-15

    This paper proposes a hybrid approach based on soft computing techniques in order to estimate monthly and daily ambient temperature. Indeed, we combine the back-propagation (BP) algorithm and the simple Genetic Algorithm (GA) in order to effectively train artificial neural networks (ANN) in such a way that the BP algorithm initialises a few individuals of the GA's population. Experiments concerned monthly temperature estimation of unknown places and daily temperature estimation for thermal load computation. Results have shown remarkable improvements in accuracy compared to traditional methods. (author)

  10. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S.; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Kassuga, Theo

    2015-10-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for low– global warming potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerant selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  11. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Shrestha, Som S.; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Kassuga, Theo

    2015-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient Temperature Testing Program for Low-GWP Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-Global Warming Potential (low-GWP) alternatives to Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high ambient temperature conditions. This interim working paper describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the preliminary results.

  12. Ambient Noise in an Urbanized Tidal Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Christopher

    In coastal environments, when topographic and bathymetric constrictions are combined with large tidal amplitudes, strong currents (> 2 m/s) can occur. Because such environments are relatively rare and difficult to study, until recently, they have received little attention from the scientific community. However, in recent years, interest in developing tidal hydrokinetic power projects in these environments has motivated studies to improve this understanding. In order to support an analysis of the acoustic effects of tidal power generation, a multi-year study was conducted at a proposed project site in Puget Sound (WA) are analyzed at a site where peak currents exceeded 3.5 m/s. From these analyses, three noise sources are shown to dominate the observed variability in ambient noise between 0.02-30 kHz: anthropogenic noise from vessel traffic, sediment-generated noise during periods of strong currents, and flow-noise resulting from turbulence advected over the hydrophones. To assess the contribution of vessel traffic noise, one calendar year of Automatic Identification System (AIS) ship-traffic data was paired with hydrophone recordings. The study region included inland waters of the Salish Sea within a 20 km radius of the hydrophone deployment site in northern Admiralty Inlet. The variability in spectra and hourly, daily, and monthly ambient noise statistics for unweighted broadband and M-weighted sound pressure levels is driven largely by vessel traffic. Within the one-year study period, at least one AIS transmitting vessel is present in the study area 90% of the time and over 1,363 unique vessels are recorded. A noise budget for vessels equipped with AIS transponders identifies cargo ships, tugs, and passenger vessels as the largest contributors to noise levels. A simple model to predict received levels at the site based on an incoherent summation of noise from different vessel types yields a cumulative probability density function of broadband sound pressure

  13. Ambient pressure photoemission spectroscopy of metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baikie, Iain D.; Grain, Angela C.; Sutherland, James; Law, Jamie

    2014-12-01

    We describe a novel photoemission technique utilizing a traditional Kelvin probe as a detector of electrons/atmospheric ions ejected from metallic surfaces (Au, Ag, Cu, Fe, Ni, Ti, Zn, Al) illuminated by a deep ultra-violet (DUV) source under ambient pressure. To surmount the limitation of electron scattering in air the incident photon energy is rastered rather than applying a variable retarding electric field as is used with UPS. This arrangement can be applied in several operational modes: using the DUV source to determine the photoemission threshold (Φ) with 30-50 meV resolution and also the Kelvin probe, under dark conditions, to measure contact potential difference (CPD) between the Kelvin probe tip and the metallic sample with an accuracy of 1-3 meV. We have studied the relationship between the photoelectric threshold and CPD of metal surfaces cleaned in ambient conditions. Inclusion of a second spectroscopic visible source was used to confirm a semiconducting oxide, possibly Cu2O, via surface photovoltage measurements with the KP. This dual detection system can be easily extended to controlled gas conditions, relative humidity control and sample heating/cooling.

  14. Ambient Noise Tomography in the Eastern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaiz-Rodriguez, M. S.; Niu, F.; Schmitz, M.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the upper mantle velocity structure beneath the eastern Caribbean with ambient seismic noise data recorded by broadband stations deployed around the region. We first compute the Rayleigh wave Green's functions between each pair of stations by cross-correlating ambient seismic noises. We then estimate fundamental mode group velocities with the FTAN analysis technique. The group velocities are further inverted into 0.5x0.5 degrees rectangular mesh grids. Finally, the dispersion curve of each grid point is linearly inverted into shear wave velocity at different depths. The shear wave variations show a high velocity anomaly in the center of the Venezuela Basin that can be related to a previously unreported igneous body. Two different sections of the mantle wedge related to the Atlantic subduction are identified. One is highly developed under the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles Arc. Another one is which is poorly developed on the southern portion of the arc. The differentiation of the mantle wedge could be attributed to segmentation of the slab produced by the Tiburon Transform Fault Zone. Finally, a low velocity anomaly at 100 km depth could be related to a small hydrous cold plume formed on the northern side of the Atlantic slab.

  15. A Smart Kitchen for Ambient Assisted Living

    PubMed Central

    Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto; Cirujano, Diego; Picking, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people's autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appropriate user interaction and artificial intelligence. It is based on a modular architecture which integrates a wide variety of home technology (household appliances, sensors, user interfaces, etc.) and associated communication standards and media (power line, radio frequency, infrared and cabled). Its software architecture is based on the Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi), which allows building a complex system composed of small modules, each one providing the specific functionalities required, and can be easily scaled to meet our needs. The system has been evaluated by a large number of real users (63) and carers (31) in two living labs in Spain and UK. Results show a large potential of system functionalities combined with good usability and physical, sensory and cognitive accessibility. PMID:24445412

  16. Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Gerhard; Felfernig, Alexander; Fercher, Anton J.; Hitz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future. PMID:25068862

  17. Ambient Noise Tomography at Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuler, A. E.; Ekström, G.; West, M.; Senyukov, S.

    2008-12-01

    Bezymianny Volcano is an active stratovolcano located in the Kluychevskoy volcanic group on the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. Since its dramatic sector collapse eruption in 1956, the volcano's activity has been characterized by nearly twice annual plinian eruptions accompanying ongoing lava-dome growth. Its frequent eruptions and similarity to Mt. St. Helens have made it the target of a multifaceted geologic and geophysical project supported by the NSF Partners in Research and Education (PIRE) program. Since mid- 2006, the volcano has been monitored by a broadband seismic array that is currently composed of 8 stations within 10 kilometers of the active dome. In this project, we use continuous data from these stations to investigate the static and dynamic structure of the volcano. Using methods similar to those used by Brenguier et al. (2007, 2008), we estimate the Green's function for each pair of stations by cross-correlating day-long time series of ambient noise. Paths with high signal-to-noise ratios can be used to estimate group velocity dispersion curves. From these measurements, we work towards constructing the first velocity model of this volcano. Furthermore, we begin to test whether measurements of ambient noise can be used to monitor changes inside the volcano prior to eruptive activity. These problems will continue to be addressed as more data becomes available in future field seasons.

  18. A smart kitchen for ambient assisted living.

    PubMed

    Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto; Cirujano, Diego; Picking, Richard

    2014-01-17

    The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people's autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appropriate user interaction and artificial intelligence. It is based on a modular architecture which integrates a wide variety of home technology (household appliances, sensors, user interfaces, etc.) and associated communication standards and media (power line, radio frequency, infrared and cabled). Its software architecture is based on the Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi), which allows building a complex system composed of small modules, each one providing the specific functionalities required, and can be easily scaled to meet our needs. The system has been evaluated by a large number of real users (63) and carers (31) in two living labs in Spain and UK. Results show a large potential of system functionalities combined with good usability and physical, sensory and cognitive accessibility.

  19. Characterization of Ambient Black Carbon Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Levy, M. E.; Zheng, J.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-12-01

    Because of the strong absorption over a broad range of the electromagnetic spectra, black carbon (BC) is a key short-lived climate forcer, which contributes significantly to climate change by direct radiative forcing and is the second most important component causing global warming after carbon dioxide. The impact of BC on the radiative forcing of the Earth-Atmosphere system is highly dependent of the particle properties. In this presentation, emphasis will be placed on characterizing BC containing aerosols in at the California-Mexico border to obtain a greater understanding of the atmospheric aging and properties of ambient BC aerosols. A comprehensive set of directly measured aerosol properties, including the particle size distribution, effective density, hygroscopicity, volatility, and several optical properties, will be discussed to quantify the mixing state and composition of ambient particles. In Tijuana, Mexico, submicron aerosols are strongly influenced by vehicle emissions; subsequently, the BC concentration in Tijuana is considerably higher than most US cities with an average BC concentration of 2.71 × 2.65 g cm-3. BC accounts for 24.75 % × 9.44 of the total submicron concentration on average, but periodically accounts for over 50%. This high concentration of BC strongly influences many observed aerosol properties such as single scattering albedo, hygroscopicity, effective density, and volatility.

  20. Estimating site amplification factors from ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Steven R.; Gerstoft, Peter; Fehler, Michael C.

    2009-05-01

    We present a methodology to obtain frequency-dependent relative site amplification factors using ambient seismic noise. We treat a seismic network or array as a forced damped harmonic oscillator system where each station responds to a forcing function obtained from frequency-wavenumber beams of the ambient noise field. A network or array beam is necessary to estimate the forcing function. Taken over long time periods, each station responds to the forcing function showing a frequency-dependent resonance peak whose amplitude and spectral width depends upon the elastic and anelastic properties of the underlying medium. Our results are encouraging in that hard rock sites show little variability and have narrower resonance peaks with reduced amplitudes relative to soft rock sites in sedimentary basins. There is much more variability observed at soft rock sites and a tendency for spectral peaks to shift to higher frequencies and become broader as the site amplification increases. This could be due to due to lower densities and/or small-strain nonlinearity at stations having high site amplification.

  1. Thermal explosion in oscillating ambient conditions

    PubMed Central

    Novozhilov, Vasily

    2016-01-01

    Thermal explosion problem for a medium with oscillating ambient temperature at its boundaries is considered. This is a new problem in thermal explosion theory, not previously considered in a distributed system formulation, but important for combustion and fire science. It describes autoignition of wide range of fires (such as but not limited to piles of biosolids and other organic matter; storages of munitions, explosives, propellants) subjected to temperature variations, such as seasonal or day/night variation. The problem is considered in formulation adopted in classical studies of thermal explosion. Critical conditions are determined by frequency and amplitude of ambient temperature oscillations, as well as by a number of other parameters. Effects of all the parameters on critical conditions are quantified. Results are presented for the case of planar symmetry. Development of thermal explosion in time is also considered, and a new type of unsteady thermal explosion development is discovered where thermal runaway occurs after several periods of temperature oscillations within the medium. PMID:27443235

  2. 76 FR 23755 - Release of Draft Risk and Exposure Assessments and Final Integrated Review Plan for the National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50 and 58 RIN 2060-AP38 Release of Draft Risk and Exposure Assessments and Final Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone AGENCY: Environmental... making available for public review the documents titled, ``Ozone National Ambient Air Quality...

  3. Estimation of ambient PM2.5 concentrations in Maryland and verification by measured values.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kenneth; Sherwell, John

    2002-10-01

    In 1997, Maryland had no available ambient Federal Reference Method data on particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM23), but did have annual ambient data for PM smaller than 10 microm (PM10) at 24 sites. The PM10 data were analyzed in conjunction with local annual and seasonal zip-code-level emission inventories and with speciated PM2.5 data from four nearby monitors in the IMPROVE network (located in the national parks, wildlife refuges, and wilderness areas) in an effort to estimate annual average and seasonal high PM2.5 concentrations at the 24 PM10 monitor sites operating from 1992 to 1996. All seasonal high concentrations were estimated to be below the 24-hr PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) at the sites operating in Maryland between 1992 and 1996. The estimates also indicated that 12 monitor sites might exceed the 3-year annual average PM2.5 NAAQS of 15 microg/m3, but Maryland's air quality shows signs that it has been improving since 1992. The estimates also were compared with actual measurements after the PM2.5 monitor network was installed. The estimates were adequate for describing the chemical composition of the PM2.5, forecasting compliance status with the 24-hr and annual standards, and determining the spatial variations in PM2.5 across central Maryland.

  4. 7 CFR 1466.4 - National priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... statutory resource concerns that include soil, water, wildlife, air quality, and related resource concerns... of ground and surface water resources; (3) Reduction of emissions, such as particulate matter... quality impairment violations of National Ambient Air Quality Standards; (4) Reduction in soil erosion...

  5. 7 CFR 1466.4 - National priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... statutory resource concerns that include soil, water, wildlife, air quality, and related resource concerns... of ground and surface water resources; (3) Reduction of emissions, such as particulate matter... quality impairment violations of National Ambient Air Quality Standards; (4) Reduction in soil erosion...

  6. The influence of ambient light on the driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, Karsten D.; Lemmer, Uli

    2008-04-01

    Increasingly, cars are fitted with interior ambient lighting which is switched on while driving. This special kind of interior light emphasizes the interior design of the car, it makes a car look special and gives the buyers a new option to personalize their automobiles. But how does ambient interior light influence the driver? We conducted a series of over 50 tests to study the influence of interior ambient light on contrast perception under different illumination levels, colors and positions of the illuminated areas. Our tests show that in many cases the ambient lighting can improve the visual contrast for seeing objects in the headlamp beam. But the test persons mentioned that the tested brightness looked too bright and that they felt glared. The measured values instead proved that no disability glare exists. Therefore, provided that the drivers can adjust the intensity of the ambient light to avoid glare, the ambient light has no negative effect on the drivers' contrast perception.

  7. The Potential for Ambient Plasma Wave Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James H.; Williams, George J.

    2016-01-01

    A truly robust space exploration program will need to make use of in-situ resources as much as possible to make the endeavor affordable. Most space propulsion concepts are saddled with one fundamental burden; the propellant needed to produce momentum. The most advanced propulsion systems currently in use utilize electric and/or magnetic fields to accelerate ionized propellant. However, significant planetary exploration missions in the coming decades, such as the now canceled Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, are restricted by propellant mass and propulsion system lifetimes, using even the most optimistic projections of performance. These electric propulsion vehicles are inherently limited in flexibility at their final destination, due to propulsion system wear, propellant requirements, and the relatively low acceleration of the vehicle. A few concepts are able to utilize the environment around them to produce thrust: Solar or magnetic sails and, with certain restrictions, electrodynamic tethers. These concepts focus primarily on using the solar wind or ambient magnetic fields to generate thrust. Technically immature, quasi-propellantless alternatives lack either the sensitivity or the power to provide significant maneuvering. An additional resource to be considered is the ambient plasma and magnetic fields in solar and planetary magnetospheres. These environments, such as those around the Sun or Jupiter, have been shown to host a variety of plasma waves. Plasma wave propulsion takes advantage of an observed astrophysical and terrestrial phenomenon: Alfven waves. These are waves that propagate in the plasma and magnetic fields around and between planets and stars. The generation of Alfven waves in ambient magnetic and plasma fields to generate thrust is proposed as a truly propellantless propulsion system which may enable an entirely new matrix of exploration missions. Alfven waves are well known, transverse electromagnetic waves that propagate in magnetized plasmas at

  8. Ocean Ambient Noise Studies for Shallow and Deep Water Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Ocean Ambient Noise Studies for Shallow and Deep Water...Siderius.php LONG-TERM GOALS The objective of this research is to study the ocean ambient noise field by means of new physics-based processing... ambient -noise field using a vertical line array has been developed by Harrison and Simons [Harrison, 2002]. The advantages of passive bottom-survey

  9. Impact of vehicular exhaust on ambient air quality of Rohtak city, India.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Vineeta; Dalal, Poonam; Chaudhry, Dhruva

    2010-11-01

    In the present study, ambient air quality of Rohtak city (Haryana) was monitored by High Volume Sampler. The selected parameters to judge the quality of air were Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen dioxide NO), Ozone (O3) and Suspended particulate matters (SPM) which give a fair idea of pollution load carried by the air. The monitoring data were collected from six sites randomly selected in Rohtak city. Sulphur dioxide was found below the permissible limits of National Ambient Avo Quality Standards (NAAQS) at all the sites. Higher concentration of SO2 was observed during winter in comparison to summer and monsoon seasons. Nitrogen dioxide concentration was found to be above the prescribed standards of NAAOS at four sites in winter season. Ozone concentration was found below the prescribed standards (NAAOS), but its concentration was higher in summer season as compared to winter. Suspended particulate matter concentration was observed above the safety limits at all the sites in all three seasons.

  10. Ambient Cured Alkali Activated Flyash Masonry Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, K.; Radhakrishna; Sasalatti, Vinod M.

    2016-09-01

    Geopolymers belong to a category of non-conventional and non-Portland cement based cementitious binders which are produced using industrial by products like fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). This paper reports on the development of geopolymer mortars for production of masonry units. The geopolymer mortars were prepared by mixing various by products with manufactured sand and a liquid mixture of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. After curing at ambient conditions, the masonry units were tested for strength properties such as water absorption, initial rate of absorption, compression, shear- bond, and stress-strain behaviour etc. It was observed that the flexural strength of the blocks is more than 2 MPa and shear bond strength is more than 0.4MPa. It was found that the properties of geopolymer blocks were superior to the traditional masonry units. Hence they can be recommended for structural masonry.

  11. Bacterial decontamination using ambient pressure nonthermal discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Birmingham, J.G.; Hammerstrom, D.J.

    2000-02-01

    Atmospheric pressure nonthermal plasmas can efficiently deactivate bacteria in gases, liquids, and on surfaces, as well as can decompose hazardous chemicals. This paper focuses on the changes to bacterial spores and toxic biochemical compounds, such as mycotoxins, after their treatment in ambient pressure discharges. The ability of nonthermal plasmas to decompose toxic chemicals and deactivate hazardous biological materials has been applied to sterilizing medical instruments, ozonating water, and purifying air. In addition, the fast lysis of bacterial spores and other cells has led us to include plasma devices within pathogen detection instruments, where nucleic acids must be accessed. Decontaminating chemical and biological warfare materials from large, high value targets such as building surfaces, after a terrorist attack, are especially challenging. A large area plasma decontamination technology is described.

  12. Radial anisotropy ambient noise tomography of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordret, Aurélien; Rivet, Diane; Shapiro, Nikolai; Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Landès, Matthieu; Koulakov, Ivan; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The use of ambient seismic noise allows us to perform surface-wave tomography of targets which could hardly be imaged by other means. The frequencies involved (~ 0.5 - 20 s), somewhere in between active seismic and regular teleseismic frequency band, make possible the high resolution imaging of intermediate-size targets like volcanic edifices. Moreover, the joint inversion of Rayleigh and Love waves dispersion curves extracted from noise correlations allows us to invert for crustal radial anisotropy. We present here the two first studies of radial anisotropy on volcanoes by showing results from Lake Toba Caldera, a super-volcano in Indonesia, and from Piton de la Fournaise volcano, a hot-spot effusive volcano on the Réunion Island (Indian Ocean). We will see how radial anisotropy can be used to infer the main fabric within a magmatic system and, consequently, its dominant type of intrusion.

  13. Wireless Sensor Networks for Ambient Assisted Living

    PubMed Central

    Aquino-Santos, Raúl; Martinez-Castro, Diego; Edwards-Block, Arthur; Murillo-Piedrahita, Andrés Felipe

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces wireless sensor networks for Ambient Assisted Living as a proof of concept. Our workgroup has developed an arrhythmia detection algorithm that we evaluate in a closed space using a wireless sensor network to relay the information collected to where the information can be registered, monitored and analyzed to support medical decisions by healthcare providers. The prototype we developed is then evaluated using the TelosB platform. The proposed architecture considers very specific restrictions regarding the use of wireless sensor networks in clinical situations. The seamless integration of the system architecture enables both mobile node and network configuration, thus providing the versatile and robust characteristics necessary for real-time applications in medical situations. Likewise, this system architecture efficiently permits the different components of our proposed platform to interact efficiently within the parameters of this study. PMID:24351665

  14. Ambient tremors in a collisional orogenic belt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chuang, Lindsay Yuling; Chen, Kate Huihsuan; Wech, Aaron G.; Byrne, Timothy; Peng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Deep-seated tectonic tremors have been regarded as an observation tied to interconnected fluids at depth, which have been well documented in worldwide subduction zones and transform faults but not in a collisional mountain belt. In this study we explore the general features of collisional tremors in Taiwan and discuss the possible generation mechanism. In the 4 year data, we find 231 ambient tremor episodes with durations ranging from 5 to 30 min. In addition to a coseismic slip-induced stress change from nearby major earthquake, increased tremor rate is also highly correlated with the active, normal faulting earthquake swarms at the shallower depth. Both the tremor and earthquake swarm activities are confined in a small, area where the high attenuation, high thermal anomaly, the boundary between high and low resistivity, and localized veins on the surfaces distributed, suggesting the involvement of fluids from metamorphic dehydration within the orogen.

  15. Ambient seismic noise tomography and structure of eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chuntao; Langston, Charles A.

    2008-03-01

    The time derivative of cross-correlation functions (CCF) of ambient noise fields recorded by two stations can be approximated as the Green's Function (GF) between the stations. The CCFs are thus used as Peudo-GFs (dominated by surface waves) to invert for group velocity structure in eastern North America. Stations from two regional networks deployed to monitor the New Madrid Seismic Zone and eastern Tennessee seismic zone, together with stations of the US National Seismic Network, greatly improve tomographic ray coverage. The short period (T = 5 s) group velocity map shows strong correlations with the depth to Precambrian basement. Many subtle local structures can be clearly identified from the velocity map, including the Ozark uplift, Cincinnati Arch, Nashville Dome and the Blue Ridge province of the Appalachians showing relatively high group velocity. The long period (T = 15 s) group velocity map shows strong correlations with regional geology. Ancient rift basins, such as the Mid-Continent Rift (MCR) system, the Reelfoot rift, the Oklahoma Aulacogen and the Eastern Continent Rift, are associated with low velocity belts along their rift axes. We also find that all major seismic zones in eastern North America, such as the New Madrid seismic zone, Eastern Tennessee seismic zone as well as Ouachita Orogen seismic zone, are approximately located at transition zones separating velocity highs and lows. This observation suggests that those seismic zones may reflect the reactivation of ancient faults associated with continental rift and collision zones.

  16. BOREAS TGB-7 Ambient Air Herbicide and Organochlorine Concentration Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, Don; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Trace Gas Biogeochemistry (BOREAS TGB)-7 team measured the concentration and flux of several agricultural pesticides in air, rainwater, and dry deposition samples in order to determine the associated yearly deposition rates. This data set contains information on the ambient air concentration of seven herbicides [2,4- dichlorophenoxyacidic_acid (2,4-D), bromoxynil, dicamb, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), triallate, trifluralin, and diclop-methyl] known to appear in the atmosphere of the Canadian prairies. Also, the concentration of three herbicides (atrazine, alachlor, and metolachlor), two groups of insecticides (lindane and breakdown products and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and breakdown products), and several polychlorinated biphenyls commonly used in the central United States was measured. All of these chemicals are reported, in the literature, to be transported in the atmosphere. Many have been reported to occur in boreal and arctic food chains. The sampling was carried out from 16-Jun to 13-Aug-1993 and 04-May to 20-Jul-1994 at the BOREAS site in the Prince Albert National Park (Waskesiu). The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  17. Orion ECLSS/Suit System - Ambient Pressure Integrated Suit Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barido, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    The Ambient Pressure Integrated Suit Test (APIST) phase of the integrated system testing of the Orion Vehicle Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS) technology was conducted for the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. Crew and Thermal Systems Division performed this test in the eleven-foot human-rated vacuum chamber at the NASA Johnson Space Center. This testing is the first phase of suit loop testing to demonstrate the viability of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) being developed for Orion. APIST is the first in a series, which will consist of testing development hardware including the Carbon dioxide and Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed (CAMRAS) and the air revitalization loop fan with human test subjects in pressure suits at varying suit pressures. Follow-on testing, to be conducted in 2013, will utilize the CAMRAS and a development regulator with human test subjects in pressure suits at varying cabin and suit pressures. This paper will discuss the results and findings of APIST and will also discuss future testing.

  18. Ambient-temperature passive magnetic bearings: Theory and design equations

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.; Ryutov, D.D.

    1997-12-30

    Research has been underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to build a theoretical and experimental base for the design of ambient-temperature passive magnetic bearings for a variety of possible applications. in the approach taken the limitations imposed by Earnshaw`s theorem with respect to the stability of passive magnetic bearing systems employing axially symmetric permanent-magnet elements are overcome by employing special combinations of elements, as follows: Levitating and restoring forces are provided by combinations of permanent-magnet-excited elements chosen to provide positive stiffnesses (negative force derivatives) for selected displacements (i.e., those involving translations or angular displacement of the axis of rotation). As dictated by Eamshaw`s theorem, any bearing system thus constructed will be statically unstable for at least one of the remaining possible displacements. Stabilization against this displacement is accomplished by using periodic arrays (`Halbach arrays`) of permanent magnets to induce currents in close-packed inductively loaded circuits, thereby producing negative force derivatives stabilizing the system while in rotation. Disengaging mechanical elements stabilize the system when at rest and when below a low critical speed. The paper discusses theory and equations needed for the design of such systems.

  19. PM4 crystalline silica emission factors and ambient concentrations at aggregate-producing sources in California.

    PubMed

    Richards, John R; Brozell, Todd T; Rea, Charles; Boraston, Geoff; Hayden, John

    2009-11-01

    The California Construction and Industrial Minerals Association and the National Stone, Sand, & Gravel Association have sponsored tests at three sand and gravel plants in California to compile crystalline silica emission factors for particulate matter (PM) of aerodynamic diameter of 4 microm or less (PM4) and ambient concentration data. This information is needed by industrial facilities to evaluate compliance with the Chronic Reference Exposure Level (REL) for ambient crystalline silica adopted in 2005 by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. The REL applies to PM4 respirable PM. Air Control Techniques, P.C. sampled for PM4 crystalline silica using a conventional sampler for PM of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microm or less (PM2.5), which met the requirements of 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 50, Appendix L. The sample flow rate was adjusted to modify the 50% cut size to 4 microm instead of 2.5 microm. The filter was also changed to allow for crystalline silica analyses using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7500. The particle size-capture efficiency curve for the modified Appendix L instrument closely matched the performance curve of NIOSH Method 0600 for PM4 crystalline silica and provided a minimum detection limit well below the levels attainable with NIOSH Method 0600. The results of the tests indicate that PM4 crystalline silica emissions range from 0.000006 to 0.000110 lb/t for screening operations, tertiary crushers, and conveyor transfer points. The PM4 crystalline silica emission factors were proportional to the crystalline silica content of the material handled in the process equipment. Measured ambient concentrations ranged from 0 (below detectable limit) to 2.8 microg/m3. All values measured above 2 microg/m3 were at locations upwind of the facilities being tested. The ambient PM4 crystalline silica concentrations measured during this study were below the California REL of 3 microg/m3

  20. Near-ambient solid polymer fuel cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells are extremely attractive for extraterrestrial and terrestrial applications because of their high energy conversion efficiency without noise or environmental pollution. Among the various fuel cell systems the advanced polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells based on sulfonated fluoropolymers (e.g., Nafion) are particularly attractive because they are fairly rugged, solid state, quite conductive, of good chemical and thermal stability and show good oxygen reduction kinetics due to the low specific adsorption of the electrolyte on the platinum catalyst. The objective of this program is to develop a solid polymer fuel cell which can efficiently operate at near ambient temperatures without ancillary components for humidification and/or pressurization of the fuel or oxidant gases. During the Phase 1 effort we fabricated novel integral electrode-membrane structures where the dispersed platinum catalyst is precipitated within the Nafion ionomer. This resulted in electrode-membrane units without interfacial barriers permitting unhindered water diffusion from cathode to anode. The integral electrode-membrane structures were tested as fuel cells operating on H2 and O2 or air at 1 to 2 atm and 10 to 50 C without gas humidification. We demonstrated that cells with completely dry membranes could be self started at room temperature and subsequently operated on dry gas for extended time. Typical room temperature low pressure operation with unoptimized electrodes yielded 100 mA/cm(exp 2) at 0.5V and maximum currents over 300 mA/cm(exp 2) with low platinum loadings. Our results clearly demonstrate that operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at ambient conditions is feasible. Optimization of the electrode-membrane structure is necessary to assess the full performance potential but we expect significant gains in weight and volume power density for the system. The reduced complexity will make fuel cells also attractive for smaller and portable power supplies and as

  1. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, K.; Jannik, T.

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the air monitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  2. New Codes for Ambient Seismic Noise Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duret, F.; Mooney, W. D.; Detweiler, S.

    2007-12-01

    In order to determine a velocity model of the crust, scientists generally use earthquakes recorded by seismic stations. However earthquakes do not occur continuously and most are too weak to be useful. When no event is recorded, a waveform is generally considered to be noise. This noise, however, is not useless and carries a wealth of information. Thus, ambient seismic noise analysis is an inverse method of investigating the Earth's interior. Until recently, this technique was quite difficult to apply, as it requires significant computing capacities. In early 2007, however, a team led by Gregory Benson and Mike Ritzwoller from UC Boulder published a paper describing a new method for extracting group and phase velocities from those waveforms. The analysis consisting of recovering Green functions between a pair of stations, is composed of four steps: 1) single station data preparation, 2) cross-correlation and stacking, 3) quality control and data selection and 4) dispersion measurements. At the USGS, we developed a set of ready-to-use computing codes for analyzing waveforms to run the ambient noise analysis of Benson et al. (2007). Our main contribution to the analysis technique was to fully automate the process. The computation codes were written in Fortran 90 and the automation scripts were written in Perl. Furthermore, some operations were run with SAC. Our choices of programming language offer an opportunity to adapt our codes to the major platforms. The codes were developed under Linux but are meant to be adapted to Mac OS X and Windows platforms. The codes have been tested on Southern California data and our results compare nicely with those from the UC Boulder team. Next, we plan to apply our codes to Indonesian data, so that we might take advantage of newly upgraded seismic stations in that region.

  3. Ambient Air Pollution and the Risk of Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wellenius, Gregory A.; Burger, Mary R.; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel; Suh, Helen H.; Koutrakis, Petros; Schlaug, Gottfried; Gold, Diane R.; Mittleman, Murray A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The link between daily changes in ambient fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is well established. Whether PM2.5 at levels below current US National Ambient Air Quality Standards also increases the risk of ischemic stroke remains uncertain. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 1705 Boston-area patients hospitalized with neurologist-confirmed ischemic stroke and abstracted data on the time of symptom onset and clinical characteristics. PM2.5 concentrations were measured at a central monitoring station. We used the time-stratified case-crossover study design to assess the association between the risk of ischemic stroke onset and PM2.5 levels in the hours and days preceding each event. We examined whether the association with PM2.5 differed by ischemic stroke etiology and patient characteristics. Results The estimated odds ratio of ischemic stroke onset was 1.34 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13, 1.58; p<0.001) following a 24-hour period classified as “moderate” (PM2.5 15–40 μg/m3) by the US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Air Quality Index compared to a 24-hour period classified as “good” (≤15 μg/m3). Considering PM2.5 as a continuous variable, the estimated odds ratio of ischemic stroke onset was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.20; p=0.006) per interquartile range increase in PM2.5 (6.4 μg/m3). The increase in risk was greatest within 12–14 hours of exposure to PM2.5 and was most strongly associated with markers of traffic-related pollution. Conclusion These results suggest that exposure to PM2.5 levels considered generally safe by the US EPA increase the risk of ischemic stroke onset within hours of exposure. PMID:22332153

  4. The Effect of Ambient Air Pollution on Sperm Quality

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Craig; Luben, Thomas J.; Sacks, Jason D.; Olshan, Andrew; Jeffay, Susan; Strader, Lillian; Perreault, Sally D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Research has suggested an association with ambient air pollution and sperm quality. Objectives We investigated the effect of exposure to ozone (O3) and particulate matter < 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) on sperm quality. Methods We reexamined a previous cohort study of water disinfection by-products to evaluate sperm quality in 228 presumed fertile men with different air pollution profiles. Outcomes included sperm concentration, total sperm per ejaculate (count), and morphology, as well as DNA integrity and chromatin maturity. Exposures to O3 and PM2.5 were evaluated for the 90–day period before sampling. We used multivariable linear regression, which included different levels of adjustment (i.e., without and with season and temperature) to assess the relationship between exposure to air pollutants during key periods of sperm development and adverse sperm outcomes. Results Sperm concentration and count were not associated with exposure to PM2.5, but there was evidence of an association (but not statistically significant) with O3 concentration and decreased sperm concentration and count. Additionally, a significant increase in the percentage of sperm cells with cytoplasmic drop [β = 2.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.21–5.06] and abnormal head (β = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.03–0.92) was associated with PM2.5 concentration in the base model. However, these associations, along with all other sperm outcomes, were not significantly associated with either pollutant after controlling for season and temperature. Overall, although we found both protective and adverse effects, there was generally no consistent pattern of increased abnormal sperm quality with elevated exposure to O3 or PM2.5. Conclusions Exposures to O3 or PM2.5 at levels below the current National Ambient Air Quality Standards were not associated with statistically significant decrements in sperm outcomes in this cohort of fertile men. However, some results suggested effects on sperm

  5. An update to the ambient ratio method for 1-h NO2 air quality standards dispersion modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podrez, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NOX) gases are typically emitted by fuel combustion sources in the form of nitric oxide (NO), which then reacts with ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere to convert a portion of the NO to nitrogen dioxide (NO2). EPA has promulgated a 1-h average National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for NO2, and major sources of NOX emissions must estimate their NO2 air quality impacts as part of EPA's air quality permitting programs. The AERMOD dispersion model has been developed by EPA for these air quality impact analyses, and AERMOD contains three different NO to NO2 conversion methods for estimating the ambient concentrations of NO2. This paper describes a refinement to one of the methods, the Ambient Ratio Method version 2 (ARM2). ARM2 is an empirical approach that uses a variable conversion factor, based on an analysis of ambient air measurements of NO and NO2, to estimate the portion of the AERMOD predicted air concentration of total NOX species that is in the form of NO2. The performance of ARM2 has been evaluated and found to compare well to actual ambient measurements and to other more complex EPA conversion methods. EPA has included ARM2 as a "beta-testing" option in AERMOD version 14134, and provided guidance on the use of ARM2 for regulatory modeling analyses in a September 2014 memorandum. This paper also discusses this recent EPA guidance.

  6. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  7. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  8. RADIOCARBON ANALYSIS OF PM 2.5 AMBIENT AEROSOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The radiocarbon (14C) content of an ambient aerosol sample can be directly related to the fraction of the sample's total carbon mass contributed by natural (biogenic) sources. Such knowledge is difficult to determine by other means, and important for devising ambient PM contro...

  9. WORKSHOP ON SOURCE EMISSION AND AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN EPA/ORD Workshop on Source Emission and Ambient Air Monitoring of Mercury was held on 9/13-14/99, Bloomington, Minnesota. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss the state-of-the-science in source and ambient air mercury monitoring as well as mercury monitoring research and...

  10. Ultrafine ambient particulate matter enhances cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a consistent link between exposure to ambient particulate air pollutant (PM) and the incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardiac effects of ambient PM. Mice were exposed to 1...

  11. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  12. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  13. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than...

  14. Induced infiltration in aquifers with ambient flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John L.

    1993-10-01

    Well water quality depends on the relative amounts of water drawn from the pumped aquifer and nearby surface water bodies, such as streams, lakes, and wetlands. Although a surface water body may normally gain water from the aquifer, pumping can reverse gradients, causing it to lose water near the well. Surface water then enters the well by induced infiltration. Two-dimensional vertically integrated models of induced infiltration are developed for various combinations of aquifer geometry and sources of recharge. The models, which have applications in wellhead protection, aquifer pollution characterization, and aquifer remediation, are presented graphically. They show that the propensity for and rate of induced infiltration are enhanced by higher pumping rates, proximity of the well to the stream, and the presence of nearby barrier boundaries. The propensity and rate are reduced by the presence of other surface water bodies. Ambient groundwater discharge rate to the surface water body also plays a role, but not its source, whether it is from local vertical recharge, lateral inflow, or both. The results are also largely indifferent to whether the aquifer transmissivity is assumed to be a constant, or a function of water table elevation. Finally, if the well is close enough to the surface water body, say, less than 5% of the aquifer width, then the aquifer acts as if it were semi-infinite.

  15. Development of ambient temperature secondary lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, S.; Shen, D. H.; Dawson, S.; Deligiannis, F.; Taraszkiewicz, J.; Halpert, Gerald

    1987-01-01

    JPL is developing ambient temperature secondary lithium cells for future spacecraft applications. Prior studies on experimental laboratory type Li-TiS2 cells yielded promising results in terms of cycle life and rate capability. To further assess the performance of this cell, 5 Ah engineering model cells were developed. Initially baseline cells were designed and fabricated. Each cell had 15 cathodes and 16 anodes and the ratio of anode to cathode capacity is 6:1. A solution of 1.5 molar LiAsF6 in 2Me-THF was used as the electrolyte. Cells were evaluated for their cycle life at C/1 and C/5 discharge rates and 100 percent depth of discharge. The cells were cycled between voltage limits 1.7 and 2.8 volts. The rate of charge in all cases is C/10. The results obtained indicate that cells can operate at C/10 to C/2 discharge rates and have an initial energy density of 70 Wh/kg. Cells delivered more than 100 cycles at C/2 discharge rate. The details of cell design, the test program, and the results obtained are described.

  16. Ambient air pollution: a cause of COPD?

    PubMed

    Schikowski, Tamara; Mills, Inga C; Anderson, H Ross; Cohen, Aaron; Hansell, Anna; Kauffmann, Francine; Krämer, Ursula; Marcon, Alessandro; Perez, Laura; Sunyer, Jordi; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Künzli, Nino

    2014-01-01

    The role of ambient air pollution in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is considered to be uncertain. We review the evidence in the light of recent studies. Eight morbidity and six mortality studies were identified. These were heterogeneous in design, characterisation of exposure to air pollution and methods of outcome definition. Six morbidity studies with objectively defined COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio) were cross-sectional analyses. One longitudinal study defined incidence of COPD as the first hospitalisation due to COPD. However, neither mortality nor hospitalisation studies can unambiguously distinguish acute from long-term effects on the development of the underlying pathophysiological changes. Most studies were based on within-community exposure contrasts, which mainly assess traffic-related air pollution. Overall, evidence of chronic effects of air pollution on the prevalence and incidence of COPD among adults was suggestive but not conclusive, despite plausible biological mechanisms and good evidence that air pollution affects lung development in childhood and triggers exacerbations in COPD patients. To fully integrate this evidence in the assessment, the life-time course of COPD should be better defined. Larger studies with longer follow-up periods, specific definitions of COPD phenotypes, and more refined and source-specific exposure assessments are needed.

  17. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 58 - Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ambient Air Quality Monitoring... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Pt. 58, App. C Appendix C to Part 58—Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology 1.0 Purpose 2.0 SLAMS Ambient Air Monitoring Stations 3.0 NCore Ambient...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 58 - Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient Air Quality Monitoring... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Pt. 58, App. C Appendix C to Part 58—Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology 1.0 Purpose 2.0 SLAMS Ambient Air Monitoring Stations 3.0 NCore Ambient...

  19. Measurements of Ambient Noise During Extreme Wind Conditions in the Gulf of Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Gulf of Mexico during the summer of 2002 (LADC 02). The hydrophone of each buoy was approximately 50 m from the bottom in water depths of 645 m to 1034 m. During LADC 02 Tropical Storm Isidore and Hurricane Lili passed within approximately 73 nmi and 116 nmi, respectively, west of the EARS buoys. The proximity of these storm systems to the EARS buoys, in conjunction with wind speed data from three nearby National Data Buoy Center weather (NDBC) buoys, allows for the direct comparison of underwater ambient noise levels with high wind speeds. These results are

  20. Wash-out of ambient air contaminations for breath measurements.

    PubMed

    Maurer, F; Wolf, A; Fink, T; Rittershofer, B; Heim, N; Volk, T; Baumbach, J I; Kreuer, S

    2014-06-01

    In breath analysis, ambient air contaminations are ubiquitous and difficult to eliminate. This study was designed to investigate the reduction of ambient air background by a lung wash-out with synthetic air. The reduction of the initial ambient air volatile organic compound (VOC) intensity was investigated in the breath of 20 volunteers inhaling synthetic air via a sealed full face mask in comparison to inhaling ambient air. Over a period of 30 minutes, breath analysis was conducted using ion mobility spectrometry coupled to a multi-capillary column. A total of 68 VOCs were identified for inhaling ambient air or inhaling synthetic air. By treatment with synthetic air, 39 VOCs decreased in intensity, whereas 29 increased in comparison to inhaling ambient air. In total, seven VOCs were significantly reduced (P-value < 0.05). A complete wash-out of VOCs in this setting was not observed, whereby a statistically significant reduction up to 65% as for terpinolene was achieved. Our setting successfully demonstrated a reduction of ambient air contaminations from the airways by a lung wash-out with synthetic air.

  1. STUDY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE EXPOSURE COMPONENT OF THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ideal strategy for the exposure monitoring component of the planned National Children's Study (NCS) is to measure indoor and outdoor concentrations and personal exposures of children to a variety of pollutants, including ambient particulate and gaseous pollutants, biologicals,...

  2. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    G. Moridis; Q. Hu

    2000-03-12

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids, and

  3. Ambient intelligence systems for personalized sport training.

    PubMed

    Vales-Alonso, Javier; López-Matencio, Pablo; Gonzalez-Castaño, Francisco J; Navarro-Hellín, Honorio; Baños-Guirao, Pedro J; Pérez-Martínez, Francisco J; Martínez-Álvarez, Rafael P; González-Jiménez, Daniel; Gil-Castiñeira, Felipe; Duro-Fernández, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Several research programs are tackling the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) at specific fields, such as e-Health, e-Inclusion or e-Sport. This is the case of the project "Ambient Intelligence Systems Support for Athletes with Specific Profiles", which intends to assist athletes in their training. In this paper, the main developments and outcomes from this project are described. The architecture of the system comprises a WSN deployed in the training area which provides communication with athletes' mobile equipments, performs location tasks, and harvests environmental data (wind speed, temperature, etc.). Athletes are equipped with a monitoring unit which obtains data from their training (pulse, speed, etc.). Besides, a decision engine combines these real-time data together with static information about the training field, and from the athlete, to direct athletes' training to fulfill some specific goal. A prototype is presented in this work for a cross country running scenario, where the objective is to maintain the heart rate (HR) of the runner in a target range. For each track, the environmental conditions (temperature of the next track), the current athlete condition (HR), and the intrinsic difficulty of the track (slopes) influence the performance of the athlete. The decision engine, implemented by means of (m, s)-splines interpolation, estimates the future HR and selects the best track in each fork of the circuit. This method achieves a success ratio in the order of 80%. Indeed, results demonstrate that if environmental information is not take into account to derive training orders, the success ratio is reduced notably.

  4. Relationship Between Vortex Meander and Ambient Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Meyn, Larry A.

    2006-01-01

    Efforts are currently underway to increase the capacity of airports by use of closely-spaced parallel runways. If such an objective is to be achieved safely and efficiently during both visual and instrument flight conditions, it will be necessary to develop more precise methods for the prediction of the motion and spread of the hazard posed by the lift-generated vortex-wakes of aircraft, and their uncertainties. The purpose of the present study is to relate the motion induced in vortex filaments by turbulence in the ambient flow field to the measured turbulence in the flow field. The problem came about when observations made in the two largest NASA wind tunnels indicated that extended exposure of vortex wakes to the turbulence in the wind tunnel air stream causes the centers of the vortices to meander about with time at a given downstream station where wake measurements are being made. Although such a behavior was expected, the turbulence level based on the maximum amplitude of meander was much less than the root-mean-squared value measured in the free-stream of the wind tunnel by use of hot-film anemometers. An analysis of the time-dependent motion of segments of vortex filaments as they interact with an eddy, indicates that the inertia of the filaments retards their motion enough in the early part of their travel to account for a large part of the difference in the two determinations of turbulence level. Migration of vortex filaments from one turbulent eddy to another (probably with a different orientation), is believed to account for the remainder of the difference. Methods that may possibly be developed for use in the measurement of the magnitude of the more intense eddies in turbulent flow fields and how they should be adjusted to predict vortex meander are then discussed.

  5. Ambient air pollution and population health: overview.

    PubMed

    Krewski, Daniel; Rainham, Daniel

    2007-02-01

    In November 2003 approximately 200 researchers, stakeholders, and policymakers from more than 40 countries gathered to discuss the science and policy implications of air pollution and human health as part of the AIRNET/NERAM Strategies for Clean Air and Health initiative. The purpose of this paper is to review the more than 35 research posters presented at the conference, including exposure, toxicological, and epidemiological studies of air pollution. Collectively, these papers support previous evidence that both short- and long-term exposures to particulate air pollution have adverse population health impacts, including effects on children. Cellular studies also suggest that air pollution can cause mutagenic and oxidative effects, raising concerns about carcinogenicity and cellular regeneration. Studies of biomarkers, such as Clara-cell proteins and lymphocyte damage assessment, provide further evidence of air pollution effects at the cellular level. Other studies have focused on improvements to measurement and sources of air pollution. These studies suggest that particle mass rather than particle composition may be a more useful indicator of potential human health risk. It is well known that emissions from transportation sources are a major contributor to ambient air pollution in large urban centres. Epidemiologic researchers are able to reduce bias due to misclassification and improve exposure assessment models by allocating air pollution exposure according to distance from traffic sources or land-use patterns. The close association between traffic patterns and air pollution concentrations provides a potential basis for the development of transport policies and regulations with population health improvements as a primary objective. The results of the research presented here present opportunities and challenges for the development of policies for improvements to air quality and human health. However, there remains the challenge of how best to achieve these

  6. Ambient Intelligence Systems for Personalized Sport Training

    PubMed Central

    Vales-Alonso, Javier; López-Matencio, Pablo; Gonzalez-Castaño, Francisco J.; Navarro-Hellín, Honorio; Baños-Guirao, Pedro J.; Pérez-Martínez, Francisco J.; Martínez-Álvarez, Rafael P.; González-Jiménez, Daniel; Gil-Castiñeira, Felipe; Duro-Fernández, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Several research programs are tackling the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) at specific fields, such as e-Health, e-Inclusion or e-Sport. This is the case of the project “Ambient Intelligence Systems Support for Athletes with Specific Profiles”, which intends to assist athletes in their training. In this paper, the main developments and outcomes from this project are described. The architecture of the system comprises a WSN deployed in the training area which provides communication with athletes’ mobile equipments, performs location tasks, and harvests environmental data (wind speed, temperature, etc.). Athletes are equipped with a monitoring unit which obtains data from their training (pulse, speed, etc.). Besides, a decision engine combines these real-time data together with static information about the training field, and from the athlete, to direct athletes’ training to fulfill some specific goal. A prototype is presented in this work for a cross country running scenario, where the objective is to maintain the heart rate (HR) of the runner in a target range. For each track, the environmental conditions (temperature of the next track), the current athlete condition (HR), and the intrinsic difficulty of the track (slopes) influence the performance of the athlete. The decision engine, implemented by means of (m, s)-splines interpolation, estimates the future HR and selects the best track in each fork of the circuit. This method achieves a success ratio in the order of 80%. Indeed, results demonstrate that if environmental information is not take into account to derive training orders, the success ratio is reduced notably. PMID:22294931

  7. Do ambient urban odors evoke basic emotions?

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Sandra T.; Lingg, Elisabeth; Heuberger, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Fragrances, such as plant odors, have been shown to evoke autonomic response patterns associated with Ekman's (Ekman et al., 1983) basic emotions happiness, surprise, anger, fear, sadness, and disgust. Inducing positive emotions by odors in highly frequented public spaces could serve to improve the quality of life in urban environments. Thus, the present study evaluated the potency of ambient odors connoted with an urban environment to evoke basic emotions on an autonomic and cognitive response level. Synthetic mixtures representing the odors of disinfectant, candles/bees wax, summer air, burnt smell, vomit and musty smell as well as odorless water as a control were presented five times in random order to 30 healthy, non-smoking human subjects with intact sense of smell. Skin temperature, skin conductance, breathing rate, forearm muscle activity, blink rate, and heart rate were recorded simultaneously. Subjects rated the odors in terms of pleasantness, intensity and familiarity and gave verbal labels to each odor as well as cognitive associations with the basic emotions. The results showed that the amplitude of the skin conductance response (SCR) varied as a function of odor presentation. Burnt smell and vomit elicited significantly higher electrodermal responses than summer air. Also, a negative correlation was revealed between the amplitude of the SCR and hedonic odor valence indicating that the magnitude of the electrodermal response increased with odor unpleasantness. The analysis of the cognitive associations between odors and basic emotions showed that candles/bees wax and summer air were specifically associated with happiness whereas burnt smell and vomit were uniquely associated with disgust. Our findings suggest that city odors may evoke specific cognitive associations of basic emotions and that autonomic activity elicited by such odors is related to odor hedonics. PMID:24860522

  8. Brookhaven National Laboratory site environmental report for calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Naidu, J.R.; Royce, B.A.

    1995-05-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory and presents summary information about environmental compliance for 1994. To evaluate the effect of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s operations on the local environment, measurements of direct radiation, and a variety of radionuclides and chemical compounds in ambient air, soil, sewage effluent, surface water, groundwater, fauna and vegetation were made at the Brookhaven National Laboratory site and at sites adjacent to the Laboratory.

  9. Stability Issues in Ambient-Temperature Passive Magnetic Bearing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.

    2000-02-17

    The ambient-temperature passive magnetic bearing system developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory achieves rotor-dynamic stability by employing special combinations of levitating and stabilizing elements. These elements, energized by permanent magnet material, create the magnetic and electrodynamic forces that are required for the stable levitation of rotating systems, such as energy-storage flywheels. Stability criteria, derived from theory, describe the bearing element parameters, i.e., stiffnesses and damping coefficients, that are required both to assure stable levitation (''Earnshaw-stability''), and stability against whirl-type rotor-dynamic instabilities. The work described in this report concerns experimental measurements and computer simulations that address some critical aspects of this overall stability problem. Experimentally, a test device was built to measure the damping coefficient of dampers that employ eddy currents induced in a metallic disc. Another test device was constructed for the purpose of measuring the displacement-dependent drag coefficient of annular permanent magnet bearing elements. In the theoretical developments a computer code was written for the purpose of simulating the rotor-dynamics of our passive bearing systems. This code is capable of investigating rotor-dynamic stability effects for both small-amplitude transient displacements (i.e., those within the linear regime), and for large-amplitude displacements, where non-linear effects can become dominant. Under the latter conditions a bearing system that is stable for small-amplitude displacements may undergo a rapidly growing rotor-dynamic instability once a critical displacement is exceeded. A new result of the study was to demonstrate that stiffness anisotropy of the bearing elements (which can be designed into our bearing system) is strongly stabilizing, not only in the linear regime, but also in the non-linear regime.

  10. MetNH3: Metrology for ammonia in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braban, Christine; Twigg, Marsailidh; Tang, Sim; Leuenberger, Daiana; Ferracci, Valerio; Martin, Nick; Pascale, Celine; Hieta, Tuomas; Pogany, Andrea; Persijn, Stefan; van Wijk, Janneke; Gerwig, Holger; Wirtze, Klaus; Tiebe, Carlo; Balslev-Harder, David; Niederhausen, Bernhardt

    2015-04-01

    Measuring ammonia in ambient air is a sensitive and priority issue due to its harmful effects on human health and ecosystems. The European Directive 2001/81/EC on 'National Emission Ceilings for Certain Atmospheric Pollutants (NEC)' regulates ammonia emissions in the member states. However, there is a lack of regulation to ensure reliable ammonia measurements namely in applicable analytical technology, maximum allowed uncertainty, quality assurance and quality control (QC/QA) procedures as well as in the infrastructure to attain metrological traceability. Validated ammonia measurement data of high quality from air monitoring networks are vitally important for identifying changes due to implementations of environment policies, for understanding where the uncertainties in current emission inventories are derived from and for providing independent verification of atmospheric model predictions. The new EURAMET project MetNH3 aims to develop improved reference gas mixtures by static and dynamic gravimetric generation methods, develop and characterise laser based optical spectrometric standards and establish the transfer from high-accuracy standards to field applicable methods. MetNH3started in June 2014 and in this presentation the first results from the metrological characterisation of a commercially available cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) will be discussed. Also first tests and results from a new design, Controlled Atmosphere Test Facility (CATFAC), which is to be characterised and used to validate the performance of diffusive samplers, denuders and on-line instruments, will be reported. CAFTEC can be used to control test parameters such as ammonia concentration, relative humidity and wind speed. Outline plans for international laboratory and field intercomparisons in 2016 will be presented.

  11. Culinary nationalism.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Priscilla Parkhurst

    2010-01-01

    Culinary consciousness raisers, cooking texts often serve as vehicles of national identification. From Pampille (Marthe Allard Daudet) and her cookbook, Les Bons Plats de France, in 1913 to the international culinary competitions of today such as the Bocuse d'or, culinary distinction promotes national interests. In contrast to the strident nationalism of the early twentieth century, culinary nationalism today operates in an increasingly globalized world. National culinary distinction defines the nation and sells its products in a highly competitive international arena. A recent culinary text, the South Korean film Le Grand Chef [Sik Gaek ] (2007), illustrates the phenomenon, subsuming national culinary promotion in a mega culinary competition, all in the service of Korean culinary achievement.

  12. National Intelligence and National Prosperity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Earl; Wittmann, Werner

    2008-01-01

    What is the relation between the cognitive competence of a national population that nation's economic prosperity? Lynn and Vanhanen [Lynn, R. & Vanhanen, T. (2002). "IQ and the wealth of nations." Westport, CT: Praeger.] presented data pointing to an exceptionally strong relationship between IQ scores and Gross Domestic Product per…

  13. [Research on Raman spectra of isooctane at ambient temperature and ambient pressure to 1. 2 GPa].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei-fei; Zheng, Hai-fei

    2012-03-01

    The experimental study of the Raman spectral character for liquid isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane, ATM) was con ducted by moissanite anvil cell at the pressure of 0-1.2 GPa and the ambient temperature. The results show that the Raman peaks of the C-H stretching vibration shift to higher frenquencies with increasing pressures. The relations between the system pressure and peaks positions is given as following: v2 873 = 0.002 8P+2 873.3; v2 905 = 0.004 8P+2 905.4; v2 935 = 0.002 7P+ 2 935.0; v2 960 = 0.012P+2 960.9. The Raman spectra of isooctane abruptly changed at the pressure about 1.0 GPa and the liquid-solid phase transition was observed by microscope. With the freezing pressure at ambient temperature and the melting temperature available at 1 atm, the authors got the liquid-solid phase diagram of isooctane. According to Clapeyron equation, the authors obtained the differences of volume and entropy for the liquid-solid phase transition of isooctane: deltaV(m) = 4.46 x 10(-6) m3 x mol-1 and deltaS = -30.32 J x K(-1) x mol(-1).

  14. Airborne particulate matter from primarily geologic, non-industrial sources at levels below National Ambient Air Quality Standards is associated with outpatient visits for asthma and quick-relief medication prescriptions among children less than 20 years old enrolled in Medicaid in Anchorage, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Chimonas, Marc-Andre R; Gessner, Bradford D

    2007-03-01

    In Anchorage, Alaska, particulates with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 micro m (PM(10)) arise primarily from natural, geologic sources, and particulates with aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 micro m (PM(2.5)) arise primarily from automobile emissions. The current study used a population-based time-series analysis design to evaluate the effects of daily and weekly PM(10) and PM(2.5) on respiratory health outcomes among children <20 years of age residing in Anchorage enrolled in Medicaid. All generated estimating equations models were adjusted for season, year, weekends, temperature, wind speed, and precipitation. Relative to the days with PM(10) mass concentration < or = 13 micro g/m(3), a significant 9.3% increase (RR: 1.093, 95% CI: 1.004-1.191) in the rate of outpatient visits for asthma occurred during days with PM(10) of 20-33 micro g/m(3). No further dose-response occurred for days with PM(10) > or = 34 micro g/m(3). A significant 18.1% increase (RR: 1.181, 95% CI: 1.010-1.381) in the rate of quick-relief medication prescriptions occurred during days with PM(10) of 34-60 micro g/m(3), and a 28.8% increase (RR: 1.288, 95% CI: 1.026-1.619) occurred during days with PM(10) > or = 61 micro g/m(3). Similar results for outpatient asthma visits and quick-relief medication occurred in weekly models. There were no significant associations with PM(2.5) in either daily or weekly models. These subtle but statistically significant associations suggest that non-industrial, geologic sources of PM(10) may have measurable health effects at levels below current national standards.

  15. [Ambient and enclosed space air sampling for determination of contaminants].

    PubMed

    Dorogova, V B

    2010-01-01

    The paper touches upon the issues how to correctly and maximally take single and average daily samples of ambient, residential and public building, and enclosed space air for further tests for the content of hazardous substances. The paper is debated.

  16. *Ambient Particluate Matter Supresses Alveolar Macrophage Cytokine Response to Lipopolysaccharide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reports link ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including the exacerbation of inflammatory disease and increased hospitalization for lung infections. Alveolar macrophages (AM) play an important defense role against infections v...

  17. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DECREASED IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGE CYTOKINE RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including increased hospitalizations for lung infection. Normal lung immune responses to bacterial infection include alveolar macrophage cytokine production and...

  18. Draft Final Ambient Air Monitoring Plan July 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This work plan describes the ambient air sampling program for the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site and presents the locations, sampling strategies, and exposure limits for monitoring remedial activities in the Harbor.

  19. Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

  20. 40 CFR 610.60 - Non-standard ambient conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dynamometer, in ambient temperatures outside the 60° to 90° range specified in § 610.64 as determined by the... or dynamometer as determined by the Administrator. One test location, at an elevation of no less...

  1. Developing a thermoacoustic sensor adaptive to ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jida; Ang, Woon; Lim, Allan; Yu, Xiaojian; Chen, Jie

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a simple and adaptive thermoacoustic sensor was designed to measure Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS). Compared to other thermoacoustic sensor designs, our novelty lies in (i) integrating an ultrasound medium layer during the measurement to simplify the complicated set-up procedures and (ii) taking the effect of ambient temperatures into design consideration. After measuring temperature increases with various ambient temperatures under different ultrasound intensities, a relationship among ultrasound intensities, ambient temperatures and coefficients of temporal temperature changes was calculated. Our improved design has made the sensor easy to operate and its performance more accurate and consistent than the thermoacoustic sensor designs without considering ambient temperatures. In all, our improved design greatly enhances the thermoacoustic sensor in practical ultrasound calibration.

  2. Preliminary assessment of worker and ambient air exposures during soil remediation technology demonstration.

    PubMed

    Romine, James D; Barth, Edwin F

    2002-01-01

    Hazardous waste site remediation workers or neighboring residents may be exposed to particulates during the remediation of lead-contaminated soil sites. Industrial hygiene surveys and air monitoring programs for both lead and dust were performed during initial soil sampling activities and during pilot scale technology demonstration activities at two lead-contaminated soil sites to assess whether worker protection or temporary resident relocation would be suggested during any subsequent remediation technology activities. The concentrations of lead and dust in the air during pilot scale technology demonstration studies were within applicable exposure guidelines, including Occupational Health and Safety Administration permissible exposure limits, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended exposure limits, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene threshold limit values, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency's National Ambient Air Quality Standards program limits.

  3. Ambient lead measurements in Cairo, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, J.E. Jr.; Labib, M.; Samaha, N.; Sabry, M.; Araby, H.E.

    1999-07-01

    The Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP) has established a network of 36 stations to monitor airborne lead levels in the Greater Cairo Area. Data obtained during the first 4 months of the monitoring program indicates that lead levels in ambient air significantly exceed the Government of Egypt's (GOE) Law Number 4 (1994) limit of 1 {micro} g/m{sup 3} (annual mean) in areas downwind of secondary lead smelters and in heavily trafficked areas. The highest mean and single sampling event lead levels were observed in the heavily industrialized areas of Shoubra el-Kheima and Tebbin. At two sites in Shoubra el-Kheima, mean and maximum lead levels were determined to be approximately 20 {micro} g/m{sup 3} and 79 {micro} g/m{sup 3}, respectively. At three sites located in areas of high motor vehicle traffic in the central part of the city, the mean lead level was about 4 {micro} g/m{sup 3} and the maximum levels ranged from approximately 10 x 20 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. Of the remainder of the sites, the mean lead concentrations were 2fd3 {micro} g/m{sup 3} at three sites, 1 P2 {mu} g/m{sup 3} at 16 sites, and below 1 {micro} g/m{sup 3} at eight sites. Lead levels in areas devoted primarily to residential use were generally less than 2 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. The maximum mean monthly PM{sub 10} lead value measured at fugitive emission monitoring sites near lead smelters was approximately 73 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. The maximum lead concentration measured during a single sampling event was 180 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. Generally lower lead levels were observed in December due to regulation action that resulted in some suspension of smelting operations and to approximately 180-degree wind direction shifts that typically occur during this period of the year. The GOE is working vigorously to eliminate the lead problem in Egypt through implementation of the Lead Exposure Action Plan (LEAP). A major component of LEAP is the Lead Smelter Action Plan (LSAP).

  4. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS.
    Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu*, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ...

  5. Ambient maximum temperature as a function of Salmonella food poisoning cases in the Republic of Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Kendrovski, Vladimir; Karadzovski, Zarko; Spasenovska, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    Background: Higher temperatures have been associated with higher salmonellosis notifications worldwide. Aims: The objective of this paper is to assess the seasonal pattern of Salmonella cases among humans. Material and Methods: The relationship between ambient maximum temperature and reports of confirmed cases of Salmonella in the Republic of Macedonia and Skopje during the summer months (i.e. June, July, August and September) beginning in 1998 through 2008 was investigated. The monthly number of reported Salmonella cases and ambient maximum temperatures for Skopje were related to the national number of cases and temperatures recorded during the same timeframe using regression statistical analyses. The Poisson regression model was adapted for the analysis of the data. Results: While a decreasing tendency was registered at the national level, the analysis for Skopje showed an increasing tendency for registration of new salmonella cases. Reported incidents of salmonellosis, were positively associated (P<0.05) with temperature during the summer months. By increasing of the maximum monthly mean temperature of 1° C in Skopje, the salmonellosis incidence increased by 5.2% per month. Conclusions: The incidence of Salmonella cases in the Macedonian population varies seasonally: the highest values of the Seasonal Index for Salmonella cases were registered in the summer months, i.e. June, July, August and September. PMID:22540096

  6. The ROSCOE Manual. Volume 15. ambient geomagnetic field

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-13

    Continue on reverse side it necessary and identify by bloc;, number) ROSCOE\\ ~ Ambient Geomagnetic Model .3 ABSTRACT fC.-ntinue on re.erse side if...necesAary end idrnttlyhr block number) A preliminary model of the ambient geomagnetic field has been adopted for use in ROSCOE. The model fits a locally...presented derivations, flow d’,%rams, Fortran listings, and a test problem and evaluation. The model is found to he both fast and accurate. ream DD I

  7. Postural orientation modifications in autism in response to ambient lenses.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, M; Carmody, D P; Gaydos, A

    1996-01-01

    Autistic children often display abnormal postures, head tilts, and other spatial management dysfunctions. Methods were introduced to measure spatial orientation in tasks in a group of fourteen autistic children in Montreal, Canada. Ambient lenses were found to improve posture, correct head tilts, and improve ball catching abilities. A model of spatial orientation is described and recommendations are made to incorporate ambient lenses in treatment programs.

  8. ESTIMATED HOURLY PERSONAL EXPOSURES TO AMBIENT AND NON-AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER AMONG SENSITIVE POPULATIONS IN SEATTLE, WASHINGTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of particulate matter (PM) routinely use concentrations measured with stationary outdoor monitors as surrogates for personal exposure. Despite the frequently reported poor correlations between ambient concentrations and total personal exposure, the epidemi...

  9. Suicide and Ambient Temperature in East Asian Countries: A Time-Stratified Case-Crossover Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoonhee; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue Leon; Chen, Bing-Yu; Woo, Jong-Min; Ebi, Kristie L.

    2015-01-01

    Background A limited number of studies suggest that ambient temperature contributes to suicide; these studies typically focus on a single nation and use temporally and spatially aggregated data. Objective We evaluated the association between ambient temperature and suicide in multiple cities in three East Asian countries. Methods A time-stratified case-crossover method was used to explore the relationship between temperature and suicide, adjusting for potential time-varying confounders and time-invariant individual characteristics. Sex- and age-specific associations of temperature with suicide were estimated, as were interactions between temperature and these variables. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate country-specific pooled associations of temperature with suicide. Results An increase in temperature corresponding to half of the city-specific standard deviation was positively associated with suicide in most cities, although average suicide rates varied substantially. Pooled country-level effect estimates were 7.8% (95% CI: 5.0, 10.8%) for a 2.3°C increase in ambient temperature in Taiwan, 6.8% (95% CI: 5.4, 8.2%) for a 4.7°C increase in Korea, and 4.5% (95% CI: 3.3, 5.7%) for a 4.2°C increase in Japan. The association between temperature and suicide was significant even after adjusting for sunshine duration; the association between sunshine and suicide was not significant. The associations were greater among men than women in 12 of the 15 cities although not significantly so. There was little evidence of a consistent pattern of associations with age. In general, associations were strongest with temperature on the same day or the previous day, with little evidence of associations with temperature over longer lags (up to 5 days). Conclusions We estimated consistent positive associations between suicide and elevated ambient temperature in three East Asian countries, regardless of country, sex, and age. Citation Kim Y, Kim H, Honda Y, Guo YL

  10. Evidence of health impacts of sulfate-and nitrate-containing particles in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Richard; Anderson, Elizabeth L; Cross, Carroll E; Hidy, George; Hoel, David; McClellan, Roger; Moolgavkar, Suresh

    2007-05-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of inorganic and organic compounds. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates PM as a criteria pollutant and promulgates National Ambient Air Quality Standards for it. The PM indicator is based on mass concentration, unspecified as to chemical composition, for specific size fractions. The numerical standards are based on epidemiologic evidence of associations between the various size-related particle mass concentrations as indicators and excess mortality and cardiorespiratory health effects as endpoints. The U.S. National Research Council has stated that more research is needed to differentiate the apparent health effects associated with different particle chemical constituents. Sulfate and nitrate constitute a significant portion of the particle mass in the atmosphere, but are accompanied by similar amounts of carbonaceous material, along with low concentrations of various species, including bioactive organic compounds and redox cycling metals. Extensive animal and human toxicology data show no significant effects for particles consisting only of sulfate and nitrate compounds at levels in excess of ambient air concentrations. A few epidemiologic studies, including both short-term time-series studies and long-term cohort studies, have included the sulfate content of PM as a specific variable in health effect analyses. There are much less data for nitrate. The results from the epidemiologic studies with PM sulfate are inconsistent. A detailed analysis of the time-series epidemiological studies shows that PM sulfate has a weaker "risk factor" than PM2.5 for health effects. Since sulfate is correlated with PM2.5, this result is inconsistent with sulfate having a strong health influence. However, there are many limitations with these types of studies that warrant caution for any comparison between a chemical component and mass concentration. In total, the epidemiologic and toxicologic evidence provide

  11. Volatile organic compounds in untreated ambient groundwater of the United States, 1985-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squillace, P.J.; Moran, M.J.; Lapham, W.W.; Price, C.V.; Clawges, R.M.; Zogorski, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, an assessment of 60 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in untreated, ambient groundwater of the conterminous United States was conducted based on samples collected from 2948 wells between 1985 and 1995. The samples represent urban and rural areas and drinking-water and nondrinking-water wells. A reporting level of 0.2 μg/L was used with the exception of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, which had a reporting level of 1.0 μg/L. Because ambient groundwater was targeted, areas of known point-source contamination were excluded from this assessment. VOC concentrations generally were low; 56% of the concentrations were less than 1 μg/L. In urban areas, 47% of the sampled wells had at least one VOC, and 29% had two or more VOCs; furthermore, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water criteria were exceeded in 6.4% of all sampled wells and in 2.5% of the sampled drinking-water wells. In rural areas, 14% of the sampled wells had at least one VOC; furthermore, drinking-water criteria were exceeded in 1.5% of all sampled wells and in 1.3% of the sampled drinking-water wells. Solvent compounds and the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether were among the most frequently detected VOCs in urban and rural areas. It was determined that the probability of finding VOCs in untreated groundwater can be estimated on the basis of a logistic regression model by using population density as an explanatory variable. Although there are limitations to this national scale model, it fit the data from 2354 wells used for model development and adequately estimated the VOC presence in samples from 589 wells used for model validation. Model estimates indicate that 7% (6−9% on the basis of one standard error) of the ambient groundwater resources of the United States probably contain at least one VOC at a reporting level of 0.2 μg/L. Groundwater is used in these areas by 42 million people (35−50

  12. Ambient Temperature and Morbidity: A Review of Epidemiological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaofang; Wolff, Rodney; Yu, Weiwei; Vaneckova, Pavla; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In this paper, we review the epidemiological evidence on the relationship between ambient temperature and morbidity. We assessed the methodological issues in previous studies and proposed future research directions. Data sources and data extraction: We searched the PubMed database for epidemiological studies on ambient temperature and morbidity of noncommunicable diseases published in refereed English journals before 30 June 2010. Forty relevant studies were identified. Of these, 24 examined the relationship between ambient temperature and morbidity, 15 investigated the short-term effects of heat wave on morbidity, and 1 assessed both temperature and heat wave effects. Data synthesis: Descriptive and time-series studies were the two main research designs used to investigate the temperature–morbidity relationship. Measurements of temperature exposure and health outcomes used in these studies differed widely. The majority of studies reported a significant relationship between ambient temperature and total or cause-specific morbidities. However, there were some inconsistencies in the direction and magnitude of nonlinear lag effects. The lag effect of hot temperature on morbidity was shorter (several days) compared with that of cold temperature (up to a few weeks). The temperature–morbidity relationship may be confounded or modified by sociodemographic factors and air pollution. Conclusions: There is a significant short-term effect of ambient temperature on total and cause-specific morbidities. However, further research is needed to determine an appropriate temperature measure, consider a diverse range of morbidities, and to use consistent methodology to make different studies more comparable. PMID:21824855

  13. Passivation of Exfoliated Black Phosphorus Transistors Against Ambient Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Spencer; Wood, Joshua; Jariwala, Deep; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Cho, Eunkyung; Sangwan, Vinod; Liu, Xiaolong; Lauhon, Lincoln; Marks, Tobin; Hersam, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Unencapsulated exfoliated black phosphorus field-effect transistors are found to rapidly degrade upon exposure to ambient conditions, causing large increases in threshold voltage after only 6 h in ambient, followed by a ~ 103 decrease in FET on/off ratio and mobility after 48 h. Careful investigation into the cause of this degradation suggests that H2O irreversibly reacts with unprotected, exfoliated BP to form oxidized phosphorus species, as observed by AFM, TEM, XPS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and electrostatic force microscopy. This interpretation is further supported by the observation that BP degradation occurs more rapidly on hydrophobic octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayers as opposed to hydrophilic SiO2, implicating an edge-based intercalation of O2 saturated H2O in BP as the cause of degradation. Atomic layer deposited AlOx overlayers were found to suppress ambient degradation, allowing encapsulated BP FETs to maintain high on/off ratios of ~ 103 and mobilities of ~ 100 cm2/(Vs) for over one month in ambient, demonstrating the effective passivation of BP flakes against ambient degradation. Research supported by the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center of Northwestern University (NSF DMR-1121262), the Office of Naval Research (N00014- 14-1-0669), and the Keck Foundation.

  14. Associations between summertime ambient pollutants and respiratory morbidity in New York City: Comparison of results using ambient concentrations versus predicted exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological analyses of air quality often estimate human exposure from ambient monitoring data, potentially leading to exposure misclassification and subsequent bias in estimated health risks. To investigate this, we conducted a case-crossover study of summertime ambient ozon...

  15. National Anthem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A montage of video clips over the years, footage shows the spacecrews, launch, and landing for different orbiters and missions. Clips include the Endeavour and Atlantis Orbiters and are shown to the music of the American National Anthem.

  16. National Biobanks

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The development of genomics has dramatically expanded the scope of genetic research, and collections of genetic biosamples have proliferated in countries with active genomics research programs. In this essay, we consider a particular kind of collection, national biobanks. National biobanks are often presented by advocates as an economic “resource” that will be used by both basic researchers and academic biologists, as well as by pharmaceutical diagnostic and clinical genomics companies. Although national biobanks have been the subject of intense interest in recent social science literature, most prior work on this topic focuses either on bioethical issues related to biobanks, such as the question of informed consent, or on the possibilities for scientific citizenship that they make possible. We emphasize, by contrast, the economic aspect of biobanks, focusing specifically on the way in which national biobanks create biovalue. Our emphasis on the economic aspect of biobanks allows us to recognize the importance of what we call clinical labor—that is, the regularized, embodied work that members of the national population are expected to perform in their role as biobank participants—in the creation of biovalue through biobanks. Moreover, it allows us to understand how the technical way in which national biobanks link clinical labor to databases alters both medical and popular understandings of risk for common diseases and conditions. PMID:20526462

  17. Ambient Radon-222 Monitoring in Amargosa Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    L.H. Karr; J.J. Tappen; D. Shafer; K.J. Gray

    2008-06-05

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline selected environmental parameters in the region around the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, ambient radon-222 monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, the community closest to the proposed repository site. Passive integrating radon monitors and a continuous radon monitoring instrument were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) (http://www.cemp.dri.edu/index.html) station located in the Amargosa Valley Community Center near the library. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated radon measurements as well as verify meteorological data collected by the continuous radon monitoring instrument. Additionally, different types of environmental enclosures that housed the monitors and instrument were used to determine if particular designs influenced the ambient radon measurements.

  18. Deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols on the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Y.; Zhao, C. S.; Ma, N.; Liu, H. J.; Bian, Y. X.; Tao, J. C.; Hu, Min

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we report that the deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols on the North China Plain are frequently observed using a humidified nephelometer system. The deliquescence relative humidity (RH) primarily ranges from 73% to 81%, with an average of 76.8%. The observed deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols exhibit distinct diurnal patterns and are highly correlated with ammonium sulfate. The diurnal variations of ammonium and nitrate may play significant roles on occurrences of observed deliquescent phenomena. The frequently observed deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols in this paper imply that current parameterization schemes that describe the RH dependence of particle light scattering may result in a significant bias when estimating aerosol effects on climate.

  19. Ambient pyrite in precambrian chert: new evidence and a theory.

    PubMed

    Knoll, A H; Barghoorn, E S

    1974-06-01

    Ambient pyrites of two distinct types were described from middle Precambrian rocks of the Lake Superior area. A new class of this phenomenon is here described from middle Precambrian chert from western Australia. The newly found ambient pyrites are quite minute and characteristically occur in groups forming a "starburst" pattern. All three types of ambient pyrite may be explained in terms of pressure solution initiated by gas evolution from organic material attached to the pyrite. Thermal degradation of the kerogen produces the gases which, due to the impermeability of the encompassing chert, build up the pressures necessary to initiate solution. Pyrite appendages bear a striking resemblance to micro-organisms and, thus, constitute the smallest pseudofossils known.

  20. Designing for Persuasion: Toward Ambient Eco-Visualization for Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tanyoung; Hong, Hwajung; Magerko, Brian

    When people are aware of their lifestyle's ecological consequences, they are more likely to adjust their behavior to reduce their impact. Persuasive design that provides feedback to users without interfering with their primary tasks can increases the awareness of neighboring problems. As a case study of design for persuasion, we designed two ambient displays as desktop widgets. Both represent a users' computer usage time, but in different visual styles. In this paper, we present the results of a comparative study of two ambient displays. We discuss the gradual progress of persuasion supported by the ambient displays and the differences in users' perception affected by the different visualization styles. Finally, Our empirical findings lead to a series of design implications for persuasive media.

  1. Expanding uses of ambient noise for imaging, detection, and communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, John R.; Malod, Laurent

    2002-11-01

    The use of ambient noise to sense the marine environment has a human history of only two decades. Starting with incoherent processing inspired by optical analogies such as Acoustic Daylight (TM), the exploration of the potential for ambient noise to provide useful information about the environment has blossomed into many related areas and diverse algorithms with connections to multistatic active sonar, classic passive sonar, communications, matched field processing and others. This presentation will introduce some recent work in these areas and attempt to draw together how the use of ambient noise, both by mankind and marine animals, is beginning to form a more complete picture of the potential of this exciting area of research. [Work supported by the Defence Science and Technology Agency, Singapore.

  2. Ambient Pyrite in Precambrian Chert: New Evidence and a Theory

    PubMed Central

    Knoll, Andrew H.; Barghoorn, Elso S.

    1974-01-01

    Ambient pyrites of two distinct types were described from middle Precambrian rocks of the Lake Superior area. A new class of this phenomenon is here described from middle Precambrian chert from western Australia. The newly found ambient pyrites are quite minute and characteristically occur in groups forming a “starburst” pattern. All three types of ambient pyrite may be explained in terms of pressure solution initiated by gas evolution from organic material attached to the pyrite. Thermal degradation of the kerogen produces the gases which, due to the impermeability of the encompassing chert, build up the pressures necessary to initiate solution. Pyrite appendages bear a striking resemblance to micro-organisms and, thus, constitute the smallest pseudofossils known. Images PMID:16592159

  3. Source apportionment of ambient volatile organic compounds in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu; Shao, Min; Liu, Ying; Lu, Sihua; Kuster, William; Goldan, Paul; Xie, Shaodong

    2007-06-15

    The ambient air quality standard for ozone is frequently exceeded in Beijing in summer and autumn. Source apportionments of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are precursors of ground-level ozone formation, can be helpful to the further study of tropospheric ozone formation. In this study, ambient concentrations of VOCs were continuously measured with a time resolution of 30 min in August 2005 in Beijing. By using positive matrix factorization (PMF), eight sources for the selected VOC species were extracted. Gasoline-related emissions (the combination of gasoline exhaust and gas vapor), petrochemicals, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) contributed 52, 20, and 11%, respectively, to total ambient VOCs. VOC emissions from natural gas (5%), painting (5%), diesel vehicles (3%), and biogenic emissions (2%) were also identified. The gasoline-related, petrochemical, and biogenic sources were estimated to be the major contributors to ozone formation potentials in Beijing.

  4. Transdimensional Bayesian seismic ambient noise tomography across SE Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, DingChang; Saygin, Erdinc; Cummins, Phil; Ge, Zengxi; Min, Zhaoxu; Cipta, Athanasius; Yang, Runhai

    2017-02-01

    We analyze seismic ambient noise data recorded at a set of permanent and temporary stations across southeastern Tibet to image crustal structure. High-resolution phase velocity maps are presented based on Transdimensional Bayesian seismic ambient noise tomography. Seismic images exhibit more apparent horizontal heterogeneities and show more detailed information compared to previous studies based on traditional ambient noise tomography. As noted from the phase velocity image at 25 s, the rigid high velocity anomalies beneath the Sichuan Basin and the South China Fold System act as a blockage to crustal material expansion, and the distribution of velocity anomalies contributes to the interpretation of a surface clockwise rotation pattern. Our results imply a more complex distributed low-velocity zone rather than two isolated channels beneath SE Tibet.

  5. Experimental Demonstration of Collisionless Particle Acceleration Mechanisms and Entrainment of Ambient Plasma Ions by a Rapidly Expanding Diamagnetic Cavity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonde, J.; Vincena, S. T.; Gekelman, W. N.

    2015-12-01

    The collisionless coupling of an expanding diamagnetic cavity to a magnetized, ambient plasma is studied in a laboratory environment using a laser-produced plasma (LPP). The seed LPP rapidly expands with velocities up to the background Alfvén speed, vexp ≤ vA. The boundary layer of the expansion is characterized with in situ diagnostics as a cylindrical version of the Ferraro-Rosenbluth current sheath. Maintenance of quasi-neutrality in this sheath forms an electric field opposing the cross-field expansion which simultaneously drives the electron current that forms the diamagnetic cavity, decelerates the LPP ions to stagnation, and accelerates ambient ions inward. The field topology across the background magnetic field is identical to that described by Bernhardt, et al. [1] for the AMPTE magnetotail barium releases. The boundary along the magnetic field, however, is shown to contain an electric field with E·B ≠ 0, which is absent in simple fluid models of diamagnetic cavities. The electric fields at this boundary help explain previous observations in the experiment of the ejection of suprathermal electrons and return currents that generated whistler- and Alfvén-wave radiation in the ambient plasma. Magnetic loops and an emissive probe measure the magnetic field and electrostatic potential along 3 dimensions while a laser-induced fluorescence scheme measures the cross-field flow of the ambient argon ions as they penetrate the diamagnetic cavity. Particle orbit solvers employing the measured fields corroborate the flow diagnostic and predict strong outflows of ambient ions with higher charge to mass ratios after diamagnetic cavity collapse. This experiment was conducted in the Large Plasma Device at the Basic Plasma Science Facility and funded by grants from the US Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation. [1] P.A. Bernhardt, R.A. Roussel-Dupre, M.B. Pongratz, J. Geophys. Res. 92, 57777 (1987).

  6. Ambient air pollution exposure, residential mobility and term birth weight in Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Christian; Gehring, Ulrike; Walker, Sam Erik; Brunekreef, Bert; Stigum, Hein; Naess, Oyvind; Nafstad, Per

    2010-05-01

    Environmental exposure during pregnancy may have lifelong health consequences for the offspring and some studies have association between maternal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and offspring's birth weight. However, many of these studies do not take into account small-scale variations in exposure, residential mobility, and work addresses during pregnancy. We used information from the National Birth Registry of Norway to examine associations between ambient environmental exposure such as air pollution and temperature, and offspring's birth weight taking advantage of information on migration history and work address in a large population-based cohort. A dispersion model was used to estimate ambient air pollution levels at all residential addresses and work addresses for a total of 25,229 pregnancies between 1999 and 2002 in Oslo, Norway. Ambient exposure to traffic pollution for the entire pregnancy was associated with a reduction in term birth weight in crude analyzes when comparing children of the highest and lowest exposed mothers. No evidence for an association between exposure to traffic pollution at home and work addresses and term birth weight after adjustment for covariates known to influence birth weight during pregnancy. After stratification, small statistically non-significant reductions were present but only for multiparious mothers. This group also had less residential mobility and less employment during pregnancy. The overall findings suggest no clear association between term birth weight and traffic pollution exposure during pregnancy. However, mobility patterns could introduce possible confounding when examining small-scale variations in exposure by using addresses. This could be of importance in future studies.

  7. Coupling of an exploding plasma to a magnetized ambient plasma measured with LIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonde, Jeffrey; Vincena, Stephen; Gekelman, Walter

    2013-10-01

    The coupling of plasma jets to ambient media near young stellar objects, Herbig-Haro objects, and supernova remnants is of considerable interest to the astrophysical community. In this work, we study the interaction of a laboratory scale jet formed by a carbon laser-produced plasma (LPP) with the ions of a magnetized argon background plasma (njet /nAr < 30 ,vjet/cs = 20 ,vjet/vA <=1) using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The excitation light was provided by a planar beam of a pulsed dye laser which, by tuning to the Doppler-broadened 611.5 nm absorption line, sampled the distribution function of metastable Ar-II separating the background from the components of the jet. A fast shutter (>= 3 ns) CCD camera captured the 461 nm fluorescence with 40 ns time and .6 mm2 spatial resolutions. The distribution functions obtained from the LIF diagnostic reveal significant density enhancement and a subsonic parallel drift localized at the LPP-ambient interface. Within the jet region, the background ion signal indicates the formation of a density void and suggests a lateral snow-plow effect. To our knowledge, this is the first LIF measurement of a supersonic jet coupling to an ambient plasma. Supplemental Langmuir probe measurements characterize the jet's dimensions and dependence on magnetic field strength and background ion mass up to 6 meters from the LPP source. This experiment was conducted in the Large Plasma Device at the Basic Plasma Science Facility and funded by grants from the US Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation.

  8. Uptake of Ambient Organic Gases to Acidic Sulfate Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liggio, J.; Li, S.

    2009-05-01

    The formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere has been an area of significant interest due to its climatic relevance, its effects on air quality and human health. Due largely to the underestimation of SOA by regional and global models, there has been an increasing number of studies focusing on alternate pathways leading to SOA. In this regard, recent work has shown that heterogeneous and liquid phase reactions, often leading to oligomeric material, may be a route to SOA via products of biogenic and anthropogenic origin. Although oligomer formation in chamber studies has been frequently observed, the applicability of these experiments to ambient conditions, and thus the overall importance of oligomerization reactions remain unclear. In the present study, ambient air is drawn into a Teflon smog chamber and exposed to acidic sulfate aerosols which have been formed in situ via the reaction of SO3 with water vapor. The aerosol composition is measured with a High Resolution Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), and particle size distributions are monitored with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The use of ambient air and relatively low inorganic particle loading potentially provides clearer insight into the importance of heterogeneous reactions. Results of experiments, with a range of sulfate loadings show that there are several competing processes occurring on different timescales. A significant uptake of ambient organic gases to the particles is observed immediately followed by a slow shift towards higher m/z over a period of several hours indicating that higher molecular weight products (possibly oligomers) are being formed through a reactive process. The results suggest that heterogeneous reactions can occur with ambient organic gases, even in the presence of ammonia, which may have significant implications to the ambient atmosphere where particles may be neutralized after their formation.

  9. Visual attention for a desktop virtual environment with ambient scent

    PubMed Central

    Toet, Alexander; van Schaik, Martin G.

    2013-01-01

    In the current study participants explored a desktop virtual environment (VE) representing a suburban neighborhood with signs of public disorder (neglect, vandalism, and crime), while being exposed to either room air (control group), or subliminal levels of tar (unpleasant; typically associated with burned or waste material) or freshly cut grass (pleasant; typically associated with natural or fresh material) ambient odor. They reported all signs of disorder they noticed during their walk together with their associated emotional response. Based on recent evidence that odors reflexively direct visual attention to (either semantically or affectively) congruent visual objects, we hypothesized that participants would notice more signs of disorder in the presence of ambient tar odor (since this odor may bias attention to unpleasant and negative features), and less signs of disorder in the presence of ambient grass odor (since this odor may bias visual attention toward the vegetation in the environment and away from the signs of disorder). Contrary to our expectations the results provide no indication that the presence of an ambient odor affected the participants’ visual attention for signs of disorder or their emotional response. However, the paradigm used in present study does not allow us to draw any conclusions in this respect. We conclude that a closer affective, semantic, or spatiotemporal link between the contents of a desktop VE and ambient scents may be required to effectively establish diagnostic associations that guide a user’s attention. In the absence of these direct links, ambient scent may be more diagnostic for the physical environment of the observer as a whole than for the particular items in that environment (or, in this case, items represented in the VE). PMID:24324453

  10. Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight.

    PubMed

    Raman, Aaswath P; Anoma, Marc Abou; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-11-27

    Cooling is a significant end-use of energy globally and a major driver of peak electricity demand. Air conditioning, for example, accounts for nearly fifteen per cent of the primary energy used by buildings in the United States. A passive cooling strategy that cools without any electricity input could therefore have a significant impact on global energy consumption. To achieve cooling one needs to be able to reach and maintain a temperature below that of the ambient air. At night, passive cooling below ambient air temperature has been demonstrated using a technique known as radiative cooling, in which a device exposed to the sky is used to radiate heat to outer space through a transparency window in the atmosphere between 8 and 13 micrometres. Peak cooling demand, however, occurs during the daytime. Daytime radiative cooling to a temperature below ambient of a surface under direct sunlight has not been achieved because sky access during the day results in heating of the radiative cooler by the Sun. Here, we experimentally demonstrate radiative cooling to nearly 5 degrees Celsius below the ambient air temperature under direct sunlight. Using a thermal photonic approach, we introduce an integrated photonic solar reflector and thermal emitter consisting of seven layers of HfO2 and SiO2 that reflects 97 per cent of incident sunlight while emitting strongly and selectively in the atmospheric transparency window. When exposed to direct sunlight exceeding 850 watts per square metre on a rooftop, the photonic radiative cooler cools to 4.9 degrees Celsius below ambient air temperature, and has a cooling power of 40.1 watts per square metre at ambient air temperature. These results demonstrate that a tailored, photonic approach can fundamentally enable new technological possibilities for energy efficiency. Further, the cold darkness of the Universe can be used as a renewable thermodynamic resource, even during the hottest hours of the day.

  11. Visual attention for a desktop virtual environment with ambient scent.

    PubMed

    Toet, Alexander; van Schaik, Martin G

    2013-01-01

    In the current study participants explored a desktop virtual environment (VE) representing a suburban neighborhood with signs of public disorder (neglect, vandalism, and crime), while being exposed to either room air (control group), or subliminal levels of tar (unpleasant; typically associated with burned or waste material) or freshly cut grass (pleasant; typically associated with natural or fresh material) ambient odor. They reported all signs of disorder they noticed during their walk together with their associated emotional response. Based on recent evidence that odors reflexively direct visual attention to (either semantically or affectively) congruent visual objects, we hypothesized that participants would notice more signs of disorder in the presence of ambient tar odor (since this odor may bias attention to unpleasant and negative features), and less signs of disorder in the presence of ambient grass odor (since this odor may bias visual attention toward the vegetation in the environment and away from the signs of disorder). Contrary to our expectations the results provide no indication that the presence of an ambient odor affected the participants' visual attention for signs of disorder or their emotional response. However, the paradigm used in present study does not allow us to draw any conclusions in this respect. We conclude that a closer affective, semantic, or spatiotemporal link between the contents of a desktop VE and ambient scents may be required to effectively establish diagnostic associations that guide a user's attention. In the absence of these direct links, ambient scent may be more diagnostic for the physical environment of the observer as a whole than for the particular items in that environment (or, in this case, items represented in the VE).

  12. PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE ON PLANTS AND ECOSYSTEMS AS A BASIS FOR SETTING NATIONAL AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-base...

  13. 2006 Particulate Matter (PM) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Infrastructure Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Read about the EPA's infrastructure actions for the 2006 PM NAAQS. These actions are regarding states' failure to submit SIPs addressing various parts of the standards. Here you can read the federal register notices,and fact sheets

  14. Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Implementation Guidance Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains implementation guidance documents for the 1978 and 2008 Lead (Pb) NAAQS. Some of the topics covered are: RACM/RACT, RFP, new source review, designations, emissions inventories, attainment dates, and transition policy

  15. Final Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA) for the NO2 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This RIA provides illustrative estimates, as of January 2010, of the incremental costs and monetized human health benefits of attaining the revised NO2 NAAQS within the the existing community-wide monitoring network of 409 monitors.

  16. 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Findings of Failure to Submit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This final action finds that 15 states and the District of Columbia have failed to submit specific state implementation plan (SIP) elements to satisfy certain nonattainment area, and/or Ozone Transport Region (OTR), planning requirements for the 2008 ozone

  17. 2015 Revision to 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Supporting Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find tools for background ozone, maps of nonattainment areas, an overview of the proposal, and information on designations, monitoring and permitting requirements and a presentation on the 2015 ozone NAAQS revision.

  18. 77 FR 8197 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... 1997 Ozone Standards for Transportation Conformity Purposes AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... designations for the 2008 ozone NAAQS for transportation conformity purposes only. DATES: Comments must be... NAAQS D. Transportation Conformity and the 1997 Ozone NAAQS III. What are the proposed...

  19. 77 FR 30160 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... 1997 Ozone Standards for Transportation Conformity Purposes AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... provides for the revocation of the 1997 ozone NAAQS for transportation conformity purposes to occur 1 year... Received C. Final Action VI. When is the EPA revoking the 1997 ozone NAAQS for transportation...

  20. 78 FR 44485 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Standards for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements'' (June 6, 2013). The EPA is extending the...) and nitrogen oxides (NO X )) that contribute to ground-level ozone formation. B. What should...

  1. Will the circle be unbroken: a history of the US national ambient air quality standards

    SciTech Connect

    Bachmann, J.

    2007-06-15

    The 2007 Critical Review coincides with the celebration of A&WMA's 100th anniversary and examines more than 100 years of US air pollution history in an effort to illuminate how we arrived at the particular approaches to managing air quality reflected in the Clean Air Act (CAA). A detailed chronology and commentary on the history of the NAAQS appears to seven tables available online at www.awma.org/journal/pdfs/2007/6/10.3155-1047-3289.57.6.652_supplmate rial.pdf (abstracted separately in the Coal Abstracts database), available to members of the AWMA or to government subscribers only. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Implementation Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Read about the EPA's infrastructure actions for the 2008 lead NAAQS. These actions are regarding states' failure to submit SIPs addressing various parts of the standards. Here you can read the federal register notices, fact sheets, and the docket folder.

  3. 77 FR 38889 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... ``anonymous access'' system, which means the EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you... Monitoring System a. Background b. Primary PM 2.5 NAAQS i. Proposed Addition of a Near-Road Component to...

  4. 76 FR 8157 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... receives insufficient oxygen delivered by the blood. Exercise-induced angina pectoris (chest pain) occurs... identified by ST segment depression, is asymptomatic (i.e., silent). Patients who experience angina typically... significant decrease in time to onset of angina at 4.1% COHb if subjects that did not experience...

  5. 76 FR 54293 - Review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... population includes those with angina pectoris (cardiac chest pain), those who have experienced a heart... receives insufficient oxygen delivered by the blood. Exercise-induced angina pectoris (chest pain) occurs... ischemia). Myocardial ischemia can result in chest pain (angina pectoris) or such characteristic changes...

  6. 77 FR 20217 - Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ..., ``effects on soils, water, crops, vegetation, man-made materials, animals, wildlife, weather, visibility and... call for information (70 FR 73236) for the development of a revised ISA. An Integrated Review Plan...

  7. 2014 Proposed Revision to 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Supporting Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find information on the 2014 proposed ozone NAAQS revision, and find tools for background ozone, maps of nonattainment areas, an overview of the proposal, and information on designations, monitoring and permitting requirements

  8. Dependence of single-bubble sonoluminescence on ambient pressure

    PubMed

    Dan; Cheeke; Kondic

    2000-03-01

    Kondic et al.'s theory makes several specific predictions on the dependence of single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) on ambient pressure. We have carried out experiments to verify these predictions for air bubbles in a water-glycerine mixture at about 17.5 kHz. The results show an increase in SBSL with reduced ambient pressure down to a critical value below which SBSL is extinguished. The results are all in good agreement with Kondic et al.'s theory and are also compatible with the dissociation hypothesis of Lohse et al.

  9. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging under ambient light

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yinxin; Liao, Chien-Sheng; Hong, Weili; Huang, Kai-Chih; Yang, Huaidong; Jin, Guofan; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate ambient light coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (AL-CARS) microscopy that allows CARS imaging to be operated under environment light for field use. CARS signal is modulated at megahertz frequency and detected by a photodiode equipped with a lab-built resonant amplifier, then extracted through a lock-in amplifier. Filters in both spectral domain and frequency domain effectively blocked room light contamination of the CARS image. In situ hyperspectral CARS imaging of tumor tissue under ambient light is demonstrated. PMID:27519113

  10. AMBIENT PM2.5 SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-10-01

    This report summarizes observations and tentative conclusions drawn from evaluations of the data captured to date from the operation of the ambient PM{sub 2.5} speciation sites in a geographical area encompassing southeastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania, and northwestern West Virginia. The overall goal of this program, called the Upper Ohio River Valley Project (UORVP), is to better understand the relationship between coal-based power system emissions and ambient air quality in the upper Ohio River Valley region through the collection of chemically resolved or speciated data.

  11. Applications of ambient mass spectrometry in high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Ping; Feng, Bao-Sheng; Yang, Jian-Wang; Chang, Cui-Lan; Bai, Yu; Liu, Hu-Wei

    2013-06-07

    The development of rapid screening and identification techniques is of great importance for drug discovery, doping control, forensic identification, food safety and quality control. Ambient mass spectrometry (AMS) allows rapid and direct analysis of various samples in open air with little sample preparation. Recently, its applications in high-throughput screening have been in rapid progress. During the past decade, various ambient ionization techniques have been developed and applied in high-throughput screening. This review discusses typical applications of AMS, including DESI (desorption electrospray ionization), DART (direct analysis in real time), EESI (extractive electrospray ionization), etc., in high-throughput screening (HTS).

  12. Implicit Interaction: A Modality for Ambient Exercise Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, J.; O'Grady, M. J.; O'Hare, G. M. P.

    Ambient Exercise refers to the implicit exercise that people undertake in the course of their everyday duties - a simple example being climbing stairs. Increasing awareness of the potential health benefits of such activities may well contribute to an increase in a person’s well-being. Initially, it is necessary to monitor and quantify such exercise so that personalized fitness plans may be constructed. In this paper, the implicit interaction modality is harnessed to enable the capturing of ambient exercise activity thereby facilitating its subsequent quantification and interpretation. The novelty of the solution proposed lies in its ubiquity and transparency.

  13. REVIEW ARTICLE: Sensor communication technology towards ambient intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delsing, J.; Lindgren, P.

    2005-04-01

    This paper is a review of the fascinating development of sensors and the communication of sensor data. A brief historical introduction is given, followed by a discussion on architectures for sensor networks. Further, realistic specifications on sensor devices suitable for ambient intelligence and ubiquitous computing are given. Based on these specifications, the status and current frontline development are discussed. In total, it is shown that future technology for ambient intelligence based on sensor and actuator devices using standardized Internet communication is within the range of possibilities within five years.

  14. Ambient Metrics for n-Dimensional pp-Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leistner, Thomas; Nurowski, Pawel

    2010-06-01

    We provide an explicit formula for the Fefferman-Graham ambient metric of an n-dimensional conformal pp-wave in those cases where it exists. In even dimensions we calculate the obstruction explicitly. Furthermore, we describe all 4-dimensional pp-waves that are Bach-flat, and give a large class of Bach-flat examples which are conformally Cotton-flat, but not conformally Einstein. Finally, as an application, we use the obtained ambient metric to show that even-dimensional pp-waves have vanishing critical Q-curvature.

  15. The DFKI Competence Center for Ambient Assisted Living

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Jochen; Stahl, Christoph; Röfer, Thomas; Krieg-Brückner, Bernd; Alexandersson, Jan

    The DFKI Competence Center for Ambient Assisted Living (CCAAL) is a cross-project and cross-department virtual organization within the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence coordinating and conducting research and development in the area of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL). Our demonstrators range from multimodal speech dialog systems to fully instrumented environments allowing the development of intelligent assistant systems, for instance an autonomous wheelchair, or the recognition and processing of everyday activities in a smart home. These innovative technologies are then tested, evaluated and demonstrated in DFKI's living labs.

  16. White Book on National Defense (Republic of Argentina)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Geografico Militar. Military Geographic Institute. XXIV IM: Infanteria de Marina. Marine Corps. INA: Institute Nacional de Agua y Ambiente . National Water and...Medianas Empresas. Small and Medium-sized Companies. QJBN: Quimica Biologica Nuclear. Chemical Biological Nuclear. RA: Region Aerea. Air Region. RAE

  17. Ambient Noise Cross-correlation Surface Wave Tomography of the Continental United States and Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensen, G. D.; McCoy, C.; Ritzwoller, M. H.; Levshin, A. L.; Barmin, M. P.; Shapiro, N. M.

    2006-12-01

    The recent development of surface wave tomography based on ambient noise cross-correlations has provided good results on regional scales and relatively short periods less than 40 seconds. This technique however is viable at longer periods and on the continental scale. We present dispersion maps from ambient noise cross- correlation surface-wave tomography for the continental United States and Alaska between 10 and 60 seconds period. Using up to 2 years of data from over 250 permanent and temporary stations obtained from the IRIS DMC and the Canadian National Seismic Network we compute cross-correlations for all station pairs. An automated dispersion analysis technique is applied to obtain Rayleigh wave group and phase speed curves and unacceptable measurements are removed. Dispersion curves from over 12,500 paths are retained in the continental US and about 1,000 cross-correlation and earthquake paths result in Alaska. We obtain isotropic Rayleigh wave group and phase speed maps on a one half degree grid using a damped ray theoretical inversion. Compared to previous teleseismic earthquake techniques, the short period maps provide better resolution of smaller scale features, especially those in the crust. The improved path coverage also enhances resolution at longer periods compared to previous maps with better delineation of tectonic provinces. In Alaska, limited station coverage and earthquake distribution confine the results to the south-central part of the state. Preliminary azimuthally anisotropic Rayleigh wave tomography maps are also presented together with an assessment of their robustness.

  18. Characterization of ambient fine particles in the northwestern area and Anchorage, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eugene; Hopke, Philip K

    2008-10-01

    Ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) in the northwestern United States and Alaska is dominated by carbonaceous compounds associated with wood burning and transportation sources. PM2.5 source characterization studies analyzing recent PM2.5 speciation data have not been previously reported for these areas. In this study, ambient PM2.5 speciation samples collected at two monitoring sites located in the northwestern area, Olympic Peninsula, WA, and Portland, OR, and one monitoring site located in Anchorage, AK, were characterized through source apportionments. Gasoline vehicle, secondary sulfate, and wood smoke were the largest sources of PM2.5 collected at the Anchorage, Olympic, and Portland monitoring sites, respectively. Secondary sulfates showed an April peak at Anchorage and a November peak at Portland that are likely related to the increased photochemical reaction and long-range transport in Anchorage and meteorological stagnation in Portland. Secondary nitrate at the Olympic site showed a weak summer high peak that could be caused by seasonal tourism in the national park. Backward trajectories suggested that the elevated aged sea salt concentrations at the Portland monitoring site could be regional transport of sea salt that passed through other contaminated air sheds along the coast. Oil combustion emissions that might originate from ships and ferries were observed at the Olympic monitoring site.

  19. Survey of ambient electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference levels in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.; Moore, M.R.; Blakeman, E.D.; Ewing, P.D.; Wood, R.T.

    1996-11-01

    This document reports the results of a survey of ambient electromagnetic conditions in representative nuclear power plants. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research engaged the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform these measurements to characterize the electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio-frequency interference (RFI) levels that can be expected in nuclear power plant environments. This survey is the first of its kind, being based on long-term unattended observations. The data presented in this report were measured at eight different nuclear units and required 14 months to collect. A representative sampling of power plant conditions (reactor type, operating mode, site location) monitored over extended observation periods (up to 5 weeks) were selected to more completely determine the characteristic electromagnetic environment for nuclear power plants. Radiated electric fields were measured over the frequency range of 5 MHz to 8 GHz. Radiated magnetic fields and conducted EMI events were measured over the frequency range of 305 Hz to 5 MHz. Highest strength observations of the electromagnetic ambient environment across all measurement conditions at each site provide frequency-dependent profiles for EMI/RFI levels in nuclear power plants.

  20. Ambient Concentrations of Metabolic Disrupting Chemicals and Children’s Academic Achievement in El Paso, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Clark-Reyna, Stephanie E.; Grineski, Sara E.; Collins, Timothy W.

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about children’s weight have steadily risen alongside the manufacture and use of myriad chemicals in the US. One class of chemicals, known as metabolic disruptors, interfere with human endocrine and metabolic functioning and are of specific concern to children’s health and development. This article examines the effect of residential concentrations of metabolic disrupting chemicals on children’s school performance for the first time. Census tract-level ambient concentrations for known metabolic disruptors come from the US Environmental Protection Agency’s National Air Toxics Assessment. Other measures were drawn from a survey of primary caretakers of 4th and 5th grade children in El Paso Independent School District (El Paso, TX, USA). A mediation model is employed to examine two hypothetical pathways through which the ambient level of metabolic disruptors at a child’s home might affect grade point average. Results indicate that concentrations of metabolic disruptors are statistically significantly associated with lower grade point averages directly and indirectly through body mass index. Findings from this study have practical implications for environmental justice research and chemical policy reform in the US. PMID:27598179

  1. Experimental fault tolerant universal quantum gates with solid-state spins under ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Xing

    Quantum computation provides great speedup over classical counterpart for certain problems, such as quantum simulations, prime factoring and database searching. One of the challenges for realizing quantum computation is to execute precise control of the quantum system in the presence of noise. Recently, high fidelity control of spin-qubits has been achieved in several quantum systems. However, control of the spin-qubits with the accuracy required by the fault tolerant quantum computation under ambient conditions remains exclusive. Here we demonstrate a universal set of logic gates in nitrogen-vacancy centers with an average single-qubit gate fidelity of 0.99995 and two qubit gate fidelity of 0.992. These high control fidelities have been achieved in the C naturally abundant diamonds at room temperature via composite pulses and optimal control method. This experimental implementation of quantum gates with fault tolerant control fidelity sets an important step towards the fault-tolerant quantum computation under ambient conditions. National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB921800).

  2. Potential Ambient Energy-Harvesting Sources and Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Faruk

    2009-01-01

    Ambient energy harvesting is also known as energy scavenging or power harvesting, and it is the process where energy is obtained from the environment. A variety of techniques are available for energy scavenging, including solar and wind powers, ocean waves, piezoelectricity, thermoelectricity, and physical motions. For example, some systems…

  3. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring. 52.995 Section 52.995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the...

  4. 40 CFR 52.995 - Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enhanced ambient air quality monitoring. 52.995 Section 52.995 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... air quality monitoring. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the...

  5. Bayesian Ambient Noise Inversion for Geoacoustic Uncertainty Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    sequential data: (a) True seabed sound speed profile input to OASES to generate simulated data vs mean model obtained via inversion. (b) Power...Harrison, “High-frequency geoacoustic inversion of ambient noise data using short arrays”, AIP Conference Proc. 728, 22-31 (2004). [7] H. Schmidt, OASES

  6. RADIOCARBON MEASUREMENTS ON PM-2.5 AMBIENT AEROSOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radiocarbon (14C) measurements provide an estimate of the fraction of carbon in a sample that is biogenic. The methodology has been extensively used in past wintertime studies to quantify the contribution of wood smoke to ambient aerosol. In summertime such measurements can p...

  7. Effectiveness of street sweeping and washing for controlling ambient TSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu-Min; Chou, Chih-Mei; Su, Kuo-Tung; Tseng, Chao-Heng

    Effectiveness of street sweeping and washing (S/W) for controlling ambient "total suspended particles (TSP)" was evaluated by TSP measurements and determining silt load from active traffic streets. A modified regenerative-air vacuum sweeper (RAVS) and a washer were used in this study. The sweeper made a pass followed by the washer. The S/W efficiencies (η,η) were obtained based on the experimental data of silt loading and TSP. It was found that the direct impact of sweeping on ambient TSP emissions was short-lived lasting no more than 3-4 h. When a vacuum sweeper and a washer, respectively, did a good job collecting or cleaning the visible fine particles on roads, the method of S/W tested in this work was effective at removing the sources of the road dust particles. This paper concludes that street sweeping followed by washing was found to offer a measurable reduction in TSP emission potentials. Typically, the reduction efficiency of ambient TSP is up to 30%. Finally, correlated with η (based on silt loading), a useful equation is proposed to estimate the S/W efficiency, η (based on TSP) with a standard error of ±20%. It seems feasible to predict the reduction efficiency of ambient TSP controlled by the regenerative-air vacuum sweeper and washer used in this work for engineering applications. Effects of traffic volume and wind velocity on the S/W efficiencies are also discussed in the paper.

  8. Phosphorescence within benzotellurophenes and color tunable tellurophenes under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    He, Gang; Wiltshire, Benjamin D; Choi, Paul; Savin, Aliaksandr; Sun, Shuai; Mohammadpour, Arash; Ferguson, Michael J; McDonald, Robert; Farsinezhad, Samira; Brown, Alex; Shankar, Karthik; Rivard, Eric

    2015-03-28

    The zirconium-mediated syntheses of pinacolboronate (BPin) appended benzo[b]tellurophenes and two phenyl/BPin substituted tellurophene isomers with different colors of emission have been achieved. These species are new additions to an emerging class of inorganic heterocycles that display visible phosphorescence in the solid state under ambient conditions.

  9. Ocean ambient sound south of Bermuda and Panama Canal traffic.

    PubMed

    Širović, Ana; Hildebrand, John A; McDonald, Mark A

    2016-05-01

    Comparisons of current and historic ocean ambient noise levels are rare, especially in the North Atlantic. Recent (2013-2014) monthly patterns in ocean ambient sound south of Bermuda were compared to those recorded at the same location in 1966. Additionally, trends in ocean traffic, in particular, Panama Canal traffic, over this time were also investigated. One year of ocean ambient noise measurements were collected in 1966 using cabled, omnidirectional hydrophones at the U.S. Navy Tudor Hill Laboratory in Bermuda, and repeat measurements were collected at the same location from June 2013-May 2014 using a High-frequency Acoustic Recording Package. Average monthly pressure spectrum levels at 44 Hz increased 2.8 ± 0.8 dB from 1966 to 2013, indicating an average increase of 0.6 dB/decade. This low level of increase may be due to topographic shielding at this site, limiting it to only southern exposure, and the limit in the number of ship transits through the Panama Canal, which did not change substantially during this time. The impending expansion of the Canal, which will enable the transit of larger ships at twice the current rate, is likely to lead to a substantial increase in ocean ambient sound at this location in the near future.

  10. CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATE STUDIES IN HEALTHY AND COMPROMISED RODENTS

    EPA Science Inventory


    CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATE STUDIES IN HEALTHY AND COMPROMISED RODENTS. WP Watkinson1, LB Wichers2, JP Nolan1, DW Winsett1, UP Kodavanti1, MCJ Schladweiler1, LC Walsh1, ER Lappi1, D Terrell1, R Slade1, AD Ledbetter1, and DL Costa1. 1USEPA, ORD/NHEERL/ETD/PTB, RTP, NC, US...

  11. Urban-scale variability of ambient particulate matter attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiman, M. T.; Hirshel, N.; Broday, D. M.

    Real-time sampling of ambient particulate matter (PM) in the size range 0.23-10 μm and of carbonaceous matter concentrations has been carried out in a carefully designed field campaign in proximate paired neighborhoods in Haifa, Israel. The paired sites are characterized by a similar population density and neighborhood-wise socioeconomic (deprivation) index but show distinct canopy coverage. The data indicate clear sub-urban (neighborhood) scale variations in any measured PM attribute, such as concentrations, size distribution, and carbonaceous matter content. Mean ambient PM levels were comparatively higher than in other urban studies whereas carbonaceous airborne PM concentrations were lower. On top of the diurnal and seasonal variability and in spite of the significant regional effect of the semi-arid climate, local emissions and removal processes affect the PM concentrations to which people residing in urbanized regions are exposed. Analysis of possible mechanisms that could affect the observed spatial sub-urban PM differences, including local meteorology and emissions, reveal that sub-urban variability of removal processes has a major influence on ambient PM levels. Observations suggest that on top of the regional air masses which affect the city air quality and emissions from local sources, a normally unnoticed removal process, showing urban scale variability, is interception by trees and dense vegetation. In particular, the observed sub-urban variability in ambient PM concentrations is attributed, in part, to local variation of removal processes, among them the neighborhood-wise deposition on available surfaces, including canopy.

  12. Acclimatization of plantlets from in vitro to the ambient environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acclimatizing, hardening-off, or conditioning plantlets from the in vitro to the ambient environment can be a challenge that may result in death or damage to a large percentage of micropropagated plants. When grown in the high humidity, low light environment often encountered in vitro, leaves have a...

  13. ARE MALES MORE SUSCEPTIBLE TO AMBIENT PM THAN FEMALES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent epidemiologic studies of modern air pollution show statistically significant relationships between fluctuations of daily non-trauma mortality and fluctuations of daily ambient particulate matter (PM) levels at low concentrations. A review of historic smoke-fog (smog)episo...

  14. Los plaguicidas y la contaminacion del medio ambiente Venezolano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Stickel, W.H.

    1972-01-01

    RESUMEN DE RECOMENDACIONES Recomendaciones para el Programa de Investigacion: 1. Establecer un sistema de muestreo biologico para detectar los niveles tendencias de los productos quimicos toxicos en un peque?o numero de si tios representativos. 2. Mantener continua vigilancia de la contaminacion ambiental, mediante la seleccion acertadamente dirigida de las zonas afectadas y de las fuentes de contaminacion. 3. Realizar estudios acerca de las poblaciones de animales silvestres, y del exito de los procesos reproductivos de las especies o grupos clayes de animales que se consideran mas gravemente afectados. 4. Preparar recomendaciones para una accion gubernamental de proteccion al hombre, a la fauna silvestre y al medio ambiente. Recomendaciones para la Accion Administrativa: 1. Establecer limites a la tolerancia de los residuos de plaguicidas en los alimentos. Constituye una medida clave para disminuir la contaminacion ambiental. 2. Establecer normas de calidad del agua para las corrientes, represas, la gos y otros cuerpos. Es la segunda medida clave para reducir la contaminacion del ambiente 3. Exigir un tratamiento adecuado de los efluentes industriales, especialmente antes de que se construyan las nuevas plantas. 4. Exigir a los agricultores que en el uso de plaguicidas sigan los consejos tecnicos autorizados y negar a los vendedores el derecho a recomendar productos por su cuenta. 5. Tomar medidas para recoger y eliminar los recipientes y sobrantes de los plaguicidas.

  15. Seasonal association between ambient ozone and mortality in Zhengzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Lijie; Gu, Jianqin; Liang, Shijie; Fang, Fang; Bai, Weimin; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Tao; Walline, Joseph; Zhang, Shenglong; Cui, Yingjie; Xu, Yaxin; Lin, Hualiang

    2016-12-01

    Different seasonal health effects of ambient ozone (O3) have been reported in previous studies. This might be due to inappropriate adjustment of temperature in different seasons. We used daily data on non-accidental mortality and ambient air pollution in Zhengzhou from January 19, 2013 to June 30, 2015. Season-stratified analyses using generalized additive models were conducted to evaluate the seasonal associations with adjustment of temperature with different lagged days (lag0-1 for warm season, lag0-14 for cold season). We recorded a total of 70,443 non-accidental deaths in Zhengzhou during the study period. Significant associations were observed between ambient O3 and mortality in cold season. Every 10-μg/m3 increment of 24-h O3 of 1-day lagged time was associated with a 1.38% (95% CI 0.60, 2.16%) increase in all cause mortality, 1.35% (95% CI 0.41, 2.30%) increase in cardiovascular mortality, and 1.78% (95% CI 0.43, 3.14%) increase in respiratory mortality. Similar associations were observed when using daily 1- and 8-h maximum concentrations of O3. No significant association was found during warm season. This study suggests a more pronounced ozone-mortality association in cold season in Zhengzhou, and we suggest that different lagged temperatures should be considered when examining the seasonal health effects of ambient ozone.

  16. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN THE AMBIENT AIR OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent and past use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Mexico has resulted in concentrations in ambient air that are 1-2 orders of magnitude above levels in the Great Lakes region. Atmospheric transport from Mexico and Central America may be contributing significant amounts ...

  17. Composing in Public: The Ambient Audiences of a Writing Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Although scholars have investigated the ways youths individually enact composing practices and the impact of audience on these practices, this study examines the impact of an audience physically present while composing in a shared, public space--an ambient audience. Blurring the line between traditional notions of audience and collaborator through…

  18. METHODOLOGY OF AMBIENT AIR MONITORING FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the last decade, several studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in ambient air in the U.S. specifically investigated (1) the sampling efficiency of two sorbents for PAH in air: XAD-2 and polyurethane foam (PUP); (2) the storage stability of PAH on quartz fiber fil...

  19. Cognitions and 'placebos' in behavioral research on ambient noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harcum, E. R.; Monti, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    Investigation of the effects of noise on visual and psychomotor tasks, with special attention to influences of certain cognitive variables. The results include the finding that 100-dB ambient noise has no effects per se, though cognitive variables in the testing situation affect both performance and ratings of disturbance.

  20. Performance testing and analysis of vertical ambient air vaporizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, A. S.; Singh, V. N.; Shah, M. I.; Acharya, D. V.

    2017-02-01

    Ambient air vaporizers are used to regasify cryogenic liquids at extremely low temperature (below -153°C). Frost formation occurs on it due to large temperature difference between ambient air and cryogenic fluid. Frosting induces additional load on equipment and reduces its heat transfer effectiveness. Hence, mechanical and thermal design of vaporizers account for frosting. An experimental set-up has been designed and effects of flow rate and ground clearance on the performance of ambient air vaporizers are evaluated. The flow rate is increased from the rated capacity of 500 Nm3/h to 640 Nm3/h and ground clearance is reduced from 500 mm to 175 mm. The above variations reduce the time duration for which gaseous nitrogen is delivered at temperature higher than 10.1°C (desired). Hence duty cycle reduces from eight hours to five hours. The other factors affecting performance such as fin configuration, fluid type, fluid pressure, intermittent flow nature and climatic conditions are assumed to be constant over the test duration. The decrement in outlet gas temperature (from 38 °C to 10.1°C) with corresponding increment in frost thickness leads to deterioration of performance of ambient air vaporizers.

  1. A Survey on Ambient Intelligence in Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Acampora, Giovanni; Cook, Diane J.; Rashidi, Parisa; Vasilakos, Athanasios V.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a new paradigm in information technology aimed at empowering people’s capabilities by the means of digital environments that are sensitive, adaptive, and responsive to human needs, habits, gestures, and emotions. This futuristic vision of daily environment will enable innovative human-machine interactions characterized by pervasive, unobtrusive and anticipatory communications. Such innovative interaction paradigms make ambient intelligence technology a suitable candidate for developing various real life solutions, including in the health care domain. This survey will discuss the emergence of ambient intelligence (AmI) techniques in the health care domain, in order to provide the research community with the necessary background. We will examine the infrastructure and technology required for achieving the vision of ambient intelligence, such as smart environments and wearable medical devices. We will summarize of the state of the art artificial intelligence methodologies used for developing AmI system in the health care domain, including various learning techniques (for learning from user interaction), reasoning techniques (for reasoning about users’ goals and intensions) and planning techniques (for planning activities and interactions). We will also discuss how AmI technology might support people affected by various physical or mental disabilities or chronic disease. Finally, we will point to some of the successful case studies in the area and we will look at the current and future challenges to draw upon the possible future research paths. PMID:24431472

  2. A Survey on Ambient Intelligence in Health Care.

    PubMed

    Acampora, Giovanni; Cook, Diane J; Rashidi, Parisa; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2013-12-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a new paradigm in information technology aimed at empowering people's capabilities by the means of digital environments that are sensitive, adaptive, and responsive to human needs, habits, gestures, and emotions. This futuristic vision of daily environment will enable innovative human-machine interactions characterized by pervasive, unobtrusive and anticipatory communications. Such innovative interaction paradigms make ambient intelligence technology a suitable candidate for developing various real life solutions, including in the health care domain. This survey will discuss the emergence of ambient intelligence (AmI) techniques in the health care domain, in order to provide the research community with the necessary background. We will examine the infrastructure and technology required for achieving the vision of ambient intelligence, such as smart environments and wearable medical devices. We will summarize of the state of the art artificial intelligence methodologies used for developing AmI system in the health care domain, including various learning techniques (for learning from user interaction), reasoning techniques (for reasoning about users' goals and intensions) and planning techniques (for planning activities and interactions). We will also discuss how AmI technology might support people affected by various physical or mental disabilities or chronic disease. Finally, we will point to some of the successful case studies in the area and we will look at the current and future challenges to draw upon the possible future research paths.

  3. Songs as Ambient Language Input in Phonology Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2013-01-01

    Children cannot learn to speak a language simply from occasional noninteractive exposure to native speakers' input (e.g., by hearing television dialogues), but can they learn something about its phonology? To answer this question, the present study varied ambient hearing experience for 126 5- to 7-year-old native Cantonese-Chinese speakers…

  4. Entrainment of circadian rhythm by ambient temperature cycles in mice.

    PubMed

    Refinetti, Roberto

    2010-08-01

    Much is known about how environmental light-dark cycles synchronize circadian rhythms in animals. The ability of environmental cycles of ambient temperature to synchronize circadian rhythms has also been investigated extensively but mostly in ectotherms. In the present study, the synchronization of the circadian rhythm of running-wheel activity by environmental cycles of ambient temperature was studied in laboratory mice. Although all mice were successfully entrained by a light-dark cycle, only 60% to 80% of the mice were entrained by temperature cycles (24-32 degrees C or 24-12 degrees C), and attainment of stable entrainment seemed to take longer under temperature cycles than under a light-dark cycle. This suggests that ambient temperature cycles are weaker zeitgebers than light-dark cycles, which is consistent with the results of the few previous studies using mammalian species. Whereas 80% of the mice were entrained by 24-h temperature cycles, only 60% were entrained by 23-h cycles, and none was entrained by 25-h cycles. The results did not clarify whether entrainment by temperature cycles is caused directly by temperature or indirectly through a temperature effect on locomotor activity, but it is clear that the rhythm of running-wheel activity in mice can be entrained by ambient temperature cycles in the nonnoxious range.

  5. High Frequency Acoustic Channel Characterization for Propagation and Ambient Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-30

    with Michael Porter and the ONR High Frequency Initiative and the ONR PLUSNet program. REFERENCES M. B. Porter and H. P. Bucker, “Gaussian...Harrison and Michael Porter , “A passive fathometer for determining bottom depth and imaging seabed layering using ambient noise”, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 120

  6. Warmer ambient temperatures depress liver function in a mammalian herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Kurnath, Patrice; Dearing, M. Denise

    2013-01-01

    Diet selection in mammalian herbivores is thought to be mainly influenced by intrinsic factors such as nutrients and plant secondary compounds, yet extrinsic factors like ambient temperature may also play a role. In particular, warmer ambient temperatures could enhance the toxicity of plant defence compounds through decreased liver metabolism of herbivores. Temperature-dependent toxicity has been documented in pharmacology and agriculture science but not in wild mammalian herbivores. Here, we investigated how ambient temperature affects liver metabolism in the desert woodrat, Neotoma lepida. Woodrats (n = 21) were acclimated for 30 days to two ambient temperatures (cool = 21°C, warm = 29°C). In a second experiment, the temperature exposure was reduced to 3.5 h. After temperature treatments, animals were given a hypnotic agent and clearance time of the agent was estimated from the duration of the hypnotic state. The average clearance time of the agent in the long acclimation experiment was 45% longer for animals acclimated to 29°C compared with 21°C. Similarly, after the short exposure experiment, woodrats at 29°C had clearance times 26% longer compared with 21°C. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that liver function is reduced at warmer environmental temperatures and may provide a physiological mechanism through which climate change affects herbivorous mammals. PMID:24046878

  7. Design of Affectively Evocative Smart Ambient Media for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Ron Chi-Wai; Cheng, Shuk Han; Ip, Horace Ho-Shing; Kong, Joseph Siu-Lung

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a teaching and research initiative, named SAMAL (Smart AMbience for Affective Learning) that will provide a unique ambient mediated environment for integrating cognitive and affective approaches to enhance learning. Also, this study illustrates a design of SAMAL classroom with affectively evocative scenarios for learning de…

  8. Low ambient temperature and neuroendocrine response to hypoglycemia in men.

    PubMed

    Jezová, D; Juránková, E; Kvetnanský, R; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H; Nazar, K; Vigas, M

    1995-12-01

    Nutritional factors, such as an excess or a deficiency of glucose, play an important role in neuroendocrine regulations. Hormonal and metabolic responses to hypoglycemia were examined in healthy non-obese volunteers under conditions of low ambient temperature. Hypoglycemia was induced by intravenous injection of insulin in two randomized trials performed at room temperature and at 4 degrees C. At room temperature, the typical neuroendocrine response to hypoglycemia was established. The increases of ACTH, beta-endorphin, growth hormone and cortisol in response to insulin hypoglycemia failed to be modified by low ambient temperature. Acute cold exposure significantly reduced epinephrine and totally inhibited prolactin response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. In spite of significant changes in epinephrine response to hypoglycemia at low ambient temperature, no striking differences in plasma glucose levels compared to those measured at room temperature were observed. However, under conditions of low temperature the reestablishment of normoglycemia was delayed. No changes in free fatty acids were found under our experimental conditions. The presented data show that low ambient temperature exerts selective effects on some neuroendocrine and metabolic parameters.

  9. An Ambient Awareness Tool for Supporting Supervised Collaborative Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavi, H. S.; Dillenbourg, P.

    2012-01-01

    We describe an ambient awareness tool, named "Lantern", designed for supporting the learning process in recitation sections, (i.e., when students work in small teams on the exercise sets with the help of tutors). Each team is provided with an interactive lamp that displays their work status: the exercise they are working on, if they have…

  10. VOCS IN AMBIENT AIR NEAR WORLD TRADE CENTER SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning on September 22, 2001 and continuing through February 2002, ambient air samples were collected at three sites within a block of ground zero and at a fourth site on the 16th floor of a building at 290 Broadway. Grab samples were collected in evacuated, electro-polished...

  11. Adaptive Ambient Illumination Based on Color Harmony Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Ayano; Hirai, Keita; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi; Miyake, Yoichi

    We investigated the relationship between ambient illumination and psychological effect by applying a modified color harmony model. We verified the proposed model by analyzing correlation between psychological value and modified color harmony score. Experimental results showed the possibility to obtain the best color for illumination using this model.

  12. Brady 1D seismic velocity model ambient noise prelim

    SciTech Connect

    Mellors, Robert J.

    2013-10-25

    Preliminary 1D seismic velocity model derived from ambient noise correlation. 28 Green's functions filtered between 4-10 Hz for Vp, Vs, and Qs were calculated. 1D model estimated for each path. The final model is a median of the individual models. Resolution is best for the top 1 km. Poorly constrained with increasing depth.

  13. Ambient Ammonia Monitoring in the Central United States Using Passive Diffusion Samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughey, M.; Gay, D.; Sweet, C.

    2008-12-01

    Environmental scientists and governmental authorities are increasingly aware of the need for more comprehensive measurements of ambient ammonia in urban, rural and remote locations. As the predominant alkaline gas, ammonia plays a critical role in atmospheric chemistry by reacting readily with acidic gases and particles. Ammonium salts often comprise a major portion of the aerosols that impair visibility, not only in urban areas, but also in national parks and other Class I areas. Ammonia is also important as a plant nutrient that directly or indirectly affects terrestrial and aquatic biomes. Successful computer simulations of important environmental processes require an extensive representative data set of ambient ammonia measurements in the range of 0.1 ppbv or greater. Generally instruments with that level of sensitivity are not only expensive, but also require electrical connections, an enclosed shelter and, in many instances, frequent attention from trained technicians. Such requirements significantly restrict the number and locations of ambient ammonia monitors that can be supported. As an alternative we have employed simple passive diffusion samplers to measure ambient ammonia at 9 monitoring sites in the central U.S. over the past 3 years. Passive samplers consist of a layer of an acidic trapping medium supported at a fixed distance behind a microporous barrier for which the diffusive properties are known. Ammonia uptake rates are determined by the manufacturer under controlled laboratory conditions. (When practical, field results are compared against those from collocated conventional samplers, e.g., pumped annular denuders.) After a known exposure time at the sampling site, the sampler is resealed in protective packaging and shipped to the analytical laboratory where the ammonia captured in the acidic medium is carefully extracted and quantified. Because passive samplers are comparatively inexpensive and do not require electricity or other facilities they

  14. Probing atmospheric structure with infrasonic ambient noise interferometry (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, M. M.; Evers, L. G.; Fricke, J.

    2010-12-01

    Ambient noise interferometry attempts to reconstruct the impulse response of a linear system undergoing excitations by a random forcing. The method has proven to be quite general, finding applications in diverse fields such as ultrasonics, helioseismology, regional and global seismology, ocean acoustics, and exploration seismology. Due to the pervasive random forcing of microbaroms, the study of atmospheric infrasound can benefit from approaches developed in the field of interferometry as well. Moreover, continuous noise sources, such as microbaroms, provide a means to quantify the strong time-dependent changes inherent in the structure of the atmosphere. For pairs of infrasonic sensors separated by distances between 1 and 15 km, direct arrivals have been observed in long-time correlations of ambient noise from stations within 3 different networks: the network operated by the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the I53US array, and the Utah 07 experiment. As in seismic ambient noise studies, these interferometric arrivals show dispersive properties characteristic of guided wave propagation. As a result, infrasonic ambient noise interferometry can provide information on the gross structure of the atmospheric boundary layer. At Fourpeaked Volcano, Alaska, a surface-based temperature inversion produced a strong waveguide between two infrasound sensors. The propagation time of the interferometric arrivals shifted over the course of several days in close correspondence with regional temperature trends at nearby meteorological stations. Independent ECMWF data confirms the existence of a temperature inversion during this time period. Analysis of 4 infrasound sensors near Park City, Utah, further demonstrates the ability of infrasonic ambient noise interferometry to retrieve guided waves between stations separated by 5 to 10 km. Among the 4 stations, we observe strong interferometric arrivals on different station pairs at different times, attesting to variable atmospheric

  15. Collisionless Coupling between Explosive Debris Plasma and Magnetized Ambient Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, Anton

    2016-10-01

    The explosive expansion of a dense debris plasma cloud into relatively tenuous, magnetized, ambient plasma characterizes a wide variety of astrophysical and space phenomena, including supernova remnants, interplanetary coronal mass ejections, and ionospheric explosions. In these rarified environments, collective electromagnetic processes rather than Coulomb collisions typically mediate the transfer of momentum and energy from the debris plasma to the ambient plasma. In an effort to better understand the detailed physics of collisionless coupling mechanisms in a reproducible laboratory setting, the present research jointly utilizes the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) and the Phoenix laser facility at UCLA to study the super-Alfvénic, quasi-perpendicular expansion of laser-produced carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) debris plasma through preformed, magnetized helium (He) ambient plasma via a variety of diagnostics, including emission spectroscopy, wavelength-filtered imaging, and magnetic field induction probes. Large Doppler shifts detected in a He II ion spectral line directly indicate initial ambient ion acceleration transverse to both the debris plasma flow and the background magnetic field, indicative of a fundamental process known as Larmor coupling. Characterization of the laser-produced debris plasma via a radiation-hydrodynamics code permits an explicit calculation of the laminar electric field in the framework of a ``hybrid'' model (kinetic ions, charge-neutralizing massless fluid electrons), thus allowing for a simulation of the initial response of a distribution of He II test ions. A synthetic Doppler-shifted spectrum constructed from the simulated velocity distribution of the accelerated test ions excellently reproduces the spectroscopic measurements, confirming the role of Larmor coupling in the debris-ambient interaction.

  16. High mortality of Red Sea zooplankton under ambient solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M O; Satheesh, Sathianeson; Mantha, Gopikrishna; Agustī, Susana; Carreja, Beatriz; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    High solar radiation along with extreme transparency leads to high penetration of solar radiation in the Red Sea, potentially harmful to biota inhabiting the upper water column, including zooplankton. Here we show, based on experimental assessments of solar radiation dose-mortality curves on eight common taxa, the mortality of zooplankton in the oligotrophic waters of the Red Sea to increase steeply with ambient levels of solar radiation in the Red Sea. Responses curves linking solar radiation doses with zooplankton mortality were evaluated by exposing organisms, enclosed in quartz bottles, allowing all the wavelengths of solar radiation to penetrate, to five different levels of ambient solar radiation (100%, 21.6%, 7.2%, 3.2% and 0% of solar radiation). The maximum mortality rates under ambient solar radiation levels averaged (±standard error of the mean, SEM) 18.4±5.8% h(-1), five-fold greater than the average mortality in the dark for the eight taxa tested. The UV-B radiation required for mortality rates to reach ½ of maximum values averaged (±SEM) 12±5.6 h(-1)% of incident UVB radiation, equivalent to the UV-B dose at 19.2±2.7 m depth in open coastal Red Sea waters. These results confirm that Red Sea zooplankton are highly vulnerable to ambient solar radiation, as a consequence of the combination of high incident radiation and high water transparency allowing deep penetration of damaging UV-B radiation. These results provide evidence of the significance of ambient solar radiation levels as a stressor of marine zooplankton communities in tropical, oligotrophic waters. Because the oligotrophic ocean extends across 70% of the ocean surface, solar radiation can be a globally-significant stressor for the ocean ecosystem, by constraining zooplankton use of the upper levels of the water column and, therefore, the efficiency of food transfer up the food web in the oligotrophic ocean.

  17. Effects of ambient conditions on fuel cell vehicle performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraldsson, K.; Alvfors, P.

    Ambient conditions have considerable impact on the performance of fuel cell hybrid vehicles. Here, the vehicle fuel consumption, the air compressor power demand, the water management system and the heat loads of a fuel cell hybrid sport utility vehicle (SUV) were studied. The simulation results show that the vehicle fuel consumption increases with 10% when the altitude increases from 0 m up to 3000 m to 4.1 L gasoline equivalents/100 km over the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC). The increase is 19% on the more power demanding highway US06 cycle. The air compressor is the major contributor to this fuel consumption increase. Its load-following strategy makes its power demand increase with increasing altitude. Almost 40% of the net power output of the fuel cell system is consumed by the air compressor at the altitude of 3000 m with this load-following strategy and is thus more apparent in the high-power US06 cycle. Changes in ambient air temperature and relative humidity effect on the fuel cell system performance in terms of the water management rather in vehicle fuel consumption. Ambient air temperature and relative humidity have some impact on the vehicle performance mostly seen in the heat and water management of the fuel cell system. While the heat loads of the fuel cell system components vary significantly with increasing ambient temperature, the relative humidity did not have a great impact on the water balance. Overall, dimensioning the compressor and other system components to meet the fuel cell system requirements at the minimum and maximum expected ambient temperatures, in this case 5 and 40 °C, and high altitude, while simultaneously choosing a correct control strategy are important parameters for efficient vehicle power train management.

  18. High Mortality of Red Sea Zooplankton under Ambient Solar Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M. O.; Satheesh, Sathianeson; Mantha, Gopikrishna; Agustī, Susana; Carreja, Beatriz; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    High solar radiation along with extreme transparency leads to high penetration of solar radiation in the Red Sea, potentially harmful to biota inhabiting the upper water column, including zooplankton. Here we show, based on experimental assessments of solar radiation dose-mortality curves on eight common taxa, the mortality of zooplankton in the oligotrophic waters of the Red Sea to increase steeply with ambient levels of solar radiation in the Red Sea. Responses curves linking solar radiation doses with zooplankton mortality were evaluated by exposing organisms, enclosed in quartz bottles, allowing all the wavelengths of solar radiation to penetrate, to five different levels of ambient solar radiation (100%, 21.6%, 7.2%, 3.2% and 0% of solar radiation). The maximum mortality rates under ambient solar radiation levels averaged (±standard error of the mean, SEM) 18.4±5.8% h−1, five-fold greater than the average mortality in the dark for the eight taxa tested. The UV-B radiation required for mortality rates to reach ½of maximum values averaged (±SEM) 12±5.6 h−1% of incident UVB radiation, equivalent to the UV-B dose at 19.2±2.7 m depth in open coastal Red Sea waters. These results confirm that Red Sea zooplankton are highly vulnerable to ambient solar radiation, as a consequence of the combination of high incident radiation and high water transparency allowing deep penetration of damaging UV-B radiation. These results provide evidence of the significance of ambient solar radiation levels as a stressor of marine zooplankton communities in tropical, oligotrophic waters. Because the oligotrophic ocean extends across 70% of the ocean surface, solar radiation can be a globally-significant stressor for the ocean ecosystem, by constraining zooplankton use of the upper levels of the water column and, therefore, the efficiency of food transfer up the food web in the oligotrophic ocean. PMID:25309996

  19. Overview of the new National Near-Road Air Quality Monitoring Network

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2010, EPA promulgated new National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2). As part of this new NAAQS, EPA required the establishment of a national near-road air quality monitoring network. This network will consist of one NO2 near-road monitoring st...

  20. A hybrid downscaling procedure for estimating the vertical distribution of ambient temperature in local scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiannikopoulou, I.; Philippopoulos, K.; Deligiorgi, D.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical thermal structure of the atmosphere is defined by a combination of dynamic and radiation transfer processes and plays an important role in describing the meteorological conditions at local scales. The scope of this work is to develop and quantify the predictive ability of a hybrid dynamic-statistical downscaling procedure to estimate the vertical profile of ambient temperature at finer spatial scales. The study focuses on the warm period of the year (June - August) and the method is applied to an urban coastal site (Hellinikon), located in eastern Mediterranean. The two-step methodology initially involves the dynamic downscaling of coarse resolution climate data via the RegCM4.0 regional climate model and subsequently the statistical downscaling of the modeled outputs by developing and training site-specific artificial neural networks (ANN). The 2.5ox2.5o gridded NCEP-DOE Reanalysis 2 dataset is used as initial and boundary conditions for the dynamic downscaling element of the methodology, which enhances the regional representivity of the dataset to 20km and provides modeled fields in 18 vertical levels. The regional climate modeling results are compared versus the upper-air Hellinikon radiosonde observations and the mean absolute error (MAE) is calculated between the four grid point values nearest to the station and the ambient temperature at the standard and significant pressure levels. The statistical downscaling element of the methodology consists of an ensemble of ANN models, one for each pressure level, which are trained separately and employ the regional scale RegCM4.0 output. The ANN models are theoretically capable of estimating any measurable input-output function to any desired degree of accuracy. In this study they are used as non-linear function approximators for identifying the relationship between a number of predictor variables and the ambient temperature at the various vertical levels. An insight of the statistically derived input

  1. Insights into electrochemical reactions from ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Stoerzinger, Kelsey A; Hong, Wesley T; Crumlin, Ethan J; Bluhm, Hendrik; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2015-11-17

    The understanding of fundamental processes in the bulk and at the interfaces of electrochemical devices is a prerequisite for the development of new technologies with higher efficiency and improved performance. One energy storage scheme of great interest is splitting water to form hydrogen and oxygen gas and converting back to electrical energy by their subsequent recombination with only water as a byproduct. However, kinetic limitations to the rate of oxygen-based electrochemical reactions hamper the efficiency in technologies such as solar fuels, fuel cells, and electrolyzers. For these reactions, the use of metal oxides as electrocatalysts is prevalent due to their stability, low cost, and ability to store oxygen within the lattice. However, due to the inherently convoluted nature of electrochemical and chemical processes in electrochemical systems, it is difficult to isolate and study individual electrochemical processes in a complex system. Therefore, in situ characterization tools are required for observing related physical and chemical processes directly at the places where and while they occur and can help elucidate the mechanisms of charge separation and charge transfer at electrochemical interfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), also known as ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis), has been used as a quantitative spectroscopic technique that measures the elemental composition, as well as chemical and electronic state of a material. Building from extensive ex situ characterization of electrochemical systems, initial in situ studies were conducted at or near ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions (≤10(-6) Torr) to probe solid-state electrochemical systems. However, through the integration of differential-pumping stages, XPS can now operate at pressures in the torr range, comprising a technique called ambient pressure XPS (AP-XPS). In this Account, we briefly review the working principles and current status of AP-XPS. We use several recent

  2. Cardiopulmonary Toxicity Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter (BI City Concentrated Ambient Particle Study)

    SciTech Connect

    Annette Rohr; James Wagner Masako Morishita; Gerald Keeler; Jack Harkema

    2010-06-30

    Alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) have been reported in rodents exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from different regions of the United States. The goal of this study was to compare alterations in cardiac function induced by CAPs in two distinct regional atmospheres. AirCARE 1, a mobile laboratory with an EPA/Harvard fine particle (particulate matter <2.5 {micro}m; PM{sub 2.5}) concentrator was located in urban Detroit, MI, where the PM mixture is heavily influenced by motor vehicles, and in Steubenville, OH, where PM is derived primarily from long-range transport and transformation of power plant emissions, as well as from local industrial operations. Each city was studied during both winter and summer months, for a total of four sampling periods. Spontaneously hypertensive rats instrumented for electrocardiogram (ECG) telemetry were exposed to CAPs 8 h/day for 13 consecutive days during each sampling period. Heart rate (HR), and indices of HRV (standard deviation of the average normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN]; square root of the mean squared difference of successive normal-to-normal intervals [rMSSD]), were calculated for 30-minute intervals during exposures. A large suite of PM components, including nitrate, sulfate, elemental and organic carbon, and trace elements, were monitored in CAPs and ambient air. In addition, a unique sampler, the Semi-Continuous Elements in Air Sampler (SEAS) was employed to obtain every-30-minute measurements of trace elements. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) methods were applied to estimate source contributions to PM{sub 2.5}. Mixed modeling techniques were employed to determine associations between pollutants/CAPs components and HR and HRV metrics. Mean CAPs concentrations in Detroit were 518 and 357 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (summer and winter, respectively) and 487 and 252 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in Steubenville. In Detroit, significant reductions in SDNN were observed in the summer in association with cement

  3. The effects of ambient particulate matter on human alveolar machrophage oxidative and inflammatory responses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic and occupational studies demonstrate that ambient PM and DEP have deleterious effects on human cardiopulmonary health including exacerbation of pre-existing lung disease and development of respiratory infections. The effects of ambient PM on lung cell responsivenes...

  4. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF OIL FLY ASH AND RELEVANCE TO AMBIENT AIR PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased human morbidity and mortality with elevations in the concentration of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Fugitive fly ash from the combustion of oil and residual fuel oil significantly contributes to the ambient air particle bur...

  5. Plasma-based ambient ionization mass spectrometry in bioanalytical sciences.

    PubMed

    Smoluch, Marek; Mielczarek, Przemyslaw; Silberring, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Plasma-based ambient ionization mass spectrometry techniques are gaining growing interest due to their specific features, such as the need for little or no sample preparation, its high analysis speed, and the ambient experimental conditions. Samples can be analyzed in gas, liquid, or solid forms. These techniques allow for a wide range of applications, like warfare agent detection, chemical reaction control, mass spectrometry imaging, polymer identification, and food safety monitoring, as well as applications in biomedical science, e.g., drug and pharmaceutical analysis, medical diagnostics, biochemical analysis, etc. Until now, the main drawback of plasma-based techniques is their quantitative aspect, but a lot of efforts have been done to improve this obstacle.

  6. Ambient Intelligence 2.0: Towards Synergetic Prosperity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarts, Emile; Grotenhuis, Frits

    Ten years of research in Ambient Intelligence have revealed that the original ideas and assertions about the way the concept should develop no longer hold and should be substantially revised. Early scenario's in Ambient Intelligence envisioned a world in which individuals could maximally exploit personalized, context aware, wireless devices thus enabling them to become maximally productive, while living at an unprecedented pace. Environments would become smart and proactive, enriching and enhancing the experience of participants thus supporting maximum leisure possibly even at the risk of alienation. New insights have revealed that these brave new world scenarios are no longer desirable and that people are more in for a balanced approach in which technology should serve people instead of driving them to the max. We call this novel approach Synergetic Prosperity, referring to meaningful digital solutions that balance mind and body, and society and earth thus contributing to a prosperous and sustainable development of mankind.

  7. The Operator Guide: An Ambient Persuasive Interface in the Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschtscherjakov, Alexander; Reitberger, Wolfgang; Pöhr, Florian; Tscheligi, Manfred

    In this paper we introduce the context of a semiconductor factory as a promising area for the application of innovative interaction approaches. In order to increase efficiency ambient persuasive interfaces, which influence the operators' behaviour to perform in an optimized way, could constitute a potential strategy. We present insights gained from qualitative studies conducted in a specific semiconductor factory and provide a description of typical work processes and already deployed interfaces in this context. These findings informed the design of a prototype of an ambient persuasive interface within this realm - the "Operator Guide". Its overall aim is to improve work efficiency, while still maintaining a minimal error rate. We provide a detailed description of the Operator Guide along with an outlook of the next steps within a user-centered design approach.

  8. Damage localization under ambient vibration using changes in flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yong; Spencer, B. F.

    2002-06-01

    In recent years, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has emerged as a new research area in civil engineering. Most existing health monitoring methodologies require direct measurement of input excitation for implementation. However, in many cases, there is no easy way to measure these inputs - or alternatively to externally excite the structure. Therefore, SHM methods based on ambient vibration have become important in civil engineering. In this paper, an approach is proposed based on the Damage Location Vector (DLV) method to handle the ambient vibration case. Here, this flexibility-matrix-based damage localization method is combined with a modal expansion technique to eliminate the need to measure the input excitation. As a by-product of this approach, in addition to determining the location of the damage, an estimate of the damage extent also can be determined. Finally, a numerical example analyzing a truss structure with limited sensors and noisy measurement is provided to verify the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  9. AMBIENT PM2.5 SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-04-30

    This is the third semi-annual technical progress report summarizing observations and tentative conclusions drawn from evaluations of the data captured to date from the operation of the ambient PM{sub 2.5} speciation sites in a geographical area encompassing southeastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania, and northwestern West Virginia. The overall goal of this program, called the Upper Ohio River Valley Project (UORVP), is to better understand the relationship between coal-based power system emissions and ambient air quality in the upper Ohio River Valley region through the collection of chemically resolved or speciated data. In order to provide a ''stand alone'' document, this report contains updated versions of Section 1 (Introduction) and Section 2 (Experimental) in their entirety from the first report.

  10. Ambient ultraviolet radiation causes mortality in salamander eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Blaustein, A.R.; Edmond, B.; Kiesecker, J.M.

    1995-08-01

    Previous research has shown that amphibian species have differential sensitivity to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. In some anuran species, ambient levels of UV-B cause mortality in embryonic stages and hatching success is significantly reduced. Projected increases in UV-B may affect an increasing number of species. The adverse effects of UV-B may eventually be manifested at the population level and may ultimately contribute to population declines. Using field experiments, we investigated the effects of ambient UV-B on salamander (Ambystoma gracile) embryos developing at natural oviposition sites. We show that the hatching success of eggs of A. gracile shielded from UV-B is significantly higher than those not shielded from UV-B. 27 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Annealing ambient controlled deep defect formation in InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y. W.; Dong, Z. Y.; Duan, M. L.; Sun, W. R.; Zeng, Y. P.; Sun, N. F.; Sun, T. N.

    2004-07-01

    Deep defects in annealed InP have been investigated by deep level transient capacitance spectroscopy (DLTS), photo induced current transient spectroscopy (PICTS) and thermally stimulated current spectroscopy (TSC). Both DLTS results of annealed semiconducting InP and PICTS and TSC results of annealed semi-insulating InP indicate that InP annealed in phosphorus ambient has five defects, while InP annealed in iron phosphide ambient has two defects. Such a defect formation phenomenon is explained in terms of defect suppression by the iron atom diffusion process. The correlation of the defects and the nature of the defects in annealed InP are discussed based on the results.

  12. Cognitions and 'placebos' in behavioral research on ambient noise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harcum, E. R.; Monti, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    The study investigated effects of noise on visual and psychomotor tasks, with particular concern for influences of certain cognitive variables. A first experiment, using visual and card-sorting tasks, found no effects of 100 dB ambient noise per se, although cognitive variables in the testing situation affected both performance and ratings of disturbance. In two subsequent experiments some of the subjects were told that a noise was extraneous to their task of reproducing tachistoscopic patterns, and others were told that effects of the noise were being studied. It appears that in the absence of an adequate 'placebo' to control for cognitive factors, deceptive instructions may always be necessary in studies of ambient noise.

  13. Photoelectron Spectroscopy under Ambient Pressure and Temperature Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ogletree, D. Frank; Bluhm, Hendrik; Hebenstreit, Eleonore B.; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-02-27

    We describe the development and applications of novel instrumentation for photoemission spectroscopy of solid or liquid surfaces in the presence of gases under ambient conditions or pressure and temperature. The new instrument overcomes the strong scattering of electrons in gases by the use of an aperture close to the surface followed by a differentially-pumped electrostatic lens system. In addition to the scattering problem, experiments in the presence of condensed water or other liquids require the development of special sample holders to provide localized cooling. We discuss the first two generations of Ambient Pressure PhotoEmission Spectroscopy (APPES) instruments developed at synchrotron light sources (ALS in Berkeley and BESSY in Berlin), with special focus on the Berkeley instruments. Applications to environmental science and catalytic chemical research are illustrated in two examples.

  14. Ambient-Light-Canceling Camera Using Subtraction of Frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morookian, John Michael

    2004-01-01

    The ambient-light-canceling camera (ALCC) is a proposed near-infrared electronic camera that would utilize a combination of (1) synchronized illumination during alternate frame periods and (2) subtraction of readouts from consecutive frames to obtain images without a background component of ambient light. The ALCC is intended especially for use in tracking the motion of an eye by the pupil center corneal reflection (PCCR) method. Eye tracking by the PCCR method has shown potential for application in human-computer interaction for people with and without disabilities, and for noninvasive monitoring, detection, and even diagnosis of physiological and neurological deficiencies. In the PCCR method, an eye is illuminated by near-infrared light from a lightemitting diode (LED). Some of the infrared light is reflected from the surface of the cornea. Some of the infrared light enters the eye through the pupil and is reflected from back of the eye out through the pupil a phenomenon commonly observed as the red-eye effect in flash photography. An electronic camera is oriented to image the user's eye. The output of the camera is digitized and processed by algorithms that locate the two reflections. Then from the locations of the centers of the two reflections, the direction of gaze is computed. As described thus far, the PCCR method is susceptible to errors caused by reflections of ambient light. Although a near-infrared band-pass optical filter can be used to discriminate against ambient light, some sources of ambient light have enough in-band power to compete with the LED signal. The mode of operation of the ALCC would complement or supplant spectral filtering by providing more nearly complete cancellation of the effect of ambient light. In the operation of the ALCC, a near-infrared LED would be pulsed on during one camera frame period and off during the next frame period. Thus, the scene would be illuminated by both the LED (signal) light and the ambient (background) light

  15. Ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy: Practical considerations and experimental frontiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotochaud, Lena; Head, Ashley R.; Karslıoğlu, Osman; Kyhl, Line; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2017-02-01

    Over the past several decades, ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) has emerged as a powerful technique for in situ and operando investigations of chemical reactions under relevant ambient atmospheres far from ultra-high vacuum conditions. This review focuses on exemplary cases of APXPS experiments, giving special consideration to experimental techniques, challenges, and limitations specific to distinct condensed matter interfaces. We discuss APXPS experiments on solid/vapor interfaces, including the special case of 2D films of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride on metal substrates with intercalated gas molecules, liquid/vapor interfaces, and liquid/solid interfaces, which are a relatively new class of interfaces being probed by APXPS. We also provide a critical evaluation of the persistent limitations and challenges of APXPS, as well as the current experimental frontiers.

  16. Accelerated and Ambient Abundances in RHESSI Gamma-Ray Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. M.; Shih, A. Y.; Lin, R. P.; Share, G. H.; Murphy, R. J.; Schwartz, R. A.; Tolbert, A. K.

    2005-05-01

    The Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) has detected nuclear gamma-ray line emission from at least eleven solar flares over the past three years. These gamma-ray lines are produced when flare-accelerated ions collide with the ambient solar medium. In this paper, we use gamma-ray line ratios and Doppler profiles to constrain the relative fluxes of accelerated protons, alphas, and heavier nuclei in the brighter RHESSI gamma-ray flares. We also study the relative fluxes of narrow lines to compare our conclusions about ambient solar abundances in the interaction region to earlier work from the Solar Maximum Mission Gamma-Ray Spectrometer. The work at the University of California was supported by NASA contract NAS 5-98033.

  17. Ambient acceleration dependence of single-bubble sonoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Charles R; Roy, Ronald A; Holt, R Glynn

    2011-11-01

    Much of the research performed to study SBSL deals with the influence of external parameters (e.g., the host water temperature, the ambient pressure, the type and amount of dissolved gas in the liquid, to name a few) on the bubble dynamics and light emission. In the current paper, work carried out to study the influence of another external parameter-ambient acceleration-is described. The experiments described here were performed on the NASA KC-135 which provided both periods of reduced gravity (10(-3) g) and increased gravity (1.8 g) by flying repeated parabolic maneuvers. The resulting measurements are compared with the predictions of a numerical model and can be understood in the context of the changing hydrostatic head pressure and buoyant force acting on the bubble.

  18. Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog Input/Output Module Ambient Temperature Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Mark D. McKay

    2011-02-01

    Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog input/output Module Ambient Temperature Testing A series of three ambient temperature tests were conducted for the Water Power Calculator development using the INL Calibration Laboratory’s Tenney Environmental Chamber. The ambient temperature test results demonstrate that the Moore Industries Temperature Input Modules, Analog Input Module and Analog Output Module, ambient temperature response meet or exceed the manufactures specifications

  19. Exposure and risk from ambient particle-bound pollution in an airshed dominated by residential wood combustion and mobile sources.

    PubMed Central

    Cupitt, L T; Glen, W G; Lewtas, J

    1994-01-01

    A major field study was conducted in Boise, Idaho, during the heating season of 1986 to 1987 as part of the Integrated Air Cancer Project. Filter samples were systematically collected in residences and in the ambient air across the community to characterize the particle-bound pollutants. The extractable organic matter (EOM) from the filter samples was apportioned to its source of origin, either residential wood combustion (RWC) or mobile sources (MS). Two composite samples, with apportioned contributions from RWC and MS, were prepared from the Boise ambient samples and tested for tumor-initiation potency. A comparative potency lung cancer risk estimate has been made based on the two ambient composite samples from this airshed. In addition, a microenvironmental exposure model was developed from the Boise data and from national survey data to estimate the exposure to EOM from RWC and MS. In this paper, the microenvironmental model is extrapolated to provide an estimate of the average annual exposure and dose in Boise to EOM from RWC and MS. The annual model considers actual pollutant levels in Boise, historical changes in RWC usage and meteorological dilution factors and the likely activities in the various microenvironmental zones and their resultant inhalation rates. Combined with the lifetime risk estimates, the average annual dose suggests a risk of about 4 x 10(-4) based upon the composite ambient samples. Despite the fact that RWC accounts for 73% of the EOM on an annual average basis, it accounts for only about 20% of the estimated lifetime risk. PMID:7529707

  20. Composition for producing polyurethane resin at ambient temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kamatani, Y.; Nishino, K.; Tanaka, M.; Yamazaki, K.

    1984-06-26

    Disclosed is a composition for polyurethane resins which is ordinarily of two-package type and curable at ambient temperature and which comprises an isocyanate component having oxadiazinetrione ring as a curing agent and a polyol component, having in the molecule, at least one of a tertiary amino group, a quaternary ammonium group and a salt-formed carboxyl group as a main component. The composition has excellent curability and provides cured products excellent in adhesiveness and physical properties.

  1. Propagation and Ambient Noise Studies for Ocean Acoustics Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    using the OASN tool based on the OASES propagation codes [6] with details of the results in publication [3] and summarized in the next sections...reason for this poor performance was investigated through simulation by applying the BF algorithms to CSD matrices produced by OASN (from the OASES ...ambient noise sub- bottom profiling”, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 118 (5), 2913–2923, 2005. 6. H. Schmidt, “ OASES user’s guide and reference manual”, MIT

  2. A Configurable Sensor Network Applied to Ambient Assisted Living

    PubMed Central

    Villacorta, Juan J.; Jiménez, María I.; del Val, Lara; Izquierdo, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The rising older people population has increased the interest in Ambient Assisted Living systems. This article presents a system for monitoring the disabled or older persons developed from an existing surveillance system. The modularity and adaptability characteristics of the system allow an easy adaptation for a different purpose. The proposed system uses a network of sensors capable of motion detection that includes fall warning, identification of persons and a configurable control system which allows its use in different scenarios. PMID:22346668

  3. Low Ambient Temperature and Intracerebral Hemorrhage: The INTERACT2 Study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Danni; Arima, Hisatomi; Sato, Shoichiro; Gasparrini, Antonio; Heeley, Emma; Delcourt, Candice; Lo, Serigne; Huang, Yining; Wang, Jiguang; Stapf, Christian; Robinson, Thompson; Lavados, Pablo; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rates of acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) increase in winter months but the magnitude of risk is unknown. We aimed to quantify the association of ambient temperature with the risk of ICH in the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Haemorrhage Trial (INTERACT2) participants on an hourly timescale. Methods INTERACT2 was an international, open, blinded endpoint, randomized controlled trial of patients with spontaneous ICH (<6h of onset) and elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP, 150–220 mmHg) assigned to intensive (target SBP <140 mmHg) or guideline-recommended (SBP <180 mmHg) BP treatment. We linked individual level hourly temperature to baseline data of 1997 participants, and performed case-crossover analyses using a distributed lag non-linear model with 24h lag period to assess the association of ambient temperature and risk of ICH. Results were presented as overall cumulative odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI. Results Low ambient temperature (≤10°C) was associated with increased risks of ICH: overall cumulative OR was 1.37 (0.99–1.91) for 10°C, 1.92 (1.31–2.81) for 0°C, 3.13 (1.89–5.19) for -10°C, and 5.76 (2.30–14.42) for -20°C, as compared with a reference temperature of 20°C.There was no clear relation of low temperature beyond three hours after exposure. Results were consistent in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Exposure to low ambient temperature within several hours increases the risk of ICH. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00716079 PMID:26859491

  4. Analysis of anions in ambient aerosols by microchip capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; MacDonald, David A; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Hering, Susanne V; Collett, Jeffrey L; Henry, Charles S

    2006-11-01

    We describe a microchip capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis of nitrate and sulfate in ambient aerosols. Investigating the chemical composition of ambient aerosol particles is essential for understanding their sources and effects. Significant progress has been made towards developing mass spectrometry-based instrumentation for rapid qualitative analysis of aerosols. Alternative methods for rapid quantification of selected high abundance compounds are needed to augment the capacity for widespread routine analysis. Such methods could provide much higher temporal and spatial resolution than can be achieved currently. Inorganic anions comprise a large percentage of particulate mass, with nitrate and sulfate among the most abundant species. While ion chromatography has proven very useful for analyzing extracts of time-integrated ambient aerosol samples collected on filters and for semi-continuous, on-line particle composition measurements, there is a growing need for development of new compact, inexpensive approaches to routine on-line aerosol ion analysis for deployment in spatially dense, atmospheric measurement networks. Microchip capillary electrophoresis provides the necessary speed and portability to address this need. In this report, on-column contact conductivity detection is used with hydrodynamic injection to create a simple microchip instrument for analysis of nitrate and sulfate. On-column contact conductivity detection was achieved using a Pd decoupler placed upstream from the working electrodes. Microchips containing two Au or Pd working electrodes showed a good linear range (5-500 microM) and low limits-of-detection for sulfate and nitrate, with Au providing the lowest detection limits (1 microM) for both ions. The completed microchip system was used to analyze ambient aerosol filter samples. Nitrate and sulfate concentrations measured by the microchip matched the concentrations measured by ion chromatography.

  5. Surface Wave Attenuation in the Tibetan Plateau from Ambient Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-31

    attenuations extracted from our noise-based methods are comparable with those from earthquakes . A preliminary attenuation map of Chinese continent...is obtained based on earthquake data. Internal scattering can be important in contaminating the amplitude of the main arrivals, which need to be...Comparison of amplitude decays obtained from earthquakes (red dots) and ambient noise (blue crosses) at two periods (10 and 20 s

  6. Shear velocity of the Rotokawa geothermal field using ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civilini, F.; Savage, M. K.; Townend, J.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient noise correlation is an increasingly popular seismological technique that uses the ambient seismic noise recorded at two stations to construct an empirical Green's function. Applications of this technique include determining shear velocity structure and attenuation. An advantage of ambient noise is that it does not rely on external sources of seismic energy such as local or teleseismic earthquakes. This method has been used in the geothermal industry to determine the depths at which magmatic processes occur, to distinguish between production and non-production areas, and to observe seismic velocity perturbations associated with fluid extraction. We will present a velocity model for the Rotokawa geothermal field near Taupo, New Zealand, produced from ambient noise cross correlations. Production at Rotokawa is based on the "Rotokawa A" combined cycle power station established in 1997 and the "Nga Awa Purua" triple flash power plant established in 2010. Rotokawa Joint Venture, a partnership between Mighty River Power and Tauhara North No. 2 Trust currently operates 174 MW of generation at Rotokawa. An array of short period seismometers was installed in 2008 and occupies an area of roughly 5 square kilometers around the site. Although both cultural and natural noise sources are recorded at the stations, the instrument separation distance provides a unique challenge for analyzing cross correlations produced by both signal types. The inter-station spacing is on the order of a few kilometers, so waves from cultural sources generally are not coherent from one station to the other, while the wavelength produced by natural noise is greater than the station separation. Velocity models produced from these two source types will be compared to known geological models of the site. Depending on the amount of data needed to adequately construct cross-correlations, a time-dependent model of velocity will be established and compared with geothermal production processes.

  7. Oscillations studied with the smartphone ambient light sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sans, J. A.; Manjón, F. J.; Pereira, A. L. J.; Gomez-Tejedor, J. A.; Monsoriu, J. A.

    2013-11-01

    This paper makes use of a smartphone's ambient light sensor to analyse a system of two coupled springs undergoing either simple or damped oscillatory motion. The period, frequency and stiffness of the spring, together with the damping constant and extinction time, are extracted from light intensity curves obtained using a free Android application. The results demonstrate the instructional value of mobile phone sensors as a tool in the physics laboratory.

  8. Ambient methods and apparatus for rapid laser trace constituent analysis

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Stuart C.; Partin, Judy K.; Grandy, Jon D.; Jeffery, Charles L.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring trace amounts of constituents in samples by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence under ambient conditions. The laser induced fluorescence is performed at a selected wavelength corresponding to an absorption state of a selected trace constituent. The intensity value of the emission decay signal which is generated by the trace constituent is compared to calibrated emission intensity decay values to determine the amount of trace constituent present.

  9. The Effects of Ambient Conditions of Cesium Clock Rates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    THE EFFECTS OF AMBIENT CONDITIONS ON CESIUM CLOCK RATES Lee A. Breakiron U.S. Naval Observatory Time Service Department 34th and Massachusetts...information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Naval Observatory, Time Service Department,34th and

  10. A Study on the Air flow outside Ambient Vaporizer Fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, G.; Lee, T.; Jeong, H.; Chung, H.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we interpreted Fog's Fluid that appear in the Ambient Vaporizer and predict the point of change Air to Fog. We interpreted using Analysis working fluid was applied to LNG and Air. We predict air flow when there is chill of LNG in the air Temperature and that makes fog. Also, we interpreted based on Summer and Winter criteria in the air temperature respectively. Finally, we can check the speed of the fog when fog excreted.

  11. High Frequency Acoustic Channel Characterization for Propagation and Ambient Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    close collaboration with Michael Porter and Paul Hursky (HLS Research) with support from the ONR Ocean Acoustics Program and the ONR PLUSNet Project...Siderius, Chris Harrison and Michael Porter , “A passive fathometer for determining bottom depth and imaging seabed layering using ambient noise”, J...noise processing for estimation of seabed layering”, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., (2007) [submitted, refereed]. [8] Martin Siderius and Michael Porter , “Modeling

  12. High Frequency Acoustic Channel Characterization for Propagation and Ambient Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    has done in close collaboration with Michael Porter and Paul Hursky (HLS Research) also supported by ONR. We have also been collaborating with Steve... Michael Porter , “A passive fathometer technique for imaging seabed layering using ambient noise”, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 120, 1315-1323, (September...Siderius and Michael Porter , “Modeling broadband ocean acoustic transmissions with time- varying sea surfaces”, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 124 (1), 137-150

  13. CEAREX Ambient Noise Data Measured Northeast of Svalbard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    system "self noise" level of about 72 dB (re APa 2/Hz) was measured when the hydrophone was disconnected from the rest of the ambient noise...om da ilIy int e r:) cIta . positional i nfr-r mar~ that smoothed all high" -freal-,enocy oscillations. All o2-.scerr and i4ce direotiun-_r_ dat-a wr

  14. Ambient noise interferes with auscultatory blood pressure measurement during exercise.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, J T; Tuller, B; Williams, D F

    1996-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether the acoustical characteristics of the Korotkoff sounds (K-sounds) were altered during exercise and/or masked by the ambient noise. After signing informed consent, 11 subjects (8 females, 3 males; 27 +/- 2 yr; 166.2 +/- 3.2 cm; 62 +/- 5 kg; means +/- SD) underwent a cycle ergometer exercise test that increased in workload by 30 W every 3 min until volitional fatigue. Heart rate, auscultatory systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and oxygen consumption were monitored 1 and 2 min into each work stage. The auscultatory K-sounds were recorded with a microphone mounted in a stethoscope tube for later frequency (Hz) and sound pressure level (dB SPL) analysis. Frequency and SPL of ambient noise (99 +/- 13 Hz and 64 +/- 1 db at maximum, respectively) increased during the exercise test to magnitudes similar to the SBP and DBP K-sounds (166 Hz, 66 db; and 128 Hz, 69 db, respectively). Additionally, the ambient noise was responsible for a significant damping of the frequency and SPL of the measured blood pressure K-sounds and a rise in the measured frequency of the SBP K-sounds. Furthermore, we observed "inaudible" K-sounds at lower frequencies than adjoining audible K-sounds (100 Hz vs 126 Hz), supporting the known underestimation of SBP by auscultation. The increase in ambient noise during exercise testing dampens and may mask the auscultatory K-sounds, thus making detection of the proper K-sounds during exercise difficult at best. Furthermore, the presence of inaudible K-sounds may further explain the published discrepancies between auscultatory and intraarterial blood pressure measurements during exercise.

  15. National Development Generates National Identities

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to test the relationship between national identities and modernisation. We test the hypotheses that not all forms of identity are equally compatible with modernisation as measured by Human Development Index. The less developed societies are characterised by strong ascribed national identities based on birth, territory and religion, but also by strong voluntarist identities based on civic features selected and/or achieved by an individual. While the former decreases with further modernisation, the latter may either decrease or remain at high levels and coexist with instrumental supranational identifications, typical for the most developed countries. The results, which are also confirmed by multilevel regression models, thus demonstrate that increasing modernisation in terms of development contributes to the shifts from classical, especially ascribed, identities towards instrumental identifications. These findings are particularly relevant in the turbulent times increasingly dominated by the hardly predictable effects of the recent mass migrations. PMID:26841050

  16. CFD simulations of closely spaced jets in shallow flowing ambient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Ishita; Adams, E. Eric

    2016-11-01

    In shallow water bodies, multiple closely spaced jets are often used to discharge industrial effluents such as brine from desalination plants, heated water from thermal power plants and wastewater from wastewater treatment plants. The jets interact with each other due to effects of dynamic pressure and result in jet trajectories and mixing that are significantly different from non-interfering jets. Here, we look at the case of a unidirectional diffuser, which consists of a linear array of jets discharging horizontally in the direction perpendicular to the diffuser. Dilution through such an arrangement of jets depends on various discharge and ambient parameters, such as effluent buoyancy, water depth and ambient current. We present results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and compare them with experimental observations to examine the effects of shallowness, shoreline separation and ambient currents on the mixing of a unidirectional diffuser. We observe that shallow depth, shoreline proximity and crossflow, all result in increased interaction among the jets and reduced mixing.

  17. Ambient temperature cadmium zinc telluride radiation detector and amplifier circuit

    DOEpatents

    McQuaid, J.H.; Lavietes, A.D.

    1998-05-26

    A low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature signal amplifier for a Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) radiation detector is disclosed. The amplifier can be used within a larger system (e.g., including a multi-channel analyzer) to allow isotopic analysis of radionuclides in the field. In one embodiment, the circuit stages of the low power, low noise amplifier are constructed using integrated circuit (IC) amplifiers , rather than discrete components, and include a very low noise, high gain, high bandwidth dual part preamplification stage, an amplification stage, and an filter stage. The low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables the CZT detector to achieve both the efficiency required to determine the presence of radionuclides and the resolution necessary to perform isotopic analysis to perform nuclear material identification. The present low noise, low power, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables a CZT detector to achieve resolution of less than 3% full width at half maximum at 122 keV for a Cobalt-57 isotope source. By using IC circuits and using only a single 12 volt supply and ground, the novel amplifier provides significant power savings and is well suited for prolonged portable in-field use and does not require heavy, bulky power supply components. 9 figs.

  18. Ambient temperature cadmium zinc telluride radiation detector and amplifier circuit

    DOEpatents

    McQuaid, James H.; Lavietes, Anthony D.

    1998-05-29

    A low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature signal amplifier for a Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) radiation detector. The amplifier can be used within a larger system (e.g., including a multi-channel analyzer) to allow isotopic analysis of radionuclides in the field. In one embodiment, the circuit stages of the low power, low noise amplifier are constructed using integrated circuit (IC) amplifiers , rather than discrete components, and include a very low noise, high gain, high bandwidth dual part preamplification stage, an amplification stage, and an filter stage. The low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables the CZT detector to achieve both the efficiency required to determine the presence of radio nuclides and the resolution necessary to perform isotopic analysis to perform nuclear material identification. The present low noise, low power, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables a CZT detector to achieve resolution of less than 3% full width at half maximum at 122 keV for a Cobalt-57 isotope source. By using IC circuits and using only a single 12 volt supply and ground, the novel amplifier provides significant power savings and is well suited for prolonged portable in-field use and does not require heavy, bulky power supply components.

  19. Acoustic user interfaces for ambient-assisted living technologies.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Stefan; Moritz, Niko; Appell, Jens-E; Meis, Markus; Bartsch, Christian; Bitzer, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    This contribution discusses technologies for acoustic user interaction in ambient-assisted living (AAL) scenarios. Acoustic user interfaces allow for a natural and convenient way to interact with technical systems e.g. via sound or speech presentation or via speech input by means of automatic speech recognition (ASR) as well as by detection and classification of acoustic events. Older persons targeted by AAL technologies especially need more easy-to-use methods to interact with inherently complex supporting technology. As an example we designed and evaluated an application for acoustic user interaction with a multi-media reminder and calendar system. For this purpose, mainly older participants were involved in user studies to continuously evaluate and support the development strictly following a user-centred design process. The results suggest a wide acceptance of acoustic user interfaces by older users either for controlling inherently complex AAL systems by using robust ASR technologies or as a natural and ambient way of presenting information to the user. However, further research is needed to increase the robustness of ASR systems when using hands-free equipment, i.e. to provide a real ambient way of interaction, and to introduce personalised speech and sound presentation schemes accounting for the individual hearing capabilities and sound preferences.

  20. Aircraft electric field measurements: Calibration and ambient field retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.; Bailey, Jeff; Christian, Hugh J.; Mach, Douglas M.

    1994-01-01

    An aircraft locally distorts the ambient thundercloud electric field. In order to determine the field in the absence of the aircraft, an aircraft calibration is required. In this work a matrix inversion method is introduced for calibrating an aircraft equipped with four or more electric field sensors and a high-voltage corona point that is capable of charging the aircraft. An analytic, closed form solution for the estimate of a (3 x 3) aircraft calibration matrix is derived, and an absolute calibration experiment is used to improve the relative magnitudes of the elements of this matrix. To demonstrate the calibration procedure, we analyze actual calibration date derived from a Lear jet 28/29 that was equipped with five shutter-type field mill sensors (each with sensitivities of better than 1 V/m) located on the top, bottom, port, starboard, and aft positions. As a test of the calibration method, we analyze computer-simulated calibration data (derived from known aircraft and ambient fields) and explicitly determine the errors involved in deriving the variety of calibration matrices. We extend our formalism to arrive at an analytic solution for the ambient field, and again carry all errors explicitly.

  1. Ambient Sound-Based Collaborative Localization of Indeterministic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Kamminga, Jacob; Le, Duc; Havinga, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Localization is essential in wireless sensor networks. To our knowledge, no prior work has utilized low-cost devices for collaborative localization based on only ambient sound, without the support of local infrastructure. The reason may be the fact that most low-cost devices are indeterministic and suffer from uncertain input latencies. This uncertainty makes accurate localization challenging. Therefore, we present a collaborative localization algorithm (Cooperative Localization on Android with ambient Sound Sources (CLASS)) that simultaneously localizes the position of indeterministic devices and ambient sound sources without local infrastructure. The CLASS algorithm deals with the uncertainty by splitting the devices into subsets so that outliers can be removed from the time difference of arrival values and localization results. Since Android is indeterministic, we select Android devices to evaluate our approach. The algorithm is evaluated with an outdoor experiment and achieves a mean Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 2.18 m with a standard deviation of 0.22 m. Estimated directions towards the sound sources have a mean RMSE of 17.5° and a standard deviation of 2.3°. These results show that it is feasible to simultaneously achieve a relative positioning of both devices and sound sources with sufficient accuracy, even when using non-deterministic devices and platforms, such as Android. PMID:27649176

  2. Direct and Convenient Mass Spectrometry Sampling with Ambient Flame Ionization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Pan; Wang, Hao-Yang; Zhang, Jun-Ting; Wu, Meng-Xi; Qi, Wan-Shu; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Yin-Long

    2015-01-01

    Recent innovations in ambient ionization technology for the direct analysis of various samples in their native environment facilitate the development and applications of mass spectrometry in natural science. Presented here is a novel, convenient and flame-based ambient ionization method for mass spectrometric analysis of organic compounds, termed as the ambient flame ionization (AFI) ion source. The key features of AFI ion source were no requirement of (high) voltages, laser beams and spray gases, but just using small size of n-butane flame (height approximately 1 cm, about 500 oC) to accomplish the rapid desorption and ionization for direct analysis of gaseous-, liquid- and solid-phase organic compounds, as well as real-world samples. This method has high sensitivity with a limit of detection of 1 picogram for propyphenazone, which allows consuming trace amount of samples. Compared to previous ionization methods, this ion source device is extremely simple, maintain-free, low-cost, user–friendly so that even an ordinary lighter (with n-butane as fuel) can achieve efficient ionization. A new orientation to mass spectrometry ion source exploitation might emerge from such a convenient, easy and inexpensive AFI ion source. PMID:26582511

  3. Ambient temperature influences birds' decisions to eat toxic prey☆

    PubMed Central

    Chatelain, M.; Halpin, C.G.; Rowe, C.

    2013-01-01

    Aposematic prey warn predators of their toxicity using conspicuous signals. However, predators regularly include aposematic prey in their diets, particularly when they are in a poor energetic state and in need of nutrients. We investigated whether or not an environmental factor, ambient temperature, could change the energetic state of predators and lead to an increased intake of prey that they know to contain toxins. We found that European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, increased their consumption of mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, prey containing quinine (a mild toxin) when the ambient temperature was reduced below their thermoneutral zone from 20 °C to 6 °C. The birds differed in their sensitivity to changes in ambient temperature, with heavier birds increasing the number of toxic prey they ate more rapidly with decreasing temperature compared to birds with lower body mass. This could have been the result of their requiring more nutrients at lower temperatures or being better able to detoxify quinine. Taken together, our results suggest that conspicuous coloration may be more costly at lower temperatures, and that aposematic prey may need to invest more in chemical defences as temperatures decline. Our study also provides novel insights into what factors affect birds' decisions to eat toxic prey, and demonstrates that selection pressures acting on prey defences can vary with changing temperature across days, seasons, climes, and potentially in response to climate change. PMID:24109148

  4. Freeze concentration of ambient waters for toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    deBruyn, A M; Rasmussen, J B

    2001-08-01

    We have developed a method to concentrate aqueous samples for toxicity testing. This method relies on the phenomenon of freezing exclusion, whereby solutes are rejected from the interstices of a growing ice crystal. Tenfold freeze concentration gave excellent recoveries of inorganic and organic analytes, phenol and ZnSO4 toxicity from spiked natural waters, and toxicity of both pre- and postdischarge municipal wastewater. Simultaneous 10-fold concentration of strong mineral or humic ambient matrices did not substantially modify the expressed toxicity of phenol or ZnSO4, and it did not seem to generate spurious toxicity to the marine bioassay organism used (Vibrio fischeri). Hundredfold freeze concentration permitted the quantification of low levels of ambient toxicity in a wide variety of natural waters using a rapid, inexpensive microbioassay. Precipitation of matrix elements may limit the degree of concentration that can be achieved with highly mineralized or strongly humic waters. This approach is well suited to ambient toxicity testing, because it is nonspecific and has low potential for solvent contamination. Furthermore, the low temperatures involved minimize volatilization and degradation of organic contaminants.

  5. Seismic Gradiometry using Ambient Seismic Noise in an Anisotropic Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ridder, S. A. L.; Curtis, A.

    2017-02-01

    We introduce a wavefield gradiometry technique to estimate both isotropic and anisotropic local medium characteristics from short recordings of seismic signals by inverting a wave equation. The method exploits the information in the spatial gradients of a seismic wavefield that are calculated using dense deployments of seismic arrays. The application of the method uses the surface wave energy in the ambient seismic field. To estimate isotropic and anisotropic medium properties we invert an elliptically anisotropic wave equation. The spatial derivatives of the recorded wavefield are evaluated by calculating finite differences over nearby recordings, which introduces a systematic anisotropic error. A two step approach corrects this error: finite difference stencils are first calibrated, then the output of the wave-equation inversion is corrected using the linearized impulse response to the inverted velocity anomaly. We test the procedure on ambient seismic noise recorded in a large and dense ocean bottom cable array installed over Ekofisk field. The estimated azimuthal anisotropy forms a circular geometry around the production-induced subsidence bowl. This conforms with results from studies employing controlled sources, and with interferometry correlating long records of seismic noise. Yet in this example, the results where obtained using only a few minutes of ambient seismic noise.

  6. The inhomogeneous structure of water at ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Huang, C; Wikfeldt, K T; Tokushima, T; Nordlund, D; Harada, Y; Bergmann, U; Niebuhr, M; Weiss, T M; Horikawa, Y; Leetmaa, M; Ljungberg, M P; Takahashi, O; Lenz, A; Ojamäe, L; Lyubartsev, A P; Shin, S; Pettersson, L G M; Nilsson, A

    2009-09-08

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is used to demonstrate the presence of density fluctuations in ambient water on a physical length-scale of approximately 1 nm; this is retained with decreasing temperature while the magnitude is enhanced. In contrast, the magnitude of fluctuations in a normal liquid, such as CCl(4), exhibits no enhancement with decreasing temperature, as is also the case for water from molecular dynamics simulations under ambient conditions. Based on X-ray emission spectroscopy and X-ray Raman scattering data we propose that the density difference contrast in SAXS is due to fluctuations between tetrahedral-like and hydrogen-bond distorted structures related to, respectively, low and high density water. We combine our experimental observations to propose a model of water as a temperature-dependent, fluctuating equilibrium between the two types of local structures driven by incommensurate requirements for minimizing enthalpy (strong near-tetrahedral hydrogen-bonds) and maximizing entropy (nondirectional H-bonds and disorder). The present results provide experimental evidence that the extreme differences anticipated in the hydrogen-bonding environment in the deeply supercooled regime surprisingly remain in bulk water even at conditions ranging from ambient up to close to the boiling point.

  7. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1527 - Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ambient air temperature and operating... Information Operating Limitations § 25.1527 Ambient air temperature and operating altitude. The extremes of the ambient air temperature and operating altitude for which operation is allowed, as limited...

  12. 77 FR 55832 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... monitoring agencies under the requirements of 40 CFR part 58, Ambient Air Quality Surveillance. For such..., Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Program'' EPA-454/B-08-003, December, 2008. Provisions...

  13. Personal and ambient exposures to air toxics in Camden, New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Lioy, Paul J; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Wu, Xiangmei; Zhu, Xianlei; Harrington, Jason; Tang, Xiaogang; Meng, Qingyu; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Jaymin; Hernandez, Marta; Bonnano, Linda; Held, Joann; Neal, John

    2011-08-01

    benzene and MTBE in both locations. These results suggest that automobile exhausts were the main contributors to benzene and MTBE air pollution in both neighborhoods. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were found to be high in both neighborhoods. Mean (+/- SD) concentrations of formaldehyde were 20.2 +/- 19.5 microg/m3 in Waterfront South and 24.8 +/- 20.8 microg/m3 in Copewood-Davis. A similar trend was observed for the two compounds during the saturation-sampling campaigns. The results indicate that mobile sources (i.e., diesel trucks) had a large impact on formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations in both neighborhoods and that both are aldehyde hot spots. The study also showed that PM2.5, aldehydes, BTEX, and MTBE concentrations in both Waterfront South and Copewood-Davis were higher than ambient background concentrations in New Jersey and than national average concentrations, indicating that both neighborhoods are in fact hot spots for these pollutants. Higher concentrations were observed on weekdays than on weekend days for several compounds, including toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (known collectively as TEX) as well as PAHs and PM2.5. These observations showed the impact on ambient air pollution of higher traffic volumes and more active industrial and commercial operations in the study areas on weekdays. Seasonal variations differed by species. Concentrations of TEX, for example, were found to be higher in winter than in summer in both locations, possibly because of higher emission rates from automobiles and reduced photochemical reactivity in winter. In contrast, concentrations of MTBE were found to be significantly higher in summer than in winter in both locations, possibly because of higher evaporation rates from gasoline in summer. Similarly, concentrations of heavier PAHs, such as benzo[a]pyrene, were found to be higher in winter in both locations, possibly because of higher emission rates from mobile sources, the use of home heating, and the

  14. Brookhaven National Laboratory site environmental report for calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, G.L.; Paquette, D.E.; Naidu, J.R.; Lee, R.J.; Briggs, S.L.K.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory and summarizes information about environmental compliance for 1996. To evaluate the effect of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s operations on the local environment, measurements of direct radiation, and of a variety of radionuclides and chemical compounds in the ambient air, soil, sewage effluent, surface water, groundwater, fauna, and vegetation were made at the Brookhaven National Laboratory site and at adjacent sites. The report also evaluates the Laboratory`s compliance with all applicable guides, standards, and limits for radiological and non-radiological emissions and effluents to the environment.

  15. Ambient Mass Spectrometry Imaging Using Direct Liquid Extraction Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Julia; Lanekoff, Ingela

    2015-11-13

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful analytical technique that enables label-free spatial localization and identification of molecules in complex samples.1-4 MSI applications range from forensics5 to clinical research6 and from understanding microbial communication7-8 to imaging biomolecules in tissues.1, 9-10 Recently, MSI protocols have been reviewed.11 Ambient ionization techniques enable direct analysis of complex samples under atmospheric pressure without special sample pretreatment.3, 12-16 In fact, in ambient ionization mass spectrometry, sample processing (e.g., extraction, dilution, preconcentration, or desorption) occurs during the analysis.17 This substantially speeds up analysis and eliminates any possible effects of sample preparation on the localization of molecules in the sample.3, 8, 12-14, 18-20 Venter and co-workers have classified ambient ionization techniques into three major categories based on the sample processing steps involved: 1) liquid extraction techniques, in which analyte molecules are removed from the sample and extracted into a solvent prior to ionization; 2) desorption techniques capable of generating free ions directly from substrates; and 3) desorption techniques that produce larger particles subsequently captured by an electrospray plume and ionized.17 This review focuses on localized analysis and ambient imaging of complex samples using a subset of ambient ionization methods broadly defined as “liquid extraction techniques” based on the classification introduced by Venter and co-workers.17 Specifically, we include techniques where analyte molecules are desorbed from solid or liquid samples using charged droplet bombardment, liquid extraction, physisorption, chemisorption, mechanical force, laser ablation, or laser capture microdissection. Analyte extraction is followed by soft ionization that generates ions corresponding to intact species. Some of the key advantages of liquid extraction techniques include the ease

  16. Effect of increased ambient lighting on detectability: a psychophysical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, Amarpreet S.; Pollard, Benjamin; Samei, Ehsan; Hashimoto, Noriyuki

    2007-03-01

    Last year in this conference, we presented a theoretical analysis of how ambient lighting in dark reading rooms could be moderately increased without compromising the interpretation of images displayed on LCDs. Based on that analysis, in this paper we present results of two psychophysical experiments which were designed to verify those theoretical predictions. The first experiment was designed to test how an increase in ambient lighting affects the detection of subtle objects at different luminance levels, particularly at lower luminance levels. Towards that end, images of targets consisting of low-contrast objects were shown to seven observers, first under a dark room illumination condition of 1 lux and then under a higher room illumination condition of 50 lux. The targets had three base luminance values of 1, 12 and 35 cd/m2 and were embedded in a uniform background. The uniform background was set to 12 cd/m2 which enabled fixing L adp, the visual adaptation luminance value when looking at the display, to 12 cd/m2. This value also matched the luminance value of about 12 cd/m2 reflected off the wall surrounding the LCD at the higher ambient lighting condition. The task of the observers was to detect and classify the displayed objects under the two room lighting conditions. The results indicated that the detection rate in dark area (base luminance of 1 cd/m2) increased by 15% when the ambient illumination is increased from 1 to 50 lux. The increase was not conclusive for targets embedded in higher luminance regions, but there was no evidence to the contrary either. The second experiment was designed to investigate the adaptation luminance value of the eye when viewing typical mammograms. It was found that, for a typical display luminance calibration, this value might lie between 12 and 20 cd/m2. Findings from the two experiments provide justification for a controlled increase of ambient lighting to improve ergonomic viewing conditions in darkly lit reading rooms

  17. Effects of Ambient Air Pollution Exposure on Olfaction: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Suh, Helen H.; Pinto, Jayant M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Olfactory dysfunction affects millions of people worldwide. This sensory impairment is associated with neurodegenerative disease and significantly decreased quality of life. Exposure to airborne pollutants has been implicated in olfactory decline, likely due to the anatomic susceptibility of the olfactory nerve to the environment. Historically, studies have focused on occupational exposures, but more recent studies have considered effects from exposure to ambient air pollutants. Objectives: To examine all relevant human data evaluating a link between ambient pollution exposure and olfaction and to review supporting animal data in order to examine potential mechanisms for pollution-associated olfactory loss. Methods: We identified and reviewed relevant articles from 1950 to 2015 using PubMed and Web of Science and focusing on human epidemiologic and pathophysiologic studies. Animal studies were included only to support pertinent data on humans. We reviewed findings from these studies evaluating a relationship between environmental pollutant exposure and olfactory function. Results: We identified and reviewed 17 articles, with 1 additional article added from a bibliography search, for a total of 18 human studies. There is evidence in human epidemiologic and pathologic studies that increased exposure to ambient air pollutants is associated with olfactory dysfunction. However, most studies have used proxies for pollution exposure in small samples of convenience. Human pathologic studies, with supporting animal work, have also shown that air pollution can contact the olfactory epithelium, translocate to the olfactory bulb, and migrate to the olfactory cortex. Pollutants can deposit at each location, causing direct damage and disruption of tissue morphology or inducing local inflammation and cellular stress responses. Conclusions: Ambient air pollution may impact human olfactory function. Additional studies are needed to examine air pollution

  18. Comparison of temporal trends in ambient and compliance trace element and PCB data in Pool 2 of the Mississippi River, USA, 1985--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.; Perry, J.

    1999-11-01

    The Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring has suggested studies on ambient (in-stream) and compliance data to determine if monitoring can be reduced locally or nationally. The similarity in temporal trends between retrospective ambient and compliance water-quality data collected from Pool 2 of the Mississippi River, USA, was determined for 1985--1995. Constituents studied included the following trace elements: arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), hexavalent chromium (Cl{sup 6+}), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Water-column, bed-sediment, and fish-tissue data collected by five government agencies comprised the ambient data set; effluent data from five registered facilities comprised the compliance data set. The nonparametric Mann-Kendall trend test indicated that 33% of temporal trends in all data were statistically significant. Possible reasons for this were low sample sizes, and a high percentage of samples below the analytical detection limit. Trends in compliance data were more distinct; most trace elements decreased significantly, probably due to improvements in wastewater treatment. Seven trace elements (Cr, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, and Zn) had statistically significant decreases in wastewater and portions of either or both ambient water and bed sediment. No trends were found in fish tissue. Inconsistency in trends between ambient and compliance data were often found for individual constituents, making overall similarity between the data sets difficult to determine. Logistical differences in monitoring programs, such as varying field and laboratory methods among agencies, made it difficult to assess ambient temporal trends.

  19. Trends analyses of 30 years of ambient 8 hour ozone and precursor monitoring data in the South Central U.S.: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sather, Mark E; Cavender, Kevin

    2016-07-13

    In the last 30 years ambient ozone concentrations have notably decreased in the South Central U.S. Yet, current ambient ozone concentrations measured over the past three years 2013-2015 in this area of the U.S. are not meeting the U.S. 2015 8 hour ozone standard of 70 parts per billion (ppb). This paper provides an update on long-term trends analyses of ambient 8 hour ozone and ozone precursor monitoring data collected over the past 30 years (1986-2015) in four South Central U.S. cities, following up on two previously published reviews of 20 and 25 year trends for these cities. All four cities have benefitted from national ozone precursor controls put in place during the 1990s and 2000s involving cleaner vehicles (vehicle fleet turnover/replacement over time), cleaner fuels, cleaner gasoline and diesel engines, and improved inspection/maintenance programs for existing vehicles. Additional ozone precursor emission controls specific to each city are detailed in this paper. The controls have resulted in impressive ambient ozone and ambient ozone precursor concentration reductions in the four South Central U.S. cities over the past 30 years, including 31-70% ambient nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentration declines from historical peaks to the present, 43-72% volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration declines from historical peaks to the present, a related 45-76% VOC reactivity decline for a subset of VOC species from historical peaks to the present, and an 18-38 ppb reduction in city 8 hour ozone design value concentrations. A new challenge for each of the four South Central U.S. cities will be meeting the U.S. 2015 8 hour ozone standard of 70 ppb.

  20. National security

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This paper summarizes the views presented on October 31, 1991, at a GAO-sponsored conference on worldwide threats to U.S. national security. The conference was designed to provide insight into potential military threats to U.S. security interests and necessary modifications to current and planned U.S. forces to meet those threats. Conference participants, including defense analysts and retired military officers, discussed and analyzed the possibility of U.S. and allied involvement in various regional contingencies in Europe and the Soviet Union, Eat Asia and the Pacific, and the Near East and South Asia. Topics ranged from the possibility of nuclear war to a general discussion of low-intensity conflict. To serve as a starting point for discussion, we asked several of the participants to provide papers representing a wide range of views. The participants agreed that for many years the Soviet/Warsaw Pact threat to Europe shaped U.S. force planning but that the Soviet union no longer posed a conventional threat. Nuclear weapons held by the former Soviet republics and other nations, however, remain a concern. There was no agreement of the methodology for sizing U.S. forces. Some argued for sizing based on specific threats; other argued for flexibility to meet any and all contingencies and cited the Gulf War as a example.

  1. A high-resolution ambient seismic noise model for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Toni

    2014-05-01

    In the past several years, geological energy technologies receive growing attention and have been initiated in or close to urban areas. Some of these technologies involve injecting fluids into the subsurface (e.g., oil and gas development, waste disposal, and geothermal energy development) and have been found or suspected to cause small to moderate sized earthquakes. These earthquakes, which may have gone unnoticed in the past when they occurred in remote sparsely populated areas, are now posing a considerable risk for the public acceptance of these technologies in urban areas. The permanent termination of the EGS project in Basel, Switzerland after a number of induced ML~3 (minor) earthquakes in 2006 is one prominent example. It is therefore essential to the future development and success of these geological energy technologies to develop strategies for managing induced seismicity and keeping the size of induced earthquake at a level that is acceptable to all stakeholders. Most guidelines and recommendations on induced seismicity published since the 1970ies conclude that an indispensable component of such a strategy is the establishment of seismic monitoring in an early stage of a project. This is because an appropriate seismic monitoring is the only way to detect and locate induced microearthquakes with sufficient certainty to develop an understanding of the seismic and geomechanical response of the reservoir to the geotechnical operation. In addition, seismic monitoring lays the foundation for the establishment of advanced traffic light systems and is therefore an important confidence building measure towards the local population and authorities. Due to this development an increasing number of seismic monitoring networks are being installed in densely populated areas with strongly heterogeneous, and unfavorable ambient noise conditions. This poses a major challenge on the network design process, which aims to find the sensor geometry that optimizes the

  2. Ambient Intelligence and Wearable Computing: Sensors on the Body, in the Home, and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Diane J.; Song, WenZhan

    2009-01-01

    Ambient intelligence has a history of focusing on technologies that are integrated into a person’s environment. However, ambient intelligence can be found on a person’s body as well. In this thematic issue we examine the role of wearable computing in the field of ambient intelligence. In this article we provide an overview of the field of wearable computing and discuss its relationship to the fields of smart environments and ambient intelligence. In addition, we introduce the papers presented in the thematic issue highlighting a number of research projects which are defining the state of the art in wearable computing and ambient intelligence. PMID:19966926

  3. The theoretical analysis of the Fog removal in the LNG Ambient Vaporizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T.; Lee, D.; Jeong, H.; Chung, H.

    2015-09-01

    The fog removal process is one of the important process in LNG Ambient Vaporizer. In this study we carried out theoretical study of the fog removal process in LNG Ambient Vaporizer. The LNG Ambient Vaporizer in Incheon area was used in our study. The fog temperature and the required energy produced from air fan to remove fog in LNG Ambient Vaporizer were calculated using average temperature of Incheon area in 2012 by Psychometruc Chart method. As a result we can be remove fog in LNG Ambient Vaporizer using Enthalpy[kW] energy in summer season and Enthalpy[kW] in winter season respectively.

  4. Collisionless coupling of a high- β expansion to an ambient plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonde, Jeffrey

    2016-10-01

    We report on an experimental study of collisionless coupling between a high- β ( 106) expansion and a quiescent, magnetized plasma via laminar electric fields. The dynamic, 3D structure of the electrostatic field, - ∇ϕ , and the induced electric field, - ∂t A-> , of a laser-produced plasma (LPP) were measured in situ within the uniform plasma provided by the Large Plasma Device at UCLA. The LPP was generated using a graphite target and oriented to provide Alfvénic expansion speeds along the initially uniform magnetic field, B->0 . The strongest measured electric field was an inward, radial electrostatic field established by charge separation of the ions and electrons across B->0 . The imbalance between the charge layers also resulted in a radially outward electrostatic field that appeared to be responsible for the observed magnetic compression. Global neutralization of this charge distribution is connected with previously observed energetic electrons and subsequent whistler wave radiation. The cumulative effect of the total electric field is to pull ambient ions inward against the expansion. This is in contrast to models that neglect - ∇ϕ in favor of - ∂t A-> due to the large-scale motion of the magnetic field lines. Planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging in an argon background plasma confirmed this effect by measuring directly the velocity of the ambient ions. A simple model is presented of these results and other high- β expansions that is similar to Lord Rayleigh's work on gaseous bubble cavitation. It predicts relative magnitudes of - ∇ϕ and - ∂t A-> as well as an approximate description of their ability to couple energy and momentum to the ambient plasma. This model also provides scaling quantities appropriate for similar collisionless plasma expansions including explosions near young stellar objects, magnetospheric chemical releases, and high-altitude nuclear explosions. This experiment was conducted in the Large Plasma Device at the

  5. A Collaborative Approach to Monitoring Ambient Volcanogenic Pollution at Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, E. P.; Beckles, D. M.; Cox, L.; Jackson, V. B.; Alexander, D.

    2015-12-01

    The role of volcano tourism is recognized as an important contributor to the economy of volcanic islands in the Lesser Antilles. However, if it is to be promoted as a sustainable sector of the tourism industry, visitors, tour operators, and vendors must be made aware of the potential health hazards facing them in volcanic environments. Volcanogenic air pollutants are of primary concern in this setting. In general, no warning signs, guidelines for recreational use, or emissions monitoring currently exists to provide warning to the public to decrease their vulnerability to the potential risks, or to minimize the liability of the agencies managing these areas. Sulphur Springs Park in Saint Lucia is a popular international destination, and concerns about the volcanic emissions and its possible health effect have been raised by visitors, staff, and management of the Park. As part of the responsibility of the UWI, Seismic Research Centre (SRC) to provide volcanic surveillance through its geothermal monitoring programme, a network was established for quantifying the ambient SO2 concentrations at Sulphur Springs in order to assess the potential risk of unsafe exposure. This effort required collaboration with the National Emergency Management Organization (NEMO) of Saint Lucia, as well as the staff and management of the Soufrière Regional Development Foundation (SRDF). Local personnel were trained in the active field sampling and analytical techniques required for the assessment of ambient SO2 concentrations over the monitoring period, thereby contributing to an active community-based effort. This type of approach was also thought to be an effective option for scientists to engage communities as partners in disaster risk reduction. Lessons learnt from this experience are presented for the benefit of other citizen monitoring projects, including its use as a tool for promoting volcanic hazard education, and enhancing communication and understanding between geoscientists and

  6. Ambient and Cryogenic Alignment Verification and Performance of the Infrared Multi-Object Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connelly, Joseph A.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Mink, Ronald G.; Mentzell, J. Eric; Saha, Timo T.; Tveekrem, June L.; Hylan, Jason E.; Sparr, Leroy M.; Chambers, V. John; Hagopian, John G.

    2003-01-01

    The Infrared Multi-Object Spectrometer (IRMOS) is a facility instrument for the Kitt Peak National Observatory 4 and 2.1 meter telescopes. IRMOS is a near-IR (0.8 - 2.5 micron) spectrometer with low- to mid-resolving power (R = 300 - 3000). IRMOS produces simultaneous spectra of approximately 100 objects in its 2.8 x 2.0 arc-min field of view using a commercial Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Digital Micro-mirror Device (DMD) from Texas Instruments. The IRMOS optical design consists of two imaging subsystems. The focal reducer images the focal plane of the telescope onto the DMD field stop, and the spectrograph images the DMD onto the detector. We describe ambient breadboard subsystem alignment and imaging performance of each stage independently, and the ambient and cryogenic imaging performance of the fully assembled instrument. Interferometric measurements of subsystem wavefront error serve to venfy alignment, and are accomplished using a commercial, modified Twyman-Green laser unequal path interferometer. Image testing provides further verification of the optomechanical alignment method and a measurement of near-angle scattered light due to mirror small-scale surface error. Image testing is performed at multiple field points. A mercury-argon pencil lamp provides spectral lines at 546.1 nm and 1550 nm, and a CCD camera and IR camera are used as detectors. We use commercial optical modeling software to predict the point-spread function and its effect on instrument slit transmission and resolution. Our breadboard test results validate this prediction. We conclude with an instrument performance prediction for first light.

  7. Benzene toxicity of the occurrence of benzene in the ambient air of the Houston area

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.C.

    1980-01-01

    This study was conducted by either literature review or actual field survey. Results are summarized as follows: (1) long-term occupational exposure of workers to benzene vapor at levels of 3 to 7 ppM, 2 to 3 ppM and 1.6 ppM may result in a decreased level of leucocyte alkaline phosphates, an increased incidence of chromosome aberrations and an increased level of ALA in erythrocytes, respectively; (2) benzene is capable of causing fetotoxic effects in animals at levels as low as 10 ppM by volume; (3) exposure of animals to or less than 1 ppM benzene vapor may result in leucopenia, an inverse ratio of muscle antagonist chronaxy and a decreased level of ascorbic acid in fetus's and mother's liver as well as whole embryo; (4) benzene is causally associated with the increased incidence of pancytopenia, including unicytopenia, bicytopenia and aplastic anemia, and chromosome aberrations in occupational exposure population, and at best benzene must also be considered as a leukemogen; (5) since it can be emitted into the atmosphere from both man-made and natural sources, benzene in some concentrations is presented everywhere in the various compartments of the environment; (6) the findings of the emission of benzene from certain natural sources indicate that reducing benzene to a zero-level of exposure is theoretically impossible; (7) the annual average of benzene concentration detected in the Houston ambient air is 2.50 ppB, which is about 2.4 times higher than the nation-wide annual average exposure level and may have some health implications to the general public; and (8) in the Houston area, stationary sources are more important than mobile sources in contributing to benzene in the ambient air.

  8. The deployment of carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) for ambient air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chaiwatpongsakorn, Chaichana; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2014-06-16

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The system has been deployed over two weeks during Fall 2010, and Summer 2011-2012, traffic data was also recorded by using a manual traffic counter and a video camcorder to characterize vehicles at the intersection 24 h, particularly, during the morning and evening peak hour periods. According to the field test results, the 1 hr-average CO concentrations were found to range from 0.1-1.0 ppm which is lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 35 ppm on a one-hour averaging period. During rush hour periods, the traffic volume at the intersection varied from 2,067 to 3,076 vehicles per hour with 97% being passenger vehicles. Furthermore, the traffic volume based on a 1-h average showed good correlation (R2 = 0.87) with the 1-h average CO-WSN concentrations for morning and evening peak time periods whereas CO-WSN results provided a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.42) with 24 hours traffic volume due to fluctuated changes of meteorological conditions. It is concluded that the performance and the reliability of wireless ambient air monitoring networks can be used as an alternative method for real time air monitoring.

  9. The Deployment of Carbon Monoxide Wireless Sensor Network (CO-WSN) for Ambient Air Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Chaiwatpongsakorn, Chaichana; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C.; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The system has been deployed over two weeks during Fall 2010, and Summer 2011–2012, traffic data was also recorded by using a manual traffic counter and a video camcorder to characterize vehicles at the intersection 24 h, particularly, during the morning and evening peak hour periods. According to the field test results, the 1 hr-average CO concentrations were found to range from 0.1–1.0 ppm which is lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 35 ppm on a one-hour averaging period. During rush hour periods, the traffic volume at the intersection varied from 2,067 to 3,076 vehicles per hour with 97% being passenger vehicles. Furthermore, the traffic volume based on a 1-h average showed good correlation (R2 = 0.87) with the 1-h average CO-WSN concentrations for morning and evening peak time periods whereas CO-WSN results provided a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.42) with 24 hours traffic volume due to fluctuated changes of meteorological conditions. It is concluded that the performance and the reliability of wireless ambient air monitoring networks can be used as an alternative method for real time air monitoring. PMID:24937527

  10. Impact of ambient conditions on evaporation from porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Neriah, Asaf; Assouline, Shmuel; Shavit, Uri; Weisbrod, Noam

    2014-08-01

    The complexity of soil evaporation, depending on the atmospheric conditions, emphasizes the importance of its quantification under potential changes in ambient air temperature, Ta, and relative humidity, RH. Mass loss, soil matric tension, and meteorological measurements, carried out in a climate-controlled laboratory, were used to study the effect of ambient conditions on the drying rates of a porous medium. A set of evaporation experiments from initially saturated sand columns were carried out under constant Ta of 6, 15, 25, and 35°C and related RH (0.66, 0.83, 1.08, and 1.41 kPa, respectively). The results show that the expected increase of the stage 1 (S1) evaporation rate with Ta but also revealed an exponential-like reduction in the duration of S1, which decreased from 29 to 2.3 days (at Ta of 6 and 35°C, respectively). The evaporation rate, e(t), was equal to the potential evaporation, ep(t), under Ta = 6°C, while it was always smaller than ep(t) under higher Ta. The cumulative evaporation during S1 was higher under Ta = 6°C than under the higher temperatures. Evaporation rates during S2 were practically unaffected by ambient conditions. The results were analyzed using a mass transfer formulation linking e(t) with the vapor pressure deficit through a resistance coefficient r. It was shown that rS1 (the resistance during S1) is constant, indicating that the application of such an approach is straightforward during S1. However, for evaporation from a free water surface and S2, the resistances, rBL and rS2, were temperature-dependent, introducing some complexity for these cases.

  11. Modal parameter extraction from large operating structures using ambient excitation

    SciTech Connect

    James, G.H. III; Carne, T.G.; Mayes, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    A technique called the Natural Excitation Technique or has been developed to response extract response parameters from large operational structure when subjected to random and unmeasured forces such as wind, road noise, aerodynamics, or waves. Six applications of NExT to ambient excitation testing and NExT analysis are surveyed in this paper with a minimum of technical detail. In the first application, NExT was applied to a controlled-yaw Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT). By controlling the yaw degree of freedom an important class of rotating coordinate system effects are reduced. A new shape extraction procedure was applied to this data set with good results. The second application was to a free-yaw HAWT. The complexity of the response has prompted further analytical studies and the development of a specialized visualization package. The third application of NExT was to a parked three-bladed Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) in which traditional modal testing could not excite all modes of interest. The shape extraction process used cross-correlation functions directly in a time-domain shape-fitting routine. The fourth application was to ground transportation systems. Ongoing work to improve driver and passenger comfort in tractor-trailer vehicles and to refine automobile body and tire models will use NExT. NExT has been used to process ambient vibration data for Finite Element Model correlation and is being used to study Structural Health Monitoring with ambient excitation. Shape fitting was performed using amplitude and phase information taken directly from the cross-spectra. The final application is to an offshore structure. This work is on-going, however initial studies have found a high-modal density, high noise content, and sparse data set.

  12. A Methodology to Establish the Morphology of Ambient Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Rafael; Biswas, Pratim

    2007-01-01

    The morphology of ambient particulate matter (PM) is an important characteristic that seldom is measured and reported. A study was performed to determine the viability of a method to establish the distribution of shapes and the fractal dimensions of aggregates of ambient aerosols. Particles of PM with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM2.5) were captured on different days via size-independent electrostatic precipitation at two sites in St. Louis and examined in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Nonvolatile particles between 0.1 and 2.5 μm were readily identified via SEM. Particle shapes were classified as fibrous, spherical, agglomerated, or “other.” A computer program using the nested-squares algorithm was developed and used to determine the fractal dimensions of the aggregates. More particles were collected at the St. Louis-Midwest Supersite on June 14, 2002, than were collected on the Washington University campus loading dock on May 31, 2002, but the campus samples had a higher percentage of aggregates. On one day of sampling at the Supersite, the aggregate fraction was highest in the morning (14.3% between 7:00 and 9:00 a.m.) and steadily declined during the day (1.3% between 5:00 and 7:00 p.m.). The fractal dimensions of the aerosols were 1.65 in the morning (7:00–:00 a.m.), decreased to 1.49 (11:00 a.m.–1:00 p.m.), and then increased to 1.87 (5:00–7:00 p.m.). The results show that the fractal dimension is not a static value and that ambient aerosols are not perfectly spherical. PMID:15468660

  13. Big Data, Smart Homes and Ambient Assisted Living

    PubMed Central

    Wass, S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To discuss how current research in the area of smart homes and ambient assisted living will be influenced by the use of big data. Methods A scoping review of literature published in scientific journals and conference proceedings was performed, focusing on smart homes, ambient assisted living and big data over the years 2011-2014. Results The health and social care market has lagged behind other markets when it comes to the introduction of innovative IT solutions and the market faces a number of challenges as the use of big data will increase. First, there is a need for a sustainable and trustful information chain where the needed information can be transferred from all producers to all consumers in a structured way. Second, there is a need for big data strategies and policies to manage the new situation where information is handled and transferred independently of the place of the expertise. Finally, there is a possibility to develop new and innovative business models for a market that supports cloud computing, social media, crowdsourcing etc. Conclusions The interdisciplinary area of big data, smart homes and ambient assisted living is no longer only of interest for IT developers, it is also of interest for decision makers as customers make more informed choices among today’s services. In the future it will be of importance to make information usable for managers and improve decision making, tailor smart home services based on big data, develop new business models, increase competition and identify policies to ensure privacy, security and liability. PMID:25123734

  14. Characteristics and determinants of ambient fungal spores in Hualien, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Hsiao-Man; Rao, Carol Y.; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Liu, Chi-Ming; Chao, H. Jasmine

    Characteristics and determinants of ambient aeroallergens are of much concern in recent years because of the apparent health impacts of allergens. Yet relatively little is known about the complex behaviors of ambient aeroallergens. To address this issue, we monitored ambient fungal spores in Hualien, Taiwan from 1993-1996 to examine the compositions and temporal variations of fungi, and to evaluate possible determinants. We used a Burkard seven-day volumetric spore trap to collect daily fungal spores. Air pollutants, meteorological factors, and Asian dust events were included in the statistical analyses to predict fungal levels. We found that the most dominant fungal categories were ascospores, followed by Cladosporium and Aspergillus/Penicillium. The majority of the fungal categories had significant diurnal and seasonal variations. Total fungi, Cladosporium, Ganoderma, Arthrinium/Papularia, Cercospora, Periconia, Alternaria, Botrytis, and PM 10 had significantly higher concentrations ( p<0.05) during the period affected by Asian dust events. In multiple regression models, we found that temperature was consistently and positively associated with fungal concentrations. Other factors correlated with fungal concentrations included ozone, particulate matters with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM 10), relative humidity, rainfall, atmospheric pressure, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. Most of the fungal categories had higher levels in 1994 than in 1995-96, probably due to urbanization of the study area. In this study, we demonstrated complicated interrelationships between fungi and air pollution/meteorological factors. In addition, long-range transport of air pollutants contributed significantly to local aeroallergen levels. Future studies should examine the health impacts of aeroallergens, as well as the synergistic/antagonistic effects of weather, and local and global-scale air pollutions.

  15. Promoted Metals Combustion at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Carl D.; Herald, Stephen D.; Davis, S. Eddie

    2005-01-01

    Promoted combustion testing of materials, Test 17 of NASA STD-6001, has been used to assess metal propensity to burn in oxygen rich environments. An igniter is used at the bottom end of a rod to promote ignition, and if combustion is sustained, the burning progresses from the bottom to the top of the rod. The physical mechanisms are very similar to the upward flammability test, Test 1 of NASA STD-6001. The differences are in the normal environmental range of pressures, oxygen content, and sample geometry. Upward flammability testing of organic materials can exhibit a significant transitional region between no burning to complete quasi-state burning. In this transitional region, the burn process exhibits a probabilistic nature. This transitional region has been identified for metals using the promoted combustion testing method at ambient initial temperatures. The work given here is focused on examining the transitional region and the quasi-steady burning region both at conventional ambient testing conditions and at elevated temperatures. A new heated promoted combustion facility and equipment at Marshall Space Flight Center have just been completed to provide the basic data regarding the metals operating temperature limits in contact with oxygen rich atmospheres at high pressures. Initial data have been obtained for Stainless Steel 304L, Stainless Steel 321, Haynes 214, and Inconel 718 at elevated temperatures in 100-percent oxygen atmospheres. These data along with an extended data set at ambient initial temperature test conditions are examined. The pressure boundaries of acceptable, non-burning usage is found to be lowered at elevated temperature.

  16. Bayesian characterization of buildings using seismic interferometry on ambient vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Mordret, Aurélien; Prieto, Germán A.; Toksöz, M. Nafi; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2017-02-01

    Continuous monitoring of engineering structures provides a crucial alternative to assess its health condition as well as evaluate its safety throughout the whole service life. To link the field measurements to the characteristics of a building, one option is to characterize and update a model, against the measured data, so that it can best describe the behavior and performance of the structure. In this paper, we present a novel computational strategy for Bayesian probabilistic updating of building models with response functions extracted from ambient noise measurements using seismic interferometry. The intrinsic building impulse response functions (IRFs) can be extracted from ambient excitation by deconvolving the motion recorded at different floors with respect to the measured ambient ground motion. The IRF represents the representative building response to an input delta function at the ground floor. The measurements are firstly divided into multiple windows for deconvolution and the IRFs for each window are then averaged to represent the overall building IRFs. A hierarchical Bayesian framework with Laplace priors is proposed for updating the finite element model. A Markov chain Monte Carlo technique with adaptive random-walk steps is employed to sample the model parameters for uncertainty quantification. An illustrative example is studied to validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for temporal monitoring and probabilistic model updating of buildings. The structure considered in this paper is a 21-storey concrete building instrumented with 36 accelerometers at the MIT campus. The methodology described here allows for continuous temporal health monitoring, robust model updating as well as post-earthquake damage detection of buildings.

  17. Addressing Global Mortality from Ambient PM2.5.

    PubMed

    Apte, Joshua S; Marshall, Julian D; Cohen, Aaron J; Brauer, Michael

    2015-07-07

    Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has a large and well-documented global burden of disease. Our analysis uses high-resolution (10 km, global-coverage) concentration data and cause-specific integrated exposure-response (IER) functions developed for the Global Burden of Disease 2010 to assess how regional and global improvements in ambient air quality could reduce attributable mortality from PM2.5. Overall, an aggressive global program of PM2.5 mitigation in line with WHO interim guidelines could avoid 750 000 (23%) of the 3.2 million deaths per year currently (ca. 2010) attributable to ambient PM2.5. Modest improvements in PM2.5 in relatively clean regions (North America, Europe) would result in surprisingly large avoided mortality, owing to demographic factors and the nonlinear concentration-response relationship that describes the risk of particulate matter in relation to several important causes of death. In contrast, major improvements in air quality would be required to substantially reduce mortality from PM2.5 in more polluted regions, such as China and India. Moreover, forecasted demographic and epidemiological transitions in India and China imply that to keep PM2.5-attributable mortality rates (deaths per 100 000 people per year) constant, average PM2.5 levels would need to decline by ∼20-30% over the next 15 years merely to offset increases in PM2.5-attributable mortality from aging populations. An effective program to deliver clean air to the world's most polluted regions could avoid several hundred thousand premature deaths each year.

  18. Impact of Ambient Humidity on Child Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jinghong; Sun, Yunzong; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Changes in relative humidity, along with other meteorological factors, accompany ongoing climate change and play a significant role in weather-related health outcomes, particularly among children. The purpose of this review is to improve our understanding of the relationship between ambient humidity and child health, and to propose directions for future research. Methods A comprehensive search of electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, OvidSP and EBSCO host) and review of reference lists, to supplement relevant studies, were conducted in March 2013. All identified records were selected based on explicit inclusion criteria. We extracted data from the included studies using a pre-designed data extraction form, and then performed a quality assessment. Various heterogeneities precluded a formal quantitative meta-analysis, therefore, evidence was compiled using descriptive summaries. Results Out of a total of 3797 identified records, 37 papers were selected for inclusion in this review. Among the 37 studies, 35% were focused on allergic diseases and 32% on respiratory system diseases. Quality assessment revealed 78% of the studies had reporting quality scores above 70%, and all findings demonstrated that ambient humidity generally plays an important role in the incidence and prevalence of climate-sensitive diseases among children. Conclusions With climate change, there is a significant impact of ambient humidity on child health, especially for climate-sensitive infectious diseases, diarrhoeal diseases, respiratory system diseases, and pediatric allergic diseases. However, some inconsistencies in the direction and magnitude of the effects are observed. PMID:25503413

  19. The importance of ambient sound level to characterise anuran habitat.

    PubMed

    Goutte, Sandra; Dubois, Alain; Legendre, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Habitat characterisation is a pivotal step of any animal ecology study. The choice of variables used to describe habitats is crucial and need to be relevant to the ecology and behaviour of the species, in order to reflect biologically meaningful distribution patterns. In many species, acoustic communication is critical to individuals' interactions, and it is expected that ambient acoustic conditions impact their local distribution. Yet, classic animal ecology rarely integrates an acoustic dimension in habitat descriptions. Here we show that ambient sound pressure level (SPL) is a strong predictor of calling site selection in acoustically active frog species. In comparison to six other habitat-related variables (i.e. air and water temperature, depth, width and slope of the stream, substrate), SPL had the most important explanatory power in microhabitat selection for the 34 sampled species. Ambient noise was particularly useful in differentiating two stream-associated guilds: torrents and calmer streams dwelling species. Guild definitions were strongly supported by SPL, whereas slope, which is commonly used in stream-associated habitat, had a weak explanatory power. Moreover, slope measures are non-standardized across studies and are difficult to assess at small scale. We argue that including an acoustic descriptor will improve habitat-species analyses for many acoustically active taxa. SPL integrates habitat topology and temporal information (such as weather and hour of the day, for example) and is a simple and precise measure. We suggest that habitat description in animal ecology should include an acoustic measure such as noise level because it may explain previously misunderstood distribution patterns.

  20. The Importance of Ambient Sound Level to Characterise Anuran Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Goutte, Sandra; Dubois, Alain; Legendre, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Habitat characterisation is a pivotal step of any animal ecology study. The choice of variables used to describe habitats is crucial and need to be relevant to the ecology and behaviour of the species, in order to reflect biologically meaningful distribution patterns. In many species, acoustic communication is critical to individuals’ interactions, and it is expected that ambient acoustic conditions impact their local distribution. Yet, classic animal ecology rarely integrates an acoustic dimension in habitat descriptions. Here we show that ambient sound pressure level (SPL) is a strong predictor of calling site selection in acoustically active frog species. In comparison to six other habitat-related variables (i.e. air and water temperature, depth, width and slope of the stream, substrate), SPL had the most important explanatory power in microhabitat selection for the 34 sampled species. Ambient noise was particularly useful in differentiating two stream-associated guilds: torrents and calmer streams dwelling species. Guild definitions were strongly supported by SPL, whereas slope, which is commonly used in stream-associated habitat, had a weak explanatory power. Moreover, slope measures are non-standardized across studies and are difficult to assess at small scale. We argue that including an acoustic descriptor will improve habitat-species analyses for many acoustically active taxa. SPL integrates habitat topology and temporal information (such as weather and hour of the day, for example) and is a simple and precise measure. We suggest that habitat description in animal ecology should include an acoustic measure such as noise level because it may explain previously misunderstood distribution patterns. PMID:24205070