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Sample records for 305-d milk yield

  1. Short communication: Projecting milk yield using best prediction and the MilkBot lactation model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accuracy and precision of three lactation models was estimated by summarizing means and variability in projection error for next-test milk and actual 305-d milk yield (M305) for 50-day intervals in a large DHIA data set. Lactations were grouped by breed (Holstein, Jersey and crossbred) and parit...

  2. Effect of milk yield genotype on response to repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration to lactating Holstein cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cows (n = 12/genotype) from unselected (stable milk yield since 1964, UH) and contemporary (CH) Holsteins that differed by more than 4,500 kg milk/305 d were fed the same diet ad lib and housed together for more than 4 months before being blocked (2/genotype) by DIM and randomly assigned within geno...

  3. Effective lactation yield: A measure to compare milk yield between cows with different dry period lengths.

    PubMed

    Kok, A; van Middelaar, C E; Engel, B; van Knegsel, A T M; Hogeveen, H; Kemp, B; de Boer, I J M

    2016-04-01

    To compare milk yields between cows or management strategies, lactations are traditionally standardized to 305-d yields. The 305-d yield, however, gives no insight into the combined effect of additional milk yield before calving, decreased milk yield after calving, and a possible shorter calving interval in the case of a shortened dry period. We aimed to develop a measure that would enable the comparison of milk yield between cows with different dry period (DP) lengths. We assessed the importance of accounting for additional milk yield before calving and for differences in calving interval. The 305-d yield was compared with a 365-d yield, which included additional milk yield in the 60 d before calving. Next, an effective lactation yield was computed, defined as the daily yield from 60d before calving to 60 d before the next calving, to account for additional milk yield before calving and for differences in calving interval. Test-day records and drying-off dates of 15 commercial farms were used to compute the 305-d, 365-d, and effective lactation yields for individual cows. We analyzed 817 second-parity lactations preceded by no DP, a short DP (20 to 40 d), or a conventional DP (49 to 90 d). Compared with cows with a conventional DP, the 305-d yield of cows with no DP was 7.0 kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) per day lower, and the 305-d yield of cows with a short DP was 2.3 kg of FPCM per day lower. Including additional milk yield before calving in the 365-d yield reduced this difference to 3.4 kg of FPCM per cow per day for cows with no DP and to 0.9 kg of FPCM per cow per day for cows with a short DP. Compared with cows with a conventional DP, median days open were reduced by 25d for cows with no DP and by 18d for cows with a short DP. Accounting for these differences in calving interval in the effective lactation yield further decreased yield reductions for cows with no DP or a short DP by 0.3 kg of FPCM per cow per day. At the herd level, estimated

  4. Effect of lactation number, year, and season of initiation of lactation on milk yield of cows hormonally induced into lactation and treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Mellado, M; Antonio-Chirino, E; Meza-Herrera, C; Veliz, F G; Arevalo, J R; Mellado, J; de Santiago, A

    2011-09-01

    Records representing data from 1,500 barren Holstein cows over an 8-yr period from a large commercial dairy farm in northern Mexico were analyzed to determine the effects of lactation number and season and year of initiation of lactation on milk production of cows induced hormonally into lactation and treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) throughout lactation. Peak and 305-d milk yields were also assessed as predictors of total milk yield in cows induced into lactation. A significant quadratic relationship was found between 305-d milk yield and number of lactation [7,607±145 and 9,548±181 kg for first- and ≥6-lactation cows, respectively; mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM)] with the highest production occurring in the fifth lactation. Total milk yields of cows with ≤2 lactations were approximately 4,500 kg less than milk yields of adult cows (the overall average ± standard milk yield was 13,544±5,491 kg per lactation and the average lactation length was 454±154 d). Moreover, 305-d milk production was depressed in cows induced into lactation in spring (8,804±153 kg; mean ± SEM) and summer (8,724±163 kg) than in fall (9,079±151 kg) and winter (9,085±143 kg). Partial regression coefficients for 305-d milk yield and peak milk yield indicated an increment of 157 kg of milk per lactation per 1-kg increase in peak milk yield (r(2)=0.69). Neither peak milk yield (r(2)=0.18) nor 305-d milk yield (r(2)=0.29) was accurate for predicting total milk yield per lactation. Year, parity, and season effects had significant influence on milk yield of cows induced into lactation and treated with rbST throughout lactation, and peak milk yield can assist in the prediction of 305-d milk yield but not total milk yield. This study also showed that hormonal induction of lactation in barren high-yielding cows is a reliable, practical, and affordable technique in countries where rbST treatment and prolonged steroid administration of dairy cows are legally

  5. Effect of dams' parity and age on daughters' milk yield in Norwegian Red cows.

    PubMed

    Storli, K S; Heringstad, B; Salte, R

    2014-10-01

    The effect of age and parity of dams on their daughters' milk yield is not well known. Lactation data from 276,000 cows were extracted from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and analyzed using a linear animal model to estimate effects of parity and age within parity of dam. The 305-d milk yield of daughters decreased as parity of dam increased. Daughters of first-parity dams produced 149 kg more milk than did daughters of seventh-parity dams. We also observed an effect of age of dam within parity on 305-d milk yield of daughters in first lactation. Dams that were young at first calving gave birth to daughters with a higher milk yield compared with older dams within the same parity. The effect of age within parity of dam was highest for second-parity dams. Extensive use of heifers would have a systematic effect, and age and parity of dam should be included in the model when planning a future strategy. PMID:25087031

  6. Covariance among milking frequency, milk yield, and milk composition from automatically milked cows.

    PubMed

    Løvendahl, P; Chagunda, M G G

    2011-11-01

    Automatic milking systems allow cows voluntary access to milking and concentrates within set limits. This leads to large variation in milking intervals, both within and between cows, which further affects yield per milking and composition of milk. This study aimed to describe the degree to which differences in milking interval were attributable to individual cows, and how this correlated to individual differences in yield and composition of milk throughout lactation. Data from 288,366 milkings from 664 cow-lactations were used, of which 229,020 milkings had milk composition results. Cows were Holsteins, Red Danes, and Jerseys in parities 1, 2, and 3. Data were analyzed using a linear mixed model, with cow-lactation as a random effect and assuming heterogeneous residual variance over the lactation. Cow-lactation variance was fitted using linear spline functions with 5 knot-points. Residual variance was generally greatest in early lactation and declined thereafter. Accordingly, animal-related variance tended to increase with progression of lactation. Milking frequency (the reverse of milking interval) was found to be moderately repeatable throughout lactation. Daily milk yield expressed per milking was found to be highly repeatable in all breeds, with the highest values occurring by the end of lactation. Fat percentage had only moderate repeatability in early to mid lactation but increased toward the end of lactation. Individual level correlations showed that cows with higher milking frequency also had greater yields, but had lower fat percentage. Correlations were slightly weaker in very early lactation than in the remaining parts of lactation. We concluded that individual differences exist among cows milked automatically. Cows with higher yields are milked more often and have lower fat content in their milk. PMID:22032361

  7. Verification of factors to estimate daily milk yield from one milking of cows milked twice daily

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to verify factors to predict daily milk yield when milk is sampled once per d for cows milked twice (2x) per d. Milk weights for both milkings were recorded automatically by 30 herds and collected by Dairy Herd Improvement supervisors. Data was split into 2 subsets...

  8. Behavior, milk yield, and milk composition of machine-and hand-milked Murgese mares.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, M; Albenzio, M; Marino, R; Muscio, A; Zezza, T; Sevi, A

    2007-06-01

    A 25-d trial was performed to assess the effects of machine and hand milking on behavior, and milk yield and composition of mares; the trial involved 8 Murgese mares. Milk yield was higher (7.69 vs. 4.91 kg) and milking time was shorter (1.80 vs. 5.40 min) in machine-milked than in hand-milked mares. Machine milking of mares also resulted in a greater fat content of milk (1.63%) than did hand milking (1.06%). Milking system did not affect casein content, nitrogen fractions, or somatic cell counts. No differences in behavioral activities and in response to humans emerged. Results indicate that machine milking of mares could improve the yield and gross composition of horse milk, without adverse consequences on mare behavior and response to humans. PMID:17517717

  9. Induced lactation in heifers: Effects of dexamethasone and age at induction on milk yield and composition.

    PubMed

    Macrina, A L; Kauf, A C W; Pape-Zambito, D A; Kensinger, R S

    2014-03-01

    Milk production in heifers induced into lactation is lower than that of postpartum primiparous cows. A method to improve milk production in induced lactations may provide opportunities for increased profitability as well as increase our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate mammary gland development and colostrum composition. The present study was conducted to determine if dexamethasone administration at the onset of milking or age at lactation induction would affect milk production in heifers induced into lactation. Holstein heifers at 14 [n=20; 354 ± 38 kg of body weight (BW)] and 18 mo of age (n=20; 456 ± 30 kg of BW) were assigned randomly to dexamethasone (DEX) or control (CON) treatment groups in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with age and dexamethasone treatment as the 2 factors. Heifers were induced into lactation with daily subcutaneous injections of estradiol-17β and progesterone (0.075 and 0.25 mg/kg of BW per d, respectively) on experimental d 1 to 7. They also received bovine somatotropin (bST) every 14 d beginning on experimental d 1. Milking began on experiment d 18 (lactation d 1). Dexamethasone (10mg) was administered on lactation d 1 and 2 following the morning milking; CON heifers did not receive dexamethasone. Milk yield from d2 to 15 of lactation of heifers receiving DEX (7.8 kg/d) was greater than that of CON heifers (6.0 kg/d) but was similar thereafter through 305 d of lactation (18.2 kg/d). Milk production to d 11 was similar for 14- and 18-mo-old heifers but was greater for 18- (18.9 kg/d) than for 14-mo-old animals (17.4 kg/d) through 305 d in milk. Milk fat percentage increased initially and was greater in DEX (4.51%) compared with CON (3.53%) heifers until 21 d in milk. Milk protein and lactose concentrations were not affected by DEX treatment. Age at induction did not affect milk fat, protein, or lactose percentages. Mean milk IgG concentration declined from 107.4 mg/mL on d 1 to 5.0mg/mL on d 7 of lactation, tended to be

  10. Effects of automatic cluster removal and feeding during milking on milking efficiency, milk yield and milk fat quality.

    PubMed

    Ferneborg, Sabine; Stadtmüller, Larissa; Pickova, Jana; Wiking, Lars; Svennersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin

    2016-05-01

    In order to increase milking efficiency, the effects of two different cluster take-off levels (200 and 800 g/min) and feeding vs. not feeding during milking were tested in a Latin square design study including 32 cows. Milk yield, milking time, milk flow and milking interval were measured and milk samples were analysed for gross composition, sodium and potassium concentration, free fatty acid (FFA) content, milk fat globule (MFG) size, MFG membrane (MFGM) material and fatty acid composition. Residual milk was harvested to evaluate udder emptying. Increasing the take-off level from 200 to 800 g/min at the whole udder level decreased milking time and increased harvest flow. Udder emptying decreased slightly, but there were no effects on milk yield, FFA content or MFGM. There were interactive effects of take-off level and feeding during milking on content of fatty acids C4:0, C6:0, C16:0, C18:3(n-3) and C20:0. Feeding during milking increased milk yield per day and decreased milking interval. Sodium and potassium concentrations in milk were unaffected by treatments, indicating no loss of tight junction integrity. From these results, it is clear that feeding during milking should be used to increase milk yield and improve milking efficiency, regardless of take-off level used, and that the effect of feeding is more pronounced when a low take-off level is used. Feeding seemed to counteract the effects of the low take-off level on milking time and milking interval. Low take-off levels can therefore be used in combination with feeding. PMID:27210491

  11. Predicting milk yield in sheep used for dairying in Australia.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, A D; Cameron, A W N; Caddy, D J; Tilbrook, A J

    2007-11-01

    It is necessary to identify traits that are simple to measure and correlated with milk yield to select ewes for dairying from existing populations of sheep in Australia. We studied 217 primiparous and 113 multiparous (second parity, n = 51; third parity, n = 40; and fourth parity, n = 22) East Friesian crossbred ewes, for 2 consecutive lactations, that were milked by machine following a period of suckling (24 to 28 d). We measured lamb growth, milk production, milk yield, and residual milk during early lactation (milk production during the suckling period or the growth rate of the lamb predicts milk yield. Milk production at weaning, or the amount of residual milk, or both, predict milk yield within lactations. These measures also predict milk yield between lactations. Lambs were weighed at birth and weaning and milk production in ewes was measured using a 4-h milk production test at d 5 of lactation and at weaning. Following weaning, ewes were milked twice daily and milk yield was recorded weekly for 8 wk and once a month thereafter. Milk production (using a 16-h milk production test) and residual milk were measured at weaning, and again 1 wk and 4 wk later. Milk yield to 120 d was correlated (r2 = 0.39) between lactations, and 120-d milk yield (primiparous 82.7 +/- 2.0 L; multiparous 107.1 +/- 4.2 L; second lactation 146 +/- 3.7 L) can be predicted after 4 wk of machine milking using a single measurement of either daily milk yield (primiparous 770 +/- 25 mL/d; multiparous 940 +/- 44 mL/d; second lactation 1,372 +/- 46 mL/d, r2 = 0.60 to 0.65) or daily milk production (primiparous 1,197 +/- 27 mL/d; multiparous 1,396 +/- 62 mL/d; second lactation 1,707 +/- 45 mL/d, r2 = 0.50 to 0.53). Residual milk in primiparous ewes (38%) and multiparous ewes (34%) was high (292 +/- 11 and 321 +/- 20 mL, respectively) in the first lactation, but lower (17%) in the second lactation (238 +/- 17 mL). Residual milk and 120-d milk yield were not

  12. Effects on milk yield of milking interval regularity and teat cup attachment failures with robotic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Bach, Alex; Busto, Isabel

    2005-02-01

    A database consisting of 35291 milking records from 83 cows was built over a period of 10 months with the objectives of studying the effect of teat cup attachment failures and milking interval regularity on milk production with an automated milking system (AMS). The database collected records of lactation number, days in milk (DIM), milk production, interval between milkings (for both the entire udder and individual quarters in case of a teat cup attachment failure) and average and peak milk flows for each milking. The weekly coefficient of variation (CV) of milking intervals was used as a measure of milking regularity. DIM, milking intervals, and CV of milking intervals were divided into four categories coinciding with the four quartiles of their respective distributions. The data were analysed by analysis of variance with cow as a random effect and lactation number, DIM, the occurrence of a milking failure, and the intervals between milkings or the weekly CV of milking intervals as fixed effects. The incidence of attachment failures was 7.6% of total milkings. Milk production by quarters affected by a milking failure following the failure was numerically greater owing to the longer interval between milkings. When accounting for the effect of milking intervals, milk production by affected quarters following a milking failure was 26% lower than with regular milkings. However, the decrease in milk production by quarters affected by milking failures was more severe as DIM increased. Average and peak milk flows by quarters affected by a milking failure were lower than when milkings occurred normally. However, milk production recovered its former level within seven milkings following a milking failure. Uneven frequency (weekly CV of milking intervals >27%) decreased daily milk yield, and affected multiparous more negatively than primiparous cows. PMID:15747737

  13. Derivation of factors to estimate daily milk yield from one milking of cows milked three times daily

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to derive factors to predict daily milk yield when milk is sampled once per d for cows milked three times (3x) per d. Milk weights for all three milkings were recorded automatically by 8 herds and collected by Dairy Herd Improvement supervisors on test-day. Following edits, 196,725...

  14. Cubic-spline interpolation to estimate effects of inbreeding on milk yield in first lactation Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    Geha, Makram J.; Keown, Jeffrey F.; Van Vleck, L. Dale

    2011-01-01

    Milk yield records (305d, 2X, actual milk yield) of 123,639 registered first lactation Holstein cows were used to compare linear regression (y = β0 + β1X + e), quadratic regression, (y = β0 + β1X + β2X2 + e) cubic regression (y = β0 + β1X + β2X2 + β3X3 +e) and fixed factor models, with cubic-spline interpolation models, for estimating the effects of inbreeding on milk yield. Ten animal models, all with herd-year-season of calving as fixed effect, were compared using the Akaike corrected-Information Criterion (AICc). The cubic-spline interpolation model with seven knots had the lowest AICc, whereas for all those labeled as “traditional”, AICc was higher than the best model. Results from fitting inbreeding using a cubic-spline with seven knots were compared to results from fitting inbreeding as a linear covariate or as a fixed factor with seven levels. Estimates of inbreeding effects were not significantly different between the cubic-spline model and the fixed factor model, but were significantly different from the linear regression model. Milk yield decreased significantly at inbreeding levels greater than 9%. Variance component estimates were similar for the three models. Ranking of the top 100 sires with daughter records remained unaffected by the model used. PMID:21931517

  15. Phenotypic Relationships of Common Health Disorders in Dairy Cows to Lactation Persistency Estimated from Daily Milk Weights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the phenotypic relationship between common health disorders in dairy cows and lactation persistency, uncorrelated with 305 d yield. The relationships with peak yield and days in milk (DIM) at peak were also studied. Daily milk weights and treatment inc...

  16. Fear of people by cows and effects on milk yield, behavior, and heart rate at milking.

    PubMed

    Rushen, J; De Passillé, A M; Munksgaard, L

    1999-04-01

    To examine the ability of cows to recognize people and the effects of the fear of people by cows at milking, cows (n = 14) were handled by two people; one handled the cows gently, and the other handled them aversively. The handlers wore clothes of different color. After handling, the cows stood further from the aversive handler than from the gentle handler. When the handlers changed the color of their clothing, the cows did not discriminate between them. The gentle handler stood close to the cows for one milking, and the aversive handler stood close to the cows for another milking. For two control milkings, neither handler was present. Measurements included milking duration, milk yield, residual milk, heart rates, incidence of movement, and kicking behavior of the cows. Compared with control milkings, the presence of the gentle handler did not change milk yield or residual milk. The presence of the aversive handler increased residual milk by 70%. Kicking behavior of cows during milking was reduced with either handler present, and kicking during udder preparation was reduced with the aversive handler present. For cows that best discriminated between the handlers, the presence of the aversive handler increased movement and heart rate during milking. For cows that did not discriminate well between the handlers, the presence of either handler increased heart rate and decreased movement during milking. Cows recognized individual people, and the fear of people who are present during milking may reduce milk yield. PMID:10212458

  17. Artificial lighting during winter increases milk yield in dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, A D; Cameron, A W N; Tilbrook, A J

    2008-11-01

    In Australia, the supply of sheep milk is reduced during the winter. Housing dairy animals under lights during winter is a simple technique to increase milk yield; however, it is difficult to predict the magnitude of this increase in dairy ewes, because there are few corroborating data. We studied 220 East Friesian crossbred ewes (50 primiparous and 170 multiparous ewes, respectively) that lambed in April to May 2007 (late autumn, southern hemisphere) and were weaned from their lambs within 24 h of parturition and milked exclusively by machine. These ewes were ranked according to their milk production, and ewes producing > or =1,000 mL/d of milk were allocated to 1 of 2 groups. One group of ewes was kept indoors under a long-day photoperiod (16 h of light), whereas the other group was kept indoors under a naturally declining day length. Ewes were maintained under these conditions for 8 wk. Milk yield was measured twice weekly, and ewe weight and condition were measured at weekly intervals. From a subset of ewes (n = 20 per group), milk samples were collected twice weekly at the morning milking to measure milk lipid, protein, and lactose, and blood samples were collected once a week to measure plasma prolactin concentrations. Mean daily milk yield was analyzed as a percentage of preexperimental milk yield because the milk yield of ewes housed under the long photoperiod was lower than that of ewes under a declining day length when the treatments began. Thus, the ewes under a long photoperiod yielded 91.7% of their starting yield by wk 8 of treatment, whereas ewes under a declining day length yielded 76.25% of their initial value (LSD = 5.1), and this divergence in milk yield was apparent by wk 2 of treatment. Mean plasma prolactin levels were greater in ewes housed under the long-day photoperiod (n = 20) compared with control ewes (n = 20) at wk 6 (168 +/- 27 vs. 72 +/- 19 ng/mL, respectively), wk 7 (125 +/- 28 vs. 37 +/- 7 ng/mL, respectively), and wk 8 of the

  18. Hot topic: Early postpartum treatment of commercial dairy cows with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs increases whole-lactation milk yield.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, A J; Ylioja, C M; Vargas, C F; Mamedova, L K; Mendonça, L G; Coetzee, J F; Hollis, L C; Gehring, R; Bradford, B J

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that postpartum administration of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) sodium salicylate can increase 305-d milk yield in older dairy cattle (parity 3 and greater). However, in this prior work, sodium salicylate was delivered to cows via the drinking water, a method that does not align well with current grouping strategies on commercial dairy farms. The objective of the current study was to replicate these results on a commercial dairy farm with a simplified treatment protocol and to compare sodium salicylate with another NSAID, meloxicam. Dairy cattle in their second lactation and greater (n=51/treatment) were alternately assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at parturition, with treatments lasting for 3d. Experimental treatments began 12 to 36 h after parturition and were (1) 1 placebo bolus on the first day and 3 consecutive daily drenches of sodium salicylate (125 g/cow per day; SAL); (2) 1 bolus of meloxicam (675 mg/cow) and 3 drenches of an equal volume of water (MEL); or (3) 1 placebo bolus and 3 drenches of water (CON). Blood samples were collected on the first day of treatment, immediately following the last day of treatment, and 7d after the last day of treatment; plasma was analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), free fatty acids, haptoglobin, and paraoxonase. Milk production, body condition score, reproductive status, and retention in the herd were monitored for 365 d posttreatment, and effects of treatment, parity, days in milk, and interactions were evaluated in mixed effects models. Significance was declared at P<0.05. Whole-lactation milk and protein yields were greater in NSAID-treated cows, although 305-d fat production was not affected. There was a significant interaction of treatment and parity for plasma glucose concentration; MEL increased plasma glucose concentrations compared with CON and SAL in older cows. Sodium salicylate decreased plasma BHB concentration compared with MEL at 7d posttreatment

  19. Milk yield of beef heifers from three calving systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a 2-yr study, first-calf heifers from three calving systems were used to study milk yield throughout a 190-d lactation. Calving occurred in late January to late February (Feb calving), mid-March to mid-April (Apr calving), and mid-May to mid-June (Jun calving). Milk production was measured by wei...

  20. Associations of peripartum markers of stress and inflammation with milk yield and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Huzzey, Juliana M; Mann, Sabine; Nydam, Daryl V; Grant, Richard J; Overton, Thomas R

    2015-07-01

    The objective was to evaluate the association of peripartum concentrations of fecal cortisol metabolites (11,17-dioxoandrostane; 11,17-DOA), plasma cortisol and haptoglobin (Hp), as well as two markers of negative energy balance, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and postpartum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), with milk yield and reproductive performance. Blood and fecal samples were collected weekly from 412 Holstein dairy cows from wk -3 through wk +1 relative to calving. Pregnancies by 150 days in milk (DIM) and projected 305-d mature equivalent (305ME) milk yield based on the 3rd Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) test day (mean±SD; 102±17 DIM) were measured. Multivariable linear regression models were used to describe the associations of metabolites with 305ME milk yield. Semiparametric proportional hazards models were used to describe associations of the same metabolites with risk of conception by 150 DIM. Negative associations with milk yield were found for prepartum Hp in wk -2, -1, and +1 relative to calving (estimate±SE: 490±251, 564±259, and 464±136kg lower yield for every increase in Hp concentration by 1g/L, respectively) as well as with NEFA concentration in wk -2 (estimate±SE: 1465±541kg lower milk yield for an increase in NEFA concentration by 1mEq/L). Postpartum associations of NEFA with milk yield depended on parity; NEFA was associated with an increase in milk yield in primiparous animals only (estimate±SE: 1548±510kg increase for an increase in NEFA concentration by 1mEq/L). An increase in plasma cortisol concentration by 1μg/dL in wk +1 relative to calving was associated with an increase in milk yield (estimate±SE: 580±176kg). Prepartum 11,17-DOA was associated in all three prepartum sampling weeks with a reduced hazard ratio (HR) of conception (HR [95% CI]: 0.81 [0.67-0.97], 0.85 [0.72-0.99], and 0.85 [0.75-0.97] for every increase in concentration by 1mg/g fecal dry matter (DM) in wk -3, -2, and -1 relative to calving, respectively

  1. Effects of twice-daily nursing on milk ejection and milk yield during nursing and milking in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    de Passillé, A M; Marnet, P-G; Lapierre, H; Rushen, J

    2008-04-01

    Milk production and hormonal responses to milking in Holstein cows that were milked twice daily, and that either also nursed calves twice daily 2 h after milking for 9 wk after calving (n = 10) or that served as nonnursing controls (n = 8) were examined to assess how nursing affected responses to machine milking. Milk yield at milking during the 9 wk of nursing was lower in nursing cows compared with control cows (26.1 +/- 1.0 vs. 35.5 +/- 1.1 kg) that were only machine milked. During nursing, the amount drunk by calves increased from 6.5 +/- 0.7 kg/d on wk 1 to 12.5 +/- 1.4 kg/d on wk 9. When this was added to the amount of milk obtained at milking, nursing cows did not differ from control cows in total milk produced (35.5 +/- 1.0 vs. 35.5 +/- 1.0 kg). Residual milk yield, after i.v. injection of oxytocin after milking, was higher in nursing cows than in control cows (8.7 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.2 +/- 0.8 kg). During the 6 wk after weaning, milk production was the same for the nursing and control cows (34.0 +/- 1.35 vs. 34.7 +/- 1.42 kg). Plasma oxytocin levels during milking were greater for control cows than for nursing cows (31.7 +/- 5.4 vs. 18.0 +/- 2.8 pg/mL), but were equivalent to concentrations in nursing cows during nursing (35.5 +/- 7.5 pg/mL). Plasma concentrations of prolactin and cortisol increased after both milking (control vs. nursing: prolactin: 40.2 +/- 6.8 vs. 32.9 +/- 6.1 ng/mL; cortisol: 6.4 +/- 1.23 vs. 7.4 +/- 1.10 ng/mL) and nursing (control vs. nursing: prolactin: 18.6 +/- 7.3 vs. 38.9 +/- 6.6 ng/mL; cortisol: 2.34 +/- 1.15 vs. 7.37 +/- 1.04 ng/mL). In contrast to previous studies, there was no obvious advantage for milk production by keeping a calf with the cow. This appears to result from the reduced oxytocin secretion during milking for the nursing cows. PMID:18349233

  2. Genetic relationships of clinical mastitis, cystic ovaries, and lameness with milk yield and somatic cell score in first-lactation Canadian Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Koeck, A; Loker, S; Miglior, F; Kelton, D F; Jamrozik, J; Schenkel, F S

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic relationships of the 3 most frequently reported dairy cattle diseases (clinical mastitis, cystic ovaries, and lameness) with test-day milk yield and somatic cell score (SCS) in first-lactation Canadian Holstein cows using random regression models. Health data recorded by producers were available from the National Dairy Cattle Health System in Canada. Disease traits were defined as binary traits (0=healthy, 1=affected) based on whether or not the cow had at least one disease case recorded within 305 d after calving. Mean frequencies of clinical mastitis, cystic ovaries, and lameness were 12.7, 8.2, and 9.1%, respectively. For genetic analyses, a Bayesian approach using Gibbs sampling was applied. Bivariate linear sire random regression model analyses were carried out between each of the 3 disease traits and test-day milk yield or SCS. Random regressions on second-degree Legendre polynomials were used to model the daily sire additive genetic and cow effects on test-day milk yield and SCS, whereas only the intercept term was fitted for disease traits. Estimated heritabilities were 0.03, 0.03, and 0.02 for clinical mastitis, cystic ovaries, and lameness, respectively. Average heritabilities for milk yield were between 0.41 and 0.49. Average heritabilities for SCS ranged from 0.10 to 0.12. The average genetic correlations between daily milk yield and clinical mastitis, cystic ovaries, and lameness were 0.40, 0.26, and 0.23, respectively; however, the last estimate was not statistically different from zero. Cows with a high genetic merit for milk yield during the lactation were more susceptible to clinical mastitis and cystic ovaries. Estimates of genetic correlations between daily milk yield and clinical mastitis were moderate throughout the lactation. The genetic correlations between daily milk yield and cystic ovaries were near zero at the beginning of lactation and were highest at mid and end lactation. The

  3. Relationships between milking frequency, lactation persistency and milk yield in Swedish Red heifers and cows milked in a voluntary attendance automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Gunnar; Svennersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin; Knight, Christopher H

    2011-08-01

    A large dataset comprising output from an automatic milking (AM) system between 1999 and 2006 was examined and a total of 172 cow lactation curves and 68 heifer lactation curves were identified for further analysis. Relationships between milking frequency at different stages of lactation and lactation persistency and total lactation yield were determined. Cows had higher peak and total milk yields than heifers, but heifers had higher persistency (defined as the rate of decline in milk yield between days 100 and 300 post calving). Milking frequency did not differ significantly between cows and heifers in early lactation, but thereafter decreased significantly more in cows than in heifers. The effect of milking frequency on yield characteristics was analysed by comparing the highest and lowest quartiles for milking frequency. High milking frequency in early lactation was consistently associated with increased peak yield. High milking frequency averaged across the whole lactation was associated with increased peak yield in both cows and heifers, and with improved lactation persistency in cows only. This resulted in total lactation yield that was 21% greater in the high quartile cows compared with the low. PMID:21774865

  4. Derivation of factors to estimate daily yield from single milkings for Holsteins milked two or three times daily

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to derive factors to predict daily yield when milk weights are recorded once when cows are milked twice (2x) or once or twice when cows are milked thrice (3x) per d. Data was from herds enrolled in DHI and automatically recording milking weights and times. Following edits, 83,690...

  5. Association between isolation of Staphylococcus aureus one week after calving and milk yield, somatic cell count, clinical mastitis, and culling through the remaining lactation.

    PubMed

    Whist, Anne Cathrine; Osterås, Olav; Sølverød, Liv

    2009-02-01

    Cows with isolation of Staphylococcus aureus approximately 1 week after calving and milk yield, somatic cell count (SCC), clinical mastitis (CM), and culling risk through the remaining lactation were assessed in 178 Norwegian dairy herds. Mixed models with repeated measures were used to compare milk yield and SCC, and survival analyses were used to estimate the hazard ratio for CM and culling. On average, cows with an isolate of Staph. aureus had a significantly higher SCC than culture-negative cows. If no post-milking teat disinfection (PMTD) was used, the mean values of SCC were 42,000, 61,000, 68,000 and 77,000 cells/ml for cows with no Staph. aureus isolate, with Staph. aureus isolated in 1 quarter, in 2 quarters and more than 2 quarters respectively. If iodine PMTD was used, SCC means were 36,000; 63,000; 70,000 and 122,000, respectively. Primiparous cows testing positive for Staph. aureus had the same milk yield curve as culture-negative cows, except for those with Staph. aureus isolated in more than 2 quarters. They produced 229 kg less during a 305-d lactation. Multiparous cows with isolation of Staph. aureus in at least 1 quarter produced 94-161 kg less milk in 2nd and >3rd parity, respectively, and those with isolation in more than 2 quarters produced 303-390 kg less than multiparous culture-negative animals during a 305-d lactation. Compared with culture-negative cows, the hazard ratio for CM and culling in cows with isolation of Staph. aureus in at least 1 quarter was 2.0 (1.6-2.4) and 1.7 (1.5-1.9), respectively. There was a decrease in the SCC and in the CM risk in culture-negative cows where iodine PMTD had been used, indicating that iodine PMTD has a preventive effect on already healthy cows. For cows testing positive for Staph. aureus in more than 2 quarters at calving, iodine PMTD had a negative effect on the CM risk and on the SCC through the remaining lactation. PMID:18922193

  6. ESTIMATES OF GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR FIRST LACTATION TEST-DAY YIELDS OF HOLSTEIN COWS WITH A CUBIC SPLINE MODEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to estimate genetic parameters for individual test-day milk, fat, and protein yields with a cubic spline model. A total of 196,687 test-day records in the first 305-d of 38,172 first lactation Holstein cows that calved between 1994 and early 1999 were obtained from Dairy Records Ma...

  7. Calcium montmorillonite clay in dairy feed reduces aflatoxin concentrations in milk without interfering with milk quality, composition or yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if a calcium montmorillonite clay (Novasil Plus, NSP), can significantly reduce aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) concentrations in milk without affecting dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition, vitamin A, or riboflavin concentrations. The study was designed us...

  8. Influence of kid rearing systems on milk composition and yield of Murciano-Granadina dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Peris, S; Caja, G; Such, X; Casals, R; Ferret, A; Torre, C

    1997-12-01

    One-hundred eight lactations of Murciano-Granadina goats from different years were used to compare two kid rearing systems. Goats were separated into two groups: suckling and milking. Dams in the suckling group were milked once daily until kids were weaned (wk 0 to 7) and then were milked twice daily. Dams in the milking group were separated from their kids at 48 h after birth; then, kids were raised artificially, and goats were milked twice daily. Total milk yield was estimated according to the oxytocin method during suckling. Stage of lactation, parity, prolificacy, and year effects on milk yield and composition were also studied. As expected, during the first 7 wk of lactation, marketable milk was higher for dams that were milked than for dams that were suckled. Neither milk yield nor milk composition throughout the entire lactation was affected by group or prolificacy with the exception of the percentage of milk CP. The lactation curve peaked at wk 4 or 5 and declined slowly afterward. First parity goats had the lowest milk yield but the highest fat and protein percentages. Third parity goats had the highest milk yield. The separation of kids from their dams after birth did not affect total lactation performance because of the minimal importance of the neuroendocrine milk ejection reflex in goats compared with that of other ruminants. PMID:9436106

  9. Relationship of sire expected progeny differences to milk yield in Brangus cows.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Coleman, S W; Lalman, D L

    2005-05-01

    Milk yield from 160 Brangus cows sired by 65 Brangus bulls was measured over a 3-yr period with a single-cow milking machine to estimate the relationship of actual milk yield of daughters and their calves' BW with cow sire EPD for milk during the preweaning period. Milk yield was measured six times per year at an average 49, 78, 109, 138, 168, and 198 d postpartum. The regression of daughters' milk yield on sire milk EPD was quadratic (P < 0.01), and the initial linear portion of the curve differed among months (P < 0.05) at an average cow BW. Similarly, the regression of 6-mo average 24-h milk yield on sire milk EPD was curvilinear (P < 0.05). When cow BW was fitted as a covariate in the regression of 6-mo average 24-h milk yield on sire milk EPD, there was an interaction of cow BW with linear sire milk EPD and quadratic sire milk EPD (P < 0.10). The associated response surface suggested that the regression was primarily linear in cows weighing < or = 520 kg and curvilinear in cows weighing >520 kg. A trend existed for the regression of calf 205-d weight on grandsire milk EPD to be curvilinear (P < 0.21); however, the regression of calf 205-d weight on milk yield of their dam was linear (P < 0.01). Results from these data suggest that genetic potential for milk yield, and possibly the associated effects on calf BW transmitted through the grandsire, may have a practical maximum because of nutritional limitations that prevent the expression of genetic potential beyond that level, particularly in heavier cows, which suggests the need to match sire milk EPD and cow BW with production environment. PMID:15827264

  10. Comparative analysis of SNP candidates in disparate milk yielding river buffaloes using targeted sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    River buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk plays an important role in economy and nutritious diet in several developing countries. However, reliable milk-yield genomic markers and their functional insights remain unexposed. Here, we have used a target capture sequencing approach in three economically important buffalo breeds namely: Banni, Jafrabadi and Mehsani, belonging to either high or low milk-yield group. Blood samples were collected from the milk-yield/breed balanced group of 12 buffaloes, and whole exome sequencing was performed using Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium sequencer. Using an innovative approach namely, MultiCom; we have identified high-quality SNPs specific for high and low-milk yield buffaloes. Almost 70% of the reported genes in QTL regions of milk-yield and milk-fat in cattle were present among the buffalo milk-yield gene candidates. Functional analysis highlighted transcriptional regulation category in the low milk-yield group, and several new pathways in the two groups. Further, the discovered SNP candidates may account for more than half of mammary transcriptome changes in high versus low-milk yielding cattle. Thus, starting from the design of a reliable strategy, we identified reliable genomic markers specific for high and low-milk yield buffalo breeds and addressed possible downstream effects. PMID:27441113

  11. Predictions of Daily Milk and Fat Yields, Major Groups of Fatty Acids, and C18:1 cis-9 from Single Milking Data without a Milking Interval

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, Valérie M. R.; Reding, Romain; Bormann, Jeanne; Gengler, Nicolas; Soyeurt, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Reducing the frequency of milk recording decreases the costs of official milk recording. However, this approach can negatively affect the accuracy of predicting daily yields. Equations to predict daily yield from morning or evening data were developed in this study for fatty milk components from traits recorded easily by milk recording organizations. The correlation values ranged from 96.4% to 97.6% (96.9% to 98.3%) when the daily yields were estimated from the morning (evening) milkings. The simplicity of the proposed models which do not include the milking interval should facilitate their use by breeding and milk recording organizations. Abstract Reducing the frequency of milk recording would help reduce the costs of official milk recording. However, this approach could also negatively affect the accuracy of predicting daily yields. This problem has been investigated in numerous studies. In addition, published equations take into account milking intervals (MI), and these are often not available and/or are unreliable in practice. The first objective of this study was to propose models in which the MI was replaced by a combination of data easily recorded by dairy farmers. The second objective was to further investigate the fatty acids (FA) present in milk. Equations to predict daily yield from AM or PM data were based on a calibration database containing 79,971 records related to 51 traits [milk yield (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily); fat content (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily); fat yield (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/day); levels of seven different FAs or FA groups (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/dL milk), and the corresponding FA yields for these seven FA types/groups (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/day)]. These equations were validated using two distinct external datasets. The results obtained from the proposed models were compared to previously published results for

  12. Once-daily milking effects in high-yielding Alpine dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Komara, M; Boutinaud, M; Ben Chedly, H; Guinard-Flament, J; Marnet, P G

    2009-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the milk loss of high-yielding Alpine goats resulting from once-daily milking (ODM) and its relationship to udder cisternal size. We investigated the effects of application of this management strategy on milk yield, composition, and technological parameters: lipolysis, fat globule size, and cheese yield. In a second experiment, we investigated the effect of repeated periods of ODM management during lactation. Goats at the beginning of both experiments were at 25 d in milk on average and were previously milked twice daily (twice-daily milking; TDM). In experiment 1, which was conducted for 2 periods (P) of 9 wk (P1, P2), 48 goats were grouped (1, 2, 3, and 4) according to milk yield, parity, and somatic cell count (SCC). Over the 2 periods, goats from group 1 were managed with TDM and those from group 2 were managed with ODM. In group 3, goats were assigned to TDM during P1 and ODM during P2, conversely, those in group 4 were assigned to ODM in P1 and TDM in P2. During P1, the 12 goats from group 3 underwent 2 distinct morning machine milkings to measure milk repartition (cisternal and alveolar) in the udder based on the "atosiban method." On P1 plus the P2 period of 18 wk, milk loss caused by ODM (compared with TDM) was 16%. In our condition of 24-h milk accumulation, there was no correlation between milk loss and udder cisternal size. Milk fat content, fat globule size, or apparent laboratory cheese yield was not modified by ODM, but milk protein content (+2.7 g/kg), casein (+1.8 g/kg), milk soluble protein concentration (+1.0 g/kg), and SCC increased, whereas lipolysis decreased (-0.3 mEq/100 g of oleic acid). In experiment 2, which was conducted for 4 periods (P1, P2, P3, P4) of 5 wk each, 8 goats, blocked into 2 homogenous groups (5 and 6), were used to study the effects of a double inversion of milking frequency (TDM or ODM) for 20 wk of lactation. Milk loss was 17% and ODM did not modify milk fat or protein contents

  13. Real-time evaluation of individual cow milk for higher cheese-milk quality with increased cheese yield.

    PubMed

    Katz, G; Merin, U; Bezman, D; Lavie, S; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, L; Leitner, G

    2016-06-01

    Cheese was produced in a series of experiments from milk separated in real time during milking by using the Afilab MCS milk classification service (Afikim, Israel), which is installed on the milk line in every stall and sorts milk in real time into 2 target tanks: the A tank for cheese production (CM) and the B tank for fluid milk products (FM). The cheese milk was prepared in varying ratios ranging from ~10:90 to ~90:10 CM:FM by using this system. Cheese was made with corrected protein-to-fat ratio and without it, as well as from milk stored at 4°C for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8d before production. Cheese weight at 24h increased along the separation cutoff level with no difference in moisture, and dry matter increased. The data compiled allowed a theoretical calculation of cheese yield and comparing it to the original van Slyke equation. Whenever the value of Afi-Cf, which is the optical measure of curd firmness obtained by the Afilab instrument, was used, a better predicted level of cheese yield was obtained. In addition, 27 bulk milk tanks with milk separated at a 50:50 CM:FM ratio resulted in cheese with a significantly higher fat and protein, dry matter, and weight at 24h. Moreover, solids incorporated from the milk into the cheese were significantly higher in cheeses made of milk from A tanks. The influence of storage of milk up to 8d before cheese making was tested. Gross milk composition did not change and no differences were found in cheese moisture, but dry matter and protein incorporated in the cheese dropped significantly along the storage time. These findings confirm that milk stored for several days before processing is prone to physico-chemical deterioration processes, which result in loss of milk constituents to the whey and therefore reduced product yield. The study demonstrates that introducing the unknown parameters for calculating the predicted cheese yield, such as the empiric measured Afi-Cf properties, are more accurate and the increase in cheese

  14. Genome Signature of Artificial Selection for High Milk Yield in Holstein Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial selection for high milk yield in Holstein cattle during the past forty years achieved tremendous increases in milk yield but had an unintended consequence of reduced fertility. It was unknown how artificial selection changed the Holstein genome and what genome changes were associated wit...

  15. Milk Yield and Quality in Cows Sired by Different Beef Breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal ability of beef cows, as indicated by milk yield and quality, influences both calf weaning weight and cow maintenance requirements. Three years of milk yield and quality data from 143 cows from Brangus dams and sired by 83 Bonsmara, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, and Romosinuano b...

  16. Does increasing milk yield per cow reduce greenhouse gas emissions? A system approach.

    PubMed

    Zehetmeier, M; Baudracco, J; Hoffmann, H; Heißenhuber, A

    2012-01-01

    Milk yield per cow has continuously increased in many countries over the last few decades. In addition to potential economic advantages, this is often considered an important strategy to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kg of milk produced. However, it should be considered that milk and beef production systems are closely interlinked, as fattening of surplus calves from dairy farming and culled dairy cows play an important role in beef production in many countries. The main objective of this study was to quantify the effect of increasing milk yield per cow on GHG emissions and on other side effects. Two scenarios were modelled: constant milk production at the farm level and decreasing beef production (as co-product; Scenario 1); and both milk and beef production kept constant by compensating the decline in beef production with beef from suckler cow production (Scenario 2). Model calculations considered two types of production unit (PU): dairy cow PU and suckler cow PU. A dairy cow PU comprises not only milk output from the dairy cow, but also beef output from culled cows and the fattening system for surplus calves. The modelled dairy cow PU differed in milk yield per cow per year (6000, 8000 and 10 000 kg) and breed. Scenario 1 resulted in lower GHG emissions with increasing milk yield per cow. However, when milk and beef outputs were kept constant (Scenario 2), GHG emissions remained approximately constant with increasing milk yield from 6000 to 8000 kg/cow per year, whereas further increases in milk yield (10 000 kg milk/cow per year) resulted in slightly higher (8%) total GHG emissions. Within Scenario 2, two different allocation methods to handle co-products (surplus calves and beef from culled cows) from dairy cow production were evaluated. Results showed that using the 'economic allocation method', GHG emissions per kg milk decreased with increasing milk yield per cow per year, from 1.06 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2eq) to 0.89 kg CO2eq for the 6000 and

  17. Best prediction of yields for long lactations.

    PubMed

    Cole, J B; Null, D J; Vanraden, P M

    2009-04-01

    Lactation records of any reasonable length now can be processed with the selection index method known as best prediction (BP). Previous prediction programs were limited to the 305-d standard used since 1935. Best prediction was implemented in 1998 to calculate lactation records in USDA genetic evaluations, replacing the test interval method used since 1969 to calculate lactation records. Best prediction is more complex but also more accurate, particularly when testing is less frequent. Programs were reorganized to output better graphics, give users simpler access to options, and provide additional output, such as BP of daily yields. Test-day data for 6 breeds were extracted from the national dairy database, and lactation lengths were required to be > or =500 d (Ayrshire, Milking Shorthorn) or > or =800 d (all others). Average yield and SD at any day in milk (DIM) were estimated by fitting 3-parameter Wood's curves (milk, fat, protein) and 4-parameter exponential functions (somatic cell score) to means and SD of 15- (< or =300 DIM) and 30-d (>300 DIM) intervals. Correlations among TD yields were estimated using an autoregressive matrix to account for biological changes and an identity matrix to model daily measurement error. Autoregressive parameters (r) were estimated separately for first (r = 0.998) and later parities (r = 0.995). These r values were slightly larger than previous estimates due to the inclusion of the identity matrix. Correlations between traits were modified so that correlations between somatic cell score and other traits may be nonzero. The new lactation curves and correlation functions were validated by extracting TD data from the national database, estimating 305-d yields using the original and new programs, and correlating those results. Daily BP of yield were validated using daily milk weights from on-farm meters in university research herds. Correlations ranged from 0.900 to 0.988 for 305-d milk yield. High correlations ranged from 0.844 to

  18. Variation in the bovine FABP4 gene affects milk yield and milk protein content in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, H.; Cheng, L.; Azimu, W.; Hodge, S.; Edwards, G. R.; Hickford, J. G. H.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) bind long-chain fatty acids and are involved in their intracellular transport. Of the known bovine FABP genes, FABP4 has been mapped to a region on chromosome 14 that contains quantitative trait loci for milk traits. This study investigated the association of FABP4 haplotypes with milk production traits in 719 Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cows. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis of a variable region of the gene revealed three haplotypes (A, B and C). Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified: two in exon 3 and three in intron 3. A was associated (P = 0.032) with increased milk protein percentage (present: 4.00 ± 0.02%; absent: 3.95 ± 0.02%) and B was associated (P = 0.009) with increased milk yield (present: 23.81 ± 0.23 kg/d; absent: 23.06 ± 0.21 kg/d), but tended to be associated with a decrease in protein percentage and an increase in protein yield. Cows with genotypes AA, AB and AC produced less milk, but with a higher protein percentage than BC cows. This suggest that FABP4 affects milk yield and milk protein content, both economically important traits, and that further study of this gene is warranted. PMID:26067182

  19. Changes in milk yield, lactate dehydrogenase, milking frequency, and interquarter yield ratio persist for up to 8 weeks after antibiotic treatment of mastitis.

    PubMed

    Fogsgaard, K K; Løvendahl, P; Bennedsgaard, T W; Østergaard, S

    2015-11-01

    Within the dairy industry, the appearance of milk and withdrawal time due to antibiotic residuals in the milk are used to determine recovery status after cases of treated mastitis. However, both milk production and dairy cow behavior have been shown to be affected after the normalization of milk appearance, indicating that animals may not have fully recovered. The aim of the present study was to describe the changes in milk yield, lactate dehydrogenase activity, milking frequency, and interquarter yield ratio (defined as the coefficient of variation between the active quarters) after cases of naturally occurring mastitis with special focus on the recovery period after antibiotic treatment. A second aim was to examine whether these changes were affected by the pathogens present at the time of mastitis diagnosis. This retrospective study was based on a cohort data set including 1,032 lactations from 795 dairy cows kept on 2 Danish farms and milked by an automatic milking system. A total of 174 treated mastitis cases were compared with nontreated control cows from 5 wk before treatment and until 8 wk after. Treated mastitis resulted in reduced milk yield, elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity, lower milking frequency, and elevated interquarter yield ratio. Within these measures, deviations from baseline levels and from the control cows were found as early as 1 to 3 wk before the antibiotic treatment and peaked around the days of treatment. In some cases, the mastitic cows returned to premastitis levels, whereas in others they remained affected throughout the rest of the observation period. To correctly estimate the effects of treated mastitis and the recovery status of cows, it is important to take the individual cow into account and not only compare with herd levels, as this might mask the true degree of the changes. The effects on each outcome variable depended on the involved pathogen and differences were found between primiparous cows and older animals. However

  20. Milk prolactin response and quarter milk yield after experimental infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci in dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Piccart, K; Piepers, S; Verbeke, J; de Sousa, N M; Beckers, J F; De Vliegher, S

    2015-07-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most common bacteria involved in subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. Remarkably, CNS-infected dairy heifers produce more milk than uninfected heifers. Because the lactation hormone prolactin (PRL) is also involved in mammary gland immunity, we investigated the milk PRL response and the mammary quarter milk yield following experimental CNS challenge. Eight healthy Holstein-Friesian heifers in mid-lactation were experimentally infected using a split-udder design with 3 different CNS strains: one Staphylococcus fleurettii (from sawdust bedding) and 2 Staphylococcus chromogenes strains (one isolate from a teat apex, the other isolate from a chronic intramammary infection). Three mammary quarters per heifer were simultaneously inoculated with 1.0×10(6) cfu, whereas the remaining mammary quarter was infused with sterile phosphate-buffered saline, serving as a control. An existing radioimmunoassay was modified, validated, and used to measure PRL frozen-thawed milk at various time points until 78h after challenge. The mean milk PRL level tended to be higher in the CNS-challenged mammary quarters compared with the control mammary quarters (7.56 and 6.85ng/mL, respectively). The increase in PRL over time was significantly greater in the CNS-challenged mammary quarters than in the control mammary quarters. However, no difference was found in the PRL response when comparing each individual CNS strain with the control mammary quarters. The mean mammary quarter milk yield tended to be lower in the CNS-infected mammary quarters than in the control mammary quarters (1.73 and 1.98kg per milking, respectively). The greatest milk loss occurred in the mammary quarters challenged with the intramammary strain of S. chromogenes. Future observational studies are needed to elucidate the relation between PRL, the milk yield, and the inflammatory condition, or infection status, of the mammary gland. PMID:25981074

  1. Effects of stage of pregnancy on variance components, daily milk yields and 305-day milk yield in Holstein cows, as estimated by using a test-day model.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, T; Hagiya, K; Takeda, H; Osawa, T; Yamaguchi, S; Nagamine, Y

    2016-08-01

    Pregnancy and calving are elements indispensable for dairy production, but the daily milk yield of cows decline as pregnancy progresses, especially during the late stages. Therefore, the effect of stage of pregnancy on daily milk yield must be clarified to accurately estimate the breeding values and lifetime productivity of cows. To improve the genetic evaluation model for daily milk yield and determine the effect of the timing of pregnancy on productivity, we used a test-day model to assess the effects of stage of pregnancy on variance component estimates, daily milk yields and 305-day milk yield during the first three lactations of Holstein cows. Data were 10 646 333 test-day records for the first lactation; 8 222 661 records for the second; and 5 513 039 records for the third. The data were analyzed within each lactation by using three single-trait random regression animal models: one model that did not account for the stage of pregnancy effect and two models that did. The effect of stage of pregnancy on test-day milk yield was included in the model by applying a regression on days pregnant or fitting a separate lactation curve for each days open (days from calving to pregnancy) class (eight levels). Stage of pregnancy did not affect the heritability estimates of daily milk yield, although the additive genetic and permanent environmental variances in late lactation were decreased by accounting for the stage of pregnancy effect. The effects of days pregnant on daily milk yield during late lactation were larger in the second and third lactations than in the first lactation. The rates of reduction of the 305-day milk yield of cows that conceived fewer than 90 days after the second or third calving were significantly (P<0.05) greater than that after the first calving. Therefore, we conclude that differences between the negative effects of early pregnancy in the first, compared with later, lactations should be included when determining the optimal number of days open

  2. On distinguishing cause and consequence: do high somatic cell counts lead to lower milk yield or does high milk yield lead to lower somatic cell count?

    PubMed

    Green, L E; Schukken, Y H; Green, M J

    2006-09-15

    Researchers have reported that as milk yield increases composite milk somatic cell count (SCC) is diluted in cattle with no intramammary infection (IMI) and as a consequence, estimates of SCC from high yields are lower than estimates of SCC from low yields in dairy cows without an IMI. To date, estimates of reduced milk yield associated with high SCC because of intramammary infection have not been adjusted for any dilution of SCC. Ignoring dilution is therefore likely to lead to an overestimate of reduction in yield with increasing SCC. This paper investigates scenarios of the possible impact of dilution and inflammation on the association between somatic cell count and yield. The data used to investigate this relationship come from 8373 monthly records of milk yield and composite somatic cell count, together with incidence of clinical mastitis, which were recorded on 850 cows from five dairy cattle farms in Gloucestershire, UK. Two sets of models were used to investigate dilution and inflammation using two-level hierarchical models. The first set of models was used to estimate the linear (dilution) and log10-linear (inflammation) impact of SCC on the outcome variable milk yield. Five general linear models with increasing inclusion of higher test day SCC values were run. The cumulative categories were test day SCC values of up to and inclusive of 30, 50, 100, 200 and 400x10(3)cells/ml. Linear and log linear SCC influences on milk yield were estimated. At low SCC values the linear SCC predictor was dominant, while at higher values the log linear predictor was dominant. Up to 100x10(3)cells/ml there was mostly a slightly negative linear relationship between SCC and yield, potentially indicating a dilution effect. In the second set of models, three approaches to adjust milk loss for dilution were compared with an unadjusted model. In general, dilution-adjusted SCC values fitted the data better and resulted in a slightly lower milk loss per SCC category compared with

  3. Evaluation of milk yield losses associated with Salmonella antibodies in bulk tank milk in bovine dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T D; Green, L E; Kudahl, A B; Østergaard, S; Nielsen, L R

    2012-09-01

    The effect of Salmonella on milk production is not well established in cattle. The objective of this study was to investigate whether introduction of Salmonella into dairy cattle herds was associated with reduced milk yield and determine the duration of any such effect. Longitudinal data from 2005 through 2009 were used, with data from 12 mo before until 18 mo after the estimated date of infection. Twenty-eight case herds were selected based on an increase in the level of Salmonella-specific antibodies in bulk-tank milk from <10 corrected optical density percentage (ODC%) to ≥70 ODC% between 2 consecutive three-monthly measurements in the Danish Salmonella surveillance program. All selected case herds were conventional Danish Holstein herds. Control herds (n=40) were selected randomly from Danish Holstein herds with Salmonella antibody levels consistently <10 ODC%. A date of herd infection was randomly allocated to the control herds. Hierarchical mixed effect models with the outcome test-day yield of energy-corrected milk (ECM)/cow were used to investigate daily milk yield before and after the estimated herd infection date for cows in parities 1, 2, and 3+. Control herds were used to evaluate whether the effects in the case herds could be reproduced in herds without Salmonella infection. Herd size, days in milk, somatic cell count, season, and year were included in the models. Yield in first-parity cows was reduced by a mean of 1.4 kg (95% confidence interval: 0.5 to 2.3) of ECM/cow per day from 7 to 15 mo after the estimated herd infection date, compared with that of first-parity cows in the same herds in the 12 mo before the estimated herd infection date. Yield for parity 3+ cows was reduced by a mean of 3.0 kg (95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 4.8) of ECM/cow per day from 7 to 15 mo after herd infection compared with that of parity 3+ cows in the 12 mo before the estimated herd infection. We observed minor differences in yield in second-parity cows before and

  4. Consistency of Maturity Rate for Milk Yield Across Countries and Generations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences among bulls in maturity rate of their daughters for milk yield were investigated. Milk records for US Holsteins with first-parity calving dates between 1960 and 1998 were used to calculate 3 evaluations for bulls based on daughter records from parity 1, parities 1 and 2, and parities 1, ...

  5. Evaluation of udder cisterns and effects on milk yield of dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Rovai, M; Caja, G; Such, X

    2008-12-01

    Nine Manchega (0.94 L/d) and 10 Lacaune (2.07 L/d) ewes at the same stage of lactation (90 d in milk) were used to study the interbreed differences in milk yield, mammary morphological traits, and machine-milking ability. Udder traits were measured after 6 h of udder filling before the start of the experiment. Cisternal area (by ultrasonography), cisternal milk (by teat cannula drainage), and alveolar milk (by machine milking after an intravenous oxytocin injection) were randomly measured 8 h after milking for 2 wk consecutively either with an intravenous injection of an oxytocin receptor blocking agent (atosiban, AT) or without (control, C) to avoid the occurrence of milk letdown before milking. Lacaune ewes had greater udder depth (22.5 +/- 0.9 vs. 19.6 +/- 0.9 cm) and cistern height (27.1 +/- 3.8 vs. 15.6 +/- 3.5 mm), whereas Manchega ewes had longer (42.7 +/- 1.5 vs. 32.7 +/- 1.5 mm) and wider teats (17.4 +/- 0.5 vs. 13.9 +/- 0.5 mm). Values per half udder for Manchega and Lacaune ewes differed in cisternal area (12.8 +/- 0.7 and 23.7 +/- 0.6 cm(2)) and cisternal milk (120 +/- 0.6 and 269 +/- 0.5 mL), but not in alveolar milk (95 +/- 0.5 and 102 +/- 0.4 mL), respectively. Cisternal area and cisternal milk were positively correlated (r = 0.79). Ratios between cisternal and alveolar milk were 56:44 and 73:27 for Manchega and Lacaune ewes, respectively. Cisternal milk volumes obtained with the AT or C treatment were similar in Manchega (111 +/- 10 vs. 122 +/- 8 mL) but differed in Lacaune ewes (239 +/- 8 vs. 299 +/- 8 mL), respectively. Consequently, alveolar milk with AT vs. C was similar in Manchega (104 +/- 8 vs. 86 +/- 7 mL) but different in Lacaune ewes (115 +/- 7 vs. 89 +/- 7 mL). Results of this experiment confirm the need for the use of an oxytocin-blocking agent for accurate evaluation of milk contained in the udder of dairy ewes. Moreover, despite the differences in daily milk yield, alveolar milk did not vary between breeds, emphasizing the role of the

  6. Effect of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen environment, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Gunun, P

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Four multiparous early-lactating dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cross-bred, 75%) with an initial body weight (BW) of 405 ± 40 kg and 36 ± 8 day in milk were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were unsupplemented (control), supplemented with rain tree pod (S. saman) meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplemented with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplemented with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter (DM) intake. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effect on ruminal pH, blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen concentration (p > 0.05). However, supplementation with RPM resulted in lower ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) concentration (p < 0.05). In addition, propionic acid and milk production increased while acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, methane production, methanogens and protozoal population decreased with RPM and/or PO supplementation. Furthermore, addition of PO and RPO in the diets increased milk fat while supplementation of RPM resulted in greater milk protein and Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers (p < 0.05). The population of Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus were not affected by any treatments. The findings on the present study showed that supplementation with RPM and RPO to diets of cows improved the rumen environment and increased milk yield, content of milk protein and milk fat. PMID:24814291

  7. Layouts for small freestall dairy barns: effect on milk yield for cows in different parities.

    PubMed

    Næss, G; Bøe, K E; Osterås, O

    2011-03-01

    Freestall housing for dairy cows has many different layouts and the space allocated for cows differs considerably. The objective of the present study was to investigate possible associations between barn layout and milk yield for different parities in small dairy freestall barns. Layouts of 204 Norwegian freestall barns constructed during the period from 1995 to 2005, and with a mean herd size of 42.7±15.5 cows, were obtained and merged with milk yield data and calving interval, for each parity, from the Norwegian Milk Recording System (NDHRS). The milk yield data set contained 20,221 different lactations from these 204 herds. Both simple mixed models, including the different explanatory variables one by one together with parity, calving interval, and herd as random effect, and a final mixed model, including all significant explanatory variables, were created. According to variables tested in this study, the final mixed model estimates show that only primiparous cows benefit significantly from increased free space allocation. Milk yield was generally higher in automatic milking system barns compared with that in barns with milking parlors, but not for primiparous cows. Milk yield was higher for all parities for barns using separation pens in accordance with the recommendations. Barns with 2 or more dead-end alleys had lower milk yield compared with that from layouts without dead-end alleys. Primiparous cows benefited from water troughs located for easy access and responded with increased milk yield. In 10% of the barns, the water trough capacity was less than 47% of the recommendations, and all parities benefited from a water trough capacity higher than this level. Higher parities had increased milk yield when water trough capacity was more than 80%. Feed bunk space, number of freestall rows, and the location of freestalls had no significant effect on the milk yield. The present study showed that increased space and improved access to water is beneficial to

  8. Using activity and milk yield as predictors of fresh cow disorders.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J L; Tozer, P R

    2004-02-01

    The objective was to determine whether daily walking activity and milk yields could be used as predictors of metabolic and digestive disorders early in lactation. Data were collected from 1996 through 1999 from 1445 dairy cows in 3 Florida herds. Walking activity, milk yield, and other measures were collected from a computerized dairy management system. Mixed models analysis was used for data on cows before their first detected estrus, as identified by difference in activity. Healthy cows were defined as those without any metabolic or digestive disorder during the prebreeding stage, whereas a sick cow had an occurrence of those disorders at any time during the prebreeding stage. Metabolic disorders were ketosis, retained placenta, and milk fever. Digestive disorders included displaced abomasum, indigestion, reduced feed intake, traumatic gastritis, acidosis, and bloat. Data from cows with known cases of ketosis, left displaced abomasum, and digestive disorders were analyzed to determine changes in activity and milk yield before those specific disorders were clinically diagnosed. Although walking activity was generally lower among sick cows, cows with ketosis, left displaced abomasum, and digestive disorders had higher than average activity 8, 9, and 8 d, respectively, before each diagnosed disorder. Daily milk yields of sick cows were approximately 15 kg/d less than milk yields of healthy cows. Milk yields were lower by 6, 7, and 5 d, respectively, before diagnoses of ketosis, left displaced abomasum, and digestive disorders. Cows with ketosis, left displaced abomasum, and general digestive disorders could possibly be detected about 5 to 6 d earlier than clinical diagnoses based on changes in daily walking activity and milk yield. PMID:14762096

  9. Milk yield differences between 1x and 4x milking are associated with changes in mammary mitochondrial number and milk protein gene expression, but not mammary cell apoptosis or "SOCS" gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milking frequency is known to affect milk production and lactation persistence in dairy cows. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying this effect are only partially understood. Previous work in dairy cows examining increases in milk yield due to increased milking frequency have identified changes in...

  10. [Lactational incidences of common diseases in dairy herds in Schleswig-Holstein (Germany): effect of first test-day milk yield, herd milk yield and number of lactation].

    PubMed

    Gundling, Natascha; Ruddat, Inga; Prien, Kristin; Hellerich, Birte; Hoedemaker, Martina

    2015-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to record common diseases in dairy cows in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, and to describe associations between lactation number (LN: 1, 2, > 2), first test-day milk yield (TD1: < 30 kg, ≥ 30 kg) and herd milk yield (HM: ≤ 7500 kg, > 7500 kg), the latter parameter serving as a proxy for herd management (extensive vs. intensive). Data of 98 dairy herds (6439 lactations) were processed on cow level using mixed logistic regression models with LN< TD1, HM and calving season as fixed effects and herd as random effect. Lactational incidences were as follows: hypocalcaemia (5.0%), dystocia (13.2%), retained placental membranes (7.2%), clinical metritis/endometritis (4.9%), clinical mastitis (15.3%), subclinical mastitis (61.9%), ketosis (1.6%), displaced abomasum (0.4%), lameness (15.4%). Number of lactation (2, > 2 vs. 1) was a risk factor for hypocalcaemia (OR 3.715, 23.047), retained placental membranes (OR 1.764, 2.479), clinical mastitis (> 2 vs. 1 OR 2.118), subclinical mastitis (OR 1.668,4.397), ketosis (> 2 vs. 1 OR 3.936) and lameness (OR 1.275, 2.070). Older cows had a lower risk for dystocia (OR 0.373, 0.357). TD1 (≥ 30 kg) was not a risk factor of disease except for subclinical mastitis in first parity animals (OR 1.319). Herd milk yield (> 7500 kg) was a risk factor for clinical metritis/endometritis (OR 1.971), displaced abomasum (OR 7.764), lameness (OR 1.618) and hypocalcaemia (cows with high TD1 [OR 2.273]). In conclusion, not individual milk yield, but herd milk yield as an indicator of differences in intensity of herd management as well as number of lactation seemed to influence the frequency of common diseases in dairy cows. PMID:26054229

  11. Milk yield responses to changes in milking frequency during early lactation are associated with coordinated and persistent changes in mammary gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The lactating mammary gland responds to changes in milking frequency by modulating milk production. This response is locally regulated and, in dairy cows, the udder is particularly sensitive during early lactation. Relative to cows milked twice-daily throughout lactation, those milked four-times-daily for just the first 3 weeks of lactation produce more milk throughout that lactation. We hypothesized that the milk yield response would be associated with increased mammary cell turnover and changes in gene expression during frequent milking and persisting thereafter. Cows were assigned to unilateral frequent milking (UFM; left udder halves milked twice-daily; right udder halves milked four-times daily) on days 1 to 21 of lactation, followed by twice-daily milking for the remainder of lactation. Relative to udder halves milked twice-daily, those milked four-times produced more milk during UFM; the difference in milk yield declined acutely upon cessation of UFM after day 21, but remained significantly elevated thereafter. We obtained mammary biopsies from both udder halves on days 21, 23, and 40 of lactation. Results Mammary cell proliferation and apoptosis were not affected by milking frequency. We identified 75 genes that were differentially expressed between paired udder halves on day 21 but exhibited a reversal of differential expression on day 23. Among those genes, we identified four clusters characterized by similar temporal patterns of differential expression. Two clusters (11 genes) were positively correlated with changes in milk yield and were differentially expressed on day 21 of lactation only, indicating involvement in the initial milk yield response. Two other clusters (64 genes) were negatively correlated with changes in milk yield. Twenty-nine of the 75 genes were also differentially expressed on day 40 of lactation. Conclusions Changes in milking frequency during early lactation did not alter mammary cell population dynamics, but were

  12. Impact of seasonal changes in ovine milk on composition and yield of a hard-pressed cheese.

    PubMed

    Jaeggi, J J; Wendorff, W L; Romero, J; Berger, Y M; Johnson, M E

    2005-04-01

    A hard-pressed, brined cheese was produced from frozen ovine milk collected in February, May, and August. Solids in the milk decreased as the season progressed. This was a result of high solids in early-lactation milk and low solids in August milk because of hot weather and poorer quality pastures. Casein as a percentage of true protein and the casein to fat ratio were higher in May and August milk. Fat in the cheese from February milk was higher and total protein was lower than in May and August. Milk, whey, and press whey composition were influenced by season and followed the trends of milk composition. Fat recovery in the cheeses ranged from 83.2 to 84.2%. Protein recovery in the cheeses was not affected by season. Cheese yield from February milk was higher than from May and August milk and was a result of higher casein and fat in the milk. PMID:15778303

  13. The effects of milk yield and stage of lactation on the partitioning of nutrients in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, R M; Gordon, F J

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the experiment was to examine, using indirect calorimetry, the effects of milk yield and stage of lactation on the response in milk and body tissue energy, and heat production, to a reduction (decrement) in nutrient intake (assessed as metabolizable energy intake). Eight lactating dairy cows, four representing each of two stages of lactation [either mean initial days in milk (DIM) 158 (SD 6.1) or 414 (SD 51.1)] were used. Each cow underwent four 17-d periods incorporating two physiological states [number of mammary glands milked: either four (periods 1 and 2), or two (periods 3 and 4)], and two levels of metabolizable energy intake within each physiological state [either sufficient to meet requirements for zero tissue balance plus 10 MJ/d (periods 1 and 3)] or these allowances reduced by 20 MJ/d in the subsequent period (periods 2 and 4, respectively). Partitioning was calculated from the changes in metabolizable energy intake, milk energy, tissue energy, and heat production between DIM groups and between four and two gland milking (milk yield) components of the study. Partitioning of the changes in metabolizable energy intake was not influenced by DIM, but milk yield response was greater in the early lactation cows compared with the late group. Cows milked in four glands (higher milk yield) partitioned a significantly greater proportion of decremental changes in metabolizable energy intake to milk energy and less to tissue energy, than when milked in only two glands (lower milk yield). PMID:11210038

  14. Effects of continuous milking during a field trial on productivity, milk protein yield and health in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Köpf, M; Gellrich, K; Küchenhoff, H; Meyer, H H D; Kliem, H

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this field study with an automatic milking system was to evaluate the effects of omitting the dry period on health and productivity during the subsequent lactation in dairy cows. A total of 98 German Simmental cows of six Southern German farms were assigned randomly to two experimental groups: The first group was dried-off 56 days before calving (D for dried-off, n=49), and the second group was milked continuously during this period until calving (CM for continuous milking, n=49). From the latter a third group emerged, including cows that dried-off themselves spontaneously (DS for dried-off spontaneously, n=14). Blood serum values of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and IGF-1 showed most pronounced fluctuations in D cows. Over the entire study period, the concentrations of BHBA and NEFA were markedly lower in the CM and DS groups. Furthermore, IGF-1 concentration was lowest for D cows and also decrease in back fat thickness was more pronounced. Mean concentration of milk protein was markedly higher in CM and DS cows (3.70% and 3.71%) compared with D cows (3.38%). Owing to the lower 305-day milk yield (-15.6%) and the lower total milk yield (-3.1%), the total amount of produced protein in the subsequent lactation was 2.5% (6.8 kg) lower, although the additional protein amount in CM cows from week -8 to calving was 35.7 kg. The greatest benefit resulted from positive effects on fertility and the lower incidence of diseases: CM cows had their first oestrus 1 week earlier compared with D cows, they also conceived earlier and showed a significantly lower risk of developing hypocalcaemia, ketosis and puerperal disorders. The present study showed that the costs of medical treatment and milk losses were twice as high in D cows, compared with CM and DS cows, and thus the reduced costs because of the more stable health outweighed the financial losses of milk yield by +18.49 € per cow and lactation. PMID:26263029

  15. Short communication: Effects of pregnancy on milk yield, composition traits, and coagulation properties of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Penasa, M; De Marchi, M; Cassandro, M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pregnancy stage on milk yield, composition traits, and milk coagulation properties in Italian Holstein cattle. The data set included 25,729 records from 3,995 first-parity cows calving between August 2010 and August 2013 in 167 herds. The traits analyzed were milk yield (kg/d), fat (%), protein (%), casein (%), and lactose (%) contents, pH, somatic cell score, rennet coagulation time (min), and curd firmness (mm). To better understand the effect of gestation on the aforementioned traits, each record was assigned to one of the following classes of pregnancy stage: (1) nonpregnant, (2) pregnant from 1 to 120d, (3) pregnant from 121 to 210d, and (4) pregnant from 211 to 310d. Gestation stage significantly influenced all studied traits with the exception of somatic cell score. Milk production decreased and milk quality improved from the fourth month of pregnancy onward. For all traits, nonpregnant cows performed very similarly to cows in the first period of gestation. Rennet coagulation time and curd firmness were influenced by pregnancy stage, especially in the last weeks of gestation when milk had better coagulation characteristics; this information should be accounted for to adjust test-day records in genetic evaluation of milk coagulation properties. PMID:27060832

  16. Evaluating the effect of ration composition on income over feed cost and milk yield.

    PubMed

    Buza, M H; Holden, L A; White, R A; Ishler, V A

    2014-05-01

    Feed is generally the greatest expense for milk production. With volatility in feed and milk markets, income over feed cost (IOFC) is a more advantageous measure of profit than simply feed cost per cow. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ration cost and ingredient composition on IOFC and milk yield. The Pennsylvania State Extension Dairy Team IOFC tool (http://extension.psu.edu/animals/dairy/business-management/financial-tools/income-over-feed-cost/introduction-to-iofc) was used to collect data from 95 Pennsylvania lactating dairy cow herds from 2009 to 2012 and to determine the IOFC per cow per day. The data collected included average milk yield, milk income, purchased feed cost, ration ingredients, ingredient cost per ton, and amount of each ingredient fed. Feed costs for home-raised feeds for each ration were based on market values rather than on-farm cost. Actual costs were used for purchased feed for each ration. Mean lactating herd size was 170 ± 10.5 and daily milk yield per cow was 31.7 ± 0.19 kg. The mean IOFC was $7.71 ± $1.01 cost per cow, ranging from -$0.33 in March 2009 to $16.60 in September 2011. Data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA in SPSS (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). Values were grouped by quartiles and analyzed with all years combined as well as by individual year. Purchased feed cost per cow per day averaged $3.16 ± $1.07 for 2009 to 2012. For 2009 to 2012 combined, milk yield and IOFC did not differ with purchased feed cost. Intermediate levels (quartiles 2 and 3) of forage cost per cow per day between $1.45 and $1.97 per cow per day resulted in the greatest average IOFC of $8.19 and the greatest average milk yield of 32.3 kg. Total feed costs in the fourth quartile ($6.27 or more per cow per day) resulted in the highest IOFC. Thus, minimizing feed cost per cow per day did not maximize IOFC. In 2010, the IOFC was highest at $8.09 for dairies that fed 1 or more commodity by-products. Results of the study indicated

  17. Effects of long daily photoperiod and bovine somatotropin (Trobest) on milk yield in cows.

    PubMed

    Miller, A R; Stanisiewski, E P; Erdman, R A; Douglass, L W; Dahl, G E

    1999-08-01

    Bovine somatotropin (bST) and exposure to long daily photoperiod increase milk yield of dairy cattle. We tested the hypothesis that long daily photoperiod and bST treatment would increase milk yield in an additive manner in lactating cows. At winter solstice, 40 lactating cows were started on a 140-d experiment; cows were greater than 70 d in milk (DIM) and were balanced for uniformity of DIM and milk yield within parity. Cows were randomly assigned to one of four treatments (10/treatment): 1) natural photoperiod, 2) natural photoperiod + bST (14 mg/d Trobest i.m.), 3) long daily photoperiod (18 h of light and 6 h of darkness/d), or 4) long daily photoperiod + bST. Long daily photoperiod increased fat-corrected milk (FCM) yield 1.9 kg/d versus natural photoperiod. Treatment with bST increased FCM 5.7 kg/d versus natural photoperiod, and long daily photoperiod + bST increased FCM 5.8 kg/d versus long daily photoperiod. Long daily photoperiod + bST was additive, increasing FCM 7.7 kg/d versus natural photoperiod. Serum somatotropin increased with bST, but not photoperiod, and bST increased serum insulin-like growth factor-I. Long daily photoperiod tended to increase prolactin; bST had no effect. Long daily photoperiod + bST increased dry matter intake (DMI) relative to natural photoperiod and natural photoperiod + bST; long daily photoperiod increased DMI relative to natural photoperiod + bST. Photoperiod had no effect on net energy balance; however, bST decreased net energy balance. Generally, body weight and milk composition did not differ among treatments. In conclusion, combination of bST with long-daily photoperiod tended to amplify the increases in milk yield observed with either treatment individually. PMID:10480097

  18. Screening for ketosis using multiple logistic regression based on milk yield and composition.

    PubMed

    Kayano, Mitsunori; Kataoka, Tomoko

    2015-11-01

    Multiple logistic regression was applied to milk yield and composition data for 632 records of healthy cows and 61 records of ketotic cows in Hokkaido, Japan. The purpose was to diagnose ketosis based on milk yield and composition, simultaneously. The cows were divided into two groups: (1) multiparous, including 314 healthy cows and 45 ketotic cows and (2) primiparous, including 318 healthy cows and 16 ketotic cows, since nutritional status, milk yield and composition are affected by parity. Multiple logistic regression was applied to these groups separately. For multiparous cows, milk yield (kg/day/cow) and protein-to-fat (P/F) ratio in milk were significant factors (P<0.05) for the diagnosis of ketosis. For primiparous cows, lactose content (%), solid not fat (SNF) content (%) and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) content (mg/dl) were significantly associated with ketosis (P<0.01). A diagnostic rule was constructed for each group of cows: (1) 9.978 × P/F ratio + 0.085 × milk yield <10 and (2) 2.327 × SNF - 2.703 × lactose + 0.225 × MUN <10. The sensitivity, specificity and the area under the curve (AUC) of the diagnostic rules were (1) 0.800, 0.729 and 0.811; (2) 0.813, 0.730 and 0.787, respectively. The P/F ratio, which is a widely used measure of ketosis, provided the sensitivity, specificity and AUC values of (1) 0.711, 0.726 and 0.781; and (2) 0.678, 0.767 and 0.738, respectively. PMID:26074408

  19. Screening for ketosis using multiple logistic regression based on milk yield and composition

    PubMed Central

    KAYANO, Mitsunori; KATAOKA, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Multiple logistic regression was applied to milk yield and composition data for 632 records of healthy cows and 61 records of ketotic cows in Hokkaido, Japan. The purpose was to diagnose ketosis based on milk yield and composition, simultaneously. The cows were divided into two groups: (1) multiparous, including 314 healthy cows and 45 ketotic cows and (2) primiparous, including 318 healthy cows and 16 ketotic cows, since nutritional status, milk yield and composition are affected by parity. Multiple logistic regression was applied to these groups separately. For multiparous cows, milk yield (kg/day/cow) and protein-to-fat (P/F) ratio in milk were significant factors (P<0.05) for the diagnosis of ketosis. For primiparous cows, lactose content (%), solid not fat (SNF) content (%) and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) content (mg/dl) were significantly associated with ketosis (P<0.01). A diagnostic rule was constructed for each group of cows: (1) 9.978 × P/F ratio + 0.085 × milk yield <10 and (2) 2.327 × SNF − 2.703 × lactose + 0.225 × MUN <10. The sensitivity, specificity and the area under the curve (AUC) of the diagnostic rules were (1) 0.800, 0.729 and 0.811; (2) 0.813, 0.730 and 0.787, respectively. The P/F ratio, which is a widely used measure of ketosis, provided the sensitivity, specificity and AUC values of (1) 0.711, 0.726 and 0.781; and (2) 0.678, 0.767 and 0.738, respectively. PMID:26074408

  20. Derivation of multivariate indices of milk composition, coagulation properties, and individual cheese yield in dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Manca, M G; Serdino, J; Gaspa, G; Urgeghe, P; Ibba, I; Contu, M; Fresi, P; Macciotta, N P P

    2016-06-01

    Milk composition and its technological properties are traits of interest for the dairy sheep industry because almost all milk produced is processed into cheese. However, several variables define milk technological properties and a complex correlation pattern exists among them. In the present work, we measured milk composition, coagulation properties, and individual cheese yields in a sample of 991 Sarda breed ewes in 47 flocks. The work aimed to study the correlation pattern among measured variables and to obtain new synthetic indicators of milk composition and cheese-making properties. Multivariate factor analysis was carried out on individual measures of milk coagulation parameters; cheese yield; fat, protein, and lactose percentages; somatic cell score; casein percentage; NaCl content; pH; and freezing point. Four factors that were able to explain about 76% of the original variance were extracted. They were clearly interpretable: the first was associated with composition and cheese yield, the second with udder health status, the third with coagulation, and the fourth with curd characteristics. Factor scores were then analyzed by using a mixed linear model that included the fixed effect of parity, lambing month, and lactation stage, and the random effect of flock-test date. The patterns of factor scores along lactation stages were coherent with their technical meaning. A relevant effect of flock-test date was detected, especially on the 2 factors related to milk coagulation properties. Results of the present study suggest the existence of a simpler latent structure that regulates relationships between variables defining milk composition and coagulation properties in sheep. Heritability estimates for the 4 extracted factors were from low to moderate, suggesting potential use of these new variables as breeding goals. PMID:27060831

  1. An association analysis between OXT genotype and milk yield and flow in Italian Mediterranean river buffalo.

    PubMed

    Pauciullo, Alfredo; Cosenza, Gianfranco; Steri, Roberto; Coletta, Angelo; Jemma, Lazzaro; Feligini, Maria; Di Berardino, Dino; Macciotta, Nicolò P P; Ramunno, Luigi

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possible associations between three SNPs at the oxytocin locus (AM234538: g.28C>T; g.204A>G and g.1627G>T) and two productive traits, milk yield and milkability, in Italian Mediterranean river buffaloes. Effects of parity, calving season and month of production were also evaluated. A total of 41 980 test-day records belonging to 219 lactations of 163 buffalo cows were investigated. The allele call rate was 98·8% and the major allele frequency for all the investigated loci was 0·76. The OXT genotype was significantly associated with milk yield (P=0·029). The TT genotype showed an average daily milk yield approximately 1·7 kg higher than GT buffaloes. Such a difference represents about 23% more milk/d. A large dominance effect (-1·17±0·43 kg) was estimated, whereas the contribution of OXT genotype (r(2)(OXT)) to the total phenotypic variance in milk yield was equal to 0·06. The TT genotype showed higher values also for the milk flow, even though the estimated difference did not reach a level of statistical significance (P=0·07). Such an association, among the first reported for the oxytocin locus in ruminants, should be tested on a population scale and possible effects on milk composition traits should be evaluated in order to supply useful indications for the application of marker-assisted selection programmes in river buffaloes. PMID:22280971

  2. Random regression test day models to estimate genetic parameters for milk yield and milk components in Philippine dairy buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Flores, E B; van der Werf, J

    2015-08-01

    Heritabilities and genetic correlations for milk production traits were estimated from first-parity test day records on 1022 Philippine dairy buffalo cows. Traits analysed included milk (MY), fat (FY) and protein (PY) yields, and fat (Fat%) and protein (Prot%) concentrations. Varying orders of Legendre polynomials (Leg(m)) as well as the Wilmink function (Wil) were used in random regression models. These various models were compared based on log likelihood, Akaike's information criterion, Bayesian information criterion and genetic variance estimates. Six residual variance classes were sufficient for MY, FY, PY and Fat%, while seven residual classes for Prot%. Multivariate analysis gave higher estimates of genetic variance and heritability compared with univariate analysis for all traits. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.25 to 0.44, 0.13 to 0.31 and 0.21 to 0.36 for MY, FY and PY, respectively. Wilmink's function was the better fitting function for additive genetic effects for all traits. It was also the preferred function for permanent environment effects for Fat% and Prot%, but for MY, FY and PY, the Legm was the appropriate function. Genetic correlations of MY with FY and PY were high and they were moderately negative with Fat% and Prot%. To prevent deterioration in Fat% and Prot% and improve milk quality, more weight should be applied to milk component traits. PMID:25727642

  3. Modelling Pasture-based Automatic Milking System Herds: The Impact of Large Herd on Milk Yield and Economics

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. R.; Clark, C. E. F.; Garcia, S. C.; Kerrisk, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this modelling study was to investigate the effect of large herd size (and land areas) on walking distances and milking interval (MI), and their impact on milk yield and economic penalties when 50% of the total diets were provided from home grown feed either as pasture or grazeable complementary forage rotation (CFR) in an automatic milking system (AMS). Twelve scenarios consisting of 3 AMS herds (400, 600, 800 cows), 2 levels of pasture utilisation (current AMS utilisation of 15.0 t dry matter [DM]/ha, termed as ‘moderate’; optimum pasture utilisation of 19.7 t DM/ha, termed as ‘high’) and 2 rates of incorporation of grazeable complementary forage system (CFS: 0, 30%; CFS = 65% farm is CFR and 35% of farm is pasture) were investigated. Walking distances, energy loss due to walking, MI, reduction in milk yield and income loss were calculated for each treatment based on information available in the literature. With moderate pasture utilisation and 0% CFR, increasing the herd size from 400 to 800 cows resulted in an increase in total walking distances between the parlour and the paddock from 3.5 to 6.3 km. Consequently, MI increased from 15.2 to 16.4 h with increased herd size from 400 to 800 cows. High pasture utilisation (allowing for an increased stocking density) reduced the total walking distances up to 1 km, thus reduced the MI by up to 0.5 h compared to the moderate pasture, 800 cow herd combination. The high pasture utilisation combined with 30% of the farm in CFR in the farm reduced the total walking distances by up to 1.7 km and MI by up to 0.8 h compared to the moderate pasture and 800 cow herd combination. For moderate pasture utilisation, increasing the herd size from 400 to 800 cows resulted in more dramatic milk yield penalty as yield increasing from c.f. 2.6 and 5.1 kg/cow/d respectively, which incurred a loss of up to $AU 1.9/cow/d. Milk yield losses of 0.61 kg and 0.25 kg for every km increase in total walking distance (voluntary

  4. Composition, coagulation properties and Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese yield of Italian Brown and Italian Friesian herd milks.

    PubMed

    Malacarne, Massimo; Summer, Andrea; Fossa, Enrico; Formaggioni, Paolo; Franceschi, Piero; Pecorari, Mauro; Mariani, Primo

    2006-05-01

    The authors report the results of a study aimed at the comparison of the basic chemical composition, the main protein fractions distribution, rennet coagulation properties and Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese yield of vat milk from Italian Brown and Italian Friesian herds. Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese factories which manufacture milk separately from Italian Brown herds and Italian Friesian herds were used in the study. Thirteen cheesemaking trials were performed at 10 different commercial cheese factories. The study was carried out from March to October 2003. For each cheesemaking trial in each factory, approximately 1100 kg milk from Italian Brown cows and from Italian Friesian cows were processed in parallel. The animals involved in the study came from farms with comparable management practices, size, location, number of lactation and days in milking. Each vat contained milk obtained by combining milk collected during the evening milking (partially skimmed milk by natural creaming) and the following morning milking (full-cream milk), from at least 2 dairy herds. Milk from Italian Brown cows is characterised by a higher casein content (27.1 v. 23.7 g/kg; P < or = 0.0001) than Italian Friesian cows' milk. Curd firming time (k20) of Italian Brown cows' milk was markedly lower than that of Italian Friesian cows' milk (6.6 v. 10.0 min; P < or = 0.001). This implies a higher rate of aggregation of para-casein micelles for Italian Brown cows' milk. The coagulum of Italian Brown cows' milk had better rheological properties and lower losses of fat in the cheese whey. Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese yield at 24 h was also higher for Italian Brown cows' milk, + 0.99 kg cheese for every 100 kg vat milk. PMID:16476179

  5. Milk and fat yields decline in bovine leukemia virus-infected Holstein cattle with persistent lymphocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Da, Y; Shanks, R D; Stewart, J A; Lewin, H A

    1993-01-01

    Effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection on milk and fat yields were studied by using data collected from Holstein cows over a 6-year period. Milk and fat yields in BLV-infected cows with persistent lymphocytosis (PL) declined significantly relative to their BLV-infected non-PL herdmates. Declines were most pronounced in cows older than 6 years. The estimated loss to the dairy industry due to PL is more than $42 million annually. A major histocompatibility complex class I (BoLA-A) allele that has been previously associated with resistance to PL was associated with longevity and realization of milk production potentials, indicating that genetic resistance to PL will have an economic benefit in herds where BLV is endemic. PMID:8341665

  6. Milk and fat yields decline in bovine leukemia virus-infected Holstein cattle with persistent lymphocytosis.

    PubMed

    Da, Y; Shanks, R D; Stewart, J A; Lewin, H A

    1993-07-15

    Effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection on milk and fat yields were studied by using data collected from Holstein cows over a 6-year period. Milk and fat yields in BLV-infected cows with persistent lymphocytosis (PL) declined significantly relative to their BLV-infected non-PL herdmates. Declines were most pronounced in cows older than 6 years. The estimated loss to the dairy industry due to PL is more than $42 million annually. A major histocompatibility complex class I (BoLA-A) allele that has been previously associated with resistance to PL was associated with longevity and realization of milk production potentials, indicating that genetic resistance to PL will have an economic benefit in herds where BLV is endemic. PMID:8341665

  7. Milk Yield of Primiparous Beef Cows From Three Calving Systems and Varied Weaning Ages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a 2-yr study, primiparous beef cows produced in 3 calving systems were used to study milk yield throughout a 190-d lactation (2002, n = 20; 2003, n = 24 per calving system). Calving occurred in late winter (average calving date = February 4 ± 2 d), early spring (average calving date = March 30 ± ...

  8. Genome-Wide Association Analysis to Identify Loci for Milk Yield in Gyr Breed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome scan was conducted to identify QTL affecting milk yield in a Brazilian Gyr population of progeny test bulls (N=319). Data used in this study was derived from traditional genetic evaluation records computed by the Embrapa Dairy Cattleand released in May/2009 (http://www.cnpgl.embrapa.br/nova...

  9. Short Communication: Genetic and environmental relationships between milk yield and kidding interval in dairy goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    First-parity 305-day milk yield and intervals between first and second kiddings from 1975 through 2005 were analyzed to estimate genetic and environmental parameters for U.S. Alpine, Nubian, Saanen, and Toggenburg dairy goats. The complete data set included information from 5,180 sires, 23,827 does ...

  10. EFFECT OF FEEDING BROWN MIDRIB-3 CORN SILAGE OR CONVENTIONAL CORN SILAGE CUT AT EITHER 23 OR 71 CM ON MILK YIELD AND MILK COMPOSITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to evaluate the effect on milk yield when brown midrib 3 corn silage (bm3) cut at 23 cm or conventional corn silage cut at either 23 or 71 cm was fed to lactating dairy cows. Thirty lactating Holstein cows averaging 113 DIM and 37.3 kg milk daily were randomly assigned to one of si...

  11. Milk yield and reproductive performance of brucellosis-vaccinated but seropositive Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Miguel; Garcia, Angel M; Arellano-Reynoso, Beatriz; Diaz-Aparicio, Efren; Garcia, Jose E

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this research was to study if seropositivity for brucellosis in vaccinated cows against this disease hampers reproductive performance and milk production in high-yielding Holstein cows. For this purpose 1,026 healthy cows and 372 cows seropositive for brucellosis were enrolled in this study. Cows positive to card test and subsequently to the rivanol test were further subjected to the radial immunodiffusion (RID) test. It was found that only 11% of the presumably infected cows by brucellosis screening tests were really infected with this disease. The reproductive performance of the group of cows with 11% Brucella-infected animals was not impaired; overall pregnancy rate did not differ between seropositive and healthy cows (30.9 vs. 29.6%). The abortion rates were similar between seropositive cows (5.3%) and seronegative animals (6.9%). Cows in the herd with 11% Brucella-infected animals produced significantly more milk than unaffected cows over a 305-day lactation (10,684 ± 1,720 vs. 10,345 ± 1,736; mean ± SD; P < 0.05). It was concluded that in dairy herds vaccinated against brucellosis with both 19 and RB51 strains, supplemental tests such as RID need to be conducted on all reactors in order to maintain diagnostic accuracy. These results also indicate that 11% animal prevalence of brucellosis did not exert a detrimental effect on 305-day milk yield and reproductive performance in high milk-yielding Holstein cows. PMID:24254418

  12. Quantification of milk yield and composition changes as affected by subclinical mastitis during the current lactation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Martí De Olives, Ana; Díaz, J R; Molina, M P; Peris, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to quantify, on a half-udder basis, the changes in ewe milk yield and composition caused by unilateral subclinical mastitis within the current lactation. Fluctuations due to production level, infection severity, time from the onset of infection, and lactation curves were also studied. Yield and composition of milk from half-udders of unilateral infected ewes were compared between them and with a set of healthy halves using a mixed model. The experiment was completed with a whole-udder approach on the same animals. To test the effect of intramammary infection (IMI) in the 7 wk following the onset of infection, 20 ewes that acquired unilateral subclinical mastitis during lactation and 40 healthy ewes were used. Another group of 20 unilaterally infected ewes from wk 1 of lactation and other 40 healthy ewes were studied to test the effect of IMI on lactational milk yield and composition. The individual milk loss in ewes infected during lactation was 15% for the 7 wk following the onset of infection, and 6.6% more milk was produced by the uninfected half to compensate milk lost by the infected half. Lactational milk yield loss in ewes infected from wk 1 postpartum was 17%. The changes in milk yield were noticed from the week of infection diagnosis. The production level of animals influenced the milk yield changes caused by IMI in such a way that the more productive ewes lost more milk, although these losses were proportional to their production level. On the other hand, infection severity affected milk loss between glands, being more pronounced as somatic cell count increased. A clear decrease of lactose content and casein:protein ratio due to subclinical IMI was observed and it remained throughout the postinfection period. Improving udder health status is necessary to maintain milk production and quality in dairy ewes during lactation. PMID:24119805

  13. Time series autoregressive integrated moving average modeling of test-day milk yields of dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Macciotta, N P; Cappio-Borlino, A; Pulina, G

    2000-05-01

    Monthly test-day milk yields of 1200 dairy Sarda ewes were analyzed by time-series methods. Autocorrelation functions were calculated for lactations within parity classes and altitude of location of flocks. Spectral analysis of the successions of data was developed by Fourier transformation, and different Box-Jenkins autoregressive integrated moving average models were fitted. The separation of deterministic and stochastic components highlighted the autoregressive feature of milk production pattern. The forecasting power of autoregressive integrated moving average models was tested by predicting total milk production for a standardized lactation length of 225 d from only a few test-day records. Results indicated a greater forecasting capacity in comparison with standard methods and suggested further development of time-series analysis for studying lactation curves with more sophisticated methods, such as wavelet decomposition and neural network models. PMID:10821585

  14. Milk yield and composition from Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, P F; Menezes, L M; Azambuja, R C C; Suñé, R W; Barbosa Silveira, I D; Cardoso, F F

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed milk yield and composition of Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil. A total of 128 records were collected in 2 consecutive calving seasons from cows between 3 and 5 yr of age of 4 breed compositions: Angus (ANAN), Caracu × Angus (CRAN), Hereford × Angus (HHAN), and Nelore × Angus (NEAN). These cows were mated to Brangus (BN) or Braford (BO) bulls and managed under extensive grazing conditions in southern Brazil. Milk production of these cows was assessed by 2 procedures: indirectly by the calf weigh-suckle-weigh procedure (WD) and directly by machine milking (MM). Lactation curves were estimated using nonlinear regression and the following related traits were derived: peak yield (PY), peak week (PW), total yield at 210 d (TY210), and lactation persistence (PERS). Milk composition and calf weaning weight adjusted to 210 d (WW210) were also determined. The MM technique was considered more accurate because of lower standard errors of estimated means, greater statistical power, and greater correlation between TY210 and WW210 (0.50) compared to WD (0.36). Considering the more precise evaluation by MM, the CRAN and NEAN cows had greater TY210 (1070 and 1116 kg, respectively) and PY (8.1 and 7.8 kg, respectively) compared to ANAN and HHAN cows, which had 858 and 842 kg for TY210 and 6.6 and 6.3 kg for PY, respectively. The NEAN cows had the latest PW at 10.8 wk. Late-calving cows had 21% lower TY210 compared to cows that calved earlier. Milk composition was influenced by cow genotype, with CRAN and NEAN cows producing milk with greater fat (3.8 and 3.9%, respectively) and protein (3.2 and 3.1%, respectively) content compared to ANAN and HHAN cows. Regardless of the genotype, fat, protein, and total solids increased in concentration from beginning to end of lactation, while lactose content decreased. Crossbreeding of Angus with adapted breeds of taurine or indicine origin can be effective in increasing milk yield and nutrient

  15. [Herd-specific estimation of milk yield reduction due to recurrent clinical mastitis].

    PubMed

    Zoche-Golob, Veit; Spilke, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    To decide about investments in preventive measures improving udder health it is important that the farmer knows the monetary loss due to mastitis on his specific farm. The Saxon dairy herd improvement association (Sächsischer LandeskontrolIverband e.V., LKV) is developing a computer program called "Daten- und Informationsplattform Tier (DIT)"which determines - among other analyses - the milk loss caused by mastitis for a specific herd based on individual cow's mastitis and daily milk yield data. The present article introduces the linear mixed model which is taken as a basis for calculating the reduction in performance through clinical mastitis. The short and long term decrease in daily milk yield is described by expanding the lactation curve model of Ali and Schaeffer (1987). For falculating the short term drop, the model includes the laps of time in days since the mastitis incident as secon-ddegree polynomial. The coefficients are estimaged specifically for the first respectively every following case of mastitis (class of episode). Classes of episode are also considered calculating the long term decrease by estimating lactation curves without mastitis as well as corresponding to the classes of episode. By integrating the statistic software R (R Development Core Team, 2012) into the processes of the DIT the estimation of the farm specific model parameters is largely automated on the servers of the LKV.Thereby, milk yield can be estimated for every day in milk according to episode number and laps of time since the incident or with no mastitis incident respectively for a particular period of time in a specific dairy herd. The loss resulting from reduced performance due to clinical mastitis is specified by adding up the differences and can serve as a valuable basis for management decisions. PMID:23901581

  16. Milk yield and reproductive performance of Holstein cows testing positive for bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Miguel; Reséndiz, Dulce; Martínez, Angel Mario; de Santiago, Maria Angeles; Véliz, Francisco Gerardo; García, Jose Eduardo

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if high milk-yielding Holstein cows testing positive for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) are affected in their reproductive performance and milk yield. For this purpose, 1044 healthy cows and 105 bTB reactor cows were used. Tuberculosis reactor cows were from four large commercial dairy operations from the same region which were transferred from their barns to an isolated dairy facility. Cows free from this disease were placed in the same barn as the bTB reactor cows but in an isolated division and served as control animals. The analysis of variance with a general linear model for binary data showed that the reproductive performance of bTB reactors was impaired; overall pregnancy per artificial insemination differed (P < 0.05) between bTB reactor and non-reactor cows (16.9 vs. 20.7%). Cows that were TB reactors required 4.7 ± 2.9 services per pregnancy compared with 4.3 ± 2.8 for control cows (P > 0.05). The intervals between calving and conception were similar between bTB reactors (154 ± 78 days) and control animals (150 ± 80 days). Control cows tended (P = 0.08) to produce more milk than bTB reactors over a 305-day lactation (10,684 ± 1720 vs. 10,345 ± 1736; mean ± SD). Serum metabolites indicative of nutritional stress did not differ between bTB reactor and non-reactor cows. It was concluded that both reproductive performance and milk yield decreased marginally in bTB reactor cows, which explains the reluctance of milk producers to get rid of these animals. PMID:25894823

  17. Effect of a short dry period on milk yield and content, colostrum quality, fertility, and metabolic status of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Shoshani, E; Rozen, S; Doekes, J J

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of shortening the dry period (DP) on milk and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yields, milk components, colostrum quality, metabolic status, and reproductive parameters. Primiparous (n=372) and multiparous (n=400) Israeli Holstein cows from 5 commercial dairy herds were subjected to a 60-d or 40-d DP. Cows within each herd were paired according to milk production, age, days in milk, and expected calving. Analysis of the data from all cows, irrespective of age, revealed significant differences in milk and ECM yields that favored the 60-d DP, with a prominent effect in 2 of 5 examined herds. In primiparous cows, milk and ECM yields were similar between groups in 4 of 5 farms. In multiparous cows undergoing a 60-d (vs. 40-d) DP, milk and ECM yields were higher in 3 herds. These differences could not be explained by milk and ECM yields in cows diagnosed with metritis, ketosis, and mastitis (defined by a somatic cell count threshold of 250,000 cell/mL), distribution of infected and noninfected cows, or new infections during DP and after calving. Including the milk and ECM yields from an average of 19.55 d from the previous lactation revealed higher milk and ECM yields for 40-d (vs. 60-d) DP cows in all herds. Analyzing 2 consecutive lactations revealed similar milk and ECM yields between groups in 4 out of 5 herds. In 1 herd, yields were higher in the 40-d compared with the 60-d DP group. One week after calving, the nonesterified fatty acid concentrations of 40-d DP cows were significantly lower than those of 60-d DP cows, indicating better postpartum energy balance. Colostrum quality, measured as IgG concentration, did not differ between the 2 DP groups. Cows assigned to 40-d DP had better reproductive performance, as reflected by fewer days to first insemination, a lower proportion with >90 d to first insemination, and fewer days to pregnancy. With respect to primiparous cows, a short DP increased conception rate after first artificial insemination

  18. Relationships between conception rate in Holstein heifers and cows and milk yield at various stages of lactation.

    PubMed

    Hagiya, K; Terawaki, Y; Yamazaki, T; Nagamine, Y; Itoh, F; Yamaguchi, S; Abe, H; Gotoh, Y; Kawahara, T; Masuda, Y; Suzuki, M

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the relationships between conception rates (CRs) at first service in Japanese Holstein heifers (i.e. animals that had not yet had their first calf) and cows and their test-day (TD) milk yields. Data included records of artificial insemination (AI) for heifers and cows that had calved for the first time between 2000 and 2008 and their TD milk yields at 6 through 305 days in milk (DIM) from first through third lactations. CR was defined as a binary trait for which first AI was a failure or success. A threshold-linear animal model was applied to estimate genetic correlations between CRs of heifers or cows and TD milk yield at various lactation stages. Two-trait genetic analyses were performed for every combination of CR and TD milk yield by using the Bayesian method with Gibbs sampling. The posterior means of the heritabilities of CR were 0.031 for heifers, 0.034 for first-lactation cows and 0.028 for second-lactation cows. Heritabilities for TD milk yield increased from 0.324 to 0.433 with increasing DIM but decreased slightly after 210 DIM during first lactation. These heritabilities from the second and third lactations were higher during late stages of lactation than during early stages. Posterior means of the genetic correlations between heifer CR and all TD yields were positive (range, 0.082 to 0.287), but those between CR of cows and milk yields during first or second lactation were negative (range, -0.121 to -0.250). Therefore, during every stage of lactation, selection in the direction of increasing milk yield may reduce CR in cows. The genetic relationships between CR and lactation curve shape were quite weak, because the genetic correlations between CR and TD milk yield were constant during the lactation period. PMID:23597286

  19. Effects of three anthelmintic regimes on milk yield of ewes and growth of lambs.

    PubMed

    Fthenakis, G C; Papadopoulos, E; Himonas, C

    2005-03-01

    Forty ewes were allocated into one of four groups (n = 10) and were treated with albendazole (ALB) (3.8 mg kg(-1)) before lambing (group A), with ALB before and after lambing (group B), with moxidectin (MXD) (0.2 mg kg(-1)) before lambing (group C) or were untreated controls (group D). Counts of nematode eggs in faeces and coprocultures were carried out during the study, as well as ewes' milk yield measurements and lamb weighings. Pre-treatment mean eggs per gram (epg) counts were 640, 715, 625 and 630 for groups A, B, C and D, respectively (P > 0.05); respective counts 21 days after treatment were 5, 0, 0 and 690 epg, whilst 70 days after treatment they were 380, 145, 40 and 1120 epg. Mean lactation milk yield was 3527.5, 3893.5, 3786.4 and 3285.9 ml for groups A, B, C and D, respectively; no significant difference was evident among the four groups in milk yield collected during the suckling period, although subsequently, group B or C ewes yielded significantly more milk than controls (P < 0.05). Mean birthweight of lambs were 3.56, 3.45, 3.59 and 3.26 kg for groups A, B, C and D, respectively (P = 0.045); subsequently, lambs from treated ewes were significantly heavier than lambs from control animals (P < 0.001). We conclude that anti-parasitic treatment during the last month of pregnancy contributed to an increased birthweight of lambs of treated ewes, whilst the cumulative effect of two doses of ALB or the long persistent efficacy of MXD provided a longer protection of animals against new parasitic infections and contributed to a lactation persistence. PMID:15737176

  20. Genetic Parameters for Milk Yield and Lactation Persistency Using Random Regression Models in Girolando Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Canaza-Cayo, Ali William; Lopes, Paulo Sávio; da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto Barbosa; de Almeida Torres, Robledo; Martins, Marta Fonseca; Arbex, Wagner Antonio; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo

    2015-01-01

    A total of 32,817 test-day milk yield (TDMY) records of the first lactation of 4,056 Girolando cows daughters of 276 sires, collected from 118 herds between 2000 and 2011 were utilized to estimate the genetic parameters for TDMY via random regression models (RRM) using Legendre’s polynomial functions whose orders varied from 3 to 5. In addition, nine measures of persistency in milk yield (PSi) and the genetic trend of 305-day milk yield (305MY) were evaluated. The fit quality criteria used indicated RRM employing the Legendre’s polynomial of orders 3 and 5 for fitting the genetic additive and permanent environment effects, respectively, as the best model. The heritability and genetic correlation for TDMY throughout the lactation, obtained with the best model, varied from 0.18 to 0.23 and from −0.03 to 1.00, respectively. The heritability and genetic correlation for persistency and 305MY varied from 0.10 to 0.33 and from −0.98 to 1.00, respectively. The use of PS7 would be the most suitable option for the evaluation of Girolando cattle. The estimated breeding values for 305MY of sires and cows showed significant and positive genetic trends. Thus, the use of selection indices would be indicated in the genetic evaluation of Girolando cattle for both traits. PMID:26323397

  1. Predicting grass dry matter intake, milk yield and milk fat and protein yield of spring calving grazing dairy cows during the grazing season.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, B F; Lewis, E; O'Donovan, M; Shalloo, L; Galvin, N; Mulligan, F J; Boland, T M; Delagarde, R

    2013-08-01

    Predicting the grass dry matter intake (GDMI), milk yield (MY) or milk fat and protein yield (milk solids yield (MSY)) of the grazing dairy herd is difficult. Decisions with regard to grazing management are based on guesstimates of the GDMI of the herd, yet GDMI is a critical factor influencing MY and MSY. A data set containing animal, sward, grazing management and concentrate supplementation variables recorded during weeks of GDMI measurement was used to develop multiple regression equations to predict GDMI, MY and MSY. The data set contained data from 245 grazing herds from 10 published studies conducted at Teagasc, Moorepark. A forward stepwise multiple regression technique was used to develop the multiple regression equations for each of the dependent variables (GDMI, MY, MSY) for three periods during the grazing season: spring (SP; 5 March to 30 April), summer (SU; 1 May to 31 July) and autumn (AU; 1 August to 31 October). The equations generated highlighted the importance of different variables associated with GDMI, MY and MSY during the grazing season. Peak MY was associated with an increase in GDMI, MY and MSY during the grazing season with the exception of GDMI in SU when BW accounted for more of the variation. A higher body condition score (BCS) at calving was associated with a lower GDMI in SP and SU and a lower MY and MSY in all periods. A higher BCS was associated with a higher GDMI in SP and SU, a higher MY in SU and AU and a higher MSY in all periods. The pre-grazing herbage mass of the sward (PGHM) above 4 cm was associated with a quadratic effect on GDMI in SP, on MY in SP and SU and on MSY in SU. An increase in daily herbage allowance (DHA) above 4 cm was associated with an increase in GDMI in AU, an increase in MY in SU and AU and MSY in AU. Supplementing grazing dairy cows with concentrate reduced GDMI and increased MY and MSY in all periods. The equations generated can be used by the Irish dairy industry during the grazing season to predict the

  2. Investigation of major gene for milk yield, milking speed, dry matter intake, and body weight in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Karacaören, Burak; Kadarmideen, Haja N; Janss, Luc L G

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine if there exist any major gene for milk yield (MY), milking speed (MS), dry matter intake (DMI), and body weight (BW) recorded at various stages of lactation in first-lactation dairy cows (2543 observations from 320 cows) kept at the research farm of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology between April 1994 and April 2004. Data were modelled based a simple repeatability covariance structure and analysed by using Bayesian segregation analyses. Gibbs sampling was used to make statistical inferences on posterior distributions; inferences were based on a single run of the Markov chain for each trait with 500,000 samples, with each 10th sample collected because of the high correlation among the samples. The posterior mean (+/-SD) of major gene variance was 2.61 (+/-2.46) for MY, 0.83 (+/-1.26) for MS, 4.37 (+/-2.34) for DMI, and 2056.43 (+/-665.67) for BW. Highest posterior density regions for 3 of the 4 traits did not include 0 (except MS), which supported the evidence for major gene. With additional tests for agreement with Mendelian transmission probabilities, we could only confirm the existence of a major gene for MY, but not for MS, DMI, and BW. Expected Mendelian transmission probabilities and their model fits were also compared. PMID:17132898

  3. Bacterial subclinical mastitis and its effect on milk yield in low-input dairy goat herds.

    PubMed

    Gelasakis, A I; Angelidis, A S; Giannakou, R; Filioussis, G; Kalamaki, M S; Arsenos, G

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to record the major pathogens associated with subclinical mastitis (SCM), (2) to calculate their incidence during the milking period, and (3) to estimate the effect of SCM on daily milk yield (DMY) for goats reared under low-input management schemes. Dairy goats (n=590) of Skopelos and indigenous Greek breeds from 4 herds were randomly selected for the study. The study included monthly monitoring, milk yield recording, and bacteriological analyses of milk of individual goats during the course of 2 successive milking periods. Incidence and cumulative incidence were calculated for SCM cases. Moreover, 2 mixed linear regression models were built to assess the effects of (1) SCM and (2) different pathogens isolated from SCM cases, on DMY. The estimated incidence and cumulative incidence of SCM for the first and the second year of the study were 69.5 and 96.4 new cases of SCM/1,000 goat-months, and 24.1 and 31.7%, respectively. A total of 755 milk samples were subjected to microbiological examination, resulting in 661 positive cultures. Coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococci were isolated from 50.2 and 34.5% of the positive cultures, respectively. The incidence of infections (new infections per 1,000 goat-months) for the first and the second year of the study were 34 and 53 for coagulase-negative staphylococci, 23 and 28 for coagulase-positive staphylococci, 3 and 5 for Streptococcus/Enterococcus spp., and 5.5 and 9.1 for gram-negative bacteria. Goats with SCM had lower DMY when compared with goats without SCM (ca. 47g/d, corresponding to a 5.7% decrease in DMY). In particular, goats with SCM due to coagulase-positive staphylococci infection produced approximately 80g/d less milk (a reduction of ca. 9.7%) compared with uninfected ones, whereas SCM due to gram-negative bacteria resulted in approximately 15% reduction in DMY. Investigating the epidemiology of SCM and its effects on production traits is critical for

  4. Effect of ruminally unprotected Echium oil on milk yield, composition and fatty acid profile in mid-lactation goats.

    PubMed

    Renna, Manuela; Lussiana, Carola; Cornale, Paolo; Battaglini, Luca Maria; Fortina, Riccardo; Mimosi, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effects on goat milk yield and composition of a diet supplemented with Echium plantagineum oil (EPO). Twenty-four mid-lactation multiparous Camosciata goats were divided into two balanced groups and fed for 44 d a diet based on hay and concentrate, supplemented (EPO group, Echium) or not (CON group, control) with 40 ml of ruminally unprotected EPO. Individual milk yield was recorded and individual milk samples were collected at 11, 22, 33, and 44 d after supplementation. Milk samples were analysed for milk components and fatty acids (FA). Data were statistically analysed by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Milk yield, protein and lactose contents were significantly higher in EPO than CON group. The inclusion of EPO significantly decreased total saturated FA and total branched-chain FA, and contemporarily sharply increased trans biohydrogenation intermediates (P ⩽ 0.001). Milk concentration of α-linolenic, stearidonic and γ-linolenic acids increased by 23, 1000 and 67%, respectively (P ⩽ 0.001). Due to extensive ruminal biohydrogenation, their apparent transfer rate was less than 3%. As a consequence, the milk concentrations of very long-chain (VLC) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as eicosapentaenoic (20:5 n-3) and dihomo-γ-linolenic (20:3 n-6) acids, significantly increased with EPO treatment, but values remained very low. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) was undetectable in all analysed milk samples. Results show that ruminally unprotected EPO can enhance milk yield and protein and improve the overall goat milk FA profile. However, this kind of supplementation cannot be considered a valuable strategy to develop goat functional dairy products enriched with VLC n-3 PUFA for human consumption. PMID:26869109

  5. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) increases milk yield without losing body weight in lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Joo, Young-Kuk; Lee, Jin-Woo; Ha, Young-Joo; Yeo, Joon-Mo; Kim, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance of lactating sows and piglets as well as the immunity of piglets suckling from sows fed CLA. Eighteen multiparous Duroc sows with an average body weight (BW) of 232.0 ± 6.38 kg were randomly selected and assigned to two dietary treatments (n = 9 for each treatment), control (no CLA addition) and 1% CLA supplementation. For the control diet, CLA was replaced with soybean oil. Experimental diets were fed to sows during a 28-day lactation period. Litter size for each sow was standardized to nine piglets by cross-fostering within 24 hours after birth. Sow milk and blood samples were taken from sows and piglets after 21 and 27 days of lactation, respectively. Loss of BW was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed control diet compared to sows fed CLA diet. Piglet weights at weaning and weight gain during suckling were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed CLA compared to sows fed control diet. Serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and urea nitrogen concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. IgG concentrations of the groups supplemented with CLA increased by 49% in sow serum (p < 0.0001), 23% in milk (p < 0.05), and 35% in piglet serum (p < 0.05) compared with the control group. Sows fed CLA showed an increase of 10% in milk yield compared with sows fed soybean oil (p < 0.05), even though there was no difference in daily feed intake between the treatments. Milk fat content was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. Solid-not-fat yield was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows supplemented with CLA than in sows fed control diet and also protein-to-fat ratio in milk was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed CLA compared with the control group. The results show that CLA supplementation to sows increased milk yield without losing BW during

  6. Milk yield and associated economic losses in quarters with subclinical mastitis due to Staphylococcus aureus in Ethiopian crossbred dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, Gebreyohannes Y; Regassa, Fekadu Gudeta; Kelay, B

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence and losses associated with subclinical mastitis (SCM) caused by Staphylococcus aureus in Ethiopian crossbred dairy cows. A split-udder trial was carried out to determine milk yield losses in udder quarter with S. aureus-caused SCM. Each quarter of the study cows was examined using the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and quarter milk production was measured over a period of 8 days. Milk yield losses for CMT positive quarters were estimated by comparing production of quarters with CMT score 0. Mean milk yield for uninfected healthy quarters was 1.66 kg per milking (95% CI, 1.66-1.55 kg per milking), and the rate of milk reduction for quarters with CMT scores of 1+, 2+, and 3+ was 25%, 33%, and 48%, respectively. Economic losses at different farm-size levels were calculated by multiplying the prevalence of CMT scores with milk yield losses associated with respective CMT scores. In Debre Ziet dairy herds, a quarter with SCM due to S. aureus lost an average of 34.5% of its potential milk production while the total milk yield loss per cow was estimated at 6.8%. Losses were highest in large-scale (13%) farms and lowest (3.7%) in small-scale. Based on the prevalence, the overall financial loss for each cow per lactation was 984.64 Eth Birr (US$78.65) and losses in large farms (1,882.40 Eth Birr or US$150.35) were over 3.5 times the loss in small-size farms. These figures possibly underestimate the potential benefits of mastitis control program as they do not include other direct and indirect costs. PMID:20012690

  7. The influence of casein haplotype on quality, coagulation, and yield traits of milk from Italian Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Gambacorta, Emilio; Simonetti, Amalia

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of casein haplotype (CSN1S1, CSN2, and CSN3) on quality, coagulation, and yield traits of milk from Italian Holstein cows. The casein haplotype was determined by isoelectric focusing; milk clotting properties were determined by using a mechanical lacto-dynamographic instrument; and the yields of pressed and pasta filata cheeses were expressed as kilograms of cheese per 100kg of milk processed. Statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the casein haplotype. In particular, BB-A(1)A(1)-AA milk showed the highest fat content (4.01g/100g), whereas BB-A(2)A(2)-BB milk had a higher protein content, the best coagulation characteristics, and the highest yields in pressed and pasta filata cheeses, and, consequently, better ability to retain fat and protein in the curd. The results of this study suggest that knowledge of milk protein polymorphisms not only allows the production of milk with specific qualitative and quantitative characteristics, but it could also be used as a specific marker within a breed to identify milk suitable for cheesemaking, which confers an economical advantage for dairy producers. PMID:26947288

  8. Responses to Starch Infusion on Milk Synthesis in Low Yield Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yang; Yang, Zhanshan; Guo, Yongqing; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun

    2015-01-01

    The effect of starch infusion on production, metabolic parameters and relative mRNA abundance was investigated in low yield lactating cows from 86 days in milk. Six Holstein cows fitted with permanent ruminal cannulas were arranged into one of two complete 3×3 Latin squares and infused with a starch solution containing 800 grams starch for 16 days. The three treatments were: i) ruminal and abomasal infusion with water (Control); ii) ruminal infusion with cornstarch solution and abomasal infusion with water (Rumen); iii) ruminal infusion with water and abomasal infusion with cornstarch solution (Abomasum). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) among the three treatments with low yield lactating cows in feed and energy intake, milk yield and composition, plasma metabolism, or even on gene expression. However, cows receiving starch through rumen performed better than directly through the abomasum during the glucose tolerance test procedure with a higher area under the curve (AUC; p = 0.08) and shorter half-time (t1/2; p = 0.11) of plasma insulin, therefore, it increased glucose disposal, which stated a lipid anabolism other than mobilization after energy supplementation. In conclusion, extra starch infusion at concentration of 800 g/d did not enhance energy supplies to the mammary gland and improve the lactating performance in low yield lactating cows. PMID:26194224

  9. Effects of age, parity, season of calving, and sire on milk yield of Carora cows in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Morales, F; Blake, R W; Stanton, T L; Hahn, M V

    1989-08-01

    Age-parity-season of calving, mature equivalent factors were developed for the Carora breed of Venezuela from more than 13,000 244-d milk yield records from the Venezuelan milk recording program from 1975 to 1986. Age-parity-season interactions with parity-age were most important for young cows and seasonal effects most important for old cows. Multiplicative factors were verified as useful to adjust milk yields of Carora and Brown Swiss crossbred cows. Repeatabilities for mature equivalent adjusted milk were .47, .36, and .38 between pairs of repeated records through fourth lactation. Heritability of milk in first lactation by REML procedures was 12% based on 44 Carora sires with 14 effective daughters per sire. Small population size for Carora cattle hinders usefulness and cost effectiveness of progeny testing as the primary investment in genetic gain. Greater potential economy is likely from exploiting the dams of sires genetic pathway. PMID:2794175

  10. Pathogen-specific effects on milk yield in repeated clinical mastitis episodes in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Gröhn, Y T

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of clinical mastitis (CM) cases due to different pathogens on milk yield in Holstein cows. The first 3 CM cases in a cow's lactation were modeled. Eight categories of pathogens were included: Streptococcus spp.; Staphylococcus aureus; coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); Escherichia coli; Klebsiella spp.; cases with CM signs but no bacterial growth (above the level detectable by our microbiological procedures) observed in the culture sample, and cases with contamination (≥ 3 pathogens in the sample); other pathogens that may be treated with antibiotics (included Citrobacter, Corynebacterium bovis, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Pasteurella, Pseudomonas; "other treatable"); and other pathogens not successfully treated with antibiotics (Trueperella pyogenes, Mycoplasma, Prototheca, yeasts; "other not treatable"). Data from 38,276 lactations in cows from 5 New York State dairy herds, collected from 2003-2004 until 2011, were analyzed. Mixed models with an autoregressive correlation structure (to account for correlation among the repeated measures of milk yield within a lactation) were estimated. Primiparous (lactation 1) and multiparous (lactations 2 and 3) cows were analyzed separately, as the shapes of their lactation curves differed. Primiparas were followed for up to 48 wk of lactation and multiparas for up to 44 wk. Fixed effects included parity, calving season, week of lactation, CM (type, case number, and timing of CM in relation to milk production cycle), and other diseases (milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum). Herd was modeled as a random effect. Clinical mastitis was more common in multiparas than in primiparas. In primiparas, Streptococcus spp. occurred most frequently as the first case. In multiparas, E. coli was most common as the first case. In subsequent cases, CM cases with no specific growth or contamination were most common in both parity groups. The hazard of

  11. Effects of direct-fed Bacillus pumilus 8G-134 on feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, feed conversion, and health condition of pre- and postpartum Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Luan, S; Duersteler, M; Galbraith, E A; Cardoso, F C

    2015-09-01

    The usage of direct-fed microbials (DFM) has become common in the dairy industry, but questions regarding choice of strain, mode of action, and efficacy remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a DFM (Bacillus pumilus 8G-134) on pre- and postpartum performance and incidence of subclinical ketosis in early lactation. Forty-three multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 2 treatments in a randomized complete block design; cows in the direct-fed microbial treatment (DFMt, n=21) received 5.0×10(9) cfu/cow of B. pumilus in 28 g of a maltodextrin carrier, whereas cows in the control treatment (CON, n=22) received 28 g of maltodextrin carrier alone. Treatments were top-dressed on the total mixed ration daily. Treatments were applied from 21 d before expected calving date to 154 d after calving. Cows on treatment DFMt tended to have lower serum haptoglobin concentration than CON cows on d 14. Cows on treatment DFMt had higher IgA concentrations in milk than CON cows during the first week after calving. Cows fed DFMt had higher yields of milk, fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, milk fat, and milk protein during the second week of lactation than CON; however, we found no differences between treatments on milk yield and milk components overall. Cows on DFMt tended to have higher feed conversion and to have lower prevalence of subclinical ketosis (beta-hydroxybutyrate >1.2 mmol/L) on d 5 than cows fed CON. Dry matter intake, body weight, and body condition score were not affected by DFMt supplementation. Milk production efficiencies (calculated based on fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk) were higher by 0.1 kg of milk per kilogram of dry matter intake in cows that received DFMt compared with cows that received CON. In conclusion, cows receiving DFMt tended to have lower incidence of subclinical ketosis than cows receiving CON. Cows fed DFMt tended to have higher feed conversion and evidence for greater immunity than CON

  12. Effects of neutral detergent fiber and roughage source on dry matter intake and milk yield and composition of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Briceno, J V; Van Horn, H H; Harris, B; Wilcox, C J

    1987-02-01

    Data were from 20 experiments that utilized early to midlactation Holstein cows fed complete mixed diets or fed at constant forage:concentrate ratios. Within-cow diet comparisons (1688 cow-periods) were analyzed by least squares analysis of variance; mathematical model included experiment, cow in experiment, period, body weight, and source of roughage. Objectives were to determine relationships between neutral detergent fiber content of diet and milk yield and dry matter intake. Roughages and number of cow-periods were: sugarcane bagasse/silage (507), cottonseed hulls (504), corn silage (268), ground corrugated boxes (170), alfalfa/peanut hay (132), and others (107). Dry matter intake and estimated net energy intake had linear effects on milk yield and explained 21.6 and 24.0% of its residual variation; milk yield had curvilinear (quadratic) effect and explained 22.4% of dry matter intake residual variation. Interaction between neutral detergent fiber and source of roughage on milk yield, 4% fat-corrected milk, and dry matter intake resulted in reductions of 5.6, 5.6, and 13% in residual variations. Results suggest neutral detergent (% of dry matter) has greater effect on dry matter intake than on milk yield and its use in formulating diets for dairy cows will be within roughage source. PMID:3033038

  13. Dietary fish oil supplements depress milk fat yield and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kairenius, P; Ärölä, A; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Hurme, T; Griinari, J M; Shingfield, K J

    2015-08-01

    The potential of dietary fish oil (FO) supplements to increase milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations and the associated effects on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, intake, and milk production were examined. Four multiparous lactating cows offered a grass silage-based diet (forage:concentrate ratio 58:42, on a dry matter basis) supplemented with 0, 75, 150, or 300g of FO/d (FO0, FO75, FO150, and FO300, respectively) were used in a 4×4 Latin square with 28-d experimental periods. Milk FA composition was analyzed by complementary silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and silver-ion HPLC. Supplements of FO decreased linearly dry matter intake, yields of energy-corrected milk, milk fat and protein, and milk fat content. Compared with FO0, milk fat content and yield were decreased by 30.1 and 40.6%, respectively, on the FO300 treatment. Supplements of FO linearly increased milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.18 and 0.03 to 0.10g/100g of FA, respectively. Enrichment of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was accompanied by decreases in 4- to 18-carbon saturated FA and increases in total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans FA, and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Fish oil elevated milk fat cis-9,trans-11 CLA content in a quadratic manner, reaching a maximum on FO150 (from 0.61 to 2.15g/100g of FA), whereas further amounts of FO increased trans-10 18:1 with no change in trans-11 18:1 concentration. Supplements of FO also resulted in a dose-dependent appearance of 37 unique 20- and 22-carbon intermediates in milk fat. Concentrations of 16-, 18-, 20-, and 22-carbon trans FA were all increased by FO, with enrichment of trans 18:1 and trans 18:2 being quantitatively the most important. Decreases in milk fat yield to FO were not related to changes in milk trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentration or estimated milk fat melting point. Partial least square regression analysis indicated that FO-induced milk fat depression was associated with

  14. Genetic parameters of test-day milk yield in Guzerá cattle under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Cruz, D A C; Peixoto, M G C D; Bruneli, F A T; Bignardi, A B; El Faro, L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for test-day milk yield (TDMY) in Guzerá cows using random regression models. Additive and permanent environmental random effects were modeled by random regression on fourth- and fifth-order orthogonal Legendre polynomials, respectively. The residual variances were heterogeneous, with seven classes. Heritability estimates for TDMY ranged from 0.24 to 0.52, with higher heritabilities for yields during early lactation. Genetic correlations between TDMYs ranged from -0.03 to 0.95. The phenotypic and permanent environmental correlations were all positive, and the highest estimates were between adjacent TDMYs. The results suggest that TDMYs obtained with random regression models may be used as selection criteria for Guzerá cattle. PMID:26535676

  15. The effect of paratuberculosis on milk yield--A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    McAloon, Conor G; Whyte, Paul; More, Simon J; Green, Martin J; O'Grady, Luke; Garcia, AnaBelen; Doherty, Michael L

    2016-02-01

    Bovine paratuberculosis is a disease characterized by chronic granulomatous enteritis causing protein-losing enteropathy. Adverse effects on animal productivity are key drivers in the attempt to control paratuberculosis at the farm level. Economic models require an accurate estimation of the production effects associated with paratuberculosis. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect of paratuberculosis on milk production. A total of 20 effect estimates from 15 studies were included in the final meta-analysis. Substantial between-study heterogeneity was observed. Subgroup analysis by case definition and study design was carried out to investigate heterogeneity. The majority of between-study variation was attributed to studies that defined cases on serology. Calculation of a pooled effect estimate was only appropriate for studies that defined cases by organism detection. A reduction in milk yield, corrected for lactation number and herd of origin of 1.87 kg/d, equivalent to 5.9% of yield, was associated with fecal culture or PCR positivity in individual cows. PMID:26686704

  16. Candidate gene association analysis for milk yield, composition, urea nitrogen and somatic cell scores in Brown Swiss cows.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A; Ribeca, C; Chessa, S; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Maretto, F; Casellas, J; Bittante, G

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 96 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 54 candidate genes, and test the associations of the polymorphic SNPs with milk yield, composition, milk urea nitrogen (MUN) content and somatic cell score (SCS) in individual milk samples from Italian Brown Swiss cows. Milk and blood samples were collected from 1271 cows sampled once from 85 herds. Milk production, quality traits (i.e. protein, casein, fat and lactose percentages), MUN and SCS were measured for each milk sample. Genotyping was performed using a custom Illumina VeraCode GoldenGate approach. A Bayesian linear animal model that considered the effects of herd, days in milk, parity, SNP genotype and additive polygenic effect was used for the association analysis. Our results showed that 14 of the 51 polymorphic SNPs had relevant additive effects on at least one of the aforementioned traits. Polymorphisms in the glucocorticoid receptor DNA-binding factor 1 (GRLF1), prolactin receptor (PRLR) and chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) were associated with milk yield; an SNP in the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD-1) was related to fat content; SNPs in the caspase recruitment domain 15 protein (CARD15) and lipin 1 (LPIN1) affected the protein and casein contents; SNPs in growth hormone 1 (GH1), lactotransferrin (LTF) and SCD-1 were relevant for casein number; variants in beta casein (CSN2), GH1, GRLF1 and LTF affected lactose content; SNPs in beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), serpin peptidase inhibitor (PI) and SCD-1 were associated with MUN; and SNPs in acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (ACACA) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A (STAT5A) were relevant in explaining the variation of SCS. Although further research is needed to validate these SNPs in other populations and breeds, the association between these markers and milk yield, composition, MUN and SCS could be exploited in gene-assisted selection programs for genetic improvement purposes. PMID:24804775

  17. Associations of subclinical hypocalcemia at calving with milk yield, and feeding, drinking, and standing behaviors around parturition in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Jawor, P E; Huzzey, J M; LeBlanc, S J; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the associations of subclinical hypocalcemia with milk yield, and feeding, drinking, and resting behavior during the period around calving. Blood was sampled within 24h of calving and analyzed for serum total calcium. Fifteen Holstein dairy cows were classified as having subclinical hypocalcemia (serum calcium concentration ≤ 1.8 mmol/L, without clinical milk fever) and were matched with 15 control cows (serum calcium concentration >1.8 mmol/L) based on parity and presence of other diseases. Daily feeding and drinking behavior were monitored using an electronic feeding system (Insentec, BV, Marknesse, the Netherlands) and summarized by week relative to calving (wk -3, -2, -1, +1, +2, and +3). Standing behavior was monitored from 7 d before until 7 d after calving using dataloggers. Daily milk yields were obtained for all cows up to 280 d in milk (DIM). These data were summarized by week for the first 4 wk of lactation to assess short-term differences in milk yield, and were summarized into 4-wk periods to assess long-term (280 DIM) differences in milk yield between groups. Cows with subclinical hypocalcemia produced, on average, 5.7 kg/d more milk during wk 2, 3, and 4 compared with control cows; however, only subclinically hypocalcemic cows in their third lactation sustained greater milk yields throughout 280 DIM. Despite greater milk yield during the weeks following calving, cows with subclinical hypocalcemia did not consume more water after calving and tended to have greater dry matter intake only during wk 2. However, these animals made fewer visits to the water bins during the first 2 wk after calving and tended to make fewer visits to the feed bins during wk 1 and 3, suggesting that they used these resources more efficiently. Dry matter intake was, on average, 1.7 kg/d greater during wk -2 and -1 among cows subsequently diagnosed with subclinical hypocalcemia compared with control cows but neither group was

  18. A decision-tree model to detect post-calving diseases based on rumination, activity, milk yield, BW and voluntary visits to the milking robot.

    PubMed

    Steensels, M; Antler, A; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D; Maltz, E; Halachmi, I

    2016-09-01

    Early detection of post-calving health problems is critical for dairy operations. Separating sick cows from the herd is important, especially in robotic-milking dairy farms, where searching for a sick cow can disturb the other cows' routine. The objectives of this study were to develop and apply a behaviour- and performance-based health-detection model to post-calving cows in a robotic-milking dairy farm, with the aim of detecting sick cows based on available commercial sensors. The study was conducted in an Israeli robotic-milking dairy farm with 250 Israeli-Holstein cows. All cows were equipped with rumination- and neck-activity sensors. Milk yield, visits to the milking robot and BW were recorded in the milking robot. A decision-tree model was developed on a calibration data set (historical data of the 10 months before the study) and was validated on the new data set. The decision model generated a probability of being sick for each cow. The model was applied once a week just before the veterinarian performed the weekly routine post-calving health check. The veterinarian's diagnosis served as a binary reference for the model (healthy-sick). The overall accuracy of the model was 78%, with a specificity of 87% and a sensitivity of 69%, suggesting its practical value. PMID:27221983

  19. Effects of bovine mammary gland biopsy and increased milking frequency on post-procedure udder health, histology, and milk yield.

    PubMed

    Lima, J A M; Ruas, J R M; Vasconcelos, A C; Silper, B F; Lana, A M Q; Gheller, V A; Saturnino, H M; Reis, R B; Coelho, S G

    2016-05-01

    Sixteen cows in early lactation were randomly distributed into two groups in order to evaluate the effects of mammary biopsies and increased milking frequency on tissue characteristics, post-biopsy udder health and histology. One group was milked twice a day (2×) starting on the 2nd day after calving, until 28 days in milk (DIM). The other group was milked four times a day (4×) from two to 21 DIM, and twice a day (2×) from 22 to 28 DIM. On days 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 postpartum, one fragment of secretory tissue was collected from one mammary quarter at a time. Collections were alternated between the four mammary quarters per collection day. A total of 80 mammary tissue samples were collected. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the tissues were conducted by histologic examination. Animal health was assessed by observation of feed intake behavior immediately after biopsy, and weight and body condition score before and one week after biopsy. Udder health was assessed daily from calving to 60 DIM with California Mastitis Test (CMT) and by noting alterations in the milk such as blood, milk clots, blood clots, clinical signs of mastitis. Milk composition and somatic cell count (SCC) were analyzed before and after the biopsies. Milk production was evaluated before biopsy, on the day of biopsy, and after the biopsy. An average of 10 fields at 40× magnification was obtained from each sample. There were no evident changes in mammary morphology as a result of milking two or four times/day at any of the evaluated time points. Biopsy wounds healed rapidly without infection. Intramammary bleeding and CMT alterations were observed in 96% and 75% of the biopsied mammary quarters, respectively. Clinical mastitis was diagnosed in 12% of the biopsied quarters. Different milking frequencies had no effect on the frequency and duration of post-biopsy alterations. Milk production decreased after biopsies done on days 2 for 2× and 4× groups, but it returned to pre-biopsy values

  20. Phenotypic and Genetic Relationships of Common Health Disorders with Milk and Fat Yield Persistencies from Producer- Recorded Health Data and Test Day Yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate phenotypic and genetic relationships of common health disorders in dairy cows to milk (PMY) and fat (PFY) yield persistencies. Health and production data from 398 commercial dairy herds were used. Disease traits were developed in binary form for indivi...

  1. Dairy cattle in a temperate climate: the effects of weather on milk yield and composition depend on management.

    PubMed

    Hill, D L; Wall, E

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of how livestock respond to weather is essential to enable farming to adapt to a changing climate. Climate change is mainly expected to impact dairy cattle through heat stress and an increase in the frequency of extreme weather events. We investigated the effects of weather on milk yield and composition (fat and protein content) in an experimental dairy herd in Scotland over 21 years. Holstein Friesian cows were either housed indoors in winter and grazed over the summer or were continuously housed. Milk yield was measured daily, resulting in 762 786 test day records from 1369 individuals, and fat and protein percentage were sampled once a week, giving 89 331 records from 1220 cows/trait. The relative influence of 11 weather elements, measured from local outdoor weather stations, and two indices of temperature and humidity (THI), indicators of heat stress, were compared using separate maximum likelihood models for each element or index. Models containing a direct measure of temperature (dry bulb, wet bulb, grass or soil temperature) or a THI provided the best fits to milk yield and fat data; wind speed and the number of hours of sunshine were most important in explaining protein content. Weather elements summarised across a week's timescale from the test day usually explained milk yield and fat content better than shorter-scale (3 day, test day, test day -1) metrics. Then, examining a subset of key weather variables using restricted maximum likelihood, we found that THI, wind speed and the number of hours of sunshine influenced milk yield and composition. The shape and magnitude of these effects depended on whether animals were inside or outside on the test day. The milk yield of cows outdoors was lower at the extremes of THI than at average values, and the highest yields were obtained when THI, recorded at 0900 h, was 55 units. Cows indoors decreased milk yield as THI increased. Fat content was lower at higher THIs than at intermediate THIs

  2. Test day variability in yield and composition of Surti and Mehsani buffaloes milk at day 15 and 60 postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, K. K.; Brahmkshtri, B. P.; Ramani, U. V.; Kharadi, V. B.; Pandaya, G. M.; Janmeda, M.; Ankuya, K. J.; Patel, M. D.; Sorathiya, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To estimate individual test day variability in yield and composition of Surti and Mehsani buffaloes milk at day 15 and 60 postpartum (pp). Materials and Methods: A total of 13 normally calved Surti and Mehsani buffaloes each maintained at Livestock Research Stations of Navsari and Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural Universities, respectively, were selected for the study. Milk sample was collected from each selected buffalo at day 15 and 60 pp to study milk yield and composition variability between these two breeds. Buffaloes were categorized for the ease of data analysis and comparisons into four groups, viz., S15 (Surti buffaloes 15th day pp), S60 (Surti buffaloes 60th day pp), M15 (Mehsani buffaloes 15th day pp), and M60 (Mehsani buffaloes 60th day pp). Results: There were 37.20% and 25.03% significant (p≤0.05) increase in mean test day milk yield (TDMY) of S60 and M60 as compared to S15 and M15 groups, respectively. The mean TDMY of Mehsani buffalo was 99.19% and 81.53% significantly (p≤0.05) higher than Surti buffaloes at day 15 and 60 pp, respectively. The mean fat and protein corrected test day milk yield (FPCTDMY) of all the groups was found to be significantly different (p≤0.05) from each other. There was significant (p≤0.05) increase of 1.94 and 3.45 kg in mean FPCTDMY with the progression of lactation between day 15 and 60 pp in Surti and Mehsani buffaloes, respectively. Similarly, the mean FPCTDMY of Mehsani buffaloes were approximately double with 103.27% and 96.36% higher yield as compared to Surti buffaloes at day 15 and 60 pp, respectively. Among milk composition, significant differences were observed for solid not fat (SNF) and protein%, whereas fat and lactose% were steady among four groups. The only significant (p≤0.05) difference was observed for SNF in M60 group, which was 8.29%, 6.85%, and 10.70% higher as compared to S15, S60, and M15 groups, respectively. The mean protein% in milk of Mehsani buffaloes was 21.01% and 33

  3. Genetic parameters for test-day yield of milk, fat and protein in buffaloes estimated by random regression models.

    PubMed

    Aspilcueta-Borquis, Rúsbel R; Araujo Neto, Francisco R; Baldi, Fernando; Santos, Daniel J A; Albuquerque, Lucia G; Tonhati, Humberto

    2012-08-01

    The test-day yields of milk, fat and protein were analysed from 1433 first lactations of buffaloes of the Murrah breed, daughters of 113 sires from 12 herds in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, born between 1985 and 2007. For the test-day yields, 10 monthly classes of lactation days were considered. The contemporary groups were defined as the herd-year-month of the test day. Random additive genetic, permanent environmental and residual effects were included in the model. The fixed effects considered were the contemporary group, number of milkings (1 or 2 milkings), linear and quadratic effects of the covariable cow age at calving and the mean lactation curve of the population (modelled by third-order Legendre orthogonal polynomials). The random additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were estimated by means of regression on third- to sixth-order Legendre orthogonal polynomials. The residual variances were modelled with a homogenous structure and various heterogeneous classes. According to the likelihood-ratio test, the best model for milk and fat production was that with four residual variance classes, while a third-order Legendre polynomial was best for the additive genetic effect for milk and fat yield, a fourth-order polynomial was best for the permanent environmental effect for milk production and a fifth-order polynomial was best for fat production. For protein yield, the best model was that with three residual variance classes and third- and fourth-order Legendre polynomials were best for the additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, respectively. The heritability estimates for the characteristics analysed were moderate, varying from 0·16±0·05 to 0·29±0·05 for milk yield, 0·20±0·05 to 0·30±0·08 for fat yield and 0·18±0·06 to 0·27±0·08 for protein yield. The estimates of the genetic correlations between the tests varied from 0·18±0·120 to 0·99±0·002; from 0·44±0·080 to 0·99±0·004; and from 0·41±0·080 to

  4. Relationship of milk yield and quality to preweaning gain of calves from Angus, Brahman and reciprocal-cross cows on different forage systems.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H

    2002-10-01

    Interactions of the regression of preweaning ADG on dam milk yield and quality with breed group and forage environment were evaluated in a two-phase study. Phase I consisted of milk yield and quality and calf gain records from 1989 to 1991 for purebred Angus (n = 64) and Brahman (n = 62) cows mated to sires of both breeds. Phase II consisted of milk yield and quality and calf gain records from 1991 to 1997 for Angus (n = 94), Brahman (n = 85), Angus x Brahman (n = 86) and Brahman x Angus (n = 93) mated to Polled Hereford sires. In Phase I, forage environments included common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue. In Phase II, forage environments included common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue (1991 to 1995) and a rotational system of both forages (1995 to 1997) in which each forage was grazed during its appropriate growing season, usually June through October for bermudagrass and November through May for tall fescue. Milk yield was estimated monthly six times during lactation from spring through fall and converted to a 24-h basis. Milk fat, milk protein, and somatic cell count were analyzed by a commercial laboratory. In Phase I, the relation of preweaning ADG to milk yield, milk fat yield, and protein yield was greater (P < 0.05) in Brahman cows on bermudagrass than Angus on bermudagrass. The regression of preweaning ADG on milk yield in Phase I was greater (P < 0.05) for cows on tall fescue than cows which grazed bermudagrass. In Phase II, the relation of preweaning ADG to milk yield, milk fat yield, and milk protein yield was greater or tended to be greater (P < 0.01, P < 0.11, P < 0.01, respectively) in purebred cows compared to reciprocal-cross cows. The regression of preweaning ADG on milk yield and milk protein yield was greater (P < 0.05) on tall fescue than bermudagrass in Phase II. These results suggest that the influence of milk yield and quality on calf growth may differ among breed types and production system, and the efficacy

  5. Effect of milking frequency (1 vs. 4x) on milk yield, composition and numbers of gene transcripts for alpha-lactalbumin and beta casein in milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently published information indicates cytoplasm associated with milk fat globule membranes contains messenger RNA for the milk proteins casein and alpha-lactalbumin. Furthermore, differences in the concentration of these transcripts in mammary epithelial cells are reflected in differences in the ...

  6. Whole intact rapeseeds or sunflower oil in high-forage or high-concentrate diets affects milk yield, milk composition, and mammary gene expression profile in goats.

    PubMed

    Ollier, S; Leroux, C; de la Foye, A; Bernard, L; Rouel, J; Chilliard, Y

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to ascertain the response of goat mammary metabolic pathways to concentrate and lipid feeding in relation to milk fatty acid (FA) composition and secretion. Sixteen midlactation multiparous goats received diets differing in forage-to-concentrate ratio [high forage (HF) 64:36, and low forage (LF) 43:57] supplemented or not with lipids [HF with 130 g/d of oil from whole intact rapeseeds (RS) and LF with 130 g/d of sunflower oil (SO)] in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Milk yield, milk composition, FA profile, and FA secretion were measured, as well as the expression profiles of key genes in mammary metabolism and of 8,382 genes, using a bovine oligonucleotide microarray. After 3 wk of treatment, milk, lactose, and protein yields were lower with HF-RS than with the other diets, whereas treatment had no effect on milk protein content. Milk fat content was higher with the HF-RS and LF-SO diets than with the HF and LF diets, and SO supplementation increased milk fat yield compared with the LF diet. Decreasing the forage-to-concentrate ratio from 64:36 to 43:57 had a limited effect on goat milk FA concentrations and secretions. Supplementing the LF diet with SO changed almost all the FA concentrations, including decreases in medium-chain saturated FA and large increases in trans C18:1 and C18:2 isomers (particularly trans-11 C18:1 and cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid), without significant changes in C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1, whereas supplementing the HF diet with RS led to a strong decrease in short- and medium-chain saturated FA and a very strong increase in C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1, without significant changes in trans C18:1 and conjugated linoleic acid. Despite the decreases in milk lactose and protein yields observed with HF-RS, and despite the decrease in milk medium-chain FA and the increase in C18 FA secretion with RS or SO supplementation, none of the dietary treatments had any effect on mammary mRNA expression of the key genes involved in lactose

  7. Nutritional plane and selenium supply during gestation impact yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in primiparous ewes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives were to investigate effects of nutritional plane and Se supply during gestation on yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in first parity ewes. Rambouillet ewe lambs (n = 84, age = 240 +/- 17 d, BW = 52.1 +/- 6.2 kg), were allocated to 6 treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial array...

  8. Feeding incremental levels of ground flaxseed linearly reduced milk yield and enteric methane emission in organic Jersey cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty (8 primiparous and 12 multiparous) organic Jersey cows averaging 425 kg BW (SD ± 37) and 111 DIM (SD ± 62) in the beginning of the study were blocked by milk yield and parity and randomly assigned to treatments in 5 replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares to investigate the effects of incremental diet...

  9. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for First Lactation Monthly Test-day Milk Yields using Random Regression Test Day Model in Karan Fries Cattle.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay; Singh, Avtar; Singh, Manvendra; Prakash, Ved; Ambhore, G S; Sahoo, S K; Dash, Soumya

    2016-06-01

    A single trait linear mixed random regression test-day model was applied for the first time for analyzing the first lactation monthly test-day milk yield records in Karan Fries cattle. The test-day milk yield data was modeled using a random regression model (RRM) considering different order of Legendre polynomial for the additive genetic effect (4th order) and the permanent environmental effect (5th order). Data pertaining to 1,583 lactation records spread over a period of 30 years were recorded and analyzed in the study. The variance component, heritability and genetic correlations among test-day milk yields were estimated using RRM. RRM heritability estimates of test-day milk yield varied from 0.11 to 0.22 in different test-day records. The estimates of genetic correlations between different test-day milk yields ranged 0.01 (test-day 1 [TD-1] and TD-11) to 0.99 (TD-4 and TD-5). The magnitudes of genetic correlations between test-day milk yields decreased as the interval between test-days increased and adjacent test-day had higher correlations. Additive genetic and permanent environment variances were higher for test-day milk yields at both ends of lactation. The residual variance was observed to be lower than the permanent environment variance for all the test-day milk yields. PMID:26954137

  10. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for First Lactation Monthly Test-day Milk Yields using Random Regression Test Day Model in Karan Fries Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay; Singh, Avtar; Singh, Manvendra; Prakash, Ved; Ambhore, G. S.; Sahoo, S. K.; Dash, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    A single trait linear mixed random regression test-day model was applied for the first time for analyzing the first lactation monthly test-day milk yield records in Karan Fries cattle. The test-day milk yield data was modeled using a random regression model (RRM) considering different order of Legendre polynomial for the additive genetic effect (4th order) and the permanent environmental effect (5th order). Data pertaining to 1,583 lactation records spread over a period of 30 years were recorded and analyzed in the study. The variance component, heritability and genetic correlations among test-day milk yields were estimated using RRM. RRM heritability estimates of test-day milk yield varied from 0.11 to 0.22 in different test-day records. The estimates of genetic correlations between different test-day milk yields ranged 0.01 (test-day 1 [TD-1] and TD-11) to 0.99 (TD-4 and TD-5). The magnitudes of genetic correlations between test-day milk yields decreased as the interval between test-days increased and adjacent test-day had higher correlations. Additive genetic and permanent environment variances were higher for test-day milk yields at both ends of lactation. The residual variance was observed to be lower than the permanent environment variance for all the test-day milk yields. PMID:26954137

  11. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decrease milk yield but increase n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets(1).

    PubMed

    Resende, T L; Kraft, J; Soder, K J; Pereira, A B D; Woitschach, D E; Reis, R B; Brito, A F

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFX) on milk yield and concentrations and yields of milk components, milk fatty acids (FA) profile, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± SD) 112±68d in milk and 441±21kg of body weight and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 98±43d in milk and 401±43kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21d with 14d for diet adaptation and 7d for data and sample collection. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration (63:37 forage-to-concentrate ratio) with corn meal and soybean meal replaced by incremental levels (i.e., 0, 5, 10, or 15% diet dry matter) of GFX. The ruminal molar proportions of acetate and butyrate decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, whereas the ruminal molar proportion of propionate increased linearly resulting in decreased acetate-to-propionate ratio. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of nutrients either decreased (dry matter) or tended to decrease (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber) linearly in cows fed GFX. Milk yield decreased linearly in cows fed increasing amounts of GFX, which is explained by the linear reduction in dry matter intake. Except for the concentrations of milk protein and urea N, which decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, no other changes in the concentration of milk components were observed. However, yields of milk protein and fat decreased linearly with GFX supplementation. The linear decrease in the yields of milk fat and protein are explained by reduced milk yield, whereas that in milk urea N is explained by decreased crude protein intake. No treatment effects were observed for plasma urea N and nonesterified fatty acids, serum cortisol, and body weight change. Milk odd- and branched-chain FA and saturated FA

  12. Effect of a phase I Coxiella burnetii inactivated vaccine on body temperature and milk yield in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schulze, L S-Ch; Borchardt, S; Ouellet, V; Heuwieser, W

    2016-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. The pathogen is prevalent in ruminants (goats, sheep, cows), which are the main sources of human infection. In the cattle industry around the world, animal (15 to 20%) and herd (38 to 72%) level prevalences of C. burnetii are high. Vaccination of ruminants against Q fever is considered important to prevent spreading of the disease and risk of infection in humans. However, published information on side effects of the Q fever vaccination under field conditions is limited for cows. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the phase I C. burnetii inactivated vaccine Coxevac on body temperature and milk yield in dairy cows. In 2 experiments, a total of 508 cows were randomly divided into 2 groups to determine the effect of first vaccination on body temperature and milk yield. The C. burnetii serostatus of all cows was tested before vaccination with an indirect ELISA. The first experiment took place in the teaching and research barn of the Clinic of Animal Reproduction at the Freie Universität Berlin. Temperature was measured vaginally in 10 cows in a crossover design. The second experiment was conducted on a commercial dairy farm. Milk yield of 498 cows was measured 1 wk before and 1 wk after vaccination. In a subset of 41 cows, temperature was measured rectally. In both experiments, body temperature increased significantly after vaccination (1.0 ± 0.9°C and 0.7 ± 0.8°C). A significant difference was also found in body temperature between vaccinated and control cows. Thirty percent of the vaccinated animals in experiment 1 showed reversible swelling at the injection site as a reaction to the vaccination. The results indicate that vaccination against Q fever causes a transient increase of body temperature that peaks in the first 12 to 24h and declines after that. In experiment 2, vaccinated cows (26.8 ± 0.39 kg/d) produced significantly less milk than did control cows (28.2 ± 0.44 kg

  13. Milk yield and composition of crossbred Sahelian × Anglo-Nubian goats in the semi-intensive system in Mali during the preweaning period.

    PubMed

    Sanogo, Souleymane; Shaker, Mohamed Momani; Nantoumé, Hamidou; Salem, Abdel-Fattah Z M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate milk yield and its composition during the preweaning period for Sahelian goats (SG) and Anglo-Nubian (AN) crossbred depending on some factors. The experiments were conducted from January to December 2008 for 44 suckled and hand-milked does, randomized, and divided into two equal groups: SG (n = 22) and F(1) Anglo-Nubian × Sahelian goats (1/2AN; n = 22). The does and their offsprings were kept in a pen where they stayed indoors for 45 days before they were allowed outdoors when the weather was suitable. Each category received supplemental feeds depending on the season (rainy season, dry cold season, and dry hot season). The average daily milk yield was recorded weekly from parturition to 100 days of age. Individual milk samples were taken for chemical analysis in connection with the yield measurements twice per month from the fourth week of lactation throughout the different seasons (rainy, cold dry, and hot dry). The daily milk yield differed between breed types (P = 0.001) during the preweaning, while the effect of kids' sex on daily milk production was not significant. Litter size affected milk yield up to day 60 (P = 0.032) where does with twins producing more milk than those with single kid. However, at day 100, both groups had similar (P = 0.001) milk production. Total milk yield at weaning increased by 103 % in 1/2AN over SG. The highest concentration of total solids of milk was (12.76 %) recorded in the hot dry season. The results of this study indicate that crossbreeding native Sahelian goats with high potential Anglo-Nubian buck improved milk production and its composition. PMID:22791216

  14. Genetic parameters for lactation traits of milking ewes: protein content and composition, fat, somatic cells and individual laboratory cheese yield

    PubMed Central

    Othmane, Med Houcine; Carriedo, Juan Antonio; San Primitivo, Fermin; De la Fuente, Luis Fernando

    2002-01-01

    The effects of some environmental variation factors and the genetic parameters for total milk traits (fat content, protein content, casein content, serum protein content, lactation mean of individual laboratory cheese yield (LILCY), lactation mean of somatic cell count (LSCC), and milk yield) were estimated from the records of 1 111 Churra ewes. Genetic parameters were estimated by multivariate REML. Heritability for fat content was low (0.10) as is usually found in the Churra breed. Heritabilities for protein content, casein content, serum protein content, LILCY, milk yield and somatic cell count were 0.31, 0.30, 0.22, 0.09, 0.26 and 0.11, respectively. The highest heritability estimates were for protein and casein contents. Casein content is not advisable as an alternative to protein content as a selection criterion for cheese yield improvement; it does not have any compelling advantages and its measurement is costly. Our results for LSCC indicated that efforts should focus on improving the level of management rather than selecting for somatic cells, in the actual conditions of the Churra breed. PMID:12427387

  15. Effect of Cassava Hay and Rice Bran Oil Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Milk Yield and Milk Composition in Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Lunsin, R.; Wanapat, M.; Rowlinson, P.

    2012-01-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  16. Effect of cassava hay and rice bran oil supplementation on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lunsin, R; Wanapat, M; Rowlinson, P

    2012-10-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  17. Comparison of Milk Yield and Animal Health in Turkish Farms with Differing Stall Types and Resting Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Nurcan Karslioglu; Galic, Askin; Koyuncu, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The current study was carried out to determine the influence of different resting surfaces and stall types on milk yield and animal health. Study was carried out in Bursa that is one of the most important cities of Turkey in terms of dairy production. Effects of resting surfaces and stall types on milk yield were found to be important. Also influence of different resting surfaces and stall types on lactation length was examined and found that rubber mats were different from the two other options. Relationships between different resting surfaces or stall types and health problems were examined and connection between stall type and repeat breeding (RB), dystocia, retained placenta and a connection between resting surface types and RB and clinical mastitis were found to be important. Considering their economic reflections, it can be said that results are quite important to the Turkish dairy industry. PMID:25557824

  18. Random regression models to estimate genetic parameters for test-day milk yield in Brazilian Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Sesana, R C; Bignardi, A B; Borquis, R R A; El Faro, L; Baldi, F; Albuquerque, L G; Tonhati, H

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this work was to estimate covariance functions for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects and, subsequently, to obtain genetic parameters for buffalo's test-day milk production using random regression models on Legendre polynomials (LPs). A total of 17 935 test-day milk yield (TDMY) from 1433 first lactations of Murrah buffaloes, calving from 1985 to 2005 and belonging to 12 herds located in São Paulo state, Brazil, were analysed. Contemporary groups (CGs) were defined by herd, year and month of milk test. Residual variances were modelled through variance functions, from second to fourth order and also by a step function with 1, 4, 6, 22 and 42 classes. The model of analyses included the fixed effect of CGs, number of milking, age of cow at calving as a covariable (linear and quadratic) and the mean trend of the population. As random effects were included the additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. The additive genetic and permanent environmental random effects were modelled by LP of days in milk from quadratic to seventh degree polynomial functions. The model with additive genetic and animal permanent environmental effects adjusted by quintic and sixth order LP, respectively, and residual variance modelled through a step function with six classes was the most adequate model to describe the covariance structure of the data. Heritability estimates decreased from 0.44 (first week) to 0.18 (fourth week). Unexpected negative genetic correlation estimates were obtained between TDMY records at first weeks with records from middle to the end of lactation, being the values varied from -0.07 (second with eighth week) to -0.34 (1st with 42nd week). TDMY heritability estimates were moderate in the course of the lactation, suggesting that this trait could be applied as selection criteria in milking buffaloes. PMID:20831561

  19. Short communication: Genetic correlation of bovine leukosis incidence with somatic cell score and milk yield in a US Holstein population.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, E A; Weigel, K A; Byrem, T M; Rosa, G J M

    2016-03-01

    Bovine leukosis (BL) is a retroviral disease caused by the bovine leukosis virus (BLV), which affects only cattle. Dairy cows positive for BL produce less milk and have more days open than cows negative for BL. In addition, the virus also affects the immune system and causes weaker response to vaccines. Heritability estimates of BL incidence have been reported for Jersey and Holstein populations at about 0.08, indicating an important genetic component that can potentially be exploited to reduce the prevalence of the disease. However, before BL is used in selection programs, it is important to study its genetic associations with other economically important traits such that correlated responses to selection can be predicted. Hence, this study aimed to estimate the genetic correlations of BL with milk yield (MY) and with somatic cell score (SCS). Data of a commercial assay (ELISA) used to detect BLV antibodies in milk samples were obtained from Antel BioSystems (Lansing, MI). The data included continuous milk ELISA scores and binary milk ELISA results for 11,554 cows from 112 dairy herds across 16 US states. Continuous and binary milk ELISA were analyzed with linear and threshold models, respectively, together with MY and SCS using multitrait animal models. Genetic correlations (posterior means ± standard deviations) between BL incidence and MY were 0.17 ± 0.077 and 0.14 ± 0.076 using ELISA scores and results, respectively; with SCS, such estimates were 0.20 ± 0.081 and 0.17 ± 0.079, respectively. In summary, the results indicate that selection for higher MY may lead to increased BLV prevalence in dairy herds, but that the inclusion of BL (or SCS as an indicator trait) in selection indexes may help attenuate this problem. PMID:26778307

  20. Relationship between content of crude protein in rations for dairy cows and milk yield, concentration of urea in milk and ammonia emissions.

    PubMed

    Frank, B; Swensson, C

    2002-07-01

    During recent decades, efforts have been made in several countries to diminish the negative environmental influence of dairy production. The main focus has been on nitrogen and phosphorus. Modern dairy production in Western Europe is often based on imported feed-stuffs, mostly protein-rich feeds. In Sweden at least, it is wished that the use of imported feedstuffs in animal production will decrease due to the risk of contamination with Salmonella and the ban of using GMO crops in Swedish dairy production. An experiment was carried out to investigate whether a lower content of crude protein in the diet would decrease the ammonia release from cow manure and whether a well-balanced diet using only feedstuffs of Swedish origin would maintain milk production. Five treatments were arranged in a Latin square design. Two different protein supplements made of ingredients of Swedish origin were each fed at two protein levels, and a fifth imported commercial protein mix was fed at the higher level. The treatments with low protein levels (13.1 to 13.5%) had a significantly lower milk yield, kilograms of ECM, but, on the other hand the net profit, milk income minus feed cost was nearly the same in all treatments except diet C, which had lower feed cost but also lower net profit due to lower milk yield. The content of urea in milk was higher with diets high in crude protein (17%) content. A decreased protein level in the diets did not influence the content of casein or whey protein, but the commercial concentrate showed a tendency to give lower values than the Swedish mixtures. The low protein diets gave significantly lower ammonia release from manure compared with the high protein diets. There were no production differences between the diets of Swedish feeds compared with the imported control. The readily fermentable beet pulp should have helped cows use the higher N diet more efficiently and increased the response. This gives the rumen microbes a possibility to match the

  1. Effect of diets containing whole white lupin seeds on rabbit doe milk yield and milk fatty acid composition as well as the growth and health of their litters.

    PubMed

    Volek, Z; Marounek, M; Volková, L; Kudrnová, E

    2014-05-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of white lupin seed (WLS) on the milk composition and yield of rabbit does as well as the performance of their litters was studied. Two lactation diets having identical digestible protein (DP):DE ratio and two weaning diets having identical DP:DE ratio were formulated. The first lactation diet (SL) contained soybean meal (SBM; 13.0%) and sunflower meal (5.0%) as the main CP sources, whereas the second lactation diet (LL) was based on WLS (25.0%). As a result, the LL diet had a greater ether extract (EE) content than did the SL diet. The first weaning diet (SW) included SBM (7.0%) as the main CP source, whereas the second weaning diet (LW) diet was based on WLS (12.0%). No additional fat was added to any of the diets. A total of 32 (16 per treatment) Hyplus PS 19 does (4,225 ± 607 g BW, at the second parturition) were fed 1 of the 2 lactation diets. The litters were standardized to 9 kits (564 ± 81 g BW) on the day of birth and were fed 1 of the 2 weaning diets from d 17 to 69 of age. At d 30 of age (weaning), 66 rabbits on each weaning diet (689 ± 71 g BW; 3 per cage) were used to evaluate performance. Feed intake and doe BW were not affected by the dietary treatments. Milk yield tended to be higher between d 1 and 30 of lactation in does fed the LL diet (P = 0.094), a finding that is related to the higher dietary EE content and intake in the LL diet. When expressed per kilogram of metabolic weight, milk output (P < 0.05) and fat output (P < 0.05) were greater in these does. Improved G:F (P < 0.05) between d 1 and 21 of lactation and greater ADG (P = 0.072) and milk efficiency (P < 0.05) of litters was observed in does fed the LL diet. The milk of does fed the LL diet contained less linoleic acid (P < 0.05) and arachidonic acid (C 20:4n-6; P < 0.05) and more oleic acid (P < 0.05), α-linolenic acid (P < 0.05), and eicosapentaenic acid (P < 0.05), with a corresponding increase in the total PUFA n-3:C 20:4n-6 ratio (P < 0.05). The

  2. Genotype x environment interactions in milk yield and quality in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows on different forage systems.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    2001-07-01

    Milk yield and quality were observed on 93 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows over 3 yr to evaluate the interactions of direct and maternal breed effects and heterosis with forage environment. Forage environments were common bermudagrass (BG), endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+), and a rotational system (ROT) of both forages, in which each forage (BG or E+) was grazed during its appropriate season, usually June through October for BG and November through May for E+. Milk yield was estimated each of 6 mo (April through September) via milking machine and converted to a 24-h basis. Milk fat, milk protein, and somatic cell count were analyzed by a commercial laboratory. Heterosis for milk yield was similar among forages, averaging 2.4 kg (P < 0.01). Expressed as percentages of purebred means, heterosis for milk yield was largest on E+ (52.8%), intermediate on ROT (39.3%), and smallest on BG (23.7%). Direct breed effects for milk yield favored Brahman, and they were similar among forages but tended to be larger for E+ (2.5 kg) and ROT (2.8 kg) than for BG (1.3 kg). Direct breed effects for milk fat favored Brahman and were similar among forages but tended to be larger for E+ (1.0%) and ROT (1.0%) than for BG (0.6%). Purebred cows exceeded crossbreds in milk protein by 0.1% on ROT (P < 0.10). Crossbred cows had lower somatic cell counts than purebreds on BG (P < 0.05), E+ (P < 0.01), or ROT (P > 0.30). Heterosis for somatic cell counts as percentages of purebred means was similar for BG (-68.3%) and E+ (-68.9%) and less favorable for ROT (-31.6%). Maternal breed effects for somatic cell count favored Angus on ROT (P < 0.10) with a similar nonsignificant trend on BG and E+. Direct breed effects for somatic cell count favored Brahman on ROT (P < 0.10) with similar nonsignificant trends on BG and E+. These results suggested that a rotation of cows from E+ to BG in the summer can partially alleviate negative effects of E+ on milk yield. Conclusions also indicated an

  3. Systemic prepartum treatment of end-term dairy heifers with penethamate hydriodide: effect on udder health, milk yield, and culling until 120 days in milk.

    PubMed

    Passchyn, P; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S

    2013-10-01

    Prepartum intramammary treatment with antimicrobials of end-term dairy heifers has frequently been proposed as a practice to reduce the prevalence of intramammary infections (IMI) at calving. From a safety standpoint for both animal and administrator, systemic treatment is preferred. A clinical trial was conducted on heifers from 10 well-managed, commercial dairy farms with a low prevalence of heifer mastitis. The aim was to assess both the short- and long-term effects of a systemic prepartum therapy with penethamate hydriodide on udder health and milk production. Because it was hypothesized that some herds would benefit more from this treatment than others, specific herd-level information was collected before the start of the actual trial to screen for and explain potential herd-specific treatment effects. Further, the effect of treatment on antimicrobial susceptibility of staphylococcal isolates was monitored. End-term heifers were either treated systemically (over 3 consecutive days) 2 wk before expected calving date with penethamate hydriodide (n=76) or remained untreated (n=73). Systemic prepartum treatment of end-term heifers with penethamate hydriodide resulted in fewer IMI in early lactation. However, all 6 cases of clinical mastitis in early lactation occurred in the treatment group [Streptococcus uberis (n=1), Corynebacterium bovis (n=1), Staphylococcus aureus (n=1); 1 sample was contaminated; 2 samples remained culture negative]. No long-term treatment effects (from 4 to 120 d in milk) on milk production, udder health, or culling hazard during later lactation were detected, although treated heifers belonging to herds classified as having low-yielding heifers out-produced the control heifers. Moreover, penicillin susceptibility of staphylococci isolated from milk samples of treated or control heifers did not differ. Herds with a low prevalence of heifer mastitis are not likely to benefit from prepartum systemic antimicrobial treatment of the end

  4. Effect of somatic cell count in goat milk on yield, sensory quality and fatty acid profile of semi-hard cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effect of somatic cell count (SCC) of goat milk on yield, free fatty acid (FFA) profile, and sensory quality of semi-hard cheese. Thirty kilograms of goat milk with mean SCC levels of 410,000 (Low), 770,000 (Medium), and 1,250,000 cells/mL (High) was obtained for the manu...

  5. Relationships of milk yield and quality of six breed groups of beef cows to preweaning average daily gain of their calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milk yield and quality influence calf preweaning growth and ultimately the sale value of the calf at weaning. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationships of milk production and quality to calf preweaning average daily gain (ADG) of beef cows sired by Bonsmara, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvie...

  6. Long-chain fatty acid metabolism in dairy cows: a meta-analysis of milk fatty acid yield in relation to duodenal flows and de novo synthesis.

    PubMed

    Glasser, F; Ferlay, A; Doreau, M; Schmidely, P; Sauvant, D; Chilliard, Y

    2008-07-01

    This study is a meta-analysis of the response of milk long-chain fatty acid (FA) yield and composition to lipid supply, based on published experiments reporting duodenal FA flows or duodenal lipid infusions and milk FA composition (i.e., 39 experiments reporting 139 experimental treatments). Analysis of these data underlined the interdependence between milk yields of C18 and short- and medium-chain (C4 to C16) FA. Lipid supplementation (producing an increase in duodenal C18 flow) decreased linearly milk C4 to C16 yield (-0.26 g of C4 to C16 produced per gram of duodenal C18 flow increase) and increased quadratically milk C18 yield. When these 2 effects increased the percentage of C18 in milk FA up to a threshold value (around 52% of total FA), then milk C18 yield was limited by C4 to C16 yield, decreasing the C18 transfer efficiency from duodenum to milk with high-lipid diets. Moreover, for a given duodenal C18 flow, a decrease in milk C4 to C16 yield induced a decrease in milk C18 yield. Despite high variations in C18 transfer efficiency between duodenum and milk, for a given experimental condition, the percentages of C18 FA in milk total C18 could be predicted from their percentages in duodenal C18, and the percentages at the duodenum and in milk were very similar when mammary desaturation was taken into account (i.e., considering the sums of substrates and products of mammary desaturase). The estimated amounts of 18:0, trans-11-, and trans-13-18:1 desaturated by the mammary gland were a linear function of their mammary uptake, and mammary desaturation was responsible for 80, 95, and 81%, respectively, of the yield of their products (i.e., cis-9-18:1; cis-9, trans-11-, and cis-9, trans-13-18:2). Thus, mammary FA desaturation capacity did not seem to be a limiting factor in the experimental conditions published so far. PMID:18565935

  7. Effect of oral calcium bolus supplementation on early-lactation health and milk yield in commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Oetzel, G R; Miller, B E

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with oral Ca boluses after calving on early-lactation health and milk yield. Cows in their second lactation or greater (n=927) from 2 large dairies in Wisconsin were enrolled during the summer of 2010. Both herds were fed supplemental anions during the prefresh period and less than 1% of fresh cows were treated for clinical milk fever. Cows were scored before calving for lameness and body condition, and then randomly assigned to either a control group or an oral Ca bolus-supplemented group. Control cows received no oral Ca boluses around calving. Cows in the oral Ca bolus group received 2 oral Ca boluses (Bovikalc, Boehringer Ingelheim, St. Joseph, MO), one bolus 0 to 2h after calving and the second 8 to 35 h after calving. The oral Ca bolus administration schedule allowed fresh cows to be restrained in headlocks only once daily. Whole-blood samples were collected immediately before the second oral Ca bolus was given and were analyzed for ionized Ca (Ca(2+)) concentration. Early-lactation health events were recorded and summed for each cow. Only 6 cases (0.6% of calvings) of clinical milk fever occurred during the trial, and only 14% of cows tested were hypocalcemic (Ca(2+) less than 1.0 mmol/L) at 8 to 35 h after calving. Mean Ca(2+) concentrations were not different between the control and oral Ca bolus-supplemented groups. Blood samples from the cows given oral Ca boluses were collected an average of 20.6 h after administration of the first bolus. Subpopulations of cows with significant responses to oral Ca bolus supplementation were identified based on significant interactions between oral Ca bolus supplementation and covariates in mixed multiple regression models. Lame cows supplemented with oral Ca boluses averaged 0.34 fewer health events in the first 30 d in milk compared with lame cows that were not supplemented with oral Ca boluses. Cows with a higher previous lactation mature

  8. The effect of routine hoof trimming on locomotion score, ruminating time, activity, and milk yield of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Van Hertem, T; Parmet, Y; Steensels, M; Maltz, E; Antler, A; Schlageter-Tello, A A; Lokhorst, C; Romanini, C E B; Viazzi, S; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D; Halachmi, I

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of hoof trimming on cow behavior (ruminating time, activity, and locomotion score) and performance (milk yield) over time. Data were gathered from a commercial dairy farm in Israel where routine hoof trimming is done by a trained hoof trimmer twice per year on the entire herd. In total, 288 cows spread over 6 groups with varying production levels were used for the analysis. Cow behavior was measured continuously with a commercial neck activity logger and a ruminating time logger (HR-Tag, SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel). Milk yield was recorded during each milking session with a commercial milk flow sensor (Free Flow, SCR Engineers Ltd.). A trained observer assigned on the spot 5-point locomotion scores during 19 nighttime milking occasions between 22 October 2012 and 4 February 2013. Behavioral and performance data were gathered from 1wk before hoof trimming until 1wk after hoof trimming. A generalized linear mixed model was used to statistically test all main and interactive effects of hoof trimming, parity, lactation stage, and hoof lesion presence on ruminating time, neck activity, milk yield, and locomotion score. The results on locomotion scores show that the proportional distribution of cows in the different locomotion score classes changes significantly after trimming. The proportion of cows with a locomotion score ≥3 increases from 14% before to 34% directly after the hoof trimming. Two months after the trimming, the number of cows with a locomotion score ≥3 reduced to 20%, which was still higher than the baseline values 2wk before the trimming. The neck activity level was significantly reduced 1d after trimming (380±6 bits/d) compared with before trimming (389±6 bits/d). Each one-unit increase in locomotion score reduced cow activity level by 4.488 bits/d. The effect of hoof trimming on ruminating time was affected by an interaction effect with parity. The effect of hoof trimming on

  9. Genetic dissection of milk yield traits and mastitis resistance quantitative trait loci on chromosome 20 in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Naveen K; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S; Sahana, Goutam

    2015-12-01

    Intense selection to increase milk yield has had negative consequences for mastitis incidence in dairy cattle. Due to low heritability of mastitis resistance and an unfavorable genetic correlation with milk yield, a reduction in mastitis through traditional breeding has been difficult to achieve. Here, we examined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate for clinical mastitis and milk yield on Bos taurus autosome 20 (BTA20) to determine whether both traits are affected by a single polymorphism (pleiotropy) or by multiple closely linked polymorphisms. In the latter but not the former situation, undesirable genetic correlation could potentially be broken by selecting animals that have favorable variants for both traits. First, we performed a within-breed association study using a haplotype-based method in Danish Holstein cattle (HOL). Next, we analyzed Nordic Red dairy cattle (RDC) and Danish Jersey cattle (JER) with the goal of determining whether these QTL identified in Holsteins were segregating across breeds. Genotypes for 12,566 animals (5,966 HOL, 5,458 RDC, and 1,142 JER) were determined by using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (50K; Illumina, San Diego, CA), which identifies 1,568 single nucleotide polymorphisms on BTA20. Data were combined, phased, and clustered into haplotype states, followed by within- and across-breed haplotype-based association analyses using a linear mixed model. Association signals for both clinical mastitis and milk yield peaked in the 26- to 40-Mb region on BTA20 in HOL. Single-variant association analyses were carried out in the QTL region using whole sequence level variants imputed from references of 2,036 HD genotypes (BovineHD BeadChip; Illumina) and 242 whole-genome sequences. The milk QTL were also segregating in RDC and JER on the BTA20-targeted region; however, an indication of differences in the causal factor(s) was observed across breeds. A previously reported F279Y mutation (rs385640152) within the growth hormone

  10. Influences of season, parity, lactation, udder area, milk yield, and clinical symptoms on intramammary infection in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Li, X P; Yang, F; Luo, J Y; Wang, X R; Liu, L H; Li, H S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influences of season, parity, lactation, udder area, milk yield, and clinical symptoms on bacterial intramammary infection (IMI) in dairy cows. A total of 2,106 mastitis pathogens in 12 species were isolated from 125 dairy farms distributed in 30 different cities in China, and the information about these factors was recorded at the same time. Mastitis pathogens were isolated from 63.43% of the milk samples, whereas Streptococcus agalactiae accounted for 38.61% of all pathogens, followed by Str. dysgalactiae (28.16%), Staphylococcus aureus (19.10%), Escherichia coli (6.90%), and other pathogens (7.23%). According to our investigation, IMI was more common in spring with the isolation rate of pathogens at 81.04%, and lowest in winter (52.34%). Cows were more likely to be infected by environmental pathogens (E. coli or Str. uberis) in summer, in rear quarters and in cows with higher daily milk yield or lower somatic cell count. In addition, Str. dysgalactiae exhibited a higher prevalence with increased parity. Different clinical symptoms of quarters with bacterial IMI were seen in this study, and mastitis pathogens were isolated from healthy quarters. PMID:27265170

  11. Incorporating mixed rations and formulated grain mixes into the diet of grazing cows: Effects on milk composition and coagulation properties, and the yield and quality of Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Auldist, M J; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Williams, R P W; Moate, P J; Wales, W J

    2016-06-01

    Effects of different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows on the composition and coagulation properties of milk and the subsequent yield and quality of Cheddar cheese were measured. The experiment used milk from 72 Holstein-Friesian cows, averaging 45d in milk, fed according to 1 of 3 feeding strategies: (1) cows grazed a restricted allowance of perennial ryegrass pasture [approximately 14kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day, to ground level] supplemented with milled wheat grain fed in the milking parlor and alfalfa hay offered in the paddock (control); (2) same pasture and allowance as control, supplemented with a formulated grain mix containing wheat grain, corn grain, and canola meal fed in the parlor and alfalfa hay fed in the paddock (FGM); or (3) same pasture and allowance as control, supplemented with a partial mixed ration comprising the same formulated grain mix but mixed with alfalfa hay and presented on a feed pad after each milking (PMR). For all strategies, supplements provided the same metabolizable energy and grain:forage ratio (78:22, DM basis). Within each feeding strategy, milk was sampled from cows receiving either 8 or 16kg (DM) of supplement/cow per day. There were 2 replicated groups of 6 cows per supplement amount per dietary strategy; approximately 250L of milk was sampled from each for analyses of composition and coagulation properties and the manufacture of Cheddar cheese. The experiment had a 14-d adaptation period and a 14-d measurement period. For cows fed according to the control strategy, those fed 16kg/cow per day produced milk with lower concentrations of milk fat than cows fed 8kg/cow per day. This effect was not observed for cows fed according to the FGM and PMR strategies. Milk from cows fed 16kg of DM/cow per day according to the control strategy yielded less Cheddar cheese than milk from cows fed according to the PMR strategy, with cheese yields from FGM cows being intermediate. Amount of supplement offered had

  12. Phenotypic analysis of cheese yields and nutrient recoveries in the curd of buffalo milk, as measured with an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2015-01-01

    Traits associated with cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery in curd are used to describe the efficiency of the cheese-making process. This is fundamental for all dairy species, including the Italian Mediterranean buffalo, which is largely used for milk production aimed at the dairy industry. To assess cheese-making traits among buffalo, a model cheese-manufacturing process was tested; it was capable of processing 24 samples per run, using 0.5-L samples of milk from individual buffalo. In total, 180 buffalo reared in 7 herds located in Northeast Italy were sampled once. Briefly, each sample was weighed and heated (35°C for 30min), inoculated with starter culture (90min), and mixed with rennet (51.2 international milk-clotting units/L of milk). After 10min of gelation, the curd was cut; 5min after the cut, the curd was separated from the whey, and the curd was subjected to draining (for 30min) and pressing (18h). The curd and whey were weighed, analyzed for pH and the total solid, fat, lactose, and protein contents, and subjected to estimation of the energy content. Three measures of cheese yield (%CY), %CYCURD, %CYSOLIDS, and %CYWATER, were computed as the ratios between the weight of the curd, the curd dry matter, and the water retained in the curd, respectively, and the weight of the milk processed. These traits were multiplied by the daily milk yield to define the 3 corresponding measures of daily cheese yield (dCY, kg/d). The milk component recoveries (REC) in the curd, RECFAT, RECPROTEIN, and RECSOLIDS, represented the ratios between the weights of the fat, protein, and total solids in the curd, respectively, and the corresponding components in the milk. Finally, energy recovery (RECENERGY) was estimated. The values for %CYCURD, %CYSOLIDS, %CYWATER, RECPROTEIN, RECFAT, RECSOLIDS, and RECENERGY averaged 25.6, 12.7, 12.9, 80.4, 95.1, 66.7, and 79.3%, respectively, indicating that buffalo milk has a higher aptitude to cheese-making than bovine milk. The effect

  13. Milk yield and quality in cows sired by different beef breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breed differences in milk production and quality are related to differences in calf preweaning growth, differences in cow maintenance requirements, and differences in efficiency of production. Cows from Brangus dams and sired by 12 Bonsmara, 12 Brangus, 15 Charolais, 18 Gelvieh, 13 Hereford, and 13...

  14. Multiple-trait random regression models for the estimation of genetic parameters for milk, fat, and protein yield in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Borquis, Rusbel Raul Aspilcueta; Neto, Francisco Ribeiro de Araujo; Baldi, Fernando; Hurtado-Lugo, Naudin; de Camargo, Gregório M F; Muñoz-Berrocal, Milthon; Tonhati, Humberto

    2013-09-01

    In this study, genetic parameters for test-day milk, fat, and protein yield were estimated for the first lactation. The data analyzed consisted of 1,433 first lactations of Murrah buffaloes, daughters of 113 sires from 12 herds in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, with calvings from 1985 to 2007. Ten-month classes of lactation days were considered for the test-day yields. The (co)variance components for the 3 traits were estimated using the regression analyses by Bayesian inference applying an animal model by Gibbs sampling. The contemporary groups were defined as herd-year-month of the test day. In the model, the random effects were additive genetic, permanent environment, and residual. The fixed effects were contemporary group and number of milkings (1 or 2), the linear and quadratic effects of the covariable age of the buffalo at calving, as well as the mean lactation curve of the population, which was modeled by orthogonal Legendre polynomials of fourth order. The random effects for the traits studied were modeled by Legendre polynomials of third and fourth order for additive genetic and permanent environment, respectively, the residual variances were modeled considering 4 residual classes. The heritability estimates for the traits were moderate (from 0.21-0.38), with higher estimates in the intermediate lactation phase. The genetic correlation estimates within and among the traits varied from 0.05 to 0.99. The results indicate that the selection for any trait test day will result in an indirect genetic gain for milk, fat, and protein yield in all periods of the lactation curve. The accuracy associated with estimated breeding values obtained using multi-trait random regression was slightly higher (around 8%) compared with single-trait random regression. This difference may be because to the greater amount of information available per animal. PMID:23831097

  15. Bovine subclinical intramammary infection caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci increases somatic cell count but has no effect on milk yield or composition.

    PubMed

    Tomazi, T; Gonçalves, J L; Barreiro, J R; Arcari, M A; dos Santos, M V

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of subclinical intramammary infection (IMI) caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) as a group and by specific CNS species on milk yield and composition and somatic cell count (SCC) of dairy cows. Selection of cows with IMI caused by CNS was performed by microbiological cultures of composite samples collected from 1,242 dairy cows distributed in 21 dairy herds. After selection of cows, milk yield was measured and milk samples were collected at the mammary quarter level (i.e., 1,140 mammary samples collected from 285 cows) for analysis of milk composition and SCC. In total, 108 isolates of CNS were identified at the species level by PCR-RFLP analysis. Forty-one pairs of contralateral mammary quarters, with and without IMI, were used to evaluate the effect of CNS on milk yield and composition. Mammary quarters infected with CNS had higher geometric mean SCC (306,106 cells/mL) than noninfected contralateral mammary quarters (62,807 cells/mL). Intramammary infection caused by CNS had no effect on milk yield or on contents of fat, crude protein, casein, lactose, total solids, and solids-not-fat. Staphylococcus chromogenes was the most prevalent CNS species in this study and the only species that allowed within-cow evaluation. The IMI caused by S. chromogenes increased SCC but had no effect on milk yield and composition at the quarter level. In conclusion, subclinical mastitis caused by CNS increased the SCC but had no effect on milk yield and composition of dairy cows. PMID:25726098

  16. Variability of the caprine whey protein genes and their association with milk yield, composition and renneting properties in the Sarda breed: 2. The BLG gene.

    PubMed

    Dettori, Maria Luisa; Pazzola, Michele; Pira, Emanuela; Puggioni, Ornella; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo

    2015-11-01

    The variability of the promoter region and the 3'UTR (exon-7) of the BLG gene, encoding the β-lactoglobulin, was investigated by sequencing in 263 lactating Sarda goats in order to assess its association with milk traits. Milk traits included: milk yield, fat, total protein and lactose content, pH, daily fat and protein yield (DFPY), freezing point, milk energy, somatic cell count, total microbial mesophilic count, rennet coagulation time (RCT), curd firming rate (k20) and curd firmness (a30). A total of 7 polymorphic sites were detected and the sequence analysed was given accession number KM817769. Only three SNPs (c.-381C>T, c.-323C>T and c.*420C>A) had minor allele frequency higher than 0.05. The effects of farm, stage of lactation and the interaction farm × stage of lactation significantly influenced all the milk traits (P T and c.*420C>A (P T (P < 0.001). The c.-381TT homozygous goats showed lower pH, RCT and k20 than c.-381CT (P < 0.05). In conclusion the polymorphism of the goat BLG gene did not affect the total protein content of the Sarda goat milk, and only weakly influenced RCT and k20. On the other hand, an interesting effect on milk yields and DFPY emerged in two SNPs. This information might be useful in dairy goat breeding programs. PMID:26373476

  17. Effects of dietary supplementation of pioglitazone on metabolism, milk yield, and reproductive performance in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Ali Reza; Kohram, Hamid; Zare Shahneh, Ahmad; Zamiri, Mohammad Javad; Fouladi-Nashta, Ali Akbar

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of pioglitazone (PGT), a specific ligand for PPARγ, on metabolic dynamics, milk production, and reproductive performance of transition dairy cows. Eighty multiparous Holstein cows in their second or more lactations were blocked by the calving date and parity and assigned randomly to four dietary groups (n = 20 cow/treatment) including control (no PGT-/-), supplemented with PGT (6-mg PGT/kg body weight) from Day -14 to +21 relative to parturition (PGT+/+) or only during prepartum (PGT+/-) or postpartum periods (PGT-/+). Postpartum body condition score and body weight loss decreased (P < 0.05) in all PGT-supplemented groups. Milk yield was not affected by PGT supplementation (P > 0.05). Percentage of milk fat decreased (P < 0.05) in all PGT-treated groups; however, milk fat yield was lower (P < 0.05) in PGT (+/+) and PGT (+/-) groups compared with PGT (-/-). Peripartum (Day -7 to +7) concentrations of plasma nonesterified fatty acids and β-Hydroxybutyrate decreased in PGT (+/+) but not in the PGT (-/-) group (P < 0.05). During the postpartum period, PGT reduced (P > 0.05) plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids in all PGT-treated groups but did not affect β-Hydroxybutyrate level. Plasma concentrations of triglycerides decreased in all PGT-supplemented groups. Supplementation of PGT increased the peripartum concentrations of plasma glucose in PGT (+/+) and PGT (+/-) groups compared with control. Plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 were higher in PGT (+/+) compared with the control group during both the peripartum and postpartum periods. Plasma concentrations of growth hormone and insulin were not affected by PGT treatment (P > 0.05). Mean days to ovulation were lower in PGT (+/+) and PGT (-/+), and the proportion of cows ovulating by Day 14 postpartum was higher in PGT (+/+) compared with control. Days open were shorter in PGT (+/+), PGT

  18. Effects of bovine subclinical mastitis caused by Corynebacterium spp. on somatic cell count, milk yield and composition by comparing contralateral quarters.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Tomazi, Tiago; Barreiro, Juliana Regina; Beuron, Daniele Cristine; Arcari, Marcos André; Lee, Sarah Hwa In; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; Araújo Junior, João Pessoa; dos Santos, Marcos Veiga

    2016-03-01

    Subclinical mastitis caused by Corynebacterium spp. (as a group and at the species level) was investigated by evaluating contralateral (healthy and infected) mammary quarters for somatic cell count (SCC), milk yield and composition. Selection of cows with subclinical mastitis caused by Corynebacterium spp. was performed by microbiological culture of composite samples collected from 1242 dairy cows from 21 dairy herds. For each of the selected cows, milk yield was measured and milk samples were collected at the mammary quarter level (i.e., 1140 mammary samples collected from 285 cows) for analysis of milk composition and SCC. The identification of Corynebacterium spp. isolates was performed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. One hundred and eighty Corynebacterium spp. isolates were identified, of which 167 (92.77%) were C.bovis and eight (4.44%) non-C.bovis; for five of the Corynebacterium spp. isolates (2.77%), sequencing of 16S rRNA genes did not allow identification at the species level. Mammary quarters infected with Corynebacterium spp. as a group had a higher geometric mean SCC (197,900 cells/mL) than healthy contralateral mammary quarters (85,800 cells/mL). Species of Corynebacterium non-C.bovis were infrequently isolated and did not change SCC, milk yield or milk solid contents when evaluated at the contralateral quarter level. Although C.bovis infection showed no effect on milk yield, fat, protein, casein or total solids in milk, it increased SCC and decreased lactose and milk solids non-fat content. PMID:26831159

  19. Record keeping, genetic selection, educational experience and farm management effects on average milk yield per cow, milk fat percentage, bacterial score and bulk tank somatic cell count of dairy farms in the Central region of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rhone, J A; Koonawootrittriron, S; Elzo, M A

    2008-12-01

    A study was conducted to estimate the record keeping, genetic selection, educational, and farm management effects on average milk yield per cow (AYC), milk fat percentage, bacterial score, and bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) of dairy farms in the central region of Thailand. Farms were located in the provinces of Saraburi and Nakhon Ratchisima and were members of the Muaklek dairy cooperative. Records from individual animals were unavailable. Thus, farm records of milk yield, milk fat percentage, bacterial score, and BTCCC were collected from July 1, 2003 through June 30, 2006. Additional record keeping, genetic selection, education, and farm management information was collected through a questionnaire in May of 2006. Data from the Muaklek dairy cooperative and the questionnaire were then merged by a farm identification number. A single trait mixed model was used to analyze AYC, milk fat percentage, and BTSCC, while a log linear model was used to analyze bacterial score. Results showed that farms that kept records on individual animals had higher (P < 0.05) milk fat percentages and lower bacterial scores than farms that did not. Farms that used genetic information (EBV) and phenotypes when selecting sires were higher (P < 0.05) for milk fat percentage than farms that used only phenotypes and personal opinion. Farms milking cows with a single unit milking machine and by hand, had higher (P < 0.05) bacterial scores and BTSCC than farms using only a single or multi unit machine. Overall farms that kept individual animal records, used EBV when selecting sires, used a single method for collecting milk, and used family labor achieved higher performance from their herds than farms that did not. PMID:18975127

  20. Associations between polymorphisms of the gene and milk production traits in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Deng, T X; Pang, C Y; Lu, X R; Zhu, P; Duan, A Q; Liang, X W

    2016-03-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 () is an important regulator of mammary gland differentiation and cell survival that has been regarded as a candidate gene affecting milk production traits in mammals. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate significant associations between SNP of the gene and milk production traits in buffaloes. Here, 18 SNP were identified in the buffalo gene, including 15 intronic mutations and 3 exon mutations. All the identified SNP were then genotyped using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry methods from 192 buffaloes. All the SNP were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and 2 haplotype blocks were successfully constructed based on these SNP data, which formed 5 and 3 major haplotypes in the population (>5%), respectively. The results of association analysis showed that only SNP13 located in exon 10 was significantly associated with the milk production traits in the population ( < 0.05). Single nucleotide polymorphism 2, SNP5, SNP8, and SNP9 were associated with protein percentage, and SNP4 and SNP10 were associated with 305-d milk yield ( < 0.05). Our results provide evidence that polymorphisms of the buffalo gene are associated with milk production traits and can be used as a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection in buffalo breeding. PMID:27065255

  1. Signatures of selection identify loci associated with milk yield in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Identification of genomic regions that have been targets of selection for phenotypic traits is one of the most challenging areas of research in animal genetics, particularly in livestock where few annotated genes are available. In this study a genome-wide scan using the Illumina SNP50K Beadchip was performed in the attempt to identify genomic regions associated with milk productivity in sheep. The ovine genomic regions encoding putative candidate genes were compared with the corresponding areas in Bos taurus, as the taurine genome is better annotated. Results A total of 100 dairy sheep were genotyped on the Illumina OvineSNP50K Beadchip. The Fisher’s exact test of significance of differences of allele frequency between each pair of the two tails of the distribution of top/worse milk yielders was performed for each marker. The genomic regions where highly divergent milk yielders showed different allele frequencies at consecutive markers was extracted from the OAR v3.1 Ovine (Texel) Genome Assembly, and was compared to the corresponding areas in Bos taurus, allowing the detection of two genes, the Palmdelphin and the Ring finger protein 145. These genes encoded non-synonymous mutations correlated with the marker alleles. Conclusion The innovation of this study was to show that the DNA genotyping with the Illumina SNP50K Beadchip allowed to detect genes, and mutations in the genes, which have not yet been annotated in the livestock under investigation. PMID:24004915

  2. Effect of the type of silage on milk yield, intake and rumen metabolism of dairy cows grazing swards with low herbage mass.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Albarrán, Miguel; Balocchi, Oscar A; Noro, Mirela; Wittwer, Fernando; Pulido, Rubén G

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of herbage allowance (HA) and type of silage supplemented (TS) on milk yield, dry matter intake (DMI) and metabolism of dairy cows in early lactation. Thirty-six Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to four treatments derived from an arrangement of two HA (LHA = 17 or HHA = 25 kg of DM/cow/day) and two TS (grass (GS) or maize (MS)). Herbage allowance had no effect on DMI or milk yield. Rumen pH and NH3 -N concentration were not affected by HA. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen (microbial protein (MP)) was affected by HA with 21.5 and 23.9 g microbial nitrogen per kg ruminal digestible organic matter for LHA and HHA, respectively (P < 0.05). Supplementation with MS showed higher values of milk yield by 2.4 kg/cow/day (P < 0.001), milk protein content by 0.10 % (P < 0.023) and herbage DMI by 2.2 kg/cow/day, and showed lower values for milk urea compared to GS (P < 0.001). The former results suggest that TS had a greater effect on milk yield, total feed intake and energy intake than increase in herbage allowance; however, increase in HA had greater effects on MP than TS. PMID:26420350

  3. Random regression analysis of test-day milk yields in the first and second lactations of Brazilian Gyr cows.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Herrera, L G; El Faro, L; Bignardi, A B; Pereira, R J; Machado, C H C; Albuquerque, L G

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the genetic parameters for test-day milk yields (TDMY) in the first and second lactations using random regression models (RRM) in order to contribute to the application of these models in genetic evaluation of milk yield in Gyr cattle. A total of 53,328 TDMY records from 7118 lactations of 5853 Gyr cows were analyzed. The model included the direct additive, permanent environmental, and residual random effects. In addition, contemporary group and linear and quadratic effects of the age of cows at calving were included as fixed effects. A random regression model fitting fourth-order Legendre polynomials for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, with five classes of residual variance, was applied. In the first lactation, the heritabilities increased from early lactation (0.26) until TDMY3 (0.38), followed by a decrease until the end of lactation. In the second lactation, the estimates increased from the first (0.29) to the fifth test day (0.36), with a slight decrease thereafter, and again increased on the last two test days (0.34 and 0.41). There were positive and high genetic correlations estimated between first-lactation TDMY and the remaining TDMY of the two lactations. The moderate heritability estimates, as well as the high genetic correlations between half the first-lactation TDMY and all TDMY of the two lactations, suggest that the selection based only on first lactation TDMY is the best selection strategy to increase milk production across first and second lactations of Gyr cows. PMID:26662449

  4. Combining different functions to describe milk, fat, and protein yield in goats using Bayesian multiple-trait random regression models.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, H R; Silva, F F; Siqueira, O H G B D; Souza, N O; Junqueira, V S; Resende, M D V; Borquis, R R A; Rodrigues, M T

    2016-05-01

    We proposed multiple-trait random regression models (MTRRM) combining different functions to describe milk yield (MY) and fat (FP) and protein (PP) percentage in dairy goat genetic evaluation by using Bayesian inference. A total of 3,856 MY, FP, and PP test-day records, measured between 2000 and 2014, from 535 first lactations of Saanen and Alpine goats, including their cross, were used in this study. The initial analyses were performed using the following single-trait random regression models (STRRM): third- and fifth-order Legendre polynomials (Leg3 and Leg5), linear B-splines with 3 and 5 knots, the Ali and Schaeffer function (Ali), and Wilmink function. Heterogeneity of residual variances was modeled considering 3 classes. After the selection of the best STRRM to describe each trait on the basis of the deviance information criterion (DIC) and posterior model probabilities (PMP), the functions were combined to compose the MTRRM. All combined MTRRM presented lower DIC values and higher PMP, showing the superiority of these models when compared to other MTRRM based only on the same function assumed for all traits. Among the combined MTRRM, those considering Ali to describe MY and PP and Leg5 to describe FP (Ali_Leg5_Ali model) presented the best fit. From the Ali_Leg5_Ali model, heritability estimates over time for MY, FP. and PP ranged from 0.25 to 0.54, 0.27 to 0.48, and 0.35 to 0.51, respectively. Genetic correlation between MY and FP, MY and PP, and FP and PP ranged from -0.58 to 0.03, -0.46 to 0.12, and 0.37 to 0.64, respectively. We concluded that combining different functions under a MTRRM approach can be a plausible alternative for joint genetic evaluation of milk yield and milk constituents in goats. PMID:27285684

  5. Comparison of non-linear models to describe the lactation curves for milk yield and composition in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, N

    2016-02-01

    In order to describe the lactation curves of milk yield (MY) and composition in buffaloes, seven non-linear mathematical equations (Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Brody, Dijkstra and Rook) were used. Data were 116,117 test-day records for MY, fat (FP) and protein (PP) percentages of milk from the first three lactations of buffaloes which were collected from 893 herds in the period from 1992 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly production records of dairy buffaloes using the NLIN and MODEL procedures in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using adjusted coefficient of determination (Radj(2)), root means square error (RMSE), Durbin-Watson statistic and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The Dijkstra model provided the best fit of MY and PP of milk for the first three parities of buffaloes due to the lower values of RMSE and AIC than other models. For the first-parity buffaloes, Sikka and Brody models provided the best fit of FP, but for the second- and third-parity buffaloes, Sikka model and Brody equation provided the best fit of lactation curve for FP, respectively. The results of this study showed that the Wood and Dhanoa equations were able to estimate the time to the peak MY more accurately than the other equations. In addition, Nelder and Dijkstra equations were able to estimate the peak time at second and third parities more accurately than other equations, respectively. Brody function provided more accurate predictions of peak MY over the first three parities of buffaloes. There was generally a positive relationship between 305-day MY and persistency measures and also between peak yield and 305-day MY, calculated by different models, within each lactation in the current study. Overall, evaluation of the different equations used in the current study indicated the potential of the non-linear models for fitting monthly productive records of buffaloes. PMID:26354679

  6. Influence of replacing corn silage with barley silage in the diets of buffalo cows on milk yield and quality.

    PubMed

    Tudisco, R; Calabrò, S; Grossi, M; Piccolo, G; Guglielmelli, A; Cutrignelli, M I; Caiazzo, C; Infascelli, F

    2010-06-01

    A 150-day trial was carried out on 40 Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows that, immediately after calving, were equally divided into two homogeneous groups (M and O) based on the number of calving events and previous milk yield. The animals were fed (16 kg dry matter (DM)/head) two isoenergy/isoprotein diets (NEl: 6.39 MJ/kg DM; 15.4 CP% DM), composed of corn (diet M) or barley silage (diet O) concentrate, alfalfa hay, and a vitamin-mineral supplement. The fermentation characteristics of both silage diets were evaluated by an in vitro gas production technique, and their nutritional values were calculated as follows: NEl (MJ/kg DM) = 0.54 + 0.0959 GP + 0.0038 CP + 0.0001733 CP(2), where GP is the gas production after 24 h of incubation (ml/200 mg DM) and CP is the protein content of silage (g/kg DM). The nutritional values of the silages were slightly different (4.16 vs. 4.14 MJ/kg DM for M and O, respectively) likely due to the high content of hemicellulose in the O diet (22.0 vs. 16.9%). Average milk yield did not differ between the groups; instead, milk fat (8.39 vs. 9.06%; P < 0.01) and protein (4.41 vs. 4.60%; P < 0.01) levels were significantly higher in the O group. The results elicit great interest in southern Italy where corn cultivation is adversely affected by the high cost of irrigation. PMID:20464483

  7. Association of IGF-I gene polymorphisms with milk yield and body size in Chinese dairy goats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The association of IGF-I gene polymorphisms with certain traits in 708 individuals of two Chinese dairy-goat breeds (Guanzhong and Xinong Saanen) was investigated. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequencing methods were employed in screening for genetic variation. Two novel mutations were detected in the 5'-flanking region and in intron 4 of IGF-I gene, viz., g.1617 G > A and g.5752 G > C (accession D26119.2), respectively. The associations of the g.1617 G > A mutation with milk yield and the body size were not significant (p > 0.05). However, in the case of g.5752 G > C, Xinong Saanen dairy goats with the CG genotype presented longer bodies (p < 0.05). Chest circumference (p < 0.05) was larger in Guanzhong goats with the GG genotype. In Xinong Saanen dairy goats with the CC genotype, milk yields were significantly higher during the first and second lactations (p < 0.05). Hence, the g.5752 G > C mutation could facilitate association analysis and serve as a genetic marker for Chinese dairy-goat breeding and genetics. PMID:21637481

  8. Association of IGF-I gene polymorphisms with milk yield and body size in Chinese dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chanjuan; Ma, Rongnuan; Yue, Xiangpeng; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chuzhao

    2010-04-01

    The association of IGF-I gene polymorphisms with certain traits in 708 individuals of two Chinese dairy-goat breeds (Guanzhong and Xinong Saanen) was investigated. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequencing methods were employed in screening for genetic variation. Two novel mutations were detected in the 5'-flanking region and in intron 4 of IGF-I gene, viz., g.1617 G > A and g.5752 G > C (accession D26119.2), respectively. The associations of the g.1617 G > A mutation with milk yield and the body size were not significant (p > 0.05). However, in the case of g.5752 G > C, Xinong Saanen dairy goats with the CG genotype presented longer bodies (p < 0.05). Chest circumference (p < 0.05) was larger in Guanzhong goats with the GG genotype. In Xinong Saanen dairy goats with the CC genotype, milk yields were significantly higher during the first and second lactations (p < 0.05). Hence, the g.5752 G > C mutation could facilitate association analysis and serve as a genetic marker for Chinese dairy-goat breeding and genetics. PMID:21637481

  9. Random regression models to account for the effect of genotype by environment interaction due to heat stress on the milk yield of Holstein cows under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Santana, Mário L; Bignardi, Annaiza Braga; Pereira, Rodrigo Junqueira; Menéndez-Buxadera, Alberto; El Faro, Lenira

    2016-02-01

    The present study had the following objectives: to compare random regression models (RRM) considering the time-dependent (days in milk, DIM) and/or temperature × humidity-dependent (THI) covariate for genetic evaluation; to identify the effect of genotype by environment interaction (G×E) due to heat stress on milk yield; and to quantify the loss of milk yield due to heat stress across lactation of cows under tropical conditions. A total of 937,771 test-day records from 3603 first lactations of Brazilian Holstein cows obtained between 2007 and 2013 were analyzed. An important reduction in milk yield due to heat stress was observed for THI values above 66 (-0.23 kg/day/THI). Three phases of milk yield loss were identified during lactation, the most damaging one at the end of lactation (-0.27 kg/day/THI). Using the most complex RRM, the additive genetic variance could be altered simultaneously as a function of both DIM and THI values. This model could be recommended for the genetic evaluation taking into account the effect of G×E. The response to selection in the comfort zone (THI ≤ 66) is expected to be higher than that obtained in the heat stress zone (THI > 66) of the animals. The genetic correlations between milk yield in the comfort and heat stress zones were less than unity at opposite extremes of the environmental gradient. Thus, the best animals for milk yield in the comfort zone are not necessarily the best in the zone of heat stress and, therefore, G×E due to heat stress should not be neglected in the genetic evaluation. PMID:26155774

  10. Relationships of milk yield and quality from six breed groups of beef cows to preweaning average daily gain of their calves.

    PubMed

    Liu, T; Mays, A R; Turner, K E; Wu, J P; Brown, M A

    2015-04-01

    Milk yield and quality influence calf preweaning growth and ultimately the sale value of the calf at weaning. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationships of milk production and quality of beef cows to calf preweaning ADG in beef cows sired by Bonsmara, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, and Romosinuano and from Brangus dams to determine whether the relationships were homogeneous across cow breed group. Approximately 50 cows/yr were milked monthly for 6 mo in each of the 7 yr of this study. Milk traits were included in models as linear and quadratic covariates along with interactions of the covariates with sire breed. Tests for curvilinearity and homogeneity of regression coefficients indicated the relationship of calf preweaning ADG to milk yield and quality was quadratic and homogeneous across Charolais and Gelbvieh; linear and homogeneous across Bonsmara, Brangus, and Romosinuano; and linear and different from other sire breeds in Herefords (P < 0.05). Exceptions to this were in the regression of calf preweaning ADG on the natural logarithm of somatic cell count (SCC) and milk urea nitrogen (MUN). The relationship of calf preweaning ADG to SCC was quadratic in Brangus (P < 0.05) and linear in Gelbvieh (P < 0.05) with little evidence (P > 0.05) of a relationship in Bonsmara, Charolais, Hereford, or Romosinuano. There was little evidence (P > 0.05) of a relationship of calf preweaning ADG to MUN in any of the sire breed groups. Results from this study confirmed the importance of the influence of milk yield and quality on calf preweaning growth but indicated this influence can depend on the breed composition of the cow. Furthermore, results suggest that breed origin or adaptation may have influenced the relationships of calf preweaning ADG to cow milk yield and quality. PMID:26020207

  11. Factors affecting variation of different measures of cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery from an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; De Marchi, M; Bittante, G

    2013-01-01

    Cheese yield (CY) is the most important technological trait of milk, because cheese-making uses a very high proportion of the milk produced worldwide. Few studies have been carried out at the level of individual milk-producing animals due to a scarcity of appropriate procedures for model-cheese production, the complexity of cheese-making, and the frequent use of the fat and protein (or casein) contents of milk as a proxy for cheese yield. Here, we report a high-throughput cheese manufacturing process that mimics all phases of cheese-making, uses 1.5-L samples of milk from individual animals, and allows the simultaneous processing of 15 samples per run. Milk samples were heated (35°C for 40 min), inoculated with starter culture (90 min), mixed with rennet (51.2 international milk-clotting units/L of milk), and recorded for gelation time. Curds were cut twice (10 and 15 min after gelation), separated from the whey, drained (for 30 min), pressed (3 times, 20 min each, with the wheel turned each time), salted in brine (for 60 min), weighed, and sampled. Whey was collected, weighed, and sampled. Milk, curd, and whey samples were analyzed for pH, total solids, fat content, and protein content, and energy content was estimated. Three measures of percentage cheese yield (%CY) were calculated: %CY(CURD), %CY(SOLIDS), and %CY(WATER), representing the ratios between the weight of fresh curd, the total solids of the curd, and the water content of the curd, respectively, and the weight of the milk processed. In addition, 3 measures of daily cheese yield (dCY, kg/d) were defined, considering the daily milk yield. Three measures of nutrient recovery (REC) were computed: REC(FAT), REC(PROTEIN), and REC(SOLIDS), which represented the ratio between the weights of the fat, protein, and total solids in the curd, respectively, and the corresponding components in the milk. Energy recovery, REC(ENERGY), represented the energy content of the cheese compared with that in the milk. This

  12. Replacing corn silage with different forage millet silage cultivars: effects on milk yield, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brunette, T; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A F

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary replacement of corn silage (CS) with 2 cultivars of forage millet silages [i.e., regular millet (RM) and sweet millet (SM)] on milk production, apparent total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed (ad libitum) a high-forage total mixed ration (68:32 forage:concentrate ratio). Dietary treatments included CS (control), RM, and SM diets. Experimental silages constituted 37% of each diet DM. Three ruminally fistulated cows were used to determine the effect of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation and total-tract nutrient utilization. Relative to CS, RM and SM silages contained 36% more crude protein, 66% more neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 88% more acid detergent fiber. Cows fed CS consumed more dry matter (DM; 24.4 vs. 22.7 kg/d) and starch (5.7 vs. 3.7 kg/d), but less NDF (7.9 vs. 8.7 kg/d) than cows fed RM or SM. However, DM, starch and NDF intakes were not different between forage millet silage types. Feeding RM relative to CS reduced milk yield (32.7 vs. 35.2 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (35.8 vs. 38.0 kg/d) and SCM (32.7 vs. 35.3 kg/d). However, cows fed SM had similar milk, energy-corrected milk, and solids-corrected milk yields than cows fed CS or RM. Milk efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Milk protein concentration was greatest for cows fed CS, intermediate for cows fed SM, and lowest for cows fed RM. Milk concentration of solids-not-fat was lesser, whereas milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed RM than for those fed CS. However, millet silage type had no effect on milk solids-not-fat and milk urea nitrogen levels. Concentrations of milk fat, lactose and total solids were not affected by silage type. Ruminal pH and ruminal NH3-N were greater for cows fed RM and SM than for cows fed CS. Total-tract digestibility of DM (average=67.9%), NDF (average=53

  13. Interval and composite interval mapping of somatic cell score, yield, and components of milk in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Southey, B R; Heyen, D W; Lewin, H A

    2002-11-01

    Single-marker, interval-mapping (IM) and composite interval mapping (CIM) were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling milk, fat and protein yields, and somatic cell score (SCS). A granddaughter design was used to combine molecular genetic information with predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) and estimated daughter yield deviations (DYD) from eight Dairy Bull DNA Repository Holstein families. Models that included and excluded weights accounting for the uncertainty of the response variable were evaluated in each trait, family and phenotype (DYD and PTA) combination. The genotypic information consisted of 174 microsatellite markers along 29 Bos taurus autosomes. The average number of informative markers per autosome was three and the number of informative sons per family and marker varied between 21 and 173. Within-family results from the least squares single-marker analyses were used in expectation-maximization likelihood IM and CIM implemented with QTL Cartographer. Different CIM model specifications, offering complementary control on the background QTL outside the interval under study, were evaluated. Permutation techniques were used to calculate the genome-wide threshold test statistic values based on 1,000 samples. Results from the DYD and PTA analyses were highly consistent across traits and families. The minor differences in the estimates from the models that accounted for or ignored the uncertainty of the DYD (variance) and PTA (inverse of reliability) may be associated to the elevated and consistent precision of the DYD and PTA among sons. The CIM model best supported by the data had 10 markers controlling for background effects. On autosome (BTA) three, a QTL at 32 cM influencing protein yield was located in family five and a QTL at 74 cM for fat yield was located in family eight. Two map positions associated with SCS were detected on BTA 21, one at 33 cM in family one and the other at 84 cM in family three. A QTL for protein yield was

  14. Evaluation of non-genetic factors affecting calf growth, reproductive performance and milk yield of traditionally managed Sheko cattle in southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bayou, E; Haile, A; Gizaw, S; Mekasha, Y

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to estimate calf growth, reproductive performance and milk yield of Ethiopia Sheko cattle and to assess non-genetic factors affecting their performance in their home tract as a step towards designing sustainable cattle conservation and improvement strategy. All the growth traits considered in the study were significantly affected by all non-genetic factors considered except for the fixed effects of Agro ecological zones (AEZs) and season of birth which were not significant for post weaning daily gain. Calving interval (CI) and days open (DO) were significantly influenced by AEZs, season and dam parity. Cows that calved in lowland had shorter CI and DO than cows which calved in midland. Cows that calved in short rainy season had Short CI and DO than those calved during dry season or long rainy season. Cows which calved for the first time had the longest CI and DO from the other parities whereas cows on their fifth parity had the shortest CI and DO. AEZ significantly affected lactation milk yield (LMY) and lactation length (LL), but not significant on daily milk yield (DMY) and 305 days yield (305DY). Season was significant on all milk traits considered except DMY. Parity effect was significant on LMY and 305DY, whereas DMY and LL were not affected. The non-genetic factors had significant effects for all of the reproductive; and many of the growth and milk performance traits considered and hence will need to be considered in cattle breed improvement program. PMID:26543703

  15. Genetic trend for milk yield from doe evaluations in the northeast United States.

    PubMed

    Boldman, K G; Van Vleck, L D

    1984-05-01

    Milk production records of 306 Alpine, 72 LaMancha, 170 Nubian, 84 Saanen, and 235 Toggenburg does born in the Northeast from 1972 through 1979 were used to estimate trends of additive genetic value. Estimated transmitting abilities were doubled and averaged for all does born in each year to obtain yearly estimates of genetic value. Genetic trends from regression of yearly mean genetic value on year of birth for Alpine, LaMancha, Nubian, Saanen, and Toggenburg averaged 11.4, -7.9, 1.9, 14.6, and 11.7 kg per year. Genetic trends were less than theoretically possible, indicating that more effective selection schemes are needed, although because of the limited number of does, the trends may not represent actual trends. PMID:6736400

  16. Evolution of increased competitiveness in cows trades off with reduced milk yield, fertility and more masculine morphology.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Cristina; Mazza, Serena; Guzzo, Nadia; Mantovani, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    In some species females compete for food, foraging territories, mating, and nesting sites. Competing females can exhibit morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations typical of males, which are commonly considered as secondary sexual traits. Competition and the development of traits increasing competitiveness require much energy and may exert adverse effects on fecundity and survival. From an evolutionary perspective, positive selection for increased competitiveness would then result in evolution of reduced values for traits related to fitness such as fecundity and survival. There is recent evidence for such evolutionary trade-offs involving male competition, but no study has considered competing females so far. Using data from competitions for dominance in cows (Bos taurus), we found negative genetic correlations between traits providing success in competition, that is, fighting ability and fitness traits related to milk production and with fertility (the inverse of parity-conception interval). Fighting ability also showed low but positive genetic correlations with "masculine" morphological traits, and negative correlations with "feminine" traits. A genetic change in traits over time has occurred due to selection on competitiveness, corresponding to an evolutionary process of "masculinization" counteracting the official selection for milk yield. Similar evolutionary trade-off between success in competition and fitness components may be present in various species experiencing female competition. PMID:26177581

  17. Milk Yield, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Dairy Cows Fed a High-concentrate Diet Blended with Oil Mixtures Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of feeding linseed oil or/and sunflower oil mixed with fish oil on milk yield, milk composition and fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet, 24 crossbred primiparous lactating dairy cows in early lactation were assigned to a completely randomized design experiment. All cows were fed a high-concentrate basal diet and 0.38 kg dry matter (DM) molasses per day. Treatments were composed of a basal diet without oil supplement (Control), or diets of (DM basis) 3% linseed and fish oils (1:1, w/w, LSO-FO), or 3% sunflower and fish oils (1:1, w/w, SFO-FO), or 3% mixture (1:1:1, w/w) of linseed, sunflower, and fish oils (MIX-O). The animals fed SFO-FO had a 13.12% decrease in total dry matter intake compared with the control diet (p<0.05). No significant change was detected for milk yield; however, the animals fed the diet supplemented with SFO-FO showed a depressed milk fat yield and concentration by 35.42% and 27.20%, respectively, compared to those fed the control diet (p<0.05). Milk c9, t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) proportion increased by 198.11% in the LSO-FO group relative to the control group (p<0.01). Milk C18:3n-3 (ALA) proportion was enhanced by 227.27% supplementing with LSO-FO relative to the control group (p<0.01). The proportions of milk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were significantly increased (p<0.01) in the cows fed LSO-FO (0.38%) and MIX-O (0.23%) compared to the control group (0.01%). Dietary inclusion of LSO-FO mainly increased milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), whereas feeding MIX-O improved preformed FA and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). While the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio was found in the LSO-FO, the decreased atherogenecity index (AI) and thrombogenicity index (TI) seemed to be more extent in the MIX-O. Therefore, to maximize milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 PUFA and to minimize milk n-6/n-3 ratio, AI and TI, an ideal supplement would appear to be either LSO-FO or

  18. Milk Yield, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Dairy Cows Fed a High-concentrate Diet Blended with Oil Mixtures Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of feeding linseed oil or/and sunflower oil mixed with fish oil on milk yield, milk composition and fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet, 24 crossbred primiparous lactating dairy cows in early lactation were assigned to a completely randomized design experiment. All cows were fed a high-concentrate basal diet and 0.38 kg dry matter (DM) molasses per day. Treatments were composed of a basal diet without oil supplement (Control), or diets of (DM basis) 3% linseed and fish oils (1:1, w/w, LSO-FO), or 3% sunflower and fish oils (1:1, w/w, SFO-FO), or 3% mixture (1:1:1, w/w) of linseed, sunflower, and fish oils (MIX-O). The animals fed SFO-FO had a 13.12% decrease in total dry matter intake compared with the control diet (p<0.05). No significant change was detected for milk yield; however, the animals fed the diet supplemented with SFO-FO showed a depressed milk fat yield and concentration by 35.42% and 27.20%, respectively, compared to those fed the control diet (p<0.05). Milk c9, t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) proportion increased by 198.11% in the LSO-FO group relative to the control group (p<0.01). Milk C18:3n-3 (ALA) proportion was enhanced by 227.27% supplementing with LSO-FO relative to the control group (p<0.01). The proportions of milk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were significantly increased (p<0.01) in the cows fed LSO-FO (0.38%) and MIX-O (0.23%) compared to the control group (0.01%). Dietary inclusion of LSO-FO mainly increased milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), whereas feeding MIX-O improved preformed FA and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). While the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio was found in the LSO-FO, the decreased atherogenecity index (AI) and thrombogenicity index (TI) seemed to be more extent in the MIX-O. Therefore, to maximize milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 PUFA and to minimize milk n-6/n-3 ratio, AI and TI, an ideal supplement would appear to be either LSO-FO or

  19. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of river buffalo stearoyl CoA desaturase gene (SCD) is associated with milk yield.

    PubMed

    Pauciullo, Alfredo; Cosenza, Gianfranco; Steri, Roberto; Coletta, Angelo; La Battaglia, Antonio; Di Berardino, Dino; Macciotta, Nicolò P P; Ramunno, Luigi

    2012-11-01

    An association study between the milk yield trait and the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) polymorphism (g.133A > C) in Italian Mediterranean river buffalo was carried out. A full characterization of the river buffalo SCD promoter region was presented. Genotyping information was provided and a quick method for allelic discrimination was developed. The frequency of the C allele was 0·16. Test-day (TD) records (43 510) of milk production belonging to 226 lactations of 169 buffalo cows were analysed with a mixed linear model in order to estimate the effect of g.133A > C genotype, as well as the effect of parity and calving season. The SCD genotype was significantly associated with milk yield (P = 0·02). The genotype AC showed an over-dominance effect with an average daily milk yield approximately 2 kg/d higher than CC buffaloes. Such a difference represents about 28% more milk/d. The effect of the genotype was constant across lactation stages. The contribution of SCD genotype (r(2)SCD) to the total phenotypic variance in milk yield was equal to 0·12. This report is among the first indications of genetic association between a trait of economic importance in river buffalo. Although such results need to be confirmed with large-scale studies in the same and other buffalo populations, they might offer useful indications for the application of MAS programmes in river buffalo and in the future they might be of great economic interest for the river buffalo dairy industry. PMID:22994977

  20. Effects of exposure to artificial long days on milk yield, maternal insulin-like growth factor 1 levels and kid growth rate in subtropical goats.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Horacio; Flores, José Alfredo; Delgadillo, José Alberto; Fernández, Ilda G; Flores, Manuel de Jesús; Mejía, Ángel; Elizundia, José Manuel; Bedos, Marie; Ponce, José Luis; Ramírez, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to determine whether any relationship exists between exposure to artificial long days, milk yield, maternal plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels, and kid growth rate in goats. One group of lactating goats was maintained under naturally decreasing day length (control group; n = 19), while in another one, they were kept under artificial long days (LD group; n = 19). Milk yield was higher in goats from the LD group than that in the control group (P < 0.05). Maternal IGF-1 levels at day 57 of lactation were higher (P < 0.05) in goats from the LD group than the levels in the control group and were positively correlated with the total milk yields per goat at days 43 and 57 of lactation (r = 0.77 and r = 0.84, respectively; P < 0.01). Daily weight gain at week 4 was higher (P < 0.01) in kids from the LD group than that in kids from the control group and was correlated with total and average IGF-1 maternal levels (r = 0.60 and r = 0.60, P < 0.05). It was concluded that submitting lactating goats to artificial long days increases milk yield, plasma IGF-1 maternal levels and the growth rate of the kids. PMID:26261065

  1. Forced traffic in automatic milking systems effectively reduces the need to get cows, but alters eating behavior and does not improve milk yield of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Bach, A; Devant, M; Igleasias, C; Ferrer, A

    2009-03-01

    Eighty-five lactating Holstein dairy cows in loose housing conditions in 2 symmetrical pens, each containing 28 feeding places, 3 waterers, and 1 automatic milking system (AMS), were used to evaluate the effects of the traffic type imposed on lactating cows through an AMS on milking frequency, feeding behavior, and milk production. The study was a crossover design with 2 periods and 2 treatments. Each period lasted 3 mo, with 1 mo of adaptation within each period. All cows were fed a partial mixed ration twice daily and up to 3 kg/d of a concentrate during the visits to the AMS. Treatments consisted of allowing free traffic of cows throughout the pen or forcing cows to pass through the AMS to access the feed troughs (forced traffic). Individual eating behavior and feed consumption were continuously monitored throughout the study using a computerized system. Individual milk production was recorded at each milking, and milk composition was recorded monthly. In addition, the number of cows brought to the AMS was recorded. The number of daily meals was less, whereas meal duration and meal size were greater with forced traffic (6.6 +/- 0.3 meals/d, 20.4 +/- 0.65 min/meal, and 2.7 +/- 0.09 kg/meal, respectively) than with free traffic (10.1 +/- 0.3 meals/d, 15.7 +/- 0.65 min/meal, and 1.8 +/- 0.09 kg/meal, respectively). Total dry matter intake (21.1 +/- 0.5 and 20.4 +/- 0.58 kg/d, respectively) and milk production (29.8 +/- 0.79 and 30.9 +/- 0.79 kg/d, respectively) were similar in the 2 systems. The number of voluntary and total daily milkings was greater with forced traffic (2.4 +/- 0.04 and 2.5 +/- 0.06 milkings/d, respectively) than with free traffic (1.7 +/- 0.06 and 2.2 +/- 0.04 milkings/d, respectively). Forced traffic improved the number of voluntary milkings, but altered milk quality and eating behavior of dairy cattle. PMID:19233820

  2. Morning versus afternoon cutting time of Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) affects feed intake, milk yield and composition in Girgentana goats.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Renato Italo; Valenti, Bernardo; De Angelis, Anna; Avondo, Marcella; Pennisi, Pietro

    2011-11-01

    Twenty lactating Girgentana goats were used to evaluate the effect of morning v. afternoon cutting time of Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) on feed intake, milk yield and milk composition. Goats were randomly divided into two groups of ten animals, receiving 10 kg of fresh Berseem clover cut at 9.00 (AM group) or 16.00 (PM group), respectively; 500 g of concentrate was given individually to goats before offering forage. Feed intake increased (P<0·01) in the PM group (30·5 v. 25·3 g dry matter/kg body weight), associated with the different nutrient content of diets: lower crude protein but higher dry matter, neutral detergent fibre, water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and total fatty acids in the PM-harvested forage. Milk production, protein and casein content were higher (P<0·05) in the PM group (1415 g/d, 3·25% and 2·42% v. 1277 g/d, 3·15% and 2·33%, respectively), whereas no differences between groups were detected for milk fat, lactose or urea content. Body weight slowly decreased from the start to the end of the experiment, without differences between groups. This study showed an important milk yield responses in Girgentana goats offered afternoon-cut compared with morning-cut Berseem clover, due to a marked increase in WSC in the afternoon-cut forage. PMID:21939575

  3. The nonlinear effect of somatic cell count on milk composition, coagulation properties, curd firmness modeling, cheese yield, and curd nutrient recovery.

    PubMed

    Bobbo, T; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between somatic cell count (SCC) in milk and several milk technological traits at the individual cow level. In particular, we determined the effects of very low to very high SCC on traits related to (1) milk yield and composition; (2) coagulation properties, including the traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP) and the new curd firming model parameters; and (3) cheese yield and recovery of milk nutrients in the curd (or loss in the whey). Milk samples from 1,271 Brown Swiss cows from 85 herds were used. Nine coagulation traits were measured: 3 traditional MCP [rennet coagulation time (RCT, min), curd firming rate (k20, min), and curd firmness after 30 min (a30, mm)] and 6 new curd firming and syneresis traits [potential asymptotic curd firmness at infinite time (CFP, mm), curd firming instant rate constant (kCF, % × min(-1)), syneresis instant rate constant (kSR, % × min(-1)), rennet coagulation time estimated using the equation (RCTeq, min), maximum curd firmness achieved within 45 min (CFmax, mm), and time at achievement of CFmax (tmax, min)]. The observed cheese-making traits included 3 cheese yield traits (%CYCURD, %CYSOLIDS, and %CYWATER, which represented the weights of curd, total solids, and water, respectively, as a percentage of the weight of the processed milk) and 4 nutrient recoveries in the curd (RECFAT, RECPROTEIN, RECSOLIDS, and RECENERGY, which each represented the percentage ratio between the nutrient in the curd and milk). Data were analyzed using a linear mixed model with the fixed effects of days in milk, parity, and somatic cell score (SCS), and the random effect of herd-date. Somatic cell score had strong influences on casein number and lactose, and also affected pH; these were traits characterized by a quadratic pattern of the data. The results also showed a negative linear relationship between SCS and milk yield. Somatic cell score influenced almost all of the tested

  4. Milk yield and estrous behavior during eight consecutive estruses in Holstein cows fed standardized or high energy diets and grouped according to live weight changes in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, C; Barbu, H; Sørensen, M T; Sehested, J; Callesen, H; Vestergaard, M

    2016-04-01

    Cows managed for extended lactation go through several estruses before rebreeding. The aims of this study were (1) to quantify the effect of the first 8 estruses after calving on milk yield, milking frequency, and estrous behavioral activity, and (2) to determine the effects of early lactation live weight gain (LWG) as an indication of energy balance on milk yield, plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentration, estrous behavioral activity, interval from calving to first estrus, between-estrus intervals, and pregnancy risk. Milk yield, live weight, and estrous behavioral activity were measured daily in 62 Holstein cows, 17 primiparous and 45 multiparous, managed for an 18-mo calving interval. Blood plasma obtained at wk 3, 5, 12, and 24 after calving was analyzed for IGF-1. Estrus was detected by use of milk progesterone profiles combined with visual observations (i.e., mounting behavior and other). The cows were divided into 2 groups: the cows having a negative LWG in each of the first 5wk postpartum and the cows having a positive LWG in at least 1 of the first 5wk after calving. The results indicate a similar decrease of 0.56kg of milk per day of estrus during each of the 8 consecutive estruses. The activity level was 17±1 movements per hour higher during the 8 estruses compared with the basic activity level. More cows expressed mounting behavior at estrus 8 than at estrus 2 (63.3 and 45.9%, respectively). The negative LWG cows had lower IGF-1 and higher milk production than the positive LWG cows. Both LWG groups had similar interval from calving to first estrus, on average 55 d. To conclude, the decrease in milk yield during estrus is marginal and similar in consecutive estruses. Moreover, estrous behavior is more highly expressed in the later estruses compared with the earlier estruses. Reproductive parameters (frequency of mounting, pregnancy risk, interval to first estrus, and between-estrus intervals) were not influenced by the live weight change

  5. Effects of replacing grass silage with forage pearl millet silage on milk yield, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brunette, T; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A F

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary replacement of grass silage (GS) with forage millet silages that were harvested at 2 stages of maturity [i.e., vegetative stage and dough to ripe seed (mature) stage] on milk production, apparent total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (60:40 forage:concentrate ratio). Dietary treatments included control (GS), vegetative millet silage (EM), and mature millet silage (MM) diets. Experimental silages comprised 24% of dietary dry matter (DM). Soybean meal and slow-release urea were added in millet diets to balance for crude protein (CP). Three additional ruminally fistulated cows were used to determine the effect of treatments on ruminal fermentation and total-tract nutrient utilization. Cows fed the GS diet consumed more DM (22.9 vs. 21.7 ± 1.02 kg/d) and CP (3.3 vs. 3.1 ± 0.19 kg/d), and similar starch (4.9 ± 0.39 kg/d) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 8.0 ± 0.27 kg/d) compared with cows fed the MM diet. Replacing the EM diet with the MM diet did not affect DM, NDF, or CP intakes. Cows fed the MM diet produced less milk (26.1 vs. 29.1 ± 0.79 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (28.0 vs.30.5 ± 0.92 kg/d), and 4% fat-corrected milk (26.5 vs. 28.3 ± 0.92 kg/d) yields than cows fed the GS diet. However, cows fed diets with EM and GS produced similar yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, and 4% fat-corrected milk. Feed efficiency (milk yield:DM intake) was greater only for cows fed the GS diet than those fed the MM diet. Milk protein yield and concentration were greater among cows fed the GS diet compared with those fed the EM or MM diets. Milk fat and lactose concentrations were not influenced by diet. However, milk urea N was lower for cows fed the GS diet than for those fed the MM diet. Ruminal NH3-N was greater for cows fed the EM diet than for

  6. Detrimental effect of selection for milk yield on genetic tolerance to heat stress in purebred Zebu cattle: Genetic parameters and trends.

    PubMed

    Santana, M L; Pereira, R J; Bignardi, A B; Filho, A E Vercesi; Menéndez-Buxadera, A; El Faro, L

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt to determine the possible detrimental effects of continuous selection for milk yield on the genetic tolerance of Zebu cattle to heat stress, genetic parameters and trends of the response to heat stress for 86,950 test-day (TD) milk yield records from 14,670 first lactations of purebred dairy Gir cows were estimated. A random regression model with regression on days in milk (DIM) and temperature-humidity index (THI) values was applied to the data. The most detrimental effect of THI on milk yield was observed in the stage of lactation with higher milk production, DIM 61 to 120 (-0.099kg/d per THI). Although modest variations were observed for the THI scale, a reduction in additive genetic variance as well as in permanent environmental and residual variance was observed with increasing THI values. The heritability estimates showed a slight increase with increasing THI values for any DIM. The correlations between additive genetic effects across the THI scale showed that, for most of the THI values, genotype by environment interactions due to heat stress were less important for the ranking of bulls. However, for extreme THI values, this type of genotype by environment interaction may lead to an important error in selection. As a result of the selection for milk yield practiced in the dairy Gir population for 3 decades, the genetic trend of cumulative milk yield was significantly positive for production in both high (51.81kg/yr) and low THI values (78.48kg/yr). However, the difference between the breeding values of animals at high and low THI may be considered alarming (355kg in 2011). The genetic trends observed for the regression coefficients related to general production level (intercept of the reaction norm) and specific ability to respond to heat stress (slope of the reaction norm) indicate that the dairy Gir population is heading toward a higher production level at the expense of lower tolerance to heat stress. These trends reflect the genetic

  7. Effect of some non-genetic factors on milk yield and composition of Draa indigenous goats under an intensive system of three kiddings in 2 years.

    PubMed

    Ibnelbachyr, Mustapha; Boujenane, Ismail; Chikhi, Abdelkader; Noutfia, Younes

    2015-04-01

    With 5 millions heads, goats occupy the second place after sheep in Morocco. The indigenous populations are generally raised for meat, except Draa goat that is raised as a dual purpose doe. The objective of this study was to assess milk yield and composition of Draa indigenous goat breed under an intensive system of three kiddings in 2 years and to evaluate the effects of non-genetic factors. Data were collected on 381 lactations between 2006 and 2012 and on 174 samples for milk composition between 2008 and 2010. The highest milk yield was recorded in does of 36-48 months old (84.3 ± 4.78), those suckling more than one kid (80.0 ± 3.39) and those kidding in spring (80.4 ± 3.60) and summer (79.9 ± 3.67). Except protein content, milk composition was not affected by age of does. Dry matter and fat content increased significantly with the lactation stage, protein content decreased from early to middle/late lactation, and lactose content was high in middle lactation. The highest dry matter and fat and lactose contents were obtained for summer kiddings, while the highest percent of protein was recorded for autumnal kiddings. It was concluded that under the three kiddings in 2-year system, Draa does produce enough milk with an interesting milk composition, indicating that this system may be used with success to improve farmers' income. PMID:25724925

  8. Comparative 2D-DIGE proteomic analysis of bovine mammary epithelial cells during lactation reveals protein signatures for lactation persistency and milk yield.

    PubMed

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Singh, Surender; Jena, Manoj K; Varshney, Nishant; Kola, Srujana; Kumar, Sudarshan; Kaushik, Jai K; Grover, Sunita; Dang, Ajay K; Mukesh, Manishi; Prakash, B S; Mohanty, Ashok K

    2014-01-01

    Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end with alveoli which surrounds the lumen. These alveolar mammary epithelial cells (MEC) reflect the milk producing ability of farm animals. In this study, we have used 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry to identify the protein changes in MEC during immediate early, peak and late stages of lactation and also compared differentially expressed proteins in MEC isolated from milk of high and low milk producing cows. We have identified 41 differentially expressed proteins during lactation stages and 22 proteins in high and low milk yielding cows. Bioinformatics analysis showed that a majority of the differentially expressed proteins are associated in metabolic process, catalytic and binding activity. The differentially expressed proteins were mapped to the available biological pathways and networks involved in lactation. The proteins up-regulated during late stage of lactation are associated with NF-κB stress induced signaling pathways and whereas Akt, PI3K and p38/MAPK signaling pathways are associated with high milk production mediated through insulin hormone signaling. PMID:25111801

  9. Comparative 2D-DIGE Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells during Lactation Reveals Protein Signatures for Lactation Persistency and Milk Yield

    PubMed Central

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Singh, Surender; Jena, Manoj K.; Varshney, Nishant; Kola, Srujana; Kumar, Sudarshan; Kaushik, Jai K.; Grover, Sunita; Dang, Ajay K.; Mukesh, Manishi; Prakash, B. S.; Mohanty, Ashok K.

    2014-01-01

    Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end with alveoli which surrounds the lumen. These alveolar mammary epithelial cells (MEC) reflect the milk producing ability of farm animals. In this study, we have used 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry to identify the protein changes in MEC during immediate early, peak and late stages of lactation and also compared differentially expressed proteins in MEC isolated from milk of high and low milk producing cows. We have identified 41 differentially expressed proteins during lactation stages and 22 proteins in high and low milk yielding cows. Bioinformatics analysis showed that a majority of the differentially expressed proteins are associated in metabolic process, catalytic and binding activity. The differentially expressed proteins were mapped to the available biological pathways and networks involved in lactation. The proteins up-regulated during late stage of lactation are associated with NF-κB stress induced signaling pathways and whereas Akt, PI3K and p38/MAPK signaling pathways are associated with high milk production mediated through insulin hormone signaling. PMID:25111801

  10. Effects of reduced in utero and post weaning nutrition on milk yield and composition in primiparous beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Can range livestock producers reduce harvested feed inputs, during late pregnancy and heifer development, and maintain sustainable and acceptable production goals? To address this, we conducted a 3-yr study measuring milk production and milk constituent concentrations in primiparous beef heifers (n ...

  11. Milk yield, gross composition and fatty acid profile of dual-purpose Aosta Red Pied cows fed separate concentrate-forage versus total mixed ration.

    PubMed

    Renna, Manuela; Cornale, Paolo; Lussiana, Carola; Battaglini, Luca Maria; Turille, Germano; Mimosi, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of two feeding methods on milk yield, composition and fatty acid (FA) profile obtained from dual-purpose cattle. Twenty-four Aosta Red Pied cows beyond peak of lactation were assigned to two groups and fed hay and concentrates in the proportions 0.69 and 0.31 on a dry matter basis for 10 weeks. Concentrates were offered separately from forages 6 times a day (separate ration, SR) or as a total mixed ration (TMR). The feeding method did not significantly influence dry matter intake (16.8 vs. 16.9 kg/head/day for SR- and TMR-fed cows, respectively), milk yield (17.4 vs. 17.5 kg/head/day), milk fat, protein and lactose contents (36.4 vs. 35.2, 33.5 vs. 32.8, and 47.3 vs. 47.4 g/kg) and yields (607.9 vs. 613.4, 567.4 vs. 572.7 and 805.5 vs. 829.7 g/head/day). The overall milk FA profile was very similar between groups. Milk concentrations of FA used as indirect markers of rumen function (C18:2 t10c12, odd- and branched-chain FA) and the extent of ruminal biohydrogenation were comparable (P > 0.05) between SR- and TMR-fed cows, suggesting that ruminal pH did not vary considerably as a consequence of the feeding strategy applied. PMID:23841857

  12. A field trial on the effect of propylene glycol on milk yield and resolution of ketosis in fresh cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis.

    PubMed

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Ospina, P A; Oetzel, G R

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of oral propylene glycol (PG) administration on ketosis resolution and milk yield in cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis (SCK). Cows from 4 freestall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin) were each tested 6 times for SCK from 3 to 16 d in milk on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. Subclinical ketosis was defined as a β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L, [corrected] and clinical ketosis was defined as ≥ 3.0 mmol/L. [corrected]. Cows with SCK were randomized to the treatment group (oral PG) or control group (no PG); treatment cows were drenched with 300 mL of PG once daily from the day they tested 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L [corrected] until the day they tested <1.2 mmol/L. [corrected]. Outcomes evaluated for all farms included time from SCK until BHBA test <1.2 mmol/L [corrected] or until BHBA test ≥ 3.0 mmol/L. [corrected]. Individual milk weights for the first 30 d of lactation were evaluated for the 3 farms monitoring daily milk. Semiparametric proportional hazards models were used to evaluate time to event outcomes; repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess milk weights. A total of 741 of 1,717 (43.2%) eligible enrolled cows had at least one BHBA test of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. [corrected]. Of these, 372 were assigned to the treatment group and 369 to the control group. Based on hazard ratios, PG-treated cows were 1.50 times more likely (95% confidence interval=1.26 to 1.79) to resolve their SCK and 0.54 times less likely (95% confidence interval=0.34 to 0.86) to develop clinical ketosis than control cows. Across the 3 herds measuring individual milk weights, treated cows produced 0.23 kg more milk per milking in the first 30 d of lactation than control cows, for a total difference of 0.69 kg/cow per day. After identification of a treatment by herd interaction, stratification by herd showed that treated cows produced more milk per milking on farm A (0.44 kg) and farm B (0.53 kg) in

  13. Effect of dietary starch level and high rumen-undegradable protein on endocrine-metabolic status, milk yield, and milk composition in dairy cows during early and late lactation.

    PubMed

    Piccioli-Cappelli, F; Loor, J J; Seal, C J; Minuti, A; Trevisi, E

    2014-12-01

    Diet composition defines the amount and type of nutrients absorbed by dairy cows. Endocrine-metabolic interactions can influence these parameters, and so nutrient availability for the mammary gland can significantly vary and affect milk yield and its composition. Six dairy cows in early and then late lactation received, for 28 d in a changeover design, 2 diets designed to provide, within the same stage of lactation, similar amounts of rumen fermentable material but either high starch plus sugar (HS) content or low starch plus sugar content (LS). All diets had similar dietary crude protein and calculated supply of essential amino acids. Dry matter intake within each stage of lactation was similar between groups. Milk yield was similar between groups in early lactation, whereas a higher milk yield was observed in late lactation when feeding HS. At the metabolic level, the main difference observed between the diets in both stages of lactation was lower blood glucose in cows fed LS. The lower glucose availability during consumption of LS caused substantial modifications in the circulating and postprandial pattern of metabolic hormones. Feeding LS versus HS resulted in an increase in the ratio of bovine somatotropin to insulin. This increased mobilization of lipid reserves resulted in higher blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate, which contributed to the higher milk fat content in both stages of lactation in the LS group. This greater recourse to body fat stores was confirmed by the greater loss of body weight during early lactation and the slower recovery of body weight in late lactation in cows fed LS. The lower insulin to glucagon ratio observed in cows fed LS in early and late lactation likely caused an increase in hepatic uptake and catabolism of amino acids, as confirmed by the higher blood urea concentrations. Despite the higher catabolism of amino acids in LS in early lactation, similar milk protein output was observed for both

  14. Kelp meal (Ascophyllum nodosum) did not improve milk yield or mitigate heat stress but increased milk iodine in mid lactation organic Jersey cows during the grazing season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kelp meal (KM) made from dry and ground Ascophyllum nodosum, a brown algae, is often used as a mineral supplement on northeastern organic dairy farms. Twenty (12 primiparous and 8 multiparous) organic Jersey cows with an initial BW of 410 kg (SD ± 39) and DIM of 135 (SD ± 52) were blocked by milk yi...

  15. Genetic parameters of linear conformation type traits and their relationship with milk yield throughout lactation in mixed-breed dairy goats.

    PubMed

    McLaren, A; Mucha, S; Mrode, R; Coffey, M; Conington, J

    2016-07-01

    Conformation traits are of interest to many dairy goat breeders not only as descriptive traits in their own right, but also because of their influence on production, longevity, and profitability. If these traits are to be considered for inclusion in future dairy goat breeding programs, relationships between them and production traits such as milk yield must be considered. With the increased use of regression models to estimate genetic parameters, an opportunity now exists to investigate correlations between conformation traits and milk yield throughout lactation in more detail. The aims of this study were therefore to (1) estimate genetic parameters for conformation traits in a population of crossbred dairy goats, (2) estimate correlations between all conformation traits, and (3) assess the relationship between conformation traits and milk yield throughout lactation. No information on milk composition was available. Data were collected from goats based on 2 commercial goat farms during August and September in 2013 and 2014. Ten conformation traits, relating to udder, teat, leg, and feet characteristics, were scored on a linear scale (1-9). The overall data set comprised data available for 4,229 goats, all in their first lactation. The population of goats used in the study was created using random crossings between 3 breeds: British Alpine, Saanen, and Toggenburg. In each generation, the best performing animals were selected for breeding, leading to the formation of a synthetic breed. The pedigree file used in the analyses contained sire and dam information for a total of 30,139 individuals. The models fitted relevant fixed and random effects. Heritability estimates for the conformation traits were low to moderate, ranging from 0.02 to 0.38. A range of positive and negative phenotypic and genetic correlations between the traits were observed, with the highest correlations found between udder depth and udder attachment (0.78), teat angle and teat placement (0

  16. Locus BoLA-DRB3 is just an ordinary site of the polygene when explaining genetic variance of somatic cell count and milk yield.

    PubMed

    Oprzadek, Jolanta; Sender, Grazyna; Pawlik, Adrianna; Lukaszewicz, Marek

    2015-11-01

    The study aimed at clarifying the problem of the hitherto contradictory results regarding usefulness of BoLA-DRB3 locus as a marker in selection against mastitis and for milk yield. Treating the BoLA-DRB3 locus effect as random was proposed in place of considering it fixed. Somatic cell counts and milk yields recorded monthly on a test day (22,424) of 619 Polish Holstein cows genotyped for BoLA-DRB3 were analysed with an animal model including a random effect for genotype at this locus. The BoLA-DRB3 alleles were defined as restriction patterns obtained with three endonucleases. Two alternative BoLA-DRB3 additive genotype (co)variance structures were constructed for 161 genotypes recorded. One was based on the allelic similarity of the genotypes resulting in element values of 0 (no common allele), 0.5 (one allele in common), and 1 (diagonal). The other considered restriction site similarity (up to 3 in 1 allele) giving element values of 0 (no common restriction sites) and then increasingly in steps of 1/6 up to 6/6 (diagonal), where the numerator represents the number of common sites between genotypes. The DRB3 variance component for the natural logarithm of somatic cell count did not exceed 0.006 of the polygenic additive component or 0.003 for milk yield. Hence, unless we fail to detect the causative site or to properly define traits being the projection of a site, the effect of the genotype at the BoLA-DRB3 locus does not explain variation in somatic cell count and milk yield at a degree expected of a genetic marker. PMID:26333653

  17. Comparison of several methods of sires evaluation for total milk yield in a herd of Holstein cows in Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Al-Samarai, F.R.; Abdulrahman, Y.K.; Mohammed, F.A.; Al-Zaidi, F.H.; Al-Anbari, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    A total of 956 lactation records of Holstein cows kept at Kaa Albon station, Imuran Governorate, Yemen during the period from 1991 to 2003 were used to investigate the effect of some genetic and non-genetic factors (Sire, parity, season of calving, year of calving and age at first calving as covariate) on the Total Milk Yield (TMY), Lactation Length (LL), and Dry Period (DP). Components of variance for the random effects (mixed model) were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) methodology. Sires were evaluated for the TMY by three methods, Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) using Harvey program, Transmitting Ability (TA) according to the Least Square Means of sire progeny (TALSM) and according to Means (TAM). Results showed that TMY and DP were affected significantly (P < 0.01) by all factors except season of calving and age at first calving, while LL was affected significantly (P< 0.01) only by year of calving and parity. The averages of the TMY, LL, and DP were 3919.66 kg, 298.28 days, and 114.13 days respectively. The corresponding estimates of heritability (h2) were 0.35, 0.06, and 0.14 respectively. The highest and lowest BLUP values of sires for the TMY were – 542.44 kg and 402.14 kg, while the corresponding estimates for TALSM and TAM were – 470.38, 380.88 kg and – 370.12, 388.50 kg respectively. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients among BLUP, TALSM and TAM ranged from 0.81 to 0.67. These results provide evidence that the selection of sires will improve the TMY in this herd because of the wide differences in genetic poetical among sires, and a moderate estimation of heritability. PMID:26623356

  18. An evaluation of casein hydrolyzate in combination with antibiotic for bacterial cure and subsequent increase in milk yield in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A 3-yr study examined whether prepartum treatment with casein hydrolyzate in combination with antibiotic, as routinely used in Israel for dry cow therapy, improved bacterial cure and increased milk yield in subsequent lactations in comparison with treatment with antibiotic alone. The vast majority of bacterial isolates in samples collected prior to drying-off comprised coagulase-negative staphylococci, mostly as Staph. chromogenes. Results Bacterial cure associated with the combined treatment was 73.8% in cows, significantly higher than the 51.7% cure recorded when cows were treated only with antibiotic. During the study, the annual milk yield of non-casein hydrolyzate treated and treated control cows increased at ~2% per year, which is consistent with the national annual increase attributed to genetic selection. In cows treated with casein hydrolyzate the increase was 9% (above the 2% expected) in the first lactation after the treatment, and 6.3% (above the 4% expected for 2 years) in the second lactation after treatment. These increases were significantly higher than those in the controls and those expected through genetic improvement. Conclusions Treatment with casein hydrolyzate at dry-off was shown to be a viable mean to eliminate existing environmental bacterial infection, and to improve milk yield in the next lactation. PMID:21214910

  19. Array of Hall Effect Sensors for Linear Positioning of a Magnet Independently of Its Strength Variation. A Case Study: Monitoring Milk Yield during Milking in Goats

    PubMed Central

    García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Sánchez-Quinche, Angel; Merello, Paloma; Beltrán, Pedro; Peris, Cristófol

    2013-01-01

    In this study we propose an electronic system for linear positioning of a magnet independent of its modulus, which could vary because of aging, different fabrication process, etc. The system comprises a linear array of 24 Hall Effect sensors of proportional response. The data from all sensors are subject to a pretreatment (normalization) by row (position) making them independent on the temporary variation of its magnetic field strength. We analyze the particular case of the individual flow in milking of goats. The multiple regression analysis allowed us to calibrate the electronic system with a percentage of explanation R2 = 99.96%. In our case, the uncertainty in the linear position of the magnet is 0.51 mm that represents 0.019 L of goat milk. The test in farm compared the results obtained by direct reading of the volume with those obtained by the proposed electronic calibrated system, achieving a percentage of explanation of 99.05%. PMID:23793020

  20. First-calving age and first-lactation milk production on Dutch dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Mohd Nor, N; Steeneveld, W; van Werven, T; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H

    2013-02-01

    Farmers attempting to reduce first-calving age (FCA) need to understand which rearing management factors influence FCA and first-lactation milk production (FLP). Reduced FCA might be associated with lower FLP. This study describes the association between herd FCA, FLP, and several herd-level health and rearing management variables and describes the association between FCA and FLP at the cow level. It uses data from a 2010 survey of 100 Dutch dairy farms about general management, colostrum and milk feeding, housing, cleanliness, healthcare, disease, and breeding. It also used available data on FCA and 305-d FLP at both cow and herd level. The associations between median FCA and median FLP of the herd and herd-level health and rearing management variables were determined using multivariate regression analysis. The median FCA was associated with minimum age of first insemination, feeding of waste milk, and the amount of milk given preweaning. The median FLP was associated with median FCA and vaccination status for bovine respiratory syncytial virus. The association between FCA and FLP (based on 8,454 heifers) was analyzed with a single-effect linear mixed model, where the dependent variable was either FCA or relative FCA (defined as the difference between FCA of the heifer and median FCA of the herd to which they belonged). Heifers having an FCA of 24 mo produced, on average, 7,164 kg of milk per 305 d, and calving 1 mo earlier gave 143 kg less milk per 305 d. When FCA did not deviate from the median herd FCA, heifers produced, on average, 7,272 kg of milk per 305 d. From the median FCA of the herd, heifers calving 1 mo earlier produced 90 kg of milk per 305 d less, and heifers calving 1 mo later produced 86 kg per 305 d more. This is the first study that explained FLP using relative FCA. It assumes that heifers raised within the same farm have similar development because they are similarly managed. Similar management is reflected by the median FCA of the herd, with a

  1. Short communication: Supplementing lysine and methionine in a lactation diet containing a high concentration of wet corn gluten feed did not alter milk protein yield.

    PubMed

    Mullins, C R; Weber, D; Block, E; Smith, J F; Brouk, M J; Bradford, B J

    2013-08-01

    Primiparous (n=33) and multiparous (n=63) lactating Holstein cows (186±51 d in milk) were used to evaluate the effects of supplementing metabolizable amino acids using lysine in a matrix of Ca salts of fatty acids (Megamine-L, Arm & Hammer Animal Nutrition, Princeton, NJ) and the isopropyl ester of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (MetaSmart, Adisseo Inc., Antony, France) in diets containing >26% wet corn gluten feed (dry matter basis). Cows were blocked by production level, parity, and pregnancy status, then randomly assigned to 1 of 8 pens and allowed a 7-d adaption period before receiving dietary treatments for 28 d. Pens were assigned randomly to either of 2 diets formulated to differ by metabolizable amino acid supply. Dry matter intake and production were monitored daily and milk components analyzed 3d/wk. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures. The original design of the study consisted of a control diet predicted to be deficient in lysine and methionine; however, after ingredient nutrients were analyzed and modeled with animal requirements at dry matter intake [26.6±0.35 kg/d (mean ± SEM)] and milk production levels achieved during the study (40.1±0.46 kg/d), only marginal deficiencies were predicted for the control (-8.1g/d for lysine; -1g/d for methionine) according to the National Research Council method, whereas the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System 5.0 and 6.1 models indicated positive balances for these amino acids (25.9 and 21.8 g/d for lysine, 14.7 and 18.9 g/d for methionine, respectively). Supplementing 30 g/d of metabolizable lysine in a Ca soap matrix and 2.4 g/d of metabolizable methionine as 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid led to positive predicted lysine and methionine balances by all 3 models, and predicted metabolizable lysine-to-methionine ratios ranging from 2.9 to 3.1. No treatment effects were observed for dry matter intake, milk yield, milk component concentrations or yields, or energy

  2. Short- and long-term effects of forage supplementation of calves during the preweaning period on performance, reproduction, and milk yield at first lactation.

    PubMed

    Castells, Ll; Bach, A; Terré, M

    2015-07-01

    Sixty female Holstein calves [body weight (BW)=39.5±3.76kg] were fed a ground starter concentrate [19% crude protein, 19% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] during the preweaning period. Furthermore, oats hay (68% NDF) was supplemented only during the postweaning period (CON) or during both pre- and postweaning periods (OH) to evaluate performance until first breeding, diet digestibility after weaning, reproductive performance, and milk yield at first lactation. Calves were individually housed and bedded with wood shavings. All calves were offered 6 L/d of milk replacer (MR) at 12% dry matter (DM) in 2 feedings until 28d of age, 3 L/d of MR at 12% DM in 2 feedings from 29 to 44d of age calves, and 1.5 L of MR at 12% DM in 1 feeding from 45 to 51d of age. Animals were weaned at 52d of age. Starter concentrate and forage intake were recorded daily and BW weekly until 65d of age. Two weeks after weaning, total-tract apparent digestibility was determined in 6 calves per treatment. Heifer BW was recorded at 10 mo of age. Breeding and milk yield at first lactation were also recorded. Starter concentrate intake was greater in OH compared with CON animals during the preweaning period. As a result, calves in the OH treatment had greater average daily gain (ADG) than CON animals during the preweaning period. After weaning, OH calves consumed more forage than CON animals, but we found no differences between treatments in ADG and starter concentrate intake. Similarly, total-tract apparent digestibility did not differ between treatments, and BW and ADG from 2wk after weaning to 10mo of age did not differ between treatments. Moreover, no differences in reproductive performance [age at first artificial insemination (AI), age at fertile insemination, conception rate at first AI, and number of AI] or milk yield at first lactation were observed between treatments, although a positive relationship between growth rate early in life and future energy-corrected milk yield was found. We

  3. Effect of pour-on alphacypermethrin on feed intake, body condition score, milk yield, pregnancy rates, and calving-to-conception interval in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Bifulco, G; Veneziano, V; Cimmino, R; Esposito, L; Auletta, L; Varricchio, E; Balestrieri, A; Claps, S; Campanile, G; Neglia, G

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy of alphacypermethrin (ACYP) on pediculosis due to Haematopinus tuberculatus and to evaluate the influence of the treatment on productive and reproductive performance in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) reared in an intensive system. The trial was performed on 56 pluriparous buffaloes at 86.8 ± 8.1 d in milk. The animals underwent individual louse count and were divided into 2 homogenous groups according to louse count, age, number of lactations, days in milk, live BW, BCS, pregnancy status, and milk yield. Group A (n = 28) was treated by a pour-on formulation of ACYP, and Group S (n = 28) was treated by pour-on saline solution. Individual louse counts were performed weekly on 10 buffaloes in each group. Feed intake was recorded daily and the total mixed ration, individual ingredients, and orts were analyzed to calculate DM ingestion. Individual milk yield was recorded daily and milk samples were analyzed at the beginning of the trial, after 4 wk, and at the end of the trial to assess milk composition. Individual BCS was also evaluated simultaneously. Finally, the animals underwent synchronization of ovulation starting 4 wk after treatment and the pregnancy rate and the calving-conception interval were evaluated. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test and ANOVA for repeated measures. The infestation was constant in Group S, whereas no lice were present in Group A throughout the study. Daily DMI was similar in the 2 groups (16.7 ± 0.4 vs. 16.3 ± 0.3 kg/d in Group A vs. Group S, respectively), although buffaloes in Group A showed higher (P < 0.05) BCS score at the end of the trial (7.39 ± 0.1 vs. 7.14 ± 0.1 in Group A vs. Group S, respectively). The average milk yield/buffalo was higher (P < 0.05) in Group A compared to Group S (10.58 ± 0.1 vs. 10.39 ± 0.1 kg in Group A vs. Group S, respectively) and this was mainly due to the higher milk production recorded in buffaloes at less than 75 d in milk (11.81 ± 0

  4. Milk processing quality of suckled/milked goats: effects of milk accumulation interval and milking regime.

    PubMed

    Högberg, M; Dahlborn, K; Hydbring-Sandberg, E; Hartmann, E; Andrén, A

    2016-05-01

    Milk with a high concentration of fat and casein is required for cheese production, and these components have a major impact for both quality and yield of the curd. Recent observations have shown that suckling can elevate milk fat concentration in goats and our aim was therefore to check the hypothesis that animal welfare and cheese-processing properties of goat milk could be optimised by appropriate management of suckled/milked goats. Twelve Swedish dairy goats were kept together with one kid each in 4 different mixed management-systems (milking combined with partial suckling) in a cross-over design. Two milk accumulation intervals were tested; Short = dams and kids were together for 16 h (T16) and Long = ; dams and kids were together for 8 h (T8 h). In addition, two milking regimes were used; Suckled Before Milking = S and Milked Before Suckling = M. Milk accumulation interval referred to how long dams and kids were separated. The milk yield available for processing (milk offtake), was weighed and analysed from each milking occasion and the suckled milk yield was estimated by a weigh-suckle-weigh method (WSW) in combination with observing the suckling behaviour during the free suckling periods. Milking managements, such as 'suckling before milking (S)', increased milk fat concentration compared to milking before suckling (M) and 'Short accumulation treatments (T16)' gave higher milk fat, casein concentration and individual curd yield (%) compared to the 'Long accumulation treatment (T8)'. The total individual curd yield (g) was the same despite treatment, but the animal welfare was most likely higher in T16 where dams and kids spent more time together. PMID:27056664

  5. Genetic and environmental relationships of different measures of individual cheese yield and curd nutrients recovery with coagulation properties of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationships between various cheesemaking-related traits, namely the well-known traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP), the new curd firming and syneresis traits, the cheese yield, and the curd nutrient recoveries or whey losses (all measured at the individual level). Data were obtained from 1,167 Brown Swiss cows reared in 85 herds. A 2-L milk sample was collected once from each animal and assessed for 10 phenotypes related to changes in curd firmness (CF) over time, plus 7 cheesemaking traits. The CF-related traits included 4 traditional single-point lactodynamographic properties [rennet coagulation time (RCT, min); time to a CF of 20mm, min; and the CF 30 and 45 min after rennet addition (a30 and a45, respectively)], 4 parameters used to model the 360 CF data recorded over time for each milk sample [the potential asymptotic CF at infinite time (CFP, mm); the CF instant rate constant, % × min(-1); the syneresis instant rate constant, % × min(-1); and the RCT obtained from modeling individual samples], and 2 traits calculated from individual equations [the maximum CF(CFmax, mm); and the time at CFmax, min]. The cheesemaking traits included 3 cheese yield traits (weights of the fresh curd, curd solids and curd moisture as percent of the weights of the processed milk) and 4 milk nutrient recoveries in the curd (calculated as the percent ratios between a given nutrient in the curd versus that in the processed milk). Bayesian methodology-based multivariate analyses were used to estimate the phenotypic, additive genetic, herd/date, and residual relationships between the aforementioned traits, whereas statistical inferences were based on the marginal posterior distributions of the parameters of concern. The a45, CFP, and CFmax traits were genetically associated with all of the percent cheese yield traits (the additive genetic correlations varied from 0.752 to 0.855 for a45; 0.496 to 0.583 for CFP; and 0.750 to 0

  6. Nutritional stimulation of milk protein yield of cows is associated with changes in phosphorylation of mammary eukaryotic initiation factor 2 and ribosomal s6 kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Toerien, Chanelle A; Trout, Donald R; Cant, John P

    2010-02-01

    Production of protein by the lactating mammary gland is stimulated by intake of dietary energy and protein. Mass-action effects of essential amino acids (EAA) cannot explain all of the nutritional response. Protein synthesis in tissues of growing animals is regulated by nutrients through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and integrated stress response (ISR) networks. To explore if nutrients signal through the mTOR and ISR networks in the mammary gland in vivo, lactating cows were feed-deprived for 22 h and then infused i.v. for 9 h with EAA+ glucose (Glc), Glc only, l-Met+l-Lys, l-His, or l-Leu. Milk protein yield was increased 33 and 27% by EAA+Glc and Glc infusions, respectively. Infusions of Met+Lys and His generated 35 and 41%, respectively, of the EAA+Glc response. Infusion of EAA+Glc reduced phosphorylation of the ISR target, eukaryotic initiation factor(eIF) 2, in mammary tissue and increased phosphorylation of the mTOR targets, ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and S6. Both responses are stimulatory to protein synthesis. Glucose did not significantly increase mammary S6K1 phosphorylation but reduced eIF2 phosphorylation by 62%, which implicates the ISR network in the stimulation of milk protein yield. In contrast, the EAA infusions increased (P < 0.05) or tended to increase (P < 0.1) mammary mTOR activity and only His, like Glc, decreased eIF2 phosphorylation by 62%. Despite activation of these protein synthesis signals to between 83 and 127% of the EAA+Glc response, EAA infusions produced less than one-half of the milk protein yield response generated by EAA+Glc, indicating that ISR and mTOR networks exert only a portion of the control over protein yield. PMID:20032484

  7. Impaired alveolar-arterial oxygen transfer is associated with reduced milk yield in primiparous post-partum dairy heifers at moderate altitude.

    PubMed

    Neary, Joseph M; Garry, Franklyn B

    2014-11-01

    Domestic cattle have limited cardiopulmonary reserve for their body size and oxygen requirements. Therefore, it is plausible that impaired alveolar-arterial gas exchange may be detrimental to energetically expensive traits such as milk production which, like all aerobic processes, requires oxygen. The degree of alveolar-arterial oxygen transfer impairment can be determined by estimating the alveolar-arterial oxygen (A-a O2) pressure gradient from arterial blood-gas tensions. The degree of oxygen transfer impairment is proportional to the A-a O2 pressure gradient: the higher the A-a O2 pressure gradient the less oxygen is transferred to the blood for a given ventilation rate. In this study two cohorts of Holstein-Friesian heifers were followed on one northern Colorado dairy farm. Arterial blood-gas analyses were performed up to 9 d post-calving. Heifers were grouped into quartiles based on A-a O2 pressure gradient so that relative comparisons could be made. Heifers in the lowest (Q1) and highest (Q4) quartile had the least and greatest impairment of alveolar-arterial oxygen transfer, respectively. We hypothesised that milk yield over 60 d would be greatest for heifers in Q1 and would decrease with quartile increments. Hyperventilation, as indicated by hypocapnia, was notable. Despite hypoxia, haematocrit was low. Alveolar-arterial O2 pressure gradient was associated with milk production (P=0·03) when controlling for cohort, treatment for disease and calving difficulty score. Heifers in Q1 produced 1992 kg (95% CI=1858, 2127 kg) of milk when controlling for all other variables. Relative to heifers in Q1, heifers in Q2, Q3 and Q4 produced 130 kg (95% CI=313, -52 kg; P=0·45), 285 kg (95% CI=474, 96 kg; P=0·004) and 169 kg (95% CI=395, -57 kg; P=0.14) less milk, respectively. In conclusion, efficacy of alveolar-arterial oxygen transfer was associated with milk yield in dairy heifers on one farm at moderate altitude. PMID:25229981

  8. Differences between coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species in persistence and in effect on somatic cell count and milk yield in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Koop, G; De Vliegher, S; De Visscher, A; Supré, K; Haesebrouck, F; Nielen, M; van Werven, T

    2012-09-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most commonly isolated bacteria from goat milk. The goal of this study was to explore and describe differences between CNS species in persistence of intramammary infection (IMI) and in effect on somatic cell count (SCC) and milk yield (MY). Milk samples were collected from 530 does from 5 Dutch dairy goat herds on 3 occasions during 1 lactation. Coagulase-negative staphylococci species were identified at the species level by transfer RNA-intergenic spacer PCR (tDNA-PCR) followed by capillary electrophoresis. The most prevalent CNS species were Staphylococcus caprae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus simulans, and Staphylococcus xylosus, but large differences were seen in species distribution between herds. Staphylococcus caprae and Staph. xylosus appeared to be more persistent than other species, but confidence intervals were overlapping. The effect of IMI caused by the 4 most prevalent CNS species on SCC and on MY was determined with linear regression models, and Staph. aureus and Corynebacterium bovis were included in the analyses as reference organisms. Most species were associated with a significantly higher SCC than noninfected udder halves, but the effect of CNS species on SCC was much smaller than the effect of Staph. aureus on SCC. We found a significant positive association between infection with Staph. caprae and MY. Intramammary infection caused by Staph. xylosus, on the other hand, had a negative association with milk yield, comparable to the effect of Staph. aureus, but these effects were not significantly different from zero. Intramammary infections with CNS species have a high prevalence in goats and are persistent, but have a limited effect on SCC compared with IMI with Staph. aureus. The effect of CNS species on MY differed between species, but differences were nonsignificant because limited numbers per species were available for analysis. Therefore, CNS species appear to behave as minor

  9. Associations between pregnancy-associated glycoproteins and pregnancy outcomes, milk yield, parity, and clinical diseases in high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, P M; Ribeiro, E S; Risco, C; Ealy, A D

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) are produced by the ruminant placenta and secreted into the maternal circulation throughout pregnancy. The extent to which circulating PAG concentrations predict pregnancy outcomes was examined herein. Also, associations between circulating PAG concentrations and various production parameters and clinical diseases were evaluated. Lactating primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows (n=345) were bred via timed artificial insemination using a standard Ovsynch protocol. Pregnancy was diagnosed by transrectal ultrasonography at d 32, 46, and 74 of gestation. Blood was harvested at d 32 to determine plasma concentrations of PAG and progesterone. Cows pregnant at d 32 that subsequently lost their pregnancy at d 46 and 74 had reduced PAG concentrations. Both artificial insemination service number and parity were associated with plasma PAG concentrations. Concentration of PAG in plasma was greater for cows pregnant from their second or later breeding than those pregnant from the first breeding postpartum, and was increased for primiparous compared with multiparous. In addition, cows with greater milk yield had increased plasma PAG concentrations. No association was detected between body condition score and plasma PAG concentrations. Cows that experienced clinical metritis, metabolic problems, or left displacement abomasum in the early postpartum period preceding breeding had greater plasma PAG concentrations than cows not experiencing these clinical diseases. Also, cows with multiple clinical diseases had increased odds of pregnancy loss when compared with cows not experiencing clinical diseases. Odds ratio testing detected a tendency in the relationship between reduced milk yield and increased pregnancy loss. Collectively, these associations illustrate one feature of the early developing placenta that may predict pregnancy outcomes in dairy cattle. It is unclear if plasma PAG are actively involved with mediating pregnancy outcomes

  10. A case-control study to estimate the effects of acute clinical infection with the Schmallenberg virus on milk yield, fertility and veterinary costs in Swiss dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, M; Lechner, I; Aebi, M; Vögtlin, A; Posthaus, H; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Meylan, M

    2016-04-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was first detected in Switzerland in July 2012 and many Swiss dairy farmers reported acute clinical signs in dairy cattle during the spread of the virus until December 2012. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of an acute infection with SBV on milk yield, fertility and veterinary costs in dairy farms with clinical signs of SBV infection (case farms), and to compare those farms to a matched control group of dairy farms in which cattle did not show clinical signs of SBV infection. Herd size was significantly (p<0.001) larger in case farms (33 cows, n=77) than in control farms (25 cows, n=84). Within case herds, 14.8% (median) of the cows showed acute clinical signs. Managers from case farms indicated to have observed a higher abortion rate during the year with SBV (6.5%) than in the previous year (3.7%). Analysis of fertility parameters based on veterinary bills and data from the breeding associations showed no significant differences between case and control farms. The general veterinary costs per cow from July to December 2012 were significantly higher (p=0.02) in case (CHF 19.80; EUR 16.50) than in control farms (CHF 15.90; EUR 13.25). No differences in milk yield were found between groups, but there was a significant decrease in milk production in case farms in the second half year in 2012 compared to the same period in 2011 (p<0.001) and 2013 (p=0.009). The average daily milk yield per cow (both groups together) was +0.73kg higher (p=0.03) in the second half year 2011 and +0.52kg (p=0.12) in the second half year 2013 compared to the same half year 2012. Fifty-seven percent of the cows with acute clinical signs (n=461) were treated by a veterinarian. The average calculated loss after SBV infection for a standardized farm was CHF 1606 (EUR 1338), which can be considered as low at the national level, but the losses were subject to great fluctuations between farms, so that individual farms could have very

  11. Variability of the caprine whey protein genes and their association with milk yield, composition and renneting properties in the Sarda breed. 1. The LALBA gene.

    PubMed

    Dettori, Maria Luisa; Pazzola, Michele; Paschino, Pietro; Pira, Maria Giovanna; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo

    2015-11-01

    The 5' flanking region and 3' UTR of the caprine LALBA gene were analysed by SSCP and sequencing. A total of nine SNPs were detected: three in the promoter region, two were synonymous coding SNPs at exon-1, and four SNPs were in exon-4, within the 3'UTR. The nucleotide changes located in the promoter region (c.-358T>C, c.-163G>A, c.-121T>G) were genotyped by SSCP in 263 Sarda goats to evaluate their possible effect on milk yield, composition and renneting properties. We observed an effect of the three SNPs on milk yield and lactose content. Genotypes TT and CT at c.-358T>C (P A (P C and c.-121T>G were part of transcription factors binding sites, potentially involved in modulating the LALBA gene expression. The LALBA genotype affected renneting properties (P < 0.001), as heterozygotes c.-358CT and c.-163GA were characterised by delayed rennet coagulation time and curd firming time and the lowest value of curd firmness. The present investigation increases the panel of SNPs and adds new information about the effects of the caprine LALBA gene polymorphism. PMID:26304038

  12. Effect of oral mineral and energy supplementation on blood mineral concentrations, energetic and inflammatory profile, and milk yield in dairy cows affected with dystocia.

    PubMed

    Benzaquen, M; Galvão, K N; Coleman, A E; Santos, J E P; Goff, J P; Risco, C A

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of mineral/energy supplementation of dairy cows with dystocia on blood mineral concentrations, energetic and inflammatory profiles, and milk yield. Multiparous Holstein cows with dystocia were randomly assigned into two groups, (1) treated with a mineral/energy supplement (DME, n= 18) and (2) not treated (DNT, n= 22). A group of cows with normal parturition were randomly selected and were left untreated (NNT, n= 25). Cows in DME received an oral drench of 110 g of calcium and 400 g of propionate as calcium propionate plus 110 g potassium chloride and 150 g of magnesium sulfate administered within 6 h of calving and again 3 days post-partum. Compared to cows with a normal parturition, dystocic cows had decreased plasma calcium concentrations, increased plasma haptoglobin, decreased milk yield at 1 day post-partum, and tended to have increased rectal temperatures from 1 to 12 days post-partum. Compared with cows in DNT, those in DME had decreased plasma calcium concentrations and increased plasma magnesium concentrations 2 and 3 days post-partum, and a tendency for an increase in rectal temperature from 1 to 12 days post-partum. Dystocia is detrimental to calcium homeostasis post-partum, but mineral/energy supplementation as undertaken in this study is not recommended for use in cows with dystocia. PMID:25900193

  13. Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on calf birth weight, postpartum health, feed intake, milk yield, and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Salehi, R; Colazo, M G; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-05-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental fat (no oilseed vs. oilseed) during late gestation and the source of fat (canola vs. sunflower seed), on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma metabolite concentrations, milk production and composition, calf birth weight, postpartum health disorders, ovarian function and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Pregnant Holstein cows, blocked by body condition and parity, were assigned to 1 of 3 diets containing rolled canola seed (high in oleic acid; n=43) or sunflower (high in linoleic acid; n=45) at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed (control; n=43), for the last 35±2 d of pregnancy. After calving, all cows received a common lactation diet. Blood samples were collected at wk -3 (i.e., 2 wk after initiation of prepartum diets) and at wk +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 postpartum to determine the concentration of fatty acids (mEq/dL), β-hydroxybutyrate (mg/dL), and glucose (mg/dL). Ovarian ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to determine the first appearance of dominant (10mm) and preovulatory-size (≥16mm) follicles, and ovulation. Uterine inflammatory status based on the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN; subclinical endometritis: >8% PMN) was assessed at d 25±1 postpartum. Significant parity by treatment interactions were observed for DMI and milk yield. Prepartum oilseed supplementation, more specifically sunflower seed supplementation, increased postpartum DMI in primiparous cows without affecting prepartum DMI or milk yield. Contrarily, in multiparous cows, prepartum oilseed supplementation decreased both prepartum and postpartum DMI and milk yield during the first 2 wk. Regardless of parity, prepartum feeding of canola reduced postpartum DMI compared with those fed sunflower. Mean fatty acids concentrations at wk -3 were greater in cows given supplemental oilseed than those fed no oilseeds. Gestation length and calf birth weight were increased in cows given supplemental oilseed prepartum

  14. Effect of dietary starch concentration and fish oil supplementation on milk yield and composition, diet digestibility, and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pirondini, M; Colombini, S; Mele, M; Malagutti, L; Rapetti, L; Galassi, G; Crovetto, G M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different starch concentrations and fish oil (FO) supplementation on lactation performance, in vivo total-tract nutrient digestibility, N balance, and methane (CH4) emissions in lactating dairy cows. The experiment was conducted as a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement: 2 concentrations of dietary starch [low vs. high: 23.7 and 27.7% on a dry matter (DM) basis; neutral detergent fiber/starch ratios: 1.47 and 1.12], the presence or absence of FO supplement (0.80% on a DM basis), and their interaction were evaluated. Four Italian Friesian cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets in 4 consecutive 26-d periods: (1) low starch (LS), (2) low starch plus FO (LSO), (3) high starch (HS), and (4) high starch plus FO (HSO). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage, alfalfa and meadow hays). The starch concentration was balanced using different proportions of corn meal and soybean hulls. The cows were housed in metabolic stalls inside open-circuit respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emission and the collection of separate urine and feces. No differences among treatments were observed for DM intake. We observed a trend for FO to increase milk yield: 29.2 and 27.5kg/d, on average, for diets with and without FO, respectively. Milk fat was affected by the interaction between dietary starch and FO: milk fat decreased only in the HSO diet. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) was affected by the interaction between starch and FO, with a positive effect of FO on the LS diet. Fish oil supplementation decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio of milk polyunsaturated fatty acids. High-starch diets negatively influenced all digestibility parameters measured except starch, whereas FO improved neutral detergent fiber digestibility (41.9 vs. 46.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively, and ether extract digestibility (53.7 vs. 67.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively). We observed

  15. Milk yield and lactation stage are associated with positive results to ELISA for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy cows from Northern Antioquia, Colombia: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Correa-Valencia, Nathalia María; Ramírez, Nicolás Fernando; Olivera, Martha; Fernández-Silva, Jorge Arturo

    2016-08-01

    Paratuberculosis is a slow-developing infectious disease characterized by chronic granulomatous enterocolitis. This disease has a variable incubation period from 6 months to over 15 years and is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Some studies have been conducted in cattle during the last decades in Colombia. However, those studies were designed using relatively small populations and were not aimed to establish prevalence. This study aimed to determine the MAP seroprevalence in selected dairy herds and to explore risk factors associated with the serology results. Serum samples and related data were collected from 696 randomly selected bovines in 28 dairy herds located in 12 different districts in one of the main dairy municipalities in Colombia (San Pedro de los Milagros). The samples were analyzed using a commercial ELISA kit. The information on risk factors was analyzed using a logistic regression. The apparent seroprevalence was 3.6 % (1/28) at the herd level and 2 % (14/696) at the animal level. The number of days in milk production between 100 and 200 days, and over 200 days as well as the daily milk production between 20 and 40 L/cow, and over 40 L/cow were associated with MAP seropositivity with odds ratios of 4.42, 3.45, 2.53, and 20.38, respectively. This study demonstrates the MAP seroprevalence in dairy herds from Antioquia, Colombia and the possible relationship between MAP seropositivity, milk yield, and lactation stage. PMID:27165342

  16. Genetic relationships of fertility traits with test-day milk yield and fat-to-protein ratio in tropical smallholder dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Buaban, Sayan; Duangjinda, Monchai; Suzuki, Mitsuyoshi; Masuda, Yutaka; Sanpote, Jureeratn; Kuchida, Keigo

    2016-05-01

    The test-day milk fat-to-protein ratio (TD-FPR) could serve as a measure of energy balance status and might be used as a criterion to improve metabolic stability and fertility through genetic selection. Therefore, genetic parameters for fertility traits, test-day milk yield (TD-MY) and TD-FPR, as well as, their relationships during different stages of lactation, were estimated on data collected from 25 968 primiparous Thai dairy crossbred cows. Gibbs sampling algorithms were implemented to obtain (co)variance components using both univariate linear and threshold animal models and bivariate linear-linear and linear-threshold animal models with random regression. Average TD-MY and TD-FPR were 12.60 and 1.15. Heritability estimates for TD-MY, TD-FPR and selected fertility traits ranged from 0.31 to 0.58, 0.17 to 0.19 and 0.02 to 0.05, respectively. Genetic correlations among TD-FPR and TD-MY, TD-FPR and fertility traits, and TD-MY and fertility traits ranged from 0.05 to -0.44, from -0.98 to 0.98 and -0.22 to 0.79, respectively. Selection for lower TD-FPR would decrease numbers of inseminations per conception and increase conception at first service and pregnancy within 90 days. In addition, cow selection based only on high milk production has strong effects to prolong days to first service, days open and calving interval. PMID:26338376

  17. The Prediction of the Expected Current Selection Coefficient of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Associated with Holstein Milk Yield, Fat and Protein Contents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Sup; Shin, Donghyun; Lee, Wonseok; Taye, Mengistie; Cho, Kwanghyun; Park, Kyoung-Do; Kim, Heebal

    2016-01-01

    Milk-related traits (milk yield, fat and protein) have been crucial to selection of Holstein. It is essential to find the current selection trends of Holstein. Despite this, uncovering the current trends of selection have been ignored in previous studies. We suggest a new formula to detect the current selection trends based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). This suggestion is based on the best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) and the Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection both of which are trait-dependent. Fisher's theorem links the additive genetic variance to the selection coefficient. For Holstein milk production traits, we estimated the additive genetic variance using SNP effect from BLUP and selection coefficients based on genetic variance to search highly selective SNPs. Through these processes, we identified significantly selective SNPs. The number of genes containing highly selective SNPs with p-value <0.01 (nearly top 1% SNPs) in all traits and p-value <0.001 (nearly top 0.1%) in any traits was 14. They are phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B), serine/threonine kinase 40 (STK40), collagen, type XI, alpha 1 (COL11A1), ephrin-A1 (EFNA1), netrin 4 (NTN4), neuron specific gene family member 1 (NSG1), estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), neurexin 3 (NRXN3), spectrin, beta, non-erythrocytic 1 (SPTBN1), ADP-ribosylation factor interacting protein 1 (ARFIP1), mutL homolog 1 (MLH1), transmembrane channel-like 7 (TMC7), carboxypeptidase X, member 2 (CPXM2) and ADAM metallopeptidase domain 12 (ADAM12). These genes may be important for future artificial selection trends. Also, we found that the SNP effect predicted from BLUP was the key factor to determine the expected current selection coefficient of SNP. Under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of SNP markers in current generation, the selection coefficient is equivalent to 2*SNP effect. PMID:26732326

  18. An examination of two concentrate allocation strategies which are based on the early lactation milk yield of autumn calving Holstein Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, D; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare the effects of two concentrate feeding strategies offered with a grass silage and maize silage diet on the dry matter (DM) intake, milk production (MP) and estimated energy balance of autumn calved dairy cows. Over a 2-year period, 180 autumn calving Holstein Friesian cows were examined. Within year, cows were blocked into three MP sub-groups (n=9) (high (HMP), medium (MMP) and low (LMP)) based on the average MP data from weeks 3 and 4 of lactation. Within a block cows were randomly assigned to one of two treatments (n=54), flat rate (FR) concentrate feeding or feed to yield (FY) based on MP sub-group. Cows on the FR treatment were offered a fixed rate of concentrate (5.5 kg DM/cow per day) irrespective of MP sub-group. In the FY treatment HMP, MMP and LMP cows were allocated 7.3, 5.5 and 3.7 kg DM of concentrate, respectively. The mean concentrate offered to the FR and FY treatments was the same. On the FR treatment there was no significant difference in total dry matter intake (TDMI, 17.3 kg) between MP sub-groups. In the FY treatment, however, the TDMI of HMP-FY was 2.2 kg greater than MMP-FY, and 4.5 kg greater than LMP-FY (15.2 kg DM). The milk yield of LMP-FR was 3.5 kg less than the mean of the HMP-FR and MMP-FR treatments (24.5 kg). The milk yield of the HMP-FY treatment was 3.6 and 7.9 kg greater than the MMP-FY and LMP-FY treatments, respectively. The difference in MP between the HMP sub-groups was 2.6 kg, which translates to a response of 1.4 kg of milk per additional 1 kg of concentrate offered. There was no significant difference in MP between the two LMP sub-groups; however, MP increased 0.8 kg per additional 1 kg of concentrate offered between cows on the LMP-FR and LMP-FY treatments. The estimated energy balance was positive for cows on the LMP-FR treatment, but negative for cows on the other treatments. The experiment highlights the variation within a herd in MP response to concentrate, as cows with a

  19. Brown midrib corn silage fed during the peripartal period increased intake and resulted in a persistent increase in milk solids yield of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Stone, W C; Chase, L E; Overton, T R; Nestor, K E

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate transition cow performance when brown midrib corn silage (BMRCS; Mycogen F2F444) was included in the diet during the transition period, and to determine if any production response occurring during the first 3 wk of lactation would persist from wk 4 to 15 when a common diet was fed. Seventy Holstein dairy cows were blocked by parity (either second or third and greater) and calving date and randomly assigned to the CCS (a mixture of varieties of conventional corn silage) or BMRCS treatment. Diets were formulated with the objective of keeping all ration parameters the same, with the exception of neutral detergent fiber digestibility. Neutral detergent fiber digestibility values (30 h) for CCS and BMRCS averaged 56.8 and 73.8%, respectively. Prepartum rations contained 47% corn silage, 18% wheat straw, 7% alfalfa haylage, and 28% concentrate, and averaged 45% neutral detergent fiber (DM basis). Postpartum rations contained 40% corn silage, 15% alfalfa haylage, 1% straw, and 44% concentrate. Milk weights (3×/d) and dry matter intake were recorded daily, and milk composition was measured weekly. Cows fed BMRCS had higher dry matter intake during the 2-wk period before calving (14.3 vs. 13.2 kg/d) and the 3-wk period after calving (20.1 vs. 18.1 kg/d) than did cows fed CCS. Yields of milk, solids, and lactose were increased, whereas a trend was observed for a reduction in somatic cell counts and linear scores in the postpartum period for cows receiving BMRCS during the transition. A significant carryover effect of BMRCS was observed on production from wk 4 to 15 when the common diet was fed, with yields of protein (1.36 vs. 1.30 kg/d), lactose (2.24 vs. 2.12 kg/d), and solids (5.82 vs. 5.51 kg/d) increasing significantly, and yields of fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, and fat tending to increase during this period for cows that had been fed BMRCS. The increased intakes during the last 2 wk of the prepartum period in

  20. Effects of dry period length on milk production, body condition, metabolites, and hepatic glucose metabolism in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Weber, C; Losand, B; Tuchscherer, A; Rehbock, F; Blum, E; Yang, W; Bruckmaier, R M; Sanftleben, P; Hammon, H M

    2015-03-01

    Dry period (DP) length affects energy metabolism around calving in dairy cows as well as milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of the study was to investigate milk production, body condition, metabolic adaptation, and hepatic gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in Holstein cows (>10,000 kg milk/305 d) with 28- (n=18), 56- (n=18), and 90-d DP (n=22) length (treatment groups) in a commercial farm. Cows were fed total mixed rations ad libitum adjusted for far-off (not for 28-d DP) and close-up DP and lactation. Milk yield was recorded daily and body condition score (BCS), back fat thickness (BFT), and body weight (BW) were determined at dry off, 1 wk before expected and after calving, and on wk 2, 4, and 8 postpartum (pp). Blood samples were taken on d -56, -28, -7, 1, 7, 14, 28, and 56 relative to calving to measure plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones. Liver biopsies (n=11 per treatment) were taken on d -10 and 10 relative to calving to determine glycogen and total liver fat concentration (LFC) and to quantify mRNA levels of pyruvate carboxylase (PC), cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase. Time course of milk yield during first 8 wk in lactation differed among treatment. Milk protein content was higher in 28-d than in 90-d DP cows. Milk fat to protein ratio was highest and milk urea was lowest in 90-d DP cows. Differences in BW, BFT, and BCS were predominantly seen before calving with greatest BW, BFT, and BCS in 90-d DP cows. Plasma concentrations of NEFA and BHBA were elevated during the transition period in all cows, and the greatest increase pp was seen in 90-d DP cows. Plasma glucose concentration decreased around calving and was greater in 28-d than in 90-d DP cows. Dry period length also affected plasma concentrations of urea, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase, and glutamate dehydrogenase. Plasma insulin concentration decreased around calving in all cows, but insulin concentration pp was

  1. Genetic Analysis of Milk Yield in First-Lactation Holstein Friesian in Ethiopia: A Lactation Average vs Random Regression Test-Day Model Analysis.

    PubMed

    Meseret, S; Tamir, B; Gebreyohannes, G; Lidauer, M; Negussie, E

    2015-09-01

    The development of effective genetic evaluations and selection of sires requires accurate estimates of genetic parameters for all economically important traits in the breeding goal. The main objective of this study was to assess the relative performance of the traditional lactation average model (LAM) against the random regression test-day model (RRM) in the estimation of genetic parameters and prediction of breeding values for Holstein Friesian herds in Ethiopia. The data used consisted of 6,500 test-day (TD) records from 800 first-lactation Holstein Friesian cows that calved between 1997 and 2013. Co-variance components were estimated using the average information restricted maximum likelihood method under single trait animal model. The estimate of heritability for first-lactation milk yield was 0.30 from LAM whilst estimates from the RRM model ranged from 0.17 to 0.29 for the different stages of lactation. Genetic correlations between different TDs in first-lactation Holstein Friesian ranged from 0.37 to 0.99. The observed genetic correlation was less than unity between milk yields at different TDs, which indicated that the assumption of LAM may not be optimal for accurate evaluation of the genetic merit of animals. A close look at estimated breeding values from both models showed that RRM had higher standard deviation compared to LAM indicating that the TD model makes efficient utilization of TD information. Correlations of breeding values between models ranged from 0.90 to 0.96 for different group of sires and cows and marked re-rankings were observed in top sires and cows in moving from the traditional LAM to RRM evaluations. PMID:26194217

  2. Almond hulls in diets for lactating goats: effects on yield and composition of milk, feed intake, and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Reed, B A; Brown, D L

    1988-02-01

    Four cubed rations of similar chemical composition were fed ad libitum to 16 lactating yearling Alpine goats. The rations contained 0, 15, 25, and 35% almond hulls; 0, .5, 1, and 1% urea; and 58.4, 42.5, 32.0, and 22.0% alfalfa hay (DM basis). Chromic oxide was added as a digestibility marker. Average nutrient composition of diets was 91% DM, 20% CP, 32% NDF, 9% ash, and 4.39 Mcal gross energy/kg. Goats were randomly assigned to one of four diet orders in four replications of a 4 X 4 Latin square, blocked by goat and period. Data were collected in the 3rd wk of each period. Diets containing 25 and 35% almond hulls increased DM intake and reduced milk protein percent and digestibilities of DM, organic matter, ash, and NDF. Dry matter intake and weight gain were highest for the diet containing 35% almond hulls and 1% urea. Results indicate that almond hulls and urea can be fed to lactating goats up to these amounts without adversely affecting lactation. PMID:3379180

  3. Abrupt changes in forage dry matter of one to three days affect intake and milk yield in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine the effects of one-, two-, and three-day changes in forage dry matter (DM) on lactating cow performance and yield regardless of stage of lactation or parity. Data was compiled from two independent studies to predict overall cow performance. Study A (fall 2009) early la...

  4. Milk quality and automatic milking: fat globule size, natural creaming, and lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Abeni, F; Degano, L; Calza, F; Giangiacomo, R; Pirlo, G

    2005-10-01

    Thirty-eight Italian Friesian first-lactation cows were allocated to 2 groups to evaluate the effect of 1) an automatic milking system (AMS) vs. milking in a milking parlor (MP) on milk fat characteristics; and 2) milking interval (< or =480, 481 to 600, 601 to 720, and >720 min) on the same variables. Milk fat was analyzed for content (% vol/vol), natural creaming (% of fat), and free fatty acids (FFA, mEq/100 g of fat). Distribution of milk fat globule size was evaluated to calculate average fat globule diameter (d(1)), volume-surface average diameter (d(32)), specific globule surface area, and mean interglobular distance. Milk yield was recorded to calculate hourly milk and milk fat yield. Milking system had no effect on milk yield, milk fat content, and hourly milk fat yield. Milk from AMS had less natural creaming and more FFA content than milk from MP. Fat globule size, globular surface area, and interglobular distance were not affected by milking system per se. Afternoon MP milkings had more fat content and hourly milk fat yield than AMS milkings when milking interval was >480 min. Milk fat FFA content was greater in AMS milkings when milking interval was < or =480 min than in milkings from MP and from AMS when milking interval was >600 min. Milking interval did not affect fat globule size, expressed as d32. Results from this experiment indicate a limited effect of AMS per se on milk fat quality; a more important factor seems to be the increase in milking frequency, generally associated with AMS. PMID:16162526

  5. Climatic conditions, twining and frequency of milking as factors affecting the risk of fetal losses in high-yielding Holstein cows in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Miguel; López, Ricardo; de Santiago, Ángeles; Veliz, Francisco G; Macías-Cruz, Ulises; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; García, José Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    An epidemiological study of risk factors for fetal losses was carried out on 62,403 high-yielding Holstein cows in 29 large highly technified dairy herds in northern Mexico (25° N; 23.5 °C mean annual temperature). Multivariate multiple-group response model indicated that fetal losses between 43 and 260 days of pregnancy were 23 %. Heat-stressed cows at conception (temperature-humidity index, THI >82) were 14 times more likely (P < 0.01) to present fetal losses than not heat-stressed cows (27 vs. 18 %). Heat-stressed cows at 60 days of pregnancy (THI >82) were 4.5 times more likely (P < 0.01) to present fetal losses than cows suffering heat stress in early gestation (29.1 vs. 17.7 %). The proportion of cows experiencing fetal loss was lower for multiparous than primiparous cows (odds ratio; OR = 0.7). Cows with twin pregnancies had significantly increased chances of losing their fetuses than cows with a single fetus (33.6 vs. 20.7 %; P < 0.01). Cows with three milkings per day were 30 % more likely (P < 0.01) to lose their fetuses than cows milked twice daily. Cows calving in winter and spring had significantly increased chances of losing their fetuses than cows calving in summer and fall (30-35 vs. 4-5 %; P < 0.01). It was concluded that, in this particular environment, heat stress exert a great influence on fetal losses in high producing Holstein cows. PMID:27225752

  6. Effect of milking pipeline height on machine milking efficiency and milk quality in sheep.

    PubMed

    Díaz, J R; Peris, C; Rodríguez, M; Molina, M P; Fernández, N

    2004-06-01

    This experiment studied the effect of milking pipeline height (mid- vs. low-level milking system) on milking efficiency and milk composition. The experiment was of 8 wk duration: 2 wk preexperimental period and 6 wk experimental, in crossover design (2 x 2). Ewes were milked in a 2 x 12 milking parlor with 2 milking pipelines set at a milking vacuum of 36 kPa with a pulsation rate of 180 cycle/min and ratio of 50%. Height of the milkline had no effect on yield of milk at the time of milking, yield after stripping, milk composition, SCC, and number of teatcup fall-offs. Nor did milkline height have any effect on milk lipolysis or on the distribution of fatty acids. The level of free fatty acids was higher in evening than in morning milk (60.5 vs. 25.6 mg/L). Likewise, the increase in the degree of lipolysis between the receiver (40.4 mg/L) and the refrigeration tank (45.8 mg/L) underlines the importance of the milk delivery line design. The parameters (time and flow rate) that define the first peak in the milk emission kinetics were statistically different between lines, so care must be taken when comparing milk emission curves from both types of pipeline. PMID:15453479

  7. Associations between age at first calving, rearing average daily weight gain, herd milk yield and dairy herd production, reproduction, and profitability.

    PubMed

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Kvapilík, J; Burdych, J; Crump, P

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of variable intensity in rearing dairy heifers on 33 commercial dairy herds, including 23,008 cows and 18,139 heifers, with age at first calving (AFC), average daily weight gain (ADG), and milk yield (MY) level on reproduction traits and profitability. Milk yield during the production period was analyzed relative to reproduction and economic parameters. Data were collected during a 1-yr period (2011). The farms were located in 12 regions in the Czech Republic. The results show that those herds with more intensive rearing periods had lower conception rates among heifers at first and overall services. The differences in those conception rates between the group with the greatest ADG (≥0.800 kg/d) and the group with the least ADG (≤0.699 kg/d) were approximately 10 percentage points in favor of the least ADG. All the evaluated reproduction traits differed between AFC groups. Conception at first and overall services (cows) was greatest in herds with AFC ≥800 d. The shortest days open (105 d) and calving interval (396 d) were found in the middle AFC group (799 to 750 d). The highest number of completed lactations (2.67) was observed in the group with latest AFC (≥800 d). The earliest AFC group (≤749 d) was characterized by the highest depreciation costs per cow at 8,275 Czech crowns (US$414), and the highest culling rate for cows of 41%. The most profitable rearing approach was reflected in the middle AFC (799 to 750 d) and middle ADG (0.799 to 0.700 kg) groups. The highest MY (≥8,500 kg) occurred with the earliest AFC of 780 d. Higher MY led to lower conception rates in cows, but the highest MY group also had the shortest days open (106 d) and a calving interval of 386 d. The same MY group had the highest cow depreciation costs, net profit, and profitability without subsidies of 2.67%. We conclude that achieving low AFC will not always be the most profitable approach, which will depend upon farm

  8. Genetic parameters of cheese yield and curd nutrient recovery or whey loss traits predicted using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A; Albera, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Ferragina, A; Bittante, G

    2015-07-01

    Cheese yield is the most important technological parameter in the dairy industry in many countries. The aim of this study was to infer (co)variance components for cheese yields (CY) and nutrient recoveries in curd (REC) predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows. A total of 311,354 FTIR spectra representing the test-day records of 29,208 dairy cows (Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental) from 654 herds, collected over a 3-yr period, were available for the study. The traits of interest for each cow consisted of 3 cheese yield traits (%CY: fresh curd, curd total solids, and curd water as a percent of the weight of the processed milk), 4 curd nutrient recovery traits (REC: fat, protein, total solids, and the energy of the curd as a percent of the same nutrient in the processed milk), and 3 daily cheese production traits (daily fresh curd, total solids, and the water of the curd per cow). Calibration equations (freely available upon request to the corresponding author) were used to predict individual test-day observations for these traits. The (co)variance components were estimated for the CY, REC, milk production, and milk composition traits via a set of 4-trait analyses within each breed. All analyses were performed using REML and linear animal models. The heritabilities of the %CY were always higher for Holstein and Brown Swiss cows (0.22 to 0.33) compared with Simmental cows (0.14 to 0.18). In general, the fresh cheese yield (%CYCURD) showed genetic variation and heritability estimates that were slightly higher than those of its components, %CYSOLIDS and %CYWATER. The parameter RECPROTEIN was the most heritable trait in all the 3 breeds, with values ranging from 0.32 to 0.41. Our estimation of the genetic relationships of the CY and REC with milk production and composition revealed that the current selection strategies used in dairy cattle are expected

  9. High yield of mannosylglycerate production by upshock fermentation and bacterial milking of trehalose-deficient mutant Thermus thermophilus RQ-1.

    PubMed

    Egorova, K; Grudieva, T; Morinez, C; Kube, J; Santos, H; da Costa, M S; Antranikian, G

    2007-07-01

    A production process, using upshock fermentation and osmotic downshock, for the effective production/excretion of mannosylglycerate (MG) by the trehalose-deficient mutant of the strain Thermus thermophilus RQ-1 has been developed. In the first phase of fed-batch fermentation, the knockout mutant was grown at 70 degrees C on a NaCl-free medium. After the culture reached the end of the exponential growth phase, upshift in temperature and NaCl concentration was applied. The temperature was increased to 77 degrees C, and NaCl was added up to 3.0% and kept constant during the second phase of fermentation. Although this shift in cultivation parameters caused a dramatic drop of cell density, a significant improvement in accumulation of MG up to 0.64 micromol/mg protein compared to batch fermentations (0.31 micromol/mg protein) was achieved. A total yield of 4.6 g MG/l of fermentation broth was obtained in the dialysis bioreactor with a productivity of 0.29 g MG l(-1) h(-1). The solute was released from the harvested biomass by osmotic downshock using demineralized water at 70 degrees C. More than 90% of the intracellularly accumulated solute was recovered from the water fraction. The process was very efficient, as hyperosmotic shock, release of the solute, and reiterative fed-batch fermentation could be repeated at least four times. PMID:17361428

  10. Effect of changes in milking routine on milking related behaviour and milk removal in Tunisian dairy dromedary camels.

    PubMed

    Atigui, Moufida; Marnet, Pierre-Guy; Ayeb, Naziha; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    We studied the effects of changes in the milking routine (lack or presence of 30-s prestimulation, 0 or 1, 2 or 4-min delay between preparation and cluster attachment) and environmental perturbation (unusual loud sounds capable of frightening animals just after stall entry or during the course of milking) on milk removal and milking-related behaviour in dairy dromedary camels. A 30-s prestimulation decreased incidence of bimodal milk flow curves and increased occurrence of the best milk ejection patterns with higher milk flow but had limited effect on milk production in our well-trained animals within a good machine milking setting. However, unusual sounds heard from the beginning of milking or even after milk ejection caused inhibition or disruption of milk removal and modification of camels' behaviour. Milk ejection was significantly delayed (1·58±0·17 min), residual milk increased over 40% of total milk yield and average and peak milk flow rates were significantly lowered when unusual noises were heard from the beginning of milking. These environmental perturbations increased signs of vigilance and the number of attempts to escape the milking parlour. Delaying cluster attachment for over 1 min after the end of udder preparation caused serious milk losses. Up to 62% of total milk was withheld in the udder when the delay reached 4 min. Average and peak milk flow rates also decreased significantly with delayed milking. Signs of vigilance and attempts to escape from the milking parlour appeared when camels waited for over 2 min. After a 4-min delay, camels showed signs of acute stress. Defaecation prior to milk ejection (solid faeces) and rumination during milking can be used to assess camels' milk ejection during milking. Animal welfare and milking efficiency can be ensured when camels are pre-stimulated, milked in calm conditions and with cluster attachment within a maximum of a 1-min delay after stimulation. PMID:25234858

  11. The relationship between growth hormone polymorphism and growth hormone receptor genes with milk yield and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Z; Atashi, H; Dadpasand, M; Derakhshandeh, A; Ghahramani Seno, M. M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between growth hormone GH/AluI and growth hormone receptor GHR/AluI polymorphisms with milk yield and reproductive performances in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. Blood samples of 150 Holstein cows were collected and their genomic DNA was extracted using Gene-Fanavaran DNA extracting kit. Fragments of the 428 bp of exon 5 growth hormone (GH) gene and the 342 bp of exon 10 growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. PCR products were digested by the AluI restriction enzyme and electrophoresed on 3% agarose gel. Continuous and categorical data were analyzed using linear mixed models through Proc MIXED and logistic regression models through Proc GENMOD of SAS software, respectively. The results showed no relationship between the examined traits and GH/AluI or GHR/AluI genes. A significant relationship was found between GH/AluI polymorphism and dystocia, but the presence of the GH-L allele reduced the incidence of dystocia. The results suggest that the GH-LL genotype reduces dystocia probably by affecting the release of growth hormone; nevertheless, further studies will be needed to examine the relationship between dystocia and GH genotypes. PMID:27175183

  12. Effect of calcium-energy supplements on calving-related disorders, fertility and milk yield during the transition period in cows fed anionic diets.

    PubMed

    Melendez, P; Donovan, G A; Risco, C A; Littell, R; Goff, J P

    2003-09-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a calcium-energy supplement at calving on the incidence of calving-related disorders (CRD), fertility, BCS and milk yield in cows fed anionic diets and to establish any associations among outcome variables. In Florida, from October to December 1997, 479 cows were assigned to three groups and treated at calving as follows: Group 1: 160 nontreated cows; Group 2: 158 cows, treated orally with 60g Ca as CaCl2; Group 3: 161 cows, treated orally with 110g Ca as calcium propionate (510g) plus propylene glycol (400g). No treatment effect was detected for any of the outcome variables. An association was found between dystocia and age and retained fetal membranes (RFM). Age and RFM were associated with metritis. RFM and displacement of the abomasum were associated with ketosis. Ketosis and age were related to displacement of the abomasum. Parity, BCS, ovarian cysts, RFM and metritis were associated with fertility. PMID:12935862

  13. First parity evaluation of peak milk yield for range cows developed in the same ecophysiological system but receiving different concentrations of harvested feed inputs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Can range livestock producers reduce harvested feed inputs, during heifer development, and maintain production goals? To address this, we conducted a two year study measuring milk production (kg/d) and milk constituent concentrations (g/d) for 16 primiparous beef cows each year that were born from d...

  14. First parity evaluation of peak milk yield for range cows developed in the same ecophysiological system but receiving different concentrations of harvested feed inputs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduction of harvested feed inputs during heifer development could optimize range livestock production and improve economic feasibility. The objective for this two year study was to measure milk production (kg/d) and milk constituent concentrations (g/d) for 16 primiparous beef cows each year that w...

  15. Overexpression of des(1-3)hIGF-I in the mammary gland during prolonged lactation enhances milk yield and elevates prolactin secretion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During prolonged lactation, the mammary gland loses the capacity to synthesize and secrete the large amounts of milk that are produced during early lactation. This loss occurs despite the continued presence of a suckling stimulus and complete removal of mammary secretions. The decline in milk synthe...

  16. Estimating efficiency in automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Castro, A; Pereira, J M; Amiama, C; Bueno, J

    2012-02-01

    Milking data of 34 single automatic milking system (AMS) units on 29 Galician dairy farms were analyzed to determine the system capacity in each farm under actual working conditions. Number of cows, milk yield, milkings per cow per day, actual milking time, rejected milking time, cleaning time, and machine downtime were used to determine the number of cows milked per AMS unit to obtain the optimal values of milkings per cow and milk production. Multiple linear regression data analysis was used to model the linear relationship between the dependent variable, milk yield per AMS per year, and the predictor variables: number of cows per AMS, milkings per cow per day, milk flow rate, and rejections per AMS per year. An AMS unit milked 52.7±9.0 cows daily at 2.69±0.28 milkings per cow, with a total milking downtime of 1,947±978 h/yr and a milk yield of 549,734±126,432 kg/yr. The predictor variables cow and milk flow rate had a greater level of influence on the milk yield per AMS than milkings per cow and rejections, and explained the 87% of the variation. The AMS in Galician dairy farms could facilitate an increase of 16±8.5 cows per AMS without impairing milking performance; in this way, the quantity of milk obtained per robot annually could be increased (185,460±137,460 kg). This would make it possible to recoup the cost of the system earlier. In the present situation, the daily milking throughput could be maximized at 2.4 to 2.6 milkings per cow. PMID:22281358

  17. Molecular dissection of a quantitative trait locus: a phenylalanine-to-tyrosine substitution in the transmembrane domain of the bovine growth hormone receptor is associated with a major effect on milk yield and composition.

    PubMed Central

    Blott, Sarah; Kim, Jong-Joo; Moisio, Sirja; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Cornet, Anne; Berzi, Paulette; Cambisano, Nadine; Ford, Christine; Grisart, Bernard; Johnson, Dave; Karim, Latifa; Simon, Patricia; Snell, Russell; Spelman, Richard; Wong, Jerry; Vilkki, Johanna; Georges, Michel; Farnir, Frédéric; Coppieters, Wouter

    2003-01-01

    We herein report on our efforts to improve the mapping resolution of a QTL with major effect on milk yield and composition that was previously mapped to bovine chromosome 20. By using a denser chromosome 20 marker map and by exploiting linkage disequilibrium using two distinct approaches, we provide strong evidence that a chromosome segment including the gene coding for the growth hormone receptor accounts for at least part of the chromosome 20 QTL effect. By sequencing individuals with known QTL genotype, we identify an F to Y substitution in the transmembrane domain of the growth hormone receptor gene that is associated with a strong effect on milk yield and composition in the general population. PMID:12586713

  18. The 9-MilCA method as a rapid, partly automated protocol for simultaneously recording milk coagulation, curd firming, syneresis, cheese yield, and curd nutrients recovery or whey loss.

    PubMed

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Stocco, G; Bittante, G

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to propose and test a new laboratory cheesemaking procedure [9-mL milk cheesemaking assessment (9-MilCA)], which records 15 traits related to milk coagulation, curd firming, syneresis, cheese yield, and curd nutrients recovery or whey loss. This procedure involves instruments found in many laboratories (i.e., heaters and lacto-dynamographs), with an easy modification of the sample rack for the insertion of 10-mL glass tubes. Four trials were carried out to test the 9-MilCA procedure. The first trial compared 8 coagulation and curd firming traits obtained using regular or modified sample racks to process milk samples from 60 cows belonging to 5 breeds and 3 farms (480 tests). The obtained patterns exhibited significant but irrelevant between-procedure differences, with better repeatability seen for 9-MilCA. The second trial tested the reproducibility and repeatability of the 7 cheesemaking traits obtained using the 9-MilCA procedure on individual samples from 60 cows tested in duplicate in 2 instruments (232 tests). The method yielded very repeatable outcomes for all 7 tested cheese yield and nutrient recovery traits (repeatability >98%), with the exception of the fresh cheese yield (84%), which was affected by the lower repeatability (67%) of the water retained in the curd. In the third trial (96 tests), we found that using centrifugation in place of curd cooking and draining (as adopted in several published studies) reduced the efficiency of whey separation, overestimated all traits, and worsened the repeatability. The fourth trial compared 9-MilCA with a more complex model cheese-manufacturing process that mimics industry practices, using 1,500-mL milk samples (72 cows, 216 tests). The average results obtained from 9-MilCA were similar to those obtained from the model cheeses, with between-method correlations ranging from 78 to 99%, except for the water retained in the curd (r=54%). Our results indicate that new 9-MilCA method is a

  19. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on milk yield, energy balance, and metabolic status of dairy cows over 2 consecutive years: Effects in the second year.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Remmelink, G J; Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dry period (DP) length on milk yield, energy balance (EB), and metabolic status in cows fed a lipogenic or glucogenic diet in the second year after implementation of DP and dietary treatments. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=167) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 DP lengths (0, 30, or 60d) and 1 of 2 early lactation diets (glucogenic or lipogenic) for 2 consecutive years. Results of the first year were reported previously. In the second year, 19 cows in the 0-d DP group were attributed to a new group (0→67d DP) because these cows had a milk yield of <4kg/d at least 30d before expected calving date and were dried off. Milk yield was recorded and EB was calculated from wk -8 to 9 relative to calving. Blood samples were taken weekly from wk -3 to 8 relative to calving. Liver samples were taken in wk -2, 2, and 4 relative to calving. At the onset of lactation, cows with a 0-d or 0→67-d DP had greater body condition score (BCS) than cows with a 60-d DP. During the first 9wk, cows with a 0- or 30-d DP produced 5.0 and 4.3kg less milk per day, respectively, but had similar EB compared with cows with a 60-d DP. Cows with a 0- or 30-d DP produced additional milk precalving, which could compensate milk yield losses in the first 9wk postcalving. Cows with a 0-d DP did not have milk yield losses or improve EB in the second year as much as in the first year. Cows with a 0-d DP had greater plasma insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and lower liver triacylglycerol concentrations than cows with other DP lengths. Cows with a 0→67-d DP had lower EB, and greater plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations than cows with other DP lengths. Feeding a glucogenic diet increased plasma glucose, IGF-I, and insulin concentrations, and decreased plasma FFA, BHB, and urea concentrations compared with a lipogenic diet, independent of DP length. In conclusion, omitting the DP or

  20. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Milk Allergy KidsHealth > For Teens > Milk Allergy Print A ... on to find out. What Happens With a Milk Allergy? Food allergies involve the body's immune system, ...

  1. Comparison between genetic parameters of cheese yield and nutrient recovery or whey loss traits measured from individual model cheese-making methods or predicted from unprocessed bovine milk samples using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bittante, G; Ferragina, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A

    2014-10-01

    Cheese yield is an important technological trait in the dairy industry. The aim of this study was to infer the genetic parameters of some cheese yield-related traits predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis and compare the results with those obtained using an individual model cheese-producing procedure. A total of 1,264 model cheeses were produced using 1,500-mL milk samples collected from individual Brown Swiss cows, and individual measurements were taken for 10 traits: 3 cheese yield traits (fresh curd, curd total solids, and curd water as a percent of the weight of the processed milk), 4 milk nutrient recovery traits (fat, protein, total solids, and energy of the curd as a percent of the same nutrient in the processed milk), and 3 daily cheese production traits per cow (fresh curd, total solids, and water weight of the curd). Each unprocessed milk sample was analyzed using a MilkoScan FT6000 (Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) over the spectral range, from 5,000 to 900 wavenumber × cm(-1). The FTIR spectrum-based prediction models for the previously mentioned traits were developed using modified partial least-square regression. Cross-validation of the whole data set yielded coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation of 0.65 to 0.95 for all traits, except for the recovery of fat (0.41). A 3-fold external validation was also used, in which the available data were partitioned into 2 subsets: a training set (one-third of the herds) and a testing set (two-thirds). The training set was used to develop calibration equations, whereas the testing subsets were used for external validation of the calibration equations and to estimate the heritabilities and genetic correlations of the measured and FTIR-predicted phenotypes. The coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation results obtained from the training sets were very similar to those obtained from the whole

  2. Derivation of factors to estimate daily fat, protein, and somatic cell score from one milking of cows milked twice daily

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to derive factors to predict daily fat (F) and protein (P) yield or somatic cell score (SCS) when milk is sampled once for cows milked twice per d. Milk samples were collected for each milking on test-day by Dairy Herd Improvement personnel from herds recording milking times and m...

  3. Abrupt changes in forage dry matter of one to three days affect intake and milk yield in late lactation dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine if late lactation cows were susceptible to 1-, 2-, and 3-day changes in forage DM. Forty-four Holstein cows (22 primiparous and 22 multiparous), averaging 155 DIM, 42.5 kg/d of milk, and 597 kg body weight, were used in a study conducted from Jan to Mar 2010. Within ea...

  4. Genetic and functional confirmation of the causality of the DGAT1 K232A quantitative trait nucleotide in affecting milk yield and composition

    PubMed Central

    Grisart, Bernard; Farnir, Frédéric; Karim, Latifa; Cambisano, Nadine; Kim, Jong-Joo; Kvasz, Alex; Mni, Myriam; Simon, Patricia; Frère, Jean-Marie; Coppieters, Wouter; Georges, Michel

    2004-01-01

    We recently used a positional cloning approach to identify a nonconservative lysine to alanine substitution (K232A) in the bovine DGAT1 gene that was proposed to be the causative quantitative trait nucleotide underlying a quantitative trait locus (QTL) affecting milk fat composition, previously mapped to the centromeric end of bovine chromosome 14. We herein generate genetic and functional data that confirm the causality of the DGAT1 K232A mutation. We have constructed a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism map of the 3.8-centimorgan BULGE30–BULGE9 interval containing the QTL and show that the association with milk fat percentage maximizes at the DGAT1 gene. We provide evidence that the K allele has undergone a selective sweep. By using a baculovirus expression system, we have expressed both DGAT1 alleles in Sf9 cells and show that the K allele, causing an increase in milk fat percentage in the live animal, is characterized by a higher Vmax in producing triglycerides than the A allele. PMID:14983021

  5. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. PMID:24029787

  6. Analysis of milking characteristics in New Zealand dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J P; Jago, J G; Lopez-Villalobos, N

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the variation in milking characteristics, and factors associated with these traits, in grazing dairy cows milked without premilking stimulation. Milk yield, duration, and average and maximum milk flow rate data were collected from 38 farms in New Zealand at 2 time points (spring and autumn) during the 2010 to 2011 season. Subsequently, a second data set, allowing the generation of daily milk flow profiles, was collected from 2 farms in the 2011 to 2012 season. Corresponding animal data, such as breed, date of birth, and ancestry information, were extracted from the New Zealand Dairy Industry Good Animal Database (New Zealand Animal Evaluation Ltd., Hamilton, New Zealand). Residual milking duration (deviation from the regression line of milk yield on milking duration) was calculated, allowing the identification of fast-milking cows independent of milk yield. Variance components for the milking characteristics traits were estimated using an animal linear mixed model. The average milk yield was 10 kg/milking and the average milking duration was 360 s. The average milk flow rate was 1.8 kg/min and maximum milk flow 3.3 kg/min, with 44% of milk flow curves being classified as bimodal. Primiparous animals exhibited different milk flow profiles, with a lower maximum flow, than multiparous animals, possibly due to differences in cisternal capacity. Residual milking duration was shortest (-10s) in mid-lactation (121-180 d) and was 13s longer for Jersey compared with Friesian cows; however, it was 19s shorter when adjusted for energy content. Residual milking duration had a negligible genetic correlation (-0.07) with milk yield, indicating that selection for cows with shorter residual milking duration should have a negligible effect on milk yield. A heritability of 0.27 indicated that residual milking duration could be valuable as part of a breeding program. Knowledge of the distribution of milking durations for a given milk yield

  7. Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.

    PubMed

    Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

    2014-02-01

    Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving

  8. Variation in milk cortisol during lactation in Murciano-Granadina goats.

    PubMed

    Díaz, J R; Alejandro, M; Romero, G; Moya, F; Peris, C

    2013-02-01

    Fifty-seven goats were included in an experiment designed to study the effect of lactation stage, parity number, and mammary gland health status on milk cortisol concentration as a method to assess the welfare of Murciano-Granadina goats. The relationships of milk cortisol concentration with different production parameters (milk yield, milk composition, and mechanical milking ability: milk fractioning during milking and milking time) were also studied. The experiment lasted 8 mo and monthly samplings were carried out to determine total milk yield (MY), fractioning during milking (machine milk, MM; machine stripping milk, MSM), and milking time (MT), and a sample was taken from the total milk yield to determine milk cortisol concentration, somatic cell count, and milk composition (fat, protein, and lactose). To determine the infection status of the gland, an aseptic sample was taken for bacteriological analysis before each monthly sampling. Third-parity goats presented higher concentrations of milk cortisol than those of 1, 2, or ≥ 4 parities. Intramammary infection had no effect on milk cortisol concentration, and somatic cell count did not correlate with cortisol concentration. Cortisol presented a significant correlation with MY and MM, but showed no significant correlation with MSM, MT, or milk composition parameters. Variations in milk cortisol concentration in goats may be associated with different physiological factors in the animal (e.g., milk production level, lactation stage, and parity number) and therefore need not always indicate stress for the animal. PMID:23245963

  9. Milk lipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milk fat conveys a number of desirable qualities to food, and various lipid components contribute to human nutrition and health. Over 96% of milk lipids consist of triacylglycerols, which contain a variety of fatty acids. Di- and monoacylglycerols, free fatty acids, sterols, and phospho-, glyco-,...

  10. Designer milk.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha

    2007-01-01

    Dairy biotechnology is fast gaining ground in the area of altering milk composition for processing and/or animal and human health by employing nutritional and genetic approaches. Modification of the primary structure of casein, alteration in the lipid profile, increased protein recovery, milk containing nutraceuticals, and replacement for infant formula offer several advantages in the area of processing. Less fat in milk, altered fatty acid profiles to include more healthy fatty acids such as CLA and omega-fats, improved amino acid profiles, more protein, less lactose, and absence of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) are some opportunities of "designing" milk for human health benefits. Transgenic technology has also produced farm animals that secrete in their milk, human lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipase so as to simulate human milk in terms of quality and quantity of these elements that are protective to infants. Cow milk allergenicity in children could be reduced by eliminating the beta-LG gene from bovines. Animals that produce milk containing therapeutic agents such as insulin, plasma proteins, drugs, and vaccines for human health have been genetically engineered. In order to cater to animal health, transgenic animals that express in their mammary glands, various components that work against mastitis have been generated. The ultimate acceptability of the "designer" products will depend on ethical issues such as animal welfare and safety, besides better health benefits and increased profitability of products manufactured by the novel techniques. PMID:17900499

  11. Invited review: reduced milking frequency: milk production and management implications.

    PubMed

    Stelwagen, K; Phyn, C V C; Davis, S R; Guinard-Flament, J; Pomiès, D; Roche, J R; Kay, J K

    2013-06-01

    Most dairy cows throughout the world are milked twice daily. In intensive dairying systems, however, it is not uncommon to increase milking frequency to between 3 and 6 times daily to increase milk production. Reducing milking frequency is much less common; however, once-daily milking of dairy cows, practiced either strategically during certain parts of the lactation or for the entire lactation, is not uncommon in key dairying countries where less emphasis is placed on milk production per cow. The practice fits well with more extensive dairy production systems, particularly those based on grazed pasture. A feature of once-daily milking is that it reduces milk yield by approximately 22%, depending on stage of lactation, breed, and parity, and it may adversely affect lactation length and persistency. However, it can offer several positive farm management options, especially related to labor requirements and farm working expenses. In addition, it may provide a tool to better manage the metabolism and energy balance of cows during early lactation or during periods of pasture deficit, and it may help to improve reproductive performance and animal health and welfare. Once-daily milking, representing one extreme of the mammary function spectrum, has attracted considerable research interest over the years. Consequently, substantial scientific information is available on its effects on mammary function, at both the physiological and molecular levels. This review focuses instead on the management of the cow milked once daily, covering the production response in relation to breed, stage of lactation, and parity, and its effect on energy status, reproduction, health and welfare, as well as on milk composition and processability. PMID:23548302

  12. The Effects of Increased Milking Frequency on Metabolism and Mammary Cell Proliferation in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results of previous studies have shown that increased milking frequency (IMF) during early lactation results in increased milk yield not only during the period of IMF but also after cows have returned to a decreased milking frequency. The cellular mechanisms underpinning this increased milk yield a...

  13. Effect of bovine genotype on heifer response to repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heifers (n = 4/genotype) from unselected (stable milk yield since 1964, UH) and contemporary (CH) Holsteins that differed in milk yield (6,200 and 11,100 kg milk/305 d) or from Red Angus cows (RA) were fed the same diet ad lib and housed together for 47 d before being challenged with 0.5 microgram L...

  14. Association between the proportion of sampled transition cows with increased nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate and disease incidence, pregnancy rate, and milk production at the herd level.

    PubMed

    Ospina, P A; Nydam, D V; Stokol, T; Overton, T R

    2010-08-01

    In this study the herd alarm level was defined as the proportion of sampled transition cows per herd with increased prepartum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), postpartum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), or NEFA concentrations that were associated with herd-level incidence of displaced abomasum (DA) or clinical ketosis (CK), pregnancy rate (PR), and milk production. The objectives were to 1) identify the herd alarm level for excessive negative energy balance and 2) describe the herd-level prevalence of this proportion. This was a prospective cohort study of 60 free-stall herds fed total mixed rations in the northeast United States. Two cohorts of approximately 15 animals were assessed for prepartum NEFA and postpartum BHBA and NEFA. The herd alarm level (i.e., the proportion of sampled animals above a certain metabolite threshold) was as follows: 15% had prepartum NEFA of 0.27 mEq/L; 15 and 20% had BHBA of 10 and 12 mg/dL, respectively; and 15% had postpartum NEFA of 0.60 and 0.70 mEq/L. The different herd alarm levels correspond to differences between the metabolites and respective herd-level effect. The herd-level effects for herds above the herd alarm level for prepartum NEFA were 3.6% increase in DA and CK incidence, 1.2% decrease in PR, and 282 kg decrease in average mature equivalent 305-d (ME 305) milk. For BHBA, the herd-level effects were a 1.8% increase in DA and CK, 0.8% decrease in PR, and 534 and 358 kg decrease in projected ME 305 milk yield for heifers and cows, respectively. For postpartum NEFA, the herd-level effects were 1.7% increase in DA and CK, 0.9% decrease in PR, and 288 and 593 kg decrease in projected ME 305 milk yield for heifers and cows, respectively. The prevalence of herds in which more than 15% of animals sampled had prepartum NEFA concentration >or=0.30 mEq/L was 75%, BHBA >or=12 mg/dL was 40%, and postpartum NEFA >or=0.70 mEq/L was 65%. This study showed that there were detrimental herd-level effects if a large enough proportion of cows

  15. The effect of pre-milking teat-brushing on milk processing time in an automated milking system.

    PubMed

    Jago, Jenny G; Davis, Kendra L; Copeman, Peter J; Woolford, Murray M

    2006-05-01

    Cow throughput in an automatic milking system (AMS) is limited by system parameters such as the time required for pre-milking udder preparation and cup attachment, physiological responses of the cow (such as milk let-down and milking-out rate), milking machine features and cow behaviour. A single-factor cross-over design was used to investigate the effect of pre-milking teat brushing on milk processing time in an AMS operating in an extensive grazing farming system. Teat brushing consisted of two roller brushes tracking up each teat three times (total brushing time of up to 45 s/cow). Cows were allocated to one of two treatment groups with either no brushing (NB) or brushing (B) for a 4-week period before being changed to the other treatment. Teat brushing resulted in shorter average cups-on-time (B = 506.1 s, NB = 541.0 s, P = 0.0001), longer average milk processing time (B = 10.30 min, NB = 9.76 min, P = 0.001) and no difference in daily milk yield (B = 14.67, NB = 14.71 kg/cow, P = 0.826). There was no difference between the two treatments in the success of cup attachment (B = 3.76%, NB = 5.10% unsuccessful milking attempts, P = 0.285). The estimated time cost of pre-milking teat brushing was 53 min for every 100 milkings, equivalent to an additional 5-6 milkings for every 100 milkings by an AMS. The importance of these potential time savings is discussed in relation to automatic milking in farming systems that aim for a lower per cow milking frequency and high ratio of cows to AMS. PMID:16476173

  16. Milk flow-dependent vacuum loss in high-line milking systems: effects on milking characteristics and teat tissue condition.

    PubMed

    Ambord, S; Bruckmaier, R M

    2010-08-01

    To study the effects of a milking system that partially compensates for milk flow-dependent vacuum loss compared with a standard (high-line) milking unit in a tie-stall barn, milk flow and vacuum patterns were recorded in 10 cows during machine milking with 2 milking systems in a crossover design for 7 d each. Before and after each treatment period postmilking teat condition was recorded by ultrasound cross-sectioning. Additionally, 2 methods to measure teat tissue condition were compared: longitudinal teat ultrasound cross-sectioning and teat tissue density measurements with the spring-loaded caliper (cutimeter method). The partial compensation of milk flow-dependent vacuum loss caused an elevation of the peak flow rate (4.74+/-0.08 vs. 4.29+/-0.07 kg/min) and a shorter duration of plateau (1.57+/-0.06 vs. 1.96+/-0.07 min) compared with the standard milking system. Total milk yield, duration of incline and decline of milk flow, average milk flow, time until peak flow rate, main milking time, and total milking time did not differ between treatments (overall means: 13.75+/-0.17 kg; 0.65+/-0.01 min; 2.88+/-0.09 min; 2.82+/-0.05 kg/min; 1.65+/-0.03 min; 5.23+/-0.09 min, and 5.30+/-0.10 min, respectively). The vacuum drop in the short milk tube during periods of high milk flow was less in the compensating vacuum than in the standard milking system (11+/-1.1 vs. 15+/-0.7 kPa). Teat measures as determined by ultrasound remained unchanged over the entire experimental period with both milking systems. Postmilking teat tissue measures including their recovery within 20 min after the end of milking show a correlation (0.85 and 0.71, respectively) between the methods used (ultrasound and cutimeter method). In conclusion, a more constant vacuum at the teat tip (within the short milk tube) during periods of high milk flow affected milk flow patterns, mainly increasing peak flow rate. However, the reduced vacuum loss did not increase the overall speed of milking. In addition

  17. Effect of milking interval on milk secretion and mammary tight junction permeability in dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Castillo, V; Such, X; Caja, G; Casals, R; Albanell, E; Salama, A A K

    2008-07-01

    Twenty-four lactating ewes (Manchega, n = 12; Lacaune, n = 12) in mid lactation were used to assess the short-term effects of different machine milking intervals (4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h) on milk yield, milk composition, and tight junction (TJ) permeability of mammary epithelia. Milk samples were analyzed for chemical composition, somatic cell count (SCC), and plasmin activity. Plasma lactose, and milk Na and K concentrations were used as indicators of TJ permeability. Milk accumulated linearly for up to 24 h, showing a different rate according to the milk yield of the breed (Manchega, 38 mL/h; Lacaune, 87 mL/h). Milking interval affected milk fat content, which decreased markedly from 4 to 24 h in both breeds, but no differences were observed in milk protein content. The milk contents of casein, true protein, lactose, and total solids also varied according to milking interval. Values of SCC did not vary by breed (175 x 10(3) cells/mL, on average), showing the lowest log(10) values for the 4-and 24-h milking intervals in both breeds. Plasmin activity in milk increased with milking interval until 20 h of udder filling in both breeds, and was poorly but positively correlated with SCC content (r = 0.39). Plasma lactose increased dramatically after 20 h of milk accumulation, indicating enhanced permeability of mammary TJ. As a result, an increase in Na concentration and in the Na:K ratio, and a decrease in K concentration, were observed in the milk of Manchega ewes. On the contrary, no differences in Na and K concentrations in milk were detected in Lacaune ewes. In conclusion, our results proved that Manchega and Lacaune dairy sheep could maintain high rates of milk secretion during extended milking intervals in the short term, with no effects on udder health and few negative effects on milk yield. Increased TJ permeability, caused by the effect of udder filling, induced changes in milk composition that were more marked in Manchega than in Lacaune ewes. PMID

  18. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the word “Milk” on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... following the circled K or U on a product label indicates the presence of milk protein or a ...

  19. Got milk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    While celebrities wear white “milk moustaches” in a popular U.S. advertising campaign to promote the drinking of milk, they should also be concerned about the decreased amount of calcium available to many trees.Calcium levels in forest soils have decreased at locations in 10 states in the eastern United States, according to a new report by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) released in time for National Arbor Day on April 30.

  20. Milk production response to dietary forage:grain ratio.

    PubMed

    Tessmann, N J; Radloff, H D; Kleinmans, J; Dhiman, T R; Satter, L D

    1991-08-01

    Forty-four multiparous and 49 primiparous Holstein cows were assigned randomly at parturition to one of five diets differing in forage:grain ratio and studied for the entire lactation for effects of diet on milk production and milk composition, body condition, BW gain, health, and reproductive performance. Total mixed rations fed once daily consisted of alfalfa silage, high moisture ear corn, soybean meal, vitamins, and minerals. Percentages of forage in the diet (dry basis) for treatments 1 to 5 were postpartum wk 1 to 12 (38.2, 48.2, 58.2, 68.2, and 98.2); wk 13 to 26 (48.2, 58.2, 68.2, 88.2, and 98.2); and wk 27 to 44 (68.2, 78.2, 88.2, 98.2, and 98.2). Milk production (3.5% FCM in 305 d) was 8295, 8659, 7563, 6849, and 6000 kg for multiparous cows in treatments 1 to 5, respectively, and 7334, 7177, 6976, 6014, and 4750 kg for primiparous cows. Primiparous cows had decreased milk protein, BW gain, DMI and gross feed efficiency as forage increased in the diet. Multiparous cows in treatment 1 had depressed milk fat and lower DMI and gross feed efficiency compared with other treatments. Body condition scores tended to be lower as forage increased in the diet with both age groups. Increased forage in the diet did not cause any adverse effects on health and reproductive performance in either age group. PMID:1918543

  1. Supplementary feeding at milking and minimum milking interval effects on cow traffic and milking performance in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Jago, Jenny G; Davis, Kendra L; Copeman, Peter J; Ohnstad, Ian; Woolford, Murray M

    2007-11-01

    In extensive pastoral dairy farming systems herds graze 12 months of the year with the majority fed a near-100% pasture or conserved pasture diet. The viability of automatic milking in these systems will depend partly upon the amount of supplementary feed necessary to encourage cows to walk from the pasture to the milking unit but also on the efficient use of the automatic milking system (AMS). This paper describes a study to determine the importance of offering concentrate in the milking unit and the effect of minimum milking interval on cow movement and milking performance in a pasture-based AMS. The effects of feeding rate (FR0=0 kg or FR1=1 kg crushed barley/d) and minimum milking interval (MM6=6 h or MM12=12 h) on cow movement and behaviour during milking were studied in a multi-factorial cross-over (feeding level only, 4 weeks per treatment) experiment involving 27 mixed-breed cows milked through a single AMS. Feeding 1 kg barley in the milking unit resulted in a higher visiting frequency to the pre-selection unit (FR0=4.6 visits/d, FR1=5.4 visits/d, sed=0.35, P<0.05) and a higher yield (FR0=22.5 kg/d, FR1=23.6 kg/d, sed=0.385, P<0.01) but had no effect on milking frequency (FR0=1.6 milkings/d, FR1=1.7 milkings/d, sed=0.04, NS). Minimum milking interval was the major factor influencing milking frequency (MM6=1.9, MM12=1.4 milkings/d, sed=0.15, P<0.01). The absence of feeding in the milking unit had no negative effect on behaviour during milking or the number of cows that had to be manually driven from the paddock. The results show that automatic milking can be combined with a near-100% pasture diet and that milking interval is an important determinant for maximizing milk harvested per AMS. PMID:17922936

  2. Derivation of factors to estimate daily, fat, protein, and somatic cell score from one milking of cows milked three times daily

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to derive factors to predict daily fat (F) and protein (P) yield and somatic cell score (SCS) when milk is sampled once per d for cows milked three times (3x) per d. Daily milk weights were recorded automatically and samples were collected from 8 herds for each milking on test-day ...

  3. Udder measurements and milk production in two Awassi sheep genotypes and their crosses.

    PubMed

    Iñiguez, L; Hilali, M; Thomas, D L; Jesry, G

    2009-09-01

    To improve the effectiveness of community-based breeding programs for increased milk production, the values of different udder measurements for predicting milk production traits during the milking period were assessed over 3 yr on 273 Awassi ewes. Machine milking of ewes began after weaning, 56 d after parturition, and continued until the milk yield of the ewes was <200 mL/d. Milk yield obtained by hand milking and milk composition were measured weekly, and days in milk, total milk yield, and total yields of protein, fat, and nonfat solids in milk were calculated for each ewe. On d 70 of milking, morphological traits of the whole udder (circumference, width, height, and length), udder cistern (height), and teats (length, width, and position score) were measured. On the same day, the milk yield of ewes was recorded by hand milking. Positive and moderate to strong correlations (r = 0.36 to 0.76) between udder circumference and width, teat width, and milk production traits of total milk yield, and total yields of protein, fat, and nonfat solids were found. However, a more accurate predictor of milk production traits was milk yield on d 70, as higher positive correlations between this variable and the milk production traits were found (r = 0.63 to 0.89). Nine farmers were invited to independently estimate the hand-milked milk yield performance of a sample of 169 ewes (d 15 to 45 of milking) by visually observing each ewe and making a subjective linear score (1 to 5). Their assessments were significantly correlated with milk yield on the day of the observation (r = 0.52), total milk yield (r = 0.50), and days in milk (r = 0.45). Considering the perception details provided by farmers concerning each of the subjective linear scores, it was found that most predictive linear udder measurements of udder circumference and width and teat width identified in this study were implicit in these scores. The predictive ability of the measurements studied have practical implications

  4. Evaluation of different milking practices for optimum production performance in Sahiwal cows.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Naveed; Abdullah, Muhammad; Fiaz, Muhammad; Bhatti, Jalees Ahmad; Iqbal, Zeeshan Muhammad; Bangulzai, Nasrullah; Choi, Chang Weon; Jo, Ik Hwan

    2014-01-01

    The production performance of multiparous lactating Sahiwal cows (n = 24) was evaluated according to both milking frequency and method. Selected animals were randomly divided into four groups containing six animals each under a completely randomized design. Cows in groups A & B were milked by the hand milking method three times per day, respectively. Similarly, cows in groups C & D were milked by the machine milking method two and three times per day, respectively. All animals were maintained under uniform feeding and management conditions. Dry matter intake was high in animal groups milked three times per day, and it remained unchanged between the hand and machine milking methods. Milk yield was higher (P < 0.05) in cows milked three times compared to those milked twice per day, and it did not differ between hand and machine milking methods. Milk fat percentage was higher (P < 0.05) in cows milked twice per day compared to those milked three times using both machine and hand milking methods. The percentage of total solids showed a similar pattern as the fat percentage. However, percentages of protein, lactose, and non-fat solids in milk were not significantly different (P > 0.05) among the treatment groups. Collectively, the results show that milking three times per day instead of twice at 8-hour intervals can enhance milk yield in Sahiwal cows using both hand and machine milking methods. PMID:26290702

  5. Milk Thistle

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2009. Milk thistle ( Silybum marianum ), silymarin. Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on October ... Supplements . National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health Web site. ... Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews . 2007;(4):CD003620. Seeff LB, ...

  6. The effect of pulsation ratio on teat condition, milk somatic cell count and productivity in dairy cows in automatic milking.

    PubMed

    Ferneborg, Sabine; Svennersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin

    2015-11-01

    The pulsation ratio of a milking machine affects milk flow and milking time, and has also been reported to influence teat condition and milk somatic cell count (SCC). However, most studies comparing pulsation ratios have been performed on conventional cluster milking (whole-udder level), where effects such as deteriorated teat end condition and increased milk SCC are likely to be caused by over-milking on teats that are emptied faster than the other teats. When the teat cups are detached from each udder quarter separately which can be done in automatic milking systems (AMS), the risk of over-milking, especially in front teats, may be significantly reduced. This study investigated the effects of pulsation ratio on teat end condition, milk SCC, milk yield, milking time and milk flow in an automatic milking system where each udder quarter is milked separately. In total, 356 cows on five commercial farms were included in a split-udder design experiment comparing three pulsation ratios (60:40, 70:30 and 75:25) with the standard pulsation ratio (65:35) during 6 weeks. Pulsation rate was 60 cycles/min and vacuum level 46 kPa. The 70:30 and 75:25 ratios increased peak and average milk flow and the machine-on time was shorter with 75:25, while both peak and average milk flows were lower and machine-on time was longer with the 60:40 ratio. No negative effects on teat condition or milk SCC were observed with any of the pulsation ratios applied during the study. Thus it is possible that increased pulsation ratio can be used to increase milking efficiency in AMS where quarter milking is applied. PMID:26411595

  7. Effect of infused volatile fatty acids and caseinate on milk composition and coagulation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hurtaud, C; Rulquin, H; Verite, R

    1993-10-01

    Milk protein secretion is changed by increasing the proportion of energy, mainly as propionic acid, or the availability of AA. Whether associative effects exist between energy nature and protein amounts is unknown. Therefore, ruminal isoenergetic infusions of low or high propionate mixtures were combined factorially with duodenal infusion of sodium caseinate or control. Four ruminally and duodenally fistulated Holstein cows were used. The diet was limited and consisted of 70% forage and 30% concentrate. Caseinate infusion increased milk yield and protein and casein contents and decreased milk fat content; curd yields and coagulation properties of milk were improved. The infusion of propionic acid caused a large increase in rumen propionate. Milk yield tended to decrease, and milk fat decreased, but protein, casein, and curd yields were unchanged; milk-coagulating properties were improved. No interaction existed between energy and protein amounts. Alteration of VFA had little effect on milk composition, but increasing the protein supply to the duodenum increased milk protein. PMID:8227627

  8. Effects of vacuum level and pulsation rate on milk ejection and milk flow traits in Tunisian dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Atigui, Moufida; Marnet, Pierre-Guy; Barmat, Ahmed; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to compare the effects of milking at two vacuum levels (38 and 48 kPa) and three pulsation rates (60, 90, and 120 cpm) on milk production and milk flow characteristics. Six multiparous Maghrebi camels in late lactation and once daily milked were used. The best combination of setting for camel's milking was high vacuum and low pulsation rate (48 kPa/60 cpm). Milk yield and average and peak milk flow rate were the highest, while milking time was the shortest using this combination of setting (3.05 ± 0.30 kg, 1.52 ± 0.21 kg/min, 2.52 ± 0.21 kg/min, and 3.32 ± 0.31 min, respectively). Lower vacuum level lengthened milking time by more than 100 % and was not sufficient to extract milk correctly (1.69 to 2.48 times less milk yield harvested), suggesting a negative interaction with the stimulatory effect of pulsation. Higher pulsation rates did not better stimulate the camels and induced more bimodality and lower milk flow rates. Animal characteristics and liner/claw design affect machine milking and further investigations must be carried out to verify their effects and to study long-term effect of high vacuum level on udder health and teat condition. PMID:25348647

  9. Premilking teat preparation for Australian pasture-based cows milked by an automated milking system.

    PubMed

    Davis, K L; Fulkerson, W J; Garcia, S C; Dickeson, D; Barchia, I M

    2008-07-01

    Economic viability of automatic milking systems (AMS) within an Australian pasture-based farming system will be largely determined by the throughput (cows milked/h), which is the result of processes occurring while the cow is in the AMS milking crate. Premilking udder preparation is automated and optional on all AMS. Yet, very few conventional farms in Australia conduct premilking teat preparation regimens, with the majority (78%) strategically washing only visibly dirty teats before milking cup attachment. The objective was to determine the impact of udder preparation in an AMS on the total time spent by cows in the AMS milking unit (crate time). An experiment was conducted with 80 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows in a crossover design over two 5-wk periods to determine the effect of premilking teat preparation (no wash vs. wash) on milk yield, milk harvest rates, and total crate time per milking session in an AMS. Within this study there was no significant effect of treatment on quarter milk conductivity (no wash = 4,858 vs. wash = 4,829 +/- SE = 17 microS/cm), milk blood concentration (no wash = 115.7 vs. wash = 112.3 +/- 7.3 ppm) or test-day somatic cell counts (no wash = 2.044 vs. wash = 2.039 +/- 0.025 log(10) SCC). There was similar total daily milk yield for the 2 treatments (no wash = 20.5 vs. wash = 20.1 +/- 0.2 kg of milk), but a greater mean quarter milk flow rate resulting from the wash treatment (no wash = 0.950 vs. wash = 0.981 +/- 0.013 kg of milk/min). The faster milking was not sufficient to counter the time associated with washing, resulting in longer crate time (no wash = 6.02 vs. wash = 7.12 +/- 0.08 min/milking session) and therefore, lower harvest rate (no wash = 2.08 vs. wash = 1.74 +/- 0.02 kg of milk/min crate time). Not washing teats would allow more efficient AMS utilization by potentially allowing more cows to be milked per machine, which would likely have a positive effect on the economic viability of this technology. The results

  10. Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Yogurt-cheese Manufactured with Ultrafiltrated Cow's Milk and Soy Milk Blends

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Mok, Bo Ram; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Yoon, Yoh Chang; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop yogurt-cheese using cow’s milk, ultrafiltrated cow’s milk, and soy milk. The addition of soy milk and ultrafiltrated milk increased the amount of protein in the yogurt-cheese. Yogurt-cheeses were made using cheese base using 10% and 20% soy milk with raw and ultrafiltrated cow’s milk, and stored at 4℃ during 2 wk. The yield of yogurt-cheeses made with added soy milk was decreased and the cutting point was delayed compared to yogurt-cheese made without soy milk. Yogurt-cheese made using ultrafiltrated cow’s milk showed the highest yield. However, yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk had higher protein content and titratable acidity than yogurt-cheese made using raw and ultrafiltrated cow’s milk. Fat and lactose contents in the yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk were lower. Yogurt-cheeses made with added soy milk contained several soy protein bands corresponding to the sizes of α2-, β-, and κ-casein band. Yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk had similar elasticity to yogurt-cheese made without soy milk but had lower cohesiveness. There was no significant difference in the number of lactic acid bacteria in the different cheeses, as all had over 8.0 Log CFU/g. Considering these data and the fact that proteins and fats of vegetable origin with high biological value were observed as well as unsaturated fats, yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk can be considered to be a functional food. PMID:26761829

  11. Relationships of milk production of beef cows to postweaning gain of thier calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milk yield from 157 Brangus cows bred to 6 breeds (Bonsmara, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Romosinuano) was measured over a 3-yr period with a single-cow milking machine to estimate the relationship of actual milk yield of cows and their calves’ postweaning average daily gain on two postweaning man...

  12. Vacuum levels and milk-flow-dependent vacuum drops affect machine milking performance and teat condition in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Besier, J; Bruckmaier, R M

    2016-04-01

    Different levels of claw vacuum during machine milking may influence milking performance and teat condition. The claw vacuum acts on the teat and is responsible for removal and transport of milk but is also causing potential effects on the teat tissue. In the absence of milk flow, the claw vacuum is similar as the system vacuum. During milk flow, the claw vacuum drops to lower levels depending on lifting height and tube length and diameter, which may influence milking performance and the mechanical load on the teat tissue. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of high system vacuum and extremely low claw vacuum during milk flow on milking performance and teat condition after milking recorded by ultrasound. Treatments were control (treatment 1) with a system vacuum of 42 and a minimum claw vacuum during milk flow of 33 kPa; treatment 2 representing a system vacuum of 50 kPa, with a minimum claw vacuum almost similar as treatment 1 (34 kPa); and treatment 3 with the same system vacuum as treatment 1 but a claw vacuum drop during milk flow down to 24 kPa. Total milk yield was similar in all treatments, but strip yield was lower in treatment 3 than in the other treatments. Milk flow was similar in treatment 1 and treatment 2, but was reduced in treatment 3, thus causing a prolonged milking time in treatment 3. Teat wall thickness was increased and teat cistern diameter was decreased in treatment 2 as compared with the other treatments. The results demonstrate that the minimum claw vacuum had the main influence on milking performance independent of the level of the system vacuum and related vacuum drops and a low minimum claw vacuum caused low milk flow and long milking times. Teat condition at the end of milking, however, was mainly dependent on the system vacuum, and the load on the teat tissue was obviously increased at a system vacuum of 50 kPa. This effect was obviously occurring toward the end of milking when milk flow decreased and hence

  13. An empirical method for prediction of cheese yield.

    PubMed

    Melilli, C; Lynch, J M; Carpino, S; Barbano, D M; Licitra, G; Cappa, A

    2002-10-01

    Theoretical cheese yield can be estimated from the milk fat and casein or protein content of milk using classical formulae, such as the VanSlyke formula. These equations are reliable predictors of theoretical or actual yield based on accurately measured milk fat and casein content. Many cheese makers desire to base payment for milk to dairy farmers on the yield of cheese. In small factories, however, accurate measurement of fat and casein content of milk by either chemical methods or infrared milk analysis is too time consuming and expensive. Therefore, an empirical test to predict cheese yield was developed which uses simple equipment (i.e., clinical centrifuge, analytical balance, and forced air oven) to carry out a miniature cheese making, followed by a gravimetric measurement of dry weight yield. A linear regression of calculated theoretical versus dry weight yields for milks of known fat and casein content was calculated. A regression equation of y = 1.275x + 1.528, where y is theoretical yield and x is measured dry solids yield (r2 = 0.981), for Cheddar cheese was developed using milks with a range of theoretical yield from 7 to 11.8%. The standard deviation of the difference (SDD) between theoretical cheese yield and dry solids yield was 0.194 and the coefficient of variation (SDD/mean x 100) was 1.95% upon cross validation. For cheeses without a well-established theoretical cheese yield equation, the measured dry weight yields could be directly correlated to the observed yields in the factory; this would more accurately reflect the expected yield performance. Payments for milk based on these measurements would more accurately reflect quality and composition of the milk and the actual average recovery of fat and casein achieved under practical cheese making conditions. PMID:12416825

  14. Milk production responses to a change in dietary starch concentration vary by production level in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2015-07-01

    The effects of dietary starch concentration on yield of milk and milk components were evaluated in a crossover design experiment. Holstein cows (n=32; 115±22 d in milk) with a wide range in milk yield (28 to 62kg/d) were assigned randomly within level of milk yield to a treatment sequence. Treatments were diets containing 30% dry ground corn (CG) or 30% soyhulls (SH) on a DM basis. Diets containing corn silage and alfalfa silage were formulated to contain 16% crude protein, 24% forage neutral detergent fiber, and either 27 or 44% neutral detergent fiber and 30 or 12% starch for CG and SH, respectively. Cows were fed a diet intermediate to the treatments during a preliminary 14-d period. Treatment periods were 28 d with measurements taken throughout the period for energy calculations and the final 5 d used for data and sample collection for production variables. Compared with SH, CG increased dry matter intake, and yields of milk, milk protein, milk fat, and energy-corrected milk, as well as milk protein concentration. Treatment did not affect milk fat concentration. Yield of de novo synthesized and preformed milk fatty acids increased with CG. Treatment interacted with level of preliminary milk production for several response variables (yields of milk, milk protein, milk fat, energy-corrected milk, and 3.5% fat-corrected milk). Compared with SH, the CG treatment increased energy-corrected milk in higher-producing cows with a lesser response to CG as milk yield decreased. The CG treatment increased milk:feed compared with the SH treatment, but not body weight or body condition score. In conclusion, higher-producing cows benefited from the high-starch diet, and lower-producing cows were able to maintain production when most of the starch was replaced with nonforage fiber. PMID:25981075

  15. Polymorphisms of the IL8 gene correlate with milking traits, SCS and mRNA level in Chinese Holstein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Renjin; Yang, Zhangping; Ji, Dejun; Mao, Yongjiang; Chen, Ying; Li, Yunlong; Wu, Haitao; Wang, Xiaolong; Chang, Lingling

    2011-08-01

    To explore the relation of Interleukin-8 (IL8) gene polymorphism with immunity against mastitis in dairy cow, the polymorphism of IL8 gene was investigated in 610 Chinese Holstein cow from 30 bull families in a dairy farm in Shanghai using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique, and milk yield, milk fat percentage, milk protein percentage, 305 day corrected milk yield, 305 day milk fat yield, 305 day milk protein yield and somatic cell score (SCS) were measured and analyzed, and the mRNA levels of IL8 genotypes in blood were detected by real-time PCR. The results showed that three genotypes, KK, KA and AA were detected with frequencies of 0.187, 0.451, and 0.362, respectively. The gene frequencies of K and A were 0.412 and 0.588, respectively. The significant association of the IL8 mutations with milk yield, 305 day milk protein yield, 305 day corrected milk yield and 305 day milk fat yield, SCS, and significant association with milk protein percentage were identified, while their association with milk fat percentage were not significant. KK had higher milk yield, 305 day milk protein yield, 305 day corrected milk yield and 305 day milk fat yield than AA or KA, and the least square mean of SCS of KK was significantly lower than that of AA or KA. AA had significant lower milk protein yield than KK or KA. The relative IL8 mRNA level of KK in blood was the highest. These findings demonstrated that IL8 genotype significantly correlated with mastitis resistance and the locus could be a useful genetic marker for mastitis resistance selection and breeding in Chinese Holstein. PMID:21113675

  16. Effect of sunflower oil supplementation and milking frequency reduction on sheep milk production and composition.

    PubMed

    Prieto, N; Bodas, R; López-Campos, Ó; Andrés, S; López, S; Giráldez, F J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of milking frequency reduction and dietary lipid supplementation on intake, BW, and milk yield and composition in high yielding dairy ewes. Ten lactating Assaf ewes were allocated into 2 experimental groups (n=5). Ewes were fed alfalfa hay ad libitum and 34 g·kg(-1) of BW of a concentrate feed with either 0 (Control group) or 43 g of sunflower oil·kg(-1) of DM (SO group). The experiment lasted 63 d and consisted of 3 periods. During Period 1 (from d 1 to 21), ewes were milked twice a day. During Period 2 (from d 22 to 49), ewes were unilaterally milked, so that each gland of each ewe was milked either once or twice daily. During Period 3 (from d 50 to the end of the experiment), both udder halves were again milked twice daily. Intake, BW, and milk composition were controlled weekly and milk production from each half udder was recorded twice a week. Total DM intake, BW, and milk yield in Period 1 were not significantly (P>0.10) affected by dietary treatments. Milk yield tended to be increased in the ewes fed the SO diet in periods 2 (P=0.093) and 3 (P=0.067). Oil supplementation (SO diet) significantly (P<0.05) decreased milk protein and total solids concentrations in the 3 experimental periods and fat content in Period 3, and tended (P=0.077) to decline fat content in Period 2. Lactose content and somatic cell count (SCC) were unaffected (P>0.10) by dietary lipid supplementation in any of the experimental periods. There were no significant (P>0.10) differences between half udders in milk yield and composition in Period 1, and in SCC in any of the experimental periods. Fat and total solids contents were unaffected (P>0.10) by reducing milking frequency. Nevertheless, milk protein content was increased (P<0.001) when glands were milked only once daily whereas milk yield and lactose content were decreased (P=0.001). The interaction between gland and diet was significant for lactose in Period 2, suggesting a

  17. Management of Wisconsin dairy herds enrolled in milk quality teams.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A C O; Caraviello, D Z; Ruegg, P L

    2005-07-01

    A study was conducted to characterize Wisconsin dairy herds that enrolled in a team-based milk quality improvement program and to assess association of specific management practices with milking efficiency and milk quality. Management and financial data were obtained from dairy farms (n = 180) that participated in the program. Upon enrollment, herds reported a median bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC) of 333,500 cells/mL, an average of 125 lactating cows, and a mean rolling-herd average of 10,100 kg. Many management practices and bulk milk SCC were strongly associated with herd size and facility type. Managers of herds housed in freestall barns adopted more standardized procedures and recommended management practices compared with managers of herds housed in stall barns. Those managers also reported less bulk milk SCC and greater milk yields, and had a tendency for lower prevalence of subclinical mastitis and reduced estimates of the incidence of clinical mastitis. Managers of freestall herds received more quality premiums for milk shipped, estimated that they had fewer financial losses related to mastitis, and reported more efficient milking performance. A more efficient milking performance did not increase estimates of clinical mastitis or bulk milk SCC. In herds having freestalls, frequent training of employees seemed to be the fundamental factor that increased milking efficiency. Bulk milk SCC was positively associated with standard plate count, estimated rate of clinical mastitis, prevalence of subclinical mastitis, numbers of cows culled for mastitis, and estimated financial losses attributable to mastitis. Herds reporting high bulk milk SCC had an increased prevalence of subclinical mastitis, but incidence did not differ among bulk milk SCC categories. Overall, herds did not discuss milk quality frequently with dairy professionals, and herds having greater bulk milk SCC reported less consultation with their herd veterinarian. PMID:15956328

  18. Clinical disease and stage of lactation influence shedding of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis into milk and colostrum of naturally infected dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Stabel, J R; Bradner, L; Robbe-Austerman, S; Beitz, D C

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD). One mode of transmission of MAP is through ingestion of contaminated milk and colostrum by susceptible calves. The objective of this study was to determine if the amount of MAP shed into the milk and colostrum of infected cows was affected by severity of infection as well as the number of days in milk (DIM). Milk was collected over the 305-d lactation period from naturally infected cows in the asymptomatic subclinical (n=39) and symptomatic clinical (n=29) stages of disease, as well as 8 noninfected control cows. All milk samples were assayed for MAP by culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium and either BACTEC 12B (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ) or para-JEM (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Trek Diagnostic Systems Inc., Cleveland, OH) liquid medium, and by direct PCR for the IS900 target gene. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was detected in 3.8, 4.1, and 12.6% of milk samples collected from cows with subclinical JD after culture in Herrold's egg yolk medium, liquid medium, and direct PCR, respectively. The frequency of MAP positivity increased to 12.9, 18.4, and 49.2% of milk samples collected from cows with clinical JD by these same methods, respectively. None of the milk samples collected from control cows was positive for MAP by any detection method. Viable MAP was primarily isolated from milk and colostrum of subclinically and clinically infected cows collected in early lactation (DIM 0-60), with negligible positive samples observed in mid (DIM 60-240) and late (DIM 240-305) lactation. This study demonstrates that shedding of MAP into milk is affected by infection status of the cow as well as stage of lactation, providing useful information to producers to help break the cycle of infection within a herd. PMID:25064655

  19. Cow's milk and children

    MedlinePlus

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  20. Variation of milk components in the Italian Brown cattle.

    PubMed

    Frigo, Erika; Samorè, Antonia B; Reghenzani, Liliana; Bergomi, Nicola; Strillacci, Maria G; Schiavini, Fausta; Prinsen, Raphaelle T M M; Cozzi, Maria C; Serra, Marco; Rossoni, Attilio; Bagnato, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the variations of protein, casein, saturated (SFA), unsaturated (UFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids contents and cheese yield in the milk of two groups of Italian Brown cows conventionally reared in indoor period of housing or consuming pasture during the summer months in 2008 and 2013. Milk components were obtained from samples collected during the national routine (conventionally reared) and 'extraordinary' (pasture period) milk recording scheme in herds located near Sondrio (Lombardia, Italy). Milk samples were processed with the MilkoScanTM FT6000 for the identification of milk casein, SFA, UFA, MUFA and PUFA composition. The groups were analysed separately per year and the environmental factors affecting milk protein, casein, and fatty acids contents (pasture/indoor, parity, data of sampling, days in milk, days from collection to analysis) were included in the MIXED procedure of SAS 9.3. A total of 778 milk samples were available, including 234 records from indoor and 544 observations from pasture feeding. Pasture intake affected the content of casein (%) and the proportion of fat in milk (g/100 g), enhancing milk casein levels (from 2.90 to 3) and reducing the concentration of milk SFA in milk from grazing cows (from 2.29 to 1.92). Additionally, the cheese yield was calculated as 'kg of cheese per 100 kg of milk' and resulted to be 10.4 and 12 in 2008 from milk of cows reared indoor and with pasture based diet, respectively. The dairy industry should take advantage of the milk production during grazing periods from which high quality products may be obtained. PMID:26511665

  1. Short communication: Monitoring nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk: effects of lactation and productive season.

    PubMed

    Martini, Mina; Altomonte, Iolanda; Salari, Federica; Caroli, Anna M

    2014-11-01

    Milk nutritional characteristics are especially interesting when donkey milk is aimed at consumption by children and the elderly. The aim of this study was to monitor the nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk during lactation and productive season to provide information on the milk characteristics and to study action plans to improve milk yield and quality. Thirty-one pluriparous jennies belonging to the same farm were selected. Individual samples of milk from the morning milking were taken once per month starting from the d 30 of lactation until d 300. Milk yield and dry matter, fat, and ash content were constant throughout the experimental period. Milk total protein content showed a progressive decrease during the first 6 mo of lactation; after this period, the protein percentages remained constant (1.50%). Caseins and lactose were lower until d 60 of lactation and remained constant thereafter. During summer and autumn, milk yield and casein and lactose contents were higher, whereas during the spring season, higher protein and ash contents were found. The percentages of fat and dry matter were stable as were most of the minerals in the milk, except for calcium, which was higher in the spring. In conclusion, Amiata donkey milk was found to be relatively stable during lactation. This is an advantage in terms of the production and trade of a food product with consistent characteristics. The different milk yield and quality during the productive seasons were probably related to better adaptability of the animals to warm and temperate periods. PMID:25200774

  2. DETECTION AND ADJUSTMENT OF ABNORMAL TEST-DAY YIELDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method to detect and to adjust abnormally low or high milk, fat, and protein yields on test-day (TD) was developed. TD yields are compared to previous and subsequent yields and are restricted to be between a floor and ceiling based on predicted yield. Lactation yields are then calculated from the ...

  3. Intramammary infections and milk leakage following gradual or abrupt cessation of milking.

    PubMed

    Gott, P N; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Schuenemann, G M; Proudfoot, K L; Hogan, J S

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of milking cessation method (abrupt or gradual) and daily milk yield before dry-off on milk leakage following dry-off and intramammary infections (IMI) at calving. Data from 1,086 quarters of 285 cows from 5 Ohio dairy herds were analyzed. All cows that were due to be dried off within a week were assigned to the same study group to facilitate management. Abrupt-cessation cows kept the farm's regular milking schedule through dry-off, and gradual-cessation cows were milked once daily for the final week of lactation. Aseptic technique was used to collect quarter foremilk samples at the time of enrollment (7 to 14 d before expected dry-off), the final milking before dry-off (D-O), and within 7 d of calving. Cows in the gradual-cessation group were observed for milk leakage during the period of once-daily milking. In the only herd that did not use internal teat sealants at dry-off, milk leakage after dry-off was recorded in both abrupt and gradual groups. Gradual cessation decreased milk production by 33.4% during the final week of lactation, causing milk yield at D-O to be lower for these cows compared with abrupt-cessation cows (13.2 vs. 19.8kg/d, respectively). Logistic regression models were used to model the probability of a quarter being infected at calving with any pathogen, accounting for clustering of quarters within cows and cows within herds. The final model investigating the probability of IMI at calving was stratified by parity of cows at the time of dry-off (primiparous and multiparous). Among quarters of cows that ended their first lactation, abrupt cessation of milking before dry-off and milk leakage after dry-off were associated with an increased risk of IMI at calving. Among quarters of multiparous cows, on the other hand, gradual cessation of milking before dry-off, presence of IMI at D-O, and thrice-daily milking during lactation increased the odds of IMI at calving. These results indicate that

  4. Effects of milk powders in milk chocolate.

    PubMed

    Liang, B; Hartel, R W

    2004-01-01

    The physical characteristics of milk powders used in chocolate can have significant impact on the processing conditions needed to make that chocolate and the physical and organoleptic properties of the finished product. Four milk powders with different particle characteristics (size, shape, density) and "free" milk fat levels (easily extracted with organic solvent) were evaluated for their effect on the processing conditions and characteristics of chocolates in which they were used. Many aspects of chocolate manufacture and storage (tempering conditions, melt rheology, hardness, bloom stability) were dependent on the level of free milk fat in the milk powder. However, particle characteristics of the milk powder also influenced the physical and sensory properties of the final products. PMID:14765806

  5. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    PubMed

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy. PMID:22226014

  6. Real-time evaluation of milk quality as reflected by clotting parameters of individual cow's milk during the milking session, between day-to-day and during lactation.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi; Jacoby, Shamay; Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil

    2013-09-01

    together with high milk yield >50 l/day, and late in lactation together with low milk yield<15 l/day and estrous (0 to 5 days) were also important influencing factors for low-quality milk. However, ∼50% of the tested variables did not explain any of the factors responsible for the cow producing milk in the low - 10% Afi-CF. PMID:23537499

  7. Assessing liner performance using on-farm milk meters.

    PubMed

    Penry, J F; Leonardi, S; Upton, J; Thompson, P D; Reinemann, D J

    2016-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to quantify and compare the interactive effects of liner compression, milking vacuum level, and pulsation settings on average milk flow rates for liners representing the range of liner compression of commercial liners. A secondary objective was to evaluate a methodology for assessing liner performance that can be applied on commercial dairy farms. Eight different liner types were assessed using 9 different combinations of milking system vacuum and pulsation settings applied to a herd of 80 cows with vacuum and pulsation conditions changed daily for 36d using a central composite experimental design. Liner response surfaces were created for explanatory variables milking system vacuum (Vsystem) and pulsator ratio (PR) and response variable average milk flow rate (AMF=total yield/total cups-on time) expressed as a fraction of the within-cow average flow rate for all treatments (average milk flow rate fraction, AMFf). Response surfaces were also created for between-liner comparisons for standardized conditions of claw vacuum and milk ratio (fraction of pulsation cycle during which milk is flowing). The highest AMFf was observed at the highest levels of Vsystem, PR, and overpressure. All liners showed an increase in AMF as milking conditions were changed from low to high standardized conditions of claw vacuum and milk ratio. Differences in AMF between liners were smallest at the most gentle milking conditions (low Vsystem and low milk ratio), and these between-liner differences in AMF increased as liner overpressure increased. Differences were noted with vacuum drop between Vsystem and claw vacuum depending on the liner venting system, with short milk tube vented liners having the greater vacuum drop than mouthpiece chamber vented liners. The accuracy of liner performance assessment in commercial parlors fitted with milk meters can be improved by using a central composite experimental design with a repeated center point treatment

  8. Selenium content of milk and milk products of Turkey. II.

    PubMed

    Yanardağ, R; Orak, H

    1999-04-01

    Selenium content of 1028 milk and milk products of Turkey are presented in this study. The selenium content of human milk (colostrum, transitional, and mature milk), various kinds of milk [cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, paper boxes (3%, 1.5%, 0.012% fat), bottled milk, condensed milk (10% fat), mineral added milk (1.6%), and banana, strawberry, and chocolate milk] and milk products (kefir, yogurt, Ayran, various cheese, coffee cream, ice cream, butter, margarine, milk powder, and fruit yogurt) in Turkey were determined by a spectrofluorometric method. The selenium levels of cow milks collected from 57 cities in Turkey were also determined. Selenium levels in cow milk varied with geographical location in Turkey and were found to be lowest for Van and highest for Aksaray. The results [milk (cow, sheep, goat, buffalo and human) and milks products] were compared with literature data from different countries. PMID:10208658

  9. Impact of increasing milk production on whole farm environmental management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing herd milk production can provide both economic benefit to the producer and environmental benefit to society. Simulated dairy farms with average annual herd productions from 16,000 to 30,000 lb/cow illustrate that increasing milk yield per cow improves feed efficiency, reduces feed costs a...

  10. Somatic Cell Counts in Bovine Milk

    PubMed Central

    Dohoo, I. R.; Meek, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    Factors which influence somatic cell counts in bovine milk are reviewed and guidelines for their interpretation are presented. It is suggested that the thresholds of 300 000 and 250 000 cells/mL be used to identify infected quarters and cows respectively. However, it is stressed that somatic cell counts are general indicators of udder health which are subject to the influence of many factors. Therefore the evaluation of several successive counts is preferable to the interpretation of an individual count. Relationships between somatic cell counts and both milk production and milk composition are discussed. Subclinical mastitis reduces milk quality and decreases yield although the relationship between production loss and somatic cell count requires clarification. Finally the availability of somatic cell counting programs in Canada is presented. PMID:17422127

  11. Breastfeeding and Breast Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information​ ​​Breastfeeding, also called ...

  12. Milk-alkali syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000332.htm Milk-alkali syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Milk-alkali syndrome is a condition in which there ...

  13. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  14. Effects of increased milking frequency on gene expression in the bovine mammary gland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has demonstrated that increased milking frequency of dairy cattle during the first few weeks of lactation enhances milk yield, and that the effect persists throughout the entire lactation period. The specific mechanisms controlling this increase in milk production are unknown, but ...

  15. Associations between lameness and production, feeding and milking attendance of Holstein cows milked with an automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Bach, Alex; Dinarés, Martí; Devant, Maria; Carré, Xavier

    2007-02-01

    A longitudinal study involving 73 primiparous (PP) and 47 multiparous (MP) Holstein cows was conducted over an 8-month period to assess the associations between locomotion score (LCS) and milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), feeding behaviour, and number of visits to an automatic milking system (AMS). Twice weekly, all cows were locomotion scored (scale 1-5) by the same observer. Individual eating behaviour and individual feed consumption at each cow visit to the feed troughs, individual milk production, the time of milking, and the number of milkings for each cow were recorded for the day of locomotion scoring and the day before and after. Dependent variables, such as milk yield, DMI, etc. were modelled using a mixed-effects model with parity, LCS, days in milk (DIM), the exponential of -0.05 DIM, and the interaction between parity and LCS, as fixed effects and random intercepts and random slopes for the linear and the exponential of -0.05DIM effects within cow. LCS did not affect time of attendance at feed troughs, but affected the location that cows occupied in the feed troughs. The time devoted to eating and DMI decreased with increasing LCS. Milk production decreased with LCS>3. The number of daily visits to the AMS also decreased with increasing LCS. The cows with high LCS were fetched more often than the cows with low LCS. Overall, PP cows were more sensitive to the effects of increasing LCS than were MP cows. The decrease in milk production observed with increasing LCS seemed to be affected similarly by the decrease in DMI and by the decrease in number of daily visits to the AMS. A further economic loss generated by lame cows with AMS will be associated with the additional labour needed to fetch them. PMID:16978436

  16. Milk Allergy in Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... español Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy Almost all infants are fussy at times. ...

  17. Special Milk Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Special Milk Program provides milk to children in schools, child care institutions and eligible camps that do not participate in other Federal child nutrition meal service programs. The program reimburses schools and institutions for the milk they serve. In 2008, 4,676 schools and residential child care institutions participated, along with…

  18. Milk demystified by chemistry.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-09-01

    This article traces the decline of milk from a heavenly elixir to a tradeable food. Early cultures regarded milk not as a simple nutrient, but a living fluid. Heroes and gods were believed to have been nurtured by animals after being abandoned. Character traits were assumed to be transmitted by milk; infantile diseases were attributed to "bad milk", whereas "good milk" was used as a remedy. With chemical methods developed at the end of the 18th century, it became known that human milk was higher in sugar and lower in protein than cow's milk. During the 19th century, "scientific" feeding emerged that meant modifying cow's milk to imitate the proportion of nutrients in human milk. In Boston from 1893, Rotch initiated the "percentage" method, requiring a physician's prescription. In Paris from 1894, Budin sterilized bottled infant milk. In Berlin in 1898, Rubner measured oxygen and energy uptake by calorimetry, prompting feeding by calories, and Czerny introduced regulated feeding by the clock. These activities ignored the emotional dimension of infant nutrition and the anti-infective properties of human milk. They may have also enhanced the decline in breastfeeding, which reached an all-time low in 1971. Milk's demystification made artificial nutrition safer, but paved the way for commercially produced infant formula. PMID:24558227

  19. Immune response, productivity and quality of milk from grazing goats as affected by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovana; Santillo, Antonella; Marino, Rosaria; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess how diet supplemented with fish oil and linseed improve the immune profile, the production performance, and milk quality of grazing goats by a diet supplementation of fish oil or linseed. Twenty-four Garganica grazing goats were divided into three groups named control (CON), fish oil (FO) and linseed (LIN) according to the fat supplement received in their diet. In vivo immune responses were evaluated by monitoring cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in order to verify the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation on goats' health status. Goat milk samples were analysed weekly to determine milk chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and somatic cell count. Diet based on linseed supplementation (LIN) significantly increased milk yield by 30%, milk fat yield by 67%, protein yield by 34%, and casein yield by 41% as compared with CON. Fat content increased by 30% in LIN milk as compared with CON milk, and by 12% as compared with FO milk. Linseed modified milk fatty acid profile; LIN milk showed lower SFA and higher PUFA than FO milk. The modified fatty acid composition of LIN milk resulted in lower AI and TI indexes than FO and CON milk. Linseed and fish oil administration can reduce humoral immunity of goats, but has no effect in their cellular immunity. Dietary linseed supplementation in grazing dairy goat supports feeding programs to improve milk composition and quality, and a modulation of their immune responses. PMID:27033938

  20. Importance of casein micelle size and milk composition for milk gelation.

    PubMed

    Glantz, M; Devold, T G; Vegarud, G E; Lindmark Månsson, H; Stålhammar, H; Paulsson, M

    2010-04-01

    The economic output of the dairy industry is to a great extent dependent on the processing of milk into other milk-based products such as cheese. The yield and quality of cheese are dependent on both the composition and technological properties of milk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the importance and effects of casein (CN) micelle size and milk composition on milk gelation characteristics in order to evaluate the possibilities for enhancing gelation properties through breeding. Milk was collected on 4 sampling occasions at the farm level in winter and summer from dairy cows with high genetic merit, classified as elite dairy cows, of the Swedish Red and Swedish Holstein breeds. Comparisons were made with milk from a Swedish Red herd, a Swedish Holstein herd, and a Swedish dairy processor. Properties of CN micelles, such as their native and rennet-induced CN micelle size and their zeta-potential, were analyzed by photon correlation spectroscopy, and rennet-induced gelation characteristics, including gel strength, gelation time, and frequency sweeps, were determined. Milk parameters of the protein, lipid, and carbohydrate profiles as well as minerals were used to obtain correlations with native CN micelle size and gelation characteristics. Milk pH and protein, CN, and lactose contents were found to affect milk gelation. Smaller native CN micelles were shown to form stronger gels when poorly coagulating milk was excluded from the correlation analysis. In addition, milk pH correlated positively, whereas Mg and K correlated negatively with native CN micellar size. The milk from the elite dairy cows was shown to have good gelation characteristics. Furthermore, genetic progress in relation to CN micelle size was found for these cows as a correlated response to selection for the Swedish breeding objective if optimizing for milk gelation characteristics. The results indicate that selection for smaller native CN micelles and lower milk pH through breeding would

  1. Human milk banking.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing. PMID:23666187

  2. Milk traits of lactating cows submitted to feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Gabbi, Alexandre Mossate; McManus, Concepta Margareth; Zanela, Maira Balbinotti; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Barbosa, Rosângela Silveira; Fruscalso, Vilmar; Thaler Neto, André; Schmidt, Fernando André; Fischer, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    Data from five experiments with dairy cows where feed was restricted to 0, 40, and 50% of the ad libitum amount, with 259 observations, were subjected to multivariate analyses to determine the effects of severity and duration of feed restriction on production, physical-chemical characteristics, ethanol stability, and somatic cell score of milk. A negative relationship was seen between the severity and duration of feed restriction with milk production, lactose content, titratable acidity, and milk stability to the ethanol test. The milk stability to the ethanol test, protein content, milk yield, and somatic cells score were the most important attributes retained by the discriminant analysis. Milk stability to the ethanol test, live weight, days in restriction, and pH were the most important characteristics explaining the variance within the different levels of feed restriction. Milk production and ethanol stability were significantly lower in both levels of feed restriction compared with the group fed ad libitum. When feed restriction was followed by refeeding, the difference observed in ethanol stability was the first discriminant variable, followed by the difference in unstable milk frequency and titratable acidity. Increments in the severity and duration of feed restriction negatively affect milk production and milk ethanol stability. PMID:26385460

  3. Campylobacter jejuni Infections Associated with Raw Milk Consumption - Utah, 2014.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kenneth R; Dunn, Angela C; Burnett, Cindy; McCullough, Laine; Dimond, Melissa; Wagner, Jenni; Smith, Lori; Carter, Amy; Willardson, Sarah; Nakashima, Allyn K

    2016-01-01

    In May 2014, the Utah Public Health Laboratory (UPHL) notified the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) of specimens from three patients infected with Campylobacter jejuni yielding indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. All three patients had consumed raw (unpasteurized and nonhomogenized) milk from dairy A. In Utah, raw milk sales are legal from farm to consumer with a sales permit from the Utah Department of Agriculture and Food (UDAF). Raw milk dairies are required to submit monthly milk samples to UDAF for somatic cell and coliform counts, both of which are indicators of raw milk contamination. Before this cluster's identification, dairy A's routine test results were within acceptable levels (<400,000 somatic cells/mL and <10 coliform colony forming units/mL). Subsequent enhanced testing procedures recovered C. jejuni, a fastidious organism, in dairy A raw milk; the isolate matched the cluster pattern. UDAF suspended dairy A's raw milk permit during August 4-October 1, and reinstated the permit when follow-up cultures were negative. Additional cases of C. jejuni infection were identified in October, and UDAF permanently revoked dairy A's permit to sell raw milk on December 1. During May 9-November 6, 2014, a total of 99 cases of C. jejuni infection were identified. Routine somatic cell and coliform counts of raw milk do not ensure its safety. Consumers should be educated that raw milk might be unsafe even if it meets routine testing standards. PMID:27031585

  4. Protein degradation in bovine milk caused by Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Åkerstedt, Maria; Wredle, Ewa; Lam, Vo; Johansson, Monika

    2012-08-01

    Streptococcus (Str.) agalactiae is a contagious mastitis bacterium, often associated with cases of subclinical mastitis. Different mastitis bacteria have been evaluated previously from a diagnostic point of view, but there is a lack of knowledge concerning their effect on milk composition. Protein composition is important in achieving optimal yield and texture when milk is processed to fermented products, such as cheese and yoghurt, and is thus of great economic value. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate protein degradation mainly caused by exogenous proteases originating from naturally occurring Str. agalactiae. The samples were incubated at 37°C to imitate degradation caused by the bacteria in the udder. Protein degradation caused by different strains of Str. agalactiae was also investigated. Protein degradation was observed to occur when Str. agalactiae was added to milk, but there were variations between strains of the bacteria. Caseins, the most economically important proteins in milk, were degraded up to 75% in milk inoculated with Str. agalactiae in relation to sterile ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk, used as control milk. The major whey proteins, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, were degraded up to 21% in relation to the sterile control milk. These results suggest that different mastitis bacteria but also different strains of mastitis bacteria should be evaluated from a milk quality perspective to gain knowledge about their ability to degrade the economically important proteins in milk. PMID:22850579

  5. The effect of manual and mechanical stimulation on oxytocin release and milking characteristics in Holstein cows milked 3 times daily.

    PubMed

    Watters, Rick D; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Crawford, Heather M; Schuring, Norm; Schukken, Ynte H; Galton, David M

    2015-03-01

    Prestimulation administered to a cow before attachment of the milking unit has historically been performed manually. Development of innovative milking technology has allowed manual stimulation to be replaced by mechanical forms of stimulation. Holstein cows (n=30) were enrolled in a crossover design to determine the effect of manual stimulation (forestripping and drying) and high-vibration pulsation on oxytocin profiles, milk yield, milk flow rates, incidence of delayed milk ejection causing bimodal milk flow curves, and residual milk in Holstein cows milked 3 times daily (3×). All cows were subjected to all treatments. Cows received manual (forestripping and drying) or mechanical (high-vibration pulsation) stimulation along with lag times of 0, 30, or 90 s for 21 consecutive milkings. Forestripping involved the manual removal of 2 streams of milk from each teat and drying of the teats. High-vibration pulsation involved increasing the pulsation cycles from 60 to 300 pulses/min and reducing the vacuum in the pulsation chamber to 20 kPa. The 5 treatments were (1) immediate attachment of the milking machine under normal pulsation (T0); (2) dip plus forestrip and drying with 30-s lag time (FD30); (3) dip plus forestrip and drying with 90-s lag time (FD90); (4) high-vibration pulsation for 30 s (HV30); and (5) high-vibration pulsation for 90 s (HV90). Milk yield per milking averaged 14.0 kg and was significantly different among treatments; however, the maximum difference detected among treatments was 0.8 kg/milking. Milking unit on-time, which represents the time when the milking unit is under normal pulsation and harvesting milk (excluding the high-vibration pulsation time of 30 or 90 s), was shortest (245 s) for cows subjected to 90 s of high-vibration pulsation (HV90) and ranged from 256 to 261 s for all other treatments. Milk harvest may have begun during high-vibration pulsation; however, only 0.13 and 0.32 kg of milk was harvested during high-vibration pulsation

  6. 9 CFR 94.16 - Milk and milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk and milk products. 94.16 Section... VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.16 Milk and milk products. (a) The following milk products are exempt from the provisions of this part:...

  7. 9 CFR 94.16 - Milk and milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk and milk products. 94.16 Section... VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.16 Milk and milk products. (a) The following milk products are exempt from the provisions of this part:...

  8. Review of present knowledge on machine milking and intensive milk production in dromedary camels and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Judit

    2016-06-01

    The camel dairy industry has gone through major development in the last decade. The world's first large-scale camel dairy farm was established 10 years ago in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and since then, several commercial and scientific projects have been started, and more studies have been published demonstrating increasing interest in camel milk. The aims of this paper are to summarize relevant published data on factors influencing milk production under intensive management, compare those with our own observations obtained from Emirates Industry for Camel Milk and Products (EICMP), and highlight areas of research that are indispensable for further development. As in other species, the most important factors influencing milk yield are genetic and individual variation, age, parity, stage of lactation, nutrition, management, season, photoperiod, etc. However, the precise role of the various factors has not been thoroughly studied in camels and based on our understanding of the basic physiological processes, endocrine control is minimal. In addition, machine milking of dromedaries is still at early stage and requires research for improvement of the technology and defining factors affecting and improving milk ejection. The role of environment (like photoperiod, nutrition) should also be investigated as there is significant annual variation both in milk quantity and quality that might influence the processing characteristics of raw camel milk. The large pool of animals and thoroughly recorded data at EICMP provide an excellent opportunity for increasing milk production and improving milk quality using various methods, like feeding, management, reproduction, selection, and breeding. PMID:26992732

  9. A bombesin immunoreactive peptide in milk.

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, G D; Lazarus, L H

    1984-01-01

    Immunoreactivity to the amphibian peptide bombesin was found in instant nonfat dry milk (ca. 0.7 ng/ml) and in the whey of whole or skim bovine milk (ca. 1.2 ng/ml) even after ultracentrifugation. The soluble immunoreactivity was associated with a peptide exhibiting the following characteristics: (i) parallel displacement in an immunoassay using an antiserum recognizing bombesin amino acid residues 5-8; (ii) separation from both gastrin-releasing peptide and amphibian bombesin by gel filtration--the approximate Mr was 3,200; (iii) denaturation in urea, reduction by dithiothreitol, and acetylation by iodoacetamide had no effect on its elution profile by gel-filtration chromatography and the aggregation of added bombesin to milk proteins or peptides was not observed; (iv) reversed-phase HPLC separated milk immunoreactivity from gastrin-releasing peptide and bombesin; (v) digestion by trypsin yielded a smaller immunoreactive peptide fragment, whereas nearly all immunoreactivity was lost by treatment with alpha-chymotrypsin; and (vi) the level of immunoreactivity was unaffected by boiling. These data show that milk is an exogenous source of bombesin-like immunoreactivity, which may account for the increase of gastric acid and gastrointestinal hormone levels after the consumption of milk. PMID:6582513

  10. Raw Milk Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Lucey, John A.

    2015-01-01

    There continues to be considerable public debate on the possible benefits regarding the growing popularity of the consumption of raw milk. However, there are significant concerns by regulatory, or public health, organizations like the Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because of risk of contracting milkborne illnesses if the raw milk is contaminated with human pathogens. This review describes why pasteurization of milk was introduced more than 100 years ago, how pasteurization helped to reduce the incidence of illnesses associated with raw milk consumption, and the prevalence of pathogens in raw milk. In some studies, up to a third of all raw milk samples contained pathogens, even when sourced from clinically healthy animals or from milk that appeared to be of good quality. This review critically evaluates some of the popularly suggested benefits of raw milk. Claims related to improved nutrition, prevention of lactose intolerance, or provision of “good” bacteria from the consumption of raw milk have no scientific basis and are myths. There are some epidemiological data that indicate that children growing up in a farming environment are associated with a decreased risk of allergy and asthma; a variety of environmental factors may be involved and there is no direct evidence that raw milk consumption is involved in any “protective” effect. PMID:27340300

  11. Effect of flavored milk vs plain milk on total milk intake and nutrient provision in children.

    PubMed

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Concerns surrounding added sugars and their effects on health have created a need to review the literature to assess consumption of flavored milk, consumer preferences for flavored milk, behavior related to the intake of flavored milk, and the effect of flavored milk on the diet and health of children. A review of the literature was performed using the following keywords: milk, flavored, flavoured, sweetened, and chocolate. The search was limited to articles published in English, studies conducted in children, and studies reporting on prevalence of consumption, trends in consumption, preferences for flavored milk, intakes of milk and nutrients, and health outcomes. Fifty-three studies were included. Flavored milk receives the highest palatability rating among children. Children drink more flavored milk than plain milk and, when flavored milk is not available, children drink less plain milk and, consequently, less milk overall. Consumers of flavored milk have a higher total milk intake. Micronutrient intake among consumers of flavored milk is similar to that among consumers of plain milk, while intakes of energy and sugars vary, owing to differences in reporting across studies. There is no association between flavored milk intake and weight status among normal-weight children, and some contradictory effects of flavored milk intake have been observed in subgroups of overweight children. Flavored milk is a palatable beverage choice that helps children to meet calcium targets. Further research to test the effect of flavored milk consumption among overweight children is warranted. PMID:26534904

  12. Pattern of γ-glutamyl transferase activity in cow milk throughout lactation and relationships with metabolic conditions and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Calamari, L; Gobbi, L; Russo, F; Cappelli, F Piccioli

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of this experiment was to study the γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity in milk during lactation and its relationship with metabolic status of dairy cows, milk yield, milk composition, and cheesemaking properties. The study was performed in a tied stall barn and involved 20 lactations from 12 healthy multiparous Italian Friesian dairy cows. During lactation starting at d 10, milk samples were collected weekly and analyzed for composition, somatic cells count, titratable acidity, and milk coagulation properties. The GGT activity was measured in defatted samples. Blood samples were collected weekly to assess biochemical indicators related to energy, protein, and mineral metabolism, markers of inflammation and some enzyme activities. The lactations of each cow were retrospectively categorized into 2 groups according to their milk GGT activity value through lactation. A median value of GGT activity in the milk of all lactations was calculated (3,045 U/L), and 10 lactations with lower GGT activity were classified as low while 10 lactations with greater GGT activity were classified as high. The average value of milk GGT activity during lactation was 3,863 and 3,024 U/L for high and low, respectively. The GGT activity decreased in early lactation and reached minimum values in the second month (3,289 and 2,355 U/L for high and low, respectively). Thereafter GGT activity increased progressively, reaching values in late lactation of 4,511 and 3,540 U/L in high and low, respectively. On average, milk yield was 40.81 and 42.76 kg/d in high and low, respectively, and a negative partial correlation with milk GGT activity was observed. A greater milk protein concentration was observed in high (3.39%) compared with low (3.18%), and a positive partial correlation with milk GGT activity was observed. Greater titratable acidity in high than that in low (3.75 vs. 3.45 degrees Soxhlet-Henkel/50 mL, respectively) was also observed. Plasma glucose was greater in

  13. Effects of milking interval and cisternal udder evaluation in Tunisian Maghrebi dairy dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius L.).

    PubMed

    Ayadi, M; Hammadi, M; Khorchani, T; Barmat, A; Atigui, M; Caja, G

    2009-04-01

    Effects of 4 different milking intervals (8, 12, 16, and 24 h) on milk yield and milk composition were studied in Tunisian Maghrebi dairy dromedaries (n = 6) at late lactation [240 +/- 14 days in milk (DIM), 5.84 +/- 1.62 L/d]. Camel-cows suckled their calves for 2 mo, were hand milked while suckling until mo 4 of lactation (calf weaning) and machine milked thereafter. Intravenous injection of oxytocin was administered before machine milking at each experimental milking to induce complete milk ejection and to avoid carryover effects of milking intervals. Cisternal and alveolar milk were measured at 380 +/- 16 DIM for a 24-h milking interval. Milk accumulated logarithmically (R(2) = 0.95) in the udder from 8- to 24-h milking interval without reaching a plateau. Consequently, milk secretion rate decreased exponentially (R(2) = 0.93) according to milking interval. Compared with 12-h milking interval (6.1 L/d), estimated daily milk yield was 113, 87, and 70% for 8-, 16-, and 24-h intervals, respectively. Total milk solids, milk fat content, and milk pH decreased with increasing milking interval, showing the greatest value at 8-h intervals (14.1 +/- 0.4%, 4.6 +/- 0.5%, and 6.66 +/- 0.05, respectively) and the lowest at 24-h intervals (12.3 +/- 0.9%, 2.9 +/- 0.6%, and 6.54 +/- 0.02, respectively). Milk protein (3.9 +/- 0.1%), lactose (4.5 +/- 0.2%), ash (0.84 +/- 0.01%) and density (1.028 +/- 0.01) remained constant for all milking intervals. Milk K, Ca, and Mg contents increased as milking interval increased, but Na content did not change (0.06 +/- 0.01%, on average). Milk Na:K ratio tended to decrease from 0.35 (1:2.9) to 0.22 (1:4.5) for the extreme milking intervals. Plasma lactose concentration steadied from 8- to 16-h (67 +/- 32 micromol) but increased dramatically at 24-h intervals (338 +/- 118 micromol), indicating that mammary tight junctions became permeable after 24 h of milk accumulation. Camel udders showed small cisterns (19.3% of total milk in the udder at

  14. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    PubMed

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants. PMID:23158513

  15. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Safety Modernization Act Food Safety and Raw Milk Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir RAW MILK ... THIS: Real Stories About the Dangers of Raw Milk “My daughter turned into a completely different person ...

  16. Effect of blending Jersey and Holstein-Friesian milk on Cheddar cheese processing, composition, and quality.

    PubMed

    Bland, J H; Grandison, A S; Fagan, C C

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Jersey milk use solely or at different inclusion rates in Holstein-Friesian milk on Cheddar cheese production was investigated. Cheese was produced every month over a year using nonstandardized milk consisting of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% Jersey milk in Holstein-Friesian milk in a 100-L vat. Actual, theoretical, and moisture-adjusted yield increased linearly with percentage of Jersey milk. This was also associated with increased fat and protein recoveries and lower yield of whey. The composition of whey was also affected by the percentage of Jersey milk, with lower whey protein and higher whey lactose and solids. Cutting time was lower when Jersey milk was used, but the cutting to milling time was higher because of slower acidity development. Hence, overall cheesemaking time was not affected by the use of Jersey milk. Using Jersey milk increased cheese fat content in autumn, winter, and spring and decreased cheese moisture in spring and summer. Cheese protein, salt, and pH levels were not affected. Cheese was analyzed for texture and color, and it was professionally graded at 3 and 8mo. The effect of Jersey on cheese sensory quality was an increase in cheese yellowness during summer and a higher total grading score at 3mo in winter; no other difference in cheese quality was found. The study indicates that using Jersey milk is a valid method of improving Cheddar cheese yield. PMID:25465548

  17. Role of endogenous enzymes in proteolysis of sheep milk.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; d'Angelo, F; Marino, R; Sevi, A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the role of milk endogenous proteolytic enzymes in sheep milk cheesemaking ability during lactation. Plasmin, plasminogen, and plasminogen activator in ewe bulk milk were not significantly affected by stage of lactation, probably because of the good health of the ewe udders throughout lactation as indicated by somatic cell count, which never exceeded 600,000 cells/mL. Elastase content increased significantly during lactation, whereas cathepsin showed the greatest content in mid lactation. Early and mid lactation milk showed impaired renneting parameter compared with late lactation milk, probably because of greater alpha-casein degradation, brought about by cathepsin, and lesser fat and casein (CN) milk contents. Changes in macrophage and neutrophil levels in ewe bulk milk during lactation were also investigated. Macrophages minimally contributed to leukocyte cell count in milk and had the greatest levels at the beginning of lactation. An opposite trend was recorded for polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leucocytes (PMNL) that increased throughout lactation, showing the greatest value in late lactation. Urea-PAGE of sodium caseinate (NaCN) incubated with isolated and concentrated PMNL at 37 degrees C after 48 h at pH 8 showed massive casein degradation that could be ascribed to proteases yielded by PMNL. The increase of PMNL percentage and elastase content in milk, despite the relatively low SCC, suggests that PMNL and elastase underwent a physiological increase associated to the remodeling of mammary gland in late lactation. PMID:19109265

  18. Udder characteristics and effects of pulsation rate on milking machine efficiency in donkeys.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Angela Gabriella; Mariano, Michele; Martemucci, Giovanni

    2015-02-01

    Very little is known about the udder characteristics, partitioning of milk in the mammary gland and efficiency of machine milking in donkeys. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of the udder and teats, milk yield in relation to pulsation rates (90, 120 and 150 cycles/min), milk partitioning in the mammary gland, composition of the spontaneously removed and residual milk fractions and milking efficiency. Forty-one healthy Martina Franca jennies in the third month of lactation and routinely milked twice daily were used in three studies. Udder characteristics were evaluated by direct measurements and ultrasonographic scanning. Residual milk was obtained by milking after an oxytocin administration (40 IU i.m.). The prevalent shapes were 'bowl' for udders and 'conical' for teats. After milking the udder characteristics decreased within a range from -11·6% (udder depth) to -25·7% (diameter of teat at the base). The internal structures of the udder resulted as several pockets of ducts empting directly into the teat. The pulsation rate of 120 cycles/min improved (P<0·05) the milk yield in comparison to the 90 and 150 cycles/min, reduced the residual milk fraction, thus improved (P<0·05) milking efficiency. Residual milk composition had higher (P<0·05) fat content and somatic cell count than the spontaneously removed milk fraction. The udders revealed several pockets of ducts empting into the teat instead of a single cisternal cavity and showed a certain compliance. The use of 120 cycles/min pulsation rate improved milking efficiency. PMID:25434360

  19. Effects of high concentrations of dietary crude glycerin on dairy cow productivity and milk quality.

    PubMed

    Ezequiel, J M B; Sancanari, J B D; Machado Neto, O R; da Silva, Z F; Almeida, M T C; Silva, D A V; van Cleef, F O S; van Cleef, E H C B

    2015-11-01

    An increasing worldwide interest in alternative fuel sources and in a more diversified energy matrix has provided incentives for the biodiesel industry, generating large amounts of the by-product crude glycerin, a potential alternative feed for dairy cows. A replicated 3×3 Latin square study was conducted to evaluate the effects of high concentrations of crude glycerin on dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid profile, and blood metabolites of medium-yield cows. Ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (n=6; 587 ± 39 kg of body weight; 114 ± 29 d in milk; and 20 ± 1.5 kg/d milk yield) were used in the study. The experimental period included 2 wk for adaptation and 1 wk for data collection. Cows were fed diets containing 0 (control), 15, or 30% crude glycerin (83% glycerol). Cows were milked, milk weights were recorded twice daily, and milk samples were collected for milk quality analyses at d 18 and 19 in each experimental period. Feeding cows with crude glycerin linearly decreased dry-matter intake, the 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and the solid-corrected milk yield. Hepatic enzymes were not affected by dietary treatments, except gamma-glutamyl transferase, which was decreased with the 15% crude glycerin diet. Serum glucose and albumin showed quadratic effect with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Plasma cholesterol as well as total protein linearly decreased with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Milk fat concentration and yield showed a quadratic effect of treatments. Solid yield decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Odd-chain fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat linearly increased with addition of crude glycerin in the diets. Together, these results suggest that crude glycerin has potential to replace corn; however, feeding diets in which corn is replaced with crude glycerin at 30% of dietary DM greatly reduces animal performance. PMID:26298757

  20. Effects of increasing milking frequency during the last 28 days of gestation on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy balance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rastani, R R; Del Rio, N Silva; Gressley, T F; Dahl, G E; Grummer, R R

    2007-04-01

    Forty-eight Holstein cows were used in a randomized block design to evaluate different dry period lengths and prepartum milking frequencies (MF) on subsequent milk production, milk composition, solids-corrected milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), and energy balance. Lactating cows, milked 2 times/d, began a 7-d covariate period 35 d prior to the expected calving date. Cows were milked 0 times/d (0x), 1 time/d (1x), and 4 times/d (4x) for the last 28 d of gestation. If milk production decreased to less than 0.5 kg/milking or 1 kg/d, milking via machine ceased; however, teat stimulation continued 1 or 4 times/d according to the treatment assignment. All cows were milked 2 times/d postpartum (wk 1 to 10). Prepartum DMI tended to be greater for 1x and 4x compared with 0x. Prepartum, cows milked 1x produced 17% less milk than cows milked 4x (5.9 and 7.1 kg/d, respectively). There were no differences in prepartum and postpartum body condition scores, body weights, and DMI. Postpartum milk production by cows following their third or greater gestation was greater for 0x and 4x compared with 1x. Postpartum milk production by cows following their second gestation was significantly decreased with increased MF (0x vs. 1x and 4x). Regardless of parity, postpartum solids-corrected milk was greater for 0x compared with 1x and 4x. Postpartum fat yield was greater for 0x vs. 4x, with 1x being intermediate. Postpartum protein yield was greater for 0x vs. 4x, whereas 0x tended to have greater protein yield than 1x. Postpartum energy balance was greater for 1x and 4x relative to 0x. Continuous milking (1x and 4x) resulted in a loss of milk production in the subsequent lactation for cows following their second gestation; however, for cows following their third or greater gestation, increasing the MF from 1x to 4x in the last 28 d of gestation alleviated the loss in milk production. PMID:17369213

  1. Effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat on milk production and energy partitioning.

    PubMed

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Lock, A L

    2015-10-01

    The effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat to provide a diet with similar net energy for lactation (NEL) density on yields of milk and milk components and on energy partitioning were evaluated in a crossover design experiment. Holstein cows (n = 32; 109 ± 22 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence. Treatments were a high-starch diet containing 33% corn grain (mixture of dry ground and high-moisture corn; HS) or a high-fiber, high-fat diet containing 2.5% palmitic acid-enriched fatty acid (FA) supplement (HFF). Diets contained corn silage, alfalfa silage, and wheat straw as forage sources; HS contained 32% starch, 3.2% FA, and 25% neutral detergent fiber, whereas HFF contained 16% starch, 5.4% FA, and 33% neutral detergent fiber. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced milk yield, milk protein concentration, and milk protein yield, but increased milk fat concentration, milk fat yield, milk energy output, and milk to feed ratio (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake). The HFF treatment reduced the yield of de novo synthesized (< 16-carbon) milk FA and increased the yield of 16-carbon milk FA. Yield of preformed (> 16-carbon) milk FA was not different. The HFF treatment increased plasma concentrations of triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids, but decreased plasma concentration of insulin. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced body weight gain, change in body condition score, and fat thickness over the rump and rib. Calculated body energy gain, as a fraction of NEL use, was less for HFF than HS, whereas milk energy as a fraction of NEL use was increased for HFF. We concluded that the 2 treatments resulted in similar apparent NEL densities and intakes, but the HS treatment partitioned more energy toward body gain whereas the HFF treatment partitioned more energy toward milk. A high-fiber, high-fat diet might diminish the incidence of over conditioning in mid-lactation cows while

  2. Factors affecting milk flow traits in dairy cows: results of a field study.

    PubMed

    Sandrucci, A; Tamburini, A; Bava, L; Zucali, M

    2007-03-01

    The study of milk flow curves provides useful information for enhancing milking efficiency and protecting udder health by adapting milking machine and milking procedures to the physiological requirements of the cow. The aim of this experiment was to investigate, using field data, the relationships among traits of the milk flow curves, their sources of variation, and milking performances in terms of milk production, machine-on time, and udder health. A total of 2,486 milk flow curves of the whole udder were collected in 82 Italian Holstein-Friesian dairy herds in the Lombardy region of Italy. Approximately one-third (35.1%) of milk flow curves were classified as bimodal. Most flow characteristics were influenced by lactation number, days in milk, and peak flow but also strongly affected by premilking operations. Proper udder preparation, including forestripping and predipping, resulted in better milking performances compared with poor preparation, with greater milk yield per milking, shorter milking time, and lesser bimodality. Premilking delay time, between the start of teat stimulation and cup attachment, affected milking time significantly: The shortest milking time was obtained for a range of delay time between 1 and 60 s. As the delay time increased, the percentage of bimodality dropped significantly. Increasing the number of clusters per operator led to greater percentages of bimodal curves. The greater somatic cell count of cows with bimodal curves supports the hypothesis of the negative effect of bimodality on udder health and indicates the importance of avoiding its occurrence using proper pre-milking procedures. PMID:17297090

  3. First description of milk flow traits in Tunisian dairy dromedary camels under an intensive farming system.

    PubMed

    Atigui, Moufida; Hammadi, Mohamed; Barmat, Ahmed; Farhat, Mohamed; Khorchani, Touhami; Marnet, Pierre-Guy

    2014-05-01

    In order to evaluate milking ability in dromedary camels, 124 milk flow curves were registered during morning milking of 20 dairy Maghrebi dromedary camels. Animals were in lactations 1-8, were 6-19 years old and were 4-15 months of their current lactation. Milk flow curves were recorded using an electronic milk flow meter (Lactocorder®). Milk flow curves were classified in three typical patterns: type 1 represents curves with one high and short peak of milk flow; type 2 represents curves with a moderate mean milk flow rate during a large plateau phase; and type 3 represents curves with lower mean milk flow rate and a relatively longer milking duration. The ratio of the different milk flow patterns in the population evaluated was 40:38:22% for types 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The highest milk yield per milking, average and peak milk flow were observed in camels with type 1 curves (4·24 kg, 1·49 and 3·54 kg/min, respectively) followed by type 2 animals (3·30 kg, 1·12 and 2·12 kg/min, respectively) and lastly type 3 curves (2·34 kg, 0·65 and 1·23 kg/min, respectively). This study confirmed that a major proportion of dromedary camels have a suitable machine milking ability. Nevertheless, our results suggest that pre-stimulation and improving the milking process may improve milking efficiency and guarantee a more complete and rapid emptying of the udder. PMID:24622212

  4. Milk metabolome relates enteric methane emission to milk synthesis and energy metabolism pathways.

    PubMed

    Antunes-Fernandes, E C; van Gastelen, S; Dijkstra, J; Hettinga, K A; Vervoort, J

    2016-08-01

    Methane (CH4) emission of dairy cows contributes significantly to the carbon footprint of the dairy chain; therefore, a better understanding of CH4 formation is urgently needed. The present study explored the milk metabolome by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (milk volatile metabolites) and nuclear magnetic resonance (milk nonvolatile metabolites) to better understand the biological pathways involved in CH4 emission in dairy cattle. Data were used from a randomized block design experiment with 32 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows and 4 diets. All diets had a roughage:concentrate ratio of 80:20 (dry matter basis) and the roughage was grass silage (GS), corn silage (CS), or a mixture of both (67% GS, 33% CS; 33% GS, 67% CS). Methane emission was measured in climate respiration chambers and expressed as CH4 yield (per unit of dry matter intake) and CH4 intensity (per unit of fat- and protein-corrected milk; FPCM). No volatile or nonvolatile metabolite was positively related to CH4 yield, and acetone (measured as a volatile and as a nonvolatile metabolite) was negatively related to CH4 yield. The volatile metabolites 1-heptanol-decanol, 3-nonanone, ethanol, and tetrahydrofuran were positively related to CH4 intensity. None of the volatile metabolites was negatively related to CH4 intensity. The nonvolatile metabolites acetoacetate, creatinine, ethanol, formate, methylmalonate, and N-acetylsugar A were positively related to CH4 intensity, and uridine diphosphate (UDP)-hexose B and citrate were negatively related to CH4 intensity. Several volatile and nonvolatile metabolites that were correlated with CH4 intensity also were correlated with FPCM and not significantly related to CH4 intensity anymore when FPCM was included as covariate. This suggests that changes in these milk metabolites may be related to changes in milk yield or metabolic processes involved in milk synthesis. The UDP-hexose B was correlated with FPCM, whereas citrate was not. Both metabolites were

  5. Jennet milk production during the lactation in a Sicilian farming system.

    PubMed

    Giosuè, C; Alabiso, M; Russo, G; Alicata, M L; Torrisi, C

    2008-10-01

    In Italy, the interest for jennet milk production has recently developed. An 18-month-long experiment was carried out on a jennet farm near Milo (CT), where 24 jennets, which derived from the Ragusana breed, were tested for milk yield and composition over an entire lactation period. The jennets were fed with hay and concentrate in a large paddock. From the 28th post-foaling day to the end of the lactation, the jennets were machine-milked twice a day with an in-between milking interval of 5 h. The milk amount from each jennet was recorded every 3 weeks and individual samples were collected and analyzed for fat, protein, casein, non-proteic nitrogen, lactose and somatic cell count. This study showed that jennets at Sicilian latitudes are not seasonal polyestrous. The daily milk yield, the length of lactation and the milk characteristics varied depending on the foaling season. The total average milk production was 490 ± 36 kg in 295 ± 12 post-foaling days, considering two milking records per day. During the lactation, milk yield decreased constantly from 1.98 to 1.28 kg/jennet per day. When looking at the jennet milk quality during lactation, the percentage of fat and protein decreased, while the lactose percentage increased, according to a tendency apparently unique for equines when compared to the ruminants. When looking at the productive season, spring generally gave the best qualitative and quantitative results. Based on these results, jennet milk yield and quality could be improved; furthermore, jennet milk production may turn out to be a profitable business. PMID:22443907

  6. Milking behaviour of buffalo cows: entrance order and side preference in the milking parlour.

    PubMed

    Polikarpus, Annemari; Grasso, Fernando; Pacelli, Corrado; Napolitano, Fabio; De Rosa, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    On two farms, three milking groups of buffalo cows were used to assess the consistency of entrance order and the preference for one side of the milking parlour. On Farm 1 (F1) all animals were primiparous (n=57). On Farm 2, three primiparous, 16 secondiparous and 36 multiparous cows (range 1-8) constituted group F2G1; whereas group F2G2 had 12 primiparous, 10 secondiparous and 14 multiparous cows (range 1-10). Animals were milked in auto-tandem milking parlours (2×5 and 2×6 for Farms 1 and 2, respectively). For each cow, entrance order into milking parlour, side where she was milked, milk yield, time and duration of milking were recorded. These data were derived from the computerised identification of cows. The sequence in which the cows entered the milking parlour ranged from 1 to 57 for group F1, from 1 to 55 for group F2G1 and from 1 to 36 for group F2G2. The analysis of data was conducted on 130, 120 and 92 consecutive milkings for groups F1, F2G1 and F2G2, respectively. Kendall's coefficients of concordance showed a strong constancy of the entrance order into milking parlour for groups F1 (W=0·658; χ2=4792·81; P<0·001), F2G1 (W=0·779; χ2=5046·81; P<0·001) and F2G2 (W=0·624; χ2=2030·48; P<0·001). Spearman rank correlation coefficients indicated that the more productive cows in groups F1 and F2G1 tended to enter the milking parlour first (r s=-0·221 and r s=-0·215; P<0·10; respectively). In group F2G1, a negative correlation was found between duration of milking and order of entry in the milking parlour (r s=-0·265; P<0·05). Animals in group F2G2 (r s=0·334; P<0·05) with higher days in milk entered the milking parlour latterly. In all three groups, 68 cows (45·9%) preferred the right side of the milking parlour, 73 the left side (49·3%) and the remaining seven (4·8%) showed no preference. Finally, negative correlations were found between mean entrance order and parity for both groups of Farm 2 (r s=-0·319; P<0·05 and r s=-0·325; P<0

  7. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  8. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  9. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  10. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  11. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  12. Changes throughout lactation in phenotypic and genetic correlations between methane emissions and milk fatty acid contents predicted from milk mid-infrared spectra.

    PubMed

    Vanrobays, M-L; Bastin, C; Vandenplas, J; Hammami, H; Soyeurt, H; Vanlierde, A; Dehareng, F; Froidmont, E; Gengler, N

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate phenotypic and genetic correlations between methane production (Mp) and milk fatty acid contents of first-parity Walloon Holstein cows throughout lactation. Calibration equations predicting daily Mp (g/d) and milk fatty acid contents (g/100 dL of milk) were applied on milk mid-infrared spectra related to Walloon milk recording. A total of 241,236 predictions of Mp and milk fatty acids were used. These data were collected between 5 and 305 d in milk in 33,555 first-parity Holstein cows from 626 herds. Pedigree data included 109,975 animals. Bivariate (i.e., Mp and a fatty acid trait) random regression test-day models were developed to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters of Mp and milk fatty acids. Individual short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and groups of saturated fatty acids, SCFA, and medium-chain fatty acids showed positive phenotypic and genetic correlations with Mp (from 0.10 to 0.16 and from 0.23 to 0.30 for phenotypic and genetic correlations, respectively), whereas individual long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), and groups of LCFA, monounsaturated fatty acids, and unsaturated fatty acids showed null to positive phenotypic and genetic correlations with Mp (from -0.03 to 0.13 and from -0.02 to 0.32 for phenotypic and genetic correlations, respectively). However, these correlations changed throughout lactation. First, de novo individual and group fatty acids (i.e., C4:0, C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, SCFA group) showed low phenotypic or genetic correlations (or both) in early lactation and higher at the end of lactation. In contrast, phenotypic and genetic correlations between Mp and C16:0, which could be de novo synthetized or derived from blood lipids, were more stable during lactation. This fatty acid is the most abundant fatty acid of the saturated fatty acid and medium-chain fatty acid groups of which correlations with Mp showed the same pattern across lactation. Phenotypic and genetic correlations between Mp and C17

  13. Nutritive value of maize silage in relation to dairy cow performance and milk quality.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nazir A; Yu, Peiqiang; Ali, Mubarak; Cone, John W; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2015-01-01

    Maize silage has become the major forage component in the ration of dairy cows over the last few decades. This review provides information on the mean content and variability in chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) profile and ensiling quality of maize silages, and discusses the major factors which cause these variations. In addition, the effect of the broad range in chemical composition of maize silages on the total tract digestibility of dietary nutrients, milk production and milk composition of dairy cows is quantified and discussed. Finally, the optimum inclusion level of maize silage in the ration of dairy cows for milk production and composition is reviewed. The data showed that the nutritive value of maize silages is highly variable and that most of this variation is caused by large differences in maturity at harvest. Maize silages ensiled at a very early stage (dry matter (DM) < 250 g kg(-1)) were particularly low in starch content and starch/neutral detergent fibre (NDF) ratio, and resulted in a lower DM intake (DMI), milk yield and milk protein content. The DMI, milk yield and milk protein content increased with advancing maturity, reaching an optimum level for maize silages ensiled at DM contents of 300-350 g kg(-1), and then declined slightly at further maturity beyond 350 g kg(-1). The increases in milk (R(2) = 0.599) and protein (R(2) = 0.605) yields with maturity of maize silages were positively related to the increase in starch/NDF ratio of the maize silages. On average, the inclusion of maize silage in grass silage-based diets improved the forage DMI by 2 kg d(-1), milk yield by 1.9 kg d(-1) and milk protein content by 1.2 g kg(-1). Further comparisons showed that, in terms of milk and milk constituent yields, the optimum grass/maize silage ratio depends on the quality of both the grass and maize silages. Replacement of grass silage with maize silage in the ration, as well as an increasing maturity of the maize silages, altered the milk FA profile

  14. Cortisol in mother’s milk across lactation reflects maternal life history and predicts infant temperament

    PubMed Central

    Skibiel, Amy L.; Foster, Alison B.; Del Rosso, Laura; Mendoza, Sally P.; Capitanio, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The maternal environment exerts important influences on offspring mass/growth, metabolism, reproduction, neurobiology, immune function, and behavior among birds, insects, reptiles, fish, and mammals. For mammals, mother’s milk is an important physiological pathway for nutrient transfer and glucocorticoid signaling that potentially influences offspring growth and behavioral phenotype. Glucocorticoids in mother’s milk have been associated with offspring behavioral phenotype in several mammals, but studies have been handicapped by not simultaneously evaluating milk energy density and yield. This is problematic as milk glucocorticoids and nutrients likely have simultaneous effects on offspring phenotype. We investigated mother’s milk and infant temperament and growth in a cohort of rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) mother–infant dyads at the California National Primate Research Center (N = 108). Glucocorticoids in mother’s milk, independent of available milk energy, predicted a more Nervous, less Confident temperament in both sons and daughters. We additionally found sex differences in the windows of sensitivity and the magnitude of sensitivity to maternal-origin glucocorticoids. Lower parity mothers produced milk with higher cortisol concentrations. Lastly, higher cortisol concentrations in milk were associated with greater infant weight gain across time. Taken together, these results suggest that mothers with fewer somatic resources, even in captivity, may be “programming” through cortisol signaling, behaviorally cautious offspring that prioritize growth. Glucocorticoids ingested through milk may importantly contribute to the assimilation of available milk energy, development of temperament, and orchestrate, in part, the allocation of maternal milk energy between growth and behavioral phenotype. PMID:25713475

  15. DoMINO: Donor milk for improved neurodevelopmental outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Provision of mother’s own milk is the optimal way to feed infants, including very low birth weight infants (VLBW, <1500 g). Importantly for VLBW infants, who are at elevated risk of neurologic sequelae, mother’s own milk has been shown to enhance neurocognitive development. Unfortunately, the majority of mothers of VLBW infants are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk and thus supplementation with formula or donor milk is necessary. Given the association between mother’s own milk and neurodevelopment, it is important to ascertain whether provision of human donor milk as a supplement may yield superior neurodevelopmental outcomes compared to formula. Our primary hypothesis is that VLBW infants fed pasteurized donor milk compared to preterm formula as a supplement to mother’s own milk for 90 days or until hospital discharge, whichever comes first, will have an improved cognitive outcome as measured at 18 months corrected age on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd ed. Secondary hypotheses are that the use of pasteurized donor milk will: (1) reduce a composite of death and serious morbidity; (2) support growth; and (3) improve language and motor development. Exploratory research questions include: Will use of pasteurized donor milk: (1) influence feeding tolerance and nutrient intake (2) have an acceptable cost effectiveness from a comprehensive societal perspective? Methods/Design DoMINO is a multi-centre, intent-to-treat, double blinded, randomized control trial. VLBW infants (n = 363) were randomized within four days of birth to either (1) pasteurized donor milk or (2) preterm formula whenever mother’s own milk was unavailable. Study recruitment began in October 2010 and was completed in December 2012. The 90 day feeding intervention is complete and long-term follow-up is underway. Discussion Preterm birth and its complications are a leading cause long-term morbidity among Canadian children. Strategies to mitigate this

  16. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... your baby only breast milk or iron-fortified formula during the first 12 months of life, not ... baby's diet. If breastfeeding is not possible, infant formulas provide a healthy diet for your infant. Whether ...

  17. Breast milk jaundice

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor before deciding to give your newborn formula. It is best to keep breastfeeding. Babies need their mothers' milk. Although a baby full of formula can be less demanding, formula feeding may cause ...

  18. Milk Thistle (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... thistle can be used to treat cancer. A randomized clinical trial in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia ... children who did not take milk thistle. A randomized clinical trial in men who had surgery to ...

  19. Adaptations of mammary uptake and nutrient use to once-daily milking and feed restriction in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Guinard-Flament, J; Delamaire, E; Lamberton, P; Peyraud, J L

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a clearer understanding of the different levels of regulation involved in the reduction in milk yield in response to once-daily milking and feed restriction. The treatments were designed as a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of 2 milking frequencies (once- or twice-daily milking) and 2 feeding levels (70 or 98% of requirements determined 1 wk before the trial). The cows were surgically prepared to study the net mammary balance of the nutrients that are precursors of milk components. Mammary efficiency in synthesizing milk components was estimated using a milk output:mammary uptake ratio. No interaction was observed between the effects of milking frequency and feeding level on milk and blood parameters except for milk protein yield, milk fatty acid profile, and nonesterified fatty acids metabolism. Once-daily milking and feed restriction reduced milk yield by 5.1 and 2.9 kg/d and fat-corrected milk yield by 4.2 and 4.1 kg/d, respectively. Both treatments induced a decrease in mammary blood flow. Once-daily milking led to a reduction in the extraction rate of glucose but no changes to the lactose output:glucose uptake ratio. Feed restriction did not change the glucose extraction rate but tended to improve the lactose output:glucose uptake ratio. Under once-daily milking, the slight increase in milk fat content (0.34 percentage units) was linked to a depressed uptake of glucose and acetate but without any variations in the uptake of beta-hydroxybutyrate and total glycerol and in the efficiency of acetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate conversion to short- and medium-chain fatty acids in milk. The decline in milk fat and protein contents (-0.43 and -0.23 percentage units, respectively) under feed restriction was associated with relatively similar reductions in the mammary uptake of all nutrients and with enhanced conversion of the glucose taken up by the mammary gland and used for lactose synthesis. As a result, once-daily milking and feed

  20. Human Milk Fortification.

    PubMed

    Simmer, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is the feed of choice for preterm infants. However, human milk does not provide enough nutrition, especially protein, for preterm infants to achieve target growth rates similar to those in utero (15-20 g/kg per day). Fortifiers for human milk, manufactured from bovine milk, are commercially available and routinely used for patients born <32 weeks' gestation prior to discharge home. Recent recommended dietary intakes (RDI) have been revised. Up to 4.2 g of protein and 135 kcal/kg per day is recommended for infants born very preterm. Additional supplements are needed to current commercial fortifiers to achieve these RDI and reduce the incidence of ex-uterine growth failure. A human milk fortifier that is manufactured from donor human milk is available in some developed countries and may confer some clinical benefits, including a reduction in necrotizing enterocolitis. Fortification can be added in a standardized protocol as per manufacturers' instructions. Human milk composition can be analyzed and fortification individualized to take into account the large variation from mother to mother. Alternatively, fortification can be increased in a stepwise manner based on assumed composition while monitoring blood urea levels for safety. The current aim is to prevent preterm infants dropping percentiles and falling below the 10th percentile at 36 weeks' corrected gestational age or discharge home. More data are required on how best to fortify human milk for preterm infants to achieve optimal growth, development and health outcomes in the long term. There is an urgent need for well-designed and informed randomized clinical trials in this vulnerable preterm population. PMID:26111568

  1. Milk Bottom-Up Proteomics: Method Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Delphine; Ezernieks, Vilnis; Elkins, Aaron; Nguyen, Nga; Moate, Peter J.; Cocks, Benjamin G.; Rochfort, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Milk is a complex fluid whose proteome displays a diverse set of proteins of high abundance such as caseins and medium to low abundance whey proteins such as ß-lactoglobulin, lactoferrin, immunoglobulins, glycoproteins, peptide hormones, and enzymes. A sample preparation method that enables high reproducibility and throughput is key in reliably identifying proteins present or proteins responding to conditions such as a diet, health or genetics. Using skim milk samples from Jersey and Holstein-Friesian cows, we compared three extraction procedures which have not previously been applied to samples of cows' milk. Method A (urea) involved a simple dilution of the milk in a urea-based buffer, method B (TCA/acetone) involved a trichloroacetic acid (TCA)/acetone precipitation, and method C (methanol/chloroform) involved a tri-phasic partition method in chloroform/methanol solution. Protein assays, SDS-PAGE profiling, and trypsin digestion followed by nanoHPLC-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) analyses were performed to assess their efficiency. Replicates were used at each analytical step (extraction, digestion, injection) to assess reproducibility. Mass spectrometry (MS) data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002529. Overall 186 unique accessions, major and minor proteins, were identified with a combination of methods. Method C (methanol/chloroform) yielded the best resolved SDS-patterns and highest protein recovery rates, method A (urea) yielded the greatest number of accessions, and, of the three procedures, method B (TCA/acetone) was the least compatible of all with a wide range of downstream analytical procedures. Our results also highlighted breed differences between the proteins in milk of Jersey and Holstein-Friesian cows. PMID:26793233

  2. Protein composition affects variation in coagulation properties of buffalo milk.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Gervaso, M; Rostellato, R; Coletta, A; Carnier, P

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects exerted by the content of casein and whey protein fractions on variation of pH, rennet-coagulation time (RCT), curd-firming time (K20), and curd firmness of Mediterranean buffalo individual milk. Measures of milk protein composition and assessment of genotypes at CSN1S1 and CSN3 were obtained by reversed-phase HPLC analysis of 621 individual milk samples. Increased content of αS1-casein (CN) was associated with delayed coagulation onset and increased K20, whereas average pH, RCT, and K20 decreased when β-CN content increased. Milk with low κ-CN content exhibited low pH and RCT relative to milk with high content of κ-CN. Increased content of glycosylated κ-CN was associated with unfavorable effects on RCT. Effects of milk protein composition on curd firmness were less important than those on pH, RCT, and K20. Likely, this occurred as a consequence of the very short RCT of buffalo milk, which guaranteed a complete strengthening of the curd even in the restricted 31 min time of analysis of coagulation properties and for samples initially showing soft curds. Effects of CSN1S1-CSN3 genotypes on coagulation properties were not to be entirely ascribed to existing variation in milk protein composition associated with polymorphisms at CSN1S1 and CSN3 genes. Although the role of detailed milk protein composition in variation of cheese yield needs to be further investigated, findings of this study suggest that modification of the relative content of specific CN fractions can relevantly influence the behavior of buffalo milk during processing. PMID:23684020

  3. Sources of Clostridia in Raw Milk on Farms▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Julien, Marie-Claude; Dion, Patrice; Lafrenière, Carole; Antoun, Hani; Drouin, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    A PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method was used to examine on-farm sources of Clostridium cluster I strains in four dairy farms over 2 years. Conventional microbiological analysis was used in parallel to monitor size of clostridial populations present in various components of the milk production chain (soil, forage, grass silage, maize silage, dry hay, and raw milk). PCR amplification with Clostridium cluster I-specific 16S rRNA gene primers followed by DGGE separation yielded a total of 47 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which varied greatly with respect to frequency of occurrence. Some OTUs were found only in forage, and forage profiles differed according to farm location (southern or northern Québec). More clostridial contamination was found in maize silage than in grass silage. Milk represented a potential environment for certain OTUs. No OTU was milk specific, indicating that OTUs originated from other environments. Most (83%) of the OTUs detected in raw milk were also found in grass or maize silage. Milk DGGE profiles differed according to farm and sampling year and fit into two distinct categories. One milk profile category was characterized by the presence of a few dominant OTUs, the presence of which appeared to be more related to farm management than to feed contamination. OTUs were more varied in the second profile category. The identities of certain OTUs frequently found in milk were resolved by cloning and sequencing. Clostridium disporicum was identified as an important member of clostridial populations transmitted to milk. Clostridium tyrobutyricum was consistently found in milk and was widespread in the other farm environments examined. PMID:18757576

  4. Precalving and early lactation factors that predict milk casein and fertility in the transition dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Rodney, Rachael M; Hall, Jenianne K; Westwood, Charlotte T; Celi, Pietro; Lean, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows (n=82) of either high or low genetic merit (GM) (for milk fat + protein yield) were allocated to 1 of 2 diets in a 2×2 factorial design. Diets differed in the ratio of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) to rumen-degradable protein (37% RUP vs. 15% RUP) and were fed from 21 d precalving to 150 days in milk. This study evaluated the effects of these diets and GM on concentrations of milk casein (CN) variants and aimed to identify precalving and early lactation variables that predict milk CN and protein yield and composition and fertility of dairy cows. It explored the hypothesis that low milk protein content is associated with lower fertility and extended this hypothesis to also evaluate the association of CN contents with fertility. Yields (kg/d) for CN variants were 0.49 and 0.45 of α-CN, 0.38 and 0.34 of β-CN, 0.07 and 0.06 for κ-CN, and 0.10 and 0.09 of γ-CN for high- and low-RUP diets, respectively. Increased RUP increased milk, CN, and milk protein yields. Increased GM increased milk protein and γ-CN yields and tended to increase milk CN yield. The effects of indicator variables on CN variant yields and concentrations were largely consistent, with higher body weight and α-amino nitrogen resulting in higher yields, but lower concentrations. An increase in cholesterol was associated with decreased CN variant concentrations, and disease lowered CN variant yield. A diet high in RUP increased proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy from 41 to 58%. Increased precalving metabolizable protein (MP) balance decreased the proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy when evaluated in a model containing CN percentage, milk protein yield, diet, and GM. This finding suggests that the positive effects of increasing dietary RUP on fertility may be curvilinear because cows with a very positive MP balance before calving were less fertile than those with a lower, but positive, MP balance. Prepartum MP balance was important

  5. Effect of feeding rolled flaxseed on milk fatty acid profiles and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bork, N R; Schroeder, J W; Lardy, G P; Vonnahme, K A; Bauer, M L; Buchanan, D S; Shaver, R D; Fricke, P M

    2010-11-01

    The objectives were to study the effects of feeding rolled flaxseed (FLX) to early-lactation dairy cows on milk yield, milk components, and milk fatty acid profiles as well as on measures of cow reproduction. Lactating Holstein cows, on 3 commercial dairies, were fed either an early-lactation ration (CON) or a ration that was similar in protein, energy, and fat content but that included FLX (0.85 kg of DM/cow per day). Within each dairy, cows were allocated alternately to breeding pens upon leaving the fresh pen (approximately 10 ± 5 d postpartum). Pens (n = 4 to 5 pens/dairy) were randomized to treatment (n = 2 to 3 pens/treatment per dairy). Pen (CON, n = 6; FLX, n = 7) was considered the experimental unit and data were analyzed as a split plot with pen as the whole-plot error term. Cows fed FLX had greater (P ≤ 0.06) proportions of cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, C18:3n-3, and C20:0 fatty acids in milk fat and a lesser (P = 0.03) proportion of C20:3n-6 fatty acid when compared with cows fed the CON diet. Treatment did not affect (P ≥ 0.24) milk yield, milk protein, protein yield, milk fat, or milk fat yield. No interactions (P ≥ 0.52) were found between treatment and season of the year or parity, or between treatment and days open, pregnancies per AI at first or second service, or pregnancy loss. In conclusion, feeding FLX at 0.85 kg/cow per day (DM basis) altered the fatty acid profile of milk, but milk yield, milk composition, and reproductive performance of dairy cows were not affected. PMID:20622184

  6. Milk fat triacylglycerols and their relations with milk fatty acid composition, DGAT1 K232A polymorphism, and milk production traits.

    PubMed

    Tzompa-Sosa, D A; van Valenberg, H J F; van Aken, G A; Bovenhuis, H

    2016-05-01

    Milk fat (MF) triacylglycerols (TAG) determine the physical and functional properties of butter and products rich in MF. To predict these properties, it is necessary to understand the variability of fatty acids, TAG, their associations, and their effect on milk productive traits, days in milk (DIM), and genes related to fat synthesis. Therefore, the aim of this research was to study the variability of TAG using MF from individual cows and to investigate the effect of fatty acid composition, DGAT1 K232A polymorphism, DIM, and milk production traits (fat content and morning milk yield) on MF TAG profile in the Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle population. Large differences in MF TAG profiles were seen among cows. We showed that the variability of TAG is highest for low and high molecular weight TAG [TAG with carbon numbers (Cn) 26-30 and Cn52-54, respectively] and lowest for TAG with Cn38, which was the most abundant TAG. Saturation index (saturated fatty acid/unsaturated fatty acid) and the ratio C16:0/C18:1 cis-9 showed significant effects on TAG Cn34, Cn36, Cn52, and Cn54: TAG Cn34 and Cn36 increased as the saturation index and ratio C16:0/C18:1 cis-9 increased, whereas the opposite was seen for TAG Cn52 and Cn54. Moreover, the DGAT1 K232A polymorphism significantly affected TAG Cn38. We showed that the relative concentration of TAG with Cn38 was higher in cows with DGAT1 KK genotype. Production traits (fat content and morning milk yield) and DIM had no significant effect on TAG profile. This is a relevant observation because considerable increases of milk yield and fat content have been seen in the Netherlands over the last 60 yr. The large differences shown between individual cows in MF TAG profile imply differences in physical properties of MF. PMID:26971154

  7. Milk-borne campylobacter infection.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, D A; Jones, D M

    1981-01-01

    The common factor in 13 recent outbreaks of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis was the consumption of unpasteurised or incompletely pasteurised milk. C jejuni is a common commensal in the alimentary tract of milking cows, but it is not clear how the milk becomes contaminated with the organism. Pasteurisation will readily eliminate the organism from milk. In England and Wales 3% of milk retailed is still unpasteurised, and in the light of these findings it is suggested that only pasteurised milk should be sold to the public. PMID:6786504

  8. Dietary molasses increases ruminal pH and enhances ruminal biohydrogenation during milk fat depression.

    PubMed

    Martel, C A; Titgemeyer, E C; Mamedova, L K; Bradford, B J

    2011-08-01

    Feeding high-concentrate diets has the potential to cause milk fat depression, but several studies have suggested that dietary sugar can increase milk fat yield. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the ability of dietary molasses to prevent milk fat depression in the presence of a 65% concentrate diet. In trial 1, molasses replaced corn grain at 0, 2.5, or 5% of diet dry matter in diets fed to 12 second-lactation Holstein cows (134±37 d in milk) in a 3×3 Latin square design. Trial 1 demonstrated that replacing up to 5% of dietary dry matter from corn with molasses had positive effects on de novo fatty acid synthesis, increasing the yield of short- and medium-chain fatty acids during diet-induced milk fat depression. Increasing inclusion rate of molasses increased milk fat concentration, but decreased milk yield and milk protein yield. Trial 2 used 7 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, late-lactation Holstein cows (220±18 d in milk) to evaluate effects of dietary molasses on ruminal parameters and milk composition, and also to assess whether increased metabolizable protein supply would alter these responses. Cows were randomly assigned to a dietary treatment sequence in a crossover split plot design with 0 and 5% molasses diets. Dietary treatments were fed for 28 d, with 16 d for diet adaptation, and the final 12 d for 2 abomasal infusion periods in a crossover arrangement. Abomasal infusions of water or AA (5 g of l-Met/d+15 g of l-Lys-HCl/d+5 g of l-His-HCl-H(2)O/d) were administered 3 times daily for 5 d, with 2 d between infusion periods. Administration of AA had no effect on concentration or yield of any milk components. Addition of molasses increased milk fat concentration (2.71 vs. 2.94±0.21%), but had no effect on yields of milk fat or protein. Dietary molasses decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration (141 vs. 133±4.6mM), decreased the molar proportion of propionate, and increased the molar proportion of butyrate in ruminal fluid

  9. Milk Enhancements Improve Milk Consumption and Increase Meal Participation in the NSLP: The School Milk Pilot Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Karen; Zipay, Diane; Patey, Camellia; Meyer, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objective of the School Milk Pilot Test and the Westside School Milk Pilot Study was to test the effect of a milk enhancement initiative to make milk more appealing and attractive to elementary and secondary school students and to improve milk consumption. Methods: 146 schools participated in the national School Milk Pilot…

  10. Camel milk is a safer choice than goat milk for feeding children with cow milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Ehlayel, Mohammad; Bener, Abdulbari; Abu Hazeima, Khalid; Al-Mesaifri, Fatima

    2011-01-01

    Background. Various sources of mammalian milk have been tried in CMA. Objectives. To determine whether camel milk is safer than goat milk in CMA. Methods. Prospective study conducted at Hamad Medical Corporation between April 2007 and April 2010, on children with CMA. Each child had medical examination, CBC, total IgE, cow milk-specific IgE and SPT. CMA children were tested against fresh camel and goat milks. Results. Of 38 children (median age 21.5 months), 21 (55.3%) presented with urticaria, 17 (39.5%) atopic dermatitis, 10 (26.3%) anaphylaxis. WBC was 10, 039 ± 4, 735 cells/μL, eosinophil 1, 143 ± 2, 213 cells/μL, IgE 694 ± 921 IU/mL, cow's milk-specific-IgE 23.5 ± 35.6 KU/L. Only 7 children (18.4%) tested positive to camel milk and 24 (63.2%) to goat milk. 6 (15.8%) were positive to camel, goat, and cow milks. Patients with negative SPT tolerated well camel and goat milks. Conclusions. In CMA, SPT indicates low cross-reactivity between camel milk and cow milk, and camel milk is a safer alternative than goat milk. PMID:23724227

  11. Effect of somatic cell count and mastitis pathogens on milk composition in Gyr cows

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gyr cows are well adapted to tropical conditions, resistant to some tropical diseases and have satisfactory milk production. However, Gyr dairy herds have a high prevalence of subclinical mastitis, which negatively affects their milk yield and composition. The objectives of this study were (i) to evaluate the effects of seasonality, mammary quarter location (rear x front), mastitis-causing pathogen species, and somatic cell count (SCC) on milk composition in Gyr cows with mammary quarters as the experimental units and (ii) to evaluate the effects of seasonality and somatic cell count (SCC) on milk composition in Gyr cows with cows as the experimental units. A total of 221 lactating Gyr cows from three commercial dairy farms were selected for this study. Individual foremilk quarter samples and composite milk samples were collected once a month over one year from all lactating cows for analysis of SCC, milk composition, and bacteriological culture. Results Subclinical mastitis reduced lactose, nonfat solids and total solids content, but no difference was found in the protein and fat content between infected and uninfected quarters. Seasonality influenced milk composition both in mammary quarters and composite milk samples. Nevertheless, there was no effect of mammary quarter position on milk composition. Mastitis-causing pathogens affected protein, lactose, nonfat solids, and total solids content, but not milk fat content. Somatic cell count levels affected milk composition in both mammary quarters and composite samples of milk. Conclusions Intramammary infections in Gyr cows alter milk composition; however, the degree of change depends on the mastitis-causing pathogen. Somatic cell count is negatively associated with reduced lactose and nonfat solids content in milk. Seasonality significantly affects milk composition, in which the concentration of lactose, fat, protein, nonfat solids and total solids differs between dry and wet seasons in Gyr cows. PMID

  12. How to reintroduce cow's milk?

    PubMed

    Dupont, Christophe

    2013-11-01

    In a child that is allergic to milk, the natural next step, following the elimination diet, is the reintroduction of cow's milk. Several questions may arise. When feasible, this reintroduction has many benefits for the child and his family. However, the disease needs to be well defined by physicians and explained to parents. They need to understand that there are different types of allergy to cow's milk, specifically IgE- and non-IgE-mediated, and each of these may exhibit both a variable duration and frequently an incomplete recovery. Deciding where to first reintroduce cow's milk to a child who has previously followed a milk-free diet, whether it be at home or in a hospital, also frequently presents an issue. Following this first reintroduction, the progressive increase of milk into the diet needs to be managed properly, as not all children will go back to a normal dairy products intake. Recent studies show that most children with milk allergy tolerate products containing baked milk and that their consumption might speed up recovery. Hence, the purpose of the milk challenge in a child on a milk-free diet is becoming, even in a child still reactive to milk, the first step of gradual and individually adapted reintroduction of milk or dairy products. When reintroduction of cow's milk does not work, immunotherapy becomes an option, and this is carried out in specialized centers. PMID:24112424

  13. Prediction of preweaning ADG in beef calves from milk fatty acid methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown milk yield (MWT) has an important influence on calf preweaning ADG (PRWADG), but MWT accounts for only a moderate amount of variation in PRWADG. The objective of this study was to determine if milk fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), alone and in combination with MWT, could improve a...

  14. TEMPERATURE-HUMIDITY INDICES AS INDICATORS OF MILK PRODUCTION LOSSES DUE TO HEAT STRESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meteorological data (1993 to 2004) from two public weather stations in Phoenix, AZ and Athens, GA were analyzed with test day milk yield data from herds nearby the weather stations to identify the most appropriate temperature humidity index (THI) to measure losses in milk production due to heat stre...

  15. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  16. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  17. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  18. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  19. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  20. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  1. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  2. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  3. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  4. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  5. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  6. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  7. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  8. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  9. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  10. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  11. 21 CFR 131.130 - Evaporated milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaporated milk. 131.130 Section 131.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.130 Evaporated milk. (a) Description. Evaporated milk is the liquid food obtained by partial removal of water only from milk....

  12. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  13. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  14. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  15. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  16. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  17. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  18. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  19. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  20. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  1. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  2. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  3. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  4. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  5. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  6. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  7. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  8. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  9. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  10. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  11. Milk and Soy Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Kattan, Jacob D.; Cocco, Renata R.; Järvinen, Kirsi M.

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) affects 2% to 3% of young children and presents with a wide range of immunoglobulin E (IgE-) and non-IgE-mediated clinical syndromes, which have a significant economic and lifestyle impact. Definitive diagnosis is based on a supervised oral food challenge (OFC), but convincing clinical history, skin prick testing, and measurement of cow’s milk (CM)-specific IgE can aid in the diagnosis of IgE-mediated CMA and occasionally eliminate the need for OFCs. It is logical that a review of CMA would be linked to a review of soy allergy, as soy formula is often an alternative source of nutrition for infants who do not tolerate cow’s milk. The close resemblance between the proteins from soy and other related plants like peanut, and the resulting cross-reactivity and lack of predictive values for clinical reactivity, often make the diagnosis of soy allergy far more challenging. This review examines the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, natural history and diagnosis of cow’s milk and soy allergy. Cross-reactivity and management of milk allergy are also discussed. PMID:21453810

  12. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of Minas fresh cheese made with goat milk, cow milk, or a mixture of both.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, A M S; Bezerril, F F; Madruga, M S; Batista, A S M; Magnani, M; Souza, E L; Queiroga, R C R E

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess and compare the nutritional, technological, and sensory characteristics of Minas fresh cheese made with goat milk, cow milk, or a mixture of the two stored in cold conditions for 21d. The yield and centesimal composition of the cheeses were not affected by the type of milk used in their preparation. Reductions were observed in the moisture content, pH, proteolysis index, and instrumental hardness; moreover, increases were observed in the syneresis, acidity index, and depth of proteolysis index in all cheeses. The percentages of caprylic, capric, oleic, and linoleic fatty acids were higher in goat milk cheese and cheese made with a mixture of goat and cow milk compared with cow milk cheese, and a sensory evaluation revealed differences in color, flavor, and aroma between the cheeses. The preparation of Minas fresh cheese with a mixture of goat and cow milk can be a viable alternative for dairy products in the market that can be characterized as high-quality products that meet consumer demands. PMID:24140324

  13. Formation of volatile compounds in kefir made of goat and sheep milk with high polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Cais-Sokolińska, D; Wójtowski, J; Pikul, J; Danków, R; Majcher, M; Teichert, J; Bagnicka, E

    2015-10-01

    This article explored the formation of volatile compounds during the production of kefir from goat and sheep milks with high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as a result of feeding animals forage supplemented with maize dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The increased PUFA content of the goat and sheep milks resulted in significant changes to the fermentation process. In particular, apart from an increase in the time taken to ferment sheep milk, fermentation yielded less 2,3-butanedione. The highest quantities of this compound were assayed in kefir produced from goat milk with an increased content of PUFA. An increase of PUFA significantly elevated ethanal synthesis during lactose-alcohol fermentation of sheep milk. Neither the origin of milk (sheep or goat) nor the level of PUFA had any statistical effect on the amount of ethanal assayed during the fermentation of milk and within the finished product. The proportion of l(+)-lactic acid was higher in kefirs produced using goat milk compared with sheep milk and did not depend on the content of PUFA in milk fat. The content of PUFA had a significant effect on the aroma profile of the resulting kefirs. An increase in PUFA content resulted in the loss of whey aroma in goat milk kefirs and the animal odor in sheep milk kefirs, and a creamy aroma became more prevalent in kefirs made from sheep milk. PMID:26277315

  14. [Breast milk substitutes based on cow milk].

    PubMed

    Kofoed, P E

    1990-08-20

    "Adapted" or "humanized" breast-milk substitutes based on cows' milk are manufactured according to directives from a publication issued by the Ministry of Agriculture. The accepted recommendations for the daily intake (RDA) of nutrients is adjusted to the neonates' relatively low tolerance and provides a certain margin of safety in case of illness and slight inaccuracies in preparation. The recommendations are, however, often based on animal experiments, studies of pathological conditions etc. because the needs of the neonate are not known. There is a fundamental difference between RDA for chemical energy and various nutrients as the energy requirement is stated on the basis of average values while the requirements for specific nutrients are gives as upper and lower limiting values. In addition to nutrients, a long series of hormones, enzymes and antimicrobial factors are transferred to the infant via breast-milk. The nutritional significance of these is entirely or partially unknown. It is thus impossible to give the bottle-fed infant a diet which is quantitatively and qualitatively identical with that of a breastfed baby. Nevertheless, experience has shown that bottle-feeding usually proceeds satisfactorily. Galactosaemia and certain forms of medication in the mother constitute absolute contraindications to breast-feeding while phenylketonuria, certain maternal infections are relative contraindications to breast-feeding. Mothers should be prepared for breast-feeding already during pregnancy but in the cases where the mother cannot, should not or does not wish to breast-feed, it is important to counteract any feelings of guilt, neglect or incompetence and, on the other hand, give her thorough training in artificial feeding of the infant. PMID:2205958

  15. Evaluation of fertility in relation to milk production and productivity of Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Jamuna, V; Chakravarty, A K

    2016-08-01

    Intense selection of buffaloes for milk production at organized herds of the country without giving due attention to fertility traits has lead to deterioration in their performances. The study was initiated to assess the relationship between milk production and productivity with fertility in Murrah buffaloes. In the present study, fertility was defined in terms of pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes. Pregnancy rate measures the percentage of non-pregnant animals that become pregnant during each oestrous cycle. Data pertaining to 1224 lactation records of Murrah buffaloes spread over a period 22 years from 1993 to 2014 were analyzed in the study. It was observed that pregnancy rate is negatively associated with 305days or less milk yield (-0.08±0.04) and wet average (-0.12±0.02) and positively associated with life time (0.15±0.03) in Murrah buffaloes. Wet average is defined as average daily milk yield per lactation of Murrah buffaloes. To achieve around 2000kg 305days or less milk yield and 7.5kg wet average, the level of pregnancy rate in Murrah buffaloes should vary between 30 and 50%. The per unit change in pregnancy rate with respect to milk yield in Murrah buffaloes, were studied using regression analysis. The results suggest that increasing hundred kilogram in 305days or one kilogram milk yield per day in 305days, pregnancy rate reduced by 0.9% in overall lactations of Murrah buffaloes. By increasing hundred kilogram life time 305days or less milk yield and one kilogram life time wet average, pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes reduced by about 0.2% and 0.34%, respectively. The study quantifies the decline of pregnancy rate with increase of lactation milk yield and wet average in Murrah buffaloes and emphasis the importance of fertility i.e. pregnancy rate in the evaluation and breeding programmes of Murrah buffaloes. PMID:27357943

  16. Biosensor assay for determination of haptoglobin in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Akerstedt, Maria; Björck, Lennart; Persson Waller, Karin; Sternesjö, Ase

    2006-08-01

    Despite more than 30 years of research into mastitis diagnostics, there are few alternatives to the somatic cell count (SCC) in practical use for identification of cows with subclinical mastitis. Mastitis is not only an animal welfare problem, but also affects the yield, composition and technological properties of milk. Hence, dairy cooperatives give farmers a premium quality payment to encourage low SCC although there is no clear scientific data defining the level of SCC in bulk tank milk that is associated with additional benefits in terms of milk quality. Recent research on alternative markers for inflammatory reactions in the lactating cow, e.g. in mastitis, includes investigations of the acute phase protein, haptoglobin (Hp). So far, the content of Hp in milk has mainly been studied in relation to mastitis diagnostics, with little attention given to its importance for milk composition and technological properties. At present, Hp in milk is measured using ELISA, but this technique is not suitable for routine large-scale analysis. In recent years, optical biosensor technology has been used for automated and rapid quantitative analysis of different components in milk, but so far not for analysis of acute phase proteins. The aim of the present study was to develop a rapid and sensitive biosensor method to determine Hp in milk. An affinity sensor assay based on the interaction between Hp and haemoglobin was developed using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor technology. The assay was used to analyse Hp in composite milk samples from cows without any clinical signs of mastitis and quarter milk samples with a weak to strong reaction in the California Mastitis Test (CMT). A commercial ELISA for determination of Hp in milk was used for comparison. The limit of detection (LOD) of the biosensor assay was determined as 1.1 mg/l. Within-assay and between-day variations were determined both with bulk tank milk spiked with human Hp and with composite milk samples

  17. Online evaluation of milk quality according to coagulation properties for its optimal distribution for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Leitner, G; Lavi, Y; Merin, U; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, L; Katz, G

    2011-06-01

    The potential for application of online devices for providing real-time analysis of milk-clotting parameters during milking was studied. The experiment tested established relationships between glandular-level bacterial infection and milk-clotting parameters as evaluated by visible or near-infrared spectroscopy. The parameters yielded by the AfiLab (S.A.E. Afikim, Afikim, Israel) online device were shown to be applicable to derivation of real-time estimations of milk-clotting parameters on the individual cow level. The ability of the AfiLab to perform this task was validated online and statistically by calibration against laboratory testing procedures. PMID:21605762

  18. Donor human milk banking and the emergence of milk sharing.

    PubMed

    Landers, Susan; Hartmann, Ben T

    2013-02-01

    Donor human milk has emerged as the preferred substrate to feed extremely preterm infants, when mother's own milk is unavailable. This article summarizes the clinical data demonstrating the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of feeding donor human milk to premature babies. It describes the current state of milk banking in North America, as well as other parts of the world, and the differing criteria for donor selection, current pasteurization techniques, and quality control measures. A risk assessment methodology is proposed, which would allow milk banks globally to assess the safety of their process and respond appropriately to differing risk environments. PMID:23178068

  19. Lipid oxidation volatiles absent in milk after selected ultrasound processing.

    PubMed

    Juliano, Pablo; Torkamani, Amir Ehsan; Leong, Thomas; Kolb, Veronika; Watkins, Peter; Ajlouni, Said; Singh, Tanoj Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasonic processing can suit a number of potential applications in the dairy industry. However, the impact of ultrasound treatment on milk stability during storage has not been fully explored under wider ranges of frequencies, specific energies and temperature applications. The effect of ultrasonication on lipid oxidation was investigated in various types of milk. Four batches of raw milk (up to 2L) were sonicated at various frequencies (20, 400, 1000, 1600 and 2000kHz), using different temperatures (4, 20, 45 and 63°C), sonication times and ultrasound energy inputs up to 409kJ/kg. Pasteurized skim milk was also sonicated at low and high frequency for comparison. In selected experiments, non-sonicated and sonicated samples were stored at 4°C and were drawn periodically up to 14days for SPME-GCMS analysis. The cavitational yield, characterized in all systems in water, was highest between 400kHz and 1000kHz. Volatile compounds from milk lipid oxidation were detected and exceeded their odor threshold values at 400kHz and 1000kHz at specific energies greater than 271kJ/kg in raw milk. However, no oxidative volatile compounds were detected below 230kJ/kg in batch systems at the tested frequencies under refrigerated conditions. Skim milk showed a lower energy threshold for oxidative volatile formation. The same oxidative volatiles were detected after various passes of milk through a 0.3L flow cell enclosing a 20kHz horn and operating above 90kJ/kg. This study showed that lipid oxidation in milk can be controlled by decreasing the sonication time and the temperature in the system depending on the fat content in the sample among other factors. PMID:24704065

  20. Long-acting insulins alter milk composition and metabolism of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Winkelman, L A; Overton, T R

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of 2 different types of long-acting insulin on milk production, milk composition, and metabolism in lactating dairy cows. Multiparous cows (n=30) averaging 88 d in milk were assigned to one of 3 treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments consisted of control (C), Humulin-N (H; Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN), and insulin glargine (L). The H and L treatments were administered twice daily at 12-h intervals via subcutaneous injection for 10d. Cows were milked twice daily, and milk composition was determined every other day. Mammary biopsies were conducted on d 11, and mammary proteins extracted from the biopsies were analyzed by Western blot for components of insulin and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways. Treatment had no effect on dry matter intake or milk yield. Treatment with both forms of long-acting insulin increased milk protein content and tended to increase milk protein yield over the 10-d treatment period. Analysis of milk N fractions from samples collected on d 10 of treatment suggested that cows administered L tended to have higher yields of milk protein fractions than cows administered H. Milk fat content and yield tended to be increased for cows administered long-acting insulins. Lactose content and yields were decreased by treatment with long-acting insulins. Administration of long-acting insulins, particularly L, tended to shift milk fatty acid composition toward increased short- and medium-chain fatty acids and decreased long-chain fatty acids. Plasma concentrations of glucose and urea N were lower for cows administered long-acting insulins; interactions of treatment and sampling time were indicative of more pronounced effects of L than H on these metabolites. Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and insulin were increased in cows administered long-acting insulins. Decreased concentrations of urea N in both plasma and milk suggested more efficient use of N in cows

  1. Milk volatile organic compounds and fatty acid profile in cows fed timothy as hay, pasture, or silage.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, M-P; Lebeuf, Y; Gervais, R; Tremblay, G F; Vuillemard, J C; Fortin, J; Chouinard, P Y

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient composition and organoleptic properties of milk can be influenced by cow diets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the forage type effects on volatile organic compounds, fatty acid (FA) profile, and organoleptic properties of milk. Timothy grass was fed as hay, pasture, or silage during a period of 27 d to a group of 21 cows in a complete block design based on days in milk. Each cow also received 7.2 kg/d of a concentrate mix to meet their nutrient requirements. Forage dry matter intake averaged 13.9 kg/d and was not different among treatments. Milk yield was higher for cows fed pasture, intermediate for cows fed silage, and lowest for cows fed hay. However, milk fat content was higher for cows fed hay and silage, compared with cows fed pasture. As a result, fat-corrected milk and fat yield were not different among treatments. Increasing the supply of dietary cis-9,cis-12 18:2 (linoleic acid) and cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 (α-linolenic acid) when feeding pasture enhanced the concentration of these 2 essential FA in milk fat compared with feeding hay or silage. Moreover, the ratio of 16:0 (palmitic acid) to cis-9 18:1 (oleic acid), which is closely related to the melting properties of milk fat, was lower in milk from cows on pasture than in milk from cows fed hay or silage. Cows fed hay produced milk with higher levels of several free FA and γ-lactones, but less pentanal and 1-pentanol. More dimethyl sulfone and toluene were found in milk of cows on pasture. Cows fed silage produced milk with higher levels of acetone, 2-butanone, and α-pinene. Results from a sensory evaluation showed that panelists could not detect a difference in flavor between milk from cows fed hay compared with silage. However, a significant number of assessors perceived a difference between milk from cows fed hay compared with milk from cows fed pasture. In a sensory ranking test, the percentage of assessors ranking for the intensity of total (raw milk, fresh milk, and farm

  2. The effect of diets on milk production and composition, and on lactation curves in pastured dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Min, B R; Hart, S P; Sahlu, T; Satter, L D

    2005-07-01

    A 2-yr study investigated effects of different levels of concentrate supplementation on milk production, composition, and lactation curves in pastured dairy goats. For both years, 44 Alpine goats (Capra hircus; 55 +/- 11 kg body weight) were randomly allocated to 4 groups. Animals were supplemented with 0.66 (treatments A and B), 0.33 (treatment C), or 0 kg of concentrate (treatment D) per kg of milk over 1.5 kg/d. Mixed vegetative forages were rotationally grazed by the goats (treatments B, C, and D), except that treatment A was confined and fed alfalfa hay. Individual milk production was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected once every 2 wk for the 7-mo period (March to September) and analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, urea-N, nonesterified fatty acids, and allantoin (second year only). Milk yield and composition varied among dietary treatments, with some measures affected by year. Average daily milk yield was lowest for treatment D. The increased level of concentrate supplementation in treatment A led to 22% greater milk yield compared with treatment D. Milk production increased by 1.7 and 0.9 kg for each additional kilogram of concentrate fed per day during the first and second years, respectively. Average peak yield, time of peak yield, and persistency were lower for treatment D than for other treatments. The percentage of milk fat was lower for treatment D than for other treatments. Concentration of milk protein was greater for treatments A and B during the first year, and was higher for treatment C than for other treatments during the second year. Average milk lactose concentration was higher for treatments B and C than for other treatments. However, milk urea-N concentration in treatment A was higher than other treatments. Milk allantoin, used to estimate microbial proteins synthesis, was 20 to 25% greater for treatment A than for other treatments. Averaged across year, plasma urea-N and nonesterified fatty acids concentration were lowest for

  3. Effect of superovulation prior to mating on milk production performance during lactation in ewes.

    PubMed

    Manalu, W; Sumaryadi, M Y; Sudjatmogo; Satyaningtijas, A S

    2000-03-01

    Thirty lactating ewes were used to evaluate the effect of superovulation on milk production. Twelve ewes had been injected, prior to mating, with 700 IU of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin; 18 ewes were injected with saline as a control. Thirteen ewes (nine control and four superovulated ewes) were fed at low plane of nutrition; the other ewes (nine control and eight superovulated ewes) were fed at high plane of nutrition. Superovulated ewes, fed at both low and high planes of nutrition, had dramatically higher milk yields (59%), and their milk composition was not changed. Plane of nutrition increased milk lactose and P contents without significant effect on milk production. The increased milk yields in the superovulated ewes were accompanied by increases in dry matter, gross energy intakes, and gross efficiency of milk synthesis. At the end of lactation, superovulated ewes had higher mammary dry fat-free tissue, total DNA, and total RNA. The results demonstrated that superovulation prior to mating dramatically increased milk production and efficiency regardless of plane of nutrition. Increased milk production and efficiency in the superovulated ewes were due to the increased mammary secretory cell numbers and their synthetic activities presumably through the increased endogenous hormonal stimulation of mammary growth and development during pregnancy. PMID:10750105

  4. Short communication: Effects of feeding sweet sorghum silage on milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Amer, S; Seguin, P; Mustafa, A F

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the feeding value of sweet sorghum silage (SS) for dairy cows compared with alfalfa silage (AS). Two diets were formulated with a 50:50 forage:concentrate ratio. Sweet sorghum silage and AS constituted 70% of the forage in each diet (dry matter basis). Twelve lactating Holstein cows in early lactation were used in a crossover experiment. Relative to AS, SS contained 58% more neutral detergent fiber and 36.6 and 72.7% less acid detergent lignin and crude protein, respectively. Milk yield (33.0 vs. 36.7 kg/d) was lower for cows fed SS than for those fed AS. However, dry matter intake, energy-corrected milk, and feed efficiency were similar for both dietary treatments. Replacing AS with SS increased concentrations of milk fat (4.44 vs. 3.80%) and total solids (13.31 vs. 12.88%) and reduced concentrations of milk lactose (4.55 vs. 4.61%), milk solids-not-fat (8.88 vs. 9.08%), and milk urea nitrogen (10.0 vs. 14.0 mg/dL). We concluded that replacing AS with SS had negative effects on milk yield, whereas dry matter intake, energy-corrected milk, and milk efficiency were similar. PMID:22281350

  5. Short communication: Effect of vacuum and ratio on the performance of a monoblock silicone milking liner.

    PubMed

    Spencer, S B; Shin, J-W; Rogers, G W; Cooper, J B

    2007-04-01

    The vacuum and teat-cup chamber ratio are important operating parameters that affect milking performance by milking machines. In addition, the design and composition of materials are major elements affecting the performance characteristics of (teat-cup) milking machine liners. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of vacuum and teat-cup chamber ratio on the performance of a unique mono-block silicone milking machine liner that is round in the open position and triangular in the collapsed position. System vacuum settings (set at receiver) were 40.6, 43.9, and 47.3 kPa, whereas teat-cup chamber ratios were 60:40, 65:35, and 70:30. Milk yield was greatest at a vacuum of 43.9 kPa. Manual adjustments and kickoffs were very low (<2%) at all vacuum levels and for all ratios. The interaction of vacuum level and ratio was significant for milking duration, peak flow rate, and average flow rate, but not for milk yield. Average and peak milk flow rates increased at each increasing vacuum level and each wider ratio, whereas milking duration decreased. PMID:17369212

  6. Deciphering the Genetic Blueprint behind Holstein Milk Proteins and Production

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Taeheon; Son, Jun Kyu; Yoon, Ho-Baek; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Jeong, Jin Young; Cho, Yong-Min; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Lim, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Kwanghyeon; Kim, Tae-Hun; Kwon, Eung Gi; Nam, Jungrye; Kwak, Woori; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2014-01-01

    Holstein is known to provide higher milk yields than most other cattle breeds, and the dominant position of Holstein today is the result of various selection pressures. Holstein cattle have undergone intensive selection for milk production in recent decades, which has left genome-wide footprints of domestication. To further characterize the bovine genome, we performed whole-genome resequencing analysis of 10 Holstein and 11 Hanwoo cattle to identify regions containing genes as outliers in Holstein, including CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN3, and KIT whose products are likely involved in the yield and proteins of milk and their distinctive black-and-white markings. In addition, genes indicative of positive selection were associated with cardiovascular disease, which is related to simultaneous propagation of genetic defects, also known as inbreeding depression in Holstein. PMID:24920005

  7. The Sweetest Chocolate Milk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Kristie J.

    2010-01-01

    Using a nonroutine problem can be an effective way to encourage students to draw on prior knowledge, work together, and reach important conclusions about the mathematics they are learning. This article discusses a problem on the mathematical preparation of chocolate milk which was adapted from an old book of puzzles (Linn 1969) and has been used…

  8. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  9. Microstructure of milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fat and protein in milk may be examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, and any bacteria present may be viewed by light microscopy. The fat exists as globules, the bulk of the protein is in the form of casein micelles, a...

  10. Characterization of partially purified milk-clotting enzyme from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Assia I A M; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A; Hamid, Omer I A

    2016-09-01

    This study was aimed to extract milk-clotting enzyme from sunflower seeds and to determine its potentiality for manufacturing white soft cheese from cows and goats milk. The seeds were blended and extracted using two types of buffers and milk-clotting and proteolytic activities were evaluated. The enzyme was partially purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation techniques. Results indicated that sunflower seeds extracted with 5% NaCl in 50 mmol/L acetate buffer, pH 5.0, had the highest milk-clotting activity (MCA) and lowest coagulation time compared to that extracted with only acetate buffer (pH 5.0). Ammonium sulfate at 30-50% saturation purified the enzyme to 4.3 folds with MCA of 241.0 U/mL and final enzyme yield of 10.9%. The partially purified enzyme was characterized by SDS-PAGE that showed two bands with molecular weight of 120 and 62 kDa. When compared with other plant enzymes, the partially purified sunflower enzyme was found to have higher milk-clotting activity and lower proteolytic activity. Also, both milk sources and enzyme types significantly affected the cheese yield and curd formation time. The cheese made from cow milk using sunflower enzyme had higher yield compared to that obtained using commercial rennet, whereas the opposite was observed when using goat milk. PMID:27625777

  11. Alfalfa containing the glyphosate-tolerant trait has no effect on feed intake, milk composition, or milk production of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Combs, D K; Hartnell, G F

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this experiment was to assess if feeding glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa affects feed intake, milk composition, or milk production of dairy cows. One alfalfa (Medicago sativa), variety expressing the CP4 EPSPS protein and grown in southeastern Washington State was harvested at the late vegetative stage as hay. Three commercial conventional varieties of alfalfa hay of similar nutrient composition and harvested in the same geographic region were fed to cows as controls. The commercial hays were selected to be similar in crude protein [18% of dry matter (DM)] and neutral detergent fiber (40% of DM) to the glyphosate-tolerant hay. Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows were fed diets containing alfalfa hay (39.7% of diet DM) from either the glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa, or 1 of the 3 conventional varieties. Diets contained at least 15.7% crude protein and 29% neutral detergent fiber. Experimental design was a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square. Periods were 28 d and feed intake, milk yield, and milk composition were summarized over the last 14 d of each period. Daily milk yield (38.0 kg) and 4% fat-corrected milk (34.7 kg) were not affected by treatment. Milk fat (3.44%) and milk true protein (2.98%) were also not affected by source of hay. Milk lactose (4.72%) and soldis-not-fat (8.5%) did not differ due to treatment. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments (24.4 kg/d). These results are consistent with data from feeding trials with other glyphosate-tolerant crops and previously reported compositional comparisons of glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa with controls. Milk production, milk composition, feed intake, and feed efficiency were not affected by feeding diets that contained nearly 40% glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa hay to lactating dairy cows. PMID:18218755

  12. Expression Variants of the Lipogenic AGPAT6 Gene Affect Diverse Milk Composition Phenotypes in Bos taurus

    PubMed Central

    Littlejohn, Mathew D.; Tiplady, Kathryn; Lopdell, Thomas; Law, Tania A.; Scott, Andrew; Harland, Chad; Sherlock, Ric; Henty, Kristen; Obolonkin, Vlad; Lehnert, Klaus; MacGibbon, Alistair; Spelman, Richard J.; Davis, Stephen R.; Snell, Russell G.

    2014-01-01

    Milk is composed of a complex mixture of lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and various vitamins and minerals as a source of nutrition for young mammals. The composition of milk varies between individuals, with lipid composition in particular being highly heritable. Recent reports have highlighted a region of bovine chromosome 27 harbouring variants affecting milk fat percentage and fatty acid content. We aimed to further investigate this locus in two independent cattle populations, consisting of a Holstein-Friesian x Jersey crossbreed pedigree of 711 F2 cows, and a collection of 32,530 mixed ancestry Bos taurus cows. Bayesian genome-wide association mapping using markers imputed from the Illumina BovineHD chip revealed a large quantitative trait locus (QTL) for milk fat percentage on chromosome 27, present in both populations. We also investigated a range of other milk composition phenotypes, and report additional associations at this locus for fat yield, protein percentage and yield, lactose percentage and yield, milk volume, and the proportions of numerous milk fatty acids. We then used mammary RNA sequence data from 212 lactating cows to assess the transcript abundance of genes located in the milk fat percentage QTL interval. This analysis revealed a strong eQTL for AGPAT6, demonstrating that high milk fat percentage genotype is also additively associated with increased expression of the AGPAT6 gene. Finally, we used whole genome sequence data from six F1 sires to target a panel of novel AGPAT6 locus variants for genotyping in the F2 crossbreed population. Association analysis of 58 of these variants revealed highly significant association for polymorphisms mapping to the 5′UTR exons and intron 1 of AGPAT6. Taken together, these data suggest that variants affecting the expression of AGPAT6 are causally involved in differential milk fat synthesis, with pleiotropic consequences for a diverse range of other milk components. PMID:24465687

  13. Grazing season and forage type influence goat milk composition and rennet coagulation properties.

    PubMed

    Inglingstad, R A; Steinshamn, H; Dagnachew, B S; Valenti, B; Criscione, A; Rukke, E O; Devold, T G; Skeie, S B; Vegarud, G E

    2014-01-01

    Two different types of pasture (cultivated and rangeland) and 2 different hay qualities (high and low quality) were examined for their effects on goat milk composition and rennet coagulation properties. Furthermore, the effect of dietary treatments in both the early and late grazing season was studied. As lactation stage is known to influence milk composition, the goats in the early and late grazing season were in the same lactation stage at the start of the experiment. The milk composition was influenced both by dietary treatment and season. Milk from goats on pasture was superior to those on hay by containing a higher content of protein and casein, and the goats on cultivated pasture had the highest milk yield. Casein composition was significantly influenced by forage treatment. Goats grazing on cultivated pasture had higher contents of αs1-casein and also of κ-casein compared with the other treatments, whereas goats grazing on rangeland had the highest content of β-casein. Factors such as milk yield, casein micelle size, αs2-casein, and calcium content were reduced in late compared with early season. More favorable rennet coagulation properties were achieved in milk from the early grazing season, with shorter firming time and higher curd firmness compared with milk from the late grazing season, but the firming time and curd firmness were not prominently influenced by forage treatment. The content of αs2-casein and calcium in the milk affected the firming time and the curd firmness positively. The influence of season and forage treatment on especially milk yield, casein content, and rennet coagulation properties is of economic importance for both the dairy industry and goat milk farmers. PMID:24704223

  14. Mammary epithelial cells isolated from milk are a valuable, non-invasive source of mammary transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Boutinaud, Marion; Herve, Lucile; Lollivier, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Milk is produced in the udder by mammary epithelial cells (MEC). Milk contains MEC, which are gradually exfoliated from the epithelium during lactation. Isolation of MEC from milk using immunomagnetic separation may be a useful non-invasive method to investigate transcriptional regulations in ruminants’ udder. This review aims to describe the process of isolating MEC from milk, to provide an overview on the studies that use this method to analyze gene expression by qRT PCR and to evaluate the validity of this method by analyzing and comparing the results between studies. In several goat and cow studies, consistent reductions in alpha-lactalbumin mRNA levels during once-daily milking (ODM) and in SLC2A1 mRNA level during feed restriction are observed. The effect of ODM on alpha-lactalbumin mRNA level was similarly observed in milk isolated MEC and mammary biopsy. Moreover, we and others showed decreasing alpha-lactalbumin and increasing BAX mRNA levels with advanced stages of lactation in dairy cows and buffalo. The relevance of using the milk-isolated MEC method to analyze mammary gene expression is proven, as the transcript variations were also consistent with milk yield and composition variations under the effect of different factors such as prolactin inhibition or photoperiod. However, the RNA from milk-isolated MEC is particularly sensitive to degradation. This could explain the differences obtained between milk-isolated MEC and mammary biopsy in two studies where gene expression was compared using qRT-PCR or RNA Sequencing analyses. As a conclusion, when the RNA quality is conserved, MEC isolated from milk are a valuable, non-invasive source of mammary mRNA to study various factors that impact milk yield and composition (ODM, feeding level, endocrine status, photoperiod modulation, and stage of lactation). PMID:26579195

  15. Effects of increased milking frequency on gene expression in the bovine mammary gland

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Erin E; Siferd, Stephen; Elsasser, Theodore H; Evock-Clover, Christina M; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Sonstegard, Tad S; Fernandes, Violet M; Capuco, Anthony V

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous research has demonstrated that increased milking frequency of dairy cattle during the first few weeks of lactation enhances milk yield, and that the effect persists throughout the entire lactation period. The specific mechanisms controlling this increase in milk production are unknown, but suggested pathways include increased mammary epithelial cell number, secretory capacity, and sensitivity to lactogenic hormones. We used serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) and microarray analysis to identify changes in gene expression in the bovine mammary gland in response to 4× daily milking beginning at d 4 of lactation (IMF4) relative to glands milked 2× daily (Control) to gain insight into physiological changes occurring within the gland during more frequent milking. Results Results indicated changes in gene expression related to cell proliferation and differentiation, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, metabolism, nutrient transport, and immune function in IMF4 versus Control cows. In addition, pathways expected to promote neovascularization within the gland appeared to be up regulated in IMF4 cows. To validate this finding, immunolocalization of Von Willebrandt's factor (VWF), an endothelial cell marker, and its co-localization with the nuclear proliferation antigen Ki67 were evaluated in mammary tissue sections at approximately d 7 and d 14 of lactation in cows milked 4× daily versus Controls to estimate endothelial cell abundance and proliferation within the gland. Consistent with expression of genes related to neovascularization, both abundance of VWF and its co-localization with Ki67 appeared to be elevated in cows milked 4× daily, suggesting persistent increased milk yield in response to increased milking frequency may be mediated or complemented by enhanced mammary ECM remodeling and neovascularization within the gland. Conclusion Additional study is needed to determine whether changes in ECM remodeling and neovascularization of the

  16. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type.

    PubMed

    Mays, A R; Brown, M A; von Tunglen, D L; Rosenkrans, C F

    2014-03-01

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. Our objective was to determine the impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality. Cows (n = 53) were derived from Brangus dams and sired by Bonsmara (n = 7), Brangus (n = 13), Charolais (n = 8), Gelbvieh (n = 5), Hereford (n = 12), and Romosinuano (n = 8) bulls. Horn fly counts and estimates of milk yield and quality were recorded monthly from May through October on individual cows. Data for milk yield and quality and horn fly count were analyzed by mixed model least squares using a linear model including sire breed, cow in sire breed, month, and month × sire breed. Effects of horn fly count on milk yield and quality were estimated by analysis of covariance using log horn fly count and log horn fly count × sire breed. Horn fly counts varied by month (P < 0.0001), with lowest population recorded in May (99 flies) and peaked in August (520 flies). Bonsmara and Gelbvieh sired cows had greater (P < 0.05) milk yield compared to Hereford sired cows (8.75 and 8.62 vs. 6.02 kg/d, respectively). Milk yield from Charolais, Romosinuano, and Brangus sired cows was intermediate (7.28, 7.00, and 7.06 kg/d, respectively). Regression of milk yield on fly count differed (P < 0.05) among sire breeds. Milk yield was reduced (P < 0.05) by 0.99 and 0.64 kg/d per unit increase in log horn fly count in Gelbvieh and Bonsmara sired cows. Regression coefficient for milk yield on log horn fly count was reduced (P < 0.01) in Gelbvieh sired cows when compared with Brangus, Charolais, Hereford, and Romosinuano sired cows, and coefficients for Bonsmara sired cows were reduced (P < 0.05) in comparison to Brangus sired cows. Increases in log fly count were associated with decreases (P < 0.05) in milk fat, solids-not-fat, and milk urea nitrogen. Milk yield was reduced (P < 0.05) by increased fly numbers depending on month of lactation and interaction with log horn fly count. In May, June, and July milk yield was

  17. Sequencing the transcriptome of milk production: milk trumps mammary tissue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of normal human mammary gland development and function have mostly relied on cell culture, limited surgical specimens, and rodent models. Although RNA extracted from human milk has been used to assay the mammary transcriptome non-invasively, this assay has not been adequately validated in primates. Thus, the objectives of the current study were to assess the suitability of lactating rhesus macaques as a model for lactating humans and to determine whether RNA extracted from milk fractions is representative of RNA extracted from mammary tissue for the purpose of studying the transcriptome of milk-producing cells. Results We confirmed that macaque milk contains cytoplasmic crescents and that ample high-quality RNA can be obtained for sequencing. Using RNA sequencing, RNA extracted from macaque milk fat and milk cell fractions more accurately represented RNA from mammary epithelial cells (cells that produce milk) than did RNA from whole mammary tissue. Mammary epithelium-specific transcripts were more abundant in macaque milk fat, whereas adipose or stroma-specific transcripts were more abundant in mammary tissue. Functional analyses confirmed the validity of milk as a source of RNA from milk-producing mammary epithelial cells. Conclusions RNA extracted from the milk fat during lactation accurately portrayed the RNA profile of milk-producing mammary epithelial cells in a non-human primate. However, this sample type clearly requires protocols that minimize RNA degradation. Overall, we validated the use of RNA extracted from human and macaque milk and provided evidence to support the use of lactating macaques as a model for human lactation. PMID:24330573

  18. Effect of summer season on milk protein fractions in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Bernabucci, U; Basiricò, L; Morera, P; Dipasquale, D; Vitali, A; Piccioli Cappelli, F; Calamari, L

    2015-03-01

    Milk characteristics are affected by heat stress, but very little information is available on changes of milk protein fractions and their relationship with cheesemaking properties of milk. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of hot season on milk protein fractions and cheesemaking properties of milk for Grana Padano cheese production. The study was carried out in a dairy farm with a cheese factory for transforming the milk to Grana Padano cheese. The study was carried out from June 2012 to May 2013. Temperature and relative humidity of the inside barn were recorded daily during the study period using 8 electronic data loggers programmed to record every 30 min. Constant managerial conditions were maintained during the experimental periods. During the experimental period, feed and diet characteristics, milk yield, and milk characteristics were recorded in summer (from June 29 to July 27, 2012), winter (from January 25 to March 8, 2013), and spring (from May 17 to May 31, 2013). Milk yield was recorded and individual milk samples were taken from 25 cows selected in each season during the p.m. milking. Content of fat, proteins, caseins (CN), lactose and somatic cell count (SCC), titratable acidity, and milk rennet coagulation properties were determined on fresh samples. Milk protein fraction concentrations were determined by the sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. Data were tested for nonnormality by the Shapiro-Wilk test. In case of nonnormality, parameters were normalized by log or exponential transformation. The data were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA using a mixed model procedure. For all the main milk components (fat, protein, total solids, and solids-not-fat), the lowest values were observed in the summer and the greatest values were observed in the winter. Casein fractions, with the exception of γ-CN, showed the lowest values in the summer and the greatest values in the winter. The content of IgG and serum albumin was greater in summer

  19. Detection of milk powder and caseinates in Halloumi cheese.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, L; Cattaneo, S; Masotti, F; Psathas, G

    2010-08-01

    Halloumi cheese is traditionally manufactured from fresh milk. Nevertheless, dried dairy ingredients are sometimes illegally added to increase cheese yield. Lysinoalanine and furosine are newly formed molecules generated by heating and drying milk protein components. The levels of these molecular markers in the finished Halloumi have been investigated to verify their suitability to reveal the addition of skim milk powder and calcium caseinate to cheese milk. Because of the severe heating conditions applied in curd cooking, genuine Halloumi cheeses (n=35), representative of the Cyprus production, were characterized by levels of lysinoalanine (mean value=8.1 mg/100g of protein) and furosine (mean value=123 mg/100g of protein) unusual for natural cheeses. Despite the variability of the values, a good correlation between the 2 parameters (R=0.975) has been found in all cheeses, considering both the fresh and mature cheeses as well as those obtained from curd submitted to a prolonged cooking following a traditional practice adopted by a very small number of manufacturers. Experimental cheeses made by adding as low as 5% of skim milk powder, or calcium caseinate, or both, to cheese milk fell outside the prediction limits at +/-2 standard deviation of the above-reported correlation regardless of curd cooking conditions or ripening length. This correlation may be adopted as a reliable index of Halloumi cheese genuineness. PMID:20655413

  20. Raw milk consumption and health.

    PubMed

    Vranješ, Anka Popović; Popović, Milka; Jevtić, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39%) outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%), bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79%) outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market. PMID:25845259

  1. Oxidative stability of milk influenced by fatty acids, antioxidants, and copper derived from feed.

    PubMed

    Havemose, M S; Weisbjerg, M R; Bredie, W L P; Poulsen, H D; Nielsen, J H

    2006-06-01

    Differences in the oxidative stability of milk from cows fed grass-clover silage or hay were examined in relation to fatty acid composition and contents of antioxidants and copper in the milk. The oxidation processes were induced by exposing the milk to fluorescent light. Protein oxidation was measured as an accumulation of dityrosine, whereas lipid oxidation was measured as an accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides as the primary oxidation product, and as the secondary oxidation products, pentanal, hexanal, and heptanal. No differences were found in the protein oxidation of the 2 types of milk measured as accumulation of dityrosine, but there was an increased accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides and hexanal in milk from cows fed grass-clover silage, compared with milk from cows fed hay. The higher degree of lipid oxidation in milk from cows fed grass-clover silage could not be explained from the concentration of alpha-tocopherol, carotenoids, uric acid, and copper in the milk. However, it was thought to be highly influenced by the significantly higher concentration of linolenic acid present in milk from cows fed grass-clover silage. A larger part of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene was transferred from the feed to the milk when cows were fed grass-clover silage than when cows were fed hay as roughage. The significantly higher concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk from cows fed grass-clover silage may be important for the better transfer of alpha-tocopherol from the feed to the milk. Other circumstances, as the different conditions in the rumen may also play a role, due to the different types of roughages and their digestibility, or be related to the mechanisms during milk production for the higher yielding cows fed grass-clover silage. PMID:16702260

  2. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  3. 21 CFR 131.115 - Concentrated milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated milk. 131.115 Section 131.115 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.115 Concentrated milk. (a) Description. Concentrated milk is the liquid food obtained by partial removal of...

  4. 7 CFR 1150.111 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk. 1150.111 Section 1150.111 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.111 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk....

  5. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  6. 21 CFR 131.112 - Cultured milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cultured milk. 131.112 Section 131.112 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.112 Cultured milk. (a) Description. Cultured milk is the food produced by culturing one or more of the optional dairy...

  7. 21 CFR 131.110 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk. 131.110 Section 131.110 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.110 Milk. (a) Description. Milk is the lacteal secretion, practically free from colostrum, obtained by the complete...

  8. 21 CFR 131.111 - Acidified milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acidified milk. 131.111 Section 131.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.111 Acidified milk. (a) Description. Acidified milk is the food produced by souring one or more of the optional dairy...

  9. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  10. 7 CFR 1150.111 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Milk. 1150.111 Section 1150.111 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.111 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  11. 21 CFR 131.112 - Cultured milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cultured milk. 131.112 Section 131.112 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.112 Cultured milk. (a) Description. Cultured milk is the food produced by culturing one or more of the optional dairy...

  12. 21 CFR 131.111 - Acidified milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acidified milk. 131.111 Section 131.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.111 Acidified milk. (a) Description. Acidified milk is the food produced by souring one or more of the optional dairy...

  13. 7 CFR 1150.111 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Milk. 1150.111 Section 1150.111 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.111 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk....

  14. 7 CFR 1150.111 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk. 1150.111 Section 1150.111 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.111 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  15. 21 CFR 131.111 - Acidified milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acidified milk. 131.111 Section 131.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.111 Acidified milk. (a) Description. Acidified milk is the food produced by souring one or more of the optional dairy...

  16. 21 CFR 131.112 - Cultured milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cultured milk. 131.112 Section 131.112 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.112 Cultured milk. (a) Description. Cultured milk is the food produced by culturing one or more of the optional dairy...

  17. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  18. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  19. 7 CFR 1150.111 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk. 1150.111 Section 1150.111 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.111 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk....

  20. Feeding of pellets rich in digestible neutral detergent fiber to lactating cows in an automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Halachmi, I; Shoshani, E; Solomon, R; Maltz, E; Miron, J

    2006-08-01

    If the milking frequency in an automatic milking system (AMS) is increased, the intake of concentrated pellets in the robot may be raised accordingly. Consumption of a large quantity of starchy grains within a short time can impair the appetite, decrease voluntary visits to the milking stall, and lower intakes of dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Therefore, the hypothesis to be tested in this study was whether conventional starchy pellets fed in the AMS could be replaced with pellets rich in digestible NDF without impairing the cows' motivation to visit a milking stall voluntarily. Fifty-four cows were paired according to age, milk yield, and days in milk, and were fed a basic mixture along the feeding lane (19.9 kg of DM/cow per d), plus a pelleted additive (approximately 5.4 kg of DM/cow per d) that they obtained in the milking stall and in the concentrate self-feeder that they could enter only after passing through the milking stall. The 2 feeding regimens differed only in the composition of the pelleted additive, which, for the control group, contained 49% starchy grain, and for the experimental group contained 25% starchy grain plus soy hulls and gluten feed as replacement for part of the grain and other low-digestible, NDF-rich feeds. Both diets resulted in similar rates of voluntary milkings (3.31 vs. 3.39 visits/cow per d). Average yields of milk and percentages of milk protein were also similar in the 2 groups. The results suggest that an alternative pellet composition can be allocated in the AMS in conjunction with basic mixture in the feeding lane, without any negative effect on appetite, milk yield, milk composition, or milking frequency of the cows. It also opens the opportunity to increase yields of milk and milk solids by increasing the amount of pelleted concentrates that can be allocated to selected high-yielding cows via the AMS, because this can be done while maintaining a high frequency of voluntary milkings. PMID:16840642

  1. Artificial long-day photoperiod in the subtropics increases milk production in goats giving birth in late autumn.

    PubMed

    Flores, M J; Flores, J A; Elizundia, J M; Mejía, A; Delgadillo, J A; Hernández, H

    2011-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine whether exposure to a photoperiod of artificial long days in autumn increased milk yield in subtropical goats milked once (Exp. I) or twice daily (Exp. II). In Exp. I, starting at d 10 of lactation, 1 group of does was kept under naturally decreasing photoperiod (DD1X; n = 8), whereas the other group was submitted to an artificial photoperiod of long days (LD1X; n = 8; 16 h light:8 h darkness). The kids were weaned 28 d after parturition, and dams were manually milked once daily. Milk yield and milk components (fat, protein, and lactose) were assessed up to 140 d of lactation. From d 0 to 28 of lactation (suckling phase), mean daily milk yield did not differ between DD1X and LD1X goats (2.3 ± 0.2 kg vs. 2.4 ± 0.2 kg; P = 0.717). However, between d 29 and 84 (early milking phase), mean daily milk yield was greater in LD1X does than in DD1X does (2.6 ± 0.1 kg vs. 2.1 ± 0.1 kg; P = 0.001). Finally, between d 85 and 140 (late milking phase), mean daily milk yield was greater in LD1X goats than in DD1X goats (P ≤ 0.05) only during the first 2 wk. In Exp. II, one group of goats was exposed to a photoperiod of naturally decreasing days (DD2X; n = 8) and another group was submitted to an artificial photoperiod of long days (LD2X; n = 7). In both groups, kids were weaned on d 28 of lactation and the dams were manually milked twice daily. During the nursing phase, mean daily milk yield did not differ between the DD2X and LD2X groups (2.5 ± 0.3 kg vs. 2.6 ± 0.2 kg; P = 0.767). In the early milking phase, mean daily milk yield was greater in LD2X than in DD2X goats (3.3 ± 0.2 kg vs. 2.8 ± 0.2 kg; P = 0.022), whereas during the late milking phase, milk yield did not differ between the 2 groups (P = 0.946). In both experiments, milk composition was not significantly influenced by exposure to long-day photoperiod. We conclude that, in subtropical female goats that start lactation in late autumn, exposure to an artificial long

  2. Detection of cow milk adulteration in yak milk by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Ren, Q R; Zhang, H; Guo, H Y; Jiang, L; Tian, M; Ren, F Z

    2014-10-01

    In the current study, a simple, sensitive, and specific ELISA assay using a high-affinity anti-bovine β-casein monoclonal antibody was developed for the rapid detection of cow milk in adulterated yak milk. The developed ELISA was highly specific and could be applied to detect bovine β-casein (10-8,000 μg/mL) and cow milk (1:1,300 to 1:2 dilution) in yak milk. Cross-reactivity was <1% when tested against yak milk. The linear range of adulterant concentration was 1 to 80% (vol/vol) and the minimum detection limit was 1% (vol/vol) cow milk in yak milk. Different treatments, including heating, acidification, and rennet addition, did not interfere with the assay. Moreover, the results were highly reproducible (coefficient of variation <10%) and we detected no significant differences between known and estimated values. Therefore, this assay is appropriate for the routine analysis of yak milk adulterated with cow milk. PMID:25151876

  3. Association between CSN3 and BCO2 gene polymorphisms and milk performance traits in the Czech Fleckvieh cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Bartonova, P; Vrtkova, I; Kaplanova, K; Urban, T

    2012-01-01

    Daily milk, fat and protein yield and amount of somatic cells in cow milk are very important factors that influence milk performance traits. An association between polymorphisms in the kappa casein (CSN3) gene and milk production, composition and technical properties has been previously reported; however, this type of information is not available for the bovine β-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2) gene--the BCO2 gene has relationship with milk color and meat fat color, which is dependent on content of β-carotene. We analyzed these two genes and their relationship with milk performance traits (daily milk, fat and protein yield, somatic cell count, SCC) in one cattle population, Czech Fleckvieh (N = 152). All animals were milked twice a day and kept in the same environmental conditions. The Fleckvieh is a typical Czech cattle breed farming for milk and meat production. It is the most common breed in the Czech Republic. DNA was isolated from milk or from hairs. Genes were analyzed using PCR-RFLP, frequencies of alleles and genotypes were calculated and association analysis was performed using a GLM Procedure in SAS. Statistical analysis established that the CSN3 gene has no statistically significant influence on daily milk, fat and protein yield and SCC. Compared to other references this result can be explained by, e.g., small group of animals and different cattle breed. The BCO2 gene (genotypes AA and AG) shows a statistically significant relationship (P = 0.05) with daily milk, protein yield and SCC. PMID:22614274

  4. Effects of dietary cottonseed oil and tannin supplements on protein and fatty acid composition of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Aprianita, Aprianita; Donkor, Osaana N; Moate, Peter J; Williams, S Richard O; Auldist, Martin J; Greenwood, Jae S; Hannah, Murray C; Wales, William J; Vasiljevic, Todor

    2014-05-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets supplemented with cottonseed oil, Acacia mearnsii-condensed tannin extract, and a combination of both on composition of bovine milk. Treatment diets included addition of cottonseed oil (800 g/d; CSO), condensed tannin from Acacia mearnsii (400 g/d; TAN) or a combination of cottonseed oil (800 g/d) and condensed tannin (400 g/d; CPT) with a diet consisting of 6·0 kg dry matter (DM) of concentrates and alfalfa hay ad libitum, which also served as the control diet (CON). Relative to the CON diet, feeding CSO and CPT diets had a minor impact on feed intake and yield of lactose in milk. These diets increased yields of milk and protein in milk. In contrast to the TAN diet, the CSO and CPT diets significantly decreased milk fat concentration and altered milk fatty acid composition by decreasing the proportion of saturated fatty acids but increasing proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The CPT diet had a similar effect to the CSO diet in modifying fatty acid profile. Overall, reduction in milk fat concentration and changes in milk fatty acid profile were probably due to supplementation of linoleic acid-rich cottonseed oil. The TAN diet had no effect on feed intake, milk yield and milk protein concentration. However, a reduction in the yields of protein and lactose occurred when cows were fed this diet. Supplemented tannin had no significant effect on fat concentration and changes in fatty acid profile in milk. All supplemented diets did not affect protein concentration or composition, nitrogen concentration, or casein to total protein ratio of the resulting milk. PMID:24594257

  5. Factors affecting application of milk allantoin as an estimator of microbial protein flow to the duodenum under commercial conditions.

    PubMed

    Schager, W M; Harrison, J H; Gaskins, C T; Davidson, D

    2003-05-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the effect of diet change, milk sampling technique, and bovine somatotropin (bST) on allantoin output in milk and the use of allantoin as a practical, noninvasive method for estimating microbial protein flow in dairy cattle. In experiment 1, four lactating Holstein cows were used in a 2 x 2 Latin square design with two treatments (ratio of forage to concentrate) and two periods. In experiment 2, six Holstein cows were used in a completely randomized design, and milk was collected by 1) a strip sample collected immediately before milking, 2) a strip sample collected 3 min from start of milking, and 3) a composite sample taken with an autosampler. In experiment three, 10 cows were used in a randomized block design to determine the effect of bST on milk allantoin. Milk samples were taken daily for 21 d, 7 d before, and 14 d after bST administration. In experiment 1, allantoin output (mmol/d) was significantly greater for cows fed the higher ratio of concentrate to forage, and there was a significant change in the amount of allantoin in milk 12 h (first subsequent milking) after a diet change. There was no difference in milk yield or dry matter intake between treatments. In experiment 2, no difference was detected in milk allantoin concentration among the three sampling methods. In experiment 3, milk yield, allantoin concentration, and total allantoin output was significantly increased after bST administration even though dry matter intake (DMI) remained unchanged. During the first 14 d following bST administration, estimates of microbial protein production derived from milk allantoin may be inaccurate due to increased milk production without an increase in DMI. PMID:12778582

  6. Paratuberculosis: decrease in milk production of German Holstein dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis depends on within-herd prevalence.

    PubMed

    Donat, K; Soschinka, A; Erhardt, G; Brandt, H R

    2014-05-01

    Paratuberculosis impairs productivity of infected dairy cows because of reduced milk production and fertility and enhanced risk of culling. The magnitude of the milk yield depression in individual cows is influenced by factors such as parity, the stage of the disease and the choice of test used. The objectives of this case-control study were to substantiate the influence of the different levels of the within-herd prevalence (WHP) on individual milk yield of fecal culture (FC)-positive cows (FC+) compared with FC-negative herd-mates (FC-), and to estimate the magnitude of the deviation of the milk yield, milk components and somatic cell count (SCC) in an FC-based study. Of a total of 31 420 cows from 26 Thuringian dairy herds tested for paratuberculosis by FC, a subset of 1382 FC+ and 3245 FC- with milk recording data were selected as cases and controls, respectively. The FC- cows were matched for the same number and stage of lactation (±10 days in milk) as one FC+ from the same herd. Within a mixed model analysis using the fixed effects of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) status, lactation number, days in milk, prevalence class of farm and the random effect of farm on milk yield per day (kg), the amount of fat and protein (mg/dl) and lactose (mg/dl) as well as the SCC (1000/ml) were measured. On the basis of least square means, FC+ cows had a lower test-day milk yield (27.7±0.6 kg) compared with FC- (29.0±0.6 kg), as well as a lower milk protein content and a slightly diminished lactose concentration. FC status was not associated with milk fat percentage or milk SCC. In FC+ cows, reduction in milk yield increased with increasing WHP. An interaction of FC status and farm was found for the test-day milk yield, and milk protein percentage, respectively. We conclude that the reduction in milk yield of FC+ cows compared with FC- herd-mates is significantly influenced by farm effects and depends on WHP class. Owners of MAP-positive dairy herds may

  7. Milk and oral health.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ingegerd; Lif Holgerson, Pernilla

    2011-01-01

    Oral health includes freedom from disease in the gums, the mucosa and the teeth. There has been a striking reduction in dental caries and periodontitis in industrialized countries, although the proportion with severe disease has remained at 10-15%, and the prevalence increases in less developed countries. If left untreated, these diseases may lead to pain, and impaired quality of life and nutritional status. Prevention and treatment need, besides traditional implementation of proper oral hygiene, sugar restriction and use of fluoride, newer cost-effective strategies. Non-sweetened dairy products, which are proven non-cariogenic, or specific bioactive components from alike sources might prove to be part of such strategies. Thus, milk proteins, such as bovine and human caseins and lactoferrin, inhibit initial attachment of cariogenic mutans streptococci to hydroxyapatite coated with saliva or purified saliva host ligands. In contrast, both bovine and human milk coated on hydroxyapatite promotes attachment of commensal Actinomyces naeslundii and other streptococci in vitro, and phosphorylated milk-derived peptides promote maintenance of tooth minerals, as shown for the β-casein-derived caseino-phosphate peptide. Observational studies are promising, but randomized clinical trials are needed to reveal if dairy products could be a complementary treatment for oral health. PMID:21335990

  8. Total milk fat extraction and quantification of polar and neutral lipids of cow, goat, and ewe milk by using a pressurized liquid system and chromatographic techniques.

    PubMed

    Castro-Gómez, M P; Rodriguez-Alcalá, L M; Calvo, M V; Romero, J; Mendiola, J A; Ibañez, E; Fontecha, J

    2014-11-01

    Although milk polar lipids such as phospholipids and sphingolipids located in the milk fat globule membrane constitute 0.1 to 1% of the total milk fat, those lipid fractions are gaining increasing interest because of their potential beneficial effects on human health and technological properties. In this context, the accurate quantification of the milk polar lipids is crucial for comparison of different milk species, products, or dairy treatments. Although the official International Organization for Standardization-International Dairy Federation method for milk lipid extraction gives satisfactory results for neutral lipids, it has important disadvantages in terms of polar lipid losses. Other methods using mixtures of solvents such as chloroform:methanol are highly efficient for extracting polar lipids but are also associated with low sample throughput, long time, and large solvent consumption. As an alternative, we have optimized the milk fat extraction yield by using a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method at different temperatures and times in comparison with those traditional lipid extraction procedures using 2:1 chloroform:methanol as a mixture of solvents. Comparison of classical extraction methods with the developed PLE procedure were carried out using raw whole milk from different species (cows, ewes, and goats) and considering fat yield, fatty acid methyl ester composition, triacylglyceride species, cholesterol content, and lipid class compositions, with special attention to polar lipids such as phospholipids and sphingolipids. The developed PLE procedure was validated for milk fat extraction and the results show that this method performs a complete or close to complete extraction of all lipid classes and in less time than the official and Folch methods. In conclusion, the PLE method optimized in this study could be an alternative to carry out milk fat extraction as a routine method. PMID:25200790

  9. Effect of dietary energy source and level on nutrient digestibility, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and milk performance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X Q; Zhang, Y D; Zhao, M; Zhang, T; Zhu, D; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary energy source and level on intake, digestion, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and milk production in lactating dairy cows, using corn stover as a forage source. Eight multiparous Holstein cows, 4 of which were fitted with rumen cannulas, were evaluated in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design, with each period lasting 21 d. The cows were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups: low-energy (LE) ground corn (GC), LE steam-flaked corn (SFC), high-energy (HE) GC, and HE SFC. Changes to ruminal energy degradation rates were induced by feeding the cows diets of either finely ground corn or SFC as components of diets with the same total energy level. Milk yield, milk protein content and yield, and milk lactose yield all increased in response to higher levels of dietary energy, whereas contents of milk fat and lactose were unaffected. Cows fed HE diets had a higher crude microbial protein yield and total-tract apparent digestibility than those receiving LE diets. Milk yield, milk protein yield, and microbial protein yield were also higher when SFC replaced GC as the main energy source for lactating cows fed LE diets. These results suggest that an increased dietary energy level and ruminal degradation rate are beneficial to milk protein production, which we suggest is due to increased yields of microbial proteins, when cows are fed corn stover as a dietary forage source. PMID:26254527

  10. Milk production in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing common bermuda grass or endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1996-09-01

    Milk yield and quality were measured on 139 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing common bermuda grass or endophyte-infected tall fescue for 4 yr to evaluate interactions of direct and maternal breed effects and heterosis for these traits with forage environment. Milk yield was estimated by method of milking machine, and milk fat, protein, and somatic cell counts were evaluated in a commercial dairy laboratory. Monthly estimates were made beginning on an average d 61 of lactation and continued monthly for six estimates in 3 yr and five estimates in 1 yr. Data were averaged over month within year, and the model included sire breed, sire in sire breed, dam breed, forage, and age averages. Somatic cell counts were transformed using natural logarithms prior to analyses. Forage effects for milk yield were dissimilar among sire breed x dam breed subclasses (P < .10), resulting in higher levels of heterosis on common bermuda grass than on tall fescue. Maternal breed effects for milk yield favored Angus on bermuda grass (P < .05) but not on tall fescue, whereas direct breed effects were similar on both forages and favored Brahman. Milk fat was reduced on tall fescue compared to bermuda grass by an average of .6% (P < .01), and direct breed effects were similar across forages and averaged 1.04% (P < .01) in favor of Brahman. Heterosis and maternal breed effects for milk fat were not important. There was little evidence of direct and maternal breed effects or heterosis for milk protein or somatic cell counts. These data suggest that heterosis for milk yield is larger on common bermuda grass than on tall fescue and that grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue is detrimental to milk fat. PMID:8880406

  11. Relationship between external and internal udder and teat measurements of machine milked dromedary camels.

    PubMed

    Atigui, Moufida; Marnet, Pierre-Guy; Harrabi, Hager; Bessalah, Salma; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to determine the relationship between internal and external udder and teat measurements and evaluate their correlation with milk yield and milk partitioning in the udder of dromedary camels. Six Maghrebi camels reared under intensive conditions were monitored at early, middle, and late lactation. Udder measurements included udder depth, udder horizontal circumference, fore and rear teat length and diameter. Besides, scans of the left fore and rear quarters were taken in duplicate before morning milking (16 h) using an oxytocin receptor blocking agent (Atosiban) to determine teat and gland distension before milk ejection. Cisternal and alveolar milk volumes were then evaluated. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the performed udder external and ultrasonographical measurements and cisternal and daily milk production on the measurement day. Significant effect of lactation stage was observed in all measured traits. All internal and external measurements decreased significantly at late lactation as well as cisternal and total milk yield. The quarter cisternal area averaged 16.3 ± 2.2 cm(2) and decreased about three times at late lactation compared to early and middle lactation. All external and internal measurements were positively and highly correlated (P < 0.001). The knowledge of the relationship between udder internal and external morphological traits would permit to predict udder cisternal storage capacity and can ultimately be adopted to improve milk storage capacity of dromedary camels. PMID:27129886

  12. Milk production responses to dietary stearic acid vary by production level in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2015-03-01

    Effects of stearic acid supplementation on feed intake and metabolic and production responses of dairy cows with a wide range of milk production (32.2 to 64.4 kg/d) were evaluated in a crossover design experiment with a covariate period. Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows (142±55 d in milk) were assigned randomly within level of milk yield to treatment sequence. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet dry matter) with stearic acid (SA; 98% C18:0) or control (soyhulls). The diets were based on corn silage and alfalfa and contained 24.5% forage neutral detergent fiber, 25.1% starch, and 17.3% crude protein. Treatment periods were 21 d with the final 4 d used for data and sample collection. Compared with the control, SA increased dry matter intake (DMI; 26.1 vs. 25.2 kg/d) and milk yield (40.2 vs. 38.5 kg/d). Stearic acid had no effect on the concentration of milk components but increased yields of fat (1.42 vs. 1.35 kg/d), protein (1.19 vs. 1.14 kg/d), and lactose (1.96 vs. 1.87 kg/d). The SA treatment increased 3.5% fat-corrected milk (3.5% FCM; 40.5 vs. 38.6 kg/d) but did not affect feed efficiency (3.5% FCM/DMI, 1.55 vs. 1.53), body weight, or body condition score compared with the control. Linear interactions between treatment and level of milk yield during the covariate period were detected for DMI and yields of milk, fat, protein, lactose, and 3.5% FCM; responses to SA were positively related to milk yield of cows. The SA treatment increased crude protein digestibility (67.4 vs. 65.5%), tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility (43.6 vs. 42.3%), decreased fatty acid (FA) digestibility (56.6 vs. 76.1%), and did not affect organic matter digestibility. Fatty acid yield response, calculated as the additional FA yield secreted in milk per unit of additional FA intake, was only 13.3% for total FA and 8.2% for C18:0 plus cis-9 C18:1. Low estimated digestibility of the SA supplement was at least partly responsible for the low FA yield response

  13. Distribution of animal drugs between skim milk and milk fat fractions in spiked whole milk: Understanding the potential impact on commercial milk products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven animal drugs [penicillin G (PENG), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX), oxytetracycline (OTET), erythromycin (ERY), ketoprofen (KETO), thiabendazole (THIA) and ivermectin (IVR)] were used to evaluate drug distribution between milk fat and skim milk fractions of cow milk. Greater than 90% of radioactivity...

  14. 7 CFR 58.233 - Skim milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.233 Skim milk. The skim milk shall be separated from whole milk meeting the requirements...

  15. 7 CFR 58.233 - Skim milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.233 Skim milk. The skim milk shall be separated from whole milk meeting the requirements...

  16. 7 CFR 58.233 - Skim milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.233 Skim milk. The skim milk shall be separated from whole milk meeting the requirements...

  17. 7 CFR 58.233 - Skim milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.233 Skim milk. The skim milk shall be separated from whole milk meeting the requirements...

  18. 7 CFR 58.233 - Skim milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.233 Skim milk. The skim milk shall be separated from whole milk meeting the requirements...

  19. Human Milk Fortification in India.

    PubMed

    Kler, Neelam; Thakur, Anup; Modi, Manoj; Kaur, Avneet; Garg, Pankaj; Soni, Arun; Saluja, Satish

    2015-01-01

    Human milk fortification in preterm babies has become a standard of care in developed countries. Use of human milk fortifier (HMF) in very-low-birthweight infants is not a routine practice in India. There are concerns about high osmolality, feed intolerance, necrotizing enterocolitis, risk of contamination and added cost associated with use of HMF. There are limited data from India which address the issue of safety and short-term benefits of human milk fortification. This chapter highlights the issues related to human milk fortification in our country. PMID:26111571

  20. Analysis of polymorphisms in milk proteins from cloned and sexually reproduced goats.

    PubMed

    Xing, H; Shao, B; Gu, Y Y; Yuan, Y G; Zhang, T; Zang, J; Cheng, Y

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between the genotype and milk protein components in goats. Milk samples were collected from cloned goats and normal white goats during different postpartum (or abortion) phases. Two cloned goats, originated from the same somatic line of goat mammary gland epithelial cells, and three sexually reproduced normal white goats with no genetic relationships were used as the control. The goats were phylogenetically analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The milk protein components were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that despite the genetic fingerprints being identical, the milk protein composition differed between the two cloned goats. The casein content of cloned goat C-50 was significantly higher than that of cloned goat C-4. Conversely, although the genetic fingerprints of the normal white goats N-1, N-2, and N-3 were not identical, the milk protein profiles did not differ significantly in their milk samples (obtained on postpartum day 15, 20, 25, 30, and 150). These results indicated an association between milk protein phenotypes and genetic polymorphisms, epigenetic regulation, and/or non-chromosomal factors. This study extends the knowledge of goat milk protein polymorphisms, and provides new strategies for the breeding of high milk-yielding goats. PMID:26662412

  1. Effects of dry period length on milk production and health of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Watters, R D; Guenther, J N; Brickner, A E; Rastani, R R; Crump, P M; Clark, P W; Grummer, R R

    2008-07-01

    Holstein cows (n = 781) in a commercial dairy herd were used in a randomized design to evaluate 2 dry period (DP) management strategies on milk production, milk components, milk quality, colostrum quality, and incidence of metabolic disorders. Cows were randomly assigned to a traditional 55 d (T) or shortened 34 d (S) DP. Cows assigned to T were fed a low-energy diet until 34 d before expected calving at which time all cows were fed a moderate-energy transition diet until calving. Postpartum, cows assigned to T produced more milk and tended to produce more solids-corrected milk than cows on S. Treatment differences in milk and solids-corrected milk yield were accounted for by cows in their second lactation. Milk fat percentage did not differ between treatments, but milk protein percentage was greater for cows assigned to S. Colostrum quality measured as IgG concentration did not differ between management strategies. Somatic cell score and cases of mastitis were not affected by management strategy. There was a tendency for prepartum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) to be lower for cows assigned to T compared with S. However, postpartum, cows assigned to S had significantly lower NEFA concentrations than those assigned to T. The incidences of ketosis, retained placenta, displaced abomasum, and metritis did not differ between treatments. Postpartum energy balance, as indicated by plasma NEFA, may have been improved for cows assigned to S; there was no detectable effect on animal health. PMID:18565918

  2. Isolation of bovine milk-derived microvesicles carrying mRNAs and microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Hata, Taketoshi; Murakami, Kosuke; Nakatani, Hajime; Yamamoto, Yasunari; Matsuda, Tsukasa; Aoki, Naohito

    2010-05-28

    By a series of centrifugation and ultracentrifugation, we could isolate microvesicles with approximately 100 nm in diameter from bovine milk. We also found that approximately 1700 and 1000 ng of total RNA, in which small RNAs were major components, was contained inside the microvesicles isolated from 6 ml of colostrum and mature milk, respectively, despite high RNase activity in the milk. Polyadenylated gene transcripts for major milk proteins and translation elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha) were present in the microvesicles, and integrity of some transcripts was confirmed by real-time PCR targeting 5'- and 3'-ends of mRNA and by in vitro translation analysis. Moreover, a considerable amount of mammary gland and immune-related microRNAs were present in the milk-derived microvesicles. Acidification of milk to mimic gastrointestinal tract did not mostly affected RNA yield and quality. The milk related gene transcripts were detected in cultured cells when incubated with milk-derived microvesicles, suggesting cellular uptake of the microvesicle contents including RNA. Our findings suggest that bovine breast milk contains RNAs capable for being transferred to living cells and involved in the development of calf's gastrointestinal and immune systems. PMID:20434431

  3. A method for routine estimation of vitamin D activity in human and bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Parviainen, M T; Koskinen, T; Ala-Houhala, M; Visakorpi, J K

    1984-01-01

    To estimate the antirachitic activity of human and bovine milk, we developed a modern biochemical method for determining vitamin D metabolites in milk. Vitamin D metabolites were assayed from milk whey and from whole milk. Milk whey yielded poor recovery of both endogenous and added vitamin D, suggesting a marked loss of vitamin D activity to milk fat during homogenization and separation of the milk whey. A method for assaying the vitamin D metabolites in whole milk involves 1) lipid extraction, 2) cold methanol and ether precipitation, 3) alkaline backwash to reduce the amount of interfering lipids, 4) an efficient reverse-phase preparative purification, 5) an additional silica purification for vitamin D, 6) an analytical high-performance liquid chromatography, and 7) separate sensitized protein-binding assays for vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The method for whole milk resulted in good recovery of added vitamin D, and levels of assayed metabolites and their calculated antirachitic activity agreed well with earlier reports, that is, about 10-50 IU of vitamin D activity per liter. PMID:6524580

  4. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System

    PubMed Central

    Clark, C. E. F.; Kwinten, N. B. P.; van Gastel, D. A. J. M.; Kerrisk, K. L.; Lyons, N. A.; Garcia, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance. PMID:25049992

  5. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System.

    PubMed

    Clark, C E F; Kwinten, N B P; van Gastel, D A J M; Kerrisk, K L; Lyons, N A; Garcia, S C

    2014-04-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance. PMID:25049992

  6. Reisolation of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine milk following experimental inoculation is influenced by fat percentage and specific immunoglobulin G1 titer in milk.

    PubMed

    Boerhout, E M; Koets, A P; Vernooij, J C M; Mols-Vorstermans, T G T; Nuijten, P J M; Rutten, V P M G; Bijlsma, J J E; Eisenberg, S W F

    2016-06-01

    The associations of management parameters, herd characteristics, and individual cow factors with bovine mastitis have been subject of many studies. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between milk composition parameters, including fat, protein, lactose, urea, and specific immunoglobulin levels, at the time of experimental bacterial inoculation of the mammary gland and subsequent shedding dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus. Sixty-eight cows were experimentally infected with S. aureus and closely monitored for 3 wk. Mixed model analyses were used to determine the influence of management and herd characteristics (farm and experimental group), individual cow factors (days in milk, milk yield, and quarter position), and a challenge-related parameter (inoculation dose) in combination with either the milk components fat, protein, lactose and urea, or the S. aureus-specific antibody isotype titers at the time of bacterial inoculation, on the number of S. aureus reisolated from milk after inoculation. A positive association was observed between the milk fat percentage and the number of S. aureus reisolated from quarter milk, and a negative relationship between the S. aureus-specific IgG1 titer in milk and the number of S. aureus. These findings should be considered in the development of a vaccine against S. aureus-induced bovine mastitis. PMID:26995117

  7. Programmable calculator program for linear somatic cell scores to estimate mastitis yield losses.

    PubMed

    Kirk, J H

    1984-02-01

    A programmable calculator program calculates loss of milk yield in dairy cows based on linear somatic cell count scores. The program displays the distribution of the herd by lactation number and linear score for present and optimal goal situations. Loss of yield is in pounds and dollars by cow and herd. The program estimates optimal milk production and numbers of fewer cows at the goal for mastitis infection. PMID:6546938

  8. Milk, milk products, and disease free health: an updated overview.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, R; Behare, P V; Kumar, M; Mohania, D; Yadav, M; Jain, S; Menon, S; Parkash, O; Marotta, F; Minelli, E; Henry, C J K; Yadav, H

    2012-01-01

    The cow and its milk have been held sacred in the world since the dawn of human civilization. Indian ancient Vedic texts describe the virtues of milk and dairy products, as is authenticated by modern scientific principles and proofs. Therefore, milk has been considered as one of the most natural and highly nutritive part of a daily balanced diet. Currently, the integration of advanced scientific knowledge with traditional information is gaining incredible momentum toward developing the concept of potential therapeutic foods. Furthermore, new advances toward understanding the therapeutic roles of milk and milk products have also given a new impetus for unraveling the age old secrets of milk. At present, the best-known examples of therapeutic foods are fermented milk products containing health promoting probiotic bacteria. In the present article, we have tried to review the various aspects of the therapeutic nature of milk and fermented dairy products in a highly up-dated manner, and offer an in-depth insight into the development of targeted therapeutic future foods as per the requirements of consumers. PMID:22332596

  9. Innate immune response to a bovine mastitis pathogen profiled in milk and blood monocytes using a systems biology approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the mammary gland which leads to reduced milk yield and increased milk somatic cell counts (SCC) resulting in an estimated annual cost to the dairy industry worldwide of ~ 2 billion euros. Mastitis has a complex etiology, with pathogenic, host and envi...

  10. Lead content of milk and infant formula

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.

    1980-03-01

    Survey report:A survey to determine the lead content of early infant food sources was conducted in Washington, D.C. Samples were collected from various lots of national brands of infant formula and evaporated milk, cartons of nonfat dry milk, containers of homogenized cow's milk, and human milk. Mean concentrations of lead in infant formula, evaporated milk, nonfat dry milk, fresh cow's milk, and human milk were 0.135 g/ml, 0.03 g/ml, 0.01 g/ml, 0.53 g/ml, and 0.02 g/ml respectively. (2 references, 2 tables)

  11. Minor milk constituents are affected by protein concentration and forage digestibility in the feed ration.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Torben; Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted in order to investigate if selected minor milk components would be indicative for the nutritional situation of the cow. Forty-eight dairy cows were offered a high digestible ration vs. a lower digestible ration combined with 2 protein levels in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAG), uric acid and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured and correlated mutually and towards other milking parameters (yield, h since last milking, days in milk (DIM), urea, etc). The variation range of the suggested variables were broad, a fact that may support their utilisation as predictive parameters. The content of milk metabolites was significantly affected by the change in rations as milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, uric acid, and the ratio cholesterol: triacylglycerides increased with higher energy intake while BHBA and TAG decreased. The content of some of the milk metabolites changed during 24 h day/night periods: BHBA, cholesterol, uric acid and TAG increased whereas free glucose decreased in the night period. Certain associations between milk metabolites and calculated energy parameters like ECM, body condition score (BCS), and body weight gain were found, however, these associations were to some extent explained by an interaction with DIM, just as changes in milk metabolites during a 24 h period seems to interfere. It is concluded that the practical use of the suggested milk variables should be based on more than one metabolite and that stage of lactation and possibly time of the day where the milk is collected should be incorporated in predictive models. PMID:26869107

  12. Characterizing Milk Production Related Genes in Holstein Using RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Seo, Minseok; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Kwondo; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Jeong, Jin Young; Park, Sungkwon; Oh, Young Kyun; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-03-01

    Although the chemical, physical, and nutritional properties of bovine milk have been extensively studied, only a few studies have attempted to characterize milk-synthesizing genes using RNA-seq data. RNA-seq data was collected from 21 Holstein samples, along with group information about milk production ability; milk yield; and protein, fat, and solid contents. Meta-analysis was employed in order to generally characterize genes related to milk production. In addition, we attempted to investigate the relationship between milk related traits, parity, and lactation period. We observed that milk fat is highly correlated with lactation period; this result indicates that this effect should be considered in the model in order to accurately detect milk production related genes. By employing our developed model, 271 genes were significantly (false discovery rate [FDR] adjusted p-value<0.1) detected as milk production related differentially expressed genes. Of these genes, five (albumin, nitric oxide synthase 3, RNA-binding region (RNP1, RRM) containing 3, secreted and transmembrane 1, and serine palmitoyltransferase, small subunit B) were technically validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in order to check the accuracy of RNA-seq analysis. Finally, 83 gene ontology biological processes including several blood vessel and mammary gland development related terms, were significantly detected using DAVID gene-set enrichment analysis. From these results, we observed that detected milk production related genes are highly enriched in the circulation system process and mammary gland related biological functions. In addition, we observed that detected genes including caveolin 1, mammary serum amyloid A3.2, lingual antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin 4 (CATHL4), cathelicidin 6 (CATHL6) have been reported in other species as milk production related gene. For this reason, we concluded that our detected 271 genes would be strong candidates for

  13. Characterizing Milk Production Related Genes in Holstein Using RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Minseok; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Kwondo; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Jeong, Jin Young; Park, Sungkwon; Oh, Young Kyun; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-01-01

    Although the chemical, physical, and nutritional properties of bovine milk have been extensively studied, only a few studies have attempted to characterize milk-synthesizing genes using RNA-seq data. RNA-seq data was collected from 21 Holstein samples, along with group information about milk production ability; milk yield; and protein, fat, and solid contents. Meta-analysis was employed in order to generally characterize genes related to milk production. In addition, we attempted to investigate the relationship between milk related traits, parity, and lactation period. We observed that milk fat is highly correlated with lactation period; this result indicates that this effect should be considered in the model in order to accurately detect milk production related genes. By employing our developed model, 271 genes were significantly (false discovery rate [FDR] adjusted p-value<0.1) detected as milk production related differentially expressed genes. Of these genes, five (albumin, nitric oxide synthase 3, RNA-binding region (RNP1, RRM) containing 3, secreted and transmembrane 1, and serine palmitoyltransferase, small subunit B) were technically validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in order to check the accuracy of RNA-seq analysis. Finally, 83 gene ontology biological processes including several blood vessel and mammary gland development related terms, were significantly detected using DAVID gene-set enrichment analysis. From these results, we observed that detected milk production related genes are highly enriched in the circulation system process and mammary gland related biological functions. In addition, we observed that detected genes including caveolin 1, mammary serum amyloid A3.2, lingual antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin 4 (CATHL4), cathelicidin 6 (CATHL6) have been reported in other species as milk production related gene. For this reason, we concluded that our detected 271 genes would be strong candidates for

  14. Effect of commercial grape extracts on the cheese-making properties of milk.

    PubMed

    Felix da Silva, Denise; Matumoto-Pintro, Paula T; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Grape extracts can be added to milk to produce cheese with a high concentration of polyphenols. Four commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, and grape skin (2 extracts) were characterized and added to milk at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% (wt/vol). The effect of grape extracts on the kinetics of milk clotting, milk gel texture, and syneresis were determined, and model cheeses were produced. Whole grape and grape seed extracts contained a similar concentration of polyphenolic compounds and about twice the amount found in grape skin extracts. Radical scavenging activity was directly proportional to the phenolic compounds content. When added to milk, grape extracts increased rennet-induced clotting time and decreased the clotting rate. Although differences were observed between the extracts, the concentration added to milk was the main factor influencing clotting properties. With increasing concentrations of grape extracts, milk gels showed increased brittleness and reduced firmness. In addition, syneresis of milk gels decreased with increasing concentrations of grape extracts, which resulted in cheeses with a higher moisture content. The presence of grape extracts in milk slightly increased protein recovery in cheese but had no effect on fat recovery. With whole grape or grape seed extracts added to milk at 0.1% (wt/vol), the recovery coefficient for polyphenols was about 0.63, and decreased with increasing extract concentration in milk. Better polyphenol recovery was observed for grape seed extracts (0.87), with no concentration effect. Commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, or grape skin can be added to milk in the 0.1 to 0.3% (wt/vol) concentration range to produce cheese with potential health benefits, without a negative effect on cheese yield. PMID:25597978

  15. Associations among milk quality indicators in raw bulk milk.

    PubMed

    Pantoja, J C F; Reinemann, D J; Ruegg, P L

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine characteristics and associations among bulk milk quality indicators from a cohort of dairies that used modern milk harvest, storage, and shipment systems and participated in an intensive program of milk quality monitoring. Bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), total bacteria count (TBC), coliform count (CC), and laboratory pasteurization count (LPC) were monitored between July 2006 and July 2007. Bulk milk samples were collected 3 times daily (n = 3 farms), twice daily (n = 6 farms), once daily (n = 4 farms), or once every other day (n = 3 farms). Most farms (n = 11) had direct loading of milk into tankers on trucks, but 5 farms had stationary bulk tanks. The average herd size was 924 cows (range = 200 to 2,700), and daily milk produced per herd was 35,220 kg (range = 7,500 to 105,000 kg). Thresholds for increased bacterial counts were defined according to the 75th percentile and were >8,000 cfu/mL for TBC, >160 cfu/mL for CC, and >or=310 cfu/mL for LPC. Means values were 12,500 (n = 7,241 measurements), 242 (n = 7,275 measurements), and 226 cfu/mL (n = 7,220 measurements) for TBC, CC, and LPC, respectively. Increased TBC was 6.3 times more likely for bulk milk loads with increased CC compared with loads containing fewer coliforms. Increased TBC was 1.3 times more likely for bulk milk with increased LPC. The odds of increased TBC increased by 2.4% for every 10,000-cells/mL increase in SCC in the same milk load. The odds of increased CC increased by 4.3% for every 10,000-cells/mL increase in SCC. The odds of increased CC increased by 1% for every 0.1 degrees C increase in the milk temperature upon arrival at the dairy plant (or at pickup for farms with bulk tank). Laboratory pasteurization count was poorly associated with other milk quality indicators. Seasonal effects on bacterial counts and milk temperature varied substantially among farms. Results of this study can be used to aid the interpretation and analysis of

  16. Interaction between metabolic challenges and productivity in high yielding dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Opsomer, Geert

    2015-02-01

    The onset of lactation in modern dairy cows is characterized by a negative energy balance, due to a drastic increase in energy requirements for milk yield and a simultaneous depression in dry matter intake around parturition. Prioritization of milk yield over maternal body functions is a universal biological strategy in all lactating mammals to buffer the newborn's nutrition from fluctuations in the dam's energetic status. Consequently, in case of an energy deficiency, the dam will mobilize fat and protein reserves in order to safeguard milk yield. During decades of one-sided selection for milk yield, man has exploited the cow's potential to prioritize mammary energy supply without an equivalent progress in dry matter intake capacity. Consequently, genetic selection for milk yield has widened the gap between energy expenditure and energy intake, and has increased the cow's inclination to respond to energy deficiencies in the transition period by aggressive body tissue breakdown. Chronically elevated concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and ketone bodies have been demonstrated to affect multiple organ systems including the immune system, the reproductive axis and the liver and are, in contrast to absolute milk yield, closely and consistently related to the final incidence of reproductive disorders. PMID:25872322

  17. Invited review: The impact of automatic milking systems on dairy cow management, behavior, health, and welfare.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J A; Siegford, J M

    2012-05-01

    Over the last 100 yr, the dairy industry has incorporated technology to maximize yield and profit. Pressure to maximize efficiency and lower inputs has resulted in novel approaches to managing and milking dairy herds, including implementation of automatic milking systems (AMS) to reduce labor associated with milking. Although AMS have been used for almost 20 yr in Europe, they have only recently become more popular in North America. Automatic milking systems have the potential to increase milk production by up to 12%, decrease labor by as much as 18%, and simultaneously improve dairy cow welfare by allowing cows to choose when to be milked. However, producers using AMS may not fully realize these anticipated benefits for a variety of reasons. For example, producers may not see a reduction in labor because some cows do not milk voluntarily or because they have not fully or efficiently incorporated the AMS into their management routines. Following the introduction of AMS on the market in the 1990s, research has been conducted examining AMS systems versus conventional parlors focusing primarily on cow health, milk yield, and milk quality, as well as on some of the economic and social factors related to AMS adoption. Additionally, because AMS rely on cows milking themselves voluntarily, research has also been conducted on the behavior of cows in AMS facilities, with particular attention paid to cow traffic around AMS, cow use of AMS, and cows' motivation to enter the milking stall. However, the sometimes contradictory findings resulting from different studies on the same aspect of AMS suggest that differences in management and farm-level variables may be more important to AMS efficiency and milk production than features of the milking system itself. Furthermore, some of the recommendations that have been made regarding AMS facility design and management should be scientifically tested to demonstrate their validity, as not all may work as intended. As updated AMS

  18. Environmental Chemicals in Breast Milk

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most of the information available on environmental chemicals in breast milk is focused on persistent, lipophilic chemicals; the database on levels of these chemicals has expanded substantially since the 1950s. Currently, various types of chemicals are measured in breast milk and ...

  19. Mammals, milk, molecules, and micelles.

    PubMed

    Fox, P F

    2011-01-01

    After a brief description of my family background and school days, my professional career as a dairy scientist is described under three headings: research, teaching, and writing. My research activities fall into four areas: biochemistry of cheese, fractionation and characterization of milk proteins, heat stability of milk, and dairy enzymology. Finally, I offer some advice to young scientists. PMID:22129372

  20. [Medical application of breast milk banks].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi-Hong; Ding, Zong-Yi

    2014-07-01

    The history of breast milk banks is over 100 years. Most of the milk banks were closed because of HIV in the 80's. But more and more milk banks are re-opening and new ones are being established as the composition and superiority of breast milk are recognized again. The Human Milk Banking Association of North America and European Milk Bank Association have been set up and they have established and revised the standards and guidelines of breast milk banks. There is no doubt of the clinical effects of donor human milk on preterm infants worldwide. The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition recommended that the preterm infants should use donor human milk when their own mothers' milk is not enough. The first breast milk bank was set up in China in 2013, and its clinical and social significance is worthy of further study. PMID:25008871

  1. Production and composition of Iberian sow's milk and use of milk nutrients by the suckling Iberian piglet.

    PubMed

    Aguinaga, M A; Gómez-Carballar, F; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F

    2011-08-01

    Sixteen purebred Iberian (IB) sows were used in two consecutive trials to determine the efficiency of conversion of sow's milk into piglet body weight (BW) gain and the relationship between milk protein and body protein retention and between milk energy yield and body energy retention in the nursing IB piglet. In each trial, four sows were selected in order to evaluate their milk production, litter growth and nutrient balance measurements, together with four additional sows for milk sampling. Litter size was equalized to six piglets. Daily milk yield (MY) was determined weekly by the weigh-suckle-weigh technique over a 34-day lactation period. Piglets were weighed individually at birth and then weekly from day 5 of lactation. Milk samples were collected on days 5, 12, 19, 26 and 34 post partum. The comparative slaughter procedure was used to determine piglet nutrient and energy retention. One piglet from each litter was slaughtered at birth and four on the morning of day 35. Total MY was on average 5.175 ± 0.157 kg/day. The average chemical composition (g/kg) of the milk was 179 ± 4 dry matter, 53.4 ± 1.0 CP, 58.5 ± 3.8 fat, 10.4 ± 0.3 ash and 56.9 ± 2.3 lactose. Milk gross energy (GE) was 4.626 ± 0.145 MJ/kg. Milk intake per piglet tended to increase in trial 2 (832 v. 893 g/day; P = 0.066). Piglet BW gain contained (g/kg) 172.1 ± 1.3 protein, 151.5 ± 3.5 fat, 41.4 ± 0.6 ash and 635 ± 3 water and 10.127 ± 0.126 MJ GE/kg. Throughout the 34-day nursing period, the piglets grew at an average rate of 168 ± 3 g/day. The ratio of daily piglet BW gain to daily MY was 0.195 ± 0.002 g/g and the gain per MJ milk GE intake was 41.9 ± 0.5 g/MJ. The overall efficiency of protein accretion (g CP gain/g CP milk intake) was low and declined in trial 2 (0.619 v. 0.571; P = 0.016). Nutrient and energy deposition between birth and weaning were 27.4 ± 0.5 g/day protein, 24.2 ± 0.8 g/day fat and 1615 ± 40 kJ/day energy. Piglet energy requirements for maintenance were

  2. Recombinant Human Factor IX Produced from Transgenic Porcine Milk

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meng-Hwan; Lin, Yin-Shen; Tu, Ching-Fu; Yen, Chon-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX) produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitation step to remove casein. The purified protein had high specific activity and a low ratio of the active form (FIXa). The purified rhFIX had 11.9 γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues/mol protein, which approached full occupancy of the 12 potential sites in the Gla domain. The rhFIX was shown to have a higher isoelectric point and lower sialic acid content than plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX). The rhFIX had the same N-glycosylation sites and phosphorylation sites as pdFIX, but had a higher specific activity. These results suggest that rhFIX produced from porcine milk is physiologically active and they support the use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for industrial scale production in milk. PMID:24955355

  3. Data Collection Ratings and Best Prediction of Lactation Yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Best prediction (BP) has been used in the US to calculate lactation yields of milk, fat, protein, and som