Science.gov

Sample records for 3038-3052 national ambient

  1. National Ambient Radiation Database

    SciTech Connect

    Dziuban, J.; Sears, R.

    2003-02-25

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently developed a searchable database and website for the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) data. This site contains nationwide radiation monitoring data for air particulates, precipitation, drinking water, surface water and pasteurized milk. This site provides location-specific as well as national information on environmental radioactivity across several media. It provides high quality data for assessing public exposure and environmental impacts resulting from nuclear emergencies and provides baseline data during routine conditions. The database and website are accessible at www.epa.gov/enviro/. This site contains (1) a query for the general public which is easy to use--limits the amount of information provided, but includes the ability to graph the data with risk benchmarks and (2) a query for a more technical user which allows access to all of the data in the database, (3) background information on ER AMS.

  2. National review of ambient air toxics observations.

    PubMed

    Strum, Madeleine; Scheffe, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Ambient air observations of hazardous air pollutant (HAPs), also known as air toxics, derived from routine monitoring networks operated by states, local agencies, and tribes (SLTs), are analyzed to characterize national concentrations and risk across the nation for a representative subset of the 187 designated HAPs. Observations from the National Air Toxics Trend Sites (NATTS) network of 27 stations located in most major urban areas of the contiguous United States have provided a consistent record of HAPs that have been identified as posing the greatest risk since 2003 and have also captured similar concentration patterns of nearly 300 sites operated by SLTs. Relatively high concentration volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as benzene, formaldehyde, and toluene exhibit the highest annual average concentration levels, typically ranging from 1 to 5 µg/m(3). Halogenated (except for methylene chloride) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and metals exhibit concentrations typically 2-3 orders of magnitude lower. Formaldehyde is the highest national risk driver based on estimated cancer risk and, nationally, has not exhibited significant changes in concentration, likely associated with the large pool of natural isoprene and formaldehyde emissions. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and 1,3-butadiene are ubiquitous VOC HAPs with large mobile source contributions that continue to exhibit declining concentrations over the last decade. Common chlorinated organic compounds such as ethylene dichloride and methylene chloride exhibit increasing concentrations. The variety of physical and chemical attributes and measurement technologies across 187 HAPs result in a broad range of method detection limits (MDLs) and cancer risk thresholds that challenge confidence in risk results for low concentration HAPs with MDLs near or greater than risk thresholds. From a national monitoring network perspective, the ability of the HAPs observational database to characterize the multiple

  3. 75 FR 2938 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ...Based on its reconsideration of the primary and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone (O3) set in March 2008, EPA proposes to set different primary and secondary standards than those set in 2008 to provide requisite protection of public health and welfare, respectively. With regard to the primary standard for O3, EPA proposes that the level of......

  4. Time to harmonize national ambient air quality standards.

    PubMed

    Kutlar Joss, Meltem; Eeftens, Marloes; Gintowt, Emily; Kappeler, Ron; Künzli, Nino

    2017-05-01

    The World Health Organization has developed ambient air quality guidelines at levels considered to be safe or of acceptable risk for human health. These guidelines are meant to support governments in defining national standards. It is unclear how they are followed. We compiled an inventory of ambient air quality standards for 194 countries worldwide for six air pollutants: PM2.5, PM10, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide. We conducted literature and internet searches and asked country representatives about national ambient air quality standards. We found information on 170 countries including 57 countries that did not set any air quality standards. Levels varied greatly by country and by pollutant. Ambient air quality standards for PM2.5, PM10 and SO2 poorly complied with WHO guideline values. The agreement was higher for CO, SO2 (10-min averaging time) and NO2. Regulatory differences mirror the differences in air quality and the related burden of disease around the globe. Governments worldwide should adopt science based air quality standards and clean air management plans to continuously improve air quality locally, nationally, and globally.

  5. 78 FR 34964 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... proposed rule ``Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State... proposed rulemaking proposes to implement the 2008 ozone national ambient air quality standards...

  6. 77 FR 38760 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Particulate Matter; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... revise the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). This action...: Questions concerning the ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter'' proposed rule...

  7. 75 FR 2935 - Extension of Deadline for Promulgating Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 50, 58 and 81 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Final Rule and... Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... promulgating initial area designations for the ozone national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) that...

  8. Pediatric asthma and ambient pollutant levels in industrializing nations.

    PubMed

    Jassal, Mandeep S

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood and its prevalence has been increasing within industrializing nations. The contribution of ambient pollutants to asthma symptomatology has been explored in some countries through epidemiological investigations, molecular analysis and monitoring functional outcomes. The health effects of rising environmental pollution have been of increasing concern in industrializing nations with rising urbanization patterns. This review article provides an overview of the link between pediatric asthma and exposure to rising sources of urban air pollution. It primarily focuses on the asthma-specific effects of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and particulate matter. Worldwide trends of asthma prevalence are also provided which detail the prominent rise in asthma symptoms in many urban areas of Africa, Latin America and Asia. The molecular and functional correlation of ambient pollutants with asthma-specific airway inflammation in the pediatric population are also highlighted. The final aspect of the review considers the correlation of motor vehicle, industrial and cooking energy sources, ascribed as the major emitters among the pollutants in urban settings, with asthma epidemiology in children.

  9. Ambient resonance of Mesa Arch, Canyonlands National Park, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, Alison M.; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Thorne, Michael S.

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed the resonance characteristics of a prominent natural arch in Canyonlands National Park, Mesa Arch, as measured from ambient seismic data. Evaluating spectral and polarization attributes, we distinguished the first four resonant frequencies of the arch, 2.9, 6.0, 6.9, and 8.5 Hz, as well as basic properties of the associated mode shapes. We then affirmed experimental data using 3-D numerical modal analysis, providing estimates of material properties and clarifying vibrational mode shapes. Monitoring resonant frequencies over time, we searched for shifts associated with changing environmental conditions and long-term progressive damage. We measured ~3% direct daily variation in resonant frequency associated with changing rock temperature, thermal stress, and stiffening of the rock matrix. Independent tilt data showed similar diurnal cycles associated with thermoelastic stresses and deformation of the arch. We observed no permanent resonant frequency shifts related to irreversible damage of Mesa Arch during our study period.

  10. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  11. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  12. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  13. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  14. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) is 0.075 parts...

  15. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.16 Section 50.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) The national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead (Pb) and its compounds are 0.15 micrograms per cubic...

  16. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference...

  17. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.16 Section 50.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) The national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead (Pb) and its compounds are 0.15 micrograms per cubic meter...

  18. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference method...

  19. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead and its compounds, measured as elemental lead by a reference method...

  20. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  1. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  2. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  3. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  4. 40 CFR 50.17 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.17 Section 50.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75...

  5. Review of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting a review of the air quality criteria and the primary (health-based) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The major phases of the process for reviewing NAAQS include the following: (1) planning, (2) science assessment, (3) risk and exposure assessment, and (4) policy assessment. As an initial step in the risk and exposure assessment phase, EPA staff has considered the extent to which updated quantitative analyses of NO2 exposures and/or NO2-attributable health risks are warranted in the current review, based on the available scientific evidence and technical information. These considerations focus on the degree to which important uncertainties identified in quantitative analyses from the last review have been addressed by newly available evidence, tools, or information. The purpose of the REA planning document is to present staff's considerations and preliminary conclusions regarding potential updated quantitative analyses in the current review of the primary NO2 NAAQS. Provide opportunity for CASAC feedback on EPA's plans for the risk and exposure assessment for the Nitrogen Oxides NAAQS review

  6. 77 FR 39205 - Public Hearings for Proposed Rules-National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... titled, ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter,'' that is scheduled to be... and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) to...

  7. 76 FR 14812 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Particle National Ambient Air Quality Standards, 110(k)(6) Correction and Technical Correction Related to... the Annual Fine Particles National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-2269...

  8. 78 FR 3085 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ...Based on its review of the air quality criteria and the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM), the EPA is making revisions to the suite of standards for PM to provide requisite protection of public health and welfare and to make corresponding revisions to the data handling conventions for PM and to the ambient air monitoring, reporting, and network design......

  9. 76 FR 8157 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ...Based on its review of the air quality criteria and the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for carbon monoxide (CO), EPA is proposing to retain the current standards. EPA is also proposing changes to the ambient air monitoring requirements for CO including those related to network...

  10. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for carbon monoxide. 50.8 Section 50.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide are: (1) 9 parts per million (10 milligrams per cubic meter) for an 8-hour average...

  11. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for carbon monoxide. 50.8 Section 50.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide are: (1) 9 parts per million (10 milligrams per cubic meter) for an 8-hour average...

  12. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  13. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  14. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  15. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  16. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  17. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  18. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  19. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level...). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as sulfur dioxide by the reference...

  20. 40 CFR 50.5 - National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.5 Section 50.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....5 National secondary ambient air quality standard for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level... than 0.05 ppm shall be rounded up). (b) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the ambient air as...

  1. 76 FR 76972 - Release of Final Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... AGENCY Release of Final Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead... the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead. This document contains the plans for the review of the air quality criteria and national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for lead (Pb). The Pb...

  2. 76 FR 20347 - Release of Draft Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... AGENCY Release of Draft Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead (draft IRP). This document contains the plans for the review of the air quality criteria and national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for lead (Pb). The...

  3. PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE ON ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES FOR SETTING NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverrse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-bas...

  4. PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE ON ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES FOR SETTING NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverrse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-bas...

  5. Estimates of the national benefits and costs of improving ambient air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, G.L.; Bower, B.T.; Lakhani, H.A.

    1983-04-01

    This paper examines the estimates of national benefits and national costs of ambient air quality improvement in the United States for the period 1970 to 1978. Analysis must be at the micro-level for both receptors of pollution and the dischargers of residuals. Section 2 discusses techniques for estimating the national benefits from improving ambient air quality. The literature on national benefits to health (mortality and morbidity) and non-health (avoiding damages to materials, plants, crops, etc.) is critically reviewed in this section. For the period 1970 to 1978, the value of these benefits ranged from about $5 billion to $51 billion, with a point estimate of about $22 billion. The national cost estimates by the Council on Environmental Quality, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and McGraw-Hill are provided in section 2. Cost estimates must include not only the end-of-pipe treatment measures, but also the alternatives: changes in product specification, product mix, processes, etc. These types of responses are not generally considered in estimates of national costs. For the period 1970 to 1978, estimates provided in section 3 of national costs of improving ambient air quality ranged from $8 to $9 billion in 1978 dollars. Section 4 concludes that the national benefits for improving ambient air quality exceed the national costs for the average and the high values of benefits, but not for the low estimates. Section 5 discusses the requirements for establishing a national regional computational framework for estimating national benefits and national costs. 49 references, 2 tables

  6. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  7. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  8. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  9. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  10. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  11. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  12. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone measured by...

  13. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  14. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  15. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...

  16. 76 FR 46083 - Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... of implementing the standards. See generally, Whitman v. American Trucking Associations, 531 U.S. 457... considerations in the promulgation of national ambient air quality standards.'' American Petroleum Institute v... national and international significance; and (3) current and future generations of Americans will...

  17. Estimates of the national benefits and costs of improving ambient air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, G.L.; Bower, B.T.; Lakhani, H.A.

    1983-04-01

    This paper examines the estimates of national benefits and national costs of ambient air quality improvement in the US for the period 1970 to 1978. Analysis must be at the micro-level for both receptors of pollution and the dischargers of residuals. Section 2 discusses techniques for estimating the national benefits from improving ambient air quality. The literature on national benefits to health (mortality and morbidity) and non-health (avoiding damages to materials, plants, crops, etc.) is critically reviewed in this section. For the period 1970 to 1978, the value of these benefits ranged from about $5 billion to $51 billion, with a point estimate of about $22 billion. The national cost estimates by the Council on Environmental Quality, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and McGraw-Hill are provided in section 2. Cost estimates must include not only the end-of-pipe treatment measures, but also the alternatives: changes in product specification, product mix, processes, etc. These types of responses are not generally considered in estimates of national costs of improving ambient air quality ranged from $8 to $9 billion in 1978 dollars. Section 4 concludes that the national benefits for improving ambient air quality exceed the national costs for the average and the high values of benefits, but not for the low estimates.

  18. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues of...

  19. 78 FR 52893 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 70 and 71 RIN 2060-AR34 Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements Correction In proposed rule...

  20. 75 FR 71033 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ...: Protection of Children From Environmental Health and Safety Risks H. Executive Order 13211: Actions That... Agency FR Federal Register FRM Federal Reference Method IQ Intelligence Quotient NAAQS National Ambient... red blood cells. Children are particularly vulnerable to Pb exposure, in part because they are more...

  1. 77 FR 20217 - Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ...This final rule is being issued as required by a consent decree governing the schedule for completion of this review of the air quality criteria and the secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulfur. Based on its review, the EPA is retaining the current nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) secondary......

  2. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). 50.4 Section 50.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Link to an... to or greater than 0.005 ppm shall be rounded up). (c) Sulfur oxides shall be measured in the...

  3. 75 FR 80420 - Reasonable Further Progress Requirements for the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... 1997 8-hour ozone national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). Specifically, EPA is proposing that... nitrogen oxides (NO X )] that contribute to ground-level ozone concentrations. B. What should I consider...

  4. 75 FR 39253 - Release of Second Draft Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... AGENCY Release of Second Draft Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality... Assessment for the Review of the Particulate Matter National Ambient Air Quality Standards--Second External...: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/pm/s_pm_2007_risk.html . The second draft Policy...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead R Appendix R to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS...

  6. 76 FR 48073 - Public Hearing for Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Announcement... titled ``Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur'' which was... ``Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur'' proposed rule should...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data... secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone specified in § 50.10 are met at an ambient ozone...

  12. 75 FR 6473 - Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Dioxide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ...Based on its review of the air quality criteria for oxides of nitrogen and the primary national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen dioxide (NO2), EPA is making revisions to the primary NO2 NAAQS in order to provide requisite protection of public health. Specifically, EPA is establishing a new 1-hour standard at a level of......

  13. The National Ambient Air Monitoring Stategy: Rethinking the Role of National Networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    A current re-engineering of the United States routine ambient monitoring networks intended to improve the balance in addressing both regulatory and scientific objectives is addressed in this paper. Key attributes of these network modifications include the addition of collocated ...

  14. The National Ambient Air Monitoring Stategy: Rethinking the Role of National Networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    A current re-engineering of the United States routine ambient monitoring networks intended to improve the balance in addressing both regulatory and scientific objectives is addressed in this paper. Key attributes of these network modifications include the addition of collocated ...

  15. 75 FR 44790 - Second Draft Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... AGENCY Second Draft Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... Ambient Air Quality Standards--Second External Review Draft. The EPA is extending the comment period for... chapter 4 of the second draft Policy Assessment. The original comment period was to end on August 16,...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  17. 75 FR 1566 - Public Hearings for Reconsideration of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... proposed rule, ``Reconsideration of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone,'' which was... the following Web site: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/ozone/s_o3_cr_fr.html for the...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions... air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air...

  2. A Direct sensitivity approach to predict hourly ozone resulting from compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard

    EPA Science Inventory

    In setting primary ambient air quality standards, the EPA’s responsibility under the law is to establish standards that protect public health. As part of the current review of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), the US EPA evaluated the health exposure and ...

  3. A Direct sensitivity approach to predict hourly ozone resulting from compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard

    EPA Science Inventory

    In setting primary ambient air quality standards, the EPA’s responsibility under the law is to establish standards that protect public health. As part of the current review of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), the US EPA evaluated the health exposure and ...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt... data shall be processed at face value; that is, without any transformation or scaling. Data...

  5. An experimental topographic amplification study at Los Alamos National Laboratory using ambient vibrations

    DOE PAGES

    Stolte, Andrew C.; Cox, Brady R.; Lee, Richard C.

    2017-03-14

    An experimental study aimed at investigating potential topographic amplification of seismic waves was conducted on a 50-m-tall and 185-m-wide soft-rock ridge located at Los Alamos National Laboratory near Los Alamos, New Mexico. Ten portable broadband seismograph stations were placed in arrays across the ridge and left to record ambient vibration data for ~9 hours. Clear evidence of topographic amplification was observed by comparing spectral ratios calculated from ambient noise recordings at the toe, slope, and crest of the instrumented ridge. The inferred resonance frequency of the ridge obtained from the experimental recordings was found to agree well with several simplemore » estimates of the theoretical resonance frequency based on its geometry and stiffness. Results support the feasibility of quantifying the frequency range of topographic amplification solely using ambient vibrations, rather than strong or weak ground motions. Additionally, comparisons have been made between a number of widely used experimental methods for quantifying topographic effects, such as the standard spectral ratio, median reference method, and horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio. As a result, differences in the amplification and frequency range of topographic effects indicated by these methods highlight the importance of choosing a reference condition that is appropriate for the site-specific conditions and goals associated with an experimental topographic amplification study.« less

  6. Workshop in Support of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen (NOx) and Sulfur Oxides (SOx)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing a workshop to discuss policy-relevant science to Inform EPA’s "Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur" report. The workshop is being organized by EPA’s Office of Research and Development’s, Nation...

  7. Workshop in Support of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen (NOx) and Sulfur Oxides (SOx)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing a workshop to discuss policy-relevant science to Inform EPA’s "Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur" report. The workshop is being organized by EPA’s Office of Research and Development’s, Nation...

  8. Transient climate and ambient health impacts due to national solid fuel cookstove emissions.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Forrest G; Henze, Daven K; Lee, Colin J; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V

    2017-02-07

    Residential solid fuel use contributes to degraded indoor and ambient air quality and may affect global surface temperature. However, the potential for national-scale cookstove intervention programs to mitigate the latter issues is not yet well known, owing to the spatial heterogeneity of aerosol emissions and impacts, along with coemitted species. Here we use a combination of atmospheric modeling, remote sensing, and adjoint sensitivity analysis to individually evaluate consequences of a 20-y linear phase-out of cookstove emissions in each country with greater than 5% of the population using solid fuel for cooking. Emissions reductions in China, India, and Ethiopia contribute to the largest global surface temperature change in 2050 [combined impact of -37 mK (11 mK to -85 mK)], whereas interventions in countries less commonly targeted for cookstove mitigation such as Azerbaijan, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan have the largest per cookstove climate benefits. Abatement in China, India, and Bangladesh contributes to the largest reduction of premature deaths from ambient air pollution, preventing 198,000 (102,000-204,000) of the 260,000 (137,000-268,000) global annual avoided deaths in 2050, whereas again emissions in Ukraine and Azerbaijan have the largest per cookstove impacts, along with Romania. Global cookstove emissions abatement results in an average surface temperature cooling of -77 mK (20 mK to -278 mK) in 2050, which increases to -118 mK (-11 mK to -335 mK) by 2100 due to delayed CO2 response. Health impacts owing to changes in ambient particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) amount to ∼22.5 million premature deaths prevented between 2000 and 2100.

  9. Transient climate and ambient health impacts due to national solid fuel cookstove emissions

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, Forrest G.; Henze, Daven K.; Lee, Colin J.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.

    2017-01-01

    Residential solid fuel use contributes to degraded indoor and ambient air quality and may affect global surface temperature. However, the potential for national-scale cookstove intervention programs to mitigate the latter issues is not yet well known, owing to the spatial heterogeneity of aerosol emissions and impacts, along with coemitted species. Here we use a combination of atmospheric modeling, remote sensing, and adjoint sensitivity analysis to individually evaluate consequences of a 20-y linear phase-out of cookstove emissions in each country with greater than 5% of the population using solid fuel for cooking. Emissions reductions in China, India, and Ethiopia contribute to the largest global surface temperature change in 2050 [combined impact of −37 mK (11 mK to −85 mK)], whereas interventions in countries less commonly targeted for cookstove mitigation such as Azerbaijan, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan have the largest per cookstove climate benefits. Abatement in China, India, and Bangladesh contributes to the largest reduction of premature deaths from ambient air pollution, preventing 198,000 (102,000–204,000) of the 260,000 (137,000–268,000) global annual avoided deaths in 2050, whereas again emissions in Ukraine and Azerbaijan have the largest per cookstove impacts, along with Romania. Global cookstove emissions abatement results in an average surface temperature cooling of −77 mK (20 mK to −278 mK) in 2050, which increases to −118 mK (−11 mK to −335 mK) by 2100 due to delayed CO2 response. Health impacts owing to changes in ambient particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) amount to ∼22.5 million premature deaths prevented between 2000 and 2100. PMID:28115698

  10. Ambient noise and temporal patterns of boat activity in the US Virgin Islands National Park.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Maxwell B; Mooney, T Aran

    2015-09-15

    Human activity is contributing increasing noise to marine ecosystems. Recent studies have examined the effects of boat noise on marine fishes, but there is limited understanding of the prevalence of this type of sound source. This investigation tracks vessel noise on three reefs in the US Virgin Islands National Park over four months in 2013. Ambient noise levels ranged from 106 to 129dBrms re 1μPa (100Hz-20kHz). Boat noise occurred in 6-12% of samples. In the presence of boat noise, ambient noise in a low-frequency band (100-1000Hz) increased by >7dB above baseline levels and sound levels were significantly higher. The frequency with the most acoustic energy shifted to a significantly lower frequency when boat noise was present during the day. These results indicate the abundance of boat noise and its overlap with reef organism sound production, raising concern for the communication abilities of these animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., arithmetic mean concentration over a 3-month period, measured in the ambient air as Pb either by: (1) A... primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for Pb are met when the maximum arithmetic 3-month...

  12. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., arithmetic mean concentration over a 3-month period, measured in the ambient air as Pb either by: (1) A... primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for Pb are met when the maximum arithmetic 3-month...

  13. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., arithmetic mean concentration over a 3-month period, measured in the ambient air as Pb either by: (1) A... primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for Pb are met when the maximum arithmetic 3-month...

  14. 75 FR 32178 - Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... final document titled, Quantitative Risk and Exposure Assessment for Carbon Monoxide (REA). The REA describes ] quantitative analyses that have been conducted as part of the review of the National Ambient Air... Standards (Mail code C504-06), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711;...

  15. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion (ppb...

  16. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion (ppb...

  17. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion (ppb...

  18. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion (ppb...

  19. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of the national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion (ppb...

  20. 75 FR 57220 - Rule To Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard: New Source Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 51 RIN 2060-AP30 Rule To Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard: New Source Review Anti-Backsliding Provisions for Former 1-Hour Ozone Standard--Public Hearing... is announcing a public hearing to be held for the proposed ``Rule to Implement the 1997 8-Hour...

  1. 77 FR 42495 - Release of Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... Ozone, First External Review Draft. These two draft assessment documents describe the quantitative analyses the EPA is conducting as part of the review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS... NAAQS,\\3\\ the Agency is conducting quantitative assessments characterizing the: (1) Health...

  2. Estimating contribution of wildland fires to ambient ozone levels in National Parks in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Treesearch

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Shiyuan (Sharon) Zhong; Annie Esperanza; Timothy J. Brown; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Leland Tarnay

    2010-01-01

    Data from four continuous ozone and weather monitoring sites operated by the National Park Service in Sierra Nevada, California, are used to develop an ozone forecasting model and to estimate the contribution of wildland fires on ambient ozone levels. The analyses of weather and ozone data pointed to the transport of ozone precursors from the Central Valley as an...

  3. 75 FR 67361 - Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Carbon Monoxide AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY... final document titled Policy Assessment for the Review of the Carbon Monoxide National Ambient Air... monoxide (CO).\\1\\ The document announced today, Policy Assessment for the Review of the Carbon Monoxide...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Air Quality Standards for PM2.5 N Appendix N to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL.... 50, App. N Appendix N to Part 50—Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2... used for performing calculations in appendix N. It represents data for the primary monitors augmented...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air Quality Standards for Lead R Appendix R to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Lead 1. General. (a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions and computations necessary for determining when the primary and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for lead...

  6. Review of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Dioxide: Risk and Exposure Assessment Planning Document

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting a review of the air quality criteria and the primary (health-based) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The major phases of the process for reviewing NAAQS include the following: (...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air Quality Standards for PM2.5 N Appendix N to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL.... 50, App. N Appendix N to Part 50—Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2...) for the annual creditable number of samples for year y (cny). The corresponding “n” value in the...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Standards for PM2.5 N Appendix N to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL.... 50, App. N Appendix N to Part 50—Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2...) for the annual creditable number of samples for year y (cny). The corresponding “n” value in the right...

  9. 76 FR 59599 - Extension of Comment Period for Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... comment period for the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur... Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur'' proposed rule should be addressed to Rich Scheffe, U.S....

  10. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General This appendix explains how to... associated examples are contained in the “Guideline for Interpretation of Ozone Air Quality Standards.”...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General This appendix explains how to... associated examples are contained in the “Guideline for Interpretation of Ozone Air Quality Standards.”...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General This appendix explains how to... associated examples are contained in the “Guideline for Interpretation of Ozone Air Quality Standards.”...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General This appendix explains how to... associated examples are contained in the “Guideline for Interpretation of Ozone Air Quality Standards.”...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection of... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General This appendix explains how to... associated examples are contained in the “Guideline for Interpretation of Ozone Air Quality Standards.”...

  15. The impact of background ozone on compliance with revised National Ambient Air Quality Standards.

    PubMed

    Williams, David J; Potter, William T; Clarkson, William W; Sanders, Dee A; Stevens, John E

    2009-01-01

    The National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ground-level ozone, previously set as an 8-hr average of 0.08 parts per million (ppm), has been revised by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Historically, background concentrations originating from non-local sources were not considered to be a major constituent of ground-level ozone. However, previous research has shown that background ozone concentrations often exceed the new 8-hr NAAQS of 0.075 ppm, and that high background concentrations are particularly troublesome in the mid-latitudes. This study measured ozone at ground level and at 210 m above ground level in Tulsa, OK (36 degrees N, 96 degrees W), from June 1 to November 30, 2005. Background ozone concentrations as high as 0.05 ppm were recorded, and substantial variability was observed in conjunction with the polar jet stream and the seasonal influence of large-scale subtropical high pressure at the study location. Additionally, the highest observed background concentrations coincided with maximum photochemical generation at ground level. On the basis of the magnitude and variability of background ozone, a more stringent 8-hr ozone standard will be difficult for local or regional regulatory agencies to meet. A clear understanding of the impacts of background ozone will be required to make and meet new State Implementation Plans (SIPs).

  16. Integrating Susceptibility into Environmental Policy: An Analysis of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Lead

    PubMed Central

    Chari, Ramya; Burke, Thomas A.; White, Ronald H.; Fox, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    Susceptibility to chemical toxins has not been adequately addressed in risk assessment methodologies. As a result, environmental policies may fail to meet their fundamental goal of protecting the public from harm. This study examines how characterization of risk may change when susceptibility is explicitly considered in policy development; in particular we examine the process used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set a National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for lead. To determine a NAAQS, EPA estimated air lead-related decreases in child neurocognitive function through a combination of multiple data elements including concentration-response (CR) functions. In this article, we present alternative scenarios for determining a lead NAAQS using CR functions developed in populations more susceptible to lead toxicity due to socioeconomic disadvantage. The use of CR functions developed in susceptible groups resulted in cognitive decrements greater than original EPA estimates. EPA’s analysis suggested that a standard level of 0.15 µg/m3 would fulfill decision criteria, but by incorporating susceptibility we found that options for the standard could reasonably be extended to lower levels. The use of data developed in susceptible populations would result in the selection of a more protective NAAQS under the same decision framework applied by EPA. Results are used to frame discussion regarding why cumulative risk assessment methodologies are needed to help inform policy development. PMID:22690184

  17. Evaluation of the causal framework used for setting national ambient air quality standards.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Julie E; Prueitt, Robyn L; Sax, Sonja N; Bailey, Lisa A; Rhomberg, Lorenz R

    2013-11-01

    Abstract A scientifically sound assessment of the potential hazards associated with a substance requires a systematic, objective and transparent evaluation of the weight of evidence (WoE) for causality of health effects. We critically evaluated the current WoE framework for causal determination used in the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) assessments of the scientific data on air pollutants for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) review process, including its methods for literature searches; study selection, evaluation and integration; and causal judgments. The causal framework used in recent NAAQS evaluations has many valuable features, but it could be more explicit in some cases, and some features are missing that should be included in every WoE evaluation. Because of this, it has not always been applied consistently in evaluations of causality, leading to conclusions that are not always supported by the overall WoE, as we demonstrate using EPA's ozone Integrated Science Assessment as a case study. We propose additions to the NAAQS causal framework based on best practices gleaned from a previously conducted survey of available WoE frameworks. A revision of the NAAQS causal framework so that it more closely aligns with these best practices and the full and consistent application of the framework will improve future assessments of the potential health effects of criteria air pollutants by making the assessments more thorough, transparent, and scientifically sound.

  18. Research on ambient temperature passive magnetic bearings at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.; Ryitov, D.D.` Smith, J.R.; Tung, L.S.

    1997-04-01

    Research performed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the equilibrium and stability of a new class of ambient-temperature passive bearing systems is described. The basic concepts involved are: (1) Stability of the rotating system is only achieved in the rotating state. That is, disengaging mechanical systems are used to insure stable levitation at rest (when Earnshaw`s theorem applies). (2) Stable levitation by passive magnetic elements can be achieved if the vector sum of the force derivatives of the several elements of the system is net negative (i.e. restoring) for axial, transverse, and tilt-type perturbations from equilibrium. To satisfy the requirements of (2) using only permanent magnet elements we have employed periodic ``Halbach arrays.`` These interact with passive inductive loaded circuits and act as stabilizers, with the primary forces arising from axially symmetric permanent-magnet elements. Stabilizers and other elements needed to create compact passive magnetic bearing systems have been constructed. Novel passive means for stabilizing classes of rotor-dynamic instabilities in such systems have also been investigated.

  19. Table of Historical Carbon Monoxide (CO) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    See the history of limits to the level of carbon monoxide (CO) in ambient air, set through the NAAQS review and rulemaking process under the Clean Air Act. This includes both primary and secondary standards.

  20. Table of Historical Nitrogen Dioxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    See the history of limits to the level of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air, set through the NAAQS review and rulemaking process under the Clean Air Act. This includes both primary and secondary standards.

  1. Table of Historical Sulfur Dioxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    See the history of limits to the level of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in ambient air, set through the NAAQS review and rulemaking process under the Clean Air Act. This includes both primary and secondary standards.

  2. Analysis of primary fine particle national ambient air quality standard metrics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip R S; Graham, John J

    2006-02-01

    In accordance with the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently reviewing its National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter, which are required to provide an adequate margin of safety to populations, including susceptible subgroups. Based on the latest scientific, health, and technical information about particle pollution, EPA staff recommends establishing more protective health-based fine particle standards. Since the last standards review, epidemiologic studies have continued to find associations between short-term and long-term exposure to particulate matter and cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality at current pollution levels. This study analyzed the spatial and temporal variability of fine particulate (PM2.5) monitoring data for the Northeast and the continental United States to assess the protectiveness of various levels, forms, and combinations of 24-hr and annual health-based standards currently recommended by EPA staff and the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee. Recommended standards have the potential for modest or substantial increases in protection in the Northeast, ranging from an additional 13-83% of the population of the region who are living in areas not likely to meet new standards and thereby benefiting from compliance with more protective air pollution controls. Within recommended standard ranges, an optimal 24-hr (98th percentile)/annual standard suite occurs at 30/12 microg/m3, providing short- and long-term health protection for a substantial percentage of both Northeast (84%) and U.S. (78%) populations. In addition, the Northeast region will not benefit as widely as the nation as a whole if less stringent standards are selected. Should the 24-hr (98th percentile) standard be set at 35 microg/m3, Northeast and U.S. populations will receive 16-48% and 7-17% less protection than a 30 microg/m3 standard, respectively, depending on the level of the annual standard. A 30/12 microg/m3 standard

  3. National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Lead (Pb) and Implementation Plans for Lead NAAQS: 1978 Final Rule (43 FR 46246 & 46264)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is a copy of the Federal Register publication of the October 5, 1978 Final Rules for National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead (Pb) and Implementation Plans for Lead (Pb) NAAQS.

  4. Fact Sheets on Review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone Staff Papers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The second draft Staff Paper points to an expanded body of health effects evidence suggesting a wide range of adverse health effects associated with exposure to ambient ozone. This is part of the process for review of the NAAQS for ground-level ozone.

  5. REVIEW OF NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS (NAAQS) FOR CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) - EXPOSURE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the review process, a CO Exposure Analysis will also be conducted to assess the extent of human exposure posed by current ambient CO concentrations and, upon meeting the current CO NAAQS. The results of this analysis will be incorporated into the Staff Paper. (This w...

  6. Summary of available state ambient stream-water-quality data, 1990-98, and limitations for national assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Larry M.; Rosner, Stacy M.; Hoffman, Darren C.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2004-01-01

    The investigation described in this report summarized data from State ambient stream-water-quality monitoring sites for 10 water-quality constituents or measurements (suspended solids, fecal coliform bacteria, ammonia as nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total phosphorus, total arsenic, dissolved solids, chloride, sulfate, and pH). These 10 water-quality constituents or measurements commonly are listed nationally as major contributors to degradation of surface water. Water-quality data were limited to that electronically accessible from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Storage and Retrieval System (STORET), the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System (NWIS), or individual State databases. Forty-two States had ambient stream-water-quality data electronically accessible for some or all of the constituents or measurements summarized during this investigation. Ambient in this report refers to data collected for the purpose of evaluating stream ecosystems in relation to human health, environmental and ecological conditions, and designated uses. Generally, data were from monitoring sites assessed for State 305(b) reports. Comparisons of monitoring data among States are problematic for several reasons, including differences in the basic spatial design of monitoring networks; water-quality constituents for which samples are analyzed; water-quality criteria to which constituent concentrations are compared; quantity and comprehensiveness of water-quality data; sample collection, processing, and handling; analytical methods; temporal variability in sample collection; and quality-assurance practices. Large differences among the States in number of monitoring sites precluded a general assumption that statewide water-quality conditions were represented by data from these sites. Furthermore, data from individual monitoring sites may not represent water-quality conditions at the sites because sampling conditions and protocols are unknown. Because

  7. Particulate matter concentration in ambient air and its effects on lung functions among residents in the National Capital Region, India.

    PubMed

    Kesavachandran, C; Pangtey, B S; Bihari, V; Fareed, M; Pathak, M K; Srivastava, A K; Mathur, N

    2013-02-01

    The World Health Organization has estimated that air pollution is responsible for 1.4 % of all deaths and 0.8 % of disability-adjusted life years. NOIDA, located at the National Capital Region, India, was declared as one of the critically air-polluted areas by the Central Pollution Control Board of the Government of India. Studies on the relationship of reduction in lung functions of residents living in areas with higher concentrations of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air were inconclusive since the subjects of most of the studies are hospital admission cases. Very few studies, including one from India, have shown the relationship of PM concentration and its effects of lung functions in the same location. Hence, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to study the effect of particulate matter concentration in ambient air on the lung functions of residents living in a critically air-polluted area in India. PM concentrations in ambient air (PM(1,) PM(2.5)) were monitored at residential locations and identified locations with higher (NOIDA) and lower concentrations (Gurgaon). Lung function tests (FEV(1), PEFR) were conducted using a spirometer in 757 residents. Both air monitoring and lung function tests were conducted on the same day. Significant negative linear relationship exists between higher concentrations of PM(1) with reduced FEV(1) and increased concentrations of PM(2.5) with reduced PEFR and FEV(1). The study shows that reductions in lung functions (PEFR and FEV(1)) can be attributed to higher particulate matter concentrations in ambient air. Decline in airflow obstruction in subjects exposed to high PM concentrations can be attributed to the fibrogenic response and associated airway wall remodeling. The study suggests the intervention of policy makers and stake holders to take necessary steps to reduce the emissions of PM concentrations, especially PM(1,) PM(2.5), which can lead to serious respiratory health concerns in residents.

  8. A direct sensitivity approach to predict hourly ozone resulting from compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard.

    PubMed

    Simon, Heather; Baker, Kirk R; Akhtar, Farhan; Napelenok, Sergey L; Possiel, Norm; Wells, Benjamin; Timin, Brian

    2013-03-05

    In setting primary ambient air quality standards, the EPA's responsibility under the law is to establish standards that protect public health. As part of the current review of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), the US EPA evaluated the health exposure and risks associated with ambient ozone pollution using a statistical approach to adjust recent air quality to simulate just meeting the current standard level, without specifying emission control strategies. One drawback of this purely statistical concentration rollback approach is that it does not take into account spatial and temporal heterogeneity of ozone response to emissions changes. The application of the higher-order decoupled direct method (HDDM) in the community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model is discussed here to provide an example of a methodology that could incorporate this variability into the risk assessment analyses. Because this approach includes a full representation of the chemical production and physical transport of ozone in the atmosphere, it does not require assumed background concentrations, which have been applied to constrain estimates from past statistical techniques. The CMAQ-HDDM adjustment approach is extended to measured ozone concentrations by determining typical sensitivities at each monitor location and hour of the day based on a linear relationship between first-order sensitivities and hourly ozone values. This approach is demonstrated by modeling ozone responses for monitor locations in Detroit and Charlotte to domain-wide reductions in anthropogenic NOx and VOCs emissions. As seen in previous studies, ozone response calculated using HDDM compared well to brute-force emissions changes up to approximately a 50% reduction in emissions. A new stepwise approach is developed here to apply this method to emissions reductions beyond 50% allowing for the simulation of more stringent reductions in ozone concentrations. Compared to previous rollback methods, this

  9. Estimating contribution of wildland fires to ambient ozone levels in National Parks in the Sierra Nevada, California.

    PubMed

    Preisler, Haiganoush K; Zhong, Shiyuan Sharon; Esperanza, Annie; Brown, Timothy J; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Tarnay, Leland

    2010-03-01

    Data from four continuous ozone and weather monitoring sites operated by the National Park Service in Sierra Nevada, California, are used to develop an ozone forecasting model and to estimate the contribution of wildland fires on ambient ozone levels. The analyses of weather and ozone data pointed to the transport of ozone precursors from the Central Valley as an important source of pollution in these National Parks. Comparisons of forecasted and observed values demonstrated that accurate forecasts of next-day hourly ozone levels may be achieved by using a time series model with historic averages, expected local weather and modeled PM values as explanatory variables. Results on fire smoke influence indicated occurrence of significant increases in average ozone levels with increasing fire activity. The overall effect on diurnal ozone values, however, was small when compared with the amount of variability attributed to sources other than fire.

  10. Applicability of ambient toxicity testing to national or regional water-quality assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Comprehensive assessment of the quality of natural waters requires a multifaceted approach. Based on experimentation designed to monitor responses of organisms to environmental stresses, toxicity testing may have diverse purposes in water quality assessments. These purposes may include identification that warrant further study because of poor water quality or unusual ecological features, verification of other types of monitoring, or assessment of contaminant effects on aquatic communities. A wide variety of toxicity test methods have been developed to fulfill the needs of diverse applications. The methods differ primarily in the full selections made relative to four characteristics: (1) test species, (2) endpoints (acute or chronic), (3) test enclosure type, and (4) test substance (toxicant) that functions as the environmental stress. Toxicity test approachs vary in their capacity to meet the needs of large-scale assessments of existing water quality. Ambient testing is more likely to meet these needs than are the procedures that call for exposure of the test organisms to known concentrations of a single toxicant. However, meaningful interpretation of ambient test results depend on the existence of accompanying chemical analysis of the ambient media. The ambient test substance may be water or sediments. Sediment tests have had limited application, but they are useful because of the fact that most toxicants tend to accumulate in sediments, and many test species either inhabit the sediments or are in frequent contact with them. Biochemical testing methods, which have been developing rapidly in recent years, are likely to be among the most useful procedures for large-scale water quality assessments. They are relatively rapid and simple, and more importantly, they focus on biochemical changes that are the initial responses of virtually all organisms to environmental stimuli. Most species are sensitive to relatively few toxicants and their sensitivities vary as

  11. Prioritization of constituents for national- and regional-scale ambient monitoring of water and sediment in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Valder, Joshua F.; Carter, Janet M.; Zogorski, John S.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2,541 constituents were evaluated and prioritized for national- and regional-scale ambient monitoring of water and sediment in the United States. This prioritization was done by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in preparation for the upcoming third decade (Cycle 3; 2013–23) of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. This report provides the methods used to prioritize the constituents and the results of that prioritization. Constituents were prioritized by the NAWQA National Target Analyte Strategy (NTAS) work group on the basis of available information on physical and chemical properties, observed or predicted environmental occurrence and fate, and observed or anticipated adverse effects on human health or aquatic life. Constituents were evaluated within constituent groups that were determined on the basis of physical or chemical properties or on uses or sources. Some constituents were evaluated within more than one constituent group. Although comparable objectives were used in the prioritization of constituents within the different constituent groups, differences in the availability of information accessed for each constituent group led to the development of separate prioritization approaches adapted to each constituent group to make best use of available resources. Constituents were assigned to one of three prioritization tiers: Tier 1, those having the highest priority for inclusion in ambient monitoring of water or sediment on a national or regional scale (including NAWQA Cycle 3 monitoring) on the basis of their likelihood of environmental occurrence in ambient water or sediment, or likelihood of effects on human health or aquatic life; Tier 2, those having intermediate priority for monitoring on the basis of their lower likelihood of environmental occurrence or lower likelihood of effects on human health or aquatic life; and Tier 3, those having low or no priority for monitoring on the basis of evidence of nonoccurrence or lack of

  12. Applicability of ambient toxicity testing to national or regional water-quality assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, John F.

    1990-01-01

    Comprehensive assessment of the quality of natural waters requires a multifaceted approach. Descriptions of existing conditions may be achieved by various kinds of chemical and hydrologic analyses, whereas information about the effects of such conditions on living organisms depends on biological monitoring. Toxicity testing is one type of biological monitoring that can be used to identify possible effects of toxic contaminants. Based on experimentation designed to monitor responses of organisms to environmental stresses, toxicity testing may have diverse purposes in water-quality assessments. These purposes may include identification of areas that warrant further study because of poor water quality or unusual ecological features, verification of other types of monitoring, or assessment of contaminant effects on aquatic communities. Toxicity-test results are most effective when used as a complement to chemical analyses, hydrologic measurements, and other biological monitoring. However, all toxicity-testing procedures have certain limitations that must be considered in developing the methodology and applications of toxicity testing in any large-scale water-quality-assessment program. A wide variety of toxicity-test methods have been developed to fulfill the needs of diverse applications. The methods differ primarily in the selections made relative to four characteristics: (1) test species, (2) endpoint (acute or chronic), (3) test-enclosure type, and (4) test substance (toxicant) that functions as the environmental stress. Toxicity-test approaches vary in their capacity to meet the needs of large-scale assessments of existing water quality. Ambient testing, whereby the test organism is exposed to naturally occurring substances that contain toxicant mixtures in an organic or inorganic matrix, is more likely to meet these needs than are procedures that call for exposure of the test organisms to known concentrations of a single toxicant. However, meaningful

  13. Chronology of the US national ambient air quality standards. Supplemental tables to A&WMA 2007 Critical Review: Will the circle be unbroken: a history of the U.S. national ambient air quality standards

    SciTech Connect

    John Bachmann

    2007-06-15

    These tables summarize salient aspects of the chronology of the development and periodic revisions of the seven pollutants for which the US Environmental Protection Agency has produced air quality criteria and national ambient air quality standards (NAAAQS) since passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970. They are intended to provide reference and background to the main body of the 2007 Critical Review. They highlight when key steps in the criteria and NAAQS process occurred and highlight some of the key factors underlying the decisions. Particulates chronicled are: particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone and photochemical oxidants, hydrocarbons, nitrogen dioxide, and lead. The tables are only available to subscribers of the Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association and were issued with the June 2007 issue, vol. 57, No. 6. 259 refs., 7 tabs.

  14. Will the circle be unbroken: a history of the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, John

    2007-06-01

    In celebration of the 100th anniversary of the Air & Waste Management Association, this review examines the history of air quality management (AQM) in the United States over the last century, with an emphasis on the ambient standards programs established by the landmark 1970 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments. The current CAA system is a hybrid of several distinct air pollution control philosophies, including the recursive or circular system driven by ambient standards. Although this evolving system has resulted in tremendous improvements in air quality, it has been far from perfect in terms of timeliness and effectiveness. The paper looks at several periods in the history of the U.S. program, including: (1) 1900-1970, spanning the early smoke abatement and smog control programs, the first federal involvement, and the development of a hybrid AQM approach in the 1970 CAA; (2) 1971-1976, when the first National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) were set and implemented; (3) 1977-1993, a period of the first revisions to the standards, new CAA Amendments, delays in implementation and decision-making, and key science/policy/legislative developments that would alter both the focus and scale of air pollution programs and how they are implemented; and (4) 1993-2006, the second and third wave of NAAQS revisions and their implementation in the context of the 1990 CAA. This discussion examines where NAAQS have helped drive implementation programs and how improvements in both effects and air quality/control sciences influenced policy and legislation to enhance the effectiveness of the system over time. The review concludes with a look toward the future of AQM, emphasizing challenges and ways to meet them. The most significant of these is the need to make more efficient progress toward air quality goals, while adjusting the system to address the growing intersections between air quality management and climate change.

  15. A method to predict PM2.5 resulting from compliance with national ambient air quality standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, James T.; Reff, Adam; Gantt, Brett

    2017-08-01

    Area-wide composite monitor time series of daily PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μm) that correspond to just meeting U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) have been used in risk assessments conducted during periodic reviews of PM NAAQS by U.S. EPA. Such time series were developed by adjusting ambient PM2.5 over an area according to a prescribed spatial pattern. A new technique for this purpose based on photochemical grid modeling for the continental U.S. is demonstrated here. The method uses a spatial prediction model to impute missing data and PM2.5 relative response factors based on simulations with reductions in anthropogenic emissions of primary PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursors (i.e., NOx and SO2). Case study results indicate that relatively urban sites are generally more responsive to primary PM2.5 reductions, while outlying sites are more responsive to NOx and SO2 reductions. The method enables the sensitivity of outcomes to be examined by quickly implementing PM2.5 adjustments based on different combinations of primary PM2.5 and NOx and SO2 emission reductions for areas of the U.S.

  16. Carbon monoxide analysis of future attainment of the NAAQS (National Ambient Air Quality Standard) in Wichita, Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schewe, G. J.

    1985-06-01

    In order to comply with the NAAQS for CO in Wichita, Kansas, a special study was performed to demonstrate that CO concentrations at a special purpose monitor (SPM) located near Douglas and Main Streets would give results less than the NAAQS by 1987. The SPM site is located near the urban core in an area characterized by high nighttime traffic volumes and congested traffic flow. A dispersion modeling analysis was performed using the CALINE-3 Model for dispersion, the MOBILE-3 Model for vehicle emissions and local or national traffic and ambient conditions. Results of modeling the SPM site for baseline (1983) emissions were calibrated with maximum measured CO concentrations. Several scenarios were analyzed in this analysis including with and without the inspection/maintenance program and with and without the left-turn ban from Douglas to Main Streets.

  17. Areas Nacionales de Estudio Ambiental: Una Guia. (National Environmental Study Area: A Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This booklet, the Spanish version of SE 014 817, is a guide for teachers and resource managers who are interested in establishing National Environmental Study Areas (NESA) or interested in receiving NESA recognition for their on-going environmental study area programs. It outlines the characteristics and procedures of the program; the nature,…

  18. NAAQS (National Ambient Air Quality Standards) exposure model (NEM) applied to carbon monoxide: addendum. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, R.A.; Johnson, T.

    1985-04-01

    The report describes the results obtained when the carbon monoxide (CO) version of NEM is used to estimate national exposures associated with attaining the current CO standard (9 ppm, one observed exceedance). This standard was not analyzed in the basic report of the same title (EPA-450/5-83-003). NEM is a simulation model that simulates the intersection of a population with pollutant concentrations over space and time to estimate exposures that would obtain if various alternative NAAQs were just met. Estimates are presented for adults with cardiovascular disease in four urban study areas and for a nationwide extrapolation.

  19. Nonradioactive Ambient Air Monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2001--2002

    SciTech Connect

    E. Gladney; J.Dewart, C.Eberhart; J.Lochamy

    2004-09-01

    During the spring of 2000, the Cerro Grande forest fire reached Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and ignited both above-ground vegetation and disposed materials in several landfills. During and after the fire, there was concern about the potential human health impacts from chemicals emitted by the combustion of these Laboratory materials. Consequently, short-term, intensive air-monitoring studies were performed during and shortly after the fire. Unlike the radiological data from many years of AIRNET sampling, LANL did not have an adequate database of nonradiological species under baseline conditions with which to compare data collected during the fire. Therefore, during 2001 the Meteorology and Air Quality Group designed and implemented a new air-monitoring program, entitled NonRadNET, to provide nonradiological background data under normal conditions. The objectives of NonRadNET were to: (1) develop the capability for collecting nonradiological air-monitoring data, (2) conduct monitoring to develop a database of typical background levels of selected nonradiological species in the communities nearest the Laboratory, and (3) determine LANL's potential contribution to nonradiological air pollution in the surrounding communities. NonRadNET ended in late December 2002 with five quarters of data. The purpose of this paper is to organize and describe the NonRadNET data collected over 2001-2002 to use as baseline data, either for monitoring during a fire, some other abnormal event, or routine use. To achieve that purpose, in this paper we will: (1) document the NonRadNET program procedures, methods, and quality management, (2) describe the usual origins and uses of the species measured, (3) compare the species measured to LANL and other area emissions, (4) present the five quarters of data, (5) compare the data to known typical environmental values, and (6) evaluate the data against exposure standards.

  20. Are the elements of the proposed ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards informed by the best available science?

    PubMed

    Goodman, Julie E; Sax, Sonja N; Lange, Sabine; Rhomberg, Lorenz R

    2015-06-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) issues National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six criteria pollutants, including ozone. Each standard has four elements: an indicator, level, averaging time, and form. Ozone levels (i.e., air concentrations) alone in scientific studies are not directly comparable to the "level" element of the NAAQS because the standard considers the level in the context of its relation to the remaining elements. Failure to appreciate this has led to misunderstandings regarding NAAQS that would be health-protective. This can be seen with controlled human ozone exposure studies, which often involved small numbers of people exercising quasi-continuously for a long duration at an intensity not common in the general population (and unlikely achievable by most sensitive individuals), under worst-case exposure profiles. In addition, epidemiology studies have used different averaging times and have had methodological limitations that may have biased results. Such considerations can make it difficult to compare ozone levels and results across studies and to appropriately apply them in a NAAQS evaluation. Relating patterns and circumstances of exposure, and exposure measurements, to all elements of the NAAQS can be challenging, but if US EPA fully undertook this, it would be evident that available evidence does not indicate that proposed lower ozone standards would be more health protective than the current one.

  1. Do US Ambient Air Lead Levels Have a Significant Impact on Childhood Blood Lead Levels: Results of a National Study

    PubMed Central

    Brink, LuAnn L.; Talbott, Evelyn O.; Sharma, Ravi K.; Marsh, Gary M.; Wu, Wen Chi; Rager, Judith R.; Strosnider, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Although lead paint and leaded gasoline have not been used in the US for thirty years, thousands of US children continue to have blood lead levels (BLLs) of concern. Methods. We investigated the potential association of modeled air lead levels and BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL using a large CDC database with BLLs on children aged 0–3 years. Percent of children with BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL (2000–2007) by county and proportion of pre-50 housing and SES variables were merged with the US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) modeled air lead data. Results. The proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 1.24% in the highest air lead counties, and the proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.36% in the lowest air lead counties, resulting in a crude prevalence ratio of 3.4. Further analysis using multivariate negative binomial regression revealed that NATA lead was a significant predictor of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL after controlling for percent pre-l950 housing, percent rural, and percent black. A geospatial regression revealed that air lead, percent older housing, and poverty were all significant predictors of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions. More emphasis should be given to potential sources of ambient air lead near residential areas. PMID:23983719

  2. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Interpretation of the Primary... be submitted to EPA's Air Quality System (AQS), or otherwise available to EPA, meeting the...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Interpretation of the Primary... be submitted to EPA's Air Quality System (AQS), or otherwise available to EPA, meeting the...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Interpretation of the Primary... be submitted to EPA's Air Quality System (AQS), or otherwise available to EPA, meeting the...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Interpretation of the Primary... be submitted to EPA's Air Quality System (AQS), or otherwise available to EPA, meeting the...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Interpretation of the Primary... be submitted to EPA's Air Quality System (AQS), or otherwise available to EPA, meeting the...

  7. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to establish national ambient air quality standards and to regulate as necessary, hazardous air pollutants. EPA uses ambient air monitoring to determine current air quality conditions, and to assess progress toward meeting these standards and relat...

  8. Role of science and judgment in setting national ambient air quality standards: how low is low enough?

    PubMed

    McClellan, Roger O

    2012-06-01

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires listing as criteria air pollutants those pollutants that arise from multiple sources and are found across the United States. The original list included carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, photochemical oxidants (later regulated as ozone), and hydrocarbons. Later, the listing of hydrocarbons was revoked and lead was listed. The CAA requires the EPA Administrator to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for these pollutants using the "latest scientific knowledge" at levels that, in the judgment of the Administrator, are "requisite to protect public health" while "allowing an adequate margin of safety" without considering the cost of implementing the NAAQS. The NAAQS are set using scientific knowledge to inform the Administrator's policy judgments on each NAAQS. Recently, there has been increasing tension and debate over the role of scientific knowledge versus policy judgment in the setting of NAAQS. This paper reviews key elements of this debate drawing on the opinion of Supreme Court Justice Stephen Breyer, in Whitman v. American Trucking Associations, to resolve the conundrum posed by the CAA language. I conclude that scientists should carefully distinguish between their interpretations of scientific knowledge on specific pollutants and their personal preferences as to a given policy outcome (i.e., specific level and form of the NAAQS), recognizing that these are policy judgments as to acceptable levels of risk if the science does not identify a threshold level below which there are no identifiable health risks. These policy judgments are exclusively delegated by the CAA to the EPA Administrator who needs to articulate the basis for their policy judgments on the level and form of the NAAQS and associated level of acceptable risk.

  9. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) annual arithmetic mean concentration, and 65 µg/m3 24-hour average concentration measured in the ambient... chapter. (b) The annual primary and secondary PM2.5 standards are met when the annual arithmetic mean...

  10. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) annual arithmetic mean concentration, and 65 µg/m3 24-hour average concentration measured in the ambient... chapter. (b) The annual primary and secondary PM2.5 standards are met when the annual arithmetic mean...

  11. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) annual arithmetic mean concentration, and 65 µg/m3 24-hour average concentration measured in the ambient... chapter. (b) The annual primary and secondary PM2.5 standards are met when the annual arithmetic mean...

  12. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) annual arithmetic mean concentration, and 65 µg/m3 24-hour average concentration measured in the ambient... chapter. (b) The annual primary and secondary PM2.5 standards are met when the annual arithmetic mean...

  13. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) annual arithmetic mean concentration, and 65 µg/m3 24-hour average concentration measured in the ambient... chapter. (b) The annual primary and secondary PM2.5 standards are met when the annual arithmetic mean...

  14. Review of the national ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide assessment of scientific and technical information. OAQPS staff paper. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, D.J.; McCurdy, T.R.; Richmond, H.M.

    1992-08-01

    The paper evaluates and interprets the updated scientific and technical information that EPA staff believes is most relevant to the review of primary (health) national ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. The assessment is intended to bridge the gap between the scientific review in the EPA criteria document for carbon monoxide and the judgements required of the Administrator in setting ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. The major recommendations of the staff paper include the following: (1) There continues to be a need to control ambient levels of carbon monoxide to protect public health; (2) Both 1-hour and 8-hour averaging times should be retained for primary carbon monoxide standards; (3) Exposure analysis results indicate relatively few individuals with angina pectoris would experience carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels of 2.1% or greater when exposed to carbon monoxide levels in ambient air only if current standards are attained; (4) Public health risk for COHb levels of 2.0% or lower appears to be small, if any; (5) Current 1-hour (35 ppm) and 8-hour (9 ppm) standards for carbon monoxide should be reaffirmed.

  15. Using National Ambient Air Quality Standards for fine particulate matter to assess regional wildland fire smoke and air quality management.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Don; Cisneros, Ricardo; Traina, Samuel; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A; Shaw, Glenn

    2017-10-01

    Wildland fire is an important ecological process in the California Sierra Nevada. Personal accounts from pre-20th century describe a much smokier environment than present day. The policy of suppression beginning in the early 20th century and climate change are contributing to increased megafires. We use a single particulate monitoring site at the wildland urban interface to explore impacts from prescribed, managed, and full suppression wildland fires from 2006 to 2015 producing a contextual assessment of smoke impacts over time at the landscape level. Prescribed fire had little effect on local fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality with readings typical of similar non-fire times; hourly and daily good to moderate Air Quality Index (AQI) for PM2.5, maximum hourly concentrations 21-103 μg m(-3), and mean concentrations between 7.7 and 13.2 μg m(-3). Hourly and daily AQI was typically good or moderate during managed fires with 3 h and one day reaching unhealthy while the site remained below National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), with maximum hourly concentrations 27-244 μg m(-3), and mean concentrations 6.7-11.7 μg m(-3). The large high intensity fire in this area created the highest short term impacts (AQI unhealthy for 4 h and very unhealthy for 1 h), 11 unhealthy for sensitive days, and produced the only annual value (43.9 μg m(-3)) over the NAAQS 98th percentile for PM2.5 (35 μg m(-3)). Pinehurst remained below the federal standards for PM2.5 when wildland fire in the local area was managed to 7800 ha (8-22% of the historic burn area). Considering air quality impacts from smoke using the NAAQS at a landscape level over time can give land and air managers a metric for broader evaluation of smoke impacts particularly when assessing ecologically beneficial fire. Allowing managers to control the amount and timing of individual wildland fire emissions can help lessen large smoke impacts to public health from a megafire. Published by

  16. Fine particulate matter national ambient air quality standards: public health impact on populations in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip R S; Graham, John J

    2005-09-01

    In this article we identify the magnitude of general and susceptible populations within the northeastern United States that would benefit from compliance with alternative U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) annual and 24-hr mass-based standards for particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5). Understanding the scale of susceptibility in relation to the stringency or protectiveness of PM standards is important to achieving the public health protection required by the Clean Air Act of 1970. Evaluative tools are therefore necessary to place into regulatory context available health and monitoring data appropriate to the current review of the PM National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Within the New England, New Jersey, and New York study area, 38% of the total population are < 18 or > or =65 years of age, 4-18% of adults have cardiopulmonary or diabetes health conditions, 12-15% of children have respiratory allergies or lifetime asthma, and 72% of all persons (across child, adult, and elderly age groups) live in densely populated urban areas with elevated PM2.5 concentrations likely creating heightened exposure scenarios. The analysis combined a number of data sets to show that compliance with a range of alternative annual and 24-hr PM2.5 standard groupings would affect a large fraction of the total population in the Northeast. This work finds that current PM2.5 standards in the eight-state study area affect only 16% of the general population, who live in counties that do not meet the existing annual/24-hr standard of 15/65 microg/m3. More protective PM2.5 standards recommended or enacted by California and Canada would protect 84-100% of the Northeast population. Standards falling within current ranges recommended by the U.S. EPA would protect 29-100% of the Northeast population. These considerations suggest that the size of general and susceptible populations affected by the stringency of alternative PM standards has

  17. 76 FR 58509 - Release of Risk and Exposure Assessment Planning Document for the Review of the National Ambient...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Air Quality Standards for Lead AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead: Risk and Exposure Assessment Planning Document (REA Planning... external review draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for this review (Lead Integrated Science...

  18. Preliminary information on ambient concentrations measured at the Las Vegas National Near-Road MSAT study site

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides preliminary information on the trends in ambient concentrations observed near a heavily traveled highway in Las Vegas, Nevada. As part of a joint effort by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Federal Highway Administration, an air monitoring pro...

  19. Preliminary information on ambient concentrations measured at the Las Vegas National Near-Road MSAT study site

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides preliminary information on the trends in ambient concentrations observed near a heavily traveled highway in Las Vegas, Nevada. As part of a joint effort by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Federal Highway Administration, an air monitoring pro...

  20. 75 FR 11877 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... of Sulfur AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability of draft... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: First External Review Draft... (welfare-based) NAAQS for oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) and oxides of sulfur (SO X ). Because NO X , SO...

  1. 75 FR 57463 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... of Sulfur AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability of draft... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: Second External Review Draft... for oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) and oxides of sulfur (SO X ). Because NO X , SO X , and...

  2. Air toxics in Canada measured by the National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) program and their relation to ambient air quality guidelines.

    PubMed

    Galarneau, Elisabeth; Wang, Daniel; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Siu, May; Celo, Valbona; Tardif, Mylaine; Harnish, David; Jiang, Ying

    2016-02-01

    This study reports ambient concentrations of 63 air toxics that were measured in Canada by the National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) program over the period 2009-2013. Measured concentrations are compared with ambient air quality guidelines from Canadian jurisdictions, and compounds that exceeded guidelines are identified and discussed. Although this study does not assess risk or cumulative effects, air toxics that approached guidelines are also identified so that their potential contribution to ambient air toxics pollution can be considered. Eleven air toxics exceeded at least one guideline, and an additional 16 approached guidelines during the study period. Four compounds were measured using methods whose detection limits exceeded a guideline value, three of which could not be compared with guidelines, since they were not detected in any samples. The assessment of several metal(loid) concentrations is tentative, since they were measured only in fine particulate matter (PM) but compared with guidelines based on coarse or total PM. Improvements to sampling and analysis techniques for the latter compounds as well as for those whose methods are subject to known uncertainties would improve confidence in reported concentrations and their relation to applicable guidelines. Analysis of sampling strategies for all compounds found to exceed or approach guidelines would contribute to ensuring that their spatiotemporal coverage is adequate. Examination of the air toxics not measured by NAPS but having guidelines in Canadian jurisdictions or being included in other programs such as the U.S. National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) would contribute to ensuring that the full suite of pollutants relevant to ambient air quality in Canada is subject to adequate study. The results of this study can be applied to evaluating the effectiveness of toxic substances management in Canada. Recent measurements of 63 air toxics in Canada by the National Air Pollution Surveillance

  3. Technical comments on EPA`s proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1997-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed new ambient air quality standards specifically for fine particulate matter, regulating concentrations of particles with median aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}). Two new standards have been proposed: a maximum 24-hr concentration that is intended to protect against acute health effects, and an annual concentration limit that is intended to protect against longer-term health effects. EPA has also proposed a slight relaxation of the 24-hr standard for inhalable particles (PM{sub 10}), by allowing additional exceedances each year. Fine particles are currently being indirectly controlled by means of regulations for PM{sub 10} and TSP, under the Clean Air Act of 1970 and subsequent amendments. Although routine monitoring of PM{sub 2.5} is rare and data are sparse, the available data indicate that ambient concentrations have been declining at about 6% per year under existing regulations.

  4. Comparison of air dispersion modeling results with ambient air sampling data: A case study at Tacoma Landfill, a National Priorities List Site

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, L.R. ); Rutherford, T.L. )

    1994-08-01

    Air dispersion modeling, ambient air sampling, and emissions testing of landfill sources have been performed to evaluate the effects of remedial activities on ambient air surrounding the Tacoma Landfill. In 1983, the Tacoma Landfill was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) as part of the Commencement Bay/South Tacoma Channel Superfund site. Remedial activities completed, or near completion, at the 190 acre (768,903 m[sup 2]) Tacoma Landfill include a groundwater extraction system and air stripping units used to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from groundwater, landfill gas extraction and flare system to control gas migration from the landfill, landfill liner and leachate collection system for an active section of the landfill, and a landfill cap that covers the inactive portions of the landfill. Dispersion modeling was performed with measured stack emission data using Industrial Source Complex (ISC) to determine the groundlevel concentrations of VOCs from the air stripper, flares, and active portion of the landfill for comparison with the measured ambient air data collected during 1992. 9 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Regulatory Impact Analysis of the Final Revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ground-Level Ozone

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA performed an illustrative analysis of the potential costs, human health benefits, and welfare benefits of nationally attaining a revised primary ozone standard of 70 ppb and a primary alternative ozone standard level of 65 ppb.

  6. 77 FR 34221 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Several...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... emissions are emitted by many types of pollution sources, including power plants and industrial emissions... recommendations. These factors include air quality data, emissions data, traffic and commuting patterns, growth... pollution control, National parks, Wilderness areas. Dated: May 31, 2012. Lisa P. Jackson,...

  7. 76 FR 22665 - Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... exposure assessment documents (REAs)--Quantitative Health Risk Assessment for Particulate Matter (EPA 452/R... availability of a ] final document titled, Policy Assessment for the Review of the Particulate Matter National... anticipated to endanger public health or welfare.'' The EPA then issues air quality criteria for these listed...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) T Appendix T to Part 50 Protection of... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) 1. General (a) This appendix explains... ambient air quality standards for Oxides of Sulfur as measured by Sulfur Dioxide (“SO2 NAAQS”)...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) T Appendix T to Part 50 Protection of... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) 1. General (a) This appendix explains... ambient air quality standards for Oxides of Sulfur as measured by Sulfur Dioxide (“SO2 NAAQS”)...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) T Appendix T to Part 50 Protection of... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) 1. General (a) This appendix explains... ambient air quality standards for Oxides of Sulfur as measured by Sulfur Dioxide (“SO2 NAAQS”)...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) T Appendix T to Part 50 Protection of... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) 1. General (a) This appendix explains... ambient air quality standards for Oxides of Sulfur as measured by Sulfur Dioxide (“SO2 NAAQS”)...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) T Appendix T to Part 50 Protection of... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) 1. General (a) This appendix explains... ambient air quality standards for Oxides of Sulfur as measured by Sulfur Dioxide (“SO2 NAAQS”)...

  13. Ambient monitoring of volatile organic compounds at Los Alamos National Laboratory in technical area 54, areas G and L. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mischler, S.; Anderson, E.; Vold, E.L.

    1994-03-15

    Ambient air monitoring for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was conducted at TA-54 to characterize non-radioactive air emissions to determine if the Laboratory`s waste operations are releasing significant amounts of VOCs to the ambient environment. Samples were collected at four locations along the northern fenceline (dominant downwind side) of Areas G & L and at a background site located in Bandelier National Monument. Eight-hour integrated samples were collected in evacuated canisters during daylight hours on each of eight days during the summer of 1994, for a total of 40 samples. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography following EPA Method TO-14 for a target list of 68 analytes. In general, about two dozen volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified in each sample, including those collected at the background site, but the concentration levels were very low (e.g.; < 1 to 10 ppbv). The average total non-methane hydrocarbon (TNMHC) concentration ranged from 4.3 to 22.8 ppbv at the Area G and L sites as compared with an average of 4.2 ppbv at the background site. The measured concentrations were compared with action levels developed by the New Mexico Environment Department and were well below the action levels in all cases. Methanol and benzene were the only compounds that ever exceeded 1 % of the action level. The measured VOC concentrations were collected during the warmest months of the year and therefore should represent worst-case air impacts. Based on the results of this study, VOC emissions from Areas G and L have an insignificant impact on local air quality and pose no health risk to workers or nearby populations.

  14. Addition of PM2.5 into the National Ambient Air Quality Standards of China and the Contribution to Air Pollution Control: The Case Study of Wuhan, China

    PubMed Central

    You, Mingqing

    2014-01-01

    PM2.5 has gradually become a major environmental problem of China with its rapid economic development, urbanization, and increasing of motor vehicles. Findings and awareness of serious PM2.5 pollution make the PM2.5 a new criterion pollutant of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) revised in 2012. The 2012 NAAQS sets the PM2.5 concentrate limitation with the 24-hour average value and the annual mean value. Wuhan is quite typical among central and southern China in climate, economy, development level, and energy consumption. The data are cited from the official website of Wuhan Environmental Protection Bureau and cover the period from 1 January to 30 June 2013. The data definitely confirm the existence of serious PM2.5 pollution in Wuhan and indicate that the addition of PM2.5 as a criterion pollutant significantly brings down the attainment rate of air quality. The example of Wuhan reveals that local governments should take measures to reduce the emission of PM2.5 if it affects the attainment rate and the performance evaluation value of air quality. The main contribution of 2012 NAAQS is that it brings down the attainment rate of the air quality and forces local governmental officials to take the measures accordingly. PMID:24982994

  15. Ambient air concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, coplanar PCBs, and PAHs at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge, Jackson County, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Hardy, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the levels of selected airborne contaminants in ambient air at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge, Mississippi, that might be affecting the health of endangered cranes living there. Two high-volume air samplers were operated at separate locations on the Refuge during May?September 1991. The sampling media were micro-quartz filters in combination with polyurethane foam plugs. Composite bimonthly samples from each station were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Overall, residue concentrations were low. The toxic PCDD isomer 2,3,7,8-tetra-CDD was not detected, nor was penta-CDD. There was no difference (P>0.05) in residue concentrations between stations or over time and meteorological parameters were not correlated with residue concentrations. Because contaminant levels and patterns may differ seasonally, we recommend that air samples collected during winter months also be analyzed for these same chemical groups.

  16. Addition of PM 2.5 into the national ambient air quality standards of China and the contribution to air pollution control: the case study of Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    You, Mingqing

    2014-01-01

    PM2.5 has gradually become a major environmental problem of China with its rapid economic development, urbanization, and increasing of motor vehicles. Findings and awareness of serious PM2.5 pollution make the PM2.5 a new criterion pollutant of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) revised in 2012. The 2012 NAAQS sets the PM2.5 concentrate limitation with the 24-hour average value and the annual mean value. Wuhan is quite typical among central and southern China in climate, economy, development level, and energy consumption. The data are cited from the official website of Wuhan Environmental Protection Bureau and cover the period from 1 January to 30 June 2013. The data definitely confirm the existence of serious PM2.5 pollution in Wuhan and indicate that the addition of PM2.5 as a criterion pollutant significantly brings down the attainment rate of air quality. The example of Wuhan reveals that local governments should take measures to reduce the emission of PM2.5 if it affects the attainment rate and the performance evaluation value of air quality. The main contribution of 2012 NAAQS is that it brings down the attainment rate of the air quality and forces local governmental officials to take the measures accordingly.

  17. An operational assessment of the application of the relative reduction factors in the demonstration of attainment of the 8-hr ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard.

    PubMed

    Sistla, G; Hogrefe, C; Hao, W; Ku, J Y; Zalewsky, E; Henry, R F; Civerolo, K

    2004-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1997 revised the 1-hr ozone (O3) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) to one based on an 8-hr average, resulting in potential nonattainment status for substantial portions of the eastern United States. The regulatory process provides for the development of a state implementation plan that includes a demonstration that the projected future O3 concentrations will be at or below the NAAQS based on photochemical modeling and analytical techniques. In this study, four photochemical modeling systems, based on two photochemical models, Community Model for Air Quality and the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions, and two emissions processing models, Sparse Matrix Optimization Kernel for Emissions and Emissions Modeling System, were applied to the eastern United States, with emphasis on the northeastern Ozone Transport Region in terms of their response to oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic carbon-focused controls on the estimated design values. With the 8-hr O3 NAAQS set as a bright-line test, it was found that a given area could be termed as being in or out of attainment of the NAAQS depending upon the modeling system. This suggests the need to provide an estimate of model-to-model uncertainty in the relative reduction factor (RRF) for a better understanding of the uncertainty in projecting the status of an area's attainment. Results indicate that the model-to-model differences considered in this study introduce

  18. Inorganic ions in ambient fine particles over a National Park in central India: Seasonality, dependencies between SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+, and neutralization of aerosol acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Samresh; Sunder Raman, Ramya

    2016-10-01

    Twelve hour integrated ambient fine particles (PM2.5) were collected over an Van Vihar National Park (VVNP), in Bhopal, Central India. Samples were collected on filter substrates every-other-day for two years (2012 and 2013). In addition to PM2.5 mass concentration, water soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) were also measured. Further, on-site meteorological parameters including temperature, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, rainfall and atmospheric pressure were recorded. During 2012, the average PM2.5 concentration was 40 ± 31 μgm-3 while during 2013 it was 48 ± 50 μgm-3. Further, in about 20% of the samples the 12 h integrated fine PM mass exceeded the daily (24 h) average standards (60 μgm-3). This observation suggests that the PM2.5 mass concentration at the study site is likely to be in violation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), India. During the study period the sum of three major ions (SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+) accounted for 19.4% of PM2.5 mass on average. Air parcel back trajectory ensembles revealed that emissions from thermal power plants were likely to be the main regional source of particulate SO42- and NO3- measured over VVNP. Further, local traffic activities appeared to have no significant impact on the concentrations of PM2.5 and its WSIIs constituents, as revealed by a day-of-the-week analysis. PM2.5 mass, SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ showed a pronounced seasonal trend with winter (Jan, Feb) and post-monsoon (Oct, Nov, Dec) highs and pre-monsoon (Mar, Apr, May) and monsoon (Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep) lows, during both 2012 and 2013. Further, when the sum of SO42- and NO3- constituted greater than 90% of water soluble inorganic anions by mass, they were linearly dependent on one another and moderately anti-correlated (r2 = 0.60). The molar ratios of NH4+ and non-sea salt SO42- were examined to understand the aerosol neutralization mechanisms and particulate NO3- formation. An assessment of these ratios and subsequent analyses

  19. The A&WMA 2007 Critical Review. Will the circle be unbroken: a history of the U.S. national ambient air quality standards

    SciTech Connect

    John Bachmann

    2007-06-15

    In celebration of the 100th anniversary of the Air & Waste Management Association, this review examines the history of air quality management (AQM) in the United States over the last century, with an emphasis on the programs established by the 1970 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments. The current CAA system is a hybrid of several distinct air pollution control philosophies. The paper looks at several periods in the history of the U.S. program, including: (1) 1900-1970, spanning the early smoke abatement and smog control programs, the first federal involvement, and the development of a hybrid AQM approach in the 1970 CAA; (2) 1971-1976, when the first National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) were set and implemented; (3) 1977-1993, a period of the first revisions to the standards, new CAA Amendments, delays in implementation and decision-making, and key science/policy/legislative developments that would alter both the focus and scale of air pollution programs and how they are implemented; and (4) 1993-2006, the second and third wave of NAAQS revisions and their implementation in the context of the 1990 CAA. This discussion examines where NAAQS have helped drive implementation programs and how improvements in both effects and air quality/control sciences influenced policy and legislation to enhance the effectiveness of the system over time. The review concludes with a look toward the future of AQM, emphasizing challenges and ways to meet them. Supplemental tables 1 to 7, available to subscribers at www.awma.org/journals/pdfs/2007/6/10.3155-1047-3289.57.6.652_supplmat erial.pdf present detailed chronology and commentary on the development of criteria and establishing, reviewing, and revising the NAAQS for each of the seven pollutants that were listed and regulated under Sections 108 and 109 between 1971 and 2006. 250 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. NIF Ambient Vibration Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, C.R.; Hoehler, M.S., S.C. Sommer

    1999-11-29

    LLNL has an ongoing research and development project that includes developing data acquisition systems with remote wireless communication for monitoring the vibrations of large civil engineering structures. In order to establish the capability of performing remote sensing over an extended period of time, the researchers needed to apply this technology to a real structure. The construction of the National Ignition Facility provided an opportunity to test the data acquisition system on a large structure to monitor whether the facility is remaining within the strict ambient vibration guidelines. This document will briefly discuss the NIF ambient vibration requirements and summarize the vibration measurements performed during the Spring and Summer of 1999. In addition, a brief description of the sensors and the data acquisition systems will be provided in Appendix B.

  1. Using Continuous Monitoring of Ambient CO2 and H2S to Assess Toxic Gas Hazards in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, T.; Sutton, A.; Lowenstern, J.; Heasler, H.; Eagan, S.

    2007-12-01

    The mysterious death of five bison in the Norris Geyser Basin area of Yellowstone in 2004 was apparently due to an increase in the output of CO2 or H2S, coupled with unusually cold, still weather. This event of nature may support a long-held claim of geochemists: near-surface changes in pressure, temperature, hydrologic flow, ground permeability, and wind conditions can reasonably be expected to produce attendant variability in the output and ambient concentration of gases emitted from hydrothermal areas. Monitoring these changes at the surface provides a window to processes occurring below, and a continuous assessment of gas hazards for frequently visited places like Norris. To characterize subsurface processes and identify hazards, we developed a transportable monitoring system to measure ambient gas concentrations and meteorological parameters. The solar-powered system uses industrial grade sensors for CO2 and H2S gas, along with sensors for wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, and ambient temperature. In order to reduce power use and prolong sensor life, every 10-minutes the gas sensors are powered on and allowed to stabilize, and the average values for the gas and met sensors are then recorded. The system can be configured for on-site data logging or radio telemetry. During the first year of operation in a thermal area adjacent to where the bison died, the system recorded diurnal variations. Although CO2 build-up was observed at night during cool windless conditions, ambient concentrations of CO2 and H2S remained below hazardous levels. Encouraged by the robust performance of the sensors, a second system was built to use as a roving monitor within the park as conditions permit and opportunities arise to track thermal variations. The performance of this system during the first year of operation reinforces the importance of continuous monitoring for processes such as gas-release events. Such occurrences, while evidenced in nature by events like the

  2. Velocity-measurement bias of the ambient noise method due to source directivity: a case study for the Swedish National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghisorkhani, Hamzeh; Gudmundsson, Ólafur; Roberts, Roland; Tryggvason, Ari

    2017-06-01

    The bias of velocity measurements from ambient-noise covariograms due to an anisotropic distribution of noise sources is studied assuming that the noise field consists of planar surface waves from large distance. First, general characteristics of the bias are described in terms of their dependence on wavelength, source-anomaly amplitude and width. Second, the expected bias of measurements in Sweden based on a noise-source model for the adjacent regions is analysed. The bias is conceptually explained and described in terms of two regimes, namely a high-frequency and a finite-frequency regime and their parameter domains quantified. Basic scaling laws are established for the bias. It is generally found to be small compared to lateral heterogeneity, except in the finite-frequency regime when interstation distance is small compared to a wavelength and in regions of low levels of heterogeneity. The potential bias, that is, its peak-to-peak variation, is generally higher for group-velocity than phase-velocity measurements. The strongly varying noise-source distribution as seen from Sweden results in predictions of relatively strong bias in the area at relevant frequencies and interstation distances. Levels of heterogeneity in the Baltic shield are relatively low, rendering the potential bias significant. This highlights the need for detailed studies of source anisotropy before application of ambient-noise tomography, particularly in regions with weak velocity heterogeneity. Predicted bias only partially explains deviations of phase-velocity measurements from a regional average for individual station pairs. Restricting measurements to station pairs with interstation distance exceeding five wavelengths limits the potential velocity bias in the area to within 1 per cent. This rather dramatic restriction can be relaxed by directional analysis of the noise-source field and application of azimuthal restrictions to the selected station pairs for measurement.

  3. Ambient air concentrations of fine (PM2.5) manganese in U.S. national parks and in California and Canadian cities: the possible impact of adding MMT to unleaded gasoline.

    PubMed

    Wallace, L; Slonecker, T

    1997-06-01

    The October 1995 court decision allowing Ethyl Corporation to offer methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) for sale to refiners for introduction into unleaded gasoline as an octane enhancer is likely to result in increased fine (PM2.5) manganese (Mn) concentrations in ambient air. Concern exists regarding possible health effects. In this paper, recent fine Mn concentrations in three monitoring networks and one U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study of personal exposure are analyzed. One network consists mainly of rural sites in national parks in the United States, a second consists mainly of urban sites in California, and the third consists mainly of urban sites in Canada where MMT has been used for a number of years. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, mean ambient concentrations ranged from 1 ng/m3 in the mostly rural network to 3 ng/m3 in the mostly urban California network to 12 ng/m3 in the MMT-impacted Canadian network. Several lines of evidence suggested that some of the fine Mn observed in the United States during the 1986-1992 period was contributed by automobiles using leaded gasoline, for which MMT was a registered fuel additive. However, the near-disappearance of leaded gasoline has resulted in a very small portion of fine Mn being attributed to automobiles in the years since 1992. A source apportionment analysis suggested that crustal contributions to ambient fine Mn are on the order of 1-2 ng/m3 in both the United States and Canada.

  4. Ambient air quality in Slovak Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Violova, A.; Cremonini, M.G.; Lombardo, P.; Stenhouse, I.A.; Kocan, A.

    1998-07-01

    The National Government of the Slovak Republic is committed to develop an integrated strategy that will take into account global, regional and local aspects of the national emissions of pollutants. Priority is given to ambient air quality, with particular reference to human health protection. Only limited information on ambient air concentrations of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) was available in Slovakia. A comprehensive ambient air quality project has been recently funded by the European Union Phare Programme. The project was performed under the technical supervision of the Slovak Ministry of the Environment and aimed at monitoring the ambient air quality with respect to Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals (HMs), identifying and evaluating main potential pollution sources, and defining general strategies to reduce impacts.

  5. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as state, local, and tribal air pollution control agencies. Its component data sets have been collected over the years from approximately 10,000 monitoring sites, of which approximately 5,000 are currently active. OAR's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) and other internal and external users, rely on this data to assess air quality, assist in Attainment/Non-Attainment designations, evaluate State Implementation Plans for Non-Attainment Areas, perform modeling for permit review analysis, and other air quality management functions. Air quality information is also used to prepare reports for Congress as mandated by the Clean Air Act. This data covers air quality data collected after 1980, when the Clean Air Act requirements for monitoring were significantly modified. Air quality data from the Agency's early years (1970s) remains available (see OAR PRIMARY DATA ASSET: Ambient Air Quality Data -- Historical), but because of technical and definitional differences the two data assets are not directly comparable. The Clean Air Act of 1970 provided initial authority for monitoring air quality for Conventional Air Pollutants (CAPs) for which EPA has promulgated National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Requirements for monitoring visibility-related parameters were added in 1977. Requiremen

  6. Ambient ozone effects on gas exchange and total non-structural carbohydrate levels in cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) growing in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ozone-sensitive and -tolerant individuals of the perennial herbaceous cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) were compared for their gas exchange characteristics and total non-structural carbohydrates in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park USA. Net photosynthesis decreased with increased f...

  7. The future is 'ambient'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugmayr, Artur

    2006-02-01

    The research field of ambient media starts to spread rapidly and first applications for consumer homes are on the way. Ambient media is the logical continuation of research around media. Media has been evolving from old media (e.g. print media), to integrated presentation in one form (multimedia - or new media), to generating a synthetic world (virtual reality), to the natural environment is the user-interface (ambient media), and will be evolving towards real/synthetic undistinguishable media (bio-media or bio-multimedia). After the IT bubble was bursting, multimedia was lacking a vision of potential future scenarios and applications. Within this research paper the potentials, applications, and market available solutions of mobile ambient multimedia are studied. The different features of ambient mobile multimedia are manifold and include wearable computers, adaptive software, context awareness, ubiquitous computers, middleware, and wireless networks. The paper especially focuses on algorithms and methods that can be utilized to realize modern mobile ambient systems.

  8. 75 FR 51039 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... new equivalent methods for measuring concentrations of PM 10 and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) in the ambient... concentrations of those ambient air pollutants for which EPA has established National Ambient Air Quality... measuring concentrations of PM 10 and SO 2 in the ambient air. These designations are made under the...

  9. Ambient Tropospheric Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles suspended in ambient air (also known as the atmospheric aerosol). Ambient PM arises from a wide-range of sources and/or processes, and consists of particles of different shapes, sizes, and com...

  10. Ambient Tropospheric Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles suspended in ambient air (also known as the atmospheric aerosol). Ambient PM arises from a wide-range of sources and/or processes, and consists of particles of different shapes, sizes, and com...

  11. Ambient levels and temporal trends of VOCs, including carbonyl compounds, and ozone at Cabañeros National Park border, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Florentina; Tapia, Araceli; Notario, Alberto; Albaladejo, José; Martínez, Ernesto

    2014-03-01

    Concentration levels of 15 carbonyls, 17 VOCs and ozone were studied at Cabañeros National Park border, Spain, in an area mainly constituted by holm oaks (Quercus ilex) and cork oaks (Quercus suber), along with scrubland formations such as rock-rose and heather. The compounds were collected by means of diffusive samplers from August-November 2010 and February-August 2011. Carbonyl compounds, VOCs and O3 were analysed by HPLC with diode array UV-Vis detector, GC-FID and by UV-visible spectrophotometry, respectively. The most abundant carbonyls were hexanal, acetone-acrolein, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Seasonal variation was apparent with maximum values observed in summer months. Total carbonyl concentrations ranged from 2.8 to 19.7 μg m-3. Most VOCs studied (using chemically desorbable cartridges) were either not detected or were below their detection limits, however, a parallel sampling using thermally desorbable cartridges, from May 22 to June 19, revealed the presence of much more VOCs, identified using GC-MS. O3 concentration ranged from 27.2 to 90.5 μg m-3, reaching the maximum monthly mean concentration in March (84.4 μg m-3). The analysis of back trajectories indicates the transport of polluted air masses from remote areas, mainly from the Mediterranean basin that should contribute to the high levels of ozone observed.

  12. 75 FR 9894 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... new equivalent method for measuring concentrations of lead (Pb) in total suspended particulate matter... monitoring the concentrations of those ambient air pollutants for which EPA has established National Ambient...

  13. 75 FR 45627 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... new equivalent method for measuring concentrations of lead (Pb) in total suspended particulate matter... monitoring the concentrations of those ambient air pollutants for which EPA has established National Ambient...

  14. Cleaning air pollutants for newborns in China: a national risk assessment on low birth weight caused by ambient fine particles during 2013-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, T.; Zheng, Y.; Zhang, Q.

    2016-12-01

    With the ending of one-child policy since 2015, the number of newborns are expected to increase in China, where people are surviving from pool air quality. Air pollutants, especially PM2.5 have been confirmed as a top risk factor to cause birth defects including low birth weight (LBW). Motivated by the increasing demands of the newborns for cleaner air in China, we conducted the first national risk assessment study on LBW cases caused by PM2.5. We combined county-level PM2.5 concentrations in 2013-2015 and demographic data (including population counts, birth rates and etc.), province-level baseline incidences of LBW and multiple reference safety concentrations (0 μg/m3, WHO air quality guidelines and interim targets) to estimate the number of PM2.5-associated LBW in 31 provinces. The uncertainty was quantified using Monte Carlo simulations. Based on our results, in 2013 among 334,781 (95% CI: 313,024-344,568) cases of LBW, 122,684 (95% CI: 53,153-173,846, account for 37% of the total LBW) were attributed to PM2.5, when assuming the reference safety concentration as 0 μg/m3; while 53,917 (95% CI: 22,851-82,195, account for 16% of the total LBW) cases of LBW could have been protected, if the air quality met WHO WHO interim target-3, 35 μg/m3. Among 31 provinces, PM2.5-associated LBW were mostly distributed in Hebei (12.99%, 95% CI: 12.42%-17.30%), Henan (9.75%, 95% CI: 9.11%-13.50%) and Guangdong (8.60%, 95% CI: 6.98%-9.42%). During 2013 to 2015, air quality in China was reported to be improved by implement of emission-reduction policies. Similarly, we found significantly decreasing trends of infants weighted concentrations of PM2.5 in most heavily polluted areas, which protected 12,201 (95% CI: 4,749-20,503) and 24,637 (95% CI: 9,619-39,821) PM2.5-associated LBW in 2014 and 2015, account for 3.64% (95% CI: 1.46%-6.21%) and 7.36% (95% CI: 2.93%-12.07%) of that in 2013, respectively. The uncertainty of this study was mainly contributed by that in epidemiology

  15. Ambient Temperature and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Moellering, Douglas R.; Smith, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Homeotherms maintain an optimal body temperature that is most often above their environment or ambient temperature. As ambient temperature decreases, energy expenditure (and energy intake) must increase to maintain thermal homeostasis. With the wide spread adoption of climate control, humans in modern society are buffered from temperature extremes and spend an increasing amount of time in a thermally comfortable state where energetic demands are minimized. This is hypothesized to contribute to the contemporary increase in obesity rates. Studies reporting exposures of animals and humans to different ambient temperatures are discussed. Additional consideration is given to the potentially altered metabolic and physiologic responses in obese versus lean subjects at a given temperature. The data suggest that ambient temperature is a significant contributor to both energy intake and energy expenditure, and that this variable should be more thoroughly explored in future studies as a potential contributor to obesity susceptibility. PMID:24707450

  16. Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources

    SciTech Connect

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2000-10-03

    This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  17. 77 FR 64244 - Revision to Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide Monitoring Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 58 RIN 2060-AR59 Revision to Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide Monitoring Requirements AGENCY... deadlines established in the national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) for...

  18. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  19. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. T.

    2015-07-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry emerged as a new scientific discipline only about ten years ago. A considerable body of information has been reported since that time. Keeping the sensitivity, performance and informativity of classical mass spectrometry methods, the new approach made it possible to eliminate laborious sample preparation procedures and triggered the development of miniaturized instruments to work directly in the field. The review concerns the theoretical foundations and design of ambient ionization methods. Their advantages and drawbacks, as well as prospects for application in chemistry, biology, medicine, environmetal analysis, etc., are discussed. The bibliography includes 194 references.

  20. Care services ecosystem for ambient assisted living

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarinha-Matos, Luis M.; Rosas, Joao; Ines Oliveira, Ana; Ferrada, Filipa

    2015-08-01

    Effective provision of care and assistance services in ambient assisted living requires the involvement and collaboration of multiple stakeholders. To support such collaboration, the development of an ecosystem of products and services for active ageing plays an important role. This article introduces a conceptual architecture that supports such care ecosystem. In order to facilitate understanding and better interrelate concepts, a 3-layered model is adopted: Infrastructure layer, Care and assistance services layer and Ambient Assisted Living ecosystem layer. A holistic perspective of ambient assisted living, namely considering four important life settings is adopted: (1) independent living; (2) health and care in life; (3) occupation in life and (4) recreation in life. The proposed architecture is designed in the context of a national Portuguese project and in accordance with the findings of a large European road mapping initiative on ICT and ageing.

  1. Yellowstone Attenuation Tomography from Ambient Seismic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doungkaew, N.; Seats, K.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study is to create a tomographic attenuation image for the Yellowstone region by analyzing ambient seismic noise. An attenuation image generated from ambient noise should provide more information about the structure and properties beneath Yellowstone, especially the caldera, which is known to be active. I applied the method of Lawrence & Prieto [2011] to examine lateral variations in the attenuation structure of Yellowstone. Ambient noise data were collected from broadband seismic stations located around Yellowstone National Park from 1999-2013. Noise correlation functions derived from cross correlations of the ambient noise at two stations were used to calculate a distance dependent decay (an attenuation coefficient) at each period and distance. An inversion was then performed to isolate and localize the spatial attenuation coefficients within the study area. I observe high amplitude decay of the ambient noise at the Yellowstone caldera, most likely due to elevated temperature and crustal melts caused by volcanism, geothermal heat flow, and hydrothermal activity such as geysers.

  2. 78 FR 57631 - Information Collection Request Submitted to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request; Ambient...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... is given below, including its estimated burden and cost to the public. An Agency may not conduct or... measurements reporting and recordkeeping activities associated with the Ambient Air Quality Surveillance Rule... consist of ambient air concentration measurements for the seven air pollutants with National Ambient...

  3. IMPACT OF AMBIENT PM ON THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT AND PERSONAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Why should exposure analysts be interested in personal exposure to ambient PM as opposed to total personal exposure to both ambient and nonambient PM? The National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM are based largely on epidemiologic studies that find a statistical association...

  4. Ambient temperature recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Larry D.

    1991-01-01

    A temperature data recorder, designated the Ambient Temperature Recorder (ATR-4), was developed at NASA Ames Research Center to meet particular requirements for space life sciences experiments. The small, self-contained, four-channel, battery-powered device records 32 kilobytes of temperature data over a range of -40 to +60 C at four sampling intervals ranging from 1.875 to 15 minutes. Data is stored in its internal electronic memory for later readout by a personal computer.

  5. Ambient Oxygen Promotes Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Starost, Matthew F.; Lago, Cory U.; Lim, Philip K.; Sack, Michael N.; Kang, Ju-Gyeong; Wang, Ping-yuan; Hwang, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53−/− mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53−/− mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo. PMID:21589870

  6. Cross-correlations of ambient noise recorded by accelerometers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rábade García, S. E.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the ambient noise cross-correlations obtained by using properly corrected accelerometric recordings, and determine velocity structure in central Mexico based on a dispersion analysis. The data used comprise ten months of continuous recordings - from April 2013 to January 2014 - of ambient seismic noise at stations operated by the National Seismological Service of Mexico and the Engineering Strong Ground Motion Network of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The vertical component of ambient noise was base-line corrected, filtered, and properly integrated before extracting Green's functions (GF), which were compared successfully against GF obtained using recordings from broadband velocity sensors. In order to obtain dispersion curves, we estimated group and phase velocities applying the FTAN analysis technique and obtained s-wave velocity profiles at selected regions. We conclude and highlight that the use of widely deployed accelerographs to conduct regional studies using ambient noise tomography is feasible

  7. Imaging with ambient noise

    SciTech Connect

    Snieder, Roel; Wapenaar, Kees

    2010-09-15

    Recent developments in seismology, ultrasonics, and underwater acoustics have led to a radical change in the way scientists think about ambient noise--the diffuse waves generated by pressure fluctuations in the atmosphere, the scattering of water waves in the ocean, and any number of other sources that pervade our world. Because diffuse waves consist of the superposition of waves propagating in all directions, they appear to be chaotic and random. That appearance notwithstanding, diffuse waves carry information about the medium through which they propagate.

  8. 40 CFR 63.11956 - What are my compliance requirements for ambient monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for ambient monitoring? 63.11956 Section 63.11956 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions...

  9. Ambient seismic wave field.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Kiwamu

    2017-01-01

    The ambient seismic wave field, also known as ambient noise, is excited by oceanic gravity waves primarily. This can be categorized as seismic hum (1-20 mHz), primary microseisms (0.02-0.1 Hz), and secondary microseisms (0.1-1 Hz). Below 20 mHz, pressure fluctuations of ocean infragravity waves reach the abyssal floor. Topographic coupling between seismic waves and ocean infragravity waves at the abyssal floor can explain the observed shear traction sources. Below 5 mHz, atmospheric disturbances may also contribute to this excitation. Excitation of primary microseisms can be attributed to topographic coupling between ocean swell and seismic waves on subtle undulation of continental shelves. Excitation of secondary microseisms can be attributed to non-linear forcing by standing ocean swell at the sea surface in both pelagic and coastal regions. Recent developments in source location based on body-wave microseisms enable us to estimate forcing quantitatively. For a comprehensive understanding, we must consider the solid Earth, the ocean, and the atmosphere as a coupled system.

  10. Ambient ion soft landing.

    PubMed

    Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K; Wu, Chunping; Cooks, R Graham

    2011-04-01

    Ambient ion soft landing, a process in which polyatomic ions are deposited from air onto a surface at a specified location under atmospheric pressure, is described. Ions generated by electrospray ionization are passed pneumatically through a heated metal drying tube, their ion polarity is selected using ion deflectors, and the dry selected ions are soft-landed onto a selected surface. Unlike the corresponding vacuum soft-landing experiment, where ions are mass-selected and soft-landed within a mass spectrometer, here the ions to be deposited are selected through the choice of a compound that gives predominantly one ionic species upon ambient ionization; no mass analysis is performed during the soft landing experiment. The desired dry ions, after electrical separation from neutrals and counterions, are deposited on a surface. Characterization of the landed material was achieved by dissolution and analysis using mass spectrometry or spectrofluorimetry. The treated surface was also characterized using fluorescence microscopy, which allowed surfaces patterned with fluorescent compounds to be imaged. The pure dry ions were used as reagents in heterogeneous ion/surface reactions including the reaction of pyrylium cations with d-lysine to form the N-substituted pyridinium cation. The charged microdroplets associated with incompletely dried ions could be selected for soft landing or surface reaction by choice of the temperature of a drying tube inserted between the ion source and the electrical ion deflectors.

  11. Ambient Construction, LLC Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ambient Construction, LLC (the Company) is located in Tallahassee, Florida. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Tallahassee, Florida.

  12. Estuarine ambient toxicity assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, S.I.; Dawson, C.E.; Jordahl, D.M.

    1994-12-31

    This study was to determine if sediment and water column ambient toxicity bioassay results correlate with fish community IBI assessments in tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay watersheds that are impacted by industrial, urban and agricultural land use patterns. A battery of water column and sediment toxicity tests were conducted monthly in coordination with fish community sampling in four sub estuaries of the Chesapeake Bay. Fish were sampled with seines and bottom trawls. An association was found between dissolved oxygen and species richness in the trawls. Water column bioassays indicated mild toxicological contamination in industrial watershed estuaries. Results varied by month and species. Water quality in the rural and agricultural watershed estuaries was generally good. Sediment bioassays demonstrated significant toxicity in the industrialized area. Effects were seen in the urbanized estuary, but to a lesser extent. Fish egg survival effects were observed in the agricultural watershed estuary. The rural estuary sediment produced variable, but non-significant results. The industrial and urban sites were contaminated with heavy metals and organics.

  13. Ambient Monitoring Technology Information Center (AMTIC)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site contains information on ambient air quality monitoring programs, monitoring methods, quality assurance and control procedures, and federal regulations related to ambient air quality monitoring.

  14. METHODOLOGY FOR SITING AMBIENT AIR MONITORS AT THE NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In siting a monitor to measure compliance with U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter (PM), there is a need to characterize variations in PM concentration within a neighborhood-scale region in order to achieve monitor siting objectives.

    We p...

  15. 78 FR 52192 - Final Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria For Ammonia-Freshwater 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... AGENCY Final Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria For Ammonia-- Freshwater 2013 AGENCY... availability of final national recommended ambient water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life... States and authorized Tribes in adopting water quality standards for protecting aquatic life and...

  16. 75 FR 30022 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... new equivalent method for measuring concentrations of lead (Pb) in total suspended particulate matter... monitoring the concentrations of those ambient air pollutants for which EPA has established National Ambient...-0510-191, ``Determination of Lead Concentration in TSP by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry...

  17. BIOGENIC CONTRIBUTION TO PM-2.5 AMBIENT AEROSOL FROM RADIOCARBON MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knowledge of the relative contributions of biogenic versus anthropogenic sources to ambient aerosol is of great interest in the formulation of strategies to achieve nationally mandated air quality standards. Radiocarbon (Carbon-14) measurements provide a means to quantify the ...

  18. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DESPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS. Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu**, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; **IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL; *S...

  19. BIOGENIC CONTRIBUTION TO PM-2.5 AMBIENT AEROSOL FROM RADIOCARBON MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knowledge of the relative contributions of biogenic versus anthropogenic sources to ambient aerosol is of great interest in the formulation of strategies to achieve nationally mandated air quality standards. Radiocarbon (Carbon-14) measurements provide a means to quantify the ...

  20. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DESPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS. Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu**, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; **IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL; *S...

  1. FRAMEWORK FOR DEVELOPING AMBIENT WATER ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Currently, Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) for aquatic life protection are derived according to the Guidelines for Derivation of Ambient Water Quality Criteria for the Protection of Aquatic Life and Their Uses, published in 1985. To ensure that AWQC are derived from the best available science, Office of Water assessed the need to update the Guidelines and identified issues that should be addressed in the revisions. In December 2002, EPA's Science Advisory Board concurred with EPA's assessment of the need to update the Guidelines as well as with the issues EPA identified to address. Updating the Guidelines is a Priority Strategic Action included in OST's Strategy for Water Quality Standards and Criteria (Next Priority Strategic Action #1). To revise existing methodology for deriving ambient water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life.

  2. Ambient Ammonium Contribution to total Nitrogen Deposition ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There has been a wealth of evidence over the last decade illustrating the rising importance of reduced inorganic nitrogen (NHx = ammonia gas, NH3, plus particulate ammonium, p-NH4) in the overall atmospheric mass balance and deposition of nitrogen as emissions of oxidized nitrogen have decreased throughout a period of stable or increasing NH3 emissions. In addition, the fraction of ambient ammonia relative to p-NH4 generally has risen as a result of decreases in both oxides of nitrogen and sulfur emissions. EPA plans to consider ecological effects related to deposition of nitrogen, of which NHx is a contributing component, in the review of secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for oxides of nitrogen and sulfur (NOx/SOx standard). Although these ecological effects are associated with total nitrogen deposition, it will be important to understand the emissions sources contributing to the total nitrogen deposition and to understand how much of the total nitrogen deposition is from deposition of NHx versus other nitrogen species. Because p-NH4 contributes to nitrogen deposition and can also be a significant component of particulate matter, there is a potential overlap in addressing nitrogen based deposition effects in the secondary PM and NOx/SOx NAAQS. Consequently, there is a policy interest in quantifying the contribution of p-NH4 to total nitrogen deposition. While dry deposition of p-NH4 is calculated through a variety of modeling app

  3. Ambient curing fire resistant foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamermesh, C. L.; Hogenson, P. A.; Tung, C. Y.; Sawko, P. M.; Riccitiello, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of development of an ambient curing foam is described. The thermal stability and flame spread index of the foams were found to be comparable to those of the high-temperature cured polyimide foams by Monsanto two-foot tunnel test and NASA T-3 Fire test. Adaptation of the material to spray in place applications is described

  4. Ambient curing fire resistant foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamermesh, C. L.; Hogenson, P. A.; Tung, C. Y.; Sawko, P. M.; Riccitiello, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of development of an ambient curing foam is described. The thermal stability and flame spread index of the foams were found to be comparable to those of the high-temperature cured polyimide foams by Monsanto two-foot tunnel test and NASA T-3 Fire test. Adaptation of the material to spray in place applications is described

  5. Manufactured Porous Ambient Surface Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, Elizabeth M.; Peters, Gregory H.; Chu, Lauren; Zhou, Yu Meng; Cohen, Brooklin; Panossian, Lara; Green, Jacklyn R.; Moreland, Scott; Backes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The planetary science decadal survey for 2013-2022 (Vision and Voyages, NRC 2011) has promoted mission concepts for sample acquisition from small solar system bodies. Numerous comet-sampling tools are in development to meet this standard. Manufactured Porous Ambient Surface Simulants (MPASS) materials provide an opportunity to simulate variable features at ambient temperatures and pressures to appropriately test potential sample acquisition systems for comets, asteroids, and planetary surfaces. The original "flavor" of MPASS materials is known as Manufactured Porous Ambient Comet Simulants (MPACS), which was developed in parallel with the development of the Biblade Comet Sampling System (Backes et al., in review). The current suite of MPACS materials was developed through research of the physical and mechanical properties of comets from past comet missions results and modeling efforts, coordination with the science community at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and testing of a wide range of materials and formulations. These simulants were required to represent the physical and mechanical properties of cometary nuclei, based on the current understanding of the science community. Working with cryogenic simulants can be tedious and costly; thus MPACS is a suite of ambient simulants that yields a brittle failure mode similar to that of cryogenic icy materials. Here we describe our suite of comet simulants known as MPACS that will be used to test and validate the Biblade Comet Sampling System (Backes et al., in review).

  6. Low ambient oxygen prevents atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ju-Gyeong; Sung, Ho Joong; Amar, Marcelo J; Pryor, Milton; Remaley, Alan T; Allen, Michele D; Noguchi, Audrey C; Springer, Danielle A; Kwon, Jaeyul; Chen, Jichun; Park, Ji-hoon; Wang, Ping-yuan; Hwang, Paul M

    2016-03-01

    Large population studies have shown that living at higher altitudes, which lowers ambient oxygen exposure, is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease mortality. However, hypoxia has also been reported to promote atherosclerosis by worsening lipid metabolism and inflammation. We sought to address these disparate reports by reducing the ambient oxygen exposure of ApoE-/- mice. We observed that long-term adaptation to 10% O2 (equivalent to oxygen content at ∼5000 m), compared to 21% O2 (room air at sea level), resulted in a marked decrease in aortic atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice. This effect was associated with increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10), known to be anti-atherogenic and regulated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α). Supporting these observations, ApoE-/- mice that were deficient in IL-10 (IL10-/- ApoE-/- double knockout) failed to show reduced atherosclerosis in 10% oxygen. Our study reveals a specific mechanism that can help explain the decreased prevalence of ischemic heart disease in populations living at high altitudes and identifies ambient oxygen exposure as a potential factor that could be modulated to alter pathogenesis. Key messages: Chronic low ambient oxygen exposure decreases atherosclerosis in mice. Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 levels are increased by low ambient O2. This is consistent with the established role of HIF-1α in IL10 transactivation. Absence of IL-10 results in the loss of the anti-atherosclerosis effect of low O2. This mechanism may contribute to decreased atherosclerosis at high altitudes.

  7. Ambient pressure fuel cell system

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2000-01-01

    An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

  8. Structural lubricity under ambient conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cihan, Ebru; İpek, Semran; Durgun, Engin; Baykara, Mehmet Z.

    2016-01-01

    Despite its fundamental importance, physical mechanisms that govern friction are poorly understood. While a state of ultra-low friction, termed structural lubricity, is expected for any clean, atomically flat interface consisting of two different materials with incommensurate structures, some associated predictions could only be quantitatively confirmed under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions so far. Here, we report structurally lubric sliding under ambient conditions at mesoscopic (∼4,000–130,000 nm2) interfaces formed by gold islands on graphite. Ab initio calculations reveal that the gold–graphite interface is expected to remain largely free from contaminant molecules, leading to structurally lubric sliding. The experiments reported here demonstrate the potential for practical lubrication schemes for micro- and nano-electromechanical systems, which would mainly rely on an atomic-scale structural mismatch between the slider and substrate components, via the utilization of material systems featuring clean, atomically flat interfaces under ambient conditions. PMID:27350035

  9. Structural lubricity under ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cihan, Ebru; Ipek, Semran; Durgun, Engin; Baykara, Mehmet Z.

    2016-06-01

    Despite its fundamental importance, physical mechanisms that govern friction are poorly understood. While a state of ultra-low friction, termed structural lubricity, is expected for any clean, atomically flat interface consisting of two different materials with incommensurate structures, some associated predictions could only be quantitatively confirmed under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions so far. Here, we report structurally lubric sliding under ambient conditions at mesoscopic (~4,000-130,000 nm2) interfaces formed by gold islands on graphite. Ab initio calculations reveal that the gold-graphite interface is expected to remain largely free from contaminant molecules, leading to structurally lubric sliding. The experiments reported here demonstrate the potential for practical lubrication schemes for micro- and nano-electromechanical systems, which would mainly rely on an atomic-scale structural mismatch between the slider and substrate components, via the utilization of material systems featuring clean, atomically flat interfaces under ambient conditions.

  10. The Third Ambient Aspirin Polymorph

    DOE PAGES

    Shtukenberg, Alexander G.; Hu, Chunhua T.; Zhu, Qiang; ...

    2017-05-17

    Polymorphism in aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), one of the most widely consumed medications, was equivocal until the structure of a second polymorph II, similar in structure to the original form I, was reported in 2005. Here, the third ambient polymorph of aspirin is described. Lastly, it was crystallized from the melt and its structure was determined using a combination of X-ray powder diffraction analysis and crystal structure prediction algorithms.

  11. Apportionment of ambient primary and secondary fine particulate matter at the Pittsburgh National Energy Laboratory particulate matter characterization site using positive matrix factorization and a potential source contributions function analysis.

    PubMed

    Martello, Donald V; Pekney, Natalie J; Anderson, Richard R; Davidson, Cliff I; Hopke, Philip K; Kim, Eugene; Christensen, William F; Mangelson, Nolan F; Eatough, Delbert J

    2008-03-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations associated with 202 24-hr samples collected at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) particulate matter (PM) characterization site in south Pittsburgh from October 1999 through September 2001 were used to apportion PM2.5 into primary and secondary contributions using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2). Input included the concentrations of PM2.5 mass determined with a Federal Reference Method (FRM) sampler, semi-volatile PM2.5 organic material, elemental carbon (EC), and trace element components of PM2.5. A total of 11 factors were identified. The results of potential source contributions function (PSCF) analysis using PMF2 factors and HYSPLIT-calculated back-trajectories were used to identify those factors associated with specific meteorological transport conditions. The 11 factors were identified as being associated with emissions from various specific regions and facilities including crustal material, gasoline combustion, diesel combustion, and three nearby sources high in trace metals. Three sources associated with transport from coal-fired power plants to the southeast, a combination of point sources to the northwest, and a steel mill and associated sources to the west were identified. In addition, two secondary-material-dominated sources were identified, one was associated with secondary products of local emissions and one was dominated by secondary ammonium sulfate transported to the NETL site from the west and southwest. Of these 11 factors, the four largest contributors to PM2.5 were the secondary transported material (dominated by ammonium sulfate) (47%), local secondary material (19%), diesel combustion emissions (10%), and gasoline combustion emissions (8%). The other seven factors accounted for the remaining 16% of the PM2.5 mass. The findings are consistent with the major source of PM2.5 in the Pittsburgh area being dominated by ammonium sulfate from distant transport and so decoupled from

  12. Nonlinear Elasticity in a Deforming Ambient Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavari, Arash; Ozakin, Arkadas; Sadik, Souhayl

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we formulate a nonlinear elasticity theory in which the ambient space is evolving. For a continuum moving in an evolving ambient space, we model time dependency of the metric by a time-dependent embedding of the ambient space in a larger manifold with a fixed background metric. We derive both the tangential and the normal governing equations. We then reduce the standard energy balance written in the larger ambient space to that in the evolving ambient space. We consider quasi-static deformations of the ambient space and show that a quasi-static deformation of the ambient space results in stresses, in general. We linearize the nonlinear theory about a reference motion and show that variation of the spatial metric corresponds to an effective field of body forces.

  13. Comments on: Chari, R.; Burke, T.A.; White, R.H.; Fox, M.A. Integrating Susceptibility into environmental policy: an analysis of the national ambient air quality standard for lead. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 1077-1096.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Deirdre L; Patel, Molini; Kirrane, Ellen; Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa

    2013-02-08

    In their recent article [1], Chari et al. call attention to the important subject of setting National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to provide requisite protection for public health, including the health of sensitive groups, as specified under the Clean Air Act (73 FR 66965) [2]. The authors focus on consideration of susceptibility to inform policy choices, using lead (Pb)-related neurocognitive effects and children from low socioeconomic status (SES) families in the context of alternative Pb standard levels. Our comments focus on the authors' analysis of the scientific evidence and not on policy. We agree with the authors that the health effects evidence for Pb indicates a role (or roles) for SES-related factors in influencing childhood Pb exposure and associated health effects. We disagree, however, with the authors' interpretation of the literature on SES influence on the shape of the concentration-response (C-R) relationship between children's blood Pb and IQ (e.g., steepness of the slope). We further address aspects of the scientific evidence that are important to the consideration of sensitive populations in the context of the Pb NAAQS, and how the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considered this evidence in setting the Pb NAAQS in 2008.

  14. 75 FR 8698 - Extension of Request for Scientific Views for Draft 2009 Update Aquatic Life Ambient Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... AGENCY Extension of Request for Scientific Views for Draft 2009 Update Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality... availability of draft national recommended water quality criteria for ammonia for the ] protection of aquatic life entitled ``Draft 2009 Update Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ammonia--Freshwater...

  15. 75 FR 76336 - Notice of Data Availability Regarding Two Studies of Ambient Lead Concentrations Near a General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 58 Notice of Data Availability Regarding Two Studies of Ambient Lead Concentrations Near a General Aviation Airport AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Data..., 2009) that revised the primary and secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for...

  16. Ambient Noise in the Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Pacific Ocean ....... ................. 4-11 4-7 Ambient noise spectra within and below a surface duct . . . . 4-13 5-1 Geometry of a simple model for... suspension system and the barge at the 100-ft hydrophone. The noise gradient tends to be greater at low frequencies than at high. We note from Figure...reflection). Expressing r, k and dr in terms of h and e, we 5-1 "-- -- ’dA / / I0 h I , ŕ"(L•)v ŕŔCOSvn{ PF Figure 5-1. Geometry of a simple model

  17. Ambient Temperature Rechargeable Lithium Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    AD-AI O297 EIC LA BS INC NEWTON MA F/6 10/3 AMB IENT TEMPERATURE RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM BATTERAU AG(MARHMU)L TI ARI AK IC07 UNCLASSIFIED C-655DEE TB6...036FL -T Research and Development Technical Report -N DELET-TR-81-0378-F AMBIENT TEMPERATURE RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM BATTERY K. M. Abraham D. L. Natwig...WORDS (Cenimne an revee filf Of ~"#amp Pu l41"lfr bg’ 61WA amober) Rechargeable lithium battery, CrO.5VO.5S2 positive electrode, 2Me-THF/LiAsF6, cell

  18. Response of macaque bronchiolar epithelium to ambient concentrations of ozone.

    PubMed Central

    Harkema, J. R.; Plopper, C. G.; Hyde, D. M.; St George, J. A.; Wilson, D. W.; Dungworth, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, we reported that exposure to ambient concentrations of ozone, near the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard (0.12 ppm), induced significant nasal epithelial lesions in a non-human primate, the bonnet monkey. The present study defines the effects of ambient concentrations of ozone on the surface epithelium lining respiratory bronchioles and on the underlying bronchiolar interstitium in these same monkeys. Bonnet monkeys were exposed to filtered air or to 0.15 or 0.30 ppm ozone 8 hours/day for 6 or 90 days. At the end of exposures, monkeys were anesthetized and killed by exsanguination. Microdissected bronchiolar airways of infusion-fixed lungs were evaluated morphometrically by light microscopy and quantitatively by scanning and transmission electron microscopy for ozone-induced epithelial changes. Hyperplasia of nonciliated, cuboidal epithelial cells and intraluminal accumulation of macrophages characterized ozone-induced lesions in respiratory bronchioles. There were no significant differences in epithelial thickness or cell numbers among ozone-exposed groups. Ozone-exposed epithelium was composed of 80% cuboidal and 20% squamous cells compared with 40% cuboidal and 60% squamous cells in filtered air controls. In addition, the arithmetic mean thickness of the surface epithelium, a measure of tissue mass per unit area of basal lamina, was significantly increased in all of the ozone-exposed groups. The number of cuboidal epithelial cells per surface area of basal lamina was increased above control values by 780% after 6 days exposure to 0.15 ppm, 777% after 90 days to 0.15 ppm, and 996% after 90 days exposure to 0.30 ppm. There was also a significant ozone-induced increase in the thickness of the bronchiolar interstitium that was due to an increase in both cellular and acellular components. These results demonstrate that exposure to low ambient concentrations of ozone, near the current. National Ambient Air Quality Standard, induces pulmonary lesions

  19. Turbine airfoil with ambient cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jr, Christian X.; Marra, John J.; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-06-07

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one ambient air cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels configured to receive ambient air at about atmospheric pressure. The ambient air cooling system may have a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of at least 0.5, and in at least one embodiment, may include a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of between about 0.5 and about 3.0. The cooling system may also be configured such that an under root slot chamber in the root is large to minimize supply air velocity. One or more cooling channels of the ambient air cooling system may terminate at an outlet at the tip such that the outlet is aligned with inner surfaces forming the at least one cooling channel in the airfoil to facilitate high mass flow.

  20. Clinical Application of Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li-Hua; Hsieh, Hua-Yi; Hsu, Cheng-Chih

    2017-01-01

    Ambient ionization allows mass spectrometry analysis directly on the sample surface under atmospheric pressure with almost zero sample pretreatment. Since the development of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) in 2004, many other ambient ionization techniques were developed. Due to their simplicity and low operation cost, rapid and on-site clinical mass spectrometry analysis becomes real. In this review, we will highlight some of the most widely used ambient ionization mass spectrometry approaches and their applications in clinical study. PMID:28337399

  1. Below-Ambient and Cryogenic Thermal Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal insulation systems operating in below-ambient temperature conditions are inherently susceptible to moisture intrusion and vapor drive toward the cold side. The subsequent effects may include condensation, icing, cracking, corrosion, and other problems. Methods and apparatus for real-world thermal performance testing of below-ambient systems have been developed based on cryogenic boiloff calorimetry. New ASTM International standards on cryogenic testing and their extension to future standards for below-ambient testing of pipe insulation are reviewed.

  2. 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Infrastructure Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Read about the EPA's infrastructure actions for the 2008 Ozone NAAQS. These actions are regarding states' failure to submit SIPs addressing various parts of the standards. Here you can read the federal register notices, fact sheets, and the docket folder.

  3. 1997 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Infrastructure Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Read about the EPA's infrastructure actions for the 1997 Ozone NAAQS. These actions are regarding states' failure to submit SIPs addressing various parts of the standards. Here you can read the federal register notices, fact sheets, and the docket folder.

  4. Tritium monitoring system for near ambient measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Falter, K.G.; Bauer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of research on an improved tritium measurement system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Navy. Present tritium-in-air monitoring systems installed by the Navy can reliably measure to less than 10 {mu}Ci/m{sup 3}, but medical and safety issues are pushing measurement needs to below 1 {mu}Ci/m{sup 3}, which is equivalent to 1--10 nCi/ml in liquid samples, using calcium metal converter. A significant effort has been expended over the past 10 years by the Navy RADIAC Development Program at ORNL on various schemes to improve the detection of tritium in both air and liquid at near ambient levels. One such scheme includes a liquid flow-through system based on an NE102 sponge scintillator with dual photomultiplier tubes for the tube noise rejection. (This document also contains copies of the slides used for presentation of this paper to the IEEE 1991 Nuclear Science Symposium). 4 refs., 17 figs.

  5. Ambient air contamination: Characterization and detection techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nulton, C. P.; Silvus, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques to characterize and detect sources of ambient air contamination are described. Chemical techniques to identify indoor contaminants are outlined, they include gas chromatography, or colorimetric detection. Organics generated from indoor materials at ambient conditions and upon combustion are characterized. Piezoelectric quartz crystals are used as precision frequency determining elements in electronic oscillators.

  6. 40 CFR 1033.505 - Ambient conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1033.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... presumed that combustion air will be drawn from the ambient air. Thus, the ambient temperature limits of this paragraph (a) apply for intake air upstream of the engine. If you do not draw combustion air...

  7. 40 CFR 1033.505 - Ambient conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1033.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... presumed that combustion air will be drawn from the ambient air. Thus, the ambient temperature limits of this paragraph (a) apply for intake air upstream of the engine. If you do not draw combustion air...

  8. 40 CFR 1033.505 - Ambient conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1033.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... presumed that combustion air will be drawn from the ambient air. Thus, the ambient temperature limits of this paragraph (a) apply for intake air upstream of the engine. If you do not draw combustion air...

  9. 40 CFR 1033.505 - Ambient conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1033.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... presumed that combustion air will be drawn from the ambient air. Thus, the ambient temperature limits of this paragraph (a) apply for intake air upstream of the engine. If you do not draw combustion air...

  10. 40 CFR 1033.505 - Ambient conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient conditions. 1033.505 Section 1033.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.505 Ambient conditions. This...

  11. INTERPOLATING VANCOUVER'S DAILY AMBIENT PM 10 FIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this article we develop a spatial predictive distribution for the ambient space- time response field of daily ambient PM10 in Vancouver, Canada. Observed responses have a consistent temporal pattern from one monitoring site to the next. We exploit this feature of the field b...

  12. INTERPOLATING VANCOUVER'S DAILY AMBIENT PM 10 FIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this article we develop a spatial predictive distribution for the ambient space- time response field of daily ambient PM10 in Vancouver, Canada. Observed responses have a consistent temporal pattern from one monitoring site to the next. We exploit this feature of the field b...

  13. Ambient intelligence in health care.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe

    2003-06-01

    Ambient Intelligence (AmI) is a new paradigm in information technology, in which people are empowered through a digital environment that is aware of their presence and context, and is sensitive, adaptive, and responsive to their needs, habits, gestures and emotions. The most ambitious expression of AmI is Intelligent Mixed Reality (IMR), an evolution of traditional virtual reality environments. Using IMR, it is possible to integrate computer interfaces into the real environment, so that the user can interact with other individuals and with the environment itself in the most natural and intuitive way. How does the emergence of the AmI paradigm influence the future of health care? Using a scenario-based approach, this paper outlines the possible role of AmI in health care by focusing on both its technological and relational nature. In this sense, clinicians and health care providers that want to exploit AmI potential need a significant attention to technology, ergonomics, project management, human factors and organizational changes in the structure of the relevant health service.

  14. Ambient clumsiness in virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzanka, Silvia; Behar, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental pursuit of Virtual Reality is the experience of a seamless connection between the user's body and actions within the simulation. Virtual worlds often mediate the relationship between the physical and virtual body through creating an idealized representation of the self in an idealized space. This paper argues that the very ubiquity of the medium of virtual environments, such as the massively popular Second Life, has now made them mundane, and that idealized representations are no longer appropriate. In our artwork we introduce the attribute of clumsiness to Second Life by creating and distributing scripts that cause users' avatars to exhibit unpredictable stumbling, tripping, and momentary poor coordination, thus subtly and unexpectedly intervening with, rather than amplifying, a user's intent. These behaviors are publicly distributed, and manifest only occasionally - rather than intentional, conscious actions, they are involuntary and ambient. We suggest that the physical human body is itself an imperfect interface, and that the continued blurring of distinctions between the physical body and virtual representations calls for the introduction of these mundane, clumsy elements.

  15. Ambient Concentrations and Mobile Sources of Ammonia in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorter, J. H.; Herndon, S. C.; Zahniser, M. S.; Wormhoudt, J.; Zavala, M.; Dunlea, E. J.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Kolb, C. E.

    2004-12-01

    Emission of ammonia (NH3) to the atmosphere is a major environmental concern and a potential health hazard. As the dominant gaseous alkaline species in the atmosphere, ammonia plays an important role in the dynamics of the atmospheric environment and on air quality. Ammonia is a major source of secondary PM-2.5 particulates including ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfates. These important constituents of airborne PM-2.5 can contribute significantly to regional haze and visibility problems. They are also regulated under the U.S. "National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Particulate Matter" as a human health hazard. Models of the formation of these particulates are being developed but they depend on both detailed inventories of NH3 emissions and on comparison of model results with ambient ammonia measurements. A real time tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS) instrument was deployed on the Aerodyne Research, Inc. Mobile Laboratory in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in spring 2003. The Quantum Cascade laser (QCL) based instrument collected ammonia concentration data to characterize fleet average and individual vehicle emissions. Ambient concentration data at several stationary sites were also studied. Gas phase ammonia data will be used to elucidate the formation of ammonium particles in Mexico City. Implications of the results on air quality modeling will be discussed.

  16. The Relationship between the Disability Prevalence of Cataracts and Ambient Erythemal Ultraviolet Radiation in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Yu, Jiaming; Gao, Qian; Hu, Liwen; Gao, Na; Gong, Huizhi; Liu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    In Western countries, ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin cancer has been studied extensively regarding the high incidence of skin cancers in the white population; however, for people of color, cataracts are the main public health issue in relation to increased ambient ultraviolet radiation (UVR). To our knowledge, few studies have been conducted examining the relationship between cataracts and ambient UVR in China. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between and the factors influencing the disability prevalence of cataracts and annual ambient erythemal UVR exposure in 31 regions of China. The data used to determine the disability prevalence of cataracts was obtained from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability. The regional annual erythemal UVR was calculated using Geographic Information System (GIS) methods based on data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) database. The relationship between the disability prevalence of cataracts and the annual ambient erythemal UVR was examined by using logistic regression. Both the age-standardized disability prevalence of cataracts (OR = 3.97, 95%CI 1.30–12.13, per 100KJ/m2 increase in annual ambient erythemal UVR) and the disability prevalence of cataracts among a population ≥65 years old (OR = 3.97, 95%CI 1.30–12.13, per 100KJ/m2 increase in annual ambient erythemal UVR) were higher in association with higher ambient erythemal UVR. Regions with higher urbanization and educational levels had lower disability prevalence of cataracts. We found positive associations of the age-standardized disability prevalence of cataracts and the disability prevalence of cataracts among a population ≥65 years old with ambient erythemal UVR in 31 regions of China. PMID:23226480

  17. The relationship between the disability prevalence of cataracts and ambient erythemal ultraviolet radiation in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Yu, Jiaming; Gao, Qian; Hu, Liwen; Gao, Na; Gong, Huizhi; Liu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    In Western countries, ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin cancer has been studied extensively regarding the high incidence of skin cancers in the white population; however, for people of color, cataracts are the main public health issue in relation to increased ambient ultraviolet radiation (UVR). To our knowledge, few studies have been conducted examining the relationship between cataracts and ambient UVR in China. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between and the factors influencing the disability prevalence of cataracts and annual ambient erythemal UVR exposure in 31 regions of China. The data used to determine the disability prevalence of cataracts was obtained from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability. The regional annual erythemal UVR was calculated using Geographic Information System (GIS) methods based on data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) database. The relationship between the disability prevalence of cataracts and the annual ambient erythemal UVR was examined by using logistic regression. Both the age-standardized disability prevalence of cataracts (OR = 3.97, 95%CI 1.30-12.13, per 100KJ/m(2) increase in annual ambient erythemal UVR) and the disability prevalence of cataracts among a population ≥65 years old (OR = 3.97, 95%CI 1.30-12.13, per 100KJ/m(2) increase in annual ambient erythemal UVR) were higher in association with higher ambient erythemal UVR. Regions with higher urbanization and educational levels had lower disability prevalence of cataracts. We found positive associations of the age-standardized disability prevalence of cataracts and the disability prevalence of cataracts among a population ≥65 years old with ambient erythemal UVR in 31 regions of China.

  18. Ambient Fluid Entrainment by Vortex Ring Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olcay, Ali B.; Krueger, Paul S.

    2004-11-01

    During the formation of a vortex ring from a piston-cylinder mechanism, the roll-up of the ejected shear layer entrains ambient fluid. The resulting vortex ring convects both ejected and ambient fluid downstream. Ambient fluid entrained during the formation phase must be accelerated with the forming ring and can contribute to elevated propulsive effectiveness for pulsed-jet propulsion. In this regard it is of interest to know how much ambient fluid is entrained during vortex ring formation and if the entrainment occurs primarily during jet ejection or afterward. The present investigation evaluates ambient fluid entrainment experimentally using laser induced fluorescence of vortex ring formation from a piston-cylinder vortex ring generator. The fraction of ambient fluid in fully-developed vortex rings is evaluated directly for piston stroke-to-diameter (L/D) ratios in the range 0.25 to 4 for jet Reynolds number in the range 500 to 2000. The results indicate that the ambient fluid fraction is greater than 50% for L/D < 2.0, and the fraction tends to decrease as L/D increases. Time evolution of the entrainment during ring formation will also be presented.

  19. Ambient pressure and single-bubble sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondic, Ljubinko; Yuan, Chi; Chan, C. K.

    1998-01-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the influence of ambient pressure on single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL). By combining simulations of gas dynamics, mass diffusion theory, and stability analysis we find a narrow region of the parameter space where stable SBSL is possible. In particular, the theory predicts a 200% increase in SL radiation if ambient pressure is decreased only 5%. The results are compared with preliminary experimental data, and a good agreement is found. Variation of ambient pressure provides a simple and interesting test for the validity of various SL theories, diffusive or nondiffusive mass flow ideas, and stability analyses.

  20. Timelapse: Webb's Ambient Optical Assembly Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The clean room at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., has received a giant structural steel frame called "AOAS," the Ambient Optical Assembly Stand that will be used to assemble t...

  1. SPS emissions and comparison with ambient loadings

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, E.; Brubaker, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of propulsion injections into the atmosphere due to Satellite Power System (SPS) transportation vehicles, and relates the magnitudes of these injections to the ambient burdens of the different chemical species. The significance of the different injections is discussed in terms of a dimensionless perturbation factor, the magnitude of which is a measure of the expected concentration change relative to the existing ambient concentration.

  2. Association of trends in US ambient air quality and cardiovascular mortality for 2000-2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the implementation of the Clean Air Act’s National Ambient Air Quality Standards, air quality in the United States has notably improved. Here we investigate whether declining levels of air pollutants are associated with improvements in human health. We examine the re...

  3. Association of trends in US ambient air quality and cardiovascular mortality for 2000-2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the implementation of the Clean Air Act’s National Ambient Air Quality Standards, air quality in the United States has notably improved. Here we investigate whether declining levels of air pollutants are associated with improvements in human health. We examine the re...

  4. A Literature Review of Concentrations and Size Distributions of Ambient Airborne Pb-Containing Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    The final 2008 lead (Pb) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) revision maintains Pb in total suspended particulate matter as the indicator. However, the final rule permits the use of low-volume PM10 (particulate matter sampled with a 50% cut-point of 10 μm) F...

  5. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS.
    Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu**, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; **IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL; *South...

  6. A Literature Review of Concentrations and Size Distributions of Ambient Airborne Pb-Containing Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    The final 2008 lead (Pb) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) revision maintains Pb in total suspended particulate matter as the indicator. However, the final rule permits the use of low-volume PM10 (particulate matter sampled with a 50% cut-point of 10 μm) F...

  7. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS.
    Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu**, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; **IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL; *South...

  8. Forensic applications of ambient ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ifa, Demian R; Jackson, Ayanna U; Paglia, Giuseppe; Cooks, R Graham

    2009-08-01

    This review highlights and critically assesses forensic applications in the developing field of ambient ionization mass spectrometry. Ambient ionization methods permit the ionization of samples outside the mass spectrometer in the ordinary atmosphere, with minimal sample preparation. Several ambient ionization methods have been created since 2004 and they utilize different mechanisms to create ions for mass-spectrometric analysis. Forensic applications of these techniques--to the analysis of toxic industrial compounds, chemical warfare agents, illicit drugs and formulations, explosives, foodstuff, inks, fingerprints, and skin--are reviewed. The minimal sample pretreatment needed is illustrated with examples of analysis from complex matrices (e.g., food) on various substrates (e.g., paper). The low limits of detection achieved by most of the ambient ionization methods for compounds of forensic interest readily offer qualitative confirmation of chemical identity; in some cases quantitative data are also available. The forensic applications of ambient ionization methods are a growing research field and there are still many types of applications which remain to be explored, particularly those involving on-site analysis. Aspects of ambient ionization currently undergoing rapid development include molecular imaging and increased detection specificity through simultaneous chemical reaction and ionization by addition of appropriate chemical reagents.

  9. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Rooftop Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S.; Shen, Bo; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Bargach, Youssef

    2016-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for Low-Global Warming Potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants relative to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in packaged or Rooftop Unit (RTU) air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  10. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient air...

  11. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient air...

  12. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient air...

  13. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient air...

  14. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient air...

  15. Ambient Field Analysis at Groningen Gas Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spica, Z.; Nakata, N.; Beroza, G. C.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze continuous ambient-field data at Groningen gas field (Netherlands) through cross-correlation processing. The Groningen array is composed of 75 shallow boreholes with 6 km spacing, which contain a 3C surface accelerometer and four 5-Hz 3C borehole geophones spaced at 50 m depth intervals. We successfully retrieve coherent waves from ambient seismic field on the 9 components between stations. Results show high SNR signal in the frequency range of 0.125-1 Hz, and the ZZ, ZR, RZ, RR and TT components show much stronger wave energy than other components as expected. This poster discuss the different type of waves retrieved, the utility of the combination of borehole and surface observations, future development as well as the importance to compute the 9 components of the Green's tensor to better understand the wave field propriety with ambient noise.

  16. Effect of ambient pressure on Leidenfrost temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orejon, Daniel; Sefiane, Khellil; Takata, Yasuyuki

    2014-11-01

    The accurate prediction and control of the interaction of liquids with hot surfaces is paramount in numerous areas, including cooling applications. We present results illustrating the effect of ambient pressure on the temperature required for a droplet to levitate over a hot surface, i.e., the Leidenfrost temperature. In the present study the dependence of wetting and levitating temperatures on ambient pressure in a range of subatmospheric pressures is reported. Experimental data indicate that the Leidenfrost temperature decreases with decreasing pressure at subatmospheric pressures. A physical approach for the dependence of Leidenfrost temperature on ambient pressure, based on an analogy with saturation pressure dependence, is proposed. Furthermore, previous literature data for pressures above atmospheric are also included in the analysis to support and validate the proposed approach. In addition, the effect of substrate material, substrate roughness, and type of fluid on the Leidenfrost temperature is discussed.

  17. Effect of ambient pressure on Leidenfrost temperature.

    PubMed

    Orejon, Daniel; Sefiane, Khellil; Takata, Yasuyuki

    2014-11-01

    The accurate prediction and control of the interaction of liquids with hot surfaces is paramount in numerous areas, including cooling applications. We present results illustrating the effect of ambient pressure on the temperature required for a droplet to levitate over a hot surface, i.e., the Leidenfrost temperature. In the present study the dependence of wetting and levitating temperatures on ambient pressure in a range of subatmospheric pressures is reported. Experimental data indicate that the Leidenfrost temperature decreases with decreasing pressure at subatmospheric pressures. A physical approach for the dependence of Leidenfrost temperature on ambient pressure, based on an analogy with saturation pressure dependence, is proposed. Furthermore, previous literature data for pressures above atmospheric are also included in the analysis to support and validate the proposed approach. In addition, the effect of substrate material, substrate roughness, and type of fluid on the Leidenfrost temperature is discussed.

  18. Ambient Noise Tomography of the British Isles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolson, H. J.; Curtis, A.; Baptie, B.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, surface wave tomography using empirical Green’s functions computed via the ambient noise interferometry method has become an established approach to lithospheric imaging problems. To date, ambient noise tomography has been successfully applied to seismometer arrays in the United States, Australia, Iceland, China, South Africa, Europe and the Tibetan Plateau. The basis of the ambient seismic interferometry method is that, by cross-correlating noise data between two seismic stations and stacking over a long enough time period, one can approximate the Green’s Function that would have been recorded at one of the stations if the other had actually been a source. Consequently, one of the main advantages of ambient noise interferometry is that traditional seismic sources such as earthquakes or ballistics are not required; therefore it is ideal for application to seismically quiescent areas such as the British Isles. The British Isles are an archipelago located adjacent to the Eurasian continental shelf in a typically intra-plate setting, formed by a complex amalgamation of several terranes. These range from Laurentian north of the Highland Boundary fault to Avalonian south of the Iapetus Suture and evidence of the regions turbulent geological past can be inferred from its lithospheric structure. Previous studies of the structure of the British Isles considered relatively few seismic stations and/or were limited to using offshore shots, quarry blasts or teleseismic earthquakes as seismic energy sources. We have applied the ambient noise tomography method to noise data recorded on approximately 100 broadband and short period seismometers, including many new stations, in the British Isles and mainland Europe. This dense coverage of the British Isles allows us to image the crust and upper mantle velocity structure with a horizontal resolution in the region of 100km across the North Sea and 30km in the mainland United Kingdom. Here we present the first

  19. Ambient ozone concentration and emergency department visits for panic attacks.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jaelim; Choi, Yoon Jung; Sohn, Jungwoo; Suh, Mina; Cho, Seong-Kyung; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Changsoo; Shin, Dong Chun

    2015-03-01

    The effect of ambient air pollution on panic disorder in the general population has not yet been thoroughly elucidated, although the occurrence of panic disorder in workers exposed to organic solvents has been reported previously. We investigated the association of ambient air pollution with the risk of panic attack-related emergency department visits. Using health insurance claims, we collected data from emergency department visits for panic attacks in Seoul, Republic of Korea (2005-2009). Daily air pollutant concentrations were obtained using automatic monitoring system data. We conducted a time-series study using a generalized additive model with Poisson distribution, which included spline variables (date of visit, daily mean temperature, and relative humidity) and parametric variables (daily mean air pollutant concentration, national holiday, and day of the week). In addition to single lag models (lag1 to lag3), cumulative lag models (lag0-1 to lag0-3) were constructed using moving-average concentrations on the days leading up to the visit. The risk was expressed as relative risk (RR) per one standard deviation of each air pollutant and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 2320 emergency department visits for panic attacks were observed during the study period. The adjusted RR of panic attack-related emergency department visits was 1.051 (95% CI, 1.014-1.090) for same-day exposure to ozone. In cumulative models, adjusted RRs were 1.068 (1.029-1.107) in lag0-2 and 1.074 (1.035-1.114) in lag0-3. The ambient ozone concentration was significantly associated with emergency department visits for panic attacks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Response of macaque bronchiolar epithelium to ambient concentrations of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Harkema, J.R.; Plopper, C.G.; Hyde, D.M.; St. George, J.A.; Wilson, D.W.; Dungworth, D.L. )

    1993-09-01

    Recently, we reported that exposure to ambient concentrations of ozone, near the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standard (0.12 ppm), induced significant nasal epithelial lesions in a non-human primate, the bonnet monkey. The present study defines the effects of ambient concentrations of ozone on the surface epithelium lining respiratory bronchioles and on the underlying bronchiolar interstitium in these same monkeys. Bonnet monkeys were exposed to filtered air or to 0.15 or 0.30 ppm ozone 8 hours/day for 6 or 90 days. At the end of exposures, monkeys were anesthetized and killed by exsanguination. Microdissected bronchiolar airways of infusion-fixed lungs were evaluated morphometrically by light microscopy and quantitatively by scanning and transmission electron microscopy for ozone-induced epithelial changes. Hyperplasia of nonciliated, cuboidal epithelial cells and intraluminal accumulation of macrophages characterized ozone-induced lesions in respiratory bronchioles. There were no significant differences in epithelial thickness or cell numbers among ozone-exposed groups. Ozone-exposed epithelium was composed of 80% cuboidal and 20% squamous cells compared with 40% cuboidal and 60% squamous cells in filtered air controls. In addition, the arithmetic mean thickness of the surface epithelium, a measure of tissue mass per unit area of basal lamina, was significantly increased in all of the ozone-exposed groups. The number of cuboidal epithelial cells per surface area of basal lamina was increased above control values by 780% after 6 days exposure to 0.15 ppm, 777% after 90 days to 0.15 ppm, and 996% after 90 days exposure to 0.30 ppm. There was also a significant ozone-induced increase in the thickness of the bronchiolar interstitium that was due to an increase in both cellular and acellular components.

  1. Ambient taxes when polluters have multiple choices

    SciTech Connect

    Horan, R.D.; Shortle, J.S.; Abler, D.G.

    1998-09-01

    Economic research on environmental policy design has largely been concerned with the merits of emissions-based economic incentives (e.g., emissions charges, emissions reduction subsidies, transferable discharge permits). Ambient-based tax-subsidy schemes have drawn considerable interest in nonpoint pollution literature as alternatives to emissions-based instruments. Expanding especially on Segerson`s seminal article, this article examines the optimal design and budget-balancing properties of ambient tax-subsidy schemes under more realistic assumptions about the dimensions of firms` choice sets than prior research.

  2. AMBIENT AQUATIC LIFE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nonylphenol is a toxic breakdown product of nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE) surfactants. NPE surfactants are used in industrial cleaning applications and pesticide formulations. EPA published a draft ambient water quality criteria document for nonylphenol in January 2004. This document contains ambient water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. Acute and chronic criteria recommendations have been developed for the protection of aquatic life in both freshwater and saltwater. These criteria are published pursuant to Section 304 (a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and serve as technical information for States for establishing criteria within their State Water Quality Standards.

  3. Ambient odors modulate visual attentional capture.

    PubMed

    Michael, George Andrew; Jacquot, Laurence; Millot, Jean Louis; Brand, Gérard

    2003-12-11

    Sudden visual events capture attention involuntarily because they may signal potential threats. Some theoretical accounts consider that the biological significance of these events is established through the limbic structures. Thus, the manipulation of the limbic activity would affect attentional capture. Since these structures are directly linked to the olfactory system, we have tended to modulate their activity with olfactory stimulations. We have examined behavioral performance in a task of attentional capture by luminance under conditions of ambient odors. Our results show that attentional capture is indeed modulated by ambient odors, and that this modulation may depend on the odor's properties.

  4. Ambient noise analysis of underwater acoustic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Mark A.; Orlin, Pete; Schulte, Annette; Newcomb, Joal

    2003-04-01

    The Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center (LADC) deployed three Environmental Acoustic Recording System (EARS) buoys in the northern Gulf of Mexico during the summers of 2001 and 2002. The buoys recorded frequencies up to 5859 Hz continuously for 36 days in 2001 and for 72 days in 2002. The acoustic signals recorded include sperm whale vocalizations, seismic airguns, and shipping traffic. The variability of the ambient noise is analyzed using spectrograms, time series, and statistical measurements. Variations in ambient noise before, during, and after tropical storm/hurricane passage are also investigated.

  5. Proton affinities of candidates for positively charged ambient ions in boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruusuvuori, K.; Kurtén, T.; Ortega, I. K.; Faust, J.; Vehkamäki, H.

    2013-10-01

    The optimized structures and proton affinities of a total of 81 nitrogen-containing bases, chosen based on field measurements of ambient positive ions, were studied using the CBS-QB3 quantum chemical method. The results were compared to values given in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Chemistry WebBook in cases where a value was listed. The computed values show good agreement with the values listed in NIST. Grouping the molecules based on their molecular formula, the largest calculated proton affinities for each group were also compared with experimentally observed ambient cation concentrations in a boreal forest. This comparison allows us to draw qualitative conclusions about the relative ambient concentrations of different nitrogen-containing organic base molecules.

  6. Proton affinities of candidates for positively charged ambient ions in the boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruusuvuori, K.; Kurtén, T.; Ortega, I. K.; Faust, J.; Vehkamäki, H.

    2013-04-01

    The optimized structures and proton affinities of a total of 81 nitrogen-containing bases, chosen based on field measurements of ambient positive ions, were studied using the CBS-QB3 quantum chemical method. The results were compared to values given in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Chemistry WebBook in cases where a value was listed. The computed values show good agreement with the values listed in NIST. Grouping the molecules based on their molecular formula, the largest calculated proton affinities for each group were also compared with experimentally observed ambient cation concentrations in the boreal forest. This comparison allows us to draw qualitative conclusions about the relative ambient concentrations of different nitrogen-containing organic base molecules.

  7. Ambient noise levels and detection threshold in Norway.

    PubMed

    Demuth, Andrea; Ottemöller, Lars; Keers, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Ambient seismic noise is caused by a number of sources in specific frequency bands. The quantification of ambient noise makes it possible to evaluate station and network performance. We evaluate noise levels in Norway from the 2013 data set of the Norwegian National Seismic Network as well as two temporary deployments. Apart from the station performance, we studied the geographical and temporal variations, and developed a local noise model for Norway. The microseism peaks related to the ocean are significant in Norway. We, therefore, investigated the relationship between oceanic weather conditions and noise levels. We find a correlation of low-frequency noise (0.125-0.25 Hz) with wave heights up to 900 km offshore. High (2-10 Hz) and intermediate (0.5-5 Hz) frequency noise correlates only up to 450 km offshore with wave heights. From a geographic perspective, stations in southern Norway show lower noise levels for low frequencies due to a larger distance to the dominant noise sources in the North Atlantic. Finally, we studied the influence of high-frequency noise levels on earthquake detectability and found that a noise level increase of 10 dB decreases the detectability by 0.5 magnitude units. This method provides a practical way to consider noise variations in detection maps.

  8. Analysis of available ambient and stationary source HAP sampling results to verify emission rate estimates for sources in Ambos Nogales

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, B.; Fernandez, C.; Oliver, B.; Dickson, R.

    1996-12-31

    The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) is funding a project to develop comprehensive hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions inventories for the cross-border communities of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. Ambient VOC and PAH data were collected in downtown Nogales, Sonora in July 1994 by the ADEQ. This paper addresses the analysis of the ambient HAP data performed by the project team. The ambient HAP data evaluation will serve as a cross-check of the accuracy of the RAP emission estimates developed for each source type included in the HAP emissions inventory. The data show that benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene (BTXE) and aldehydes are the dominant volatile organic compound (VOC) HAPs in the ambient air. The quantity of BTXE in the ambient air, and ratio of these compounds to each other, implies that mobile sources are the principal source of BTXE in Nogales, Sonora. Significant levels of olefinic VOCs were also detected. Ambient test data also indicate ethane, propane, butane, pentane are the predominant VOC species in the ambient air. Liquified petroleum gas (LPG) cylinders are the probable source of these VOCs. Almost all residential and commercial cooking performed in Nogales, Sonora is done from LPG cylinders containing a mixture of propane (primarily) and butane. These cylinders are ubiquitous, and many are equipped with potentially leaky valves. VOC and VOC HAP test protocols are currently being developed by the Mexican National Institute of Ecology for these cylinders and associated cooking ranges. Periodic open burning of municipal solid waste (MSW) is performed at a site located on the border in Nogales, Sonora. Ambient VOC HAP data collected in July 1994 during both MSW burning periods and {open_quotes}no burn{close_quotes} periods is being evaluated to determine if the contribution of open burning to the ambient HAP burden can be estimated for both particulate and VOC HAPs from the ambient data. 7 refs.

  9. Providing Context for Ambient Particulate Matter and Estimates of Attributable Mortality.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Roger O

    2016-09-01

    Four papers on fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) by Anenberg et al., Fann et al., Shin et al., and Smith contribute to a growing body of literature on estimated epidemiological associations between ambient PM2.5 concentrations and increases in health responses relative to baseline notes. This article provides context for the four articles, including a historical review of provisions of the U.S. Clean Air Act as amended in 1970, requiring the setting of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria pollutants such as particulate matter (PM). The substantial improvements in both air quality for PM and population health as measured by decreased mortality rates are illustrated. The most recent revision of the NAAQS for PM2.5 in 2013 by the Environmental Protection Agency distinguished between (1) uncertainties in characterizing PM2.5 as having a causal association with various health endpoints, and as all-cause mortality, and (2) uncertainties in concentration--excess health response relationships at low ambient PM2.5 concentrations below the majority of annual concentrations studied in the United States in the past. In future reviews, and potential revisions, of the NAAQS for PM2.5 , it will be even more important to distinguish between uncertainties in (1) characterizing the causal associations between ambient PM2.5 concentrations and specific health outcomes, such as all-source mortality, irrespective of the concentrations, (2) characterizing the potency of major constituents of PM2.5 , and (3) uncertainties in the association between ambient PM2.5 concentrations and specific health outcomes at various ambient PM2.5 concentrations. The latter uncertainties are of special concern as ambient PM2.5 concentrations and health morbidity and mortality rates approach background or baseline rates.

  10. Impact of three interactive Texas state regulatory programs to decrease ambient air toxic levels.

    PubMed

    Capobianco, Tara; Hildebrand, Susana M; Honeycutt, Michael; Lee, Jong-Song; McCant, Darrell; Grant, Roberta L

    2013-05-01

    The Federal Clean Air Act (FCAA) framework envisions a federal-state partnership whereby the development of regulations may be at the federal level or state level with federal oversight. The US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establishes National Ambient Air Quality Standards to describe "safe" ambient levels of criteria pollutants. For air toxics, the EPA establishes control technology standards for the 187 listed hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) but does not establish ambient standards for HAPs or other air toxics. Thus, states must ensure that ambient concentrations are not at harmful levels. The Texas Clean Air Act authorizes the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), the Texas state environmental agency, to control air pollution and protect public health and welfare. The TCEQ employs three interactive programs to ensure that concentrations of air toxics do not exceed levels of potential health concern (LOCs): air permitting, ambient air monitoring, and the Air Pollutant Watch List (APWL). Comprehensive air permit reviews involve the application of best available control technology for new and modified equipment and ensure that permits protect public health and welfare. Protectiveness may be demonstrated by a number of means, including a demonstration that the predicted ground-level concentrations for the permitted emissions, evaluated on a case-by-case and chemical-by-chemical basis, do not cause or contribute to a LOC. The TCEQ's ambient air monitoring program is extensive and provides data to help assess the potential for adverse effects from all operational equipment in an area. If air toxics are persistently monitored at a LOC, an APWL area is established. The purpose of the APWL is to reduce ambient air toxic concentrations below LOCs by focusing TCEQ resources and heightening awareness. This paper will discuss examples of decreases in air toxic levels in Houston and Corpus Christi, Texas, resulting from the interactive nature of these

  11. Projection screen having reduced ambient light scattering

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-05-11

    An apparatus and method for improving the contrast between incident projected light and ambient light reflected from a projection screen are described. The efficiency of the projection screen for reflection of the projected light remains high, while permitting the projection screen to be utilized in a brightly lighted room. Light power requirements from the projection system utilized may be reduced.

  12. All inorganic ambient temperature rechargeable lithium battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, H. C.; Dey, A. N.; Schlaikjer, C.; Foster, D.; Kallianidis, M.

    Research and development was carried out on ambient-temperature rechargeable lithium batteries with inorganic SO2 electrolytes. The following solutes in SO2 were studied: tetrachloroaluminates, LiAlCl4, Li2B10Cl10, and LiGaCl4. Copper chloride (CuCl2) was used as one of the electrode materials.

  13. EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS): REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies support a participation of fine particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 0.1 to 2.5 microm in the effects of air pollution particles on human health. The ambient fine particle concentrator is a recently developed technology that can enrich the mass of ambi...

  14. Training Engineers for the Ambient Intelligence Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corno, Fulvio; De Russis, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    The increasing complexity of the new breed of distributed intelligent systems, such as the Internet of Things, which require a diversity of languages and protocols, can only be tamed with design and programming best practices. Interest is also growing for including the human factor, as advocated by the "ambient intelligence" (AmI)…

  15. EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS): REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies support a participation of fine particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 0.1 to 2.5 microm in the effects of air pollution particles on human health. The ambient fine particle concentrator is a recently developed technology that can enrich the mass of ambi...

  16. Anode for rechargeable ambient temperature lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Attia, Alan I. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An ambient room temperature, high density, rechargeable lithium battery includes a Li(x)Mg2Si negative anode which intercalates lithium to form a single crystalline phase when x is up to 1.0 and an amorphous phase when x is from 1 to 2.0. The electrode has good reversibility and mechanical strength after cycling.

  17. Redox Toxicology of Ambient Air Pollution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air pollution is a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality. Millions of Americans live in areas in which levels of tropospheric ozone exceed air quality standards, while exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5) alone results in 3.2 million excess deaths annually wor...

  18. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    S. Magnuson

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  19. The use of scientific information in setting ambient air standards.

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, B C; Richmond, H M; McCurdy, T

    1983-01-01

    The Clean Air Act, as amended in 1977, requires periodic review and revision of all national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) to insure that they are based on the latest scientific information. This article presents an overview of how EPA currently reviews and establishes NAAQS. The role of scientific information and expertise in the process is illustrated by a review of several key issues faced in the development of the proposed revisions to the carbon monoxide NAAQS. Finally, a risk analysis framework being developed within EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards for possible future use in NAAQS reviews is described. The principal objective of the risk analysis framework is to provide more formal treatment of uncertainties in the scientific data base. PMID:6653526

  20. Assessment of ambient air quality in Eskişehir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozden, O; Döğeroğlu, T; Kara, S

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents an assessment of air quality of the city Eskişehir, located 230 km southwest to the capital of Turkey. Only five of the major air pollutants, most studied worldwide and available for the region, were considered for the assessment. Available sulphur dioxide (SO(2)), particulate matter (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), ozone (O(3)), and non-methane volatile organic carbons (NMVOCs) data from local emission inventory studies provided relative source contributions of the selected pollutants to the region. The contributions of these typical pollution parameters, selected for characterizing such an urban atmosphere, were compared with the data established for other cities in the nation and world countries. Additionally, regional ambient SO(2) and PM concentrations, determined by semi-automatic monitoring at two sites, were gathered from the National Ambient Air Monitoring Network (NAAMN). Regional data for ambient NO(2) (as a precursor of ozone as VOCs) and ozone concentrations, through the application of the passive sampling method, were provided by the still ongoing local air quality monitoring studies conducted at six different sites, as representatives of either the traffic-dense-, or coal/natural gas burning residential-, or industrial/rural-localities of the city. Passively sampled ozone data at a single rural site were also verified with the data from a continuous automatic ozone monitoring system located at that site. Effects of variations in seasonal-activities, newly established railway system, and switching to natural gas usage on the temporal changes of air quality were all considered for the assessment. Based on the comparisons with the national [AQCR (Air Quality Control Regulation). Ministry of Environment (MOE), Ankara. Official Newspaper 19269; 1986.] and a number of international [WHO (World Health Organization). Guidelines for Air Quality. Geneva; 2000. Downloaded in January 2006, website: http://www.who.int/peh/; EU (European Union

  1. Multiagent robotic systems' ambient light sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iureva, Radda A.; Maslennikov, Oleg S.; Komarov, Igor I.

    2017-05-01

    Swarm robotics is one of the fastest growing areas of modern technology. Being subclass of multi-agent systems it inherits the main part of scientific-methodological apparatus of construction and functioning of practically useful complexes, which consist of rather autonomous independent agents. Ambient light sensors (ALS) are widely used in robotics. But speaking about swarm robotics, the technology which has great number of specific features and is developing, we can't help mentioning that its important to use sensors on each robot not only in order to help it to get directionally oriented, but also to follow light emitted by robot-chief or to help to find the goal easier. Key words: ambient light sensor, swarm system, multiagent system, robotic system, robotic complexes, simulation modelling

  2. Thermal explosion in oscillating ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novozhilov, Vasily

    2016-07-01

    Thermal explosion problem for a medium with oscillating ambient temperature at its boundaries is considered. This is a new problem in thermal explosion theory, not previously considered in a distributed system formulation, but important for combustion and fire science. It describes autoignition of wide range of fires (such as but not limited to piles of biosolids and other organic matter; storages of munitions, explosives, propellants) subjected to temperature variations, such as seasonal or day/night variation. The problem is considered in formulation adopted in classical studies of thermal explosion. Critical conditions are determined by frequency and amplitude of ambient temperature oscillations, as well as by a number of other parameters. Effects of all the parameters on critical conditions are quantified. Results are presented for the case of planar symmetry. Development of thermal explosion in time is also considered, and a new type of unsteady thermal explosion development is discovered where thermal runaway occurs after several periods of temperature oscillations within the medium.

  3. Ambient tectonic stress as fragile geological feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, Norman H.

    2014-09-01

    seismic waves produce frictional failure within shallow pervasively cracked rocks. Distributed failure preferentially relaxes ambient tectonic stresses, providing a fragility measure of past strong shaking. Relaxation of the regional fault-normal compression appears to have occurred within granite from 768 m down to ˜1000-1600 m depth at the Pilot Hole near Parkfield, California. Subsequent movements on the main fault have imposed strike-slip stress within the relaxed region. Peak ground velocities of ˜2 m s-1 are inferred for infrequent (few 1000 yr recurrence) past earthquakes from stress relaxation within the granite and from the variation of S wave velocity with depth in the overlying sandstone. Conversely, frequent strong shaking in slowly deforming regions relaxes shallow ambient tectonic stress. This situation is expected beneath Whittier Narrows, where strong Love waves from numerous San Andreas events repeatedly produced nonlinear behavior.

  4. Ambient-temperature co-oxidation catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Billy T.; Schryer, David R.; Brown, Kenneth G.; Kielin, Erik J.

    1991-01-01

    Oxidation catalysts which operate at ambient temperature were developed for the recombination of carbon monoxide (CO) and oxygen (O2) dissociation products which are formed during carbon dioxide (CO2) laser operation. Recombination of these products to regenerate CO2 allows continuous operation of CO2 lasers in a closed cycle mode. Development of these catalyst materials provides enabling technology for the operation of such lasers from space platforms or in ground based facilities without constant gas consumption required for continuous open cycle operation. Such catalysts also have other applications in various areas outside the laser community for removal of CO from other closed environments such as indoor air and as an ambient temperature catalytic converter for control of auto emissions.

  5. Ambient Intelligence Research Landscapes: Introduction and Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streitz, Norbert

    This paper starts out by introducing the "Landscapes" category at the Joint International Conference on Ambient Intelligence (AmI-2010) and provides an overview over the two sessions. The main part of the paper presents a framework for the role of Ambient Intelligence in the development of the cities of the future. This includes the integration of real and virtual worlds resulting in Hybrid Cities and their transformation into Smart Cities. In the context, it is argued that the technological development has to be monitored by guidelines and goals for maintaining and improving the quality of life leading to what is called Humane Cities, addressing, e.g., social awareness and privacy, trust and identity. The paper closes with proposals for a future research agenda.

  6. Deep Water Ambient Noise and Mode Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    tomography sources. In 2009 the DVLA also recorded segments of ambient sound during time periods when the tomography sources were not transmitting. In our... designed to null out the largest interferers, 1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Report...Measurements of the vertical structure of ocean noise are important for understanding noise generation and propagation and for designing sonar signal

  7. Seabed property estimation from ambient noise recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muyzert, E.

    2007-12-01

    Processing and imaging of multi-component seismic data requires detailed knowledge of the shear velocity model of the subsurface. The near surface shear velocity is particular difficult to obtain using conventional seismic methods based on the analysis of shot generated data acquired in deep water. An analysis is presented of ambient noise recorded by an ocean bottom seismic cable developed for seismic exploration and monitoring. The data-set consists of 33 minutes of ambient noise recordings acquired in 270 m water depth. The ocean bottom seismic cable system has a hydrophone and three orthogonal geophones spaced at a 12.5 m interval over a total length of 5600 m. Analysis of the data revealed that below the frequency of 0.075 Hz the hydrophone data were found to be dominated by pressure variations due to sea surface waves. However, the corresponding seafloor compliance (the transfer function between pressure and velocity) was not observed on the vertical geophone component due to the limited 33 minutes recording length. Above 4 Hz the data were dominated by waterborne noise. The ambient noise wavefield at frequencies between 0.5 and 3 Hz was dominated by Scholte waves most likely generated by wave interaction. In addition Love waves were also observed but their excitation mechanism remains unexplained. Scholte and Love wave phase-velocities were picked in the frequency-wavenumber domain. In this domain the slowest velocity is apparent for inline propagation. Scholte wave phase-velocities were inverted for a near surface shear velocity model using a linearized inversion method. In an alternative approach, the spectral ratio of the vertical component and total ambient noise wavefield for the Scholte wave band was calculated and inverted for a near shear wave velocity model. This near surface model is in agreement with other published shallow shear velocity models and synthetics for this model fit well with the observed Scholte and Love wave phase velocity and the

  8. Ambulatory measurement of ambient carbon monoxide levels.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Neil B; Courtney, Todd G; Holm, James R

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of air pollutant levels in the environment is traditionally performed using monitors in fixed locations so that changes over time can be directly compared. Such measurements do not necessarily correlate with the level of exposure to the individual because of distance to the monitoring site and other factors. In the case of carbon monoxide (CO), portable personal monitors are available for industrial use, some of which do not just alarm, but also record measured values. First, it was the purpose of this study to test the feasibility of continuously measuring ambient CO levels in an ambulatory fashion. The second objective was to compare measurements made in a country with significant air pollution to one without to determine the degree to which differences might be observed. Ambient CO levels were measured and recorded every 10 minutes during 13 days of travel in Vietnam. A parallel study was performed in the United States for comnarison. Continuous ambient CO levels at an individual level were successfully measured and recorded. Mean ambient CO level throughout Vietnam was 3.5 ± 4.4 ppm, as compared to 0.9 ± 0.8 ppm in the U.S. (p < 0.001). In Vietnam, 36 CO measurements (2% of total) were 15 ppm or greater vs. none in the U.S. Higher mean levels, as well as number and magnitude of peaks, were highly associated with proximity to traffic. Personal exposures to CO can be measured easily over time and may be more relevant to the individual with underlying disease than data from fixed monitoring stations. Such information may prove useful to potential travelers. Additionally, governmental agencies may find ambulatory measurement to be complimentary to data from fixed monitoring stations when attempting to estimate how traditionally collected data relate to exposure of the individual. The technique could also be used for evaluation of vague complaints suggestive of intermittent CO exposure in the home or workplace.

  9. Improved Ambient Pressure Pyroelectric Ion Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beegle, Luther W.; Kim, Hugh I.; Kanik, Isik; Ryu, Ernest K.; Beckett, Brett

    2011-01-01

    The detection of volatile vapors of unknown species in a complex field environment is required in many different applications. Mass spectroscopic techniques require subsystems including an ionization unit and sample transport mechanism. All of these subsystems must have low mass, small volume, low power, and be rugged. A volatile molecular detector, an ambient pressure pyroelectric ion source (APPIS) that met these requirements, was recently reported by Caltech researchers to be used in in situ environments.

  10. Mass Spectrometry Imaging under Ambient Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chunping; Dill, Allison L.; Eberlin, Livia S.; Cooks, R. Graham; Ifa, Demian R.

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has emerged as an important tool in the last decade and it is beginning to show potential to provide new information in many fields owing to its unique ability to acquire molecularly specific images and to provide multiplexed information, without the need for labeling or staining. In MSI, the chemical identity of molecules present on a surface is investigated as a function of spatial distribution. In addition to now standard methods involving MSI in vacuum, recently developed ambient ionization techniques allow MSI to be performed under atmospheric pressure on untreated samples outside the mass spectrometer. Here we review recent developments and applications of MSI emphasizing the ambient ionization techniques of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI), probe electrospray ionization (PESI), desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI), femtosecond laser desorption ionization (fs-LDI), laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS), infrared laser ablation metastable-induced chemical ionization (IR-LAMICI), liquid microjunction surface sampling probe mass spectrometry (LMJ-SSP MS), nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI), and plasma sources such as the low temperature plasma (LTP) probe and laser ablation coupled to flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (LA-FAPA). Included are discussions of some of the features of ambient MSI including the ability to implement chemical reactions with the goal of providing high abundance ions characteristic of specific compounds of interest and the use of tandem mass spectrometry to either map the distribution of targeted molecules with high specificity or to provide additional MS information in the structural identification of compounds. We also describe the role of bioinformatics in acquiring and interpreting the chemical and spatial information obtained through MSI, especially in biological applications for tissue

  11. Deep Water Ambient Noise and Mode Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    Deep Water Ambient Noise and Mode Processing Kathleen E. Wage George Mason University Electrical and Computer Engineering Department 4400...UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) George Mason University Electrical and Computer Engineering Department 4400 University...analysis of the Church Opal data set showed that noise levels decreased substantially (on the order of 20 dB) below the critical depth [5]. This project

  12. Ambient temperature sodium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Yu, Xingwen

    2015-05-13

    Ambient- or room-temperature sodium-sulfur batteries (RT Na-S) are gaining much attention as a low-cost option for large-scale electrical energy storage applications. However, their adoption is hampered by severe challenges. This concept paper summarizes first the operating principles, history, recent progress, and challenges of RT Na-S battery technology, and then suggests future directions towards enhancing performance in order for it to be a viable technology.

  13. Work function measurements in gas ambient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Wilford N.; Johnson, Kendall B.

    1994-09-01

    A simple, practical method for making work function measurements in gas ambient is presented. The method makes use of a Kelvin probe that has been calibrated using a clean solution surface of an electrochemical half-cell. We find that the outer potential of a typical half-cell solution is constant and reproducible, much more so even than gold in air. It is suggested that the concept and definition of work function be extended to electrochemical half-cells.

  14. Ocean Remote Sensing Using Ambient Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    allows contributions from modal pulses corresponding to different mode numbers to be isolated, even when there is significant overlap in time between...approximation to the transient Green’s function G(xA|xB, t) between locations xA and xB is estimated by cross -correlating records of ambient noise...at 100 m depth are described by Brown et al. (2014). Stable cross -correlation functions are shown to require coherent stacking over a period of

  15. Exercise and outdoor ambient air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Carlisle, A; Sharp, N

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To establish by literature survey: (a) levels at which air pollutants are considered damaging to human health and to exercisers in particular; (b) the current ambient levels experienced in the United Kingdom; (c) whether athletes are especially at risk. Methods—Six major urban air pollutants were examined: carbon monoxide (CO); nitrogen oxides (NOX); ozone (O3); particulate matter (PM10); sulphur dioxide (SO2); volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Results—CO is detrimental to athletic performance. NO2 is of concern to human health, but outdoor levels are low. O3 poses a potentially serious risk to exercising athletes. Decrements in lung function result from exposure, and there is evidence that athletic performance may be affected. Detrimental effects may occur at low ambient levels, but there is no scientific consensus on this matter. PM10 is causing concern in the scientific community. Blood lead accumulation during exercise indicates that personal exposure to toxic compounds associated with PM10 may be magnified. Generally, outdoor ambient levels of SO2 are too low to cause a problem to the athlete, except the asthmatic athlete. The few studies on exposure of exercisers to VOCs are reviewed. Conclusions—Athletes and exercisers should avoid exercising by the road side even though levels of the more noxious air pollutants have been controlled in the United Kingdom. O3 is particularly damaging to athletes; it reaches its highest concentrations on hot bright days in rural areas. Key Words: exercise; air pollution PMID:11477012

  16. Characterizing global infrasonic ocean ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pichon, Alexis; Stutzman, Eleonore; Arduin, Fabrice; Sylvain, Leon

    2017-04-01

    The ability of the International Monitoring System (IMS) global infrasound network to detect atmospheric explosions and events of interest strongly depends on station specific ambient noise which includes both incoherent wind noise and real coherent infrasonic waves. To characterize the coherent ambient noise, a broadband array processing was performed on 10 years of continuous recordings at IMS stations. Multi-year comparisons between the observed and modeled directional microbarom amplitude variations at several IMS stations using two-dimensional wave energy spectrum ocean wave products are performed to build of a reference database of infrasound oceanic sources. Microseisms are attributed the same source processes as microbaroms, involving the interaction of standing ocean waves. To further evaluate oceanic wave action models, the infrasound analysis will be supplemented with several other approaches including microseisms collected at seismic instrumentation (single stations and arrays). The expected benefits of such studies concern the use of multi-year complementary data to finely characterize coupling mechanisms at the ocean-atmosphere interface. In return, a better knowledge of the source of the ambient ocean noise opens new perspectives by providing additional integrated constraints on the dynamics of the middle atmosphere and its disturbances where data coverage is sparse.

  17. Quantification of furandiones in ambient aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Naiema, Ibrahim M.; Roppo, Hannah M.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2017-03-01

    Furandiones are products of the photooxidation of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC), like toluene, and contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Because few molecular tracers of anthropogenic SOA are used to assess this source in ambient aerosol, developing a quantification method for furandiones holds a great importance. In this study, we developed a direct and highly sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the quantitative analysis of furandiones in fine particulate matter that is mainly free from interference by structurally-related dicarboxylic acids. Our application of this method in Iowa City, IA provides the first ambient measurements of four furandiones: 2,5-furandione, 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, dihydro-2,5-furandione, and dihydro-3-methyl-2,5-furandione. Furandiones were detected in all collected samples with a daily average concentration of 9.1 ± 3.8 ng m-3. The developed method allows for the accurate measurement of the furandiones concentrations in ambient aerosol, which will support future evaluation of these compounds as tracers for anthropogenic SOA and assessment of their potential health impacts.

  18. Horizontal Directionality of Ambient Sea Noise in the North Pacific Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    Division Undersea Surveillance and Ocean Sciences Department NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Unauthorized Diselosurte Subject to Criminal Sanctions...is a beamwidth-related phcnoincnon and not a *requetwy- : dependnt propierty of the noist field. 6i) ]he no-ximln tine TASS occupid one station w•s...Center for Ocean Sciences , Plan MC-O01, CHURCH ANCHOR Data Analysis Plan (U), October 1973, (S). 7. Naval Undersea Center, NUC TN-I 039, Ambient Noise

  19. Estimation of ambient and non-ambient components of particulate matter exposure from a personal monitoring panel study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, William E; Brauer, Michael

    2006-05-01

    To provide additional insight into factors affecting exposure to airborne particulate matter and the resultant health effects, we developed a method to estimate the ambient and nonambient components of total personal exposure. The ambient (or outdoor) component of total personal exposure to particulate matter (PM) (called ambient exposure) includes exposure to the ambient PM concentration while outdoors and exposure while indoors to ambient PM that has infiltrated indoors. The nonambient component of total personal exposure to PM (called nonambient exposure) refers to exposure to PM generated by indoor sources and an individual's personal activity. We used data collected from a personal monitoring study in Vancouver, Canada to demonstrate the methodology. In this study, ambient PM(2.5) exposure was 71% of the measured ambient PM(2.5) concentration and was responsible for 44% of the measured total personal PM(2.5) exposure. Regression analysis of the pooled data sets for ambient and total exposure against outdoor concentrations yielded similar slopes (0.76 for ambient and 0.77 for total) but a higher coefficient of determination for ambient exposure (R(2)=0.62) than for total exposure (R(2)=0.072). As expected, the nonambient exposure was not related to the ambient concentration (R(2)<10(-6)). For longitudinal analyses of the relationship between measured personal exposure and ambient concentrations for individual subjects, the correlation of total personal exposure with ambient concentration yielded values of Pearson's r from 0.83 to -0.68 with an average of 0.36. The relationship was statistically significant for only five of the 16 subjects. In contrast, the correlation of the estimated ambient exposure with ambient concentration yielded values of Pearson's r from 0.92 to 0.77 with an average of 0.88; 14 were significant. An example, taken from an epidemiologic analysis using the exposure data from this paper, demonstrates the usefulness of separating total

  20. Object detectability at increased ambient lighting conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, Benjamin J.; Chawla, Amarpreet S.; Delong, David M.; Hashimoto, Noriyuki; Samei, Ehsan

    2008-06-15

    Under typical dark conditions encountered in diagnostic reading rooms, a reader's pupils will contract and dilate as the visual focus intermittently shifts between the high luminance display and the darker background wall, resulting in increased visual fatigue and the degradation of diagnostic performance. A controlled increase of ambient lighting may, however, reduce the severity of these pupillary adjustments by minimizing the difference between the luminance level to which the eyes adapt while viewing an image (L{sub adp}) and the luminance level of diffusely reflected light from the area surrounding the display (L{sub s}). Although ambient lighting in reading rooms has conventionally been kept at a minimum to maintain the perceived contrast of film images, proper Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) calibration of modern medical-grade liquid crystal displays can compensate for minor lighting increases with very little loss of image contrast. This paper describes two psychophysical studies developed to evaluate and refine optimum reading room ambient lighting conditions through the use of observational tasks intended to simulate real clinical practices. The first study utilized the biologic contrast response of the human visual system to determine a range of representative L{sub adp} values for typical medical images. Readers identified low contrast horizontal objects in circular foregrounds of uniform luminance (5, 12, 20, and 30 cd/m{sup 2}) embedded within digitized mammograms. The second study examined the effect of increased ambient lighting on the detection of subtle objects embedded in circular foregrounds of uniform luminance (5, 12, and 35 cd/m{sup 2}) centered within a constant background of 12 cd/m{sup 2} luminance. The images were displayed under a dark room condition (1 lux) and an increased ambient lighting level (50 lux) such that the luminance level of the diffusely reflected light from the background wall was approximately

  1. Object detectability at increased ambient lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Benjamin J; Chawla, Amarpreet S; Delong, David M; Hashimoto, Noriyuki; Samei, Ehsan

    2008-06-01

    Under typical dark conditions encountered in diagnostic reading rooms, a reader's pupils will contract and dilate as the visual focus intermittently shifts between the high luminance display and the darker background wall, resulting in increased visual fatigue and the degradation of diagnostic performance. A controlled increase of ambient lighting may, however, reduce the severity of these pupillary adjustments by minimizing the difference between the luminance level to which the eyes adapt while viewing an image (L(adp)) and the luminance level of diffusely reflected light from the area surrounding the display (L(s)). Although ambient lighting in reading rooms has conventionally been kept at a minimum to maintain the perceived contrast of film images, proper Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) calibration of modern medical-grade liquid crystal displays can compensate for minor lighting increases with very little loss of image contrast. This paper describes two psychophysical studies developed to evaluate and refine optimum reading room ambient lighting conditions through the use of observational tasks intended to simulate real clinical practices. The first study utilized the biologic contrast response of the human visual system to determine a range of representative L(adp) values for typical medical images. Readers identified low contrast horizontal objects in circular foregrounds of uniform luminance (5, 12, 20, and 30 cd/m2) embedded within digitized mammograms. The second study examined the effect of increased ambient lighting on the detection of subtle objects embedded in circular foregrounds of uniform luminance (5, 12, and 35 cd/m2) centered within a constant background of 12 cd/m2 luminance. The images were displayed under a dark room condition (1 lux) and an increased ambient lighting level (50 lux) such that the luminance level of the diffusely reflected light from the background wall was approximately equal to the image L(adp) value of

  2. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING AT GROUND ZERO AND LOWER MANHATTAN FOLLOWING THE COLLAPSE OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) collaborated with EPA's Regional offices to establish a monitoring network to characterize ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and air toxics in lower Manhattan following the collapse of the World Trade...

  3. Source Apportionment of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter in Dearborn, Michigan, using Hourly Resolved PM Chemical Composition Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    High time-resolution aerosol sampling was conducted for one month during July–August 2007 in Dearborn, MI, a non-attainment area for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Measurements of more than 30 PM2.5 species were made using a suite o...

  4. AMBIENT AIR MONITORING AT GROUND ZERO AND LOWER MANHATTAN FOLLOWING THE COLLAPSE OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) collaborated with EPA's Regional offices to establish a monitoring network to characterize ambient air concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and air toxics in lower Manhattan following the collapse of the World Trade...

  5. Source Apportionment of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter in Dearborn, Michigan, using Hourly Resolved PM Chemical Composition Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    High time-resolution aerosol sampling was conducted for one month during July–August 2007 in Dearborn, MI, a non-attainment area for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Measurements of more than 30 PM2.5 species were made using a suite o...

  6. Determination of beryllium concentrations in UK ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Sharon L.; Brown, Richard J. C.; Ghatora, Baljit K.

    2016-12-01

    Air quality monitoring of ambient air is essential to minimise the exposure of the general population to toxic substances such as heavy metals, and thus the health risks associated with them. In the UK, ambient air is already monitored under the UK Heavy Metals Monitoring Network for a number of heavy metals, including nickel (Ni), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) to ensure compliance with legislative limits. However, the UK Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards (EPAQS) has highlighted a need to limit concentrations of beryllium (Be) in air, which is not currently monitored, because of its toxicity. The aim of this work was to analyse airborne particulate matter (PM) sampled onto filter papers from the UK Heavy Metals Monitoring Network for quantitative, trace level beryllium determination and compare the results to the guideline concentration specified by EPAQS. Samples were prepared by microwave acid digestion in a matrix of 2% sulphuric acid and 14% nitric acid, verified by the use of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs). The digested samples were then analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The filters from the UK Heavy Metals Monitoring Network were tested using this procedure and the average beryllium concentration across the network for the duration of the study period was 7.87 pg m-3. The highest site average concentration was 32.0 pg m-3 at Scunthorpe Low Santon, which is significantly lower than levels that are thought to cause harm. However the highest levels were observed at sites monitoring industrial point sources, indicating that beryllium is being used and emitted, albeit at very low levels, from these point sources. Comparison with other metals concentrations and data from the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory suggests that current emissions of beryllium may be significantly overestimated.

  7. Study of personal-indoor-ambient fine particulate matters among school communities in mixed urban-industrial environment in India.

    PubMed

    Gadkari, Neelima M

    2010-06-01

    The present study is focused on the relationship of school community personal exposure of respirable particulate matter (RPM) with its indoor and ambient outdoor component. A representative longitudinal study design has been adopted. School community is divided into two categories: (1) subjects of science discipline and (2) subjects of nonscience discipline. On the basis of local meteorological parameters and school building constructions, three schools have been identified for the study. Selected subjects have been monitored for 24-h personal RPM exposure along with school indoor and respective outdoor RPM. Paired samples of ambient PM(10) and RPM were collected to establish the correlation between them. Regressions between school indoor and ambient outdoor RPM have shown strong positive relationships in case of two schools having moderate ventilation. The highest RPM to PM(10) ratio (0.62) has occurred at school X located near the steel plant downwind. Almost all indoor and ambient outdoor RPM levels exceed Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS; 60 microg m( - 3)). Highest levels of indoor and ambient outdoor RPM have occurred in school X located near the steel plant. Subjects belonging to the school located near the steel plant (school X) have shown five to six times higher values of RPM compared to NAAQS standards.

  8. Antimicrobial Applications of Ambient--Air Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovich, Matthew John

    The emerging field of plasma biotechology studies the applications of the plasma phase of matter to biological systems. "Ambient-condition" plasmas created at or near room temperature and atmospheric pressure are especially promising for biomedical applications because of their convenience, safety to patients, and compatibility with existing medical technology. Plasmas can be created from many different gases; plasma made from air contains a number of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, or RONS, involved in various biological processes, including immune activity, signaling, and gene expression. Therefore, ambient-condition air plasma is of particular interest for biological applications. To understand and predict the effects of treating biological systems with ambient-air plasma, it is necessary to characterize and measure the chemical species that these plasmas produce. Understanding both gaseous chemistry and the chemistry in plasma-treated aqueous solution is important because many biological systems exist in aqueous media. Existing literature about ambient-air plasma hypothesizes the critical role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; a major aim of this dissertation is to better quantify RONS by produced ambient-air plasma and understand how RONS chemistry changes in response to different plasma processing conditions. Measurements imply that both gaseous and aqueous chemistry are highly sensitive to operating conditions. In particular, chemical species in air treated by plasma exist in either a low-power ozone-dominated mode or a high-power nitrogen oxide-dominated mode, with an unstable transition region at intermediate discharge power and treatment time. Ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, or NOx) are mutually exclusive in this system and that the transition region corresponds to the transition from ozone- to nitrogen oxides-mode. Aqueous chemistry agrees well with to air plasma chemistry, and a similar transition in liquid-phase composition

  9. Ambient Experience in Restitutive Treatment of Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    McClung, Jill S.; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; Nadeau, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges to language rehabilitation is reconciling the fact that the same therapeutic intervention, provided to different individuals with similar types of stroke-induced aphasia, may result in divergent outcomes. In this paper, the authors reviewed existing literature to identify relevant ambient factors – those outside the control of the clinician – that may potentially influence functional language recovery in aphasia and response to treatment. The goal was to develop a clinical history-taking tool to assist clinicians in gathering information germane to each individual's unique circumstances and environment, elements that may have previously been underestimated, to provide a complete inventory of potentially potent prognostic factors. First, two of the authors, speech–language pathologists experienced in aphasia rehabilitation, identified and categorized factors that seemed likely to influence aphasia outcomes. Then, a wide range of literature was reviewed in an effort to identify factors empirically found to be potent influences on aphasia recovery. Where studies relating these factors to aphasia were not found, relevant research from allied fields that examined recovery from brain injury is reported. Moreover, some factors thought to be potentially potent have yet to be examined. Finally, the ambient factors supported by evidence were categorized as facilitators or barriers to functional improvement, and the Ambient Influences on Outcome Checklist (AOC) was developed, including only those factors shown to be potent in the recovery process. It is hoped that this checklist can be used to more broadly assess potential prognostic influences in aphasia restitution, as well as spawn further research. PMID:21103021

  10. The TOMPs ambient air monitoring network - Continuous data on UK air quality for over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Graf, Carola; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    Long-term air monitoring datasets are needed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to assess the effectiveness of source abatement measures and the factors controlling ambient levels. The Toxic Organic Micro Pollutants (TOMPs) Network, which has operated since 1991, collects ambient air samples at six sites across England and Scotland, using high-volume active air samplers. The network provides long-term ambient air trend data for a range of POPs at both urban and rural locations. Data from the network provides the UK Government, regulators and researchers with valuable information on emission/source controls and on the effectiveness of international chemicals regulation such as the Stockholm Convention and UN/ECE Protocol on POPs. The target chemicals of TOMPs have been polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and, since 2010, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The continuous monitoring of these compounds demonstrates the constant decline in UK air concentrations over the last two decades, with average clearance rates for PCDD/Fs in urban locations of 5.1 years and for PCBs across all sites 6.6 years. No significant declines in rural locations for PCDD/Fs have been observed. There is a strong observable link between the declining ambient air concentrations and the emission reductions estimated in the annually produced National Atmospheric Emission Inventory (NAEI) dataset. These findings clearly demonstrate the unique strengths of long-term consistent datasets for the evaluation of the success of chemical regulation and control.

  11. Head wave correlations in ambient noise.

    PubMed

    Gebbie, John; Siderius, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Ambient ocean noise is processed with a vertical line array to reveal coherent time-separated arrivals suggesting the presence of head wave multipath propagation. Head waves, which are critically propagating water waves created by seabed waves traveling parallel to the water-sediment interface, can propagate faster than water-only waves. Such eigenrays are much weaker than water-only eigenrays, and are often completely overshadowed by them. Surface-generated noise is different whereby it amplifies the coherence between head waves and critically propagating water-only waves, which is measured by cross-correlating critically steered beams. This phenomenon is demonstrated both experimentally and with a full wave simulation.

  12. Spontaneous Group Learning in Ambient Learning Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bick, Markus; Jughardt, Achim; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Veith, Patrick

    Spontaneous Group Learning is a concept to form and facilitate face-to-face, ad-hoc learning groups in collaborative settings. We show how to use Ambient Intelligence to identify, support, and initiate group processes. Learners' positions are determined by widely used technologies, e.g., Bluetooth and WLAN. As a second step, learners' positions, tasks, and interests are visualized. Finally, a group process is initiated supported by relevant documents and services. Our solution is a starting point to develop new didactical solutions for collaborative processes.

  13. Detecting Ambient Tectonic Tremor in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J. R.; Hough, S. E.; Ampuero, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    In every tectonic setting where it is observed, tremor proves difficult to detect due to its long durations and low amplitudes close to the noise band. This is particularly true in southern California where cultural noise sources are both spatially and temporally pervasive. Ambient tectonic tremor in circum-Pacific subduction zones was shown to consist of repeating low-frequency earthquakes and locates at the deep extent of the primary seismogenic zone in a region downdip of historical M 8+ earthquakes. The signals were also shown to have a distinct spectral shape (typically around 1-8 Hz) whose higher frequency falloff differs from that of local noise and ordinary earthquakes. In the strike-slip setting, families of deep ambient tremors near the Parkfield-Cholame segment of the San Andreas fault were considered proxies for deep fault slip. Whether ambient tremor occurs in a similar fashion- or even at all- in southern California remains unclear. We employ a combination of running autocorrelation and matched-filter techniques successfully used in both subduction and strike slip settings to detect and locate tremor/low-frequency earthquakes in southern California. In our case, however, detections are accepted or rejected by calculating their spectral shapes to assure the signals are distinct from local noise sources and earthquakes. We scan continuous seismic recordings of the Southern California Seismic Network near the San Jacinto fault from 2008-2012 to detect tremor-like signals, distinguish their spectral shape from other sources, and subsequently locate it. We target this area on account of the abundance of seismic stations including borehole stations. Also, since tremor (2-8 Hz) was triggered by the passing surface waves of the 2002 M 7.9 Denali earthquake in vicinity of the San Jacinto fault we expect an ambient signal to occur in the same area with a similar spectral shape. The application of a spectral discriminator is particularly needed in this region

  14. Ambient temperature modelling with soft computing techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bertini, Ilaria; Ceravolo, Francesco; Citterio, Marco; Di Pietra, Biagio; Margiotta, Francesca; Pizzuti, Stefano; Puglisi, Giovanni; De Felice, Matteo

    2010-07-15

    This paper proposes a hybrid approach based on soft computing techniques in order to estimate monthly and daily ambient temperature. Indeed, we combine the back-propagation (BP) algorithm and the simple Genetic Algorithm (GA) in order to effectively train artificial neural networks (ANN) in such a way that the BP algorithm initialises a few individuals of the GA's population. Experiments concerned monthly temperature estimation of unknown places and daily temperature estimation for thermal load computation. Results have shown remarkable improvements in accuracy compared to traditional methods. (author)

  15. Ambient Noise in an Urbanized Tidal Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Christopher

    In coastal environments, when topographic and bathymetric constrictions are combined with large tidal amplitudes, strong currents (> 2 m/s) can occur. Because such environments are relatively rare and difficult to study, until recently, they have received little attention from the scientific community. However, in recent years, interest in developing tidal hydrokinetic power projects in these environments has motivated studies to improve this understanding. In order to support an analysis of the acoustic effects of tidal power generation, a multi-year study was conducted at a proposed project site in Puget Sound (WA) are analyzed at a site where peak currents exceeded 3.5 m/s. From these analyses, three noise sources are shown to dominate the observed variability in ambient noise between 0.02-30 kHz: anthropogenic noise from vessel traffic, sediment-generated noise during periods of strong currents, and flow-noise resulting from turbulence advected over the hydrophones. To assess the contribution of vessel traffic noise, one calendar year of Automatic Identification System (AIS) ship-traffic data was paired with hydrophone recordings. The study region included inland waters of the Salish Sea within a 20 km radius of the hydrophone deployment site in northern Admiralty Inlet. The variability in spectra and hourly, daily, and monthly ambient noise statistics for unweighted broadband and M-weighted sound pressure levels is driven largely by vessel traffic. Within the one-year study period, at least one AIS transmitting vessel is present in the study area 90% of the time and over 1,363 unique vessels are recorded. A noise budget for vessels equipped with AIS transponders identifies cargo ships, tugs, and passenger vessels as the largest contributors to noise levels. A simple model to predict received levels at the site based on an incoherent summation of noise from different vessel types yields a cumulative probability density function of broadband sound pressure

  16. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Shrestha, Som S.; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Kassuga, Theo

    2015-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient Temperature Testing Program for Low-GWP Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-Global Warming Potential (low-GWP) alternatives to Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high ambient temperature conditions. This interim working paper describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the preliminary results.

  17. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S.; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Kassuga, Theo

    2015-10-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for low– global warming potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerant selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  18. A smart kitchen for ambient assisted living.

    PubMed

    Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto; Cirujano, Diego; Picking, Richard

    2014-01-17

    The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people's autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appropriate user interaction and artificial intelligence. It is based on a modular architecture which integrates a wide variety of home technology (household appliances, sensors, user interfaces, etc.) and associated communication standards and media (power line, radio frequency, infrared and cabled). Its software architecture is based on the Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi), which allows building a complex system composed of small modules, each one providing the specific functionalities required, and can be easily scaled to meet our needs. The system has been evaluated by a large number of real users (63) and carers (31) in two living labs in Spain and UK. Results show a large potential of system functionalities combined with good usability and physical, sensory and cognitive accessibility.

  19. Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Gerhard; Felfernig, Alexander; Fercher, Anton J.; Hitz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future. PMID:25068862

  20. Estimating site amplification factors from ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Steven R.; Gerstoft, Peter; Fehler, Michael C.

    2009-05-01

    We present a methodology to obtain frequency-dependent relative site amplification factors using ambient seismic noise. We treat a seismic network or array as a forced damped harmonic oscillator system where each station responds to a forcing function obtained from frequency-wavenumber beams of the ambient noise field. A network or array beam is necessary to estimate the forcing function. Taken over long time periods, each station responds to the forcing function showing a frequency-dependent resonance peak whose amplitude and spectral width depends upon the elastic and anelastic properties of the underlying medium. Our results are encouraging in that hard rock sites show little variability and have narrower resonance peaks with reduced amplitudes relative to soft rock sites in sedimentary basins. There is much more variability observed at soft rock sites and a tendency for spectral peaks to shift to higher frequencies and become broader as the site amplification increases. This could be due to due to lower densities and/or small-strain nonlinearity at stations having high site amplification.

  1. Ambient Noise Tomography at Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuler, A. E.; Ekström, G.; West, M.; Senyukov, S.

    2008-12-01

    Bezymianny Volcano is an active stratovolcano located in the Kluychevskoy volcanic group on the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. Since its dramatic sector collapse eruption in 1956, the volcano's activity has been characterized by nearly twice annual plinian eruptions accompanying ongoing lava-dome growth. Its frequent eruptions and similarity to Mt. St. Helens have made it the target of a multifaceted geologic and geophysical project supported by the NSF Partners in Research and Education (PIRE) program. Since mid- 2006, the volcano has been monitored by a broadband seismic array that is currently composed of 8 stations within 10 kilometers of the active dome. In this project, we use continuous data from these stations to investigate the static and dynamic structure of the volcano. Using methods similar to those used by Brenguier et al. (2007, 2008), we estimate the Green's function for each pair of stations by cross-correlating day-long time series of ambient noise. Paths with high signal-to-noise ratios can be used to estimate group velocity dispersion curves. From these measurements, we work towards constructing the first velocity model of this volcano. Furthermore, we begin to test whether measurements of ambient noise can be used to monitor changes inside the volcano prior to eruptive activity. These problems will continue to be addressed as more data becomes available in future field seasons.

  2. Ambient Noise Tomography in the Eastern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaiz-Rodriguez, M. S.; Niu, F.; Schmitz, M.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the upper mantle velocity structure beneath the eastern Caribbean with ambient seismic noise data recorded by broadband stations deployed around the region. We first compute the Rayleigh wave Green's functions between each pair of stations by cross-correlating ambient seismic noises. We then estimate fundamental mode group velocities with the FTAN analysis technique. The group velocities are further inverted into 0.5x0.5 degrees rectangular mesh grids. Finally, the dispersion curve of each grid point is linearly inverted into shear wave velocity at different depths. The shear wave variations show a high velocity anomaly in the center of the Venezuela Basin that can be related to a previously unreported igneous body. Two different sections of the mantle wedge related to the Atlantic subduction are identified. One is highly developed under the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles Arc. Another one is which is poorly developed on the southern portion of the arc. The differentiation of the mantle wedge could be attributed to segmentation of the slab produced by the Tiburon Transform Fault Zone. Finally, a low velocity anomaly at 100 km depth could be related to a small hydrous cold plume formed on the northern side of the Atlantic slab.

  3. A Smart Kitchen for Ambient Assisted Living

    PubMed Central

    Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto; Cirujano, Diego; Picking, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people's autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appropriate user interaction and artificial intelligence. It is based on a modular architecture which integrates a wide variety of home technology (household appliances, sensors, user interfaces, etc.) and associated communication standards and media (power line, radio frequency, infrared and cabled). Its software architecture is based on the Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi), which allows building a complex system composed of small modules, each one providing the specific functionalities required, and can be easily scaled to meet our needs. The system has been evaluated by a large number of real users (63) and carers (31) in two living labs in Spain and UK. Results show a large potential of system functionalities combined with good usability and physical, sensory and cognitive accessibility. PMID:24445412

  4. Characterization of Ambient Black Carbon Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Levy, M. E.; Zheng, J.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-12-01

    Because of the strong absorption over a broad range of the electromagnetic spectra, black carbon (BC) is a key short-lived climate forcer, which contributes significantly to climate change by direct radiative forcing and is the second most important component causing global warming after carbon dioxide. The impact of BC on the radiative forcing of the Earth-Atmosphere system is highly dependent of the particle properties. In this presentation, emphasis will be placed on characterizing BC containing aerosols in at the California-Mexico border to obtain a greater understanding of the atmospheric aging and properties of ambient BC aerosols. A comprehensive set of directly measured aerosol properties, including the particle size distribution, effective density, hygroscopicity, volatility, and several optical properties, will be discussed to quantify the mixing state and composition of ambient particles. In Tijuana, Mexico, submicron aerosols are strongly influenced by vehicle emissions; subsequently, the BC concentration in Tijuana is considerably higher than most US cities with an average BC concentration of 2.71 × 2.65 g cm-3. BC accounts for 24.75 % × 9.44 of the total submicron concentration on average, but periodically accounts for over 50%. This high concentration of BC strongly influences many observed aerosol properties such as single scattering albedo, hygroscopicity, effective density, and volatility.

  5. Ambient pressure photoemission spectroscopy of metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baikie, Iain D.; Grain, Angela C.; Sutherland, James; Law, Jamie

    2014-12-01

    We describe a novel photoemission technique utilizing a traditional Kelvin probe as a detector of electrons/atmospheric ions ejected from metallic surfaces (Au, Ag, Cu, Fe, Ni, Ti, Zn, Al) illuminated by a deep ultra-violet (DUV) source under ambient pressure. To surmount the limitation of electron scattering in air the incident photon energy is rastered rather than applying a variable retarding electric field as is used with UPS. This arrangement can be applied in several operational modes: using the DUV source to determine the photoemission threshold (Φ) with 30-50 meV resolution and also the Kelvin probe, under dark conditions, to measure contact potential difference (CPD) between the Kelvin probe tip and the metallic sample with an accuracy of 1-3 meV. We have studied the relationship between the photoelectric threshold and CPD of metal surfaces cleaned in ambient conditions. Inclusion of a second spectroscopic visible source was used to confirm a semiconducting oxide, possibly Cu2O, via surface photovoltage measurements with the KP. This dual detection system can be easily extended to controlled gas conditions, relative humidity control and sample heating/cooling.

  6. Thermal explosion in oscillating ambient conditions

    PubMed Central

    Novozhilov, Vasily

    2016-01-01

    Thermal explosion problem for a medium with oscillating ambient temperature at its boundaries is considered. This is a new problem in thermal explosion theory, not previously considered in a distributed system formulation, but important for combustion and fire science. It describes autoignition of wide range of fires (such as but not limited to piles of biosolids and other organic matter; storages of munitions, explosives, propellants) subjected to temperature variations, such as seasonal or day/night variation. The problem is considered in formulation adopted in classical studies of thermal explosion. Critical conditions are determined by frequency and amplitude of ambient temperature oscillations, as well as by a number of other parameters. Effects of all the parameters on critical conditions are quantified. Results are presented for the case of planar symmetry. Development of thermal explosion in time is also considered, and a new type of unsteady thermal explosion development is discovered where thermal runaway occurs after several periods of temperature oscillations within the medium. PMID:27443235

  7. Estimation of ambient PM2.5 concentrations in Maryland and verification by measured values.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kenneth; Sherwell, John

    2002-10-01

    In 1997, Maryland had no available ambient Federal Reference Method data on particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM23), but did have annual ambient data for PM smaller than 10 microm (PM10) at 24 sites. The PM10 data were analyzed in conjunction with local annual and seasonal zip-code-level emission inventories and with speciated PM2.5 data from four nearby monitors in the IMPROVE network (located in the national parks, wildlife refuges, and wilderness areas) in an effort to estimate annual average and seasonal high PM2.5 concentrations at the 24 PM10 monitor sites operating from 1992 to 1996. All seasonal high concentrations were estimated to be below the 24-hr PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) at the sites operating in Maryland between 1992 and 1996. The estimates also indicated that 12 monitor sites might exceed the 3-year annual average PM2.5 NAAQS of 15 microg/m3, but Maryland's air quality shows signs that it has been improving since 1992. The estimates also were compared with actual measurements after the PM2.5 monitor network was installed. The estimates were adequate for describing the chemical composition of the PM2.5, forecasting compliance status with the 24-hr and annual standards, and determining the spatial variations in PM2.5 across central Maryland.

  8. The influence of ambient light on the driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, Karsten D.; Lemmer, Uli

    2008-04-01

    Increasingly, cars are fitted with interior ambient lighting which is switched on while driving. This special kind of interior light emphasizes the interior design of the car, it makes a car look special and gives the buyers a new option to personalize their automobiles. But how does ambient interior light influence the driver? We conducted a series of over 50 tests to study the influence of interior ambient light on contrast perception under different illumination levels, colors and positions of the illuminated areas. Our tests show that in many cases the ambient lighting can improve the visual contrast for seeing objects in the headlamp beam. But the test persons mentioned that the tested brightness looked too bright and that they felt glared. The measured values instead proved that no disability glare exists. Therefore, provided that the drivers can adjust the intensity of the ambient light to avoid glare, the ambient light has no negative effect on the drivers' contrast perception.

  9. Ocean Ambient Noise Studies for Shallow and Deep Water Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Ocean Ambient Noise Studies for Shallow and Deep Water...Siderius.php LONG-TERM GOALS The objective of this research is to study the ocean ambient noise field by means of new physics-based processing... ambient -noise field using a vertical line array has been developed by Harrison and Simons [Harrison, 2002]. The advantages of passive bottom-survey

  10. The Potential for Ambient Plasma Wave Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James H.; Williams, George J.

    2016-01-01

    A truly robust space exploration program will need to make use of in-situ resources as much as possible to make the endeavor affordable. Most space propulsion concepts are saddled with one fundamental burden; the propellant needed to produce momentum. The most advanced propulsion systems currently in use utilize electric and/or magnetic fields to accelerate ionized propellant. However, significant planetary exploration missions in the coming decades, such as the now canceled Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, are restricted by propellant mass and propulsion system lifetimes, using even the most optimistic projections of performance. These electric propulsion vehicles are inherently limited in flexibility at their final destination, due to propulsion system wear, propellant requirements, and the relatively low acceleration of the vehicle. A few concepts are able to utilize the environment around them to produce thrust: Solar or magnetic sails and, with certain restrictions, electrodynamic tethers. These concepts focus primarily on using the solar wind or ambient magnetic fields to generate thrust. Technically immature, quasi-propellantless alternatives lack either the sensitivity or the power to provide significant maneuvering. An additional resource to be considered is the ambient plasma and magnetic fields in solar and planetary magnetospheres. These environments, such as those around the Sun or Jupiter, have been shown to host a variety of plasma waves. Plasma wave propulsion takes advantage of an observed astrophysical and terrestrial phenomenon: Alfven waves. These are waves that propagate in the plasma and magnetic fields around and between planets and stars. The generation of Alfven waves in ambient magnetic and plasma fields to generate thrust is proposed as a truly propellantless propulsion system which may enable an entirely new matrix of exploration missions. Alfven waves are well known, transverse electromagnetic waves that propagate in magnetized plasmas at

  11. Impact of vehicular exhaust on ambient air quality of Rohtak city, India.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Vineeta; Dalal, Poonam; Chaudhry, Dhruva

    2010-11-01

    In the present study, ambient air quality of Rohtak city (Haryana) was monitored by High Volume Sampler. The selected parameters to judge the quality of air were Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen dioxide NO), Ozone (O3) and Suspended particulate matters (SPM) which give a fair idea of pollution load carried by the air. The monitoring data were collected from six sites randomly selected in Rohtak city. Sulphur dioxide was found below the permissible limits of National Ambient Avo Quality Standards (NAAQS) at all the sites. Higher concentration of SO2 was observed during winter in comparison to summer and monsoon seasons. Nitrogen dioxide concentration was found to be above the prescribed standards of NAAOS at four sites in winter season. Ozone concentration was found below the prescribed standards (NAAOS), but its concentration was higher in summer season as compared to winter. Suspended particulate matter concentration was observed above the safety limits at all the sites in all three seasons.

  12. Ambient ozone and pulmonary innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hegelan, Mashael; Tighe, Robert M.; Castillo, Christian; Hollingsworth, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient ozone is a criteria air pollutant that impacts both human morbidity and mortality. The effect of ozone inhalation includes both toxicity to lung tissue and alteration of the host immunologic response. The innate immune system facilitates immediate recognition of both foreign pathogens and tissue damage. Emerging evidence supports that ozone can modify the host innate immune response and that this response to inhaled ozone is dependent on genes of innate immunity. Improved understanding of the complex interaction between environmental ozone and host innate immunity will provide fundamental insight into the pathogenesis of inflammatory airways disease. We review the current evidence supporting that environmental ozone inhalation: (1) modifies cell types required for intact innate immunity, (2) is partially dependent on genes of innate immunity, (3) primes pulmonary innate immune responses to LPS, and (4) contributes to innate-adaptive immune system cross-talk. PMID:21132467

  13. Radial anisotropy ambient noise tomography of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordret, Aurélien; Rivet, Diane; Shapiro, Nikolai; Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Landès, Matthieu; Koulakov, Ivan; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The use of ambient seismic noise allows us to perform surface-wave tomography of targets which could hardly be imaged by other means. The frequencies involved (~ 0.5 - 20 s), somewhere in between active seismic and regular teleseismic frequency band, make possible the high resolution imaging of intermediate-size targets like volcanic edifices. Moreover, the joint inversion of Rayleigh and Love waves dispersion curves extracted from noise correlations allows us to invert for crustal radial anisotropy. We present here the two first studies of radial anisotropy on volcanoes by showing results from Lake Toba Caldera, a super-volcano in Indonesia, and from Piton de la Fournaise volcano, a hot-spot effusive volcano on the Réunion Island (Indian Ocean). We will see how radial anisotropy can be used to infer the main fabric within a magmatic system and, consequently, its dominant type of intrusion.

  14. Bacterial decontamination using ambient pressure nonthermal discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Birmingham, J.G.; Hammerstrom, D.J.

    2000-02-01

    Atmospheric pressure nonthermal plasmas can efficiently deactivate bacteria in gases, liquids, and on surfaces, as well as can decompose hazardous chemicals. This paper focuses on the changes to bacterial spores and toxic biochemical compounds, such as mycotoxins, after their treatment in ambient pressure discharges. The ability of nonthermal plasmas to decompose toxic chemicals and deactivate hazardous biological materials has been applied to sterilizing medical instruments, ozonating water, and purifying air. In addition, the fast lysis of bacterial spores and other cells has led us to include plasma devices within pathogen detection instruments, where nucleic acids must be accessed. Decontaminating chemical and biological warfare materials from large, high value targets such as building surfaces, after a terrorist attack, are especially challenging. A large area plasma decontamination technology is described.

  15. Wireless Sensor Networks for Ambient Assisted Living

    PubMed Central

    Aquino-Santos, Raúl; Martinez-Castro, Diego; Edwards-Block, Arthur; Murillo-Piedrahita, Andrés Felipe

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces wireless sensor networks for Ambient Assisted Living as a proof of concept. Our workgroup has developed an arrhythmia detection algorithm that we evaluate in a closed space using a wireless sensor network to relay the information collected to where the information can be registered, monitored and analyzed to support medical decisions by healthcare providers. The prototype we developed is then evaluated using the TelosB platform. The proposed architecture considers very specific restrictions regarding the use of wireless sensor networks in clinical situations. The seamless integration of the system architecture enables both mobile node and network configuration, thus providing the versatile and robust characteristics necessary for real-time applications in medical situations. Likewise, this system architecture efficiently permits the different components of our proposed platform to interact efficiently within the parameters of this study. PMID:24351665

  16. Ambient Cured Alkali Activated Flyash Masonry Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, K.; Radhakrishna; Sasalatti, Vinod M.

    2016-09-01

    Geopolymers belong to a category of non-conventional and non-Portland cement based cementitious binders which are produced using industrial by products like fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). This paper reports on the development of geopolymer mortars for production of masonry units. The geopolymer mortars were prepared by mixing various by products with manufactured sand and a liquid mixture of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. After curing at ambient conditions, the masonry units were tested for strength properties such as water absorption, initial rate of absorption, compression, shear- bond, and stress-strain behaviour etc. It was observed that the flexural strength of the blocks is more than 2 MPa and shear bond strength is more than 0.4MPa. It was found that the properties of geopolymer blocks were superior to the traditional masonry units. Hence they can be recommended for structural masonry.

  17. Ambient tremors in a collisional orogenic belt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chuang, Lindsay Yuling; Chen, Kate Huihsuan; Wech, Aaron G.; Byrne, Timothy; Peng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Deep-seated tectonic tremors have been regarded as an observation tied to interconnected fluids at depth, which have been well documented in worldwide subduction zones and transform faults but not in a collisional mountain belt. In this study we explore the general features of collisional tremors in Taiwan and discuss the possible generation mechanism. In the 4 year data, we find 231 ambient tremor episodes with durations ranging from 5 to 30 min. In addition to a coseismic slip-induced stress change from nearby major earthquake, increased tremor rate is also highly correlated with the active, normal faulting earthquake swarms at the shallower depth. Both the tremor and earthquake swarm activities are confined in a small, area where the high attenuation, high thermal anomaly, the boundary between high and low resistivity, and localized veins on the surfaces distributed, suggesting the involvement of fluids from metamorphic dehydration within the orogen.

  18. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, K.; Jannik, T.

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the air monitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  19. New Codes for Ambient Seismic Noise Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duret, F.; Mooney, W. D.; Detweiler, S.

    2007-12-01

    In order to determine a velocity model of the crust, scientists generally use earthquakes recorded by seismic stations. However earthquakes do not occur continuously and most are too weak to be useful. When no event is recorded, a waveform is generally considered to be noise. This noise, however, is not useless and carries a wealth of information. Thus, ambient seismic noise analysis is an inverse method of investigating the Earth's interior. Until recently, this technique was quite difficult to apply, as it requires significant computing capacities. In early 2007, however, a team led by Gregory Benson and Mike Ritzwoller from UC Boulder published a paper describing a new method for extracting group and phase velocities from those waveforms. The analysis consisting of recovering Green functions between a pair of stations, is composed of four steps: 1) single station data preparation, 2) cross-correlation and stacking, 3) quality control and data selection and 4) dispersion measurements. At the USGS, we developed a set of ready-to-use computing codes for analyzing waveforms to run the ambient noise analysis of Benson et al. (2007). Our main contribution to the analysis technique was to fully automate the process. The computation codes were written in Fortran 90 and the automation scripts were written in Perl. Furthermore, some operations were run with SAC. Our choices of programming language offer an opportunity to adapt our codes to the major platforms. The codes were developed under Linux but are meant to be adapted to Mac OS X and Windows platforms. The codes have been tested on Southern California data and our results compare nicely with those from the UC Boulder team. Next, we plan to apply our codes to Indonesian data, so that we might take advantage of newly upgraded seismic stations in that region.

  20. Near-ambient solid polymer fuel cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells are extremely attractive for extraterrestrial and terrestrial applications because of their high energy conversion efficiency without noise or environmental pollution. Among the various fuel cell systems the advanced polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells based on sulfonated fluoropolymers (e.g., Nafion) are particularly attractive because they are fairly rugged, solid state, quite conductive, of good chemical and thermal stability and show good oxygen reduction kinetics due to the low specific adsorption of the electrolyte on the platinum catalyst. The objective of this program is to develop a solid polymer fuel cell which can efficiently operate at near ambient temperatures without ancillary components for humidification and/or pressurization of the fuel or oxidant gases. During the Phase 1 effort we fabricated novel integral electrode-membrane structures where the dispersed platinum catalyst is precipitated within the Nafion ionomer. This resulted in electrode-membrane units without interfacial barriers permitting unhindered water diffusion from cathode to anode. The integral electrode-membrane structures were tested as fuel cells operating on H2 and O2 or air at 1 to 2 atm and 10 to 50 C without gas humidification. We demonstrated that cells with completely dry membranes could be self started at room temperature and subsequently operated on dry gas for extended time. Typical room temperature low pressure operation with unoptimized electrodes yielded 100 mA/cm(exp 2) at 0.5V and maximum currents over 300 mA/cm(exp 2) with low platinum loadings. Our results clearly demonstrate that operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at ambient conditions is feasible. Optimization of the electrode-membrane structure is necessary to assess the full performance potential but we expect significant gains in weight and volume power density for the system. The reduced complexity will make fuel cells also attractive for smaller and portable power supplies and as

  1. Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization.

    PubMed

    Santos, Vanessa G; Regiani, Thaís; Dias, Fernanda F G; Romão, Wanderson; Jara, Jose Luis Paz; Klitzke, Clécio F; Coelho, Fernando; Eberlin, Marcos N

    2011-02-15

    The development and illustrative applications of an ambient ionization technique termed Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization (V-EASI) is described. Its dual mode of operation with Venturi self-pumping makes V-EASI applicable to the direct mass spectrometric analysis of both liquid (V(L)-EASI) and solid (V(S)-EASI) samples. V-EASI is simple and easy to assemble, operating solely via the assistance of a sonic stream of nitrogen or air. The sonic gas stream causes two beneficial and integrated effects: (a) the self-pumping of solutions via the Venturi effect and (b) sonic-spray ionization (SSI) of analytes either in solution or resting on solid surfaces. In its liquid mode, V(L)-EASI is applicable to analytes in solution, forming negatively and/or positively charged intact molecular species in a soft fashion with little or no fragmentation. In its solid mode, V(S)-EASI relies on Venturi self-pumping of a proper SSI solvent solution in combination with SSI to form a stream of bipolar charged droplets that bombard the sample surface, causing desorption and ionization of the analyte molecules. As for its precursor technique (EASI), V-EASI generates bipolar droplets with considerably lower average charging, which increases selectivity for ionization with high signal-to-noise ratios and clean spectra dominated by single molecular species with minimal solvent ions. V-EASI also operates in a voltage-, heat-, and radiation-free fashion and is therefore free of thermal, electrical, or discharge interferences.

  2. PM4 crystalline silica emission factors and ambient concentrations at aggregate-producing sources in California.

    PubMed

    Richards, John R; Brozell, Todd T; Rea, Charles; Boraston, Geoff; Hayden, John

    2009-11-01

    The California Construction and Industrial Minerals Association and the National Stone, Sand, & Gravel Association have sponsored tests at three sand and gravel plants in California to compile crystalline silica emission factors for particulate matter (PM) of aerodynamic diameter of 4 microm or less (PM4) and ambient concentration data. This information is needed by industrial facilities to evaluate compliance with the Chronic Reference Exposure Level (REL) for ambient crystalline silica adopted in 2005 by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. The REL applies to PM4 respirable PM. Air Control Techniques, P.C. sampled for PM4 crystalline silica using a conventional sampler for PM of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microm or less (PM2.5), which met the requirements of 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 50, Appendix L. The sample flow rate was adjusted to modify the 50% cut size to 4 microm instead of 2.5 microm. The filter was also changed to allow for crystalline silica analyses using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7500. The particle size-capture efficiency curve for the modified Appendix L instrument closely matched the performance curve of NIOSH Method 0600 for PM4 crystalline silica and provided a minimum detection limit well below the levels attainable with NIOSH Method 0600. The results of the tests indicate that PM4 crystalline silica emissions range from 0.000006 to 0.000110 lb/t for screening operations, tertiary crushers, and conveyor transfer points. The PM4 crystalline silica emission factors were proportional to the crystalline silica content of the material handled in the process equipment. Measured ambient concentrations ranged from 0 (below detectable limit) to 2.8 microg/m3. All values measured above 2 microg/m3 were at locations upwind of the facilities being tested. The ambient PM4 crystalline silica concentrations measured during this study were below the California REL of 3 microg/m3

  3. 7 CFR 1466.4 - National priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... statutory resource concerns that include soil, water, wildlife, air quality, and related resource concerns... of ground and surface water resources; (3) Reduction of emissions, such as particulate matter... quality impairment violations of National Ambient Air Quality Standards; (4) Reduction in soil erosion...

  4. BOREAS TGB-7 Ambient Air Herbicide and Organochlorine Concentration Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, Don; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Trace Gas Biogeochemistry (BOREAS TGB)-7 team measured the concentration and flux of several agricultural pesticides in air, rainwater, and dry deposition samples in order to determine the associated yearly deposition rates. This data set contains information on the ambient air concentration of seven herbicides [2,4- dichlorophenoxyacidic_acid (2,4-D), bromoxynil, dicamb, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), triallate, trifluralin, and diclop-methyl] known to appear in the atmosphere of the Canadian prairies. Also, the concentration of three herbicides (atrazine, alachlor, and metolachlor), two groups of insecticides (lindane and breakdown products and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and breakdown products), and several polychlorinated biphenyls commonly used in the central United States was measured. All of these chemicals are reported, in the literature, to be transported in the atmosphere. Many have been reported to occur in boreal and arctic food chains. The sampling was carried out from 16-Jun to 13-Aug-1993 and 04-May to 20-Jul-1994 at the BOREAS site in the Prince Albert National Park (Waskesiu). The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  5. Ambient seismic noise tomography and structure of eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chuntao; Langston, Charles A.

    2008-03-01

    The time derivative of cross-correlation functions (CCF) of ambient noise fields recorded by two stations can be approximated as the Green's Function (GF) between the stations. The CCFs are thus used as Peudo-GFs (dominated by surface waves) to invert for group velocity structure in eastern North America. Stations from two regional networks deployed to monitor the New Madrid Seismic Zone and eastern Tennessee seismic zone, together with stations of the US National Seismic Network, greatly improve tomographic ray coverage. The short period (T = 5 s) group velocity map shows strong correlations with the depth to Precambrian basement. Many subtle local structures can be clearly identified from the velocity map, including the Ozark uplift, Cincinnati Arch, Nashville Dome and the Blue Ridge province of the Appalachians showing relatively high group velocity. The long period (T = 15 s) group velocity map shows strong correlations with regional geology. Ancient rift basins, such as the Mid-Continent Rift (MCR) system, the Reelfoot rift, the Oklahoma Aulacogen and the Eastern Continent Rift, are associated with low velocity belts along their rift axes. We also find that all major seismic zones in eastern North America, such as the New Madrid seismic zone, Eastern Tennessee seismic zone as well as Ouachita Orogen seismic zone, are approximately located at transition zones separating velocity highs and lows. This observation suggests that those seismic zones may reflect the reactivation of ancient faults associated with continental rift and collision zones.

  6. Orion ECLSS/Suit System - Ambient Pressure Integrated Suit Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barido, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    The Ambient Pressure Integrated Suit Test (APIST) phase of the integrated system testing of the Orion Vehicle Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS) technology was conducted for the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. Crew and Thermal Systems Division performed this test in the eleven-foot human-rated vacuum chamber at the NASA Johnson Space Center. This testing is the first phase of suit loop testing to demonstrate the viability of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) being developed for Orion. APIST is the first in a series, which will consist of testing development hardware including the Carbon dioxide and Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed (CAMRAS) and the air revitalization loop fan with human test subjects in pressure suits at varying suit pressures. Follow-on testing, to be conducted in 2013, will utilize the CAMRAS and a development regulator with human test subjects in pressure suits at varying cabin and suit pressures. This paper will discuss the results and findings of APIST and will also discuss future testing.

  7. Ambient-temperature passive magnetic bearings: Theory and design equations

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.; Ryutov, D.D.

    1997-12-30

    Research has been underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to build a theoretical and experimental base for the design of ambient-temperature passive magnetic bearings for a variety of possible applications. in the approach taken the limitations imposed by Earnshaw`s theorem with respect to the stability of passive magnetic bearing systems employing axially symmetric permanent-magnet elements are overcome by employing special combinations of elements, as follows: Levitating and restoring forces are provided by combinations of permanent-magnet-excited elements chosen to provide positive stiffnesses (negative force derivatives) for selected displacements (i.e., those involving translations or angular displacement of the axis of rotation). As dictated by Eamshaw`s theorem, any bearing system thus constructed will be statically unstable for at least one of the remaining possible displacements. Stabilization against this displacement is accomplished by using periodic arrays (`Halbach arrays`) of permanent magnets to induce currents in close-packed inductively loaded circuits, thereby producing negative force derivatives stabilizing the system while in rotation. Disengaging mechanical elements stabilize the system when at rest and when below a low critical speed. The paper discusses theory and equations needed for the design of such systems.

  8. Broadband surface wave dispersion measurements across North America from ambient seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensen, G. D.; Shapiro, N. M.; Ritzwoller, M. H.; Campillo, M.; Stehly, L.

    2005-05-01

    Ambient seismic noise contains a significant component of Rayleigh wave energy that appears to be excited by oceanic microseisms and atmospheric forcing. These signals constitute a wavefield in which the phase is randomized by a multiplicity of sources and by scattering. Cross- correlations of the ambient wavefield between pairs of receivers can be used to extract the Rayleigh wave part of Green's function and, therefore, provide a new source of surface wave information that is particularly useful in the context of arrays of broadband seismometers such as PASSCAL experiments, the emerging USArray, or other national deployments. The method produces numerous inter-station measurements that are not sampled by traditional observational methods based on earthquake waves. The method to extract surface wave dispersion measurements from ambient noise was first applied systematically to records from USArray Transportable Array stations in California. These observations were used to construct high-resolution short-period (7-18 s) surface wave dispersion maps and to image the principal crustal geological units. In addition, it has been previously shown that reliable dispersion meausurements can be obtained at intermediate to long periods (20 - 100 sec). In particular, cross-correlations of several months of ambient seismic noise observed at several station-pairs across North America result in coherent broadband waveforms with dispersion characteristics similar to Rayleigh-wave tomography maps constructed using earthquakes waves. We extend this work by computing cross-correlations and obtaining intermediate and long period surface wave group velocity measurements for paths connecting about one hundred permanent broadband stations in North America many of which constitute the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS). We discuss the promise and limitations of the method to improve information about the crust and upper mantle across North America.

  9. The Effect of Ambient Air Pollution on Sperm Quality

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Craig; Luben, Thomas J.; Sacks, Jason D.; Olshan, Andrew; Jeffay, Susan; Strader, Lillian; Perreault, Sally D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Research has suggested an association with ambient air pollution and sperm quality. Objectives We investigated the effect of exposure to ozone (O3) and particulate matter < 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) on sperm quality. Methods We reexamined a previous cohort study of water disinfection by-products to evaluate sperm quality in 228 presumed fertile men with different air pollution profiles. Outcomes included sperm concentration, total sperm per ejaculate (count), and morphology, as well as DNA integrity and chromatin maturity. Exposures to O3 and PM2.5 were evaluated for the 90–day period before sampling. We used multivariable linear regression, which included different levels of adjustment (i.e., without and with season and temperature) to assess the relationship between exposure to air pollutants during key periods of sperm development and adverse sperm outcomes. Results Sperm concentration and count were not associated with exposure to PM2.5, but there was evidence of an association (but not statistically significant) with O3 concentration and decreased sperm concentration and count. Additionally, a significant increase in the percentage of sperm cells with cytoplasmic drop [β = 2.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.21–5.06] and abnormal head (β = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.03–0.92) was associated with PM2.5 concentration in the base model. However, these associations, along with all other sperm outcomes, were not significantly associated with either pollutant after controlling for season and temperature. Overall, although we found both protective and adverse effects, there was generally no consistent pattern of increased abnormal sperm quality with elevated exposure to O3 or PM2.5. Conclusions Exposures to O3 or PM2.5 at levels below the current National Ambient Air Quality Standards were not associated with statistically significant decrements in sperm outcomes in this cohort of fertile men. However, some results suggested effects on sperm

  10. Ambient Air Pollution and the Risk of Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wellenius, Gregory A.; Burger, Mary R.; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel; Suh, Helen H.; Koutrakis, Petros; Schlaug, Gottfried; Gold, Diane R.; Mittleman, Murray A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The link between daily changes in ambient fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is well established. Whether PM2.5 at levels below current US National Ambient Air Quality Standards also increases the risk of ischemic stroke remains uncertain. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 1705 Boston-area patients hospitalized with neurologist-confirmed ischemic stroke and abstracted data on the time of symptom onset and clinical characteristics. PM2.5 concentrations were measured at a central monitoring station. We used the time-stratified case-crossover study design to assess the association between the risk of ischemic stroke onset and PM2.5 levels in the hours and days preceding each event. We examined whether the association with PM2.5 differed by ischemic stroke etiology and patient characteristics. Results The estimated odds ratio of ischemic stroke onset was 1.34 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13, 1.58; p<0.001) following a 24-hour period classified as “moderate” (PM2.5 15–40 μg/m3) by the US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Air Quality Index compared to a 24-hour period classified as “good” (≤15 μg/m3). Considering PM2.5 as a continuous variable, the estimated odds ratio of ischemic stroke onset was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.20; p=0.006) per interquartile range increase in PM2.5 (6.4 μg/m3). The increase in risk was greatest within 12–14 hours of exposure to PM2.5 and was most strongly associated with markers of traffic-related pollution. Conclusion These results suggest that exposure to PM2.5 levels considered generally safe by the US EPA increase the risk of ischemic stroke onset within hours of exposure. PMID:22332153

  11. An update to the ambient ratio method for 1-h NO2 air quality standards dispersion modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podrez, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NOX) gases are typically emitted by fuel combustion sources in the form of nitric oxide (NO), which then reacts with ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere to convert a portion of the NO to nitrogen dioxide (NO2). EPA has promulgated a 1-h average National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for NO2, and major sources of NOX emissions must estimate their NO2 air quality impacts as part of EPA's air quality permitting programs. The AERMOD dispersion model has been developed by EPA for these air quality impact analyses, and AERMOD contains three different NO to NO2 conversion methods for estimating the ambient concentrations of NO2. This paper describes a refinement to one of the methods, the Ambient Ratio Method version 2 (ARM2). ARM2 is an empirical approach that uses a variable conversion factor, based on an analysis of ambient air measurements of NO and NO2, to estimate the portion of the AERMOD predicted air concentration of total NOX species that is in the form of NO2. The performance of ARM2 has been evaluated and found to compare well to actual ambient measurements and to other more complex EPA conversion methods. EPA has included ARM2 as a "beta-testing" option in AERMOD version 14134, and provided guidance on the use of ARM2 for regulatory modeling analyses in a September 2014 memorandum. This paper also discusses this recent EPA guidance.

  12. Ultrafine ambient particulate matter enhances cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a consistent link between exposure to ambient particulate air pollutant (PM) and the incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardiac effects of ambient PM. Mice were exposed to 1...

  13. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than a...

  14. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than a...

  15. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than a...

  16. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than a...

  17. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52.14 Section 52.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than a...

  18. WORKSHOP ON SOURCE EMISSION AND AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN EPA/ORD Workshop on Source Emission and Ambient Air Monitoring of Mercury was held on 9/13-14/99, Bloomington, Minnesota. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss the state-of-the-science in source and ambient air mercury monitoring as well as mercury monitoring research and...

  19. Ultrafine ambient particulate matter enhances cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a consistent link between exposure to ambient particulate air pollutant (PM) and the incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardiac effects of ambient PM. Mice were exposed to 1...

  20. RADIOCARBON ANALYSIS OF PM 2.5 AMBIENT AEROSOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The radiocarbon (14C) content of an ambient aerosol sample can be directly related to the fraction of the sample's total carbon mass contributed by natural (biogenic) sources. Such knowledge is difficult to determine by other means, and important for devising ambient PM contro...

  1. WORKSHOP ON SOURCE EMISSION AND AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN EPA/ORD Workshop on Source Emission and Ambient Air Monitoring of Mercury was held on 9/13-14/99, Bloomington, Minnesota. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss the state-of-the-science in source and ambient air mercury monitoring as well as mercury monitoring research and...

  2. RADIOCARBON ANALYSIS OF PM 2.5 AMBIENT AEROSOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The radiocarbon (14C) content of an ambient aerosol sample can be directly related to the fraction of the sample's total carbon mass contributed by natural (biogenic) sources. Such knowledge is difficult to determine by other means, and important for devising ambient PM contro...

  3. Ambient temperature that induces maximum sleep in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deependra; Mallick, Hruda Nanda; Kumar, Velayudhan Mohan

    2009-08-04

    Changes in sleep and body temperature in rats at ambient temperatures below and above the self-selected temperature zone, are lacking in literature. In this report, the temperature preferred by the rats was first assessed before studying the changes in their sleep and body temperature, when they were exposed to ambient temperatures ranging from 18 degrees C to 36 degrees C. The rats preferred to stay at 27 degrees C when they were allowed to select their own ambient temperature, but maximum sleep was recorded when the rats were maintained at 30 degrees C. The ambient temperature-related changes in rapid eye movement sleep and deep slow wave sleep followed a bell-shaped curve, with a maximum at 30 degrees C. Of all the sleep parameters, rapid eye movement sleep showed a more marked ambient temperature-related change. Ambient temperatures above 33 degrees C and below 24 degrees C produced a significant reduction in sleep. Increase in sleep at 30 degrees C was associated with a slight elevation in body temperature, but a steep increase in body temperature at very high ambient temperature was associated with a decrease in sleep. Decrease in sleep at ambient temperatures below 24 degrees C was not related to any significant decrease in body temperature. Though maximum sleep was recorded at 30 degrees C, the sleep regulatory and thermoregulatory systems were at a functional equilibrium at 27 degrees C.

  4. Effect of ambient-pressure reduction on multibubble sonochemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuziuti, Toru; Hatanaka, Shin-ichi; Yasui, Kyuichi; Kozuka, Teruyuki; Mitome, Hideto

    2002-04-01

    The effect of ambient-pressure reduction on multibubble sonochemiluminescence (MBSCL) is studied experimentally with a luminol solution through measurements of MBSCL intensity as a function of ultrasound irradiation time, applied voltage to a transducer and ultrasonic frequencies to accomplish high efficiency in chemical reactions. From the measurement of ambient-pressure dependence, it is shown that there is an ambient pressure that produces the maximum intensity of the MBSCL and the maximum intensity appears at higher ambient pressure as the applied voltage to the transducer increases. The highest intensity of MBSCL is obtained by appropriate reduction of ambient pressure both for various applied voltages and frequencies. This is caused by both the number of bubbles induced with supersaturation of the gas in a luminol solution and the variation in bubble dynamics.

  5. Towards Full-Waveform Ambient Noise Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, Korbinian; Ermert, Laura; Afanasiev, Michael; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Noise tomography usually works under the assumption that the inter-station ambient noise correlation is equal to a scaled version of the Green function between the two receivers. This assumption, however, is only met under specific conditions, e.g. wavefield diffusivity and equipartitioning, or the isotropic distribution of both mono- and dipolar uncorrelated noise sources. These assumptions are typically not satisfied in the Earth. This inconsistency inhibits the exploitation of the full waveform information contained in noise correlations in order to constrain Earth structure and noise generation. To overcome this limitation, we attempt to develop a method that consistently accounts for the distribution of noise sources, 3D heterogeneous Earth structure and the full seismic wave propagation physics. This is intended to improve the resolution of tomographic images, to refine noise source distribution, and thereby to contribute to a better understanding of both Earth structure and noise generation. First, we develop an inversion strategy based on a 2D finite-difference code using adjoint techniques. To enable a joint inversion for noise sources and Earth structure, we investigate the following aspects: i) the capability of different misfit functionals to image wave speed anomalies and source distribution and ii) possible source-structure trade-offs, especially to what extent unresolvable structure can be mapped into the inverted noise source distribution and vice versa. In anticipation of real-data applications, we present an extension of the open-source waveform modelling and inversion package Salvus (http://salvus.io). It allows us to compute correlation functions in 3D media with heterogeneous noise sources at the surface and the corresponding sensitivity kernels for the distribution of noise sources and Earth structure. By studying the effect of noise sources on correlation functions in 3D, we validate the aforementioned inversion strategy and prepare the

  6. Characterization of the chronic risk and hazard of hazardous air pollutants in the United States using ambient monitoring data.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Michael C; O'Brien, Theresa E; Charrier, Jessica G; Hafner, Hilary R

    2009-05-01

    Ambient measurements of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics) have been used to validate model-predicted concentrations of air toxics but have not been used to perform risk screening at the national level. We used ambient concentrations of routinely measured air toxics to determine the relative importance of individual air toxics for chronic cancer and noncancer exposures. We compiled 3-year averages for ambient measurement of air toxics collected at monitoring locations in the United States from 2003 through 2005. We then used national distributions of risk-weighted concentrations to identify the air toxics of most concern. Concentrations of benzene, carbon tetrachloride, arsenic, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde were above the 10(-6) cancer risk level at most sites nationally with a high degree of confidence. Concentrations of tetrachloroethylene, ethylene oxide, acrylonitrile, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene were also often greater than the 10(-6) cancer risk level, but we have less confidence in the estimated risk associated with these pollutants. Formaldehyde and chromium VI concentrations were either above or below the 10(-6) cancer risk level, depending on the choice of agency-recommended 10(-6) level. The method detection limits of eight additional pollutants were too high to rule out that concentrations were above the 10(-6) cancer risk level. Concentrations of 52 compounds compared with chronic noncancer benchmarks indicated that only acrolein concentrations were greater than the noncancer reference concentration at most monitoring sites. Most pollutants with national site-level averages greater than health benchmarks were also pollutants of concern identified in modeled national-scale risk assessments. Current monitoring networks need more sensitive ambient measurement techniques to better characterize the air toxics problem in the United States.

  7. Characterization of the Chronic Risk and Hazard of Hazardous Air Pollutants in the United States Using Ambient Monitoring Data

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Michael C.; O’Brien, Theresa E.; Charrier, Jessica G.; Hafner, Hilary R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Ambient measurements of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics) have been used to validate model-predicted concentrations of air toxics but have not been used to perform risk screening at the national level. Objectives We used ambient concentrations of routinely measured air toxics to determine the relative importance of individual air toxics for chronic cancer and noncancer exposures. Methods We compiled 3-year averages for ambient measurement of air toxics collected at monitoring locations in the United States from 2003 through 2005. We then used national distributions of risk-weighted concentrations to identify the air toxics of most concern. Results Concentrations of benzene, carbon tetrachloride, arsenic, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde were above the 10−6 cancer risk level at most sites nationally with a high degree of confidence. Concentrations of tetrachloroethylene, ethylene oxide, acrylonitrile, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene were also often greater than the 10−6 cancer risk level, but we have less confidence in the estimated risk associated with these pollutants. Formaldehyde and chromium VI concentrations were either above or below the 10−6 cancer risk level, depending on the choice of agency-recommended 10−6 level. The method detection limits of eight additional pollutants were too high to rule out that concentrations were above the 10−6 cancer risk level. Concentrations of 52 compounds compared with chronic noncancer benchmarks indicated that only acrolein concentrations were greater than the noncancer reference concentration at most monitoring sites. Conclusions Most pollutants with national site-level averages greater than health benchmarks were also pollutants of concern identified in modeled national-scale risk assessments. Current monitoring networks need more sensitive ambient measurement techniques to better characterize the air toxics problem in the United States. PMID:19479023

  8. National Parks

    Treesearch

    Jill S. Baron; Craig D. Allen; Erica Fleishman; Lance Gunderson; Don McKenzie; Laura Meyerson; Jill Oropeza; Nate Stephenson

    2008-01-01

    Covering about 4% of the United States, the 338,000 km2 of protected areas in the National Park System contain representative landscapes of all of the nation's biomes and ecosystems. The U.S. National Park Service Organic Act established the National Park System in 1916 "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 58 - Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient Air Quality Monitoring... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Pt. 58, App. C Appendix C to Part 58—Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Methodology 1.0 Purpose 2.0 SLAMS Ambient Air Monitoring Stations 3.0 NCore Ambient...

  10. Trends in air quality of national capital territory of Delhi.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Indrani

    2003-07-01

    A set of time series analysis methods viz; regression on deseasonalized data, seasonal regression and regression with weighted least squares technique is suggested to identify the trend in mean monthly ambient air quality data and applied to the case of National Capital Territory of Delhi. The analysis reveals that out of 9 monitored sites NO2 and SO2 increased at 6 sites and SPM level increased at 4 sites. Spatial interpolation using inverse distance square technique was carried out to plot the ambient air quality contours for the years 1990 and 1994 to explain the changes in regional ambient air quality characteristics over the four

  11. Ambient air pollution: a cause of COPD?

    PubMed

    Schikowski, Tamara; Mills, Inga C; Anderson, H Ross; Cohen, Aaron; Hansell, Anna; Kauffmann, Francine; Krämer, Ursula; Marcon, Alessandro; Perez, Laura; Sunyer, Jordi; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Künzli, Nino

    2014-01-01

    The role of ambient air pollution in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is considered to be uncertain. We review the evidence in the light of recent studies. Eight morbidity and six mortality studies were identified. These were heterogeneous in design, characterisation of exposure to air pollution and methods of outcome definition. Six morbidity studies with objectively defined COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio) were cross-sectional analyses. One longitudinal study defined incidence of COPD as the first hospitalisation due to COPD. However, neither mortality nor hospitalisation studies can unambiguously distinguish acute from long-term effects on the development of the underlying pathophysiological changes. Most studies were based on within-community exposure contrasts, which mainly assess traffic-related air pollution. Overall, evidence of chronic effects of air pollution on the prevalence and incidence of COPD among adults was suggestive but not conclusive, despite plausible biological mechanisms and good evidence that air pollution affects lung development in childhood and triggers exacerbations in COPD patients. To fully integrate this evidence in the assessment, the life-time course of COPD should be better defined. Larger studies with longer follow-up periods, specific definitions of COPD phenotypes, and more refined and source-specific exposure assessments are needed.

  12. Compressive geoacoustic inversion using ambient noise.

    PubMed

    Yardim, Caglar; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S; Traer, James

    2014-03-01

    Surface generated ambient noise can be used to infer sediment properties. Here, a passive geoacoustic inversion method that uses noise recorded by a drifting vertical array is adopted. The array is steered using beamforming to compute the noise arriving at the array from various directions. This information is used in two different ways: Coherently (cross-correlation of upward/downward propagating noise using a minimum variance distortionless response fathometer), and incoherently (bottom loss vs frequency and angle using a conventional beamformer) to obtain the bottom properties. Compressive sensing is used to invert for the number of sediment layer interfaces and their depths using coherent passive fathometry. Then the incoherent bottom loss estimate is used to refine the sediment thickness, sound speed, density, and attenuation values. Compressive sensing fathometry enables automatic determination of the number of interfaces. It also tightens the sediment thickness priors for the incoherent bottom loss inversion which reduces the search space. The method is demonstrated on drifting array data collected during the Boundary 2003 experiment.

  13. Development of ambient temperature secondary lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, S.; Shen, D. H.; Dawson, S.; Deligiannis, F.; Taraszkiewicz, J.; Halpert, Gerald

    1987-01-01

    JPL is developing ambient temperature secondary lithium cells for future spacecraft applications. Prior studies on experimental laboratory type Li-TiS2 cells yielded promising results in terms of cycle life and rate capability. To further assess the performance of this cell, 5 Ah engineering model cells were developed. Initially baseline cells were designed and fabricated. Each cell had 15 cathodes and 16 anodes and the ratio of anode to cathode capacity is 6:1. A solution of 1.5 molar LiAsF6 in 2Me-THF was used as the electrolyte. Cells were evaluated for their cycle life at C/1 and C/5 discharge rates and 100 percent depth of discharge. The cells were cycled between voltage limits 1.7 and 2.8 volts. The rate of charge in all cases is C/10. The results obtained indicate that cells can operate at C/10 to C/2 discharge rates and have an initial energy density of 70 Wh/kg. Cells delivered more than 100 cycles at C/2 discharge rate. The details of cell design, the test program, and the results obtained are described.

  14. Development of ambient temperature secondary lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, S.; Shen, D. H.; Dawson, S.; Deligiannis, F.; Taraszkiewicz, J.; Halpert, G.

    1988-01-01

    JPL is developing ambient temperature secondary lithium cells for future spacecraft applications. Prior studies on experimental laboratory type Li-TiS2 cells yielded promising results in terms of cycle life and rate capability. To further assess the performance of this cell, 5 Ah engineering model cells were developed. Initially baseline cells were designed and fabricated. Each cell had 15 cathodes and 16 anodes and the ratio of anode to cathode capacity is 6:1. A solution of 1.5 molar LiAsF6 in 2Me-THF was used as the electrolyte. Cells were evaluated for their cycle life at C/1 and C/5 discharge rates and 100 percent depth of discharge. The cells were cycled between voltage limits 1.7 and 2.8 volts. The rate of charge in all cases is C/10. The results obtained indicate that cells can operate at C/10 to C/2 discharge rates and have an initial energy density of 70 Wh/kg. Cells delivered more than 100 cycles at C/2 discharge rate. The details of cell design, the test program, and the results obtained are described.

  15. Induced infiltration in aquifers with ambient flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John L.

    1993-10-01

    Well water quality depends on the relative amounts of water drawn from the pumped aquifer and nearby surface water bodies, such as streams, lakes, and wetlands. Although a surface water body may normally gain water from the aquifer, pumping can reverse gradients, causing it to lose water near the well. Surface water then enters the well by induced infiltration. Two-dimensional vertically integrated models of induced infiltration are developed for various combinations of aquifer geometry and sources of recharge. The models, which have applications in wellhead protection, aquifer pollution characterization, and aquifer remediation, are presented graphically. They show that the propensity for and rate of induced infiltration are enhanced by higher pumping rates, proximity of the well to the stream, and the presence of nearby barrier boundaries. The propensity and rate are reduced by the presence of other surface water bodies. Ambient groundwater discharge rate to the surface water body also plays a role, but not its source, whether it is from local vertical recharge, lateral inflow, or both. The results are also largely indifferent to whether the aquifer transmissivity is assumed to be a constant, or a function of water table elevation. Finally, if the well is close enough to the surface water body, say, less than 5% of the aquifer width, then the aquifer acts as if it were semi-infinite.

  16. Does ambient temperature affect foodborne disease?

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Rennie M; Becker, Niels G; Hall, Gillian; Moodie, Keith B A

    2004-01-01

    Foodborne illness is a significant public health issue in most countries, including Australia. We examined the association between temperature and salmonellosis notifications, and compared these associations for 5 Australian cities. Log-linear models describing monthly salmonellosis notifications in terms of calendar time and monthly average temperatures were fitted over the period 1991 to 2001 for each city. We used a negative binomial chance model to accommodate overdispersion in the counts. The long-term trend showed an increase in salmonellosis notifications in each of the 5 cities. There was a positive association between monthly salmonellosis notifications and mean monthly temperature of the previous month in every city. Seasonal patterns in salmonellosis notifications were fully explained by changes in temperature. The strength of the association, the consistency across 5 cities, and a plausible biologic pathway suggest that higher ambient temperatures are a cause of higher salmonellosis notifications. The lag of 1 month suggests that temperature might be more influential earlier in the production process rather than at the food preparation stage. This knowledge can help to guide policy on food preparation and distribution. It also suggests a basis for an early warning system for increased risk from salmonellosis, and raises yet another possible health problem with global warming.

  17. On Short Period Ambient Noise of Taiwan (1) Ambient Noise Tomography (2) Probing Source of Ambient Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Gung, Y.; You, S.; Chiao, L.; Liang, W.; Lin, C.

    2009-12-01

    Retrieving empirical Green functions (EGF) between stations by cross-correlating continuous seismic records has quickly become a popular technique in seismology for its operational simplicity and various advantages over traditional surface wave tomography; in particular, the derived short period Green’s functions of surface waves are usually inaccessible from seismic record caused by nature earthquakes. We apply this technique to three component continuous seismic data recorded at 88 short period stations in Taiwan. The data are collected from three seismic networks, including the island-wide Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network, and two temporary local seismic arrays, Tatun Volcanic Area array and Hsinchu array, for the time period from Jan, 2006 to Dec, 2006. For each station pairs, we derive Love waves from T-T (transverse) component cross-correlation functions (CCF), and Rayleigh waves from Z-Z (vertical) and R-R (radial) component CCF respectively. We measure group and phase velocities for the period range from 1 to 5 seconds. The achieved dense path coverage together with the retrieved short period EGF provide an unprecedented resolving power to the shallow crust structure of Taiwan island. With the qualified dispersion curves, we apply a multi-scale inversion technique to derive two dimensional phase, group velocity maps for both Rayleigh and Love waves, and three dimensional Vs structure of shallow crust. Besides tomographic study, we also attempt to probe the sources of ambient noise by several approaches: (1) analyzing the relative strength between the causal and acausal empirical Green’s functions (EGF); (2) measuring the relative strength of CCF amplitudes with respect to their own annual average as a function of time and azimuth to determine the background energy flow; and (3) computing power spectra density of continuous record for representative costal stations. With the results, we are able to characterize the spatial and temporal variations

  18. Measurements of Ambient Noise During Extreme Wind Conditions in the Gulf of Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Gulf of Mexico during the summer of 2002 (LADC 02). The hydrophone of each buoy was approximately 50 m from the bottom in water depths of 645 m to 1034 m. During LADC 02 Tropical Storm Isidore and Hurricane Lili passed within approximately 73 nmi and 116 nmi, respectively, west of the EARS buoys. The proximity of these storm systems to the EARS buoys, in conjunction with wind speed data from three nearby National Data Buoy Center weather (NDBC) buoys, allows for the direct comparison of underwater ambient noise levels with high wind speeds. These results are

  19. Wash-out of ambient air contaminations for breath measurements.

    PubMed

    Maurer, F; Wolf, A; Fink, T; Rittershofer, B; Heim, N; Volk, T; Baumbach, J I; Kreuer, S

    2014-06-01

    In breath analysis, ambient air contaminations are ubiquitous and difficult to eliminate. This study was designed to investigate the reduction of ambient air background by a lung wash-out with synthetic air. The reduction of the initial ambient air volatile organic compound (VOC) intensity was investigated in the breath of 20 volunteers inhaling synthetic air via a sealed full face mask in comparison to inhaling ambient air. Over a period of 30 minutes, breath analysis was conducted using ion mobility spectrometry coupled to a multi-capillary column. A total of 68 VOCs were identified for inhaling ambient air or inhaling synthetic air. By treatment with synthetic air, 39 VOCs decreased in intensity, whereas 29 increased in comparison to inhaling ambient air. In total, seven VOCs were significantly reduced (P-value < 0.05). A complete wash-out of VOCs in this setting was not observed, whereby a statistically significant reduction up to 65% as for terpinolene was achieved. Our setting successfully demonstrated a reduction of ambient air contaminations from the airways by a lung wash-out with synthetic air.

  20. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    G. Moridis; Q. Hu

    2000-03-12

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids, and

  1. Assessment of ambient noise levels in the urban residential streets of Eastern Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Gehan R

    2012-12-01

    Street of Alexandria have numerous unplanned, mixed, and noisy activities that may interfere with public health and comfort. The aim of this study was to assess A-weighted ambient noise levels in urban residential streets of Eastern Alexandria, Egypt, from September 2010 to January 2011, with the objective of recommending corrective actions to minimize high noise levels. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out, in which A-weighted ambient noise levels were measured on the basis of 24-h periods, using Ono sokki la-5120--precision integrating sound level meter, from September 2010 to January 2011. The measurements were taken on three streets, which were selected using stratified random sampling. Seven measurement sites, along the three streets under study, were selected by site visits according to predetermined criteria. A-weighted ambient noise levels (LAeq) were the highest [70.7 (24.2) dB] on high-traffic-density and high-human-activity streets followed by streets with moderate and low traffic density and human activity [67.5 (31.3) and 62.8 (38.2) dB], respectively. It varied significantly depending on means of transportation (road traffic, train, and/or tram) and human activities (parking lots, shops, and/or street merchants). The A-weighted ambient noise levels on urban residential streets of Eastern Alexandria, Egypt, exceeded the Egyptian National Standards during the three periods of the day (daytime, evening, and night), except in some relatively quiet locations during the night. Consequently, remedial actions to reduce noise levels were recommended.

  2. Towards Full-Waveform Ambient Noise Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, K.; Ermert, L. A.; Boehm, C.; Fichtner, A.

    2016-12-01

    Noise tomography usually works under the assumption that the inter-station ambient noise correlation is equal to a scaled version of the Green function between the two receivers. This assumption, however, is only met under specific conditions, e.g. wavefield diffusivity and equipartitioning, or the isotropic distribution of both mono- and dipolar uncorrelated noise sources. These assumptions are typically not satisfied in the Earth. This inconsistency inhibits the exploitation of the full waveform information contained in noise correlations in order to constrain Earth structure and noise generation. To overcome this limitation, we attempt to develop a method that consistently accounts for the distribution of noise sources, 3D heterogeneous Earth structure and the full seismic wave propagation physics. This is intended to improve the resolution of tomographic images, to refine noise source location, and thereby to contribute to a better understanding of noise generation. We introduce an operator-based formulation for the computation of correlation functions and apply the continuous adjoint method that allows us to compute first and second derivatives of misfit functionals with respect to source distribution and Earth structure efficiently. Based on these developments we design an inversion scheme using a 2D finite-difference code. To enable a joint inversion for noise sources and Earth structure, we investigate the following aspects: The capability of different misfit functionals to image wave speed anomalies and source distribution. Possible source-structure trade-offs, especially to what extent unresolvable structure can be mapped into the inverted noise source distribution and vice versa. In anticipation of real-data applications, we present an extension of the open-source waveform modelling and inversion package Salvus, which allows us to compute correlation functions in 3D media with heterogeneous noise sources at the surface.

  3. Do ambient urban odors evoke basic emotions?

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Sandra T.; Lingg, Elisabeth; Heuberger, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Fragrances, such as plant odors, have been shown to evoke autonomic response patterns associated with Ekman's (Ekman et al., 1983) basic emotions happiness, surprise, anger, fear, sadness, and disgust. Inducing positive emotions by odors in highly frequented public spaces could serve to improve the quality of life in urban environments. Thus, the present study evaluated the potency of ambient odors connoted with an urban environment to evoke basic emotions on an autonomic and cognitive response level. Synthetic mixtures representing the odors of disinfectant, candles/bees wax, summer air, burnt smell, vomit and musty smell as well as odorless water as a control were presented five times in random order to 30 healthy, non-smoking human subjects with intact sense of smell. Skin temperature, skin conductance, breathing rate, forearm muscle activity, blink rate, and heart rate were recorded simultaneously. Subjects rated the odors in terms of pleasantness, intensity and familiarity and gave verbal labels to each odor as well as cognitive associations with the basic emotions. The results showed that the amplitude of the skin conductance response (SCR) varied as a function of odor presentation. Burnt smell and vomit elicited significantly higher electrodermal responses than summer air. Also, a negative correlation was revealed between the amplitude of the SCR and hedonic odor valence indicating that the magnitude of the electrodermal response increased with odor unpleasantness. The analysis of the cognitive associations between odors and basic emotions showed that candles/bees wax and summer air were specifically associated with happiness whereas burnt smell and vomit were uniquely associated with disgust. Our findings suggest that city odors may evoke specific cognitive associations of basic emotions and that autonomic activity elicited by such odors is related to odor hedonics. PMID:24860522

  4. Ambient intelligence systems for personalized sport training.

    PubMed

    Vales-Alonso, Javier; López-Matencio, Pablo; Gonzalez-Castaño, Francisco J; Navarro-Hellín, Honorio; Baños-Guirao, Pedro J; Pérez-Martínez, Francisco J; Martínez-Álvarez, Rafael P; González-Jiménez, Daniel; Gil-Castiñeira, Felipe; Duro-Fernández, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Several research programs are tackling the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) at specific fields, such as e-Health, e-Inclusion or e-Sport. This is the case of the project "Ambient Intelligence Systems Support for Athletes with Specific Profiles", which intends to assist athletes in their training. In this paper, the main developments and outcomes from this project are described. The architecture of the system comprises a WSN deployed in the training area which provides communication with athletes' mobile equipments, performs location tasks, and harvests environmental data (wind speed, temperature, etc.). Athletes are equipped with a monitoring unit which obtains data from their training (pulse, speed, etc.). Besides, a decision engine combines these real-time data together with static information about the training field, and from the athlete, to direct athletes' training to fulfill some specific goal. A prototype is presented in this work for a cross country running scenario, where the objective is to maintain the heart rate (HR) of the runner in a target range. For each track, the environmental conditions (temperature of the next track), the current athlete condition (HR), and the intrinsic difficulty of the track (slopes) influence the performance of the athlete. The decision engine, implemented by means of (m, s)-splines interpolation, estimates the future HR and selects the best track in each fork of the circuit. This method achieves a success ratio in the order of 80%. Indeed, results demonstrate that if environmental information is not take into account to derive training orders, the success ratio is reduced notably.

  5. Relationship Between Vortex Meander and Ambient Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Meyn, Larry A.

    2006-01-01

    Efforts are currently underway to increase the capacity of airports by use of closely-spaced parallel runways. If such an objective is to be achieved safely and efficiently during both visual and instrument flight conditions, it will be necessary to develop more precise methods for the prediction of the motion and spread of the hazard posed by the lift-generated vortex-wakes of aircraft, and their uncertainties. The purpose of the present study is to relate the motion induced in vortex filaments by turbulence in the ambient flow field to the measured turbulence in the flow field. The problem came about when observations made in the two largest NASA wind tunnels indicated that extended exposure of vortex wakes to the turbulence in the wind tunnel air stream causes the centers of the vortices to meander about with time at a given downstream station where wake measurements are being made. Although such a behavior was expected, the turbulence level based on the maximum amplitude of meander was much less than the root-mean-squared value measured in the free-stream of the wind tunnel by use of hot-film anemometers. An analysis of the time-dependent motion of segments of vortex filaments as they interact with an eddy, indicates that the inertia of the filaments retards their motion enough in the early part of their travel to account for a large part of the difference in the two determinations of turbulence level. Migration of vortex filaments from one turbulent eddy to another (probably with a different orientation), is believed to account for the remainder of the difference. Methods that may possibly be developed for use in the measurement of the magnitude of the more intense eddies in turbulent flow fields and how they should be adjusted to predict vortex meander are then discussed.

  6. Ambient air pollution and population health: overview.

    PubMed

    Krewski, Daniel; Rainham, Daniel

    2007-02-01

    In November 2003 approximately 200 researchers, stakeholders, and policymakers from more than 40 countries gathered to discuss the science and policy implications of air pollution and human health as part of the AIRNET/NERAM Strategies for Clean Air and Health initiative. The purpose of this paper is to review the more than 35 research posters presented at the conference, including exposure, toxicological, and epidemiological studies of air pollution. Collectively, these papers support previous evidence that both short- and long-term exposures to particulate air pollution have adverse population health impacts, including effects on children. Cellular studies also suggest that air pollution can cause mutagenic and oxidative effects, raising concerns about carcinogenicity and cellular regeneration. Studies of biomarkers, such as Clara-cell proteins and lymphocyte damage assessment, provide further evidence of air pollution effects at the cellular level. Other studies have focused on improvements to measurement and sources of air pollution. These studies suggest that particle mass rather than particle composition may be a more useful indicator of potential human health risk. It is well known that emissions from transportation sources are a major contributor to ambient air pollution in large urban centres. Epidemiologic researchers are able to reduce bias due to misclassification and improve exposure assessment models by allocating air pollution exposure according to distance from traffic sources or land-use patterns. The close association between traffic patterns and air pollution concentrations provides a potential basis for the development of transport policies and regulations with population health improvements as a primary objective. The results of the research presented here present opportunities and challenges for the development of policies for improvements to air quality and human health. However, there remains the challenge of how best to achieve these

  7. Ambient Intelligence Systems for Personalized Sport Training

    PubMed Central

    Vales-Alonso, Javier; López-Matencio, Pablo; Gonzalez-Castaño, Francisco J.; Navarro-Hellín, Honorio; Baños-Guirao, Pedro J.; Pérez-Martínez, Francisco J.; Martínez-Álvarez, Rafael P.; González-Jiménez, Daniel; Gil-Castiñeira, Felipe; Duro-Fernández, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Several research programs are tackling the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) at specific fields, such as e-Health, e-Inclusion or e-Sport. This is the case of the project “Ambient Intelligence Systems Support for Athletes with Specific Profiles”, which intends to assist athletes in their training. In this paper, the main developments and outcomes from this project are described. The architecture of the system comprises a WSN deployed in the training area which provides communication with athletes’ mobile equipments, performs location tasks, and harvests environmental data (wind speed, temperature, etc.). Athletes are equipped with a monitoring unit which obtains data from their training (pulse, speed, etc.). Besides, a decision engine combines these real-time data together with static information about the training field, and from the athlete, to direct athletes’ training to fulfill some specific goal. A prototype is presented in this work for a cross country running scenario, where the objective is to maintain the heart rate (HR) of the runner in a target range. For each track, the environmental conditions (temperature of the next track), the current athlete condition (HR), and the intrinsic difficulty of the track (slopes) influence the performance of the athlete. The decision engine, implemented by means of (m, s)-splines interpolation, estimates the future HR and selects the best track in each fork of the circuit. This method achieves a success ratio in the order of 80%. Indeed, results demonstrate that if environmental information is not take into account to derive training orders, the success ratio is reduced notably. PMID:22294931

  8. Do ambient urban odors evoke basic emotions?

    PubMed

    Glass, Sandra T; Lingg, Elisabeth; Heuberger, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances, such as plant odors, have been shown to evoke autonomic response patterns associated with Ekman's (Ekman et al., 1983) basic emotions happiness, surprise, anger, fear, sadness, and disgust. Inducing positive emotions by odors in highly frequented public spaces could serve to improve the quality of life in urban environments. Thus, the present study evaluated the potency of ambient odors connoted with an urban environment to evoke basic emotions on an autonomic and cognitive response level. Synthetic mixtures representing the odors of disinfectant, candles/bees wax, summer air, burnt smell, vomit and musty smell as well as odorless water as a control were presented five times in random order to 30 healthy, non-smoking human subjects with intact sense of smell. Skin temperature, skin conductance, breathing rate, forearm muscle activity, blink rate, and heart rate were recorded simultaneously. Subjects rated the odors in terms of pleasantness, intensity and familiarity and gave verbal labels to each odor as well as cognitive associations with the basic emotions. The results showed that the amplitude of the skin conductance response (SCR) varied as a function of odor presentation. Burnt smell and vomit elicited significantly higher electrodermal responses than summer air. Also, a negative correlation was revealed between the amplitude of the SCR and hedonic odor valence indicating that the magnitude of the electrodermal response increased with odor unpleasantness. The analysis of the cognitive associations between odors and basic emotions showed that candles/bees wax and summer air were specifically associated with happiness whereas burnt smell and vomit were uniquely associated with disgust. Our findings suggest that city odors may evoke specific cognitive associations of basic emotions and that autonomic activity elicited by such odors is related to odor hedonics.

  9. Recognizing the impact of ambient air pollution on skin health.

    PubMed

    Mancebo, S E; Wang, S Q

    2015-12-01

    Ambient air pollution is a known public health hazard that negatively impacts non-cutaneous organs; however, our knowledge regarding the effects on skin remains limited. Current scientific evidence suggests there are four mechanisms by which ambient air pollutants cause adverse effects on skin health: (i) generation of free radicals, (ii) induction of inflammatory cascade and subsequent impairment of skin barrier, (iii) activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and (iv) alterations to skin microflora. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on ambient air pollutants and their relevant sources, and highlight current evidence of the effects on skin. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  10. MetNH3: Metrology for ammonia in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braban, Christine; Twigg, Marsailidh; Tang, Sim; Leuenberger, Daiana; Ferracci, Valerio; Martin, Nick; Pascale, Celine; Hieta, Tuomas; Pogany, Andrea; Persijn, Stefan; van Wijk, Janneke; Gerwig, Holger; Wirtze, Klaus; Tiebe, Carlo; Balslev-Harder, David; Niederhausen, Bernhardt

    2015-04-01

    Measuring ammonia in ambient air is a sensitive and priority issue due to its harmful effects on human health and ecosystems. The European Directive 2001/81/EC on 'National Emission Ceilings for Certain Atmospheric Pollutants (NEC)' regulates ammonia emissions in the member states. However, there is a lack of regulation to ensure reliable ammonia measurements namely in applicable analytical technology, maximum allowed uncertainty, quality assurance and quality control (QC/QA) procedures as well as in the infrastructure to attain metrological traceability. Validated ammonia measurement data of high quality from air monitoring networks are vitally important for identifying changes due to implementations of environment policies, for understanding where the uncertainties in current emission inventories are derived from and for providing independent verification of atmospheric model predictions. The new EURAMET project MetNH3 aims to develop improved reference gas mixtures by static and dynamic gravimetric generation methods, develop and characterise laser based optical spectrometric standards and establish the transfer from high-accuracy standards to field applicable methods. MetNH3started in June 2014 and in this presentation the first results from the metrological characterisation of a commercially available cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) will be discussed. Also first tests and results from a new design, Controlled Atmosphere Test Facility (CATFAC), which is to be characterised and used to validate the performance of diffusive samplers, denuders and on-line instruments, will be reported. CAFTEC can be used to control test parameters such as ammonia concentration, relative humidity and wind speed. Outline plans for international laboratory and field intercomparisons in 2016 will be presented.

  11. Stability Issues in Ambient-Temperature Passive Magnetic Bearing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.

    2000-02-17

    The ambient-temperature passive magnetic bearing system developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory achieves rotor-dynamic stability by employing special combinations of levitating and stabilizing elements. These elements, energized by permanent magnet material, create the magnetic and electrodynamic forces that are required for the stable levitation of rotating systems, such as energy-storage flywheels. Stability criteria, derived from theory, describe the bearing element parameters, i.e., stiffnesses and damping coefficients, that are required both to assure stable levitation (''Earnshaw-stability''), and stability against whirl-type rotor-dynamic instabilities. The work described in this report concerns experimental measurements and computer simulations that address some critical aspects of this overall stability problem. Experimentally, a test device was built to measure the damping coefficient of dampers that employ eddy currents induced in a metallic disc. Another test device was constructed for the purpose of measuring the displacement-dependent drag coefficient of annular permanent magnet bearing elements. In the theoretical developments a computer code was written for the purpose of simulating the rotor-dynamics of our passive bearing systems. This code is capable of investigating rotor-dynamic stability effects for both small-amplitude transient displacements (i.e., those within the linear regime), and for large-amplitude displacements, where non-linear effects can become dominant. Under the latter conditions a bearing system that is stable for small-amplitude displacements may undergo a rapidly growing rotor-dynamic instability once a critical displacement is exceeded. A new result of the study was to demonstrate that stiffness anisotropy of the bearing elements (which can be designed into our bearing system) is strongly stabilizing, not only in the linear regime, but also in the non-linear regime.

  12. [Research on Raman spectra of isooctane at ambient temperature and ambient pressure to 1. 2 GPa].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei-fei; Zheng, Hai-fei

    2012-03-01

    The experimental study of the Raman spectral character for liquid isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane, ATM) was con ducted by moissanite anvil cell at the pressure of 0-1.2 GPa and the ambient temperature. The results show that the Raman peaks of the C-H stretching vibration shift to higher frenquencies with increasing pressures. The relations between the system pressure and peaks positions is given as following: v2 873 = 0.002 8P+2 873.3; v2 905 = 0.004 8P+2 905.4; v2 935 = 0.002 7P+ 2 935.0; v2 960 = 0.012P+2 960.9. The Raman spectra of isooctane abruptly changed at the pressure about 1.0 GPa and the liquid-solid phase transition was observed by microscope. With the freezing pressure at ambient temperature and the melting temperature available at 1 atm, the authors got the liquid-solid phase diagram of isooctane. According to Clapeyron equation, the authors obtained the differences of volume and entropy for the liquid-solid phase transition of isooctane: deltaV(m) = 4.46 x 10(-6) m3 x mol-1 and deltaS = -30.32 J x K(-1) x mol(-1).

  13. STUDY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE EXPOSURE COMPONENT OF THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ideal strategy for the exposure monitoring component of the planned National Children's Study (NCS) is to measure indoor and outdoor concentrations and personal exposures of children to a variety of pollutants, including ambient particulate and gaseous pollutants, biologicals,...

  14. Fact Sheet: Revised National Recommended Water Quality Criteria for the Protection of Human Health

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2003 Revised National Recommended Ambient Water Quality Criteria for the Protection of Human Health. 15 Pollutants revised criteria will be published including, chlorobenzene, cyanide, endrin, ethylbenzene, lindane, thallium, toluene, and more.

  15. STUDY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE EXPOSURE COMPONENT OF THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ideal strategy for the exposure monitoring component of the planned National Children's Study (NCS) is to measure indoor and outdoor concentrations and personal exposures of children to a variety of pollutants, including ambient particulate and gaseous pollutants, biologicals,...

  16. Population density determines the direction of the association between ambient ultraviolet radiation and type 1 diabetes incidence.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jane C; Lucas, Robyn M; Clements, Mark S; Bambrick, Hilary J

    2010-09-01

    Type 1 diabetes incidence has increased rapidly over the last 20 years, and ecological studies show inverse latitudinal gradients for both incidence and prevalence. Some studies have found season of birth or season of diagnosis effects. Together these findings suggest an important role for environmental factors in disease etiology. To examine whether type 1 diabetes incidence varies in relation to ambient ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in Australian children. We used case records of 4773 children aged 0-14 yr from the Australian National Diabetes Register to estimate type 1 diabetes incidence in relation to residential ambient UVR, both as a continuous variable and in four categories. We examined season of birth and season of diagnosis and variation in these parameters and in age at diagnosis, in relation to ambient UVR. Overall incidence was 20 per 100 000 population with no sex difference. There was a statistically significant trend toward winter diagnosis (adjusted RR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.13-1.33, p<0.001) but no apparent season of birth effect. Incidence in the highest UVR category was significantly lower than in the lowest UVR category (RR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.75-0.96). We found an inverse association between incidence and ambient UVR that was present only at low population densities; at high population densities type 1 diabetes incidence increased with increasing ambient UVR. In low population density, largely rural environments, ambient UVR may better reflect the personal UV dose, with the latter being protective for the development of type 1 diabetes. This effect is lost or reversed in high population density, largely urban, environments.

  17. Association between ambient particulate matter and disorders of vestibular function.

    PubMed

    Han, Changwoo; Lim, Youn-Hee; Jung, Kweon; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to environmental chemicals has been suggested to alter the physiologic state of the inner and middle ear. However, it is unknown if particulate matter exposure is associated with acute vestibular dysfunction. To estimate the effects of particulate matter exposure on the number of hospital visits related to three major diseases of vestibular dysfunction, Meniere's disease (MD), benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), and vestibular neuronitis (VN). Our study subject is from Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort, which is dynamic cohort consist of 1 million participants representing the Korean population. Among total cohort participants, we used the hospital visit data of 210,000 individuals who resided in Seoul from 2007 to 2010. Time series analysis using the Poisson generalized additive model and case-crossover analysis using conditional logistic regression were used to investigate the association between daily particulate matter levels (PM2.5, particulate matter <2.5μg/m(3); PM10, particulate matter <10μg/m(3); PM10-2.5, PM10- PM2.5) and number of MD, BPPV, and VN hospital visits. Time series analysis showed that an interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM10 and PM10-2.5 on lag day 1 was associated with an increased risk of MD hospital visits [relative risk (RR), 95% confidence interval (CI), PM10: 1.09 (1.02-1.15); PM10-2.5: 1.06 (1.02-1.10)]. In addition, elderly individuals (≥60 years old) showed an increased risk of MD hospital visits after particulate matter exposure when compared to younger individuals. An IQR increase in particulate matter on lag day 1 was associated with a marginally significant increase in VN hospital visits [RR (95%CI), PM2.5: 1.11 (0.98-1.25); PM10: 1.07 (0.99-1.15); PM10-2.5: 1.04 (0.99-1.09)]. However, no association between particulate matter exposure and BPPV hospital visits was noted. Case-crossover analyses showed similar results to the time-series analysis across all three diseases. MD

  18. National forests

    Treesearch

    Linda A. Joyce; Geoffry M. Blate; Jeremy S. Littell; Steven G. McNulty; Constance I. Millar; Susanne C. Moser; Ronald P. Neilson; Kathy O' Halloran; David L. Peterson

    2008-01-01

    The National Forest System (NFS) is composed of 155 national forests (NFs) and 20 national grasslands (NGs), which encompass a wide range of ecosystems, harbor much of the nation’s biodiversity, and provide myriad goods and services. The mission of the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), which manages the NFS, has broadened from water and timber to sustaining ecosystem health...

  19. Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

  20. Developing a thermoacoustic sensor adaptive to ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jida; Ang, Woon; Lim, Allan; Yu, Xiaojian; Chen, Jie

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a simple and adaptive thermoacoustic sensor was designed to measure Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS). Compared to other thermoacoustic sensor designs, our novelty lies in (i) integrating an ultrasound medium layer during the measurement to simplify the complicated set-up procedures and (ii) taking the effect of ambient temperatures into design consideration. After measuring temperature increases with various ambient temperatures under different ultrasound intensities, a relationship among ultrasound intensities, ambient temperatures and coefficients of temporal temperature changes was calculated. Our improved design has made the sensor easy to operate and its performance more accurate and consistent than the thermoacoustic sensor designs without considering ambient temperatures. In all, our improved design greatly enhances the thermoacoustic sensor in practical ultrasound calibration.

  1. *Ambient Particluate Matter Supresses Alveolar Macrophage Cytokine Response to Lipopolysaccharide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reports link ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including the exacerbation of inflammatory disease and increased hospitalization for lung infections. Alveolar macrophages (AM) play an important defense role against infections v...

  2. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DECREASED IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGE CYTOKINE RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including increased hospitalizations for lung infection. Normal lung immune responses to bacterial infection include alveolar macrophage cytokine production and...

  3. 40 CFR 610.60 - Non-standard ambient conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dynamometer, in ambient temperatures outside the 60° to 90° range specified in § 610.64 as determined by the... or dynamometer as determined by the Administrator. One test location, at an elevation of no less...

  4. Draft Final Ambient Air Monitoring Plan July 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This work plan describes the ambient air sampling program for the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site and presents the locations, sampling strategies, and exposure limits for monitoring remedial activities in the Harbor.

  5. [Ambient and enclosed space air sampling for determination of contaminants].

    PubMed

    Dorogova, V B

    2010-01-01

    The paper touches upon the issues how to correctly and maximally take single and average daily samples of ambient, residential and public building, and enclosed space air for further tests for the content of hazardous substances. The paper is debated.

  6. *Ambient Particluate Matter Supresses Alveolar Macrophage Cytokine Response to Lipopolysaccharide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reports link ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including the exacerbation of inflammatory disease and increased hospitalization for lung infections. Alveolar macrophages (AM) play an important defense role against infections v...

  7. Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

  8. THE GENOTOXICITY OF AMBIENT OUTDOOR AIR, A REVIEW: SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The genotoxicity of ambient outdoor air, a review: Salmonella mutagenicity

    Abstract
    Mutagens in urban air pollution come from anthropogenic sources (especially combustion sources) and are products of airborne chemical reactions. Bacterial mutation tests have been used ...

  9. Brookhaven National Laboratory site environmental report for calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Naidu, J.R.; Royce, B.A.

    1995-05-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory and presents summary information about environmental compliance for 1994. To evaluate the effect of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s operations on the local environment, measurements of direct radiation, and a variety of radionuclides and chemical compounds in ambient air, soil, sewage effluent, surface water, groundwater, fauna and vegetation were made at the Brookhaven National Laboratory site and at sites adjacent to the Laboratory.

  10. Biogenic contribution to PM-2.5 ambient aerosol from radiocarbon measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, C.; Klouda, G.; Ellenson, W.

    2003-04-01

    Knowledge of the relative contributions of biogenic versus anthropogenic sources to ambient aerosol is of great interest in the formulation of strategies to achieve nationally mandated air quality standards. Radiocarbon (14C) measurements provide a means to quantify the biogenic fraction of any carbon-containing sample of ambient aerosol. In the absence of an impact from biomass burning (e.g., during summertime) such measurements can provide an estimate of the contribution of biogenic secondary organic aerosol, from biogenic volatile organic compound precursors. Radiocarbon results for 11.5-h PM-2.5 samples collected near Nashville, Tennessee, USA, during summer 1999 will be presented. On average the measured biogenic fraction was surprisingly large (more than half), with the average biogenic fraction for night samples being only slightly smaller than for day samples. Discussion will include (a) description of the radiocarbon methodology, (b) use of radiocarbon measurements on local vegetation and fuel samples as calibration data, (c) concurrent measurements of organic carbon and elemental carbon ambient concentrations, (d) assessment of organic aerosol sampling artifact through use of organic vapor denuders, variable face velocities, and filter extraction, and (e) comparison with published radiocarbon results obtained in Houston, Texas in a similar study. Disclaimer: This work has been funded wholly or in part by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under Interagency Agreement No. 13937923 to the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and Contract No. 68-D5-0049 to ManTech Environmental Tecnology, Inc. It has been subjected to Agency review and approved for publication.

  11. Integrated Uncertainty Analysis for Ambient Pollutant Health Risk Assessment: A Case Study of Ozone Mortality Risk.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anne E; Glasgow, Garrett

    2017-05-18

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses health risk assessment to help inform its decisions in setting national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). EPA's standard approach is to make epidemiologically-based risk estimates based on a single statistical model selected from the scientific literature, called the "core" model. The uncertainty presented for "core" risk estimates reflects only the statistical uncertainty associated with that one model's concentration-response function parameter estimate(s). However, epidemiologically-based risk estimates are also subject to "model uncertainty," which is a lack of knowledge about which of many plausible model specifications and data sets best reflects the true relationship between health and ambient pollutant concentrations. In 2002, a National Academies of Sciences (NAS) committee recommended that model uncertainty be integrated into EPA's standard risk analysis approach. This article discusses how model uncertainty can be taken into account with an integrated uncertainty analysis (IUA) of health risk estimates. It provides an illustrative numerical example based on risk of premature death from respiratory mortality due to long-term exposures to ambient ozone, which is a health risk considered in the 2015 ozone NAAQS decision. This example demonstrates that use of IUA to quantitatively incorporate key model uncertainties into risk estimates produces a substantially altered understanding of the potential public health gain of a NAAQS policy decision, and that IUA can also produce more helpful insights to guide that decision, such as evidence of decreasing incremental health gains from progressive tightening of a NAAQS. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Airborne particulate matter from primarily geologic, non-industrial sources at levels below National Ambient Air Quality Standards is associated with outpatient visits for asthma and quick-relief medication prescriptions among children less than 20 years old enrolled in Medicaid in Anchorage, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Chimonas, Marc-Andre R; Gessner, Bradford D

    2007-03-01

    In Anchorage, Alaska, particulates with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 micro m (PM(10)) arise primarily from natural, geologic sources, and particulates with aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 micro m (PM(2.5)) arise primarily from automobile emissions. The current study used a population-based time-series analysis design to evaluate the effects of daily and weekly PM(10) and PM(2.5) on respiratory health outcomes among children <20 years of age residing in Anchorage enrolled in Medicaid. All generated estimating equations models were adjusted for season, year, weekends, temperature, wind speed, and precipitation. Relative to the days with PM(10) mass concentration < or = 13 micro g/m(3), a significant 9.3% increase (RR: 1.093, 95% CI: 1.004-1.191) in the rate of outpatient visits for asthma occurred during days with PM(10) of 20-33 micro g/m(3). No further dose-response occurred for days with PM(10) > or = 34 micro g/m(3). A significant 18.1% increase (RR: 1.181, 95% CI: 1.010-1.381) in the rate of quick-relief medication prescriptions occurred during days with PM(10) of 34-60 micro g/m(3), and a 28.8% increase (RR: 1.288, 95% CI: 1.026-1.619) occurred during days with PM(10) > or = 61 micro g/m(3). Similar results for outpatient asthma visits and quick-relief medication occurred in weekly models. There were no significant associations with PM(2.5) in either daily or weekly models. These subtle but statistically significant associations suggest that non-industrial, geologic sources of PM(10) may have measurable health effects at levels below current national standards.

  13. Ambient lead measurements in Cairo, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, J.E. Jr.; Labib, M.; Samaha, N.; Sabry, M.; Araby, H.E.

    1999-07-01

    The Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP) has established a network of 36 stations to monitor airborne lead levels in the Greater Cairo Area. Data obtained during the first 4 months of the monitoring program indicates that lead levels in ambient air significantly exceed the Government of Egypt's (GOE) Law Number 4 (1994) limit of 1 {micro} g/m{sup 3} (annual mean) in areas downwind of secondary lead smelters and in heavily trafficked areas. The highest mean and single sampling event lead levels were observed in the heavily industrialized areas of Shoubra el-Kheima and Tebbin. At two sites in Shoubra el-Kheima, mean and maximum lead levels were determined to be approximately 20 {micro} g/m{sup 3} and 79 {micro} g/m{sup 3}, respectively. At three sites located in areas of high motor vehicle traffic in the central part of the city, the mean lead level was about 4 {micro} g/m{sup 3} and the maximum levels ranged from approximately 10 x 20 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. Of the remainder of the sites, the mean lead concentrations were 2fd3 {micro} g/m{sup 3} at three sites, 1 P2 {mu} g/m{sup 3} at 16 sites, and below 1 {micro} g/m{sup 3} at eight sites. Lead levels in areas devoted primarily to residential use were generally less than 2 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. The maximum mean monthly PM{sub 10} lead value measured at fugitive emission monitoring sites near lead smelters was approximately 73 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. The maximum lead concentration measured during a single sampling event was 180 {micro} g/m{sup 3}. Generally lower lead levels were observed in December due to regulation action that resulted in some suspension of smelting operations and to approximately 180-degree wind direction shifts that typically occur during this period of the year. The GOE is working vigorously to eliminate the lead problem in Egypt through implementation of the Lead Exposure Action Plan (LEAP). A major component of LEAP is the Lead Smelter Action Plan (LSAP).

  14. Effect of Ambient Temperature on the Human Tear Film.

    PubMed

    Abusharha, Ali A; Pearce, E Ian; Fagehi, Raied

    2016-09-01

    During everyday life, the tear film is exposed to a wide range of ambient temperatures. This study aims to investigate the effect of ambient temperature on tear film physiology. A controlled environment chamber was used to create different ambient temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C) at a constant relative humidity of 40%. Subjects attended for two separate visits and were exposed to 25, 20, and 15°C at one visit and to 10 and 5°C at the other visit. The subjects were exposed to each room temperature for 10 min before investigating tear film parameters. The order of the visits was random. Tear physiology parameters assessed were tear evaporation rate, noninvasive tear break-up time (NITBUT), lipid layer thickness (LLT), and ocular surface temperature (OST). Each parameter was assessed under each condition. A threefold increase in tear evaporation rate was observed as ambient temperature increased to 25°C (P=0.00). The mean evaporation rate increased from 0.056 μL/min at 5°C to 0.17 μL/min at 25°C. The mean NITBUT increased from 7.31 sec at 5°C to 12.35 sec at 25°C (P=0.01). A significant change in LLT was also observed (P=0.00), LLT median ranged between 20 and 40 nm at 5 and 10°C and increased to 40 and 90 nm at 15, 20, and 25°C. Mean reduction of 4°C OST was observed as ambient temperature decreased from 25 to 5°C. Ambient temperature has a considerable effect on human tear film characteristics. Tear evaporation rate, tear LLT, tear stability, and OST were considerably affected by ambient temperature. Chronic exposure to low ambient temperature would likely result in symptoms of dry eye and ultimately ocular surface disorders.

  15. Postural orientation modifications in autism in response to ambient lenses.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, M; Carmody, D P; Gaydos, A

    1996-01-01

    Autistic children often display abnormal postures, head tilts, and other spatial management dysfunctions. Methods were introduced to measure spatial orientation in tasks in a group of fourteen autistic children in Montreal, Canada. Ambient lenses were found to improve posture, correct head tilts, and improve ball catching abilities. A model of spatial orientation is described and recommendations are made to incorporate ambient lenses in treatment programs.

  16. The ROSCOE Manual. Volume 15. ambient geomagnetic field

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-13

    Continue on reverse side it necessary and identify by bloc;, number) ROSCOE\\ ~ Ambient Geomagnetic Model .3 ABSTRACT fC.-ntinue on re.erse side if...necesAary end idrnttlyhr block number) A preliminary model of the ambient geomagnetic field has been adopted for use in ROSCOE. The model fits a locally...presented derivations, flow d’,%rams, Fortran listings, and a test problem and evaluation. The model is found to he both fast and accurate. ream DD I

  17. Propagation and Ambient Noise Studies for Ocean Acoustics Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    artifacts could be due to array mismatch. Diagonal loading was used to stabilize the CSD matrices with respect to inversion, but artifacts were still...GEOACOUSTIC INVERSION THROUGH BOTTOM-LOSS ESTIMATE USING AMBIENT NOISE Use of the minimum-variance distortionless-response (MVDR) beamformer ...of adaptive beamforming techniques can improve ambient-noise inversion results (the claim in [3] is actually restricted to grazing angles below the

  18. Preliminary assessment of worker and ambient air exposures during soil remediation technology demonstration.

    PubMed

    Romine, James D; Barth, Edwin F

    2002-01-01

    Hazardous waste site remediation workers or neighboring residents may be exposed to particulates during the remediation of lead-contaminated soil sites. Industrial hygiene surveys and air monitoring programs for both lead and dust were performed during initial soil sampling activities and during pilot scale technology demonstration activities at two lead-contaminated soil sites to assess whether worker protection or temporary resident relocation would be suggested during any subsequent remediation technology activities. The concentrations of lead and dust in the air during pilot scale technology demonstration studies were within applicable exposure guidelines, including Occupational Health and Safety Administration permissible exposure limits, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended exposure limits, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene threshold limit values, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency's National Ambient Air Quality Standards program limits.

  19. A Study of Sea Ice Kinematics and Their Relationship to Arctic Ambient Noise. Part 3. Section 1. Ambient Noise. Section 2. Ambient Noise.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    D-R165 384 A STUDY OF SEA ICE KINEMATICS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO 1 /4ARCTIC AMBIENT NO..(U) HONEYWIELL INC DUARTE CA ORDNANCE DIV J K LEWIS ET AL...FEB 86 SAIC-85.񓞾-PT-3 UNCLASSIFIED NB4--B5-C-853F/G8112 NL L4 11111L lAO11 1211111111112.2 L25 [41.6 11111_!11 _____2 5 1 1 1 11111-111-_L6...SECTION 1 - AMBIENT NOISE ,-_f f it m- . 1 Science Applications International Corporation MAR 1 3 1986 ’ Aw ~A STUDY OF SEA ICE KINEMATICS AND THEIR

  20. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS.
    Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu*, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ...

  1. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS.
    Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu*, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ...

  2. Ambient maximum temperature as a function of Salmonella food poisoning cases in the Republic of Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Kendrovski, Vladimir; Karadzovski, Zarko; Spasenovska, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    Background: Higher temperatures have been associated with higher salmonellosis notifications worldwide. Aims: The objective of this paper is to assess the seasonal pattern of Salmonella cases among humans. Material and Methods: The relationship between ambient maximum temperature and reports of confirmed cases of Salmonella in the Republic of Macedonia and Skopje during the summer months (i.e. June, July, August and September) beginning in 1998 through 2008 was investigated. The monthly number of reported Salmonella cases and ambient maximum temperatures for Skopje were related to the national number of cases and temperatures recorded during the same timeframe using regression statistical analyses. The Poisson regression model was adapted for the analysis of the data. Results: While a decreasing tendency was registered at the national level, the analysis for Skopje showed an increasing tendency for registration of new salmonella cases. Reported incidents of salmonellosis, were positively associated (P<0.05) with temperature during the summer months. By increasing of the maximum monthly mean temperature of 1° C in Skopje, the salmonellosis incidence increased by 5.2% per month. Conclusions: The incidence of Salmonella cases in the Macedonian population varies seasonally: the highest values of the Seasonal Index for Salmonella cases were registered in the summer months, i.e. June, July, August and September. PMID:22540096

  3. Culinary nationalism.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Priscilla Parkhurst

    2010-01-01

    Culinary consciousness raisers, cooking texts often serve as vehicles of national identification. From Pampille (Marthe Allard Daudet) and her cookbook, Les Bons Plats de France, in 1913 to the international culinary competitions of today such as the Bocuse d'or, culinary distinction promotes national interests. In contrast to the strident nationalism of the early twentieth century, culinary nationalism today operates in an increasingly globalized world. National culinary distinction defines the nation and sells its products in a highly competitive international arena. A recent culinary text, the South Korean film Le Grand Chef [Sik Gaek ] (2007), illustrates the phenomenon, subsuming national culinary promotion in a mega culinary competition, all in the service of Korean culinary achievement.

  4. ESTIMATED HOURLY PERSONAL EXPOSURES TO AMBIENT AND NON-AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER AMONG SENSITIVE POPULATIONS IN SEATTLE, WASHINGTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of particulate matter (PM) routinely use concentrations measured with stationary outdoor monitors as surrogates for personal exposure. Despite the frequently reported poor correlations between ambient concentrations and total personal exposure, the epidemi...

  5. ESTIMATED HOURLY PERSONAL EXPOSURES TO AMBIENT AND NON-AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER AMONG SENSITIVE POPULATIONS IN SEATTLE, WASHINGTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of particulate matter (PM) routinely use concentrations measured with stationary outdoor monitors as surrogates for personal exposure. Despite the frequently reported poor correlations between ambient concentrations and total personal exposure, the epidemi...

  6. National Intelligence and National Prosperity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Earl; Wittmann, Werner

    2008-01-01

    What is the relation between the cognitive competence of a national population that nation's economic prosperity? Lynn and Vanhanen [Lynn, R. & Vanhanen, T. (2002). "IQ and the wealth of nations." Westport, CT: Praeger.] presented data pointing to an exceptionally strong relationship between IQ scores and Gross Domestic Product per…

  7. National Intelligence and National Prosperity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Earl; Wittmann, Werner

    2008-01-01

    What is the relation between the cognitive competence of a national population that nation's economic prosperity? Lynn and Vanhanen [Lynn, R. & Vanhanen, T. (2002). "IQ and the wealth of nations." Westport, CT: Praeger.] presented data pointing to an exceptionally strong relationship between IQ scores and Gross Domestic Product per…

  8. Ambient temperature and risk of death from accidental drug overdose in New York City, 1990-2006.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, Amy S B; Prescott, Marta R; Vlahov, David; Tardiff, Kenneth J; Galea, Sandro

    2010-06-01

    Mortality increases as ambient temperature increases. Because cocaine affects core body temperature, ambient temperature may play a role in cocaine-related mortality in particular. The present study examined the association between ambient temperature and fatal overdoses over time in New York City. Mortality data were obtained from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner for 1990 to 2006, and temperature data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association. We used generalized additive models to test the relationship between weekly average temperatures and counts of accidental overdose deaths in New York City, controlling for year and average length of daylight hours. We found a significant relation between ambient temperature and accidental overdose fatality for all models where the overdoses were due in whole or in part to cocaine (all P < 0.05), but not for non-cocaine overdoses. Risk of accidental overdose deaths increased for weeks when the average temperature was above 24 degrees Celsius. These results suggest a strong relation between temperature and accidental overdose mortality that is driven by cocaine-related overdoses rising at temperatures above 24 degrees Celsius; this is a substantially lower temperature than prior estimates. To put this into perspective, approximately 7 weeks a year between 1990 and 2006 had an average weekly temperature of 24 or above in New York City. Heat-related mortality presents a considerable public health concern, and cocaine users constitute a high-risk group.

  9. Ambient temperature and risk of death from accidental drug overdose in New York City, 1990-2006

    PubMed Central

    Bohnert, Amy S.B.; Prescott, Marta; Vlahov, David; Tardiff, Kenneth J.; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Background: Mortality increases as ambient temperature increases. Because cocaine affects core body temperature, ambient temperature may play a role in cocaine-related mortality in particular. The present study examined the association between ambient temperature and fatal overdoses over time in New York City (NYC). Methods: Mortality data were obtained from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner for 1990 through 2006, and temperature data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association. We used Generalized Additive Models to test the relationship between weekly average temperatures and counts of accidental overdose deaths in NYC, controlling for year and average length of daylight hours. Results: We found a significant relation between ambient temperature and accidental overdose fatality for all models where the overdoses were due in whole or in part to cocaine (all p < 0.05), but not for non-cocaine overdoses. Risk of accidental overdose deaths increased for weeks when the average temperature was above 24 degrees Celsius. Conclusions: These results suggest a strong relation between temperature and accidental overdose mortality that is driven by cocaine-related overdoses rising at temperatures above 24 degrees Celsius; this is a substantially lower temperature than prior estimates. To put this in perspective, approximately seven weeks a year between 1990 and 2006 had an average weekly temperature of 24 or above in NYC. Heat-related mortality presents a considerable public health concern, and cocaine users constitute a high-risk group. PMID:20219056

  10. Mass extinction efficiency and extinction hygroscopicity of ambient PM2.5 in urban China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhen; Ma, Xin; He, Yujie; Jiang, Jingkun; Wang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Yungang; Sheng, Li; Hu, Jiangkai; Yan, Naiqiang

    2017-07-01

    The ambient PM2.5 pollution problem in China has drawn substantial international attentions. The mass extinction efficiency (MEE) and hygroscopicity factor (f(RH)) of PM2.5 can be readily applied to study the impacts on atmospheric visibility and climate. The few previous investigations in China only reported results from pilot studies and are lack of spatial representativeness. In this study, hourly average ambient PM2.5 mass concentration, relative humidity, and atmospheric visibility data from China national air quality and meteorological monitoring networks were retrieved and analyzed. It includes 24 major Chinese cities from nine city-clusters with the period of October 2013 to September 2014. Annual average extinction coefficient in urban China was 759.3±258.3Mm(-1), mainly caused by dry PM2.5 (305.8.2±131.0Mm(-1)) and its hygroscopicity (414.6±188.1Mm(-1)). High extinction coefficient values were resulted from both high ambient PM2.5 concentration (68.5±21.7µg/m(3)) and high relative humidity (69.7±8.6%). The PM2.5 mass extinction efficiency varied from 2.87 to 6.64m(2)/g with an average of 4.40±0.84m(2)/g. The average extinction hygroscopic factor f(RH=80%) was 2.63±0.45. The levels of PM2.5 mass extinction efficiency and hygroscopic factor in China were in comparable range with those found in developed countries in spite of the significant diversities among all 24 cities. Our findings help to establish quantitative relationship between ambient extinction coefficient (visual range) and PM2.5 & relative humidity. It will reduce the uncertainty of extinction coefficient estimation of ambient PM2.5 in urban China which is essential for the research of haze pollution and climate radiative forcing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Suicide and Ambient Temperature in East Asian Countries: A Time-Stratified Case-Crossover Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoonhee; Kim, Ho; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue Leon; Chen, Bing-Yu; Woo, Jong-Min; Ebi, Kristie L

    2016-01-01

    A limited number of studies suggest that ambient temperature contributes to suicide; these studies typically focus on a single nation and use temporally and spatially aggregated data. We evaluated the association between ambient temperature and suicide in multiple cities in three East Asian countries. A time-stratified case-crossover method was used to explore the relationship between temperature and suicide, adjusting for potential time-varying confounders and time-invariant individual characteristics. Sex- and age-specific associations of temperature with suicide were estimated, as were interactions between temperature and these variables. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate country-specific pooled associations of temperature with suicide. An increase in temperature corresponding to half of the city-specific standard deviation was positively associated with suicide in most cities, although average suicide rates varied substantially. Pooled country-level effect estimates were 7.8% (95% CI: 5.0, 10.8%) for a 2.3°C increase in ambient temperature in Taiwan, 6.8% (95% CI: 5.4, 8.2%) for a 4.7°C increase in Korea, and 4.5% (95% CI: 3.3, 5.7%) for a 4.2°C increase in Japan. The association between temperature and suicide was significant even after adjusting for sunshine duration; the association between sunshine and suicide was not significant. The associations were greater among men than women in 12 of the 15 cities although not significantly so. There was little evidence of a consistent pattern of associations with age. In general, associations were strongest with temperature on the same day or the previous day, with little evidence of associations with temperature over longer lags (up to 5 days). We estimated consistent positive associations between suicide and elevated ambient temperature in three East Asian countries, regardless of country, sex, and age. Kim Y, Kim H, Honda Y, Guo YL, Chen BY, Woo JM, Ebi KL. 2016. Suicide and ambient

  12. Short-term changes in ambient temperature and risk of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Wilker, Elissa H; Schwartz, Joel; Zanobetti, Antonella; Gold, Diane R; Wellenius, Gregory A; Mittleman, Murray A

    2014-01-01

    Despite consistent evidence of a higher short-term risk of cardiovascular mortality associated with ambient temperature, there have been discrepant findings on the association between temperature and ischemic stroke. Moreover, few studies have considered potential confounding by ambient fine particulate matter air pollution <2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and none have examined the impact of temperature changes on stroke in the subsequent hours rather than days. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether changes in temperature trigger an ischemic stroke in the following hours and days and whether humid days are particularly harmful. We reviewed the medical records of 1,705 patients residing in the metropolitan region of Boston, Mass., USA, who were hospitalized with neurologist-confirmed ischemic stroke, and we abstracted data on the time of symptom onset and clinical characteristics. We obtained hourly meteorological data from the National Weather Service station and hourly PM2.5 data from the Harvard ambient monitoring station. We used the time-stratified case-crossover design to assess the association between ischemic stroke and apparent temperature averaged over 1-7 days prior to stroke onset adjusting for PM2.5. We assessed whether differences in apparent temperature trigger a stroke within shorter time periods by examining the association between stroke onset and apparent temperature levels averaged in 2-hour increments prior to stroke onset (0-2 h through 36-38 h). We tested whether the association varied by health characteristics or by PM2.5, ozone or relative humidity. The incidence rate ratio of ischemic stroke was 1.09 (95% confidence interval 1.01-1.18) following a 5°C decrement in average apparent temperature over the 2 days preceding symptom onset. The higher risk associated with cooler temperatures peaked in the first 14-34 h. There was no statistically significant difference in the association between temperature and ischemic stroke across seasons

  13. Suicide and Ambient Temperature in East Asian Countries: A Time-Stratified Case-Crossover Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoonhee; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue Leon; Chen, Bing-Yu; Woo, Jong-Min; Ebi, Kristie L.

    2015-01-01

    Background A limited number of studies suggest that ambient temperature contributes to suicide; these studies typically focus on a single nation and use temporally and spatially aggregated data. Objective We evaluated the association between ambient temperature and suicide in multiple cities in three East Asian countries. Methods A time-stratified case-crossover method was used to explore the relationship between temperature and suicide, adjusting for potential time-varying confounders and time-invariant individual characteristics. Sex- and age-specific associations of temperature with suicide were estimated, as were interactions between temperature and these variables. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate country-specific pooled associations of temperature with suicide. Results An increase in temperature corresponding to half of the city-specific standard deviation was positively associated with suicide in most cities, although average suicide rates varied substantially. Pooled country-level effect estimates were 7.8% (95% CI: 5.0, 10.8%) for a 2.3°C increase in ambient temperature in Taiwan, 6.8% (95% CI: 5.4, 8.2%) for a 4.7°C increase in Korea, and 4.5% (95% CI: 3.3, 5.7%) for a 4.2°C increase in Japan. The association between temperature and suicide was significant even after adjusting for sunshine duration; the association between sunshine and suicide was not significant. The associations were greater among men than women in 12 of the 15 cities although not significantly so. There was little evidence of a consistent pattern of associations with age. In general, associations were strongest with temperature on the same day or the previous day, with little evidence of associations with temperature over longer lags (up to 5 days). Conclusions We estimated consistent positive associations between suicide and elevated ambient temperature in three East Asian countries, regardless of country, sex, and age. Citation Kim Y, Kim H, Honda Y, Guo YL

  14. Ambient Temperature and Cerebrovascular Hemodynamics in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Wen-Chi; Eliot, Melissa N.; Koutrakis, Petros; Coull, Brent A.; Sorond, Farzaneh A.; Wellenius, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Some prior studies have linked ambient temperature with risk of cerebrovascular events. If causal, the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying this putative association remain unknown. Temperature-related changes in cerebral vascular function may play a role, but this hypothesis has not been previously evaluated. Methods We evaluated the association between ambient temperature and cerebral vascular function among 432 participants ≥65 years old from the MOBILIZE Boston Study with data on cerebrovascular blood flow, cerebrovascular resistance, and cerebrovascular reactivity in the middle cerebral artery. We used linear regression models to assess the association of mean ambient temperature in the previous 1 to 28 days with cerebrovascular hemodynamics adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results A 10°C increase in the 21-day moving average of ambient temperature was associated with a 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2%, 17.3%) lower blood flow velocity, a 9.0% (95% CI, 0.7%, 18.0%) higher cerebrovascular resistance, and a 15.3% (95%CI, 2.7%, 26.4%) lower cerebral vasoreactivity. Further adjustment for ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) did not materially alter the results. However, we found statistically significant interactions between ambient temperature and PM2.5 such that the association between temperature and blood flow velocity was attenuated at higher levels of PM2.5. Conclusions In this elderly population, we found that ambient temperature was negatively associated with cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebrovascular vasoreactivity and positively associated with cerebrovascular resistance. Changes in vascular function may partly underlie the observed associations between ambient temperature and risk of cerebrovascular events. PMID:26258469

  15. Evidence of health impacts of sulfate-and nitrate-containing particles in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Richard; Anderson, Elizabeth L; Cross, Carroll E; Hidy, George; Hoel, David; McClellan, Roger; Moolgavkar, Suresh

    2007-05-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of inorganic and organic compounds. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates PM as a criteria pollutant and promulgates National Ambient Air Quality Standards for it. The PM indicator is based on mass concentration, unspecified as to chemical composition, for specific size fractions. The numerical standards are based on epidemiologic evidence of associations between the various size-related particle mass concentrations as indicators and excess mortality and cardiorespiratory health effects as endpoints. The U.S. National Research Council has stated that more research is needed to differentiate the apparent health effects associated with different particle chemical constituents. Sulfate and nitrate constitute a significant portion of the particle mass in the atmosphere, but are accompanied by similar amounts of carbonaceous material, along with low concentrations of various species, including bioactive organic compounds and redox cycling metals. Extensive animal and human toxicology data show no significant effects for particles consisting only of sulfate and nitrate compounds at levels in excess of ambient air concentrations. A few epidemiologic studies, including both short-term time-series studies and long-term cohort studies, have included the sulfate content of PM as a specific variable in health effect analyses. There are much less data for nitrate. The results from the epidemiologic studies with PM sulfate are inconsistent. A detailed analysis of the time-series epidemiological studies shows that PM sulfate has a weaker "risk factor" than PM2.5 for health effects. Since sulfate is correlated with PM2.5, this result is inconsistent with sulfate having a strong health influence. However, there are many limitations with these types of studies that warrant caution for any comparison between a chemical component and mass concentration. In total, the epidemiologic and toxicologic evidence provide

  16. Volatile organic compounds in untreated ambient groundwater of the United States, 1985-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squillace, P.J.; Moran, M.J.; Lapham, W.W.; Price, C.V.; Clawges, R.M.; Zogorski, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, an assessment of 60 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in untreated, ambient groundwater of the conterminous United States was conducted based on samples collected from 2948 wells between 1985 and 1995. The samples represent urban and rural areas and drinking-water and nondrinking-water wells. A reporting level of 0.2 μg/L was used with the exception of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, which had a reporting level of 1.0 μg/L. Because ambient groundwater was targeted, areas of known point-source contamination were excluded from this assessment. VOC concentrations generally were low; 56% of the concentrations were less than 1 μg/L. In urban areas, 47% of the sampled wells had at least one VOC, and 29% had two or more VOCs; furthermore, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water criteria were exceeded in 6.4% of all sampled wells and in 2.5% of the sampled drinking-water wells. In rural areas, 14% of the sampled wells had at least one VOC; furthermore, drinking-water criteria were exceeded in 1.5% of all sampled wells and in 1.3% of the sampled drinking-water wells. Solvent compounds and the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether were among the most frequently detected VOCs in urban and rural areas. It was determined that the probability of finding VOCs in untreated groundwater can be estimated on the basis of a logistic regression model by using population density as an explanatory variable. Although there are limitations to this national scale model, it fit the data from 2354 wells used for model development and adequately estimated the VOC presence in samples from 589 wells used for model validation. Model estimates indicate that 7% (6−9% on the basis of one standard error) of the ambient groundwater resources of the United States probably contain at least one VOC at a reporting level of 0.2 μg/L. Groundwater is used in these areas by 42 million people (35−50

  17. The relationship between body and ambient temperature and corneal temperature.

    PubMed

    Kessel, Line; Johnson, Leif; Arvidsson, Henrik; Larsen, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Exposure to elevated ambient temperatures has been mentioned as a risk factor for common eye diseases, primarily presbyopia and cataract. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship among ambient, cornea, and body core temperature. The relation between corneal temperature and ambient temperature was examined in 11 human volunteers. Furthermore, corneal temperature was measured using a thermal camera during elevation of body core temperature in three human volunteers and four rats. A linear relationship between corneal temperature and body temperature was found in the rat. For humans there was an initial linear increase in corneal temperature with increasing body temperature, but corneal temperature seemed to plateau at 36.5°C to 37.0°C despite a continued increase of body core temperature. A linear relationship between ambient and corneal temperature was found in humans but with a less steep slope than that between corneal and body core temperature. Corneal temperature is estimated to reach the maximum of 36.5°C to 37.0°C at ambient temperatures between 32.0°C and 34.5°C. If there is a causal relationship between elevated eye temperature, cataract, and presbyopia, the incidence of these eye diseases is predicted to increase with global warming. Importantly, the strong association between corneal temperature and body core temperature indicates that frequent infections could also be considered a risk factor for age-related lens disorders.

  18. Passivation of Exfoliated Black Phosphorus Transistors Against Ambient Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Spencer; Wood, Joshua; Jariwala, Deep; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Cho, Eunkyung; Sangwan, Vinod; Liu, Xiaolong; Lauhon, Lincoln; Marks, Tobin; Hersam, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Unencapsulated exfoliated black phosphorus field-effect transistors are found to rapidly degrade upon exposure to ambient conditions, causing large increases in threshold voltage after only 6 h in ambient, followed by a ~ 103 decrease in FET on/off ratio and mobility after 48 h. Careful investigation into the cause of this degradation suggests that H2O irreversibly reacts with unprotected, exfoliated BP to form oxidized phosphorus species, as observed by AFM, TEM, XPS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and electrostatic force microscopy. This interpretation is further supported by the observation that BP degradation occurs more rapidly on hydrophobic octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayers as opposed to hydrophilic SiO2, implicating an edge-based intercalation of O2 saturated H2O in BP as the cause of degradation. Atomic layer deposited AlOx overlayers were found to suppress ambient degradation, allowing encapsulated BP FETs to maintain high on/off ratios of ~ 103 and mobilities of ~ 100 cm2/(Vs) for over one month in ambient, demonstrating the effective passivation of BP flakes against ambient degradation. Research supported by the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center of Northwestern University (NSF DMR-1121262), the Office of Naval Research (N00014- 14-1-0669), and the Keck Foundation.

  19. Ambient temperature and morbidity: a review of epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaofang; Wolff, Rodney; Yu, Weiwei; Vaneckova, Pavla; Pan, Xiaochuan; Tong, Shilu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we review the epidemiological evidence on the relationship between ambient temperature and morbidity. We assessed the methodological issues in previous studies and proposed future research directions. We searched the PubMed database for epidemiological studies on ambient temperature and morbidity of noncommunicable diseases published in refereed English journals before 30 June 2010. Forty relevant studies were identified. Of these, 24 examined the relationship between ambient temperature and morbidity, 15 investigated the short-term effects of heat wave on morbidity, and 1 assessed both temperature and heat wave effects. Descriptive and time-series studies were the two main research designs used to investigate the temperature-morbidity relationship. Measurements of temperature exposure and health outcomes used in these studies differed widely. The majority of studies reported a significant relationship between ambient temperature and total or cause-specific morbidities. However, there were some inconsistencies in the direction and magnitude of nonlinear lag effects. The lag effect of hot temperature on morbidity was shorter (several days) compared with that of cold temperature (up to a few weeks). The temperature-morbidity relationship may be confounded or modified by sociodemographic factors and air pollution. There is a significant short-term effect of ambient temperature on total and cause-specific morbidities. However, further research is needed to determine an appropriate temperature measure, consider a diverse range of morbidities, and to use consistent methodology to make different studies more comparable.

  20. Ambient Temperature and Morbidity: A Review of Epidemiological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaofang; Wolff, Rodney; Yu, Weiwei; Vaneckova, Pavla; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In this paper, we review the epidemiological evidence on the relationship between ambient temperature and morbidity. We assessed the methodological issues in previous studies and proposed future research directions. Data sources and data extraction: We searched the PubMed database for epidemiological studies on ambient temperature and morbidity of noncommunicable diseases published in refereed English journals before 30 June 2010. Forty relevant studies were identified. Of these, 24 examined the relationship between ambient temperature and morbidity, 15 investigated the short-term effects of heat wave on morbidity, and 1 assessed both temperature and heat wave effects. Data synthesis: Descriptive and time-series studies were the two main research designs used to investigate the temperature–morbidity relationship. Measurements of temperature exposure and health outcomes used in these studies differed widely. The majority of studies reported a significant relationship between ambient temperature and total or cause-specific morbidities. However, there were some inconsistencies in the direction and magnitude of nonlinear lag effects. The lag effect of hot temperature on morbidity was shorter (several days) compared with that of cold temperature (up to a few weeks). The temperature–morbidity relationship may be confounded or modified by sociodemographic factors and air pollution. Conclusions: There is a significant short-term effect of ambient temperature on total and cause-specific morbidities. However, further research is needed to determine an appropriate temperature measure, consider a diverse range of morbidities, and to use consistent methodology to make different studies more comparable. PMID:21824855

  1. Associations between summertime ambient pollutants and respiratory morbidity in New York City: Comparison of results using ambient concentrations versus predicted exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological analyses of air quality often estimate human exposure from ambient monitoring data, potentially leading to exposure misclassification and subsequent bias in estimated health risks. To investigate this, we conducted a case-crossover study of summertime ambient ozon...

  2. Associations between summertime ambient pollutants and respiratory morbidity in New York City: Comparison of results using ambient concentrations versus predicted exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological analyses of air quality often estimate human exposure from ambient monitoring data, potentially leading to exposure misclassification and subsequent bias in estimated health risks. To investigate this, we conducted a case-crossover study of summertime ambient ozon...

  3. Spatiotemporal exposure modeling of ambient erythemal ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    VoPham, Trang; Hart, Jaime E; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Sun, Zhibin; Tamimi, Rulla M; Laden, Francine

    2016-11-24

    Ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation plays a multifaceted role in human health, inducing DNA damage and representing the primary source of vitamin D for most humans; however, current U.S. UV exposure models are limited in spatial, temporal, and/or spectral resolution. Area-to-point (ATP) residual kriging is a geostatistical method that can be used to create a spatiotemporal exposure model by downscaling from an area- to point-level spatial resolution using fine-scale ancillary data. A stratified ATP residual kriging approach was used to predict average July noon-time erythemal UV (UVEry) (mW/m(2)) biennially from 1998 to 2012 by downscaling National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) gridded remote sensing images to a 1 km spatial resolution. Ancillary data were incorporated in random intercept linear mixed-effects regression models. Modeling was performed separately within nine U.S. regions to satisfy stationarity and account for locally varying associations between UVEry and predictors. Cross-validation was used to compare ATP residual kriging models and NASA grids to UV-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP) measurements (gold standard). Predictors included in the final regional models included surface albedo, aerosol optical depth (AOD), cloud cover, dew point, elevation, latitude, ozone, surface incoming shortwave flux, sulfur dioxide (SO2), year, and interactions between year and surface albedo, AOD, cloud cover, dew point, elevation, latitude, and SO2. ATP residual kriging models more accurately estimated UVEry at UVMRP monitoring stations on average compared to NASA grids across the contiguous U.S. (average mean absolute error [MAE] for ATP, NASA: 15.8, 20.3; average root mean square error [RMSE]: 21.3, 25.5). ATP residual kriging was associated with positive percent relative improvements in MAE (0.6-31.5%) and RMSE (3.6-29.4%) across all regions compared to NASA grids. ATP

  4. A geospatial model of ambient sound pressure levels in the contiguous United States.

    PubMed

    Mennitt, Daniel; Sherrill, Kirk; Fristrup, Kurt

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a model that predicts measured sound pressure levels using geospatial features such as topography, climate, hydrology, and anthropogenic activity. The model utilizes random forest, a tree-based machine learning algorithm, which does not incorporate a priori knowledge of source characteristics or propagation mechanics. The response data encompasses 270 000 h of acoustical measurements from 190 sites located in National Parks across the contiguous United States. The explanatory variables were derived from national geospatial data layers and cross validation procedures were used to evaluate model performance and identify variables with predictive power. Using the model, the effects of individual explanatory variables on sound pressure level were isolated and quantified to reveal systematic trends across environmental gradients. Model performance varies by the acoustical metric of interest; the seasonal L50 can be predicted with a median absolute deviation of approximately 3 dB. The primary application for this model is to generalize point measurements to maps expressing spatial variation in ambient sound levels. An example of this mapping capability is presented for Zion National Park and Cedar Breaks National Monument in southwestern Utah.

  5. Source apportionment of ambient volatile organic compounds in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu; Shao, Min; Liu, Ying; Lu, Sihua; Kuster, William; Goldan, Paul; Xie, Shaodong

    2007-06-15

    The ambient air quality standard for ozone is frequently exceeded in Beijing in summer and autumn. Source apportionments of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are precursors of ground-level ozone formation, can be helpful to the further study of tropospheric ozone formation. In this study, ambient concentrations of VOCs were continuously measured with a time resolution of 30 min in August 2005 in Beijing. By using positive matrix factorization (PMF), eight sources for the selected VOC species were extracted. Gasoline-related emissions (the combination of gasoline exhaust and gas vapor), petrochemicals, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) contributed 52, 20, and 11%, respectively, to total ambient VOCs. VOC emissions from natural gas (5%), painting (5%), diesel vehicles (3%), and biogenic emissions (2%) were also identified. The gasoline-related, petrochemical, and biogenic sources were estimated to be the major contributors to ozone formation potentials in Beijing.

  6. Transdimensional Bayesian seismic ambient noise tomography across SE Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, DingChang; Saygin, Erdinc; Cummins, Phil; Ge, Zengxi; Min, Zhaoxu; Cipta, Athanasius; Yang, Runhai

    2017-02-01

    We analyze seismic ambient noise data recorded at a set of permanent and temporary stations across southeastern Tibet to image crustal structure. High-resolution phase velocity maps are presented based on Transdimensional Bayesian seismic ambient noise tomography. Seismic images exhibit more apparent horizontal heterogeneities and show more detailed information compared to previous studies based on traditional ambient noise tomography. As noted from the phase velocity image at 25 s, the rigid high velocity anomalies beneath the Sichuan Basin and the South China Fold System act as a blockage to crustal material expansion, and the distribution of velocity anomalies contributes to the interpretation of a surface clockwise rotation pattern. Our results imply a more complex distributed low-velocity zone rather than two isolated channels beneath SE Tibet.

  7. Ambient pyrite in precambrian chert: new evidence and a theory.

    PubMed

    Knoll, A H; Barghoorn, E S

    1974-06-01

    Ambient pyrites of two distinct types were described from middle Precambrian rocks of the Lake Superior area. A new class of this phenomenon is here described from middle Precambrian chert from western Australia. The newly found ambient pyrites are quite minute and characteristically occur in groups forming a "starburst" pattern. All three types of ambient pyrite may be explained in terms of pressure solution initiated by gas evolution from organic material attached to the pyrite. Thermal degradation of the kerogen produces the gases which, due to the impermeability of the encompassing chert, build up the pressures necessary to initiate solution. Pyrite appendages bear a striking resemblance to micro-organisms and, thus, constitute the smallest pseudofossils known.

  8. Deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols on the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Y.; Zhao, C. S.; Ma, N.; Liu, H. J.; Bian, Y. X.; Tao, J. C.; Hu, Min

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we report that the deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols on the North China Plain are frequently observed using a humidified nephelometer system. The deliquescence relative humidity (RH) primarily ranges from 73% to 81%, with an average of 76.8%. The observed deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols exhibit distinct diurnal patterns and are highly correlated with ammonium sulfate. The diurnal variations of ammonium and nitrate may play significant roles on occurrences of observed deliquescent phenomena. The frequently observed deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols in this paper imply that current parameterization schemes that describe the RH dependence of particle light scattering may result in a significant bias when estimating aerosol effects on climate.

  9. Designing for Persuasion: Toward Ambient Eco-Visualization for Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tanyoung; Hong, Hwajung; Magerko, Brian

    When people are aware of their lifestyle's ecological consequences, they are more likely to adjust their behavior to reduce their impact. Persuasive design that provides feedback to users without interfering with their primary tasks can increases the awareness of neighboring problems. As a case study of design for persuasion, we designed two ambient displays as desktop widgets. Both represent a users' computer usage time, but in different visual styles. In this paper, we present the results of a comparative study of two ambient displays. We discuss the gradual progress of persuasion supported by the ambient displays and the differences in users' perception affected by the different visualization styles. Finally, Our empirical findings lead to a series of design implications for persuasive media.

  10. Ambient plasma treatment of silicon wafers for surface passivation recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jia; Prinz, Markus; Markert, Thomas; Aberle, Armin G.; Mueller, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the effect of an ambient plasma treatment powered by compressed dry air on the passivation quality of silicon wafers coated with intrinsic amorphous silicon sub-oxide is investigated. While long-time storage deteriorates the effective lifetime of all samples, a short ambient plasma treatment improves their passivation qualities. By studying the influence of the plasma treatment parameters on the passivation layers, an optimized process condition was identified which even boosted the passivation quality beyond its original value obtained immediately after deposition. On the other hand, the absence of stringent requirement on gas precursors, vacuum condition and longtime processing makes the ambient plasma treatment an excellent candidate to replace conventional thermal annealing in industrial heterojunction solar cell production.

  11. Ambient Pyrite in Precambrian Chert: New Evidence and a Theory

    PubMed Central

    Knoll, Andrew H.; Barghoorn, Elso S.

    1974-01-01

    Ambient pyrites of two distinct types were described from middle Precambrian rocks of the Lake Superior area. A new class of this phenomenon is here described from middle Precambrian chert from western Australia. The newly found ambient pyrites are quite minute and characteristically occur in groups forming a “starburst” pattern. All three types of ambient pyrite may be explained in terms of pressure solution initiated by gas evolution from organic material attached to the pyrite. Thermal degradation of the kerogen produces the gases which, due to the impermeability of the encompassing chert, build up the pressures necessary to initiate solution. Pyrite appendages bear a striking resemblance to micro-organisms and, thus, constitute the smallest pseudofossils known. Images PMID:16592159

  12. Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Franchini, Massimo

    2017-09-12

    The deleterious effects of ambient air pollution on human health have been consistently documented by many epidemiologic studies worldwide, and it has been calculated that globally at least seven million deaths are annually attributable to the effects of air pollution. The major air pollutants emitted into the atmosphere by a number of natural processes and human activities include nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter. In addition to the poor ambient air quality, there is increasing evidence that indoor air pollution also poses a serious threat to human health, especially in low-income countries that still use biomass fuels as an energy resource. This review summarizes the current knowledge on ambient air pollution in financially deprived populations.

  13. Expanding uses of ambient noise for imaging, detection, and communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, John R.; Malod, Laurent

    2002-11-01

    The use of ambient noise to sense the marine environment has a human history of only two decades. Starting with incoherent processing inspired by optical analogies such as Acoustic Daylight (TM), the exploration of the potential for ambient noise to provide useful information about the environment has blossomed into many related areas and diverse algorithms with connections to multistatic active sonar, classic passive sonar, communications, matched field processing and others. This presentation will introduce some recent work in these areas and attempt to draw together how the use of ambient noise, both by mankind and marine animals, is beginning to form a more complete picture of the potential of this exciting area of research. [Work supported by the Defence Science and Technology Agency, Singapore.

  14. Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Franchini, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The deleterious effects of ambient air pollution on human health have been consistently documented by many epidemiologic studies worldwide, and it has been calculated that globally at least seven million deaths are annually attributable to the effects of air pollution. The major air pollutants emitted into the atmosphere by a number of natural processes and human activities include nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter. In addition to the poor ambient air quality, there is increasing evidence that indoor air pollution also poses a serious threat to human health, especially in low-income countries that still use biomass fuels as an energy resource. This review summarizes the current knowledge on ambient air pollution in financially deprived populations. PMID:28895888

  15. Ambient Radon-222 Monitoring in Amargosa Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    L.H. Karr; J.J. Tappen; D. Shafer; K.J. Gray

    2008-06-05

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline selected environmental parameters in the region around the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, ambient radon-222 monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, the community closest to the proposed repository site. Passive integrating radon monitors and a continuous radon monitoring instrument were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) (http://www.cemp.dri.edu/index.html) station located in the Amargosa Valley Community Center near the library. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated radon measurements as well as verify meteorological data collected by the continuous radon monitoring instrument. Additionally, different types of environmental enclosures that housed the monitors and instrument were used to determine if particular designs influenced the ambient radon measurements.

  16. Retinal output changes qualitatively with every change in ambient illuminance

    PubMed Central

    Seitter, Hartwig; Hovhannisyan, Anahit; Procyk, Christopher A.; Allen, Annette E.; Schenk, Martin; Lucas, Robert J.; Münch, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    The collective activity pattern of retinal ganglion cells, the retinal code, underlies higher visual processing. How does the ambient illuminance of the visual scene influence this retinal output? We recorded from isolated mouse and pig retina and from mouse dLGN in-vivo at up to seven ambient light levels covering the scotopic to photopic regimes. Across each luminance transition, the majority of ganglion cells exhibited qualitative response changes, while maintaining stable responses within each luminance. Strikingly, we commonly observed the appearance and disappearance of ON responses in OFF cells and vice versa. Such qualitative response changes occurred for a variety of stimuli, including full-field and localized contrast steps, and naturalistic movies. Our results suggest that the retinal code is not fixed but varies with every change of ambient luminance. This finding raises new questions about signal processing within the retina and has intriguing implications for visual processing in higher brain areas. PMID:25485757

  17. Experimental Demonstration of Collisionless Particle Acceleration Mechanisms and Entrainment of Ambient Plasma Ions by a Rapidly Expanding Diamagnetic Cavity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonde, J.; Vincena, S. T.; Gekelman, W. N.

    2015-12-01

    The collisionless coupling of an expanding diamagnetic cavity to a magnetized, ambient plasma is studied in a laboratory environment using a laser-produced plasma (LPP). The seed LPP rapidly expands with velocities up to the background Alfvén speed, vexp ≤ vA. The boundary layer of the expansion is characterized with in situ diagnostics as a cylindrical version of the Ferraro-Rosenbluth current sheath. Maintenance of quasi-neutrality in this sheath forms an electric field opposing the cross-field expansion which simultaneously drives the electron current that forms the diamagnetic cavity, decelerates the LPP ions to stagnation, and accelerates ambient ions inward. The field topology across the background magnetic field is identical to that described by Bernhardt, et al. [1] for the AMPTE magnetotail barium releases. The boundary along the magnetic field, however, is shown to contain an electric field with E·B ≠ 0, which is absent in simple fluid models of diamagnetic cavities. The electric fields at this boundary help explain previous observations in the experiment of the ejection of suprathermal electrons and return currents that generated whistler- and Alfvén-wave radiation in the ambient plasma. Magnetic loops and an emissive probe measure the magnetic field and electrostatic potential along 3 dimensions while a laser-induced fluorescence scheme measures the cross-field flow of the ambient argon ions as they penetrate the diamagnetic cavity. Particle orbit solvers employing the measured fields corroborate the flow diagnostic and predict strong outflows of ambient ions with higher charge to mass ratios after diamagnetic cavity collapse. This experiment was conducted in the Large Plasma Device at the Basic Plasma Science Facility and funded by grants from the US Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation. [1] P.A. Bernhardt, R.A. Roussel-Dupre, M.B. Pongratz, J. Geophys. Res. 92, 57777 (1987).

  18. Uptake of Ambient Organic Gases to Acidic Sulfate Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liggio, J.; Li, S.

    2009-05-01

    The formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere has been an area of significant interest due to its climatic relevance, its effects on air quality and human health. Due largely to the underestimation of SOA by regional and global models, there has been an increasing number of studies focusing on alternate pathways leading to SOA. In this regard, recent work has shown that heterogeneous and liquid phase reactions, often leading to oligomeric material, may be a route to SOA via products of biogenic and anthropogenic origin. Although oligomer formation in chamber studies has been frequently observed, the applicability of these experiments to ambient conditions, and thus the overall importance of oligomerization reactions remain unclear. In the present study, ambient air is drawn into a Teflon smog chamber and exposed to acidic sulfate aerosols which have been formed in situ via the reaction of SO3 with water vapor. The aerosol composition is measured with a High Resolution Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), and particle size distributions are monitored with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The use of ambient air and relatively low inorganic particle loading potentially provides clearer insight into the importance of heterogeneous reactions. Results of experiments, with a range of sulfate loadings show that there are several competing processes occurring on different timescales. A significant uptake of ambient organic gases to the particles is observed immediately followed by a slow shift towards higher m/z over a period of several hours indicating that higher molecular weight products (possibly oligomers) are being formed through a reactive process. The results suggest that heterogeneous reactions can occur with ambient organic gases, even in the presence of ammonia, which may have significant implications to the ambient atmosphere where particles may be neutralized after their formation.

  19. Visual attention for a desktop virtual environment with ambient scent.

    PubMed

    Toet, Alexander; van Schaik, Martin G

    2013-01-01

    In the current study participants explored a desktop virtual environment (VE) representing a suburban neighborhood with signs of public disorder (neglect, vandalism, and crime), while being exposed to either room air (control group), or subliminal levels of tar (unpleasant; typically associated with burned or waste material) or freshly cut grass (pleasant; typically associated with natural or fresh material) ambient odor. They reported all signs of disorder they noticed during their walk together with their associated emotional response. Based on recent evidence that odors reflexively direct visual attention to (either semantically or affectively) congruent visual objects, we hypothesized that participants would notice more signs of disorder in the presence of ambient tar odor (since this odor may bias attention to unpleasant and negative features), and less signs of disorder in the presence of ambient grass odor (since this odor may bias visual attention toward the vegetation in the environment and away from the signs of disorder). Contrary to our expectations the results provide no indication that the presence of an ambient odor affected the participants' visual attention for signs of disorder or their emotional response. However, the paradigm used in present study does not allow us to draw any conclusions in this respect. We conclude that a closer affective, semantic, or spatiotemporal link between the contents of a desktop VE and ambient scents may be required to effectively establish diagnostic associations that guide a user's attention. In the absence of these direct links, ambient scent may be more diagnostic for the physical environment of the observer as a whole than for the particular items in that environment (or, in this case, items represented in the VE).

  20. Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight.

    PubMed

    Raman, Aaswath P; Anoma, Marc Abou; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-11-27

    Cooling is a significant end-use of energy globally and a major driver of peak electricity demand. Air conditioning, for example, accounts for nearly fifteen per cent of the primary energy used by buildings in the United States. A passive cooling strategy that cools without any electricity input could therefore have a significant impact on global energy consumption. To achieve cooling one needs to be able to reach and maintain a temperature below that of the ambient air. At night, passive cooling below ambient air temperature has been demonstrated using a technique known as radiative cooling, in which a device exposed to the sky is used to radiate heat to outer space through a transparency window in the atmosphere between 8 and 13 micrometres. Peak cooling demand, however, occurs during the daytime. Daytime radiative cooling to a temperature below ambient of a surface under direct sunlight has not been achieved because sky access during the day results in heating of the radiative cooler by the Sun. Here, we experimentally demonstrate radiative cooling to nearly 5 degrees Celsius below the ambient air temperature under direct sunlight. Using a thermal photonic approach, we introduce an integrated photonic solar reflector and thermal emitter consisting of seven layers of HfO2 and SiO2 that reflects 97 per cent of incident sunlight while emitting strongly and selectively in the atmospheric transparency window. When exposed to direct sunlight exceeding 850 watts per square metre on a rooftop, the photonic radiative cooler cools to 4.9 degrees Celsius below ambient air temperature, and has a cooling power of 40.1 watts per square metre at ambient air temperature. These results demonstrate that a tailored, photonic approach can fundamentally enable new technological possibilities for energy efficiency. Further, the cold darkness of the Universe can be used as a renewable thermodynamic resource, even during the hottest hours of the day.

  1. Visual attention for a desktop virtual environment with ambient scent

    PubMed Central

    Toet, Alexander; van Schaik, Martin G.

    2013-01-01

    In the current study participants explored a desktop virtual environment (VE) representing a suburban neighborhood with signs of public disorder (neglect, vandalism, and crime), while being exposed to either room air (control group), or subliminal levels of tar (unpleasant; typically associated with burned or waste material) or freshly cut grass (pleasant; typically associated with natural or fresh material) ambient odor. They reported all signs of disorder they noticed during their walk together with their associated emotional response. Based on recent evidence that odors reflexively direct visual attention to (either semantically or affectively) congruent visual objects, we hypothesized that participants would notice more signs of disorder in the presence of ambient tar odor (since this odor may bias attention to unpleasant and negative features), and less signs of disorder in the presence of ambient grass odor (since this odor may bias visual attention toward the vegetation in the environment and away from the signs of disorder). Contrary to our expectations the results provide no indication that the presence of an ambient odor affected the participants’ visual attention for signs of disorder or their emotional response. However, the paradigm used in present study does not allow us to draw any conclusions in this respect. We conclude that a closer affective, semantic, or spatiotemporal link between the contents of a desktop VE and ambient scents may be required to effectively establish diagnostic associations that guide a user’s attention. In the absence of these direct links, ambient scent may be more diagnostic for the physical environment of the observer as a whole than for the particular items in that environment (or, in this case, items represented in the VE). PMID:24324453

  2. Coupling of an exploding plasma to a magnetized ambient plasma measured with LIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonde, Jeffrey; Vincena, Stephen; Gekelman, Walter

    2013-10-01

    The coupling of plasma jets to ambient media near young stellar objects, Herbig-Haro objects, and supernova remnants is of considerable interest to the astrophysical community. In this work, we study the interaction of a laboratory scale jet formed by a carbon laser-produced plasma (LPP) with the ions of a magnetized argon background plasma (njet /nAr < 30 ,vjet/cs = 20 ,vjet/vA <=1) using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The excitation light was provided by a planar beam of a pulsed dye laser which, by tuning to the Doppler-broadened 611.5 nm absorption line, sampled the distribution function of metastable Ar-II separating the background from the components of the jet. A fast shutter (>= 3 ns) CCD camera captured the 461 nm fluorescence with 40 ns time and .6 mm2 spatial resolutions. The distribution functions obtained from the LIF diagnostic reveal significant density enhancement and a subsonic parallel drift localized at the LPP-ambient interface. Within the jet region, the background ion signal indicates the formation of a density void and suggests a lateral snow-plow effect. To our knowledge, this is the first LIF measurement of a supersonic jet coupling to an ambient plasma. Supplemental Langmuir probe measurements characterize the jet's dimensions and dependence on magnetic field strength and background ion mass up to 6 meters from the LPP source. This experiment was conducted in the Large Plasma Device at the Basic Plasma Science Facility and funded by grants from the US Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation.

  3. Extending Ambient Noise Surface Wave Tomography to Continental Scales: Application Across the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensen, G. D.; Ritzwoller, M. H.; Shapiro, N. M.; Levshin, A. L.

    2005-12-01

    Ambient seismic noise contains a significant component of surface wave energy from which the Rayleigh wave Green function between pairs of stations can be extracted by cross-correlating long noise sequences. Surface wave tomography based on group velocities obtained on the estimated Green functions has been shown to produce high-resolution short-period (7-18 s) surface wave dispersion maps that image the principal crustal geological units in Southern California (Shapiro et al., Science, 307, 1615, 2005). In this study, we extend ambient noise tomography both in band-width (from 10 sec to 150 sec period) and geographical extent (across the entire United States). We have used data from about 125 stations (many of which constitute the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS)) which together produce about 7500 inter-station paths across North America, providing much different data sampling than traditional teleseismic surface wave dispersion measurements. Cross-correlations are computed in five period bands between 10 and 150 seconds using at least one year of data. Temporal sub-setting provides uncertainty estimates on the group velocity measurements. The resulting group velocity maps have better resolution than those obtained by traditional methods based on earthquake waves, and demonstrate significant agreement with know geologic and tectonic features. They provide tighter constraints on crustal and upper mantle shear wave speeds and help to bridge the gap between global and regional scale 3-D models. Finally, the resulting cross-correlations are being used to constrain the source location, temporal variability,and frequency dependence of the ambient noise on which the tomographic method depends.

  4. Ambient air pollution exposure, residential mobility and term birth weight in Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Christian; Gehring, Ulrike; Walker, Sam Erik; Brunekreef, Bert; Stigum, Hein; Naess, Oyvind; Nafstad, Per

    2010-05-01

    Environmental exposure during pregnancy may have lifelong health consequences for the offspring and some studies have association between maternal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and offspring's birth weight. However, many of these studies do not take into account small-scale variations in exposure, residential mobility, and work addresses during pregnancy. We used information from the National Birth Registry of Norway to examine associations between ambient environmental exposure such as air pollution and temperature, and offspring's birth weight taking advantage of information on migration history and work address in a large population-based cohort. A dispersion model was used to estimate ambient air pollution levels at all residential addresses and work addresses for a total of 25,229 pregnancies between 1999 and 2002 in Oslo, Norway. Ambient exposure to traffic pollution for the entire pregnancy was associated with a reduction in term birth weight in crude analyzes when comparing children of the highest and lowest exposed mothers. No evidence for an association between exposure to traffic pollution at home and work addresses and term birth weight after adjustment for covariates known to influence birth weight during pregnancy. After stratification, small statistically non-significant reductions were present but only for multiparious mothers. This group also had less residential mobility and less employment during pregnancy. The overall findings suggest no clear association between term birth weight and traffic pollution exposure during pregnancy. However, mobility patterns could introduce possible confounding when examining small-scale variations in exposure by using addresses. This could be of importance in future studies.

  5. Exposure to ambient bioaerosols is associated with allergic skin diseases in Greater Taipei residents.

    PubMed

    Kallawicha, Kraiwuth; Chuang, Ying-Chih; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Han, Bor-Cheng; Ting, Yi-Fang; Chao, Hsing Jasmine

    2016-09-01

    Allergic skin diseases may result from various types of chemical and biological allergens. This study investigated the association between ambient bioaerosol exposure and allergic skin diseases by using the exposure data obtained from land use regression models and interpolated data. Data on daily average outpatient visits for atopic dermatitis (ICD-9-CM 691.8) and contact dermatitis and other eczema (ICD-9-CM 692.9) between November 2011 and August 2012 were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database. A generalized estimating equation was used to analyze the associations between the skin diseases and ambient bioaerosol levels. The results indicated that during the study period, contact dermatitis and other eczema were more prevalent than atopic dermatitis in the study area. Most cases were observed in districts of Taipei City and 3 major districts of New Taipei City, namely Xinzhuang, Banqiao, and Xindian. In univariate analysis, most bioaerosols were positively associated with both skin diseases. After adjustment for air pollution and sociodemographic factors, exposure to total fungal spores was significantly associated with atopic dermatitis in males (relative risk [RR] = 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.19). Contact dermatitis and other eczema had significant relationships with Cladosporium in males (RR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.02-1.14) and with Aspergillus/Penicillium in females (RR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.02-1.07). Meteorological parameters, namely wind speed, temperature, and rainfall, were also significantly associated with skin diseases. Our findings reveal that exposure to ambient bioaerosols is a significant and independent risk factor for allergic skin diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Contribution of ambient ozone to Scots pine defoliation and reduced growth in the Central European forests: a Lithuanian case study.

    PubMed

    Augustaitis, Algirdas; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej

    2008-10-01

    The study aimed to explore if changes in crown defoliation and stem growth of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) could be related to changes in ambient ozone (O(3)) concentration in central Europe. To meet this objective the study was performed in 3 Lithuanian national parks, close to the ICP integrated monitoring stations from which data on meteorology and pollution were provided. Contribution of peak O(3) concentrations to the integrated impact of acidifying compounds and meteorological parameters on pine stem growth was found to be more significant than its contribution to the integrated impact of acidifying compounds and meteorological parameters on pine defoliation. Findings of the study provide statistical evidence that peak concentrations of ambient O(3) can have a negative impact on pine tree crown defoliation and stem growth reduction under field conditions in central and northeastern Europe where the AOT40 values for forests are commonly below their phytotoxic levels.

  7. Ambient Metrics for n-Dimensional pp-Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leistner, Thomas; Nurowski, Pawel

    2010-06-01

    We provide an explicit formula for the Fefferman-Graham ambient metric of an n-dimensional conformal pp-wave in those cases where it exists. In even dimensions we calculate the obstruction explicitly. Furthermore, we describe all 4-dimensional pp-waves that are Bach-flat, and give a large class of Bach-flat examples which are conformally Cotton-flat, but not conformally Einstein. Finally, as an application, we use the obtained ambient metric to show that even-dimensional pp-waves have vanishing critical Q-curvature.

  8. Applications of ambient mass spectrometry in high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Ping; Feng, Bao-Sheng; Yang, Jian-Wang; Chang, Cui-Lan; Bai, Yu; Liu, Hu-Wei

    2013-06-07

    The development of rapid screening and identification techniques is of great importance for drug discovery, doping control, forensic identification, food safety and quality control. Ambient mass spectrometry (AMS) allows rapid and direct analysis of various samples in open air with little sample preparation. Recently, its applications in high-throughput screening have been in rapid progress. During the past decade, various ambient ionization techniques have been developed and applied in high-throughput screening. This review discusses typical applications of AMS, including DESI (desorption electrospray ionization), DART (direct analysis in real time), EESI (extractive electrospray ionization), etc., in high-throughput screening (HTS).

  9. Implicit Interaction: A Modality for Ambient Exercise Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, J.; O'Grady, M. J.; O'Hare, G. M. P.

    Ambient Exercise refers to the implicit exercise that people undertake in the course of their everyday duties - a simple example being climbing stairs. Increasing awareness of the potential health benefits of such activities may well contribute to an increase in a person’s well-being. Initially, it is necessary to monitor and quantify such exercise so that personalized fitness plans may be constructed. In this paper, the implicit interaction modality is harnessed to enable the capturing of ambient exercise activity thereby facilitating its subsequent quantification and interpretation. The novelty of the solution proposed lies in its ubiquity and transparency.

  10. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging under ambient light

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yinxin; Liao, Chien-Sheng; Hong, Weili; Huang, Kai-Chih; Yang, Huaidong; Jin, Guofan; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate ambient light coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (AL-CARS) microscopy that allows CARS imaging to be operated under environment light for field use. CARS signal is modulated at megahertz frequency and detected by a photodiode equipped with a lab-built resonant amplifier, then extracted through a lock-in amplifier. Filters in both spectral domain and frequency domain effectively blocked room light contamination of the CARS image. In situ hyperspectral CARS imaging of tumor tissue under ambient light is demonstrated. PMID:27519113

  11. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging under ambient light.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinxin; Liao, Chien-Sheng; Hong, Weili; Huang, Kai-Chih; Yang, Huaidong; Jin, Guofan; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2016-08-15

    We demonstrate an ambient light coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscope that allows CARS imaging to be operated under environmental light for field use. The CARS signal is modulated at megahertz frequency and detected by a photodiode equipped with a lab-built resonant amplifier, then extracted through a lock-in amplifier. The filters in both the spectral domain and the frequency domain effectively blocked the room light contamination of the CARS image. In situ hyperspectral CARS imaging of tumor tissue under ambient light is demonstrated.

  12. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under real ambient pressure conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Yasumasa; Nakamura, Takahiro; Yu, Liwei; Chaveanghong, Suwilai; Sekizawa, Oki; Sakata, Tomohiro; Uruga, Tomoya; Tada, Mizuki; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro; Yokoyama, Toshihiko

    2017-07-01

    We have developed an ambient pressure hard-X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic system equipped with a differential pumping system at BL36XU of SPring-8. Photoelectron spectra from a Au(111) surface were recorded using excitation light of 8 keV focused to 20 × 20 µm2 and adopting an aperture diameter of 30 µm at the entrance of the electron lens and a working distance of 60 µm. The Au 4f and 3d5/2 spectra were measured by increasing the ambient pressure from 1 Pa to atmospheric pressure and demonstrated that the instrument is capable of measuring the photoelectron spectrum under atmospheric pressure.

  13. REVIEW ARTICLE: Sensor communication technology towards ambient intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delsing, J.; Lindgren, P.

    2005-04-01

    This paper is a review of the fascinating development of sensors and the communication of sensor data. A brief historical introduction is given, followed by a discussion on architectures for sensor networks. Further, realistic specifications on sensor devices suitable for ambient intelligence and ubiquitous computing are given. Based on these specifications, the status and current frontline development are discussed. In total, it is shown that future technology for ambient intelligence based on sensor and actuator devices using standardized Internet communication is within the range of possibilities within five years.

  14. AMBIENT PM2.5 SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-10-01

    This report summarizes observations and tentative conclusions drawn from evaluations of the data captured to date from the operation of the ambient PM{sub 2.5} speciation sites in a geographical area encompassing southeastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania, and northwestern West Virginia. The overall goal of this program, called the Upper Ohio River Valley Project (UORVP), is to better understand the relationship between coal-based power system emissions and ambient air quality in the upper Ohio River Valley region through the collection of chemically resolved or speciated data.

  15. Dependence of single-bubble sonoluminescence on ambient pressure

    PubMed

    Dan; Cheeke; Kondic

    2000-03-01

    Kondic et al.'s theory makes several specific predictions on the dependence of single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) on ambient pressure. We have carried out experiments to verify these predictions for air bubbles in a water-glycerine mixture at about 17.5 kHz. The results show an increase in SBSL with reduced ambient pressure down to a critical value below which SBSL is extinguished. The results are all in good agreement with Kondic et al.'s theory and are also compatible with the dissociation hypothesis of Lohse et al.

  16. The DFKI Competence Center for Ambient Assisted Living

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Jochen; Stahl, Christoph; Röfer, Thomas; Krieg-Brückner, Bernd; Alexandersson, Jan

    The DFKI Competence Center for Ambient Assisted Living (CCAAL) is a cross-project and cross-department virtual organization within the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence coordinating and conducting research and development in the area of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL). Our demonstrators range from multimodal speech dialog systems to fully instrumented environments allowing the development of intelligent assistant systems, for instance an autonomous wheelchair, or the recognition and processing of everyday activities in a smart home. These innovative technologies are then tested, evaluated and demonstrated in DFKI's living labs.

  17. PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE ON PLANTS AND ECOSYSTEMS AS A BASIS FOR SETTING NATIONAL AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-base...

  18. PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE ON PLANTS AND ECOSYSTEMS AS A BASIS FOR SETTING NATIONAL AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act provides for establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public welfare (including crops, forests, ecosystems, and soils) from adverse effects of air pollutants, including tropospheric ozone. The formulation of policies is science-base...

  19. 2006 Particulate Matter (PM) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Infrastructure Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Read about the EPA's infrastructure actions for the 2006 PM NAAQS. These actions are regarding states' failure to submit SIPs addressing various parts of the standards. Here you can read the federal register notices,and fact sheets

  20. 78 FR 34177 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... assist the states to reach attainment within the legal framework of the CAA. The CAA was amended in 1990... sections 181 through 185B. Section 181 of subpart 2 creates a framework for classifying ozone nonattainment... framework established by subpart 2, areas classified in higher nonattainment categories are provided...