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Sample records for 305-d milk yield

  1. Estimation of regional genetic parameters for mortality and 305-d milk yield of US Holsteins in the first 3 parities.

    PubMed

    Tokuhisa, K; Tsuruta, S; De Vries, A; Bertrand, J K; Misztal, I

    2014-07-01

    Several research reports have indicated increasing dairy cow mortality in recent years. The objectives of this research were to characterize the phenotypic differences in mortality in the first 3 parities across 3 regions of the United States to estimate the heritability of mortality of Holstein cows across regions and parities, and to estimate genetic and environmental correlations between milk yield and mortality across parities and regions. Dairy Herd Information (DHI) milk yield and mortality data were obtained from 3 different US regions: the Southeast (SE), Southwest (SW), and Northeast (NE). A total of 3,522,824 records for the first 3 parities were used: 732,009 (SE), 656,768 (SW), and 2,134,047 (NE) from 1999 to 2008. Cows that received a termination code of 6--"Cow died on the dairy; downer cows that were euthanized should be included here"--were given a mortality score of 2 (dead), whereas all other codes were assigned a mortality score of 1 (alive). Average annual mortalities in the first 3 parities across regions ranged from 2.2 to 7.2%, with mortality frequency increasing with increasing parity across all regions and with the SE having the highest mortality frequency. For genetic analysis, a 2-trait (305-d milk yield and mortality) linear-threshold animal model that fitted fixed effects of herd-year (for 305-d milk yield), cow age, days in milk (in month classes), month-of-termination, and random effects of herd-year (for mortality), animal, and residual was implemented. The model was used to estimate variance components separately for each region and parity. Heritability estimates for mortality were similar for all regions and parities, ranging from 0.04 to 0.07. Genetic correlations between mortality and 305-d milk yield across the first 3 parities were 0.14, 0.20, and 0.29 in SE; -0.01, 0.01, and 0.31 in SW; and 0.28, 0.33, and 0.19 in NE. We detected an adverse genetic relationship between milk production and mortality; however, the moderate

  2. Effect of milk yield genotype on response to repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration to lactating Holstein cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cows (n = 12/genotype) from unselected (stable milk yield since 1964, UH) and contemporary (CH) Holsteins that differed by more than 4,500 kg milk/305 d were fed the same diet ad lib and housed together for more than 4 months before being blocked (2/genotype) by DIM and randomly assigned within geno...

  3. [Genetic polymorphism of the IL8 gene and its associations with milk traits and SCS in Chinese Holstein].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ren-Jin; Yang, Zhang-Ping; Mao, Yong-Jiang; Chen, Ying; Chang, Ling-Ling; Ji, De-Jun; Wu, Hai-Tao; Li, Yun-Long; Li, Rui

    2010-12-01

    The polymorphism of Interleukin-8 (IL8) gene were investigated for 610 Chinese Holstein cows of 30 bull families from a dairy farm in Shanghai using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique with a mixed animal model to verify the effects of the polymorphisms on some milk productive performance, tested day milk yield, tested day fat percentage, tested day milk protein percentage, 305 d corrected milk yield, 305 d milk fat yield, 305 d milk protein yield, and somatic cell score (SCS). The aim was to explore the significant molecular marker in practical dairy production. Three genotypes were identified and the genotypic frequencies of KK, KA, and AA were 0.187, 0.451, and 0.362, respectively. The gene frequencies of K and A were 0.412 and 0.588. The results showed highly significant (P < 0.01) association of IL8 mutations with tested day milk yield, 305 d milk protein yield, 305 d corrected milk yield and 305 d milk fat yield, SCS and tested day milk protein percentage (P < 0.05). However, no association (P > 0.05) with tested day milk fat percentage was recorded. The cows with KK genotype had higher tested day milk yield, 305 d milk protein yield, 305 d corrected milk yield and 305 d milk fat yield than those with AA and KA genotypes (P < 0.01). The least square mean of SCS for KK was significantly lower than that with AA and KA genotypes (P < 0.01). AA genotype was significant lower in tested day milk protein percentage than KK and KA genotypes (P < 0.05). The IL8 gene genetic diversity has a great genetic effect on milk traits and mastitis resistance and could be a useful genetic marker for Chinese Holstein breeding.

  4. Effect of dams' parity and age on daughters' milk yield in Norwegian Red cows.

    PubMed

    Storli, K S; Heringstad, B; Salte, R

    2014-10-01

    The effect of age and parity of dams on their daughters' milk yield is not well known. Lactation data from 276,000 cows were extracted from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and analyzed using a linear animal model to estimate effects of parity and age within parity of dam. The 305-d milk yield of daughters decreased as parity of dam increased. Daughters of first-parity dams produced 149 kg more milk than did daughters of seventh-parity dams. We also observed an effect of age of dam within parity on 305-d milk yield of daughters in first lactation. Dams that were young at first calving gave birth to daughters with a higher milk yield compared with older dams within the same parity. The effect of age within parity of dam was highest for second-parity dams. Extensive use of heifers would have a systematic effect, and age and parity of dam should be included in the model when planning a future strategy.

  5. Effect of calving interval and parity on milk yield per feeding day in Danish commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, J O; Fadel, J G; Mogensen, L; Kristensen, T; Gaillard, C; Kebreab, E

    2016-01-01

    The idea of managing cows for extended lactations rather than lactations of the traditional length of 1 yr primarily arose from observations of increasing problems with infertility and cows being dried off with high milk yields. However, it is vital for the success of extended lactation practices that cows are able to maintain milk yield per feeding day when the length of the calving interval (CInt) is increased. Milk yield per feeding day is defined as the cumulated lactation milk yield divided by the sum of days between 2 consecutive calvings. The main objective of this study was to investigate the milk production of cows managed for lactations of different lengths, and the primary aim was to investigate the relationship between CInt, parity, and milk yield. Five measurements of milk yield were used: energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield per feeding day, ECM yield per lactating day, cumulative ECM yield during the first 305 d of lactation, as well as ECM yield per day during early and late lactation. The analyses were based on a total of 1,379 completed lactations from cows calving between January 2007 and May 2013 in 4 Danish commercial dairy herds managed for extended lactation for several years. Herd-average CInt length ranged from 414 to 521 d. The herds had Holstein, Jersey, or crosses between Holstein, Jersey, and Red Danish cows with average milk yields ranging from 7,644 to 11,286 kg of ECM per cow per year. A significant effect of the CInt was noted on all 5 measurements of milk yield, and this effect interacted with parity for ECM per feeding day, ECM per lactating day and ECM per day during late lactation. The results showed that cows were at least able to produce equivalent ECM per feeding day with increasing CInt, and that first- and second-parity cows maintained ECM per lactating day. Cows with a CInt between 17 and 19 mo produced 476 kg of ECM more during the first 305 d compared with cows with a CInt of less than 13 mo. Furthermore, early

  6. Genotype by environment interactions on culling rates and 305-day milk yield of Holstein cows in 3 US regions.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, S; Lourenco, D A L; Misztal, I; Lawlor, T J

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate genotype by environment interactions for culling rates and milk production in large and small dairy herds in 3 US regions, using genotypes, pedigree, and phenotypes. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker variances were also estimated in these different environments. Culling rates including cow mortality were based on 6 Dairy Herd Improvement termination codes reported by dairy producers. Separate data sets for culling rates and 305-d milk yield were created for large and small dairy herds in the US regions of the Southeast (SE), Southwest (SW), and Northeast (NE) for the first 3 lactation cows that calved between 1999 and 2008. Genomic information from 42,503 SNP markers on 34,506 bulls was included in the analysis to predict genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) of culling rates and 305-d milk yield with a single-step genomic BLUP using a bivariate threshold-linear model. Cow replacement rates in large SE and NE herds were higher. Heritability estimates of culling rates ranged from 0.03 to 0.11, but the differences were small between large and small herds and among the 3 US regions. Genetic correlations between culling rates and 305-d milk yield were medium to high for cows sold for poor production and reproduction problems. Correlations of GEBV for culling rates among the 3 US regions ranged from 0.34 to 0.92 and were lower between the SW and the other regions, especially in small herds. Correlations of GEBV between large and small herds ranged from 0.44 to 0.90 and were lower in the SW. These results indicate genotype by environment interactions of cow culling rate between the US regions and between large and small herds. Correlations of top 30 SNP marker effects for culling rates between 2 US regions ranged from 0.64 to 0.98 and were higher than those of more SNP marker effects except for a culling reason "sold for dairy purpose." Those correlations between large and small herds ranged from 0.67 to 0

  7. Cubic-spline interpolation to estimate effects of inbreeding on milk yield in first lactation Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    Geha, Makram J.; Keown, Jeffrey F.; Van Vleck, L. Dale

    2011-01-01

    Milk yield records (305d, 2X, actual milk yield) of 123,639 registered first lactation Holstein cows were used to compare linear regression (y = β0 + β1X + e), quadratic regression, (y = β0 + β1X + β2X2 + e) cubic regression (y = β0 + β1X + β2X2 + β3X3 +e) and fixed factor models, with cubic-spline interpolation models, for estimating the effects of inbreeding on milk yield. Ten animal models, all with herd-year-season of calving as fixed effect, were compared using the Akaike corrected-Information Criterion (AICc). The cubic-spline interpolation model with seven knots had the lowest AICc, whereas for all those labeled as “traditional”, AICc was higher than the best model. Results from fitting inbreeding using a cubic-spline with seven knots were compared to results from fitting inbreeding as a linear covariate or as a fixed factor with seven levels. Estimates of inbreeding effects were not significantly different between the cubic-spline model and the fixed factor model, but were significantly different from the linear regression model. Milk yield decreased significantly at inbreeding levels greater than 9%. Variance component estimates were similar for the three models. Ranking of the top 100 sires with daughter records remained unaffected by the model used. PMID:21931517

  8. Cubic-spline interpolation to estimate effects of inbreeding on milk yield in first lactation Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Geha, Makram J; Keown, Jeffrey F; Van Vleck, L Dale

    2011-07-01

    Milk yield records (305d, 2X, actual milk yield) of 123,639 registered first lactation Holstein cows were used to compare linear regression (y = β(0) + β(1)X + e), quadratic regression, (y = β(0) + β(1)X + β(2)X(2) + e) cubic regression (y = β(0) + β(1)X + β(2)X(2) + β(3)X(3) +e) and fixed factor models, with cubic-spline interpolation models, for estimating the effects of inbreeding on milk yield. Ten animal models, all with herd-year-season of calving as fixed effect, were compared using the Akaike corrected-Information Criterion (AICc). The cubic-spline interpolation model with seven knots had the lowest AICc, whereas for all those labeled as "traditional", AICc was higher than the best model. Results from fitting inbreeding using a cubic-spline with seven knots were compared to results from fitting inbreeding as a linear covariate or as a fixed factor with seven levels. Estimates of inbreeding effects were not significantly different between the cubic-spline model and the fixed factor model, but were significantly different from the linear regression model. Milk yield decreased significantly at inbreeding levels greater than 9%. Variance component estimates were similar for the three models. Ranking of the top 100 sires with daughter records remained unaffected by the model used.

  9. Relationship between somatic cell count and milk yield in different stages of lactation.

    PubMed

    Hagnestam-Nielsen, C; Emanuelson, U; Berglund, B; Strandberg, E

    2009-07-01

    The association between somatic cell count (SCC) and daily milk yield in different stages of lactation was investigated in cows free of clinical mastitis (CM). Data were recorded between 1989 and 2004 in a research herd, and consisted of weekly test-day (TD) records from 1,155 lactations of Swedish Holstein and Swedish Red cows. The main data set (data set A) containing 36,117 records excluded TD affected by CM. In this data set, the geometric mean SCC was 55,000 and 95,000 cells/mL in primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. A subset of data set A (data set B), containing 27,753 records excluding all TD sampled in lactations affected by CM, was created to investigate the effect of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in lactations free of CM. Daily milk yields were analyzed using a mixed linear model with lactation stage; linear, quadratic and cubic regressions of log(2)-transformed and centered SCC nested within lactation stage; weeks in lactation; TD season; parity; breed; pregnancy status; year-season of calving; calving, reproductive, metabolic and claw disorders; and housing system as fixed effects. A random regression was included to further improve the modeling of the lactation curve. Primiparous and multiparous cows were analyzed separately. The magnitude of daily milk loss associated with increased SCC depended on stage of lactation and parity, and was most extensive in late lactation irrespective of parity. In data set A, daily milk loss at an SCC of 500,000 cells/mL ranged from 0.7 to 2.0 kg (3 to 9%) in primiparous cows, depending on stage of lactation. In multiparous cows, corresponding loss was 1.1 to 3.7 kg (4 to 18%). Regression coefficients of primiparous cows estimated from data set B were consistent with those obtained from data set A, whereas data set B generated more negative regression coefficients of multiparous cows suggesting a higher milk loss associated with increased SCC in lactations in which the cow did not develop CM. The 305-d milk

  10. Genetic parameters of health disorders, and relationships with 305-day milk yield and conformation traits of registered Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Van Dorp, T E; Dekkers, J C; Martin, S W; Noordhuizen, J P

    1998-08-01

    A total of 4368 first lactation records for Holstein cows from 30 herds was used to estimate genetic parameters for yield, conformation traits, and the binary coded disease traits of udder edema, milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, ketosis, cystic ovary, mastitis, and lameness. Data on health, parentage, and yield came from an on-farm program for record keeping and management. Test day production data were obtained from British Columbia DHI. Type classification data were received from the Holstein Association of Canada. Heritabilities of disease traits were low ranging from 0 to 0.05. Exceptions were lameness (0.16) and ketosis (0.39). Correlations of disease traits with 305-d milk yield and of selected type traits with retained placenta, displaced abomasum, mastitis, and lameness were estimated. Phenotypic correlations did not substantially differ from 0 except for the correlation between lameness and rear leg set (0.37). Genetic correlations between disease traits and milk yield were mostly positive (0.02 to 0.44). Only retained placenta had a negative genetic correlation with milk yield (-0.28). Genetic correlations ranged from 0 to 0.37 between udder conformation traits and mastitis, from -0.38 to 0.09 between leg conformation traits and lameness, and from -0.11 to 0.38 between rump conformation and retained placenta. The results suggest that selection based solely on yield may increase the incidence of disease. Selection on conformation traits can help reduce the incidence of disease, although genetic correlations are low.

  11. Effect of bromelain on milk yield, milk composition and mammary health in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Contreras, A; Paape, M J; Miller, R H; Corrales, J C; Luengo, C; Sánchez, A

    2009-04-01

    A 7 month prospective cohort study was designed to determine if feeding bromelain to dairy goats influenced the MSCC, milk yield, milk composition and the incidence of IMI. Forty-four clinically normal goats from 2nd to 6th parities were studied. Daily bromelain dosage was 7.4 grams/animal (185-mg/Kg weight). Samples for diagnostic bacteriology were collected from each udder half every 2 weeks. Samples for MSCC and composition were obtained every 42 days. Milk yield was also recorded every 42 days. Bromelain affected milk protein and fat but not MSCC, milk yield or milk lactose. Bromelain did not decrease the MSCC in healthy goats. Milk protein and fat increased in the bromelain treated group (P < 0.01), which is important for dairymen because premiums are paid milk fat and protein content. No clinical mastitis was detected in the goats for the total study period and incidence rate of subclinical IMI was 5.7%. Relative risk was 1.50 (0.28 < RR < 8.12) which means that the bromelain had no significant effect on IMI (P > 0.05). In addition, the use of pineapple by-products could be especially important in tropical countries were pineapple waste seems to be a pollution problem.

  12. Genetic parameters for buffalo milk yield and milk quality traits using Bayesian inference.

    PubMed

    Aspilcueta-Borquis, R R; Araujo Neto, F R; Baldi, F; Bignardi, A B; Albuquerque, L G; Tonhati, H

    2010-05-01

    The availability of accurate genetic parameters for important economic traits in milking buffaloes is critical for implementation of a genetic evaluation program. In the present study, heritabilities and genetic correlations for fat (FY305), protein (PY305), and milk (MY305) yields, milk fat (%F) and protein (%P) percentages, and SCS were estimated using Bayesian methodology. A total of 4,907 lactations from 1,985 cows were used. The (co)variance components were estimated using multiple-trait analysis by Bayesian inference method, applying an animal model, through Gibbs sampling. The model included the fixed effects of contemporary groups (herd-year and calving season), number of milking (2 levels), and age of cow at calving as (co)variable (quadratic and linear effect). The additive genetic, permanent environmental, and residual effects were included as random effects in the model. The posterior means of heritability distributions for MY305, FY305, PY305, %F, P%, and SCS were 0.22, 0.21, 0.23, 0.33, 0.39, and 0.26, respectively. The genetic correlation estimates ranged from -0.13 (between %P and SCS) to 0.94 (between MY305 and PY305). The permanent environmental correlation estimates ranged from -0.38 (between MY305 and %P) to 0.97 (between MY305 and PY305). Residual and phenotypic correlation estimates ranged from -0.26 (between PY305 and SCS) to 0.97 (between MY305 and PY305) and from -0.26 (between MY305 and SCS) to 0.97 (between MY305 and PY305), respectively. Milk yield, milk components, and milk somatic cells counts have enough genetic variation for selection purposes. The genetic correlation estimates suggest that milk components and milk somatic cell counts would be only slightly affected if increasing milk yield were the selection goal. Selecting to increase FY305 or PY305 will also increase MY305, %P, and %F.

  13. Short-term effects of milking frequency on milk yield, milk composition, somatic cell count and milk protein profile in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Torres, Alexandr; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo-Enrique; Morales-delaNuez, Antonio; Sánchez-Macías, Davinia; Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Castro, Noemi; Capote, Juan; Argüello, Anastasio

    2014-08-01

    Goats in Canary Islands are milked once a day by tradition, but in most countries with high technology on farms, goats are milked twice a day, which is known to improve milk yield. Therefore it is important to know whether the increase of milking frequency can improve the production without impairing milk quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the short term effects of three milking frequencies on milk yield, milk composition, somatic cell count (SCC) and milk protein profile in dairy goats traditionally milked once a day. Twelve Majorera goats in early lactation (48±4 d in milk) were used. During a 5-week period, goats were milked once a day (X1) in weeks 1 and 5, twice a day (X2) in weeks 2 and 4, and three times a day (X3) in week 3. Milk recording and sampling were done on the last day of each experimental week. Milk yield increased by 26% from X1 to X2. No differences were obtained when goats were switched from X2 to X3, and from X3 to X2. The goats recovered the production level when they returned to X1. Different patterns of changes in the milk constituents due to the milking frequency effect were observed. Fat percentage increased when switched from X1 to X2, then decreased from X2 to X3, and from X3 to X2, whereas it did not show significant differences from X2 to X1. Milking frequency did not affect the protein and lactose percentages. SCC values were unaffected when goats were milked X1, X2 and X3, but then they increased slightly when milking frequency was returned to X2 and X1. Finally, quantitative analysis showed an increase in intensities of milk protein bands from X1 to X2, but the intensities of casein bands (α(S1)-CN, α(S2)-CN, β-CN, κ-CN) and major whey proteins (α-La, β-Lg) decreased from X2 to X3.

  14. Effect of intensified feeding of heifer calves on growth, pubertal age, calving age, milk yield, and economics.

    PubMed

    Davis Rincker, L E; Vandehaar, M J; Wolf, C A; Liesman, J S; Chapin, L T; Weber Nielsen, M S

    2011-07-01

    calving, daily gain during gestation, withers height at calving, body condition score at calving, calving difficulty score, and calf BW were not different. Energy-corrected, age-uncorrected 305-d milk yield was not different, averaging 9,778 kg and 10,069 kg for heifers fed the conventional and intensive diets, respectively. However, removing genetic variation in milk using parent average values as a covariate resulted in a tendency for greater milk from heifers fed the intensive diet. Preweaning costs were higher for heifers fed the intensive diet. However, total costs measured through first lactation were not different. Intensified feeding of calves can be used to decrease age at first calving without negatively affecting milk yield or economics.

  15. Technical note: A mathematical function to predict daily milk yield of dairy cows in relation to the interval between milkings.

    PubMed

    Klopčič, M; Koops, W J; Kuipers, A

    2013-09-01

    The milk production of a dairy cow is characterized by lactation production, which is calculated from daily milk yields (DMY) during lactation. The DMY is calculated from one or more milkings a day collected at the farm. Various milking systems are in use today, resulting in one or many recorded milk yields a day, from which different calculations are used to determine DMY. The primary objective of this study was to develop a mathematical function that described milk production of a dairy cow in relation to the interval between 2 milkings. The function was partly based on the biology of the milk production process. This function, called the 3K-function, was able to predict milk production over an interval of 12h, so DMY was twice this estimate. No external information is needed to incorporate this function in methods to predict DMY. Application of the function on data from different milking systems showed a good fit. This function could be a universal tool to predict DMY for a variety of milking systems, and it seems especially useful for data from robotic milking systems. Further study is needed to evaluate the function under a wide range of circumstances, and to see how it can be incorporated in existing milk recording systems. A secondary objective of using the 3K-function was to compare how much DMY based on different milking systems differed from that based on a twice-a-day milking. Differences were consistent with findings in the literature.

  16. The effects of increased milking frequency during early lactation on milk yield and milk composition on commercial dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Soberon, F; Ryan, C M; Nydam, D V; Galton, D M; Overton, T R

    2011-09-01

    Increased milking frequency (IMF) during early lactation has the potential for carryover responses following the return to normal herd milking frequency. The objective was to determine the consistency of response of cows in commercial dairy farms to IMF during early lactation. Cows (n=398) were assigned randomly at calving within each of the 4 participating farms to 1 of 2 treatments. The control group was milked twice-daily (2×) during the entire lactation. The IMF group was milked 4-times daily (4×) starting on d 1 to 7, depending on farm, until d 21 postcalving and 2× thereafter. Cows in the IMF group were milked at the beginning and again at the end of the normal milking routine. Milking intervals differed across the farms for the 4× cows with a minimum interval of 3.5, 4.0, 5.0, and 6h for each of the 4 farms, respectively. The milk yield of cows subjected to IMF increased by 2.2±0.4 kg/d during the first 7 mo of lactation. Interactions of treatment with lactation group (primiparous vs. multiparous) were not significant. Although percentages of fat and protein in milk were decreased by early lactation IMF (3.69%±0.03 fat and 3.05%±0.02 true protein for control vs. 3.57%±0.03 fat and 2.99% ± 0.02 true protein for IMF), overall yields of protein were increased by IMF (1.02±0.01 vs. 0.98±0.01 kg/d). Early lactation IMF did not affect udder health as assessed by somatic cell count linear score. Cows subjected to IMF were 1.4 times more likely classified as subclinically ketotic than the control cows. Early lactation IMF has the potential to increase milk yield on commercial dairy farms. Although the direction of response was the same on all farms, the magnitude of the response was different among farms and appears influenced by management practices specific to each farm, which included, but were not limited to, housing system, stocking density, nutrition, genetics, and other covariates differing among farms.

  17. Calcium montmorillonite clay in dairy feed reduces aflatoxin concentrations in milk without interfering with milk quality, composition or yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if a calcium montmorillonite clay (Novasil Plus, NSP), can significantly reduce aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) concentrations in milk without affecting dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition, vitamin A, or riboflavin concentrations. The study was designed us...

  18. Behavior and Milk Yield Responses of Dairy Cattle to Simulated Jet Aircraft Noise.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    dairy cows and release of prolactin (Prl) and Cortisol (Gc) in response to the milking stimuli. Thirty-six lactating Holstein dairy cows were...assigned to experiment when between 79 and 155 days in milk (DIM). Experiment was an incomplete block design with three treatments. Cows were... Cows were exposed to noise on 10-12 d/period with a frequency of 1-4 times/d. Milk yields, milk composition and residual milk were measured

  19. Predictions of Daily Milk and Fat Yields, Major Groups of Fatty Acids, and C18:1 cis-9 from Single Milking Data without a Milking Interval

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, Valérie M. R.; Reding, Romain; Bormann, Jeanne; Gengler, Nicolas; Soyeurt, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Reducing the frequency of milk recording decreases the costs of official milk recording. However, this approach can negatively affect the accuracy of predicting daily yields. Equations to predict daily yield from morning or evening data were developed in this study for fatty milk components from traits recorded easily by milk recording organizations. The correlation values ranged from 96.4% to 97.6% (96.9% to 98.3%) when the daily yields were estimated from the morning (evening) milkings. The simplicity of the proposed models which do not include the milking interval should facilitate their use by breeding and milk recording organizations. Abstract Reducing the frequency of milk recording would help reduce the costs of official milk recording. However, this approach could also negatively affect the accuracy of predicting daily yields. This problem has been investigated in numerous studies. In addition, published equations take into account milking intervals (MI), and these are often not available and/or are unreliable in practice. The first objective of this study was to propose models in which the MI was replaced by a combination of data easily recorded by dairy farmers. The second objective was to further investigate the fatty acids (FA) present in milk. Equations to predict daily yield from AM or PM data were based on a calibration database containing 79,971 records related to 51 traits [milk yield (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily); fat content (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily); fat yield (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/day); levels of seven different FAs or FA groups (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/dL milk), and the corresponding FA yields for these seven FA types/groups (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/day)]. These equations were validated using two distinct external datasets. The results obtained from the proposed models were compared to previously published results for

  20. Real-time evaluation of individual cow milk for higher cheese-milk quality with increased cheese yield.

    PubMed

    Katz, G; Merin, U; Bezman, D; Lavie, S; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, L; Leitner, G

    2016-06-01

    Cheese was produced in a series of experiments from milk separated in real time during milking by using the Afilab MCS milk classification service (Afikim, Israel), which is installed on the milk line in every stall and sorts milk in real time into 2 target tanks: the A tank for cheese production (CM) and the B tank for fluid milk products (FM). The cheese milk was prepared in varying ratios ranging from ~10:90 to ~90:10 CM:FM by using this system. Cheese was made with corrected protein-to-fat ratio and without it, as well as from milk stored at 4°C for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8d before production. Cheese weight at 24h increased along the separation cutoff level with no difference in moisture, and dry matter increased. The data compiled allowed a theoretical calculation of cheese yield and comparing it to the original van Slyke equation. Whenever the value of Afi-Cf, which is the optical measure of curd firmness obtained by the Afilab instrument, was used, a better predicted level of cheese yield was obtained. In addition, 27 bulk milk tanks with milk separated at a 50:50 CM:FM ratio resulted in cheese with a significantly higher fat and protein, dry matter, and weight at 24h. Moreover, solids incorporated from the milk into the cheese were significantly higher in cheeses made of milk from A tanks. The influence of storage of milk up to 8d before cheese making was tested. Gross milk composition did not change and no differences were found in cheese moisture, but dry matter and protein incorporated in the cheese dropped significantly along the storage time. These findings confirm that milk stored for several days before processing is prone to physico-chemical deterioration processes, which result in loss of milk constituents to the whey and therefore reduced product yield. The study demonstrates that introducing the unknown parameters for calculating the predicted cheese yield, such as the empiric measured Afi-Cf properties, are more accurate and the increase in cheese

  1. Genetic parameters for milk fatty acids, milk yield and quality traits of a Holstein cattle population reared under tropical conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information about genetic parameters is essential for selection decisions and genetic evaluation. Those estimates are population specific, but few studies are available for dairy cattle populations reared under tropical and subtropical conditions. Heritability and genetic correlations for milk yield...

  2. Milk yield and milk composition responses to change in predicted net energy and metabolizable protein: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Daniel, J B; Friggens, N C; Chapoutot, P; Van Laar, H; Sauvant, D

    2016-12-01

    Using a meta-analysis of literature data, this study aimed to quantify the dry matter (DM) intake response to changes in diet composition, and milk responses (yield, milk component yields and milk composition) to changes in dietary net energy for lactation (NEL) and metabolizable protein (MP) in dairy cows. From all studies included in the database, 282 experiments (825 treatments) with experimentally induced changes in either NEL or MP content were kept for this analysis. These treatments covered a wide range of diet characteristics and therefore a large part of the plausible NEL and MP contents and supplies that can be expected in practical situations. The average MP and NEL contents were, respectively (mean±SD), 97±12 g/kg DM and 6.71±0.42 MJ/kg DM. On a daily supply basis, there were high between-experiment correlations for MP and NEL above maintenance. Therefore, supplies of MP and NEL above maintenance were, respectively, centred on MP supply for which MP efficiency into milk protein is 0.67, and NEL above maintenance supply for which the ratio of NEL milk/NEL above maintenance is 1.00 (centred variables were called MP67 and NEL100). The majority of the selected studies used groups of multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows in mid lactation, milked twice a day. Using a mixed model, between- and within-experiment variation was split to estimate DM intake and milk responses. The use of NEL100 and MP67 supplies substantially improved the accuracy of the prediction of milk yield and milk component yields responses with, on average, a 27% lower root mean square error (RMSE) relative to using dietary NEL and MP contents as predictors. For milk composition (g/kg), the average RMSE was only 3% lower on a supply basis compared with a concentration basis. Effects of NEL and MP supplies on milk yield and milk component yields responses were additive. Increasing NEL supply increases energy partitioning towards body reserve, whereas increasing MP supply increases the

  3. Genome Signature of Artificial Selection for High Milk Yield in Holstein Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial selection for high milk yield in Holstein cattle during the past forty years achieved tremendous increases in milk yield but had an unintended consequence of reduced fertility. It was unknown how artificial selection changed the Holstein genome and what genome changes were associated wit...

  4. Does increasing milk yield per cow reduce greenhouse gas emissions? A system approach.

    PubMed

    Zehetmeier, M; Baudracco, J; Hoffmann, H; Heißenhuber, A

    2012-01-01

    Milk yield per cow has continuously increased in many countries over the last few decades. In addition to potential economic advantages, this is often considered an important strategy to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kg of milk produced. However, it should be considered that milk and beef production systems are closely interlinked, as fattening of surplus calves from dairy farming and culled dairy cows play an important role in beef production in many countries. The main objective of this study was to quantify the effect of increasing milk yield per cow on GHG emissions and on other side effects. Two scenarios were modelled: constant milk production at the farm level and decreasing beef production (as co-product; Scenario 1); and both milk and beef production kept constant by compensating the decline in beef production with beef from suckler cow production (Scenario 2). Model calculations considered two types of production unit (PU): dairy cow PU and suckler cow PU. A dairy cow PU comprises not only milk output from the dairy cow, but also beef output from culled cows and the fattening system for surplus calves. The modelled dairy cow PU differed in milk yield per cow per year (6000, 8000 and 10 000 kg) and breed. Scenario 1 resulted in lower GHG emissions with increasing milk yield per cow. However, when milk and beef outputs were kept constant (Scenario 2), GHG emissions remained approximately constant with increasing milk yield from 6000 to 8000 kg/cow per year, whereas further increases in milk yield (10 000 kg milk/cow per year) resulted in slightly higher (8%) total GHG emissions. Within Scenario 2, two different allocation methods to handle co-products (surplus calves and beef from culled cows) from dairy cow production were evaluated. Results showed that using the 'economic allocation method', GHG emissions per kg milk decreased with increasing milk yield per cow per year, from 1.06 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2eq) to 0.89 kg CO2eq for the 6000 and

  5. Effects of fatty acid supplements on milk yield and energy balance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Harvatine, K J; Allen, M S

    2006-03-01

    Saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplements (FS) were evaluated for effects on yield of milk and milk components, concentration of milk components including milk fatty acid profile, and energy balance. Eight ruminally and duodenally cannulated cows and 8 noncannulated cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Treatments were control and a linear substitution of 2.5% fatty acids from saturated FS (SAT; prilled, hydrogenated free fatty acids) for partially unsaturated FS (UNS; calcium soaps of long-chain fatty acids). The SAT treatment did not change milk fat concentration, but UNS linearly decreased milk fat in cannulated cows and tended to decrease milk fat in noncannulated cows compared with control. Milk fat depression with UNS corresponded to increased concentrations of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid and trans C18:1 fatty acids in milk. Milk fat profile was similar for SAT and control, but UNS decreased concentration of short- and medium-chain FA. Digestible energy intake tended to decrease linearly with increasing unsaturated FS in cannulated and noncannulated cows. Increasing unsaturated FS linearly increased empty body weight and net energy gain in cannulated cows, whereas increasing saturated FS linearly increased plasma insulin. Efficiency of conversion of digestible energy to milk tended to decrease linearly with increasing unsaturated FS for cannulated cows only. Addition of SAT provided little benefit to production and energy balance, whereas UNS decreased energy intake and milk energy yield.

  6. Feeding Moringa oleifera fresh or ensiled to dairy cows--effects on milk yield and milk flavor.

    PubMed

    Mendieta-Araica, Bryan; Spörndly, Eva; Reyes-Sánchez, Nadir; Spörndly, Rolf

    2011-06-01

    Moringa oleifera, either fresh or ensiled, was compared with Elephant grass as a main feedstuff for dairy cows. To test the effects feed had on milk yield, milk composition, ration digestibility, and the organoleptic characteristics of milk, six lactating dairy cows were used in a Changeover 3 × 3 Latin Square experiment, replicated twice. With equal intake of metabolizable energy the intake of protein and fiber differed (p < 0.001) between all diets where fresh Moringa had the highest and the Elephant grass diet had the lowest intake. Compared with the control diet, ensiled Moringa had higher digestibility (P < 0.05) of both protein and fiber. With the exception of DM digestibility, no digestibility differences were found between fresh Moringa and Moringa silage treatments. Milk yield did not differ between any of the treatments and averaged 13.7 kg cow day(-1). Milk composition was similar among all treatments. Milk from the fresh Moringa treatment, however, had a grassy flavor and aroma, significantly different from the other two treatments, even though it was normal in color and appearance. No organoleptic differences were found between milk from the control treatment and the Moringa silage treatment. The conclusion is that Moringa silage can be fed to dairy cows in large quantities to produce the same quantity and quality of milk as traditional diets.

  7. Variation in the bovine FABP4 gene affects milk yield and milk protein content in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, H.; Cheng, L.; Azimu, W.; Hodge, S.; Edwards, G. R.; Hickford, J. G. H.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) bind long-chain fatty acids and are involved in their intracellular transport. Of the known bovine FABP genes, FABP4 has been mapped to a region on chromosome 14 that contains quantitative trait loci for milk traits. This study investigated the association of FABP4 haplotypes with milk production traits in 719 Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cows. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis of a variable region of the gene revealed three haplotypes (A, B and C). Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified: two in exon 3 and three in intron 3. A was associated (P = 0.032) with increased milk protein percentage (present: 4.00 ± 0.02%; absent: 3.95 ± 0.02%) and B was associated (P = 0.009) with increased milk yield (present: 23.81 ± 0.23 kg/d; absent: 23.06 ± 0.21 kg/d), but tended to be associated with a decrease in protein percentage and an increase in protein yield. Cows with genotypes AA, AB and AC produced less milk, but with a higher protein percentage than BC cows. This suggest that FABP4 affects milk yield and milk protein content, both economically important traits, and that further study of this gene is warranted. PMID:26067182

  8. Predictions of Daily Milk and Fat Yields, Major Groups of Fatty Acids, and C18:1 cis-9 from Single Milking Data without a Milking Interval.

    PubMed

    Arnould, Valérie M R; Reding, Romain; Bormann, Jeanne; Gengler, Nicolas; Soyeurt, Hélène

    2015-07-31

    Reducing the frequency of milk recording would help reduce the costs of official milk recording. However, this approach could also negatively affect the accuracy of predicting daily yields. This problem has been investigated in numerous studies. In addition, published equations take into account milking intervals (MI), and these are often not available and/or are unreliable in practice. The first objective of this study was to propose models in which the MI was replaced by a combination of data easily recorded by dairy farmers. The second objective was to further investigate the fatty acids (FA) present in milk. Equations to predict daily yield from AM or PM data were based on a calibration database containing 79,971 records related to 51 traits [milk yield (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily); fat content (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily); fat yield (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/day); levels of seven different FAs or FA groups (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/dL milk), and the corresponding FA yields for these seven FA types/groups (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/day)]. These equations were validated using two distinct external datasets. The results obtained from the proposed models were compared to previously published results for models which included a MI effect. The corresponding correlation values ranged from 96.4% to 97.6% when the daily yields were estimated from the AM milkings and ranged from 96.9% to 98.3% when the daily yields were estimated from the PM milkings. The simplicity of these proposed models should facilitate their use by breeding and milk recording organizations.

  9. Statistical Evaluations of Variations in Dairy Cows’ Milk Yields as a Precursor of Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Masashi; Asano, Tomokazu; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary There are many reports of abnormal changes occurring in various natural systems prior to earthquakes. Unusual animal behavior is one of these abnormalities; however, there are few objective indicators and to date, reliability has remained uncertain. We found that milk yields of dairy cows decreased prior to an earthquake in our previous case study. In this study, we examined the reliability of decreases in milk yields as a precursor for earthquakes using long-term observation data. In the results, milk yields decreased approximately three weeks before earthquakes. We have come to the conclusion that dairy cow milk yields have applicability as an objectively observable unusual animal behavior prior to earthquakes, and dairy cows respond to some physical or chemical precursors of earthquakes. Abstract Previous studies have provided quantitative data regarding unusual animal behavior prior to earthquakes; however, few studies include long-term, observational data. Our previous study revealed that the milk yields of dairy cows decreased prior to an extremely large earthquake. To clarify whether the milk yields decrease prior to earthquakes, we examined the relationship between earthquakes of various magnitudes and daily milk yields. The observation period was one year. In the results, cross-correlation analyses revealed a significant negative correlation between earthquake occurrence and milk yields approximately three weeks beforehand. Approximately a week and a half beforehand, a positive correlation was revealed, and the correlation gradually receded to zero as the day of the earthquake approached. Future studies that use data from a longer observation period are needed because this study only considered ten earthquakes and therefore does not have strong statistical power. Additionally, we compared the milk yields with the subionospheric very low frequency/low frequency (VLF/LF) propagation data indicating ionospheric perturbations. The results showed

  10. Effects of stage of pregnancy on variance components, daily milk yields and 305-day milk yield in Holstein cows, as estimated by using a test-day model.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, T; Hagiya, K; Takeda, H; Osawa, T; Yamaguchi, S; Nagamine, Y

    2016-08-01

    Pregnancy and calving are elements indispensable for dairy production, but the daily milk yield of cows decline as pregnancy progresses, especially during the late stages. Therefore, the effect of stage of pregnancy on daily milk yield must be clarified to accurately estimate the breeding values and lifetime productivity of cows. To improve the genetic evaluation model for daily milk yield and determine the effect of the timing of pregnancy on productivity, we used a test-day model to assess the effects of stage of pregnancy on variance component estimates, daily milk yields and 305-day milk yield during the first three lactations of Holstein cows. Data were 10 646 333 test-day records for the first lactation; 8 222 661 records for the second; and 5 513 039 records for the third. The data were analyzed within each lactation by using three single-trait random regression animal models: one model that did not account for the stage of pregnancy effect and two models that did. The effect of stage of pregnancy on test-day milk yield was included in the model by applying a regression on days pregnant or fitting a separate lactation curve for each days open (days from calving to pregnancy) class (eight levels). Stage of pregnancy did not affect the heritability estimates of daily milk yield, although the additive genetic and permanent environmental variances in late lactation were decreased by accounting for the stage of pregnancy effect. The effects of days pregnant on daily milk yield during late lactation were larger in the second and third lactations than in the first lactation. The rates of reduction of the 305-day milk yield of cows that conceived fewer than 90 days after the second or third calving were significantly (P<0.05) greater than that after the first calving. Therefore, we conclude that differences between the negative effects of early pregnancy in the first, compared with later, lactations should be included when determining the optimal number of days open

  11. Yield and sensory properties of cheese made with milk from Holstein or Montbeliarde cows milked twice or once daily.

    PubMed

    Martin, B; Pomiès, D; Pradel, P; Verdier-Metz, I; Rémond, B

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the milk properties and the yield and sensory properties of Cantal cheese made with milk from Holstein or Montbéliarde cows milked once or twice daily. Sixty-four grazing cows [32 Holstein (H) and 32 Montbéliarde (M) cows] in the declining phase of lactation (157 d in milk) were allocated to 1 of 2 equivalent groups milked once daily (ODM) or twice daily (TDM) for 7 wk. The full-fat raw milk collected during 24 h from the 4 groups of cows (M-TDM, M-ODM, H-TDM, and H-ODM) was pooled and processed into Cantal cheese 4 times during the last 4 wk of the experimental period. In all, 16 cheeses were made (2 milking frequencies x 2 breeds x 4 replicates) and analyzed after a ripening period of 15 and 28 wk. The results showed that for both breeds, the pooled milk content of fat, whey protein, casein, total protein, and phosphorus as well as rennet clotting time and curd firming time were significantly higher with ODM cows, whereas the casein-to-total protein ratio was lower, and lactose, urea, calcium, and free fatty acids contents of milk remained unchanged. The acidification and draining kinetics of the cheese as well as cheese yields and the chemical and rheological properties of the ripened cheese were not significantly modified by milking frequency. For both breeds, the cheeses derived from ODM cows had a slightly yellower coloration but the other sensory attributes, except for pepper odor, were not significantly affected by milking frequency, thereby demonstrating that ODM does not have an adverse effect on the sensory properties of Cantal cheese. Compared with that of Holstein cows, milk from Montbéliarde cows resulted in a higher cheese yield (+1.250 kg/100 kg of milk) and ripened cheeses with lower pH, dry matter, calcium, sodium chloride, and water-soluble nitrogen concentrations. These cheeses had also a less firm and more elastic texture, a more acidic taste, and a yogurt/whey aroma.

  12. Palmitic acid increased yields of milk and milk fat and nutrient digestibility across production level of lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2013-01-01

    The effects of palmitic acid supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, and metabolic and production responses were evaluated in dairy cows with a wide range of milk production (34.5 to 66.2 kg/d) in a crossover design experiment with a covariate period. Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows (151 ± 66 d in milk) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence within level of milk production. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet DM) with palmitic acid (PA; 99% C16:0) or control (SH; soyhulls). Treatment periods were 21 d, with the final 4 d used for data and sample collection. Immediately before the first treatment period, cows were fed the control diet for 21 d and baseline values were obtained for all variables (covariate period). Milk production measured during the covariate period (preliminary milk yield) was used as covariate. In general, no interactions were detected between treatment and preliminary milk yield for the response variables measured. The PA treatment increased milk fat percentage (3.40 vs. 3.29%) and yields of milk (46.0 vs. 44.9 kg/d), milk fat (1.53 vs. 1.45 kg/d), and 3.5% fat-corrected milk (44.6 vs. 42.9 kg/d), compared with SH. Concentrations and yields of protein and lactose were not affected by treatment. The PA treatment did not affect dry matter (DM) intake or body weight, tended to decrease body condition score (2.93 vs. 2.99), and increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk/DM intake; 1.60 vs. 1.54), compared with SH. The PA treatment increased total-tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (39.0 vs.35.7%) and organic matter (67.9 vs. 66.2%), but decreased fatty acid (FA) digestibility (61.2 vs. 71.3%). As total FA intake increased, total FA digestibility decreased (R(2) = 0.51) and total FA absorbed increased (quadratic R(2) = 0.82). Fatty acid yield response, calculated as the additional FA yield secreted in milk per unit of additional FA intake, was 11.7% for total FA and 16.5% for C16:0 plus cis-9 C16:1 FA

  13. Effects of supplementation of dairy cattle with fish oil on silage intake, milk yield and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Keady, T W; Mayne, C S; Fitzpatrick, D A

    2000-05-01

    The effects of level of fish oil inclusion in the diet on grass silage intake, and milk yield and composition of dairy cows offered either 5 or 10 kg concentrates/d were evaluated in a ten treatment, partly balanced, changeover design experiment involving 50 cows in early lactation. Concentrates were prepared to provide 0, 150, 300 or 450 g fish oil/cow per d or 300 g fish oil/cow per d from a premix when each animal was offered 5 kg/d. The fish oil was predominantly from herring and mackerel caught in the North Atlantic while the fish oil premix was obtained from a commercial source and used palm kernel expeller as a carrier. Increasing fish oil supplementation decreased silage dry matter intake and the concentrations of milk fat and protein, and increased milk yield and diet digestibility. There were significant interactions between concentrate feed level and level of fish oil for silage intake and milk yield. Other than for the concentrations of milk fat and protein, and 20:4n-6 fatty acids, the source of fish oil did not affect forage intake or animal performance. Fish oil supplementation also decreased the concentrations of milk protein by 0.9 g/kg for each 100 g increase in fish oil supplementation, the depression being similar at each level of concentrate feeding. Supplementing the feed of dairy cows with 450 g fish oil/cow per d decreased the concentration of milk fat by 15 g/kg. This study also showed that feeding dairy cattle with fish oil is an efficient method of increasing eicosapentaenoic acid in the human diet through transfer into milk.

  14. Cheesemaking in highland pastures: Milk technological properties, cream, cheese and ricotta yields, milk nutrients recovery, and products composition.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, M; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Stocco, G; Valorz, C; Bazzoli, I; Sturaro, E; Ramanzin, M; Bittante, G

    2016-12-01

    Summer transhumance of dairy cows to high Alpine pastures is still practiced in many mountainous areas. It is important for many permanent dairy farms because the use of highland pastures increases milk production and high-priced typical local dairy products often boost farm income. As traditional cheese- and ricotta-making procedures in Alpine pastures are central to this dairy system, the objective of this study was to characterize the quality and efficiency of products and their relationships with the quality and availability of grass during the grazing season. The milk from 148 cows from 12 permanent farms reared on a temporary farm located in Alpine pastures was processed every 2wk during the summer (7 cheesemakings from late June to early September). During each processing, 11 dairy products (4 types of milk, 2 by-products, 3 fresh products, and 2 ripened cheeses) were sampled and analyzed. In addition, 8 samples of fresh forage from the pasture used by the cows were collected and analyzed. At the beginning of the pasture season the cows were at 233±90d in milk, 2.4±1.7 parities, and produced 23.6±5.7kg/d of milk. The milk yield decreased with the move from permanent to temporary farms and during the entire summer transhumance, but partly recovered after the cows returned to the permanent farms. Similar trends were observed for the daily yields of fat, protein, casein, lactose, and energy, as we found no large variations in the quality of the milk, with the exception of the first period of Alpine pasture. The somatic cell counts of milk increased during transhumance, but this resulted from a concentration of cells in a lower quantity of milk rather than an increase in the total number of cells ejected daily from the udder. We noted a quadratic trend in availability of forage (fresh and dry matter weight per hectare), with a maximum in late July. The quality of forage also varied during the summer with a worsening of chemical composition. The evening milk

  15. Evaluation of udder cisterns and effects on milk yield of dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Rovai, M; Caja, G; Such, X

    2008-12-01

    Nine Manchega (0.94 L/d) and 10 Lacaune (2.07 L/d) ewes at the same stage of lactation (90 d in milk) were used to study the interbreed differences in milk yield, mammary morphological traits, and machine-milking ability. Udder traits were measured after 6 h of udder filling before the start of the experiment. Cisternal area (by ultrasonography), cisternal milk (by teat cannula drainage), and alveolar milk (by machine milking after an intravenous oxytocin injection) were randomly measured 8 h after milking for 2 wk consecutively either with an intravenous injection of an oxytocin receptor blocking agent (atosiban, AT) or without (control, C) to avoid the occurrence of milk letdown before milking. Lacaune ewes had greater udder depth (22.5 +/- 0.9 vs. 19.6 +/- 0.9 cm) and cistern height (27.1 +/- 3.8 vs. 15.6 +/- 3.5 mm), whereas Manchega ewes had longer (42.7 +/- 1.5 vs. 32.7 +/- 1.5 mm) and wider teats (17.4 +/- 0.5 vs. 13.9 +/- 0.5 mm). Values per half udder for Manchega and Lacaune ewes differed in cisternal area (12.8 +/- 0.7 and 23.7 +/- 0.6 cm(2)) and cisternal milk (120 +/- 0.6 and 269 +/- 0.5 mL), but not in alveolar milk (95 +/- 0.5 and 102 +/- 0.4 mL), respectively. Cisternal area and cisternal milk were positively correlated (r = 0.79). Ratios between cisternal and alveolar milk were 56:44 and 73:27 for Manchega and Lacaune ewes, respectively. Cisternal milk volumes obtained with the AT or C treatment were similar in Manchega (111 +/- 10 vs. 122 +/- 8 mL) but differed in Lacaune ewes (239 +/- 8 vs. 299 +/- 8 mL), respectively. Consequently, alveolar milk with AT vs. C was similar in Manchega (104 +/- 8 vs. 86 +/- 7 mL) but different in Lacaune ewes (115 +/- 7 vs. 89 +/- 7 mL). Results of this experiment confirm the need for the use of an oxytocin-blocking agent for accurate evaluation of milk contained in the udder of dairy ewes. Moreover, despite the differences in daily milk yield, alveolar milk did not vary between breeds, emphasizing the role of the

  16. Effect of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars on the milk yield of grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wims, C M; McEvoy, M; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of four perennial ryegrass cultivars: Bealey, Astonenergy, Spelga and AberMagic on the milk yield and milk composition of grazing dairy cows. Two 4 × 4 latin square experiments were completed, one during the reproductive and the other during the vegetative growth phase of the cultivars. Thirty-two Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were divided into four groups, with each group assigned 17 days on each cultivar during both experiments. Within each observation period, milk yield and milk composition, sward morphology and pasture chemical composition were measured. During the reproductive growth phase, organic matter digestibility (OMD) was greater for Bealey and Astonenergy (P < 0.001; +1.6%). AberMagic contained a higher stem proportion (P < 0.01; +0.06) and a longer sheath height (P < 0.001; +1.9 cm). Consequently, cows grazing AberMagic recorded a lower milk yield (P < 0.001; -1.5 kg/day) and a lower milk solids yield (P < 0.001; -0.13 kg/day). During the vegetative growth phase, OMD was greater (P < 0.001; +1.1%) for Bealey, whereas the differences between the cultivars in terms of sward structure were smaller and did not appear to influence animal performance. As a result, cows grazing Bealey recorded a higher milk yield (P < 0.001; +0.9 kg/day) and a higher milk solids yield (P < 0.01; +0.08 kg/day). It was concluded that grass cultivar did influence milk yield due to variations in sward structure and chemical composition.

  17. Environmental and genetic factors affecting milk yield and quality in three Italian sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Maria; D'Alessandro, Angela Gabriella; Dario, Cataldo

    2017-02-01

    The aims of the study described in the Research Communication were to determine the level of influence of some environmental factors on milk yield and quality traits, including lactose, and lactation length in ewes belonging to three different Italian breeds and to estimate the heritability for the same traits. A total of 2138 lactation records obtained from 535 ewes belonging to three different Italian breeds (Comisana, Leccese, and Sarda) were used. Breed significantly affected all of the considered traits. Moreover, year of lambing affected milk yield and lactation length without influence on milk quality traits. Parity affected significantly only the milk yield, whereas type of birth showed its effect on milk yield, fat, protein, and lactose yield. On the whole, the presently reported heritability estimates are within the range of those already obtained in other dairy breeds by other authors, with values for lactation length being very low in all the investigated populations. Considering the heritability estimates for lactose content and yield, to the best of our knowledge, there is a lack of information on these parameters in ovine species and this is the first report on heritability of lactose content and yield in dairy sheep breeds. Our results suggest that genetic variability for milk traits other than lactation length is adequate for selection indicating a good response to selection in these breeds.

  18. Effect of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen environment, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Gunun, P

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Four multiparous early-lactating dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cross-bred, 75%) with an initial body weight (BW) of 405 ± 40 kg and 36 ± 8 day in milk were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were unsupplemented (control), supplemented with rain tree pod (S. saman) meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplemented with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplemented with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter (DM) intake. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effect on ruminal pH, blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen concentration (p > 0.05). However, supplementation with RPM resulted in lower ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) concentration (p < 0.05). In addition, propionic acid and milk production increased while acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, methane production, methanogens and protozoal population decreased with RPM and/or PO supplementation. Furthermore, addition of PO and RPO in the diets increased milk fat while supplementation of RPM resulted in greater milk protein and Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers (p < 0.05). The population of Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus were not affected by any treatments. The findings on the present study showed that supplementation with RPM and RPO to diets of cows improved the rumen environment and increased milk yield, content of milk protein and milk fat.

  19. Effect of gradual or abrupt cessation of milking at dry off on milk yield and somatic cell score in the subsequent lactation.

    PubMed

    Gott, P N; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Schuenemann, G M; Proudfoot, K L; Hogan, J S

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of milk cessation method (abrupt or gradual) at dry off on milk yield and somatic cell score (SCS) up to 120 d in milk during the subsequent lactation. Data from 428 cows from 8 dairy herds in Ohio were analyzed. Abrupt cessation cows kept the farm's regular milking schedule (2 or 3 times) through dry off and gradual cessation cows were milked once daily for the final week of lactation. Milk yield and SCS were collected using Dairy Herd Improvement Association test-day records. Aseptic quarter milk samples were collected approximately 1 wk before dry off, at dry off, and within 1 wk after calving for bacterial culture to determine the presence of intramammary infections. Overall, milk cessation method was not significantly associated with either milk yield or SCS in early lactation; however, interaction between the milk cessation method and herd was highly significant. Cows producing greater amounts of milk around dry off had significantly higher SCS in the following lactation. Shorter dry periods were significantly associated with decreased milk yield in the following lactation, especially among abruptly dried off cows. Additionally, as expected, several other factors, such as parity of cows and stage of lactation, were significantly associated with both outcomes. No interactions between the milk cessation method and the other explanatory variables in the final models were significant. The results of the current study suggest that higher milk yield at dry off was associated with higher SCS in the following lactation, even though milk cessation method at the end of lactation had a varying effect on test-day milk yield and SCS in different herds during the first 120 d in milk in the following lactation. The specific herd characteristics influencing this could not be identified within this study, warranting further research.

  20. Genetic parameters of milk coagulation properties and their relationships with milk yield and quality traits in Italian Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Cassandro, M; Comin, A; Ojala, M; Dal Zotto, R; De Marchi, M; Gallo, L; Carnier, P; Bittante, G

    2008-01-01

    Milk coagulation properties (MCP) are an important aspect in assessing cheese-making ability. Several studies showed that favorable conditions of milk reactivity with rennet, curd formation rate, and curd strength, as well as curd syneresis, have a positive effect on the entire cheese-making process and subsequently on the ripening of cheese. Moreover, MCP were found to be heritable, but little scientific literature is available about their genetic aspects. The aims of this study were to estimate heritability of MCP and genetic correlations among MCP and milk production and quality traits. A total of 1,071 Italian Holstein cows (progeny of 54 sires) reared in 34 herds in Northern Italy were sampled from January to July 2004. Individual milk samples were collected during the morning milking and analyzed for coagulation time (RCT), curd firmness (a30), pH, titratable acidity, fat, protein, and casein contents, and somatic cell count. About 10% of individual milk samples did not coagulate in 31 min, so they were removed from the analyses. Estimates of heritability for RCT and a30 were 0.25 +/- 0.04 and 0.15 +/- 0.03, respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations between MCP traits and milk production traits were negligible except for a30 with protein and casein contents (0.44 +/- 0.10 and 0.53 +/- 0.09, respectively). Estimates of genetic correlations between MCP traits and somatic cell score were strong and favorable, as well as those between MCP and pH and titratable acidity. Selecting for high casein content, milk acidity, and low somatic cell count might be an indirect way to improve MCP without reducing milk yield and quality traits.

  1. Using activity and milk yield as predictors of fresh cow disorders.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J L; Tozer, P R

    2004-02-01

    The objective was to determine whether daily walking activity and milk yields could be used as predictors of metabolic and digestive disorders early in lactation. Data were collected from 1996 through 1999 from 1445 dairy cows in 3 Florida herds. Walking activity, milk yield, and other measures were collected from a computerized dairy management system. Mixed models analysis was used for data on cows before their first detected estrus, as identified by difference in activity. Healthy cows were defined as those without any metabolic or digestive disorder during the prebreeding stage, whereas a sick cow had an occurrence of those disorders at any time during the prebreeding stage. Metabolic disorders were ketosis, retained placenta, and milk fever. Digestive disorders included displaced abomasum, indigestion, reduced feed intake, traumatic gastritis, acidosis, and bloat. Data from cows with known cases of ketosis, left displaced abomasum, and digestive disorders were analyzed to determine changes in activity and milk yield before those specific disorders were clinically diagnosed. Although walking activity was generally lower among sick cows, cows with ketosis, left displaced abomasum, and digestive disorders had higher than average activity 8, 9, and 8 d, respectively, before each diagnosed disorder. Daily milk yields of sick cows were approximately 15 kg/d less than milk yields of healthy cows. Milk yields were lower by 6, 7, and 5 d, respectively, before diagnoses of ketosis, left displaced abomasum, and digestive disorders. Cows with ketosis, left displaced abomasum, and general digestive disorders could possibly be detected about 5 to 6 d earlier than clinical diagnoses based on changes in daily walking activity and milk yield.

  2. Effects of dam parity and pre-weaning average daily gain of Holstein calves on future milk production.

    PubMed

    Hoseyni, Fatemeh; Mahjoubi, Ehsan; Zahmatkesh, Davood; Yazdi, Mehdi Hossein

    2016-11-01

    This research communication describes relationships between pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG) and dam parity with future productivity of dairy calves. Higher ADG before weaning has been shown to be related to greater milk production in the first lactation of Holstein calves fed milk replacer. However, data is limited on the relationship between pre-weaning ADG and first lactation performance of Holstein calves fed whole milk. Data of three hundred and thirty-two Holstein calves from 35 primiparous and 297 multiparous cows was investigated to evaluate the relationship between the dam parity and pre-weaning ADG with the first lactation performance. Results indicated that birth (P < 0·01), and weaning body weight (P < 0·001) were greater in calves born from multiparous cows. Neither 305 d milk production nor pre-weaning ADG differed significantly between calves born to primiparous or multiparous cows, although milk yield tended to be higher in the former and ADG higher in the latter. Correlations between 305 d milk yield and pre-weaning ADG, dam parity and birth body weight were low and non-significant, although there was a tendency for a positive correlation between ADG and milk yield.

  3. Milk yield differences between 1x and 4x milking are associated with changes in mammary mitochondrial number and milk protein gene expression, but not mammary cell apoptosis or "SOCS" gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milking frequency is known to affect milk production and lactation persistence in dairy cows. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying this effect are only partially understood. Previous work in dairy cows examining increases in milk yield due to increased milking frequency have identified changes in...

  4. Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection affects milk yield and SCC of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Botaro, Bruno Garcia; Cortinhas, Cristina Simões; Dibbern, Aline Gerato; e Silva, Luis Felipe Prada; Benites, Nilson Roberti; dos Santos, Marcos Veiga

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the most prevalent infectious microorganism affecting dairy cattle worldwide, and its pathogenic characteristics facilitate its spread in dairy herds. S. aureus intramammary infections (IMI) are mainly subclinical, and associated losses can exceed average herd losses where the pathogen is not isolated. However, the extent it affects milk composition at udder and quarter levels is still unknown, and cow composite milk losses may be underestimated due to the dilution effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of S. aureus subclinical mastitis on mammary quarter milk yield and composition. In order to determine the effects of the pathogen on milk yield and composition at quarter level, a pairwise comparison of infected and non-infected mammary quarters (n = 28) from two dairy herds was carried out. Quarters were individually milked, and milk production and composition were assessed. S. aureus has increased somatic cell counts at quarter level; however, no effect of S. aureus IMI on milk lactose, fat, and protein contents was observed. Fat yield from infected quarters decreased, but losses due to the infection caused by S. aureus were not associated with quarter positioning in cows.

  5. Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Yield and Fatty Acid Content in Holstein Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, James L.; Grove-White, Dai H.

    2017-01-01

    The scale of sexed semen use to avoid the birth of unwanted bull calves in the UK dairy industry depends on several economic factors. It has been suggested in other studies that calf gender may affect milk yield in Holsteins- something that would affect the economics of sexed semen use. The present study used a large milk recording data set to evaluate the effect of calf gender (both calf born and calf in utero) on both milk yield and saturated fat content. Linear regression was used to model data for first lactation and second lactation separately. Results showed that giving birth to a heifer calf conferred a 1% milk yield advantage in first lactation heifers, whilst giving birth to a bull calf conferred a 0.5% advantage in second lactation. Heifer calves were also associated with a 0.66kg reduction in saturated fatty acid content of milk in first lactation, but there was no significant difference between the genders in second lactation. No relationship was found between calf gender and milk mono- or polyunsaturated fatty acid content. The observed effects of calf gender on both yield and saturated fatty acid content was considered minor when compared to nutritional and genetic influences. PMID:28068399

  6. Effect of milk composition and coagulation traits on Grana Padano cheese yield under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Pretto, Denis; De Marchi, Massimo; Penasa, Mauro; Cassandro, Martino

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chemical composition, coagulation properties, pH, and titratable acidity (TA, SH°/50 ml) of vat milk on Grana Padano cheese yield (CY) under field conditions. Twelve cheese-making sessions were carried out from February to December 2009 in a dairy cooperative of Grana Padano Consortium (Italy), for a total of 96 vats of milk processed. For each vat, samples of raw milk were collected and analysed for quality traits (fat, protein, and casein contents), pH, TA, and milk coagulation properties (MCP), measured as rennet coagulation time (RCT, min), curd-firming time (k(20), min), and curd firmness (a(30), mm). Cheese yield was expressed as kilograms of cheese per 100 kg milk transformed, and was measured after 2 d of drainage. Fat, protein, and casein contents were positively and strongly correlated with CY (coefficients of correlation, r = 0.72, 0.88, and 0.84, respectively; P < 0.001). Coagulation properties were moderately and significantly (P < 0.001) related to CY: milk that coagulated earlier and had stronger a(30) was associated to greater CY. Cheese yield was analysed with a model that accounted for fixed effects of cheese-making day, fat and protein content, TA, and a(30). Significance was found for all the effects (P < 0.05). Milk characterised by high values of a(30) resulted in higher CY than milk with low values of a 30, indicating that MCP could be used as indicators of cheese-making efficiency. Future research should investigate the relationships between MCP and quality of cheese, and explore the feasibility of including MCP in multiple component milk pricing system for Grana Padano cheese production.

  7. Factors affecting yield and composition of camel milk kept under desert conditions of central Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sibtain; Yaqoob, Muhammad; Bilal, Muhammad Qamar; Khan, Muhammad Kasib; Muhammad, Ghulam; Yang, Li-Guo; Tariq, Muhammad

    2012-10-01

    This study was planned to study the herd composition, farming system, and reproductive traits and to evaluate the effect of season, stage of lactation and parity on milk production, and composition of camels kept under pastoral environment of central Punjab, Pakistan. Based on purposive sampling method, 50 herds belonging to small, medium, and large-sized herds were selected. From these herds, 1,137 she-camels were entered in this study and their composite milk samples were collected and analyzed through standard procedures to determine the milk yield and percentages of milk contents. The results showed that the male camels constituted a lesser percentage (p < 0.05: 43.08; 380/882) in the total herd composition compared to that of she-camels (56.92; 502/882). The mean daily milk yield was 8.17 ± 0.09 L and mean percentage of fat was 3.79 ± 0.13%, protein was 3.66 ± 0.07%, lactose was 5.15 ± 0.09%, ash was 0.81 ± 0.02%, acidity was 0.20 ± 0.01%, solids not fat (SNF) was 9.63 ± 0.15%, total solids was 13.42 ± 0.21, and moisture was 86.58 ± 0.43. Mean daily milk yield was significantly higher (p < 0.01) during rainy season followed by winter season, warm dry summer, and hot summer season. Milk fat and protein contents were the highest in hot dry summer, while lactose contents were higher during rainy season. The stage of lactation and parity confirmed to impinge significantly (p < 0.01) on protein, lactose, and SNF. The present study will be helpful to design measures for the eradication of reproductive constraints and for the improvement of milk yield and composition in order to make camel rearing an economical proposition.

  8. Extensive in vivo human milk peptidomics reveals specific proteolysis yielding protective antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Dallas, David C; Guerrero, Andres; Khaldi, Nora; Castillo, Patricia A; Martin, William F; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Bevins, Charles L; Barile, Daniela; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2013-05-03

    Milk is traditionally considered an ideal source of the basic elemental nutrients required by infants. More detailed examination is revealing that milk represents a more functional ensemble of components with benefits to both infants and mothers. A comprehensive peptidomics method was developed and used to analyze human milk yielding an extensive array of protein products present in the fluid. Over 300 milk peptides were identified originating from major and many minor protein components of milk. As expected, the majority of peptides derived from β-casein, however no peptide fragments from the major milk proteins lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, and secretory immunoglobulin A were identified. Proteolysis in the mammary gland is selective-released peptides were drawn only from specific proteins and typically from only select parts of the parent sequence. A large number of the peptides showed significant sequence overlap with peptides with known antimicrobial or immunomodulatory functions. Antibacterial assays showed the milk peptide mixtures inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus . The predigestion of milk proteins and the consequent release of antibacterial peptides may provide a selective advantage through evolution by protecting both the mother's mammary gland and her nursing offspring from infection.

  9. Effect of parity, milking time and stage of lactation on milk yield of Jiangyue donkey (Equus asinus) in North West China.

    PubMed

    Muhatai, Geminguli; Cheng, Long; Rugoho, Innocent; Xiao, Guoliang; Chen, Genyuan; Hodge, Simon; Zhou, Xiaoling

    2017-02-01

    The study reported in this Research Communication was carried out to examine how parity and milking time affected donkey milk yield under a typical Chinese production system. Eighteen Jiangyue breed donkeys with good health condition, aged between 6 and 9 years, and with parities 3 and 4, were selected. Milk production was measured commencing from the fourth week post-foaling, with a total data collection of 170 d in milk (lactation length). Mean milk yield of the donkeys used in this study was 3·0 kg/donkey/d. Results showed milk yield decreased with days in milk from 3·3 kg/donkey/d at the start of the study, to 2·2 kg/donkey/d by the end of the 170 d. Parity 3 donkeys produced 22% more milk than parity 4 donkeys (3·3 kg/donkey/d vs 2·7 kg/donkey/d). The information provided by this study should aid producers in estimating the expected milk yields from individual donkey, and better predict milk yield over the course of a production cycle.

  10. Genetic parameters for milk fatty acids, milk yield and quality traits of a Holstein cattle population reared under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Petrini, J; Iung, L H S; Rodriguez, M A P; Salvian, M; Pértille, F; Rovadoscki, G A; Cassoli, L D; Coutinho, L L; Machado, P F; Wiggans, G R; Mourão, G B

    2016-10-01

    Information about genetic parameters is essential for selection decisions and genetic evaluation. These estimates are population specific; however, there are few studies with dairy cattle populations reared under tropical and sub-tropical conditions. Thus, the aim was to obtain estimates of heritability and genetic correlations for milk yield and quality traits using pedigree and genomic information from a Holstein population maintained in a tropical environment. Phenotypic records (n = 36 457) of 4203 cows as well as the genotypes for 57 368 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 755 of these cows were used. Covariance components were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method under a mixed animal model, considering a pedigree-based relationship matrix or a combined pedigree-genomic matrix. High heritabilities (around 0.30) were estimated for lactose and protein content in milk whereas moderate values (between 0.19 and 0.26) were obtained for percentages of fat, saturated fatty acids and palmitic acid in milk. Genetic correlations ranging from -0.38 to -0.13 were determined between milk yield and composition traits. The smaller estimates compared to other similar studies can be due to poor environmental conditions, which may reduce genetic variability. These results highlight the importance in using genetic parameters estimated in the population under evaluation for selection decisions.

  11. Mammary pathogens and their relationship to somatic cell count and milk yield losses in dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, C; Ariznabarreta, A; Carriedo, J A; San Primitivo, F

    2002-06-01

    A total of 9592 samples of half udder milk were collected monthly throughout lactation for bacteriological and somatic cell count (SCC) study from 1322 Churra ewe lactations from seven separate flocks enrolled in the recording scheme of the National Association of Spanish Churra Breeders in the Castile-Le6n region of Spain. Statistical analyses were carried out from a mixed model with random factor half udder or ewe for repeated measures. Test of significance of fixed effects of this mixed model showed significant effects of organisms, flock, parity, lactation stage, and birth type on SCC. Special reference must be made to novobiocin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci, which represented more than 50% of the isolates and which elicited SCC geometric means of around 106/ml. In addition, the analysis of 4352 monthly test-day records for milk yield, SCC, and bacteriology showed that the ewes that were uninfected and infected by minor pathogens had the lowest SCC and the highest milk yields, whereas those infected by major pathogens had high SCC and milk yield losses between 8.8 and 10.1% according to the uni- or bilateral character of the infection. Finally, ewes infected by novobiocin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci elicited SCC values similar to those of infections by major pathogens and milk yield losses ranging between those caused by minor and major pathogens. As a result, emphasis should be put on prevention of subclinical mastitis, particularly mastitis caused by novobiocin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci in dairy sheep herds to improve microbiological and hygienic milk quality and to minimize losses in milk yield.

  12. Derivation of multivariate indices of milk composition, coagulation properties, and individual cheese yield in dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Manca, M G; Serdino, J; Gaspa, G; Urgeghe, P; Ibba, I; Contu, M; Fresi, P; Macciotta, N P P

    2016-06-01

    Milk composition and its technological properties are traits of interest for the dairy sheep industry because almost all milk produced is processed into cheese. However, several variables define milk technological properties and a complex correlation pattern exists among them. In the present work, we measured milk composition, coagulation properties, and individual cheese yields in a sample of 991 Sarda breed ewes in 47 flocks. The work aimed to study the correlation pattern among measured variables and to obtain new synthetic indicators of milk composition and cheese-making properties. Multivariate factor analysis was carried out on individual measures of milk coagulation parameters; cheese yield; fat, protein, and lactose percentages; somatic cell score; casein percentage; NaCl content; pH; and freezing point. Four factors that were able to explain about 76% of the original variance were extracted. They were clearly interpretable: the first was associated with composition and cheese yield, the second with udder health status, the third with coagulation, and the fourth with curd characteristics. Factor scores were then analyzed by using a mixed linear model that included the fixed effect of parity, lambing month, and lactation stage, and the random effect of flock-test date. The patterns of factor scores along lactation stages were coherent with their technical meaning. A relevant effect of flock-test date was detected, especially on the 2 factors related to milk coagulation properties. Results of the present study suggest the existence of a simpler latent structure that regulates relationships between variables defining milk composition and coagulation properties in sheep. Heritability estimates for the 4 extracted factors were from low to moderate, suggesting potential use of these new variables as breeding goals.

  13. Genetic parameters for milk, fat and protein yields in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis Artiodactyla, Bovidae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for test-day milk, fat and protein yields and 305-day-yields in Murrah buffaloes. 4,757 complete lactations of Murrah buffaloes were analyzed. Co-variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method. The models included additive direct genetic and permanent environmental effects as random effects, and the fixed effects of contemporary group, milking number and age of the cow at calving as linear and quadratic covariables. Contemporary groups were defined by herd-year-month of test for test-day yields and by herd-year-season of calving for 305-day yields. The heritability estimates obtained by two-trait analysis ranged from 0.15 to 0.24 for milk, 0.16 to 0.23 for protein and 0.13 to 0.22 for fat, yields. Genetic and phenotypic correlations were all positive. The observed population additive genetic variation indicated that selection might be an effective tool in changing population means in milk, fat and protein yields. PMID:21637608

  14. Multiparous cows categorized by milk protein concentration and energy-corrected milk yield during early lactation--metabolism, productivity and effect of a short-term feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Sigl, T; Gellrich, K; Meyer, H H D; Kaske, M; Wiedemann, S

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study milk productivity, metabolic adaptation and effect of a short-term feed restriction (FR) on key performance indicators during early lactation in cows classified according to energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield and milk protein concentration. Twenty-three multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were categorized in four groups according to respective averaged values on Days 23-25 postpartum: high ECM yield and high protein concentration; low ECM yield and low protein concentration; high ECM yield and low protein concentration and low ECM yield and high protein concentration. Dry matter intake was reduced to 68.3% for three subsequent days. Our results showed that short-time FR in early lactation succeeded in enhancing energy deficit of cows in all groups. Milk fat, milk protein and lactose concentrations as well as milk fat yield were not influenced by FR. Several hepatic genes encoding for enzymes involved in catabolism of amino acids, β-oxidation, gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis as well as mRNA encoding for insulin receptor showed increased transcript abundances after FR, primarily in cows with high milk yield and low milk protein concentration.

  15. Comparison of claw health and milk yield in dairy cows on elastic or concrete flooring.

    PubMed

    Kremer, P V; Nueske, S; Scholz, A M; Foerster, M

    2007-10-01

    This article reports on the effects of elastic (rubber) flooring compared with concrete flooring on claw health and milk yield in dairy cows. Milk yield and activity data of 53 complete lactations from 49 cows were recorded by an automatic milking system in the University of Munich Livestock Center dairy herd. Cows were kept in a loose housing system on concrete-slatted or rubber-matted slatted flooring. Claws were trimmed and measured linearly in combination with claw lesion diagnosis 3 times during one lactation period (including the transition phase). An automatic milking system recorded milk yield and activity. The net horn growth of the claws increased on elastic flooring. Therefore, correct and frequent claw trimming is at least as important for claw health in dairy herds kept on rubber flooring as for those on concrete-slatted flooring. Cows housed on rubber had an increased incidence of sole ulcers. Sole hemorrhages (except for hemorrhages associated with sole ulcers) occurred less frequently on rubber than on concrete. Results concerning digital dermatitis were difficult to assess, because manual manure scraping on rubber required sprinkling the flooring twice daily, which additionally moistened the digital skin of the cows. This might explain the greater incidence of digital dermatitis on elastic flooring. The incidence of clinically lame cows did not differ between flooring types. Cows showed greater activity on rubber, most likely caused by the more comfortable walking surface compared with the concrete-slatted flooring. The greater activity may indicate better overall health of high-yielding dairy cows on rubber flooring. Milk yield, however, did not differ between flooring types.

  16. Random regression test day models to estimate genetic parameters for milk yield and milk components in Philippine dairy buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Flores, E B; van der Werf, J

    2015-08-01

    Heritabilities and genetic correlations for milk production traits were estimated from first-parity test day records on 1022 Philippine dairy buffalo cows. Traits analysed included milk (MY), fat (FY) and protein (PY) yields, and fat (Fat%) and protein (Prot%) concentrations. Varying orders of Legendre polynomials (Leg(m)) as well as the Wilmink function (Wil) were used in random regression models. These various models were compared based on log likelihood, Akaike's information criterion, Bayesian information criterion and genetic variance estimates. Six residual variance classes were sufficient for MY, FY, PY and Fat%, while seven residual classes for Prot%. Multivariate analysis gave higher estimates of genetic variance and heritability compared with univariate analysis for all traits. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.25 to 0.44, 0.13 to 0.31 and 0.21 to 0.36 for MY, FY and PY, respectively. Wilmink's function was the better fitting function for additive genetic effects for all traits. It was also the preferred function for permanent environment effects for Fat% and Prot%, but for MY, FY and PY, the Legm was the appropriate function. Genetic correlations of MY with FY and PY were high and they were moderately negative with Fat% and Prot%. To prevent deterioration in Fat% and Prot% and improve milk quality, more weight should be applied to milk component traits.

  17. Relationship between mozzarella yield and milk composition, processing factors, and recovery of whey constituents.

    PubMed

    Sales, D C; Rangel, A H N; Urbano, S A; Freitas, Alfredo R; Tonhati, Humberto; Novaes, L P; Pereira, M I B; Borba, L H F

    2017-03-22

    Our aim was to identify the relationship between mozzarella cheese yield and buffalo milk composition, processing factors, and recovery of whey constituents. A production of 30 batches of mozzarella cheese at a dairy industry in northeast Brazil (Rio Grande do Norte) was monitored between March and November, 2015. Mozzarella yield and 32 other variables were observed for each batch, and divided into 3 groups: milk composition variables (12); variables involved in the cheesemaking process (14); and variables for recovery of whey constituents (6). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and principal component analysis. Most of the correlations between milk composition variables and between the variables of the manufacturing processes were not significant. Significant correlations were mostly observed between variables for recovery of whey constituents. Yield only showed significant correlation with time elapsed between curd cuttings and age of the starter culture, and it showed greater association with age of the starter culture, time elapsed between curd cuttings, and during stretching, as well as with milk pH and density. Thus, processing factors and milk characteristics are closely related to dairy efficiency in mozzarella manufacturing.

  18. Effect of whole and expanded-expelled cottonseed on milk yield and blood gossypol.

    PubMed

    Noftsger, S M; Hopkins, B A; Diaz, D E; Brownie, C; Whitlow, L W

    2000-11-01

    Thirty-two primiparous and 12 multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned at calving to treatments to determine the effects of type and amount of cottonseed product on plasma gossypol, milk production, and composition, and conjugated linoleic acid concentration in milk fat. Rations consisted of corn silage, corn grain, soybean meal, and cottonseed hulls, and contained on average 16.8% crude protein and 25.3% acid detergent fiber on a dry matter basis. On a dry matter basis, diets contained one of the following: 1) 14% whole cottonseed; 2) 14% expanded-expelled cottonseed; 3) 21% expanded-expelled cottonseed; or 4) 28% expanded-expelled cottonseed. Cows remained on treatment from 30 through 120 d in milk. Dry matter intakes were not significantly different, but intakes of crude protein, acid detergent fiber, and fat were higher for multiparous cows fed whole cottonseed. Multiparous cows fed whole cottonseed had higher yields of milk, fat-corrected milk, crude protein, fat and solids-not-fat than those fed any level of expanded-expelled cottonseed. Concentrations of milk fat, protein, and SNF were not affected by treatment. Although there were treatment differences in fat intake, there were no production differences in primiparous cows. Milk production efficiency (fat-corrected milk/dry matter intake) was not affected by treatment for either multiparous or primiparous cows. Cows fed 14% whole or 14% expanded-expelled cottonseed had similar levels of total plasma gossypol and plasma levels of the negative isomer of gossypol. Increasing the level of expanded-expelled cottonseed in the diet increased both total plasma gossypol and the negative isomer. In this experiment, multiparous but not primiparous cows fed whole cottonseed produced more milk than those fed expanded-expelled cottonseed at 14 to 28% of the diet dry matter, however, feed efficiencies were similar for all treatments.

  19. Milk and fat yields decline in bovine leukemia virus-infected Holstein cattle with persistent lymphocytosis.

    PubMed

    Da, Y; Shanks, R D; Stewart, J A; Lewin, H A

    1993-07-15

    Effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection on milk and fat yields were studied by using data collected from Holstein cows over a 6-year period. Milk and fat yields in BLV-infected cows with persistent lymphocytosis (PL) declined significantly relative to their BLV-infected non-PL herdmates. Declines were most pronounced in cows older than 6 years. The estimated loss to the dairy industry due to PL is more than $42 million annually. A major histocompatibility complex class I (BoLA-A) allele that has been previously associated with resistance to PL was associated with longevity and realization of milk production potentials, indicating that genetic resistance to PL will have an economic benefit in herds where BLV is endemic.

  20. Composition, coagulation properties and Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese yield of Italian Brown and Italian Friesian herd milks.

    PubMed

    Malacarne, Massimo; Summer, Andrea; Fossa, Enrico; Formaggioni, Paolo; Franceschi, Piero; Pecorari, Mauro; Mariani, Primo

    2006-05-01

    The authors report the results of a study aimed at the comparison of the basic chemical composition, the main protein fractions distribution, rennet coagulation properties and Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese yield of vat milk from Italian Brown and Italian Friesian herds. Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese factories which manufacture milk separately from Italian Brown herds and Italian Friesian herds were used in the study. Thirteen cheesemaking trials were performed at 10 different commercial cheese factories. The study was carried out from March to October 2003. For each cheesemaking trial in each factory, approximately 1100 kg milk from Italian Brown cows and from Italian Friesian cows were processed in parallel. The animals involved in the study came from farms with comparable management practices, size, location, number of lactation and days in milking. Each vat contained milk obtained by combining milk collected during the evening milking (partially skimmed milk by natural creaming) and the following morning milking (full-cream milk), from at least 2 dairy herds. Milk from Italian Brown cows is characterised by a higher casein content (27.1 v. 23.7 g/kg; P < or = 0.0001) than Italian Friesian cows' milk. Curd firming time (k20) of Italian Brown cows' milk was markedly lower than that of Italian Friesian cows' milk (6.6 v. 10.0 min; P < or = 0.001). This implies a higher rate of aggregation of para-casein micelles for Italian Brown cows' milk. The coagulum of Italian Brown cows' milk had better rheological properties and lower losses of fat in the cheese whey. Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese yield at 24 h was also higher for Italian Brown cows' milk, + 0.99 kg cheese for every 100 kg vat milk.

  1. Composition, yield, and functionality of reduced-fat Oaxaca cheese: effects of using skim milk or a dry milk protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Caro, I; Soto, S; Franco, M J; Meza-Nieto, M; Alfaro-Rodríguez, R H; Mateo, J

    2011-02-01

    The effect of adding either skim milk or a commercial dry milk protein concentrate (MPC) to whole milk on the composition, yield, and functional properties of Mexican Oaxaca cheese were investigated. Five batches of Oaxaca cheeses were produced. One batch (the control) was produced from whole milk containing 3.5% fat and 9% nonfat solids (SNF). Two batches were produced from milk standardized with skim milk to 2.7 and 1.8% fat, maintaining the SNF content at 9%. In the other 2 batches, an MPC (40% protein content) was used to standardize the milk to a SNF content of 10 and 11%, maintaining the milk fat content at 3.5%. The use of either skim milk or MPC caused a significant decrease in the fat percentage in cheese. The use of skim milk or MPC showed a nonsignificant tendency to lower total solids and fat recoveries in cheese. Actual, dry matter, and moisture-adjusted cheese yields significantly decreased with skim milk addition, but increased with MPC addition. However, normalized yields adjusted to milk fat and protein reference levels did not show significant differences between treatments. Considering skim milk-added and control cheeses, actual yield increased with cheese milk fat content at a rate of 1.34 kg/kg of fat (R=0.88). In addition, cheese milk fat and SNF:fat ratio proved to be strong individual predictors of cheese moisture-adjusted yield (r(2) ≈ 0.90). Taking into account the results obtained from control and MPC-added cheeses, a 2.0-kg cheese yield increase rate per kg of milk MPC protein was observed (R=0.89), with TS and SNF being the strongest predictors for moisture adjusted yield (r(2) ≈ 0.77). Reduced-fat Oaxaca cheese functionality differed from that of controls. In unmelted reduced-fat cheeses, hardness and springiness increased. In melted reduced-fat cheeses, meltability and free oil increased, but stretchability decreased. These changes were related to differences in cheese composition, mainly fat in dry matter and calcium in SNF.

  2. Modelling Pasture-based Automatic Milking System Herds: The Impact of Large Herd on Milk Yield and Economics.

    PubMed

    Islam, M R; Clark, C E F; Garcia, S C; Kerrisk, K L

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this modelling study was to investigate the effect of large herd size (and land areas) on walking distances and milking interval (MI), and their impact on milk yield and economic penalties when 50% of the total diets were provided from home grown feed either as pasture or grazeable complementary forage rotation (CFR) in an automatic milking system (AMS). Twelve scenarios consisting of 3 AMS herds (400, 600, 800 cows), 2 levels of pasture utilisation (current AMS utilisation of 15.0 t dry matter [DM]/ha, termed as 'moderate'; optimum pasture utilisation of 19.7 t DM/ha, termed as 'high') and 2 rates of incorporation of grazeable complementary forage system (CFS: 0, 30%; CFS = 65% farm is CFR and 35% of farm is pasture) were investigated. Walking distances, energy loss due to walking, MI, reduction in milk yield and income loss were calculated for each treatment based on information available in the literature. With moderate pasture utilisation and 0% CFR, increasing the herd size from 400 to 800 cows resulted in an increase in total walking distances between the parlour and the paddock from 3.5 to 6.3 km. Consequently, MI increased from 15.2 to 16.4 h with increased herd size from 400 to 800 cows. High pasture utilisation (allowing for an increased stocking density) reduced the total walking distances up to 1 km, thus reduced the MI by up to 0.5 h compared to the moderate pasture, 800 cow herd combination. The high pasture utilisation combined with 30% of the farm in CFR in the farm reduced the total walking distances by up to 1.7 km and MI by up to 0.8 h compared to the moderate pasture and 800 cow herd combination. For moderate pasture utilisation, increasing the herd size from 400 to 800 cows resulted in more dramatic milk yield penalty as yield increasing from c.f. 2.6 and 5.1 kg/cow/d respectively, which incurred a loss of up to $AU 1.9/cow/d. Milk yield losses of 0.61 kg and 0.25 kg for every km increase in total walking distance (voluntary return

  3. Modelling Pasture-based Automatic Milking System Herds: The Impact of Large Herd on Milk Yield and Economics

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. R.; Clark, C. E. F.; Garcia, S. C.; Kerrisk, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this modelling study was to investigate the effect of large herd size (and land areas) on walking distances and milking interval (MI), and their impact on milk yield and economic penalties when 50% of the total diets were provided from home grown feed either as pasture or grazeable complementary forage rotation (CFR) in an automatic milking system (AMS). Twelve scenarios consisting of 3 AMS herds (400, 600, 800 cows), 2 levels of pasture utilisation (current AMS utilisation of 15.0 t dry matter [DM]/ha, termed as ‘moderate’; optimum pasture utilisation of 19.7 t DM/ha, termed as ‘high’) and 2 rates of incorporation of grazeable complementary forage system (CFS: 0, 30%; CFS = 65% farm is CFR and 35% of farm is pasture) were investigated. Walking distances, energy loss due to walking, MI, reduction in milk yield and income loss were calculated for each treatment based on information available in the literature. With moderate pasture utilisation and 0% CFR, increasing the herd size from 400 to 800 cows resulted in an increase in total walking distances between the parlour and the paddock from 3.5 to 6.3 km. Consequently, MI increased from 15.2 to 16.4 h with increased herd size from 400 to 800 cows. High pasture utilisation (allowing for an increased stocking density) reduced the total walking distances up to 1 km, thus reduced the MI by up to 0.5 h compared to the moderate pasture, 800 cow herd combination. The high pasture utilisation combined with 30% of the farm in CFR in the farm reduced the total walking distances by up to 1.7 km and MI by up to 0.8 h compared to the moderate pasture and 800 cow herd combination. For moderate pasture utilisation, increasing the herd size from 400 to 800 cows resulted in more dramatic milk yield penalty as yield increasing from c.f. 2.6 and 5.1 kg/cow/d respectively, which incurred a loss of up to $AU 1.9/cow/d. Milk yield losses of 0.61 kg and 0.25 kg for every km increase in total walking distance (voluntary

  4. Short Communication: Genetic and environmental relationships between milk yield and kidding interval in dairy goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    First-parity 305-day milk yield and intervals between first and second kiddings from 1975 through 2005 were analyzed to estimate genetic and environmental parameters for U.S. Alpine, Nubian, Saanen, and Toggenburg dairy goats. The complete data set included information from 5,180 sires, 23,827 does ...

  5. Genome-Wide Association Analysis to Identify Loci for Milk Yield in Gyr Breed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome scan was conducted to identify QTL affecting milk yield in a Brazilian Gyr population of progeny test bulls (N=319). Data used in this study was derived from traditional genetic evaluation records computed by the Embrapa Dairy Cattleand released in May/2009 (http://www.cnpgl.embrapa.br/nova...

  6. Effects of calcium soaps of rapeseed fatty acids and protected methionine on milk yield and composition in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Z M; Pisulewski, P M; Spanghero, M

    1999-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing the diets of dairy cows with Ca soaps of rapeseed fatty acids (CSRFA) and rumen-protected (RP) methionine on their milk yield and composition, including milk protein fractions and fatty acids. Twelve Polish Red Lowland cows were used in a complete balanced two period changeover experiment. The four treatment diets were a control consisting of a total mixed ration of grass silage and concentrates, and the total mixed ration supplemented with RP methionine, CSRFA or RP methionine plus CSRFA. Dry matter intake was not affected by diet. Milk yield increased when cows were given the diet with CSRFA, but supplementation of diets with RP methionine did not affect milk yield. Milk protein content, but not milk protein yield, decreased when CSRFA was given. The addition of RP methionine to the control diet and the CSRFA diet produced similar increases in the milk protein content. Supplementation of the diet with CSRFA significantly changed the milk fatty acid profile: the proportions of 10:0, 12:0, 14:0, 15:0 and 16:0 in milk fat decreased, but those of 18:0 and cis-18:1 increased. We conclude that CSRFA can be used in practical dairy diets to increase milk yield and manipulate its fatty acid composition.

  7. Effect of daily oxytocin injection on milk yield and lactation length in sheep.

    PubMed

    Zamiri, M J.; Qotbi, A; Izadifard, J

    2001-05-01

    The effects of daily oxytocin (OT) (2 IU) injection (i.m.) on lactation performance of 25 Mehraban ewes were studied. Eight control ewes were injected with 1ml of saline. Eight ewes were injected with OT after weaning (POT), and nine ewes were injected with OT from day 15 of lactation (WOT). Total milk production for WOT ewes was 55.5 and 24.7% greater (P<0.05) than for control and POT ewes, respectively. POT group produced 24.7% more milk than control group. Lactation length was 175 days for WOT and POT groups, and 143 days for control ewes. Daily milk yield after weaning was greater for WOT and POT as compared with control ewes. WOT lambs had a greater daily weight gain as compared with POT and control lambs. WOT ewes lost more weight during the suckling period, but the difference in ewe live weight loss after weaning was not significant between the experimental groups. Fat content as a percentage of milk dry matter was greater for WOT than for control and POT ewes. Milk density, pH, freezing point, and protein, lactose and ash contents were not affected by OT treatment. Somatic cell count (SCC) was greater for control than for POT and WOT groups and increased as lactation progressed. The results of this experiment support the hypothesis that OT may be involved in mammary cell maintenance and metabolism, in addition to causing myoepithelial cell contraction and milk letdown.

  8. The effect of caffeine on mammary gland development and milk yield in primiparous sows.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Hacker, R R

    1995-02-01

    Pregnant Yorkshire gilts (n = 42) were fed caffeine (6 g/d) or served as controls from d 60 of pregnancy until d 4 postpartum to test the effect of caffeine on mammary gland development, milk yield, and feed consumption. Caffeine reduced voluntary feed intake (P = .001) and body weight gain (P = .001) of gilts from d 60 to 109 of gestation. Pig birth weight in the treated group was less than (P = .01) that in the control group. However, pig viability score at birth was not affected by maternal caffeine ingestion. For assessing mammary gland DNA, RNA, dry fat-free tissue (DFFT), fat, and protein content, four sows from the caffeine group and three controls were slaughtered on the 1st d of lactation. Immediately after slaughter, mammary systems were removed, separated by gland, and dissected free of skin, muscle, and fatty pad, which had not been invaded by glandular tissue. The DNA and RNA content were evaluated in DFFT. Caffeine increased mammary RNA content (P = .023) and milk yield (P = .001) on d 1 of lactation. However, DNA, DFFT, fat, and protein were not significantly increased, although values were somewhat greater in the treatment group (approximately 82%). On d 21 of lactation, milk yield of treated sows did not differ from that of controls. The increased milk yield on d 1 of lactation was due to increased mammary epithelial cell activity and cell numbers. These results indicate that caffeine feeding can have a positive effect on porcine mammary gland development as well as milk yield.

  9. Effect of κ-casein B relative content in bulk milk κ-casein on Montasio, Asiago, and Caciotta cheese yield using milk of similar protein composition.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Cecchinato, A; Di Martino, G; De Marchi, M; Gallo, L; Carnier, P

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect exerted by the relative content of κ-casein (κ-CN) B in bulk milk κ-CN on coagulation properties and cheese yield of 3 Italian cheese varieties (Montasio, Asiago, and Caciotta). Twenty-four cheese-making experiments were carried out in 2 industrial and 1 small-scale dairy plant. Detailed protein composition of bulk milk of 380 herds providing milk to these dairies was analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC. To obtain 2 experimental milks differing in the relative content of κ-CN B in κ-CN, herds were selected on the basis of bulk milk protein composition and relative content of κ-CN genetic variants. Milk was collected and processed separately for the 2 groups of selected herds. A difference of 20% in the relative content of κ-CN B in κ-CN was obtained for the 2 experimental milks for Montasio and a difference of 15% for Asiago and Caciotta. The 2 experimental milks were of similar protein and CN content, casein number, pH, CN composition, and β-CN genetic composition. For each cheese-making trial, amounts of milk, ranging from 2,000 to 6,000kg, were manufactured. Each vat contained milk collected at least from 4 dairy herds. Cheese yield after brining and at the end of the aging was recorded. Milk with a greater proportion of κ-CN B in κ-CN (HIGHB) exhibited similar coagulation properties and greater cheese yield compared with milk with a lower proportion of κ-CN B in κ-CN (LOWB). The increased cheese yield observed for HIGHB when manufacturing Montasio cheese was ascribed to a greater fat content compared with LOWB. The probability of HIGHB giving a cheese yield 5% greater than that of LOWB ranged from 51 to 67% for Montasio cheese, but was less than 21% for Asiago and Caciotta cheeses. Variation in relative content of κ-CN B in κ-CN content did not relevantly affect industrial cheese yield when milks of similar CN composition were processed. An indirect effect due to the increased κ-CN content of κ

  10. The effects of milking frequency in early lactation on milk yield, mammary cell turnover, and secretory activity in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Murney, R; Stelwagen, K; Wheeler, T T; Margerison, J K; Singh, K

    2015-01-01

    In dairy cows, short-term changes of milking frequency in early lactation have been shown to produce an immediate and a long-term effect on milk yield in stall-fed cows. The effect is controlled locally within mammary glands and could be a function of either secretory mammary epithelial cell number or activity. To resolve this and determine its applicability in other feed management systems, a unilateral milking frequency experiment was conducted with udder halves of 17 multiparous, pasture-fed dairy cows milked either 4 times (4×) or once a day (1×) for 14d from 5±2d in milk. Mean half-udder milk yield during the treatment period was higher from the 4× compared with 1× udder halves and continued to be higher until 200d in milk once returned to twice a day milking. Mammary biopsies were obtained on d 14 of treatment from both udder halves of 10 cows. Proliferation of mammary cells was higher in 4× udder halves compared with 1×, whereas no difference in apoptosis levels was detected. Abundance of αS1-casein, β-casein, α-lactalbumin, and β-lactoglobulin mRNA was higher in tissue samples from 4× udder halves compared with 1×, whereas lactoferrin mRNA abundance was lower in 4× udder halves. In summary, change in milking frequency during early lactation affects proliferation of mammary cells as well as expression of the major milk protein genes, which both contribute to the observed changes in milk yield during and after unilateral milking frequency treatment.

  11. Impact of low concentration factor microfiltration on milk component recovery and Cheddar cheese yield.

    PubMed

    Neocleous, M; Barbano, D M; Rudan, M A

    2002-10-01

    The effect of microfiltration (MF) on the composition of Cheddar cheese, fat, crude protein (CP), calcium, total solids recovery, and Cheddar cheese yield efficiency (i.e., composition adjusted yield divided by theoretical yield) was determined. Raw skim milk was microfiltered twofold using a 0.1-microm ceramic membrane at 50 degrees C. Four vats of cheese were made in one day using milk at lx, 1.26x, 1.51x, and 1.82x concentration factor (CF). An appropriate amount of cream was added to achieve a constant casein (CN)-to-fat ratio across treatments. Cheese manufacture was repeated on four different days using a randomized complete block design. The composition of the cheese was affected by MF. Moisture content of the cheese decreased with increasing MF CF. Standardization of milk to a constant CN-to-fat ratio did not eliminate the effect of MF on cheese moisture content. Fat recovery in cheese was not changed by MF. Separation of cream prior to MF, followed by the recombination of skim or MF retentate with cream resulted in lower fat recovery in cheese for control and all treatments and higher fat loss in whey when compared to previous yield experiments, when control Cheddar cheese was made from unseparated milk. Crude protein, calcium, and total solids recovery in cheese increased with increasing MF CF, due to partial removal of these components prior to cheese making. Calcium and calcium as a percentage of protein increased in the cheese, suggesting an increase in calcium retention in the cheese with increasing CF. While the actual and composition adjusted cheese yields increased with increasing MF CF, as expected, there was no effect of MF CF on cheese yield efficiency.

  12. Pit-1 gene polymorphism, milk yield, and conformation traits for Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls.

    PubMed

    Renaville, R; Gengler, N; Vrech, E; Prandi, A; Massart, S; Corradini, C; Bertozzi, C; Mortiaux, F; Burny, A; Portetelle, D

    1997-12-01

    The growth hormone factor-1/pituitary-specific transcription factor Pit-1 is responsible for the expression of growth hormone in mammals. Mutations in Pit-1 have been found in growth hormone disorders of mice and humans. We studied the eventual association between Pit-1 polymorphism using the HinfI enzyme and the milk yield and conformation traits of 89 Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls. A strategy employing polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify a 451-bp fragment from semen DNA. Digestion of polymerase chain reaction products with HinfI revealed two alleles: allele A was not digested (451-bp fragment), and allele B was cut at one restriction site, generating two fragments of 244 and 207 bp. Three patterns were observed; frequencies were 2.2, 31.5, and 66.3% for AA, AB, and BB, respectively. Fixed and mixed linear models were fitted on daughter yield deviations for milk yields and on deregressed proofs for conformation traits. Predictions were weighted using the inverse of the estimated variance of records. The models used contained mean and gene substitution effects for Pit-1 A allele as fixed effects and random sire effect for the mixed model. The A allele was found to be superior for milk and protein yields, inferior for fat percentage, and superior for body depth, angularity, and rear leg set, which is difficult to explain. A canonical transformation revealed that Pit-1 had three actions, one linked to milk yield traits and angularity, a second linked to body depth and rear leg set, and a third linked to lower fat yields and to higher angularity.

  13. Kinetics of lipogenic genes expression in milk purified mammary epithelial cells (MEC) across lactation and their correlation with milk and fat yield in buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Poonam; Kumar, Parveen; Mukesh, Manishi; Kataria, R S; Yadav, Anita; Mohanty, A K; Mishra, B P

    2015-04-01

    Expression patterns of lipogenic genes (LPL, ABCG2, ACSS2, ACACA, SCD, BDH, LIPIN1, SREBF1, PPARα and PPARγ) were studied in milk purified MEC across different stages of lactation (15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 240 days relative to parturition) in buffalo. PPARα was the most abundant gene while ABCG2 and ACSS2 had moderate level of expression; whereas expression of SREBF and PPARγ was very low. The expression patterns of some genes (BDH1, ACSS2, and LIPIN1) across lactation were positively correlated with milk yield while negatively correlated with fat yield. SCD also showed weak correlation with milk yield (p, 0.53) and fat yield (p, -0.47). On the other hand, expression pattern of ACACA was negatively correlated with milk yield (p, -0.88) and positively correlated with fat yield (p, 0.62). Strong correlation was observed between genes involved in de novo milk fat synthesis (BDH1, ACSS2, LIPIN2 and SCD) and milk yield.

  14. Genetics of heat tolerance for milk yield and quality in Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Santana, M L; Bignardi, A B; Pereira, R J; Stefani, G; El Faro, L

    2017-01-01

    Tropical and sub-tropical climates are characterized by high temperature and humidity, during at least part of the year. Consequently, heat stress is common in Holstein cattle and productive and reproductive losses are frequent. Our objectives were as follows: (1) to quantify losses in production and quality of milk due to heat stress; (2) to estimate genetic correlations within and between milk yield (MY) and milk quality traits; and (3) to evaluate the trends of genetic components of tolerance to heat stress in multiple lactations of Brazilian Holstein cows. Thus, nine analyses using two-trait random regression animal models were carried out to estimate variance components and genetic parameters over temperature-humidity index (THI) values for MY and milk quality traits (three lactations: MY×fat percentage (F%), MY×protein percentage (P%) and MY×somatic cell score (SCS)) of Brazilian Holstein cattle. It was demonstrated that the effects of heat stress can be harmful for traits related to milk production and milk quality of Holstein cattle even though most herds were maintained in a modified environment, for example, with fans and sprinklers. For MY, the effect of heat stress was more detrimental in advanced lactations (-0.22 to -0.52 kg/day per increase of 1 THI unit). In general, the mean heritability estimates were higher for lower THI values and longer days in milk for all traits. In contrast, the heritability estimates for SCS increased with increasing THI values in the second and third lactation. For each trait studied, lower genetic correlations (different from unity) were observed between opposite extremes of THI (THI 47 v. THI 80) and in advanced lactations. The genetic correlations between MY and milk quality trait varied across the THI scale and lactations. The genotype×environment interaction due to heat stress was more important for MY and SCS, particularly in advanced lactations, and can affect the genetic relationship between MY and milk quality

  15. Association between somatic cell count after first parturition and cumulative milk yield in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Archer, S. C.; Mc Coy, F.; Wapenaar, W.; Green, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to assess the association between the somatic cell count of parity 1 cows between 5 and 30 days in milk (SCC1), and subsequent cumulative milk yield over approximately two years for cows in English and Welsh dairy herds. The dataset included records from 43,461 cows in 2111 herds, from 2004 to 2006. Cumulative milk yield was the model outcome, and a random effect was included to account for variation between herds. The model fitted the data well and was used to make predictions of cumulative milk yield, based on SCC1. A unit increase in the natural logarithm of SCC1/1000 was associated with a median decrease in cumulative milk yield of 482 kg, over a median study period of 868 days. PMID:23920363

  16. Milk yield and composition from Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, P F; Menezes, L M; Azambuja, R C C; Suñé, R W; Barbosa Silveira, I D; Cardoso, F F

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed milk yield and composition of Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil. A total of 128 records were collected in 2 consecutive calving seasons from cows between 3 and 5 yr of age of 4 breed compositions: Angus (ANAN), Caracu × Angus (CRAN), Hereford × Angus (HHAN), and Nelore × Angus (NEAN). These cows were mated to Brangus (BN) or Braford (BO) bulls and managed under extensive grazing conditions in southern Brazil. Milk production of these cows was assessed by 2 procedures: indirectly by the calf weigh-suckle-weigh procedure (WD) and directly by machine milking (MM). Lactation curves were estimated using nonlinear regression and the following related traits were derived: peak yield (PY), peak week (PW), total yield at 210 d (TY210), and lactation persistence (PERS). Milk composition and calf weaning weight adjusted to 210 d (WW210) were also determined. The MM technique was considered more accurate because of lower standard errors of estimated means, greater statistical power, and greater correlation between TY210 and WW210 (0.50) compared to WD (0.36). Considering the more precise evaluation by MM, the CRAN and NEAN cows had greater TY210 (1070 and 1116 kg, respectively) and PY (8.1 and 7.8 kg, respectively) compared to ANAN and HHAN cows, which had 858 and 842 kg for TY210 and 6.6 and 6.3 kg for PY, respectively. The NEAN cows had the latest PW at 10.8 wk. Late-calving cows had 21% lower TY210 compared to cows that calved earlier. Milk composition was influenced by cow genotype, with CRAN and NEAN cows producing milk with greater fat (3.8 and 3.9%, respectively) and protein (3.2 and 3.1%, respectively) content compared to ANAN and HHAN cows. Regardless of the genotype, fat, protein, and total solids increased in concentration from beginning to end of lactation, while lactose content decreased. Crossbreeding of Angus with adapted breeds of taurine or indicine origin can be effective in increasing milk yield and nutrient

  17. Relationships between conception rate in Holstein heifers and cows and milk yield at various stages of lactation.

    PubMed

    Hagiya, K; Terawaki, Y; Yamazaki, T; Nagamine, Y; Itoh, F; Yamaguchi, S; Abe, H; Gotoh, Y; Kawahara, T; Masuda, Y; Suzuki, M

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the relationships between conception rates (CRs) at first service in Japanese Holstein heifers (i.e. animals that had not yet had their first calf) and cows and their test-day (TD) milk yields. Data included records of artificial insemination (AI) for heifers and cows that had calved for the first time between 2000 and 2008 and their TD milk yields at 6 through 305 days in milk (DIM) from first through third lactations. CR was defined as a binary trait for which first AI was a failure or success. A threshold-linear animal model was applied to estimate genetic correlations between CRs of heifers or cows and TD milk yield at various lactation stages. Two-trait genetic analyses were performed for every combination of CR and TD milk yield by using the Bayesian method with Gibbs sampling. The posterior means of the heritabilities of CR were 0.031 for heifers, 0.034 for first-lactation cows and 0.028 for second-lactation cows. Heritabilities for TD milk yield increased from 0.324 to 0.433 with increasing DIM but decreased slightly after 210 DIM during first lactation. These heritabilities from the second and third lactations were higher during late stages of lactation than during early stages. Posterior means of the genetic correlations between heifer CR and all TD yields were positive (range, 0.082 to 0.287), but those between CR of cows and milk yields during first or second lactation were negative (range, -0.121 to -0.250). Therefore, during every stage of lactation, selection in the direction of increasing milk yield may reduce CR in cows. The genetic relationships between CR and lactation curve shape were quite weak, because the genetic correlations between CR and TD milk yield were constant during the lactation period.

  18. Effect of a short dry period on milk yield and content, colostrum quality, fertility, and metabolic status of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Shoshani, E; Rozen, S; Doekes, J J

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of shortening the dry period (DP) on milk and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yields, milk components, colostrum quality, metabolic status, and reproductive parameters. Primiparous (n=372) and multiparous (n=400) Israeli Holstein cows from 5 commercial dairy herds were subjected to a 60-d or 40-d DP. Cows within each herd were paired according to milk production, age, days in milk, and expected calving. Analysis of the data from all cows, irrespective of age, revealed significant differences in milk and ECM yields that favored the 60-d DP, with a prominent effect in 2 of 5 examined herds. In primiparous cows, milk and ECM yields were similar between groups in 4 of 5 farms. In multiparous cows undergoing a 60-d (vs. 40-d) DP, milk and ECM yields were higher in 3 herds. These differences could not be explained by milk and ECM yields in cows diagnosed with metritis, ketosis, and mastitis (defined by a somatic cell count threshold of 250,000 cell/mL), distribution of infected and noninfected cows, or new infections during DP and after calving. Including the milk and ECM yields from an average of 19.55 d from the previous lactation revealed higher milk and ECM yields for 40-d (vs. 60-d) DP cows in all herds. Analyzing 2 consecutive lactations revealed similar milk and ECM yields between groups in 4 out of 5 herds. In 1 herd, yields were higher in the 40-d compared with the 60-d DP group. One week after calving, the nonesterified fatty acid concentrations of 40-d DP cows were significantly lower than those of 60-d DP cows, indicating better postpartum energy balance. Colostrum quality, measured as IgG concentration, did not differ between the 2 DP groups. Cows assigned to 40-d DP had better reproductive performance, as reflected by fewer days to first insemination, a lower proportion with >90 d to first insemination, and fewer days to pregnancy. With respect to primiparous cows, a short DP increased conception rate after first artificial insemination

  19. Analysis of water intake, dry matter intake and daily milk yield using different error covariance structures.

    PubMed

    Kramer, E; Stamer, E; Spilke, J; Krieter, J

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the daily measured traits milk yield, water intake and dry matter intake with fixed and random regression models added with different error covariance structures. It was analysed whether these models deliver better model fitting in contrast to conventional fixed and random regression models. Furthermore, possible autocorrelation between repeated measures was investigated. The effect of model choice on statistical inference was also tested. Data recording was performed on the Futterkamp dairy research farm of the Chamber of Agriculture of Schleswig-Holstein. A dataset of about 21 000 observations from 178 Holstein cows was used. Average milk yield, water intake and dry matter intake were 34.9, 82.4 and 19.8 kg, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using different linear mixed models. Lactation number, test day and the parameters to model the function of lactation day were included as fixed effects. Different structures were tested for the residuals; they were compared for their ability to fit the model using the likelihood ratio test, and Akaike's and Bayesian's information criteria. Different autocorrelation patterns were found. Adjacent repeated measures of daily milk yield were highest correlated (p1 = 0.32) in contrast to measures further apart, while for water intake and dry matter intake, the measurements with a lag of two units had the highest correlations with p2 = 0.11 and 0.12. The covariance structure of TOEPLITZ was most suitable to indicate the dependencies of the repeated measures for all traits. Generally, the most complex model, random regression with the additional covariance structure TOEPLITZ(4), provided the lowest information criteria. Furthermore, the model choice influenced the significance values of one fixed effect and therefore the general inference of the data analysis. Thus, the random regression + TOEPLITZ(4) model is recommended for use for the analysis of equally spaced

  20. Effect of somatic cell count in goat milk on yield, sensory quality, and fatty acid profile of semisoft cheese.

    PubMed

    Chen, S X; Wang, J Z; Van Kessel, J S; Ren, F Z; Zeng, S S

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of somatic cell count (SCC) in goat milk on yield, free fatty acid (FFA) profile, and sensory quality of semisoft cheese. Sixty Alpine goats without evidence of clinical mastitis were assigned to 3 groups with milk SCC level of <500,000 (low), 500,000 to 1,000,000 (medium), and 1,000,000 to 1,500,000 (high) cells/mL. Thirty kilograms of goat milk with mean SCC levels of 410,000 (low), 770,000 (medium), and 1,250,000 (high) cells/mL was obtained for the manufacture of semisoft cheese for 2 consecutive weeks in 3 lactation stages. The composition of milk was analyzed and cheese yield was recorded on d 1. Cheese samples on d 1, 60, and 120 were analyzed for total sensory scores, flavor, and body and texture by a panel of 3 expert judges and were also analyzed for FFA. Results indicated that milk composition did not change when milk SCC varied from 214,000 to 1,450,000 cells/mL. Milk with higher SCC had a lower standard plate count, whereas coliform count and psychrotrophic bacteria count were not affected. However, milk components (fat, protein, lactose, casein, and total solids) among the 3 groups were similar. As a result, no significant differences in the yield of semisoft goat cheeses were detected. However, total sensory scores and body and texture scores for cheeses made from the high SCC milk were lower than those for cheeses made from the low and medium SCC milks. The difference in milk SCC levels also resulted in diverse changes in cheese texture (hardness, springiness, and so on) and FFA profiles. Individual and total FFA increased significantly during ripening, regardless the SCC levels. It is concluded that SCC in goat milk did not affect the yield of semisoft cheese but did result in inferior sensory quality of aged cheeses.

  1. Genetic association between milk yield, stayability, and mastitis in Holstein cows under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Irano, Natalia; Bignardi, Annaiza Braga; El Faro, Lenira; Santana, Mário Luiz; Cardoso, Vera Lúcia; Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for milk yield, stayability, and the occurrence of clinical mastitis in Holstein cows, as well as studying the genetic relationship between them, in order to provide subsidies for the genetic evaluation of these traits. Records from 5,090 Holstein cows with calving varying from 1991 to 2010, were used in the analysis. Two standard multivariate analyses were carried out, one containing the trait of accumulated 305-day milk yields in the first lactation (MY1), stayability (STAY) until the third lactation, and clinical mastitis (CM), as well as the other traits, considering accumulated 305-day milk yields (Y305), STAY, and CM, including the first three lactations as repeated measures for Y305 and CM. The covariance components were obtained by a Bayesian approach. The heritability estimates obtained by multivariate analysis with MY1 were 0.19, 0.28, and 0.13 for MY1, STAY, and CM, respectively, whereas using the multivariate analysis with the Y305, the estimates were 0.19, 0.31, and 0.14, respectively. The genetic correlations between MY1 and STAY, MY1 and CM, and STAY and CM, respectively, were 0.38, 0.12, and -0.49. The genetic correlations between Y305 and STAY, Y305 and CM, and STAY and CM, respectively, were 0.66, -0.25, and -0.52.

  2. Genetic Parameters for Milk Yield and Lactation Persistency Using Random Regression Models in Girolando Cattle.

    PubMed

    Canaza-Cayo, Ali William; Lopes, Paulo Sávio; da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto Barbosa; de Almeida Torres, Robledo; Martins, Marta Fonseca; Arbex, Wagner Antonio; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo

    2015-10-01

    A total of 32,817 test-day milk yield (TDMY) records of the first lactation of 4,056 Girolando cows daughters of 276 sires, collected from 118 herds between 2000 and 2011 were utilized to estimate the genetic parameters for TDMY via random regression models (RRM) using Legendre's polynomial functions whose orders varied from 3 to 5. In addition, nine measures of persistency in milk yield (PSi) and the genetic trend of 305-day milk yield (305MY) were evaluated. The fit quality criteria used indicated RRM employing the Legendre's polynomial of orders 3 and 5 for fitting the genetic additive and permanent environment effects, respectively, as the best model. The heritability and genetic correlation for TDMY throughout the lactation, obtained with the best model, varied from 0.18 to 0.23 and from -0.03 to 1.00, respectively. The heritability and genetic correlation for persistency and 305MY varied from 0.10 to 0.33 and from -0.98 to 1.00, respectively. The use of PS7 would be the most suitable option for the evaluation of Girolando cattle. The estimated breeding values for 305MY of sires and cows showed significant and positive genetic trends. Thus, the use of selection indices would be indicated in the genetic evaluation of Girolando cattle for both traits.

  3. Short communication: genetic trends of milk yield under heat stress for US Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, I; Misztal, I; Tsuruta, S

    2010-04-01

    Data included 90,242,799 test-day milk records from 5,402,484 Holstein cows in the first 3 parities and 9,326,754 animals in the pedigree. Additionally, daily temperature-humidity indexes from 202 weather stations were available. Analyses were done by a random regression model in which each parity was treated as a separate trait and that accounted for heat stress. The fixed effects included herd test-day, age at calving, milking frequency, and days in milk classes. Random effects included additive genetic, permanent environment, and herd-year effects, all fit as random regressions. Five covariates in the random regressions included linear splines with 4 knots at 5, 50, 200, and 305 DIM and a function of a temperature-humidity index (THI). Mixed model equations were solved by using an iteration on data approach with a preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm. Genetic trends for daily milk yield in absence of heat stress (intercept) were 0.140 kg/yr, 0.172 kg/yr, and 0.168 kg/yr for the first, second, and third parity, respectively. Genetic trends for decline of milk yield at temperature of 5 degrees C THI over the threshold of sensitivity to heat stress were -0.002 kg/yr, -0.035 kg/yr, and -0.038 kg/yr, for first, second, and third parity, respectively. Genetic profiles were created by contrasting the 100 most and 100 least heat-tolerant bulls for the official proofs. The most heat-tolerant bulls transmitted lower production and dairy form but higher fertility, productive life, and type, especially udder and locomotion traits. In later parities, the type advantages were smaller. Test-day records capture only a fraction of information due to heat stress, and the real trends for heat stress may be stronger. Studies on heat stress for production should include records on later parities.

  4. Late gestational hyperprolactinemia accelerates mammary epithelial cell differentiation that leads to increased milk yield.

    PubMed

    Vanklompenberg, M K; Manjarin, R; Trott, J F; McMicking, H F; Hovey, R C

    2013-03-01

    The growth rate of piglets is limited by sow milk yield, which reflects the extent of epithelial growth and differentiation in the mammary glands (MG) during pregnancy. Prolactin (PRL) promotes both the growth and differentiation of the mammary epithelium, where the lactational success of pigs is absolutely dependent on PRL exposure during late gestation. We hypothesized that inducing hyperprolactinemia in primiparous gilts during late gestation by administering the dopamine antagonist domperidone (DOM) would increase MG epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation, subsequent milk yield, and piglet growth. A total of 19 Yorkshire-Hampshire gilts were assigned to receive either no treatment (CON, n = 9) or DOM (n = 10) twice daily from gestation d 90 to 110. Serial blood sampling during the treatment period and subsequent lactation confirmed that plasma PRL concentrations were increased in DOM gilts on gestation d 91 and 96 (P < 0.001). Piglets reared by DOM-treated gilts gained 21% more BW during lactation than controls (P = 0.03) because of increased milk production by these same gilts on d 14 (24%, P = 0.02) and 21 (32%, P < 0.001) of lactation. Milk composition did not differ between the 2 groups on d 1 or 20 of lactation. Alveolar volume within the MG of DOM-treated gilts was increased during the treatment period (P < 0.001), whereas epithelial proliferation was unaffected by treatment. Exposure to DOM during late gestation augmented the postpartum increase in mRNA expression within the MG for β-casein (P < 0.03), acetyl CoA carboxylase-α (P < 0.01), lipoprotein lipase (P < 0.06), α-lactalbumin (P < 0.08), and glucose transporter 1 (P < 0.06). These findings demonstrate that late gestational hyperprolactinemia enhances lactogenesis within the porcine MG and increases milk production in the subsequent lactation.

  5. Predicting grass dry matter intake, milk yield and milk fat and protein yield of spring calving grazing dairy cows during the grazing season.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, B F; Lewis, E; O'Donovan, M; Shalloo, L; Galvin, N; Mulligan, F J; Boland, T M; Delagarde, R

    2013-08-01

    Predicting the grass dry matter intake (GDMI), milk yield (MY) or milk fat and protein yield (milk solids yield (MSY)) of the grazing dairy herd is difficult. Decisions with regard to grazing management are based on guesstimates of the GDMI of the herd, yet GDMI is a critical factor influencing MY and MSY. A data set containing animal, sward, grazing management and concentrate supplementation variables recorded during weeks of GDMI measurement was used to develop multiple regression equations to predict GDMI, MY and MSY. The data set contained data from 245 grazing herds from 10 published studies conducted at Teagasc, Moorepark. A forward stepwise multiple regression technique was used to develop the multiple regression equations for each of the dependent variables (GDMI, MY, MSY) for three periods during the grazing season: spring (SP; 5 March to 30 April), summer (SU; 1 May to 31 July) and autumn (AU; 1 August to 31 October). The equations generated highlighted the importance of different variables associated with GDMI, MY and MSY during the grazing season. Peak MY was associated with an increase in GDMI, MY and MSY during the grazing season with the exception of GDMI in SU when BW accounted for more of the variation. A higher body condition score (BCS) at calving was associated with a lower GDMI in SP and SU and a lower MY and MSY in all periods. A higher BCS was associated with a higher GDMI in SP and SU, a higher MY in SU and AU and a higher MSY in all periods. The pre-grazing herbage mass of the sward (PGHM) above 4 cm was associated with a quadratic effect on GDMI in SP, on MY in SP and SU and on MSY in SU. An increase in daily herbage allowance (DHA) above 4 cm was associated with an increase in GDMI in AU, an increase in MY in SU and AU and MSY in AU. Supplementing grazing dairy cows with concentrate reduced GDMI and increased MY and MSY in all periods. The equations generated can be used by the Irish dairy industry during the grazing season to predict the

  6. Effect of reduction of milking frequency and supplementation of vitamin E and selenium above requirements on milk yield and composition in Assaf ewes.

    PubMed

    Pulido, E; Giráldez, F J; Bodas, R; Andrés, S; Prieto, N

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of milking frequency and supplementation with a vitamin-mineral complex above requirements on intake, body weight (BW), and milk yield and composition in high-yielding Assaf ewes. Sixteen lactating Assaf ewes were used in this study, separated into 4 groups of 4 ewes each. Animals in 2 of the groups (control groups) did not receive any extra vitamin-mineral supplement, whereas animals in the other 2 groups (supplement groups) received daily an oral dose of 1g of vitamin E (1,000 IU, DL-α-tocopherol acetate) and 0.4 mg of selenium (sodium selenite anhydrous). The experiment consisted of 2 consecutive periods of 3 wk (twice-daily milking in both mammary glands) and 8 wk (once-daily milking in one mammary gland and twice-daily milking in the other gland). Intake, BW, and milk composition were controlled weekly, and milk production was recorded 3 times a week. Administration of the vitamin-mineral supplement had no effect on dry matter intake, BW, or milk production and composition. The reduction of milking from twice to once a day caused a decrease in milk production and lactose concentration and a significant increase in protein concentration, total solids, and somatic cell count, without affecting the fat content. Administration of a vitamin E and Se supplement at the doses used in the present study does not seem to exert, in the short term, a noticeable effect on the mammary gland when milking frequency is reduced.

  7. High-pressure homogenization of raw and pasteurized milk modifies the yield, composition, and texture of queso fresco cheese.

    PubMed

    Escobar, D; Clark, S; Ganesan, V; Repiso, L; Waller, J; Harte, F

    2011-03-01

    High-pressure homogenization (HPH) of milk was studied as an alternative processing operation in the manufacturing of queso fresco cheese. Raw and pasteurized (65°C for 30 min) milks were subjected to HPH at 0, 100, 200, and 300 MPa and then used to manufacture queso fresco. The cheeses were evaluated for yield, moisture content, titratable acidity, nitrogen content, whey protein content, yield force, yield strain, and tactile texture by instrumental or trained panel analyses. The combination of HPH and thermal processing of milk resulted in cheeses with increased yield and moisture content. The net amount of protein transferred to the cheese per kilogram of milk remained constant for all treatments except raw milk processed at 300 MPa. The highest cheese yield, moisture content, and crumbliness were obtained for thermally processed milk subjected to HPH at 300 MPa. The principal component analysis of all measured variables showed that the variables yield, moisture content, and crumbliness were strongly correlated to each other and negatively correlated to the variables yield strain, protein content (wet basis), and sensory cohesiveness. It is suggested that the combination of thermal processing and HPH promotes thermally induced denaturation of whey protein, together with homogenization-induced dissociation of casein micelles. The combined effect results in queso fresco containing a thin casein-whey matrix that is able to better retain sweet whey. These results indicate that HPH has a strong potential for the manufacture of queso fresco with excellent yield and textural properties.

  8. Effects of the addition of direct-fed microbials and glycerol to the diet of lactating dairy cows on milk yield and apparent efficiency of yield.

    PubMed

    Boyd, J; West, J W; Bernard, J K

    2011-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a direct-fed microbial (M) and dietary glycerol (G) on milk yield, efficiency of yield, and nutrient digestibility during hot weather. Sixty Holstein cows averaging 120 d in milk (DIM) and 36.2 kg/d of milk were used in a 12-wk 2×2 factorial design trial from June through September 2008. Cows were fed a common diet during the 2-wk standardization period and were blocked by milk yield, DIM, parity, and dry matter intake. Diets were based on corn and ryegrass silages and balanced to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Treatments included a negative control (M- or G-), 4 × 10(9) cfu/head of a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii NP24 (M+), control plus 400 g/h per day of 99% pure food-grade glycerol (G+), and 4×10(9) cfu/h per day of a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii NP24 plus 400 g/h per day of 99% pure food-grade glycerol (MG++). No interactions were observed between direct-fed microbials and dietary glycerol in the study except on apparent nutrient digestibility. No differences were observed in dry matter intake, which averaged 22.7, 23.1, 23.4, and 22.9 for M-, G-, M+, and G+, respectively. Milk yield was increased for M+ compared with M- at 34.1 and 31.7 kg/d, but G+ had no effect on yield. No treatment effect was noted for milk fat percentage or milk protein percentage among diets. Milk protein yield was higher for M+ compared with M- at 0.93 versus 0.87 kg/d. Energy-corrected milk was improved for the M+ versus M- groups at 33.5 and 31.6 kg/d, respectively. No differences in respiratory rate, skin temperature, body temperature, or concentrations of serum glucose or urea N were observed among treatments. Improvement in apparent digestibility was observed with M+ and G+ compared with M-/G- in this experiment. The addition of a direct-fed microbial alone improved milk and protein yield, energy-corrected milk, and

  9. Bacterial subclinical mastitis and its effect on milk yield in low-input dairy goat herds.

    PubMed

    Gelasakis, A I; Angelidis, A S; Giannakou, R; Filioussis, G; Kalamaki, M S; Arsenos, G

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to record the major pathogens associated with subclinical mastitis (SCM), (2) to calculate their incidence during the milking period, and (3) to estimate the effect of SCM on daily milk yield (DMY) for goats reared under low-input management schemes. Dairy goats (n=590) of Skopelos and indigenous Greek breeds from 4 herds were randomly selected for the study. The study included monthly monitoring, milk yield recording, and bacteriological analyses of milk of individual goats during the course of 2 successive milking periods. Incidence and cumulative incidence were calculated for SCM cases. Moreover, 2 mixed linear regression models were built to assess the effects of (1) SCM and (2) different pathogens isolated from SCM cases, on DMY. The estimated incidence and cumulative incidence of SCM for the first and the second year of the study were 69.5 and 96.4 new cases of SCM/1,000 goat-months, and 24.1 and 31.7%, respectively. A total of 755 milk samples were subjected to microbiological examination, resulting in 661 positive cultures. Coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococci were isolated from 50.2 and 34.5% of the positive cultures, respectively. The incidence of infections (new infections per 1,000 goat-months) for the first and the second year of the study were 34 and 53 for coagulase-negative staphylococci, 23 and 28 for coagulase-positive staphylococci, 3 and 5 for Streptococcus/Enterococcus spp., and 5.5 and 9.1 for gram-negative bacteria. Goats with SCM had lower DMY when compared with goats without SCM (ca. 47g/d, corresponding to a 5.7% decrease in DMY). In particular, goats with SCM due to coagulase-positive staphylococci infection produced approximately 80g/d less milk (a reduction of ca. 9.7%) compared with uninfected ones, whereas SCM due to gram-negative bacteria resulted in approximately 15% reduction in DMY. Investigating the epidemiology of SCM and its effects on production traits is critical for

  10. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) increases milk yield without losing body weight in lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Joo, Young-Kuk; Lee, Jin-Woo; Ha, Young-Joo; Yeo, Joon-Mo; Kim, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance of lactating sows and piglets as well as the immunity of piglets suckling from sows fed CLA. Eighteen multiparous Duroc sows with an average body weight (BW) of 232.0 ± 6.38 kg were randomly selected and assigned to two dietary treatments (n = 9 for each treatment), control (no CLA addition) and 1% CLA supplementation. For the control diet, CLA was replaced with soybean oil. Experimental diets were fed to sows during a 28-day lactation period. Litter size for each sow was standardized to nine piglets by cross-fostering within 24 hours after birth. Sow milk and blood samples were taken from sows and piglets after 21 and 27 days of lactation, respectively. Loss of BW was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed control diet compared to sows fed CLA diet. Piglet weights at weaning and weight gain during suckling were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed CLA compared to sows fed control diet. Serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and urea nitrogen concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. IgG concentrations of the groups supplemented with CLA increased by 49% in sow serum (p < 0.0001), 23% in milk (p < 0.05), and 35% in piglet serum (p < 0.05) compared with the control group. Sows fed CLA showed an increase of 10% in milk yield compared with sows fed soybean oil (p < 0.05), even though there was no difference in daily feed intake between the treatments. Milk fat content was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. Solid-not-fat yield was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows supplemented with CLA than in sows fed control diet and also protein-to-fat ratio in milk was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed CLA compared with the control group. The results show that CLA supplementation to sows increased milk yield without losing BW during

  11. Effect of treatment of chronic theileriosis with buparvaquone on milk yields.

    PubMed

    Michael, S A; el Refaii, A H; McHardy, N; Rae, D G

    1989-11-01

    Chronic, undulating Theileria annulata infection was diagnosed as the cause of severely depressed milk yields in a herd of 44 Friesian cows in Egypt. The herd was divided at random into two groups of 22; one group was injected intramuscularly with a single dose of the experimental antitheilerial drug, buparvaquone, while the other remained untreated. Over the subsequent seven weeks milk yield in the treated group increased to double that of the untreated group (P less than 0.05). Pyrexia was controlled within two days of injection of buparvaquone and piroplasm parasitaemia was eliminated in one week. It is suggested that treatment of dairy cattle chronically infected with T. annulata using buparvaquone may have the dual beneficial effect of reducing the pathogenic effects of theileriosis, thereby permitting restoration of an impaired immune system, thus increasing resistance to other infections. If a similar effect could be produced in Bos indicus cattle in T. annulata endemic areas, treatment of indigenous cattle with buparvaquone could be a useful alternative to the introduction of Bos taurus blood as a way of boosting milk production.

  12. Responses to Starch Infusion on Milk Synthesis in Low Yield Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yang; Yang, Zhanshan; Guo, Yongqing; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun

    2015-01-01

    The effect of starch infusion on production, metabolic parameters and relative mRNA abundance was investigated in low yield lactating cows from 86 days in milk. Six Holstein cows fitted with permanent ruminal cannulas were arranged into one of two complete 3×3 Latin squares and infused with a starch solution containing 800 grams starch for 16 days. The three treatments were: i) ruminal and abomasal infusion with water (Control); ii) ruminal infusion with cornstarch solution and abomasal infusion with water (Rumen); iii) ruminal infusion with water and abomasal infusion with cornstarch solution (Abomasum). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) among the three treatments with low yield lactating cows in feed and energy intake, milk yield and composition, plasma metabolism, or even on gene expression. However, cows receiving starch through rumen performed better than directly through the abomasum during the glucose tolerance test procedure with a higher area under the curve (AUC; p = 0.08) and shorter half-time (t1/2; p = 0.11) of plasma insulin, therefore, it increased glucose disposal, which stated a lipid anabolism other than mobilization after energy supplementation. In conclusion, extra starch infusion at concentration of 800 g/d did not enhance energy supplies to the mammary gland and improve the lactating performance in low yield lactating cows. PMID:26194224

  13. Responses to Starch Infusion on Milk Synthesis in Low Yield Lactating Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yang; Yang, Zhanshan; Guo, Yongqing; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun

    2015-09-01

    The effect of starch infusion on production, metabolic parameters and relative mRNA abundance was investigated in low yield lactating cows from 86 days in milk. Six Holstein cows fitted with permanent ruminal cannulas were arranged into one of two complete 3×3 Latin squares and infused with a starch solution containing 800 grams starch for 16 days. The three treatments were: i) ruminal and abomasal infusion with water (Control); ii) ruminal infusion with cornstarch solution and abomasal infusion with water (Rumen); iii) ruminal infusion with water and abomasal infusion with cornstarch solution (Abomasum). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) among the three treatments with low yield lactating cows in feed and energy intake, milk yield and composition, plasma metabolism, or even on gene expression. However, cows receiving starch through rumen performed better than directly through the abomasum during the glucose tolerance test procedure with a higher area under the curve (AUC; p = 0.08) and shorter half-time (t(1/2); p = 0.11) of plasma insulin, therefore, it increased glucose disposal, which stated a lipid anabolism other than mobilization after energy supplementation. In conclusion, extra starch infusion at concentration of 800 g/d did not enhance energy supplies to the mammary gland and improve the lactating performance in low yield lactating cows.

  14. Pathogen-specific effects on milk yield in repeated clinical mastitis episodes in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Gröhn, Y T

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of clinical mastitis (CM) cases due to different pathogens on milk yield in Holstein cows. The first 3 CM cases in a cow's lactation were modeled. Eight categories of pathogens were included: Streptococcus spp.; Staphylococcus aureus; coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); Escherichia coli; Klebsiella spp.; cases with CM signs but no bacterial growth (above the level detectable by our microbiological procedures) observed in the culture sample, and cases with contamination (≥ 3 pathogens in the sample); other pathogens that may be treated with antibiotics (included Citrobacter, Corynebacterium bovis, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Pasteurella, Pseudomonas; "other treatable"); and other pathogens not successfully treated with antibiotics (Trueperella pyogenes, Mycoplasma, Prototheca, yeasts; "other not treatable"). Data from 38,276 lactations in cows from 5 New York State dairy herds, collected from 2003-2004 until 2011, were analyzed. Mixed models with an autoregressive correlation structure (to account for correlation among the repeated measures of milk yield within a lactation) were estimated. Primiparous (lactation 1) and multiparous (lactations 2 and 3) cows were analyzed separately, as the shapes of their lactation curves differed. Primiparas were followed for up to 48 wk of lactation and multiparas for up to 44 wk. Fixed effects included parity, calving season, week of lactation, CM (type, case number, and timing of CM in relation to milk production cycle), and other diseases (milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum). Herd was modeled as a random effect. Clinical mastitis was more common in multiparas than in primiparas. In primiparas, Streptococcus spp. occurred most frequently as the first case. In multiparas, E. coli was most common as the first case. In subsequent cases, CM cases with no specific growth or contamination were most common in both parity groups. The hazard of

  15. Comparison of modelling techniques for milk-production forecasting.

    PubMed

    Murphy, M D; O'Mahony, M J; Shalloo, L; French, P; Upton, J

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the suitability of 3 different modeling techniques for the prediction of total daily herd milk yield from a herd of 140 lactating pasture-based dairy cows over varying forecast horizons. A nonlinear auto-regressive model with exogenous input, a static artificial neural network, and a multiple linear regression model were developed using 3 yr of historical milk-production data. The models predicted the total daily herd milk yield over a full season using a 305-d forecast horizon and 50-, 30-, and 10-d moving piecewise horizons to test the accuracy of the models over long- and short-term periods. All 3 models predicted the daily production levels for a full lactation of 305 d with a percentage root mean square error (RMSE) of ≤ 12.03%. However, the nonlinear auto-regressive model with exogenous input was capable of increasing its prediction accuracy as the horizon was shortened from 305 to 50, 30, and 10 d [RMSE (%)=8.59, 8.1, 6.77, 5.84], whereas the static artificial neural network [RMSE (%)=12.03, 12.15, 11.74, 10.7] and the multiple linear regression model [RMSE (%)=10.62, 10.68, 10.62, 10.54] were not able to reduce their forecast error over the same horizons to the same extent. For this particular application the nonlinear auto-regressive model with exogenous input can be presented as a more accurate alternative to conventional regression modeling techniques, especially for short-term milk-yield predictions.

  16. Effects of direct-fed Bacillus pumilus 8G-134 on feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, feed conversion, and health condition of pre- and postpartum Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Luan, S; Duersteler, M; Galbraith, E A; Cardoso, F C

    2015-09-01

    The usage of direct-fed microbials (DFM) has become common in the dairy industry, but questions regarding choice of strain, mode of action, and efficacy remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a DFM (Bacillus pumilus 8G-134) on pre- and postpartum performance and incidence of subclinical ketosis in early lactation. Forty-three multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 2 treatments in a randomized complete block design; cows in the direct-fed microbial treatment (DFMt, n=21) received 5.0×10(9) cfu/cow of B. pumilus in 28 g of a maltodextrin carrier, whereas cows in the control treatment (CON, n=22) received 28 g of maltodextrin carrier alone. Treatments were top-dressed on the total mixed ration daily. Treatments were applied from 21 d before expected calving date to 154 d after calving. Cows on treatment DFMt tended to have lower serum haptoglobin concentration than CON cows on d 14. Cows on treatment DFMt had higher IgA concentrations in milk than CON cows during the first week after calving. Cows fed DFMt had higher yields of milk, fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, milk fat, and milk protein during the second week of lactation than CON; however, we found no differences between treatments on milk yield and milk components overall. Cows on DFMt tended to have higher feed conversion and to have lower prevalence of subclinical ketosis (beta-hydroxybutyrate >1.2 mmol/L) on d 5 than cows fed CON. Dry matter intake, body weight, and body condition score were not affected by DFMt supplementation. Milk production efficiencies (calculated based on fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk) were higher by 0.1 kg of milk per kilogram of dry matter intake in cows that received DFMt compared with cows that received CON. In conclusion, cows receiving DFMt tended to have lower incidence of subclinical ketosis than cows receiving CON. Cows fed DFMt tended to have higher feed conversion and evidence for greater immunity than CON

  17. Genetic parameters of coagulation properties, milk yield, quality, and acidity estimated using coagulating and noncoagulating milk information in Brown Swiss and Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A; Penasa, M; De Marchi, M; Gallo, L; Bittante, G; Carnier, P

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate heritabilities of rennet coagulation time (RCT) and curd firmness (a(30)) and their genetic correlations with test-day milk yield, composition (fat, protein, and casein content), somatic cell score, and acidity (pH and titratable acidity) using coagulating and noncoagulating (NC) milk information. Data were from 1,025 Holstein-Friesian (HF) and 1,234 Brown Swiss (BS) cows, which were progeny of 54 HF and 58 BS artificial insemination sires, respectively. Milk coagulation properties (MCP) of each cow were measured once using a computerized renneting meter and samples not exhibiting coagulation within 31 min after rennet addition were classified as NC milk. For NC samples, RCT was unobserved. Multivariate analyses, using Bayesian methodology, were performed to estimate the genetic relationships of RCT or a(30) with the other traits and statistical inference was based on the marginal posterior distributions of parameters of concern. For analyses involving RCT, a right-censored Gaussian linear model was used and records of NC milk samples, being censored records, were included as unknown parameters in the model implementing a data augmentation procedure. Rennet coagulation time was more heritable [heritability (h(2))=0.240 and h(2)=0.210 for HF and BS, respectively] than a(30) (h(2)=0.148 and h(2)=0.168 for HF and BS, respectively). Milk coagulation properties were more heritable than a single test-day milk yield (h(2)=0.103 and h(2)=0.097 for HF and BS, respectively) and less heritable than milk composition traits whose heritability ranged from 0.275 to 0.275, with the only exception of fat content of BS milk (h(2)=0.108). A negative genetic correlation, lower than -0.85, was estimated between RCT and a(30) for both breeds. Genetic relationships of MCP with yield and composition were low or moderate and favorable. The genetic correlation of somatic cell score with RCT in BS cows was large and positive and even more positive were

  18. Influence of raw milk quality on processed dairy products: How do raw milk quality test results relate to product quality and yield?

    PubMed

    Murphy, Steven C; Martin, Nicole H; Barbano, David M; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-12-01

    This article provides an overview of the influence of raw milk quality on the quality of processed dairy products and offers a perspective on the merits of investing in quality. Dairy farmers are frequently offered monetary premium incentives to provide high-quality milk to processors. These incentives are most often based on raw milk somatic cell and bacteria count levels well below the regulatory public health-based limits. Justification for these incentive payments can be based on improved processed product quality and manufacturing efficiencies that provide the processor with a return on their investment for high-quality raw milk. In some cases, this return on investment is difficult to measure. Raw milks with high levels of somatic cells and bacteria are associated with increased enzyme activity that can result in product defects. Use of raw milk with somatic cell counts >100,000cells/mL has been shown to reduce cheese yields, and higher levels, generally >400,000 cells/mL, have been associated with textural and flavor defects in cheese and other products. Although most research indicates that fairly high total bacteria counts (>1,000,000 cfu/mL) in raw milk are needed to cause defects in most processed dairy products, receiving high-quality milk from the farm allows some flexibility for handling raw milk, which can increase efficiencies and reduce the risk of raw milk reaching bacterial levels of concern. Monitoring total bacterial numbers in regard to raw milk quality is imperative, but determining levels of specific types of bacteria present has gained increasing importance. For example, spores of certain spore-forming bacteria present in raw milk at very low levels (e.g., <1/mL) can survive pasteurization and grow in milk and cheese products to levels that result in defects. With the exception of meeting product specifications often required for milk powders, testing for specific spore-forming groups is currently not used in quality incentive programs in

  19. Effect of high pressure homogenisation of milk on cheese yield and microbiology, lipolysis and proteolysis during ripening of Caciotta cheese.

    PubMed

    Lanciotti, Rosalba; Vannini, Lucia; Patrignani, Francesca; Iucci, Luciana; Vallicelli, Melania; Ndagijimana, Maurice; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta

    2006-05-01

    The principal aim of this work was to compare Caciotta cheeses obtained from cow milk previously subjected to high pressure homogenisation (HPH) at 100 MPa with those produced from raw (R) or heat-treated (P) cow milk. HPH had both direct and indirect effects on cheese characteristics and their evolution during ripening. In particular, HPH treatment of milk induced a significant increase of the cheese yield; moreover, it affected the microbial ecology of both curd and cheese. Compared with the thermal treatment, the HPH treatment resulted in a decrease of about one log cfu/g of yeast and lactobacilli cell loads of the curd. The initial milk treatment also affected the evolution over time and the levels attained at the end of ripening of all the microbial groups studied. In fact, lactobacilli, microstaphylococci and yeast cell loads remained at lower levels in the cheeses obtained from HPH milk with respect to the other cheese types over the whole ripening period. Moreover, HPH of milk induced marked and extensive lipolysis. Cheeses from HPH milk showed the presence of high amounts of free fatty acids immediately after brining. The electrophoretic patterns of the different cheese types showed that Caciotta made from HPH-treated milk was characterized by a more extensive and faster proteolysis as well as a significant modification of its volatile molecule profile. The results obtained and the sensory analysis indicated that HPH treatment of milk was able to differentiate Caciotta cheese or to modify its ripening patterns.

  20. Dietary fish oil supplements depress milk fat yield and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kairenius, P; Ärölä, A; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Hurme, T; Griinari, J M; Shingfield, K J

    2015-08-01

    The potential of dietary fish oil (FO) supplements to increase milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations and the associated effects on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, intake, and milk production were examined. Four multiparous lactating cows offered a grass silage-based diet (forage:concentrate ratio 58:42, on a dry matter basis) supplemented with 0, 75, 150, or 300g of FO/d (FO0, FO75, FO150, and FO300, respectively) were used in a 4×4 Latin square with 28-d experimental periods. Milk FA composition was analyzed by complementary silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and silver-ion HPLC. Supplements of FO decreased linearly dry matter intake, yields of energy-corrected milk, milk fat and protein, and milk fat content. Compared with FO0, milk fat content and yield were decreased by 30.1 and 40.6%, respectively, on the FO300 treatment. Supplements of FO linearly increased milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.18 and 0.03 to 0.10g/100g of FA, respectively. Enrichment of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was accompanied by decreases in 4- to 18-carbon saturated FA and increases in total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans FA, and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Fish oil elevated milk fat cis-9,trans-11 CLA content in a quadratic manner, reaching a maximum on FO150 (from 0.61 to 2.15g/100g of FA), whereas further amounts of FO increased trans-10 18:1 with no change in trans-11 18:1 concentration. Supplements of FO also resulted in a dose-dependent appearance of 37 unique 20- and 22-carbon intermediates in milk fat. Concentrations of 16-, 18-, 20-, and 22-carbon trans FA were all increased by FO, with enrichment of trans 18:1 and trans 18:2 being quantitatively the most important. Decreases in milk fat yield to FO were not related to changes in milk trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentration or estimated milk fat melting point. Partial least square regression analysis indicated that FO-induced milk fat depression was associated with

  1. Milk yield and composition of lactating cows fed steam-flaked sorghum and graded concentrations of ruminally degradable protein.

    PubMed

    Santos, F A; Huber, J T; Theurer, C B; Swingle, R S; Simas, J M; Chen, K H; Yu, P

    1998-01-01

    To determine the effect of various amounts of ruminally undegradable protein in the diets of lactating cows fed steam-flaked sorghum, 24 Holstein cows (90 +/- 50 d in milk) were assigned to three treatments: 0.8% urea, 6% soybean meal, or 5% fish meal. Respective percentages of ruminally undegradable protein in the diets (as a percentage of crude protein) were 30, 35, and 39%. All diets contained 37% alfalfa hay; 3 to 5% cottonseed hulls; 10 to 13% whole cottonseed; 39% steam-flaked sorghum (360 g/L); 5% of a molasses, mineral, and vitamin supplement; and the different protein supplements. Intake of dry matter was higher for cows fed urea than for cows fed soybean meal or fish meal diets. In cows that yielded more than 40 kg/d of milk (4 cows per treatment), the soybean meal and fish meal diets resulted in higher yields of milk and 3.5% fat-corrected milk and a greater efficiency of conversion of feed to milk than did the urea diet. Cows that yielded less than 40 kg/d of milk (4 cows per treatment) at the beginning of treatment tended to yield more milk when fed urea than when fed the protein supplements. Nutrient digestibilities were not greatly affected by source of N, suggesting a beneficial effect of urea supplementation on nutrient digestibilities because replacement of protein supplements with cottonseed products caused the neutral detergent fiber content of the urea diet to be about 7% higher than that of the other diets. These data show that response to ruminally undegradable protein in diets of lactating cows fed steam-flaked sorghum was related to milk yield.

  2. Genetic parameters of different measures of cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery from an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Bittante, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A

    2013-01-01

    Cheese yield (CY) is an important technological trait in the dairy industry, and the objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters of cheese yield in a dairy cattle population using an individual model-cheese production procedure. A total of 1,167 Brown Swiss cows belonging to 85 herds were sampled once (a maximum of 15 cows were sampled per herd on a single test day, 1 or 2 herds per week). From each cow, 1,500 mL of milk was processed according to the following steps: milk sampling and heating, culture addition, rennet addition, gelation-time recording, curd cutting, whey draining and sampling, wheel formation, pressing, salting in brine, weighing, and cheese sampling. The compositions of individual milk, whey, and curd samples were determined. Three measures of percentage cheese yield (%CY) were calculated: %CY(CURD), %CY(SOLIDS), and %CY(WATER), which represented the ratios between the weight of fresh curd, the total solids of the curd, and the water content of the curd, respectively, and the weight of the milk processed. In addition, 3 measures of daily cheese yield (dCY, kg/d) were defined, considering the daily milk yield. Three measures of nutrient recovery (REC) were computed: REC(FAT), REC(PROTEIN), and REC(SOLIDS), which represented the ratio between the weights of the fat, protein, and total solids in the curd, respectively, and the corresponding nutrient in the milk. Energy recovery, REC(ENERGY), represented the energy content of the cheese versus that in the milk. For statistical analysis, a Bayesian animal model was implemented via Gibbs sampling. The effects of parity (1 to ≥4), days in milk (6 classes), and laboratory vat (15 vats) were assigned flat priors; those of herd-test-date, animal, and residual were given Gaussian prior distributions. Intra-herd heritability estimates of %CY(CURD), %CY(SOLIDS), and %CY(WATER) ranged from 0.224 to 0.267; these were larger than the estimates obtained for milk yield (0.182) and milk fat

  3. Effect of a high-palmitic acid fat supplement on milk production and apparent total-tract digestibility in high- and low-milk yield dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rico, D E; Ying, Y; Harvatine, K J

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a high-palmitic acid fat supplement was tested in 12 high-producing (mean = 42.1 kg/d) and 12 low-producing (mean = 28.9 kg/d) cows arranged in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. Experimental periods were 21 d, with 18d of diet adaptation and 3 d of sample collection. Treatments were (1) control (no supplemental fat), (2) high-palmitic acid (PA) supplement (84% C16:0), and (3) Ca salts of palm fatty acid (FA) supplement (Ca-FA). The PA supplement had no effect on milk production, but decreased dry matter intake by 7 and 9% relative to the control in high- and low-producing cows, respectively, and increased feed efficiency by 8.5% in high-producing cows compared with the control. Milk fat concentration and yield were not affected by PA relative to the control in high- or low-producing cows, although PA increased the yield of milk 16-C FA by more than 85 g/d relative to the control. The Ca-FA decreased milk fat concentration compared with PA in high-, but not in low-producing cows. In agreement, Ca-FA dramatically increased milk fat concentration of trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (>300%) compared with PA in high-producing cows, but not in low-producing cows. No effect of treatment on milk protein concentration or yield was detected. The PA supplement also increased 16-C FA apparent digestibility by over 10% and increased total FA digestibility compared with the control in high- and low-producing cows. During short-term feeding, palmitic acid supplementation did not increase milk or milk fat yield; however, it was efficiently absorbed, increased feed efficiency, and increased milk 16-C FA yield, while minimizing alterations in ruminal biohydrogenation commonly observed for other unsaturated fat supplements. Longer-term experiments will be necessary to determine the effects on energy balance and changes in body reserves.

  4. Genetic parameters of test-day milk yield in Guzerá cattle under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Cruz, D A C; Peixoto, M G C D; Bruneli, F A T; Bignardi, A B; El Faro, L

    2015-10-29

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for test-day milk yield (TDMY) in Guzerá cows using random regression models. Additive and permanent environmental random effects were modeled by random regression on fourth- and fifth-order orthogonal Legendre polynomials, respectively. The residual variances were heterogeneous, with seven classes. Heritability estimates for TDMY ranged from 0.24 to 0.52, with higher heritabilities for yields during early lactation. Genetic correlations between TDMYs ranged from -0.03 to 0.95. The phenotypic and permanent environmental correlations were all positive, and the highest estimates were between adjacent TDMYs. The results suggest that TDMYs obtained with random regression models may be used as selection criteria for Guzerá cattle.

  5. The effect of paratuberculosis on milk yield--A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    McAloon, Conor G; Whyte, Paul; More, Simon J; Green, Martin J; O'Grady, Luke; Garcia, AnaBelen; Doherty, Michael L

    2016-02-01

    Bovine paratuberculosis is a disease characterized by chronic granulomatous enteritis causing protein-losing enteropathy. Adverse effects on animal productivity are key drivers in the attempt to control paratuberculosis at the farm level. Economic models require an accurate estimation of the production effects associated with paratuberculosis. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect of paratuberculosis on milk production. A total of 20 effect estimates from 15 studies were included in the final meta-analysis. Substantial between-study heterogeneity was observed. Subgroup analysis by case definition and study design was carried out to investigate heterogeneity. The majority of between-study variation was attributed to studies that defined cases on serology. Calculation of a pooled effect estimate was only appropriate for studies that defined cases by organism detection. A reduction in milk yield, corrected for lactation number and herd of origin of 1.87 kg/d, equivalent to 5.9% of yield, was associated with fecal culture or PCR positivity in individual cows.

  6. Selection of a mathematical model to generate lactation curves using daily milk yields of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Sherchand, L; McNew, R W; Kellogg, D W; Johnson, Z B

    1995-11-01

    Mathematical descriptions of early stages of lactation were investigated using daily milk yields of 117 first, 78 second, 57 third, and 36 fourth lactations of 120 Holstein cows fitted by 10 models. The measure of fit was the error mean squares, which were replaced by ranks to perform an analysis of variance with lactation number, model, and period as factors and with cows as replicates. The interaction of model and lactation number was significant for the fit of the entire lactation. A significant interaction of model and period was obtained for the fit of three 30-d intervals. For the entire lactation, the best fit for all four lactations occurred from the diphasic logistic function, y = d1(1-tanh2(b1(nk-c1))) + d2(1-tanh2(b2(n-c2))). For the first 30 d, a modified gamma function gave the best fit for the first lactation, the inverse polynomial function for the second lactation, and the quadratic log function for the third lactation. The diphasic logistic function gave the best fit for the remaining two periods and was not significantly different from the best fitting models for the first 30-d period. Hence, this function may be useful to describe the lactation curve of Holstein cows for dairy herds in which the daily milk yield of individual cows is constantly monitored with a computer.

  7. Genetic analysis of milk production traits of polish black and white cattle using large-scale random regression test-day models.

    PubMed

    Strabel, T; Jamrozik, J

    2006-08-01

    Genetic parameters for milk, fat, and protein yield and persistency in the first 3 lactations of Polish Black and White cattle were estimated. A multiple-lactation model was applied with random herd-test-day effect, fixed regressions for herd-year and age-season of calving, and random regressions for the additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Three data sets with slightly different edits on minimal number of days in milk and the size of herd-year class were used. Each subset included more than 0.5 million test-day records and more than 58,000 cows. Estimates of covariance components and genetic parameters for each trait were obtained by Bayesian methods using the Gibbs sampler. Due to the large size and a good structure of the data, no differences in estimates were found when additional criteria for record selection were applied. More than 95% of the genetic variance for all traits and lactations was explained by the first 2 principal components, which were associated with the mean yield and lactation persistency. Heritabilities of 305-d milk yield in the first 3 lactations (0.18, 0.16, 0.17) were lower than those for fat (0.12, 0.11, 0.12) and protein (0.13, 0.14, 0.15). Estimates of daily heritabilities increased in general with days in milk for all traits and lactations, with no apparent abnormalities at the beginning or end of lactation. Genetic correlations between yields in different lactations ranged from 0.74 (fat yield in lactations 1 and 3) to 0.89 (milk yield in lactations 2 and 3). Persistency of lactation was defined as the linear regression coefficient of the lactation curve. Heritability of persistency increased with lactation number for all traits and genetic correlations between persistency in different lactations were smaller than those for 305d yield. Persistency was not genetically correlated with the total yield in lactation.

  8. Bayesian inference of genetic parameters for test-day milk yield, milk quality traits, and somatic cell score in Burlina cows.

    PubMed

    Penasa, M; Cecchinato, A; Battagin, M; De Marchi, M; Pretto, D; Cassandro, M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to infer (co)variance components for daily milk yield, fat and protein contents, and somatic cell score (SCS) in Burlina cattle (a local breed in northeast Italy). Data consisted of 13,576 monthly test-day records of 666 cows (parities 1 to 8) collected in 10 herds between 1999 and 2009. Repeatability animal models were implemented using Bayesian methods. Flat priors were assumed for systematic effects of herd test date, days in milk, and parity, as well as for permanent environmental, genetic, and residual effects. On average, Burlina cows produced 17.0 kg of milk per day, with 3.66 and 3.33 percent of fat and protein, respectively, and 358,000 cells per mL of milk. Marginal posterior medians (highest posterior density of 95%) of heritability were 0.18 (0.09-0.28), 0.28 (0.21-0.36), 0.35 (0.25-0.49), and 0.05 (0.01-0.11) for milk yield, fat content, protein content, and SCS, respectively. Marginal posterior medians of genetic correlations between the traits were low and a 95 percent Bayesian confidence region included zero, with the exception of the genetic correlation between fat and protein contents. Despite the low number of animals in the population, results suggest that genetic variance for production and quality traits exists in Burlina cattle.

  9. Short communication: Effects of prill size of a palmitic acid-enriched fat supplement on the yield of milk and milk components, and nutrient digestibility of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    de Souza, J; Garver, J L; Preseault, C L; Lock, A L

    2017-01-01

    The objective of our experiment was to evaluate the effects of prill size of a palmitic acid-enriched fatty acid supplement (PA; 85% C16:0) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and production responses of dairy cows. Twenty-four primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows were assigned based on parity and production level to replicated 4×4 Latin squares balanced for carryover effects with 21-d periods. Treatments were a control diet (no added PA), or 2.0% PA added as a small prill size (PA-SM; 284±12.4µm), a medium prill size (PA-MD; 325±14.7µm), or a large prill size (PA-LG; 600±17.4µm) supplement. Overall, PA treatments increased milk fat content (4.25 vs. 3.99%), milk fat yield (1.48 vs. 1.39kg/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (39.2 vs. 37.7kg/d), and improved feed efficiency (fat-corrected milk:dry matter intake; 1.51 vs. 1.42) compared with control. Compared with control, PA treatments did not affect dry matter intake, body weight, body condition score, or yields of milk, protein, and lactose. The PA treatments increased neutral detergent fiber digestibility (44.8 vs. 42.4%) and reduced the digestibility of 16-carbon fatty acids (72.3 vs. 79.1%) and total fatty acids (76.6 vs. 80.3%). Compared with control, PA treatments reduced the contents of de novo synthesized milk fatty acids (23.0 vs. 25.8g/100g of fatty acids) and preformed milk fatty acids (36.3 vs. 39.1g/100g of fatty acids), but did not affect their yields. In contrast, PA treatments increased the content (40.8 vs. 35.1g/100g of fatty acids) and yield (570 vs. 436g/d) of 16-carbon milk fatty acids compared with control. The PA prill size had no effect on dry matter intake, yield of milk and milk components, or feed efficiency. However, PA-LG tended to increase milk fat content compared with PA-SM (4.28 vs. 4.22%), and it increased 16-carbon fatty acid digestibility compared with PA-MD (74.2 vs. 71.0%) and PA-SM (74.2 vs. 71.7%). Additionally, PA-LG increased total fatty acid digestibility compared

  10. Effects of intravenous infusion of amino acids and glucose on the yield and concentration of milk protein in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kim, C H; Kim, T G; Choung, J J; Chamberlain, D G

    2001-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that the availability of glucose or its precursors can influence the response of milk protein concentration to the intravenous infusion of amino acids, five cows were used in a 5 x 5 Latin square design with period lengths of 7 d. The five treatments were the basal diet of grass silage ad lib. plus 5 kg/d of a cereal-based supplement containing feather meal (Basal); Basal plus 4 g/d histidine, 8 g/d methionine and 26 g/d lysine (4H); Basal plus 8 g/d histidine, 8 g/d methionine and 26 g/d lysine (SH); and these two amino acid mixtures together with 600 g/d of gluctose (4HG and 8HG respectively). Earlier experiments with this basal diet had shown that histidine was first-limiting for secretion of milk protein, followed by methionine and lysine. The yield of milk protein was increased progressively with the amount of histidine infused. The efficiency of transfer of histidine into milk protein was 0.42 for the 4H and 4HG and 0.35 for the 8H and 8HG treatments, and the concentration of milk protein was increased over Basal by all infusion treatments. However, milk protein concentrations were higher, and lactose concentrations in the milk were lower, in the absence of added glucose. Concentrations of insulin in blood plasma were not affected by treatment. It is concluded that, with the treatments without added glucose, a shortage of glucose prevented an increase in lactose secretion, and hence limited the increase in milk yield, leading to an increased concentration of protein in the milk.

  11. Dairy cattle in a temperate climate: the effects of weather on milk yield and composition depend on management.

    PubMed

    Hill, D L; Wall, E

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of how livestock respond to weather is essential to enable farming to adapt to a changing climate. Climate change is mainly expected to impact dairy cattle through heat stress and an increase in the frequency of extreme weather events. We investigated the effects of weather on milk yield and composition (fat and protein content) in an experimental dairy herd in Scotland over 21 years. Holstein Friesian cows were either housed indoors in winter and grazed over the summer or were continuously housed. Milk yield was measured daily, resulting in 762 786 test day records from 1369 individuals, and fat and protein percentage were sampled once a week, giving 89 331 records from 1220 cows/trait. The relative influence of 11 weather elements, measured from local outdoor weather stations, and two indices of temperature and humidity (THI), indicators of heat stress, were compared using separate maximum likelihood models for each element or index. Models containing a direct measure of temperature (dry bulb, wet bulb, grass or soil temperature) or a THI provided the best fits to milk yield and fat data; wind speed and the number of hours of sunshine were most important in explaining protein content. Weather elements summarised across a week's timescale from the test day usually explained milk yield and fat content better than shorter-scale (3 day, test day, test day -1) metrics. Then, examining a subset of key weather variables using restricted maximum likelihood, we found that THI, wind speed and the number of hours of sunshine influenced milk yield and composition. The shape and magnitude of these effects depended on whether animals were inside or outside on the test day. The milk yield of cows outdoors was lower at the extremes of THI than at average values, and the highest yields were obtained when THI, recorded at 0900 h, was 55 units. Cows indoors decreased milk yield as THI increased. Fat content was lower at higher THIs than at intermediate THIs

  12. Effect of feed supplements on dry season milk yield and profitability of crossbred cows in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Reiber, Christoph; Peters, Michael; Möhring, Jens; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    The contribution of dry season silage feeding on daily milk yield (MY) and dairying profitability in terms of income over feed cost (IOFC) was evaluated in dual-purpose cattle production systems in Honduras. MY records of 34 farms from two milk collection centres were collected over a 2-year period. Farms were surveyed to obtain information on the type, quantity and cost of supplemented feed, breed type and number of lactating cows in each month. Farms were classified in silage farms (SF, with a short silage supplementation period), non-silage farms (NSF) and prototype farms (PF, with an extended silage supplementation period). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and a linear mixed model approach. PF had significantly higher MY than SF and NSF but, due to higher expenses for both concentrate and silage, similar IOFC compared to NSF. SF had similar MY but lower IOFC compared to NSF, due to higher feed expenses. The effect of silage feeding, particularly maize silage, on MY was significant and superior to that of other forage supplements. Silage supplementation contributed to the highest MY and IOFC on farms with crossbred cows of >62.5 % Bos taurus and to the second highest profitability on farms with >87.5 % Bos indicus share. It is concluded that silage can play an important role in drought-constrained areas of the tropics and can contribute to profitable dairying, irrespective of breed.

  13. Nutritional plane and selenium supply during gestation affect yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in primiparous ewes.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A M; Reed, J J; Neville, T L; Thorson, J F; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Taylor, J B; Reynolds, L P; Redmer, D A; Luther, J S; Hammer, C J; Vonnahme, K A; Caton, J S

    2011-05-01

    The objectives were to investigate effects of nutritional plane and Se supply during gestation on yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in first parity ewes. Rambouillet ewe lambs (n = 84, age = 240 ± 17 d, BW = 52.1 ± 6.2 kg) were allocated to 6 treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial array. Factors included Se [adequate Se (ASe, 11.5 µg/kg of BW) or high Se (HSe, 77.0 µg/kg of BW)] initiated at breeding, and nutritional plane [60 (RES), 100 (CON), or 140% (HIH) of requirements] initiated at d 40 of gestation. Ewes were fed individually from d 40, and lambs were removed at parturition. Colostrum was milked from all ewes at 3 h postpartum, and one-half of the ewes (n = 42) were transitioned to a common diet meeting lactation requirements and mechanically milked for 20 d. Colostrum yield was greater (P = 0.02) for HSe ewes than ASe, whereas CON had greater (P < 0.05) colostrum yield than RES and HIH. Colostrum Se (%) was greater (P < 0.01) for HSe than ASe. Colostrum from ewes fed HSe had less (P = 0.03) butterfat (%), but greater (P ≤ 0.05) total butterfat, solids-not-fat, lactose, protein, milk urea N, and Se than ASe. Colostrum from HIH ewes had greater (P ≤ 0.02) solids-not-fat (%) than RES, whereas RES had greater (P ≤ 0.04) butterfat (%) than CON and HIH. Colostrum from ewes fed the CON diet had greater (P = 0.01) total butterfat than HIH. Total solids-not-fat, lactose, and protein were greater (P < 0.05) in colostrum from CON than RES and HIH. Ewes fed HSe had greater (P < 0.01) milk yield (g/d and mL/d) than ASe, and CON and HIH had greater (P < 0.01) yield than RES. Milk protein (%) was greater (P ≤ 0.01) in RES compared with CON or HIH. Ewes fed HSe had greater (P < 0.01) milk Se (µg/g and mg/d) than ASe on each sampling day. Milk from CON and HIH ewes had greater (P < 0.01) total solids-not-fat, lactose, protein, and milk urea N than RES. Total Se was greater (P = 0.02) in milk from ewes fed the CON diet compared with RES. Somatic

  14. Compared with stearic acid, palmitic acid increased the yield of milk fat and improved feed efficiency across production level of cows.

    PubMed

    Rico, J E; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2014-02-01

    The effects of dietary palmitic and stearic acids on feed intake, yields of milk and milk components, and feed efficiency of dairy cows were evaluated in an experiment with a crossover arrangement of treatments with a covariate period. Cows with a wide range of milk production (38 to 65 kg/d) were used to determine if response to fat supplementation varied according to production level. Thirty-two Holstein cows (143 ± 61 d in milk) were assigned randomly to a treatment sequence within level of milk production. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet dry matter) with palmitic acid (PA; 97.9% C16:0) or stearic acid (SA; 97.4% C18:0). Treatment periods were 21 d and cows were fed a nonfat supplemented diet for 14 d immediately before the first treatment period. The final 4d of each period were used for sample and data collection. Milk production measured during the covariate period (preliminary milk yield) was used as the covariate. No interactions were detected between treatment and preliminary milk yield for the production response variables measured. Compared with SA, the PA treatment increased milk fat concentration (3.66 vs. 3.55%) and yield (1.68 vs. 1.59 kg/d), and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield (47.5 vs. 45.6 kg/d). Treatment did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield, milk protein yield, body weight, or body condition score. Milk protein concentration was lower for PA compared with SA treatment (3.24 vs. 3.29%). The PA treatment increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk yield/dry matter intake) compared with SA (1.48 vs. 1.40). The increase in milk fat yield by PA was entirely accounted for by a 24% increase in 16-carbon fatty acid output into milk. Yields of de novo (3.2%) and preformed fatty acids (2.9%) were only slightly decreased by PA relative to SA. The PA treatment increased plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (96.3 vs. 88.2 μEq/L) and glucose (56.6 vs. 55.7 mg/dL) compared with SA, but insulin and

  15. Effect of feeding various levels of sodium zeolite A on milk yield, milk composition and blood profiles in thermally stressed Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Roussel, J D; Thibodeaux, J K; Adkinson, R W; Toups, G M; Goodeaux, L L

    1992-01-01

    Mid-lactation Holstein cows (n = 48) were equally and randomly assigned to one of four feeding treatments of sodium zeolite-A (SZA). SZA was mixed in a grain mixture (50:50 grain to forage ratio) of 0% (control), 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% SZA on a dry matter intake basis. Cows were fed alfalfa hay in the first phase and corn silage in the second phase of the study as roughage sources. Milk samples were taken three times weekly (am and pm) and analyzed for milk fat, protein and lactose with blood profiles conducted from samples collected weekly. SZA significantly (P less than .05) increased feed intake at all three levels for both diets. Milk yield was significantly (P less than .05) greater in the alfalfa diet. However, milk fat percent and percent protein were greater (P less than .05) in the corn silage diet. The addition of SZA to the corn silage diet increased (P less than .05) milk fat percent at the 1.0% level and milk protein at the 1.5% level. Calcium in milk was significantly (P less than .01) increased and respiration rates significantly lowered (P less than .05) in both diets at the 1.0% level. Serum calcium was higher (P less than .05) at the 1.0 and 1.5% level in the hay diet and the 1.5% level in the corn silage diet. Also, serum glucose and alkaline phosphate levels were significantly (P less than .05) higher in the corn silage diet.

  16. Interactions of tallow and hay particle size on yield and composition of milk from lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T C; Bertrand, J A; Bridges, W C

    1998-05-01

    An 18-wk lactation study was conducted to determine whether the effects of tallow on the lactation performance of dairy cows were influenced by particle size of hay in the ration. A total mixed ration containing 50% concentrate, 25% corn silage, and 25% alfalfa hay (dry matter basis) was fed to Holstein cows. Four total mixed rations were developed based on differences in the percentage of tallow in the concentrate and particle size of alfalfa hay: 1) 0% tallow, long-cut hay; 2) 0% tallow, short-cut hay; 3) 5% tallow, long-cut hay; and 4) 5% tallow, short-cut hay. Ration had no effect on dry matter intake, body weight gain or change in body condition score. Tallow increased milk and milk protein yields but reduced milk protein concentration. However, the effects of tallow on milk and milk protein yields were the same, regardless of hay length in the ration. A tendency for an interaction of tallow and hay particle size was detected for fat-corrected milk (FCM) because tallow increased FCM more when hay was short. Ration had no effect on volatile fatty acids in ruminal samples collected via a stomach tube. In this study, the effects of tallow on milk yield and composition from Holstein cows were the same, regardless of hay particle size in the ration. The tendency for tallow to increase FCM more when hay was short suggests at least a limited role of forage particle size in the determination of how fat supplements in dairy rations affect lactation performance.

  17. Whole intact rapeseeds or sunflower oil in high-forage or high-concentrate diets affects milk yield, milk composition, and mammary gene expression profile in goats.

    PubMed

    Ollier, S; Leroux, C; de la Foye, A; Bernard, L; Rouel, J; Chilliard, Y

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to ascertain the response of goat mammary metabolic pathways to concentrate and lipid feeding in relation to milk fatty acid (FA) composition and secretion. Sixteen midlactation multiparous goats received diets differing in forage-to-concentrate ratio [high forage (HF) 64:36, and low forage (LF) 43:57] supplemented or not with lipids [HF with 130 g/d of oil from whole intact rapeseeds (RS) and LF with 130 g/d of sunflower oil (SO)] in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Milk yield, milk composition, FA profile, and FA secretion were measured, as well as the expression profiles of key genes in mammary metabolism and of 8,382 genes, using a bovine oligonucleotide microarray. After 3 wk of treatment, milk, lactose, and protein yields were lower with HF-RS than with the other diets, whereas treatment had no effect on milk protein content. Milk fat content was higher with the HF-RS and LF-SO diets than with the HF and LF diets, and SO supplementation increased milk fat yield compared with the LF diet. Decreasing the forage-to-concentrate ratio from 64:36 to 43:57 had a limited effect on goat milk FA concentrations and secretions. Supplementing the LF diet with SO changed almost all the FA concentrations, including decreases in medium-chain saturated FA and large increases in trans C18:1 and C18:2 isomers (particularly trans-11 C18:1 and cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid), without significant changes in C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1, whereas supplementing the HF diet with RS led to a strong decrease in short- and medium-chain saturated FA and a very strong increase in C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1, without significant changes in trans C18:1 and conjugated linoleic acid. Despite the decreases in milk lactose and protein yields observed with HF-RS, and despite the decrease in milk medium-chain FA and the increase in C18 FA secretion with RS or SO supplementation, none of the dietary treatments had any effect on mammary mRNA expression of the key genes involved in lactose

  18. Random regression models using different functions to model test-day milk yield of Brazilian Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Bignardi, A B; El Faro, L; Torres Júnior, R A A; Cardoso, V L; Machado, P F; Albuquerque, L G

    2011-10-31

    We analyzed 152,145 test-day records from 7317 first lactations of Holstein cows recorded from 1995 to 2003. Our objective was to model variations in test-day milk yield during the first lactation of Holstein cows by random regression model (RRM), using various functions in order to obtain adequate and parsimonious models for the estimation of genetic parameters. Test-day milk yields were grouped into weekly classes of days in milk, ranging from 1 to 44 weeks. The contemporary groups were defined as herd-test-day. The analyses were performed using a single-trait RRM, including the direct additive, permanent environmental and residual random effects. In addition, contemporary group and linear and quadratic effects of the age of cow at calving were included as fixed effects. The mean trend of milk yield was modeled with a fourth-order orthogonal Legendre polynomial. The additive genetic and permanent environmental covariance functions were estimated by random regression on two parametric functions, Ali and Schaeffer and Wilmink, and on B-spline functions of days in milk. The covariance components and the genetic parameters were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method. Results from RRM parametric and B-spline functions were compared to RRM on Legendre polynomials and with a multi-trait analysis, using the same data set. Heritability estimates presented similar trends during mid-lactation (13 to 31 weeks) and between week 37 and the end of lactation, for all RRM. Heritabilities obtained by multi-trait analysis were of a lower magnitude than those estimated by RRM. The RRMs with a higher number of parameters were more useful to describe the genetic variation of test-day milk yield throughout the lactation. RRM using B-spline and Legendre polynomials as base functions appears to be the most adequate to describe the covariance structure of the data.

  19. Effects of melatonin on the yield and composition of milk from grazing dairy cows in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Auldist, Martin J; Turner, Sally-Anne; McMahon, Chris D; Prosser, Colin G

    2007-02-01

    The aim was to determine whether administration of melatonin would alter the yield and composition of milk from grazing dairy cows in summer. Twelve sets of spring-calving identical twin Friesian cows were used in the experiment. In late-November (late spring), one twin from each set was given slow-release melatonin implants behind the ears (108 mg melatonin/cow). Two further implantations occurred at 4-weekly intervals to maintain increased circulating concentrations of melatonin for 12 weeks. The other twin served as a control. Milk yield and composition were measured twice prior to treatment and then four times over the following 12 weeks. Concentrations of melatonin, prolactin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured in blood plasma twice before treatment and then either seven (melatonin and prolactin) or three (IGF-1) further times during the experiment. Management procedures for all cows were similar and cows grazed a daily pasture allowance of approximately 30 kg DM/cow as their sole feed source. In melatonin-treated cows there was a decrease in mean concentrations of prolactin in plasma, but concentrations of IGF-1 did not change. Melatonin reduced milk yield by 6 weeks after treatment and by the end of the 12-week experimental period milk yield in melatonin-treated cows had fallen by 23%. Melatonin also reduced concentrations of lactose in milk, but increased concentrations of fat, protein and casein, changes that were broadly similar to those that occur in late lactation in seasonally calving dairy cows. Thus, the results suggest that some of the variation in the volume and quality of milk throughout the season in New Zealand dairy systems may be due to changes in photoperiod mediated by increased concentrations of plasma melatonin in association with decreased concentrations of plasma prolactin.

  20. Effect of milking frequency (1 vs. 4x) on milk yield, composition and numbers of gene transcripts for alpha-lactalbumin and beta casein in milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently published information indicates cytoplasm associated with milk fat globule membranes contains messenger RNA for the milk proteins casein and alpha-lactalbumin. Furthermore, differences in the concentration of these transcripts in mammary epithelial cells are reflected in differences in the ...

  1. Effects of Heat Shock Protein-70 Gene and Forage System on Milk Yield and Composition of Beef Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic DNA from 117 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows was used to determine the influence of heat shock protein 70 haplotype and forage type [endophyte-infected tall fescue (Neotyphodium coenophialum; E+) or common bermudagrass (Cynododactylon; BG)] on milk yield and composition (protein, f...

  2. Nutritional plane and selenium supply during gestation impact yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in primiparous ewes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives were to investigate effects of nutritional plane and Se supply during gestation on yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in first parity ewes. Rambouillet ewe lambs (n = 84, age = 240 +/- 17 d, BW = 52.1 +/- 6.2 kg), were allocated to 6 treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial array...

  3. Feeding incremental levels of ground flaxseed linearly reduced milk yield and enteric methane emission in organic Jersey cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty (8 primiparous and 12 multiparous) organic Jersey cows averaging 425 kg BW (SD ± 37) and 111 DIM (SD ± 62) in the beginning of the study were blocked by milk yield and parity and randomly assigned to treatments in 5 replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares to investigate the effects of incremental diet...

  4. Effects of relative humidity, maximum and minimum temperature, pregnancy, and stage of lactation on milk composition and yield.

    PubMed

    Rodriquez, L A; Mekonnen, G; Wilcox, C J; Martin, F G; Krienke, W A

    1985-04-01

    Composite monthly single-day milk samples from the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station dairy herd 1959 to 1974 were analyzed for composition. Data were 22, 972 observations on five dairy breeds, but major statistical analyses were limited to Jerseys and Holsteins. Minimum relative humidity and maximum and minimum temperatures on day of evening sample were associated with 1.6 to 5.6% of variability within lactation (range for two breeds) of milk and milk constituent yields and 1.1 to 16.5% of constituent percentages. Yields of milk and constituents of the Holsteins seemed more sensitive to climatic variation than did Jersey, but Jersey constituent percentages were more sensitive. Yields were affected only slightly by increasing maximum daily temperatures from 8 to 29 degrees C but declined rapidly at greater than 29 degrees C; fat and protein percentages declined from 8 to 37 degrees C, whereas chloride content increased above 21 degrees C. Stage of lactation and pregnancy effects accounted for about 50% of the variability of yields and 3 to 23% of percentages. Effects were detected also for chloride and acidity percentages, specific gravity, and ratios solids-not-fat to fat and protein to fat.

  5. Effects of gelation temperature on Mozzarella-type curd made from buffalo and cows' milk: 2. Curd yield, overall quality and casein fractions.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Imtiaz; Yan, Jen; Grandison, Alistair S; Bell, Alan E

    2012-12-01

    The overall quality of Mozzarella-type curds made from buffalo and cows' milks were measured at gelation temperatures of 28, 34 and 39°C, and cutting times of 45, 60, 75 and 90min after chymosin addition. The curd yield and moisture content decreased with increasing gelation temperature, while whey fat losses increased. The effect of higher gelation temperature (39°C) was more pronounced in cows' milk than buffalo milk. This results in more fat losses and lower yields in both milk samples at a gelation temperature of 39°C. The minimum losses of fat and protein in rennet whey occurred at a gelation temperature of 34°C in both milk samples. The curd yield was higher in buffalo milk as compared to cows' milk. This is due to difference in total solids (fat and protein contents) of the two types of bovine milk. The different cutting times had a small effect on the yield and overall quality of curds made from both milk types. Curd moisture and loss tangent have a strong relationship with respect to effects of gelation temperature. Two different curd drainage methods (centrifugation and Buchner funnel filtration) were used to compare the final overall quality of Mozzarella-type curds made from both milk types. The α(s1) and β casein fractions were found to be in different proportions in the two milk types. The total- and casein bound-calcium were higher in buffalo milk than cows' milk. The total protein, casein and fat were also found to be higher in buffalo milk than cows' milk.

  6. An individual reproduction model sensitive to milk yield and body condition in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brun-Lafleur, L; Cutullic, E; Faverdin, P; Delaby, L; Disenhaus, C

    2013-08-01

    To simulate the consequences of management in dairy herds, the use of individual-based herd models is very useful and has become common. Reproduction is a key driver of milk production and herd dynamics, whose influence has been magnified by the decrease in reproductive performance over the last decades. Moreover, feeding management influences milk yield (MY) and body reserves, which in turn influence reproductive performance. Therefore, our objective was to build an up-to-date animal reproduction model sensitive to both MY and body condition score (BCS). A dynamic and stochastic individual reproduction model was built mainly from data of a single recent long-term experiment. This model covers the whole reproductive process and is composed of a succession of discrete stochastic events, mainly calving, ovulations, conception and embryonic loss. Each reproductive step is sensitive to MY or BCS levels or changes. The model takes into account recent evolutions of reproductive performance, particularly concerning calving-to-first ovulation interval, cyclicity (normal cycle length, prevalence of prolonged luteal phase), oestrus expression and pregnancy (conception, early and late embryonic loss). A sensitivity analysis of the model to MY and BCS at calving was performed. The simulated performance was compared with observed data from the database used to build the model and from the bibliography to validate the model. Despite comprising a whole series of reproductive steps, the model made it possible to simulate realistic global reproduction outputs. It was able to well simulate the overall reproductive performance observed in farms in terms of both success rate (recalving rate) and reproduction delays (calving interval). This model has the purpose to be integrated in herd simulation models to usefully test the impact of management strategies on herd reproductive performance, and thus on calving patterns and culling rates.

  7. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for First Lactation Monthly Test-day Milk Yields using Random Regression Test Day Model in Karan Fries Cattle.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay; Singh, Avtar; Singh, Manvendra; Prakash, Ved; Ambhore, G S; Sahoo, S K; Dash, Soumya

    2016-06-01

    A single trait linear mixed random regression test-day model was applied for the first time for analyzing the first lactation monthly test-day milk yield records in Karan Fries cattle. The test-day milk yield data was modeled using a random regression model (RRM) considering different order of Legendre polynomial for the additive genetic effect (4th order) and the permanent environmental effect (5th order). Data pertaining to 1,583 lactation records spread over a period of 30 years were recorded and analyzed in the study. The variance component, heritability and genetic correlations among test-day milk yields were estimated using RRM. RRM heritability estimates of test-day milk yield varied from 0.11 to 0.22 in different test-day records. The estimates of genetic correlations between different test-day milk yields ranged 0.01 (test-day 1 [TD-1] and TD-11) to 0.99 (TD-4 and TD-5). The magnitudes of genetic correlations between test-day milk yields decreased as the interval between test-days increased and adjacent test-day had higher correlations. Additive genetic and permanent environment variances were higher for test-day milk yields at both ends of lactation. The residual variance was observed to be lower than the permanent environment variance for all the test-day milk yields.

  8. Effects of changes in dietary amino acid balance on milk yield and mammary function in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Yeo, J M; Knight, C H; Chamberlain, D G

    2003-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine whether longer-term deficiencies in the supply of limiting amino acids would be accompanied by a decline in mammary function (total DNA, cell proliferation rate and activities of key enzymes), and whether this would adversely affect the cow's ability to respond to a return to a nutritionally adequate diet. The first experiment was performed in early/mid lactation, and the second, using the same cows, was carried out in mid/late lactation. A control group of six cows were given a grass silage-cereal diet containing fish meal as the sole protein supplement (amino acid adequate) throughout the experiments, whereas another group of six cows in treatment received the control diet for 2 wk (lactation wk 5 and 6) and then were changed to a diet in which the fish meal was replaced by an equivalent amount of protein as feather meal (amino acid deficient) for 6 wk before returning to the fish meal diet for 4 wk (Experiment 1). After a rest period of 5 wk, the experimental procedure was repeated (Experiment 2). Although there was a fall in milk yield as lactation advanced, leading to lower milk yields in Experiment 2, the marked difference in milk yield between treatments was similar for the two stages of lactation (21% vs 16% in Experiment 1 and 2, respectively). In both experiments, the marked fall of milk yield in cows given the feather meal diet was completely recovered by a return to the fish meal diet. Despite the markedly lower milk yield with the amino acid-deficient diet, however, there was no clear evidence of corresponding changes in measurements of mammary function.

  9. Effects of feeding lutein on production performance, antioxidative status, and milk quality of high-yielding dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Xu, C Z; Wang, H F; Yang, J Y; Wang, J H; Duan, Z Y; Wang, C; Liu, J X; Lao, Y

    2014-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the influences of supplementing different levels of an additive containing lutein in the diet of Chinese Holstein lactating cows on production performance, antioxidative plasma metabolites, and milk quality. This study was performed on 60 multiparous Holstein dairy cows in peak lactation. The cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 homogeneous treatments, with lutein preparation (extracted from marigolds; effective lutein content was 2%) added at levels of 0, 100, 150, and 200 g/d per head, with the actual available amounts being 0, 2, 3, and 4 g of lutein/d per head, respectively. The experiment lasted for 13 wk, with the first week for adaptation. Milk yield and milk compositions were recorded weekly, and milk concentrations of lutein, dry matter intake, and antioxidative blood index were analyzed in the first, fourth, seventh, and thirteenth week of the study. The results showed that adding lutein in the diet had no effect on dry matter intake compared with the control group; however, it slowed down the trend of decline in milk yield, and had a linear incremental effect on milk yield with increasing concentration of lutein. Dietary lutein tended to quadratically increase the percentage of milk fat, and linearly increased milk lactose concentration, with the highest value when treated at 200 g of lutein preparation/d per head, and decreased somatic cell count, with the lowest values when treated with 150 and 200 g of lutein preparation/d per head. The concentration of lutein in milk linearly increased with the incorporation of the additive, with a value of 0.59, 0.70, 1.20, and 1.50 μg/100mL when treated with 0, 100, 150, and 200 g/d, respectively. Total plasma antioxidant capacity tended to linearly increase in cows fed lutein preparation, whereas plasma superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities did not differ significantly. In conclusion, addition of lutein in the diet could improve the production

  10. Association between somatic cell count during the first lactation and the cumulative milk yield of cows in Irish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Archer, S C; Mc Coy, F; Wapenaar, W; Green, M J

    2014-01-01

    Reduced potential milk yield is an important component of mastitis costs in dairy cows. The first aim of this study was to assess associations between somatic cell count (SCC) during the first lactation, and cumulative milk yield over the first lactation and subsequent lifetime of cows in Irish dairy herds. The second aim was to assess the association between SCC at 5 to 30d in milk during parity 1 (SCC1), and SCC over the entire first lactation for cows in Irish dairy herds. The data set studied included records from 51,483 cows in 5,900 herds. Somatic cell count throughout the first lactation was summarized using the geometric mean and variance of SCC. Data were analyzed using linear models that included random effects to account for the lack of independence between observations, and herd-level variation in coefficients. Models were developed in a Bayesian framework and parameters were estimated from 10,000 Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations. The final models were a good fit to the data. A 1-unit increase in mean natural logarithm SCC over the first lactation was associated with a median decrease in first lactation and lifetime milk yield of 135 and 1,663kg, respectively. A 1-unit increase in the variance of natural logarithm SCC over the first lactation was associated with a median decrease in lifetime milk yield of 719kg. To demonstrate the context of lifetime milk yield results, microsimulation was used to model the trajectory of individual cows and evaluate the expected outcomes for particular changes in herd-level geometric mean SCC over the first lactation. A 75% certainty of savings of at least €199/heifer in the herd was detected if herd-level geometric mean SCC over the first lactation was reduced from ≥120,000 to ≤72,000cells/mL. The association between SCC1 and SCC over the remainder of the first lactation was highly herd dependent, indicating that control measures for heifer mastitis should be preferentially targeted on an individual

  11. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decrease milk yield but increase n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets(1).

    PubMed

    Resende, T L; Kraft, J; Soder, K J; Pereira, A B D; Woitschach, D E; Reis, R B; Brito, A F

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFX) on milk yield and concentrations and yields of milk components, milk fatty acids (FA) profile, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± SD) 112±68d in milk and 441±21kg of body weight and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 98±43d in milk and 401±43kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21d with 14d for diet adaptation and 7d for data and sample collection. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration (63:37 forage-to-concentrate ratio) with corn meal and soybean meal replaced by incremental levels (i.e., 0, 5, 10, or 15% diet dry matter) of GFX. The ruminal molar proportions of acetate and butyrate decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, whereas the ruminal molar proportion of propionate increased linearly resulting in decreased acetate-to-propionate ratio. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of nutrients either decreased (dry matter) or tended to decrease (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber) linearly in cows fed GFX. Milk yield decreased linearly in cows fed increasing amounts of GFX, which is explained by the linear reduction in dry matter intake. Except for the concentrations of milk protein and urea N, which decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, no other changes in the concentration of milk components were observed. However, yields of milk protein and fat decreased linearly with GFX supplementation. The linear decrease in the yields of milk fat and protein are explained by reduced milk yield, whereas that in milk urea N is explained by decreased crude protein intake. No treatment effects were observed for plasma urea N and nonesterified fatty acids, serum cortisol, and body weight change. Milk odd- and branched-chain FA and saturated FA

  12. Effect of a phase I Coxiella burnetii inactivated vaccine on body temperature and milk yield in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schulze, L S-Ch; Borchardt, S; Ouellet, V; Heuwieser, W

    2016-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. The pathogen is prevalent in ruminants (goats, sheep, cows), which are the main sources of human infection. In the cattle industry around the world, animal (15 to 20%) and herd (38 to 72%) level prevalences of C. burnetii are high. Vaccination of ruminants against Q fever is considered important to prevent spreading of the disease and risk of infection in humans. However, published information on side effects of the Q fever vaccination under field conditions is limited for cows. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the phase I C. burnetii inactivated vaccine Coxevac on body temperature and milk yield in dairy cows. In 2 experiments, a total of 508 cows were randomly divided into 2 groups to determine the effect of first vaccination on body temperature and milk yield. The C. burnetii serostatus of all cows was tested before vaccination with an indirect ELISA. The first experiment took place in the teaching and research barn of the Clinic of Animal Reproduction at the Freie Universität Berlin. Temperature was measured vaginally in 10 cows in a crossover design. The second experiment was conducted on a commercial dairy farm. Milk yield of 498 cows was measured 1 wk before and 1 wk after vaccination. In a subset of 41 cows, temperature was measured rectally. In both experiments, body temperature increased significantly after vaccination (1.0 ± 0.9°C and 0.7 ± 0.8°C). A significant difference was also found in body temperature between vaccinated and control cows. Thirty percent of the vaccinated animals in experiment 1 showed reversible swelling at the injection site as a reaction to the vaccination. The results indicate that vaccination against Q fever causes a transient increase of body temperature that peaks in the first 12 to 24h and declines after that. In experiment 2, vaccinated cows (26.8 ± 0.39 kg/d) produced significantly less milk than did control cows (28.2 ± 0.44 kg

  13. Direct and maternal genetic relationships between calving ease, gestation length, milk production, fertility, type, and lifespan of Holstein-Friesian primiparous cows.

    PubMed

    Eaglen, S A E; Coffey, M P; Woolliams, J A; Wall, E

    2013-06-01

    As the emphasis in cattle breeding is shifting from traits that increase income toward traits that reduce costs, national breeding indices are expanding to include functional traits such as calving ease (CE). However, one issue is the lack of knowledge of genetic relationships between CE and other dairy traits. The same can be said about gestation length (GL), a potential novel selection trait with considerable heritabilities and possible genetic relationships with the calving process. This study aimed to estimate the genetic relationships between CE, GL, and other dairy traits of interest using a national data set of 31,053 primiparous cow performance records, as well as to separate direct and maternal genetic effects. Chosen dairy traits included fertility (calving interval, days to first service, nonreturn rate after 56 d, number of inseminations per conception), milk production (milk yield at d 110 in milk, accumulated 305-d milk yield, accumulated 305-d fat yield, accumulated 305-d protein yield), type (udder depth, chest width, rump width, rump angle, mammary composition, stature, body depth), and lifespan traits (functional days of productive life). To allow the separation of direct and maternal genetic effects, a random sire of the calf effect was included in the multi-trait linear trivariate sire models fitted using ASReml. Significant results showed that easily born individuals were genetically prone to high milk yield and reduced fertility in first lactation. Difficult calving primiparous cows were likely associated with being high-producing, wide and deep animals, with a reduced ability to subsequently conceive. Individuals that were born relatively early were associated with good genetic merit for milk production. Finally, individuals carrying their offspring longer were genetically associated with being wide and large animals that were themselves born relatively early. The study shows that it is feasible and valuable to separate direct and maternal

  14. Effect of cassava hay and rice bran oil supplementation on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lunsin, R; Wanapat, M; Rowlinson, P

    2012-10-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  15. Use of monthly collected milk yields for the detection of the emergence of the 2007 French BTV epizootic.

    PubMed

    Madouasse, Aurélien; Marceau, Alexis; Lehébel, Anne; Brouwer-Middelesch, Henriëtte; van Schaik, Gerdien; Van der Stede, Yves; Fourichon, Christine

    2014-03-01

    Two culicoides-borne diseases, Bluetongue (BTV) and Schmallenberg, have emerged in the European cattle population since 2006. Other diseases transmitted by these vectors could emerge. This justifies the development of syndromic surveillance programs whereby one or several indicators would be routinely monitored for the early detection of emerging diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate milk yield from milk recording in dairy cattle as an indicator to be included in an emerging disease surveillance system. It was hypothesized that emergences would result in episodes of low milk production clustered in space and time. The 2007 BTV epizootic in France was used as a case study. Because it had already emerged in neighbouring countries, the disease emergence was expected and notification was mandatory. Herd-test-day milk productions were predicted for the entire country for 2006 and 2007 from herd historical data using linear mixed models. The differences between observed and predicted milk productions were averaged per week and per municipality and used as input for a space-time prospective scan statistic. Log likelihood ratios (LLR) associated with clusters were used to define alarms. The threshold chosen was a trade-off between detection timeliness and the number of false alarms per week. The first four BTV notifications occurred on the 12th (two notifications), 13th and 27th of July 2007. The 12th of July was considered to be the date of emergence. Alarms occurring before the 1st of March 2007 were considered to be false alarms. Using an LLR of 50, there were an average of 1.7 false alarms per week and the BTV emergence was detected seven weeks after emergence. Using an LLR of 100, there were an average of 0.8 false alarms per week and the BTV emergence was detected 9 weeks after emergence. Detection may have been delayed because of a discontinuation of milk recording between mid-July and mid-August. The first cluster with an LLR>100 located in the emergence

  16. Effects of calving season and milk yield on pregnancy risk and income in North Carolina Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Farin, P W; Slenning, B D; Correa, M T; Britt, J H

    1994-07-01

    Effects of season of calving and milk yield and their potential interaction on days from calving to last breeding were investigated using survival analysis and an economic model in 2000 Holstein cows that calved during 1989 and 1990. The final Cox proportional hazards model included lactation number, calving season, and herdmate deviation FCM. The interval from calving to last breeding ranged from 40 to 570 d. Compared with cows that calved in fall, cows that calved in summer were two-thirds as likely to become pregnant. Conversely, cows calving in winter or spring were more likely to become pregnant. Milk yields beyond approximately 8025 kg lowered the risk of pregnancy. The interaction of season and yield was nonsignificant, suggesting that these factors may act independently to affect reproduction. Lower pregnancy rates associated with high yield were detected earlier postpartum than were lower rates associated with calving in summer. Within each season, higher yield offset the lower income over feed costs associated with poorer reproductive performance. Nevertheless, summer calving lowered income over feed costs per cow per year by $98, $2, $176, and $68 for low, medium to low, medium to high, and high yielding cows, respectively.

  17. Genotype by feeding system interaction in the genetic evaluation of Jersey cattle for milk yield.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Valverde, R; Peralta-Aban, J A; Núñez-Domínguez, R; Ruíz-Flores, A; García-Muñiz, J G; García-Peniche, T B

    2010-12-01

    Results of studies in dairy cattle about the magnitude of the genotype-environment interaction (GEI) are variable, depending on the definitions of genotype and environment. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of the interaction of genotype and feeding system (confinement and grazing) in the Mexican genetic evaluation of Jersey cattle for milk yield. The number of lactations and animals in the pedigree used were 5122 and 18 432. An animal model and the MTDFREML program were used to estimate genetic parameters and predict genetic values of the animals. Bivariate analysis was carried out considering the performance of confined and grazing cows as two different traits. Three indicator variables were used to assess GEI: (i) magnitude of the genetic correlation coefficients, (ii) correlation between predicted breeding values and (iii) frequency of coincidence in the ranking of top sires. The magnitude of GEI depended on the choice of the indicator variable. The estimate of genetic correlation coefficient less than unity (0.76; P < 0.05) suggested the presence of biologically important GEI. The differences in phenotypic averages and variances between confinement and grazing systems seem to be the main causes for the genotype by environment interaction detected. However, the correlation coefficient between breeding values from confined and grazing animals (0.96) and the frequency of coincidence between breeding values of common sires within the top 100 in confinement and grazing (0.86) indicated low-to-moderate re-ranking of animals or top sires. In addition, the high correlations between predicted breeding values of Mexican genetic evaluation and the two environments (0.99 and 0.93 for confinement and grazing) indicated that for the two feeding systems, breeding values from national analyses could be safely used.

  18. Estimates of heritability and genetic correlations for milk coagulation properties and individual laboratory cheese yield in Sarda ewes.

    PubMed

    Puledda, A; Gaspa, G; Manca, M G; Serdino, J; Urgeghe, P P; Dimauro, C; Negrini, R; Macciotta, N P P

    2016-11-02

    Objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of milk coagulation properties (MCPs) and individual laboratory cheese yield (ILCY) in a sample of 1018 Sarda breed ewes farmed in 47 flocks. Rennet coagulation time (RCT), curd-firming time (k 20) and curd firmness (a 30) were measured using Formagraph instrument, whereas ILCY were determined by a micromanufacturing protocol. About 10% of the milk samples did not coagulate within 30 min and 13% had zero value for k 20. The average ILCY was 36%. (Co)variance components of considered traits were estimated by fitting both single- and multiple-trait animal models. Flock-test date explained from 13% to 28% of the phenotypic variance for MCPs and 26% for ILCY, respectively. The largest value of heritability was estimated for RCT (0.23±0.10), whereas it was about 0.15 for the other traits. Negative genetic correlations between RCT and a 30 (-0.80±0.12), a 30 and k 20 (-0.91±0.09), and a 30 and ILCY (-0.67±0.08) were observed. Interesting genetic correlations between MCPs and milk composition (r G>0.40) were estimated for pH, NaCl and casein. Results of the present study suggest to use only one out of three MCPs to measure milk renneting ability, due to high genetic correlations among them. Moreover, negative correlations between ILCY and MCPs suggest that great care should be taken when using these methods to estimate cheese yield from small milk samples.

  19. Effects of replacing wheat bran by pistachio skins on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Naserian, A A; Staples, C R; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pistachio skins (PiS) as a replacement of wheat bran on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats. Eight multiparous lactating Saanen goats (55 ± 7.2 days post-partum, 45 ± 2 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments arranged in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were 1) 0 g/kg PiS and 210 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (0PiS), 2) 70 g/kg PiS and 140 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (7PiS), 3) 140 g/kg PiS and 70 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (14PiS) and 4) 210 g/kg PiS and 0 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (21PiS). The trial consisted of four 21-day periods, each composed of 14 days adaptation and 7 days data collection. Dry matter intake (p < 0.05) and crude protein digestibility (p < 0.01) increased linearly with increasing PiS proportions in the diet. Increasing the proportion of PiS in the diet caused a quadratic increase in apparent digestibility of dry matter (p < 0.05), and tended (p = 0.05) to increase quadratically organic matter, and ether extract digestibility. Replacing wheat bran with PiS in the diet had no effects on milk yield, whereas milk fat concentration increased linearly (p < 0.01) with increasing inclusion of PiS in the diet. As the dietary proportion of PiS increased, ruminal pH tended (p = 0.07) to increase linearly, whereas ammonia-N concentration declined in the rumen. Plasma concentrations of glucose and BUN remained unaffected, whereas triglycerides (p < 0.05) and cholesterol (p < 0.01) concentrations increased linearly with increasing inclusion of PiS in the diet. It was concluded that PiS based on local ingredients can successfully replace wheat bran in diets of dairy goats without detrimental effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production.

  20. Relationship between content of crude protein in rations for dairy cows and milk yield, concentration of urea in milk and ammonia emissions.

    PubMed

    Frank, B; Swensson, C

    2002-07-01

    During recent decades, efforts have been made in several countries to diminish the negative environmental influence of dairy production. The main focus has been on nitrogen and phosphorus. Modern dairy production in Western Europe is often based on imported feed-stuffs, mostly protein-rich feeds. In Sweden at least, it is wished that the use of imported feedstuffs in animal production will decrease due to the risk of contamination with Salmonella and the ban of using GMO crops in Swedish dairy production. An experiment was carried out to investigate whether a lower content of crude protein in the diet would decrease the ammonia release from cow manure and whether a well-balanced diet using only feedstuffs of Swedish origin would maintain milk production. Five treatments were arranged in a Latin square design. Two different protein supplements made of ingredients of Swedish origin were each fed at two protein levels, and a fifth imported commercial protein mix was fed at the higher level. The treatments with low protein levels (13.1 to 13.5%) had a significantly lower milk yield, kilograms of ECM, but, on the other hand the net profit, milk income minus feed cost was nearly the same in all treatments except diet C, which had lower feed cost but also lower net profit due to lower milk yield. The content of urea in milk was higher with diets high in crude protein (17%) content. A decreased protein level in the diets did not influence the content of casein or whey protein, but the commercial concentrate showed a tendency to give lower values than the Swedish mixtures. The low protein diets gave significantly lower ammonia release from manure compared with the high protein diets. There were no production differences between the diets of Swedish feeds compared with the imported control. The readily fermentable beet pulp should have helped cows use the higher N diet more efficiently and increased the response. This gives the rumen microbes a possibility to match the

  1. Relationships of milk yield and quality of six breed groups of beef cows to preweaning average daily gain of their calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milk yield and quality influence calf preweaning growth and ultimately the sale value of the calf at weaning. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationships of milk production and quality to calf preweaning average daily gain (ADG) of beef cows sired by Bonsmara, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvie...

  2. Effect of bromochloromethane on methane emission, rumen fermentation pattern, milk yield, and fatty acid profile in lactating dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Abecia, L; Toral, P G; Martín-García, A I; Martínez, G; Tomkins, N W; Molina-Alcaide, E; Newbold, C J; Yáñez-Ruiz, D R

    2012-04-01

    Several technologies have been tested to reduce enteric methanogenesis, but very few have been successfully used in practical conditions for livestock. Furthermore, the consequences of reduced rumen methane production on animal performance and milk quality are poorly understood. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of feeding bromochloromethane (BCM), a halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbon with potential antimethanogenic activity, to dairy goats on rumen methane production, fermentation pattern, the abundance of major microbial groups, and on animal performance and milk composition. Eighteen goats were allocated to 2 experimental groups of 9 animals each: treated (BCM+) or not (BCM-) with 0.30 g of BCM/100 kg of body weight per day. The BCM was administered per os in 2 equal doses per day from parturition to 2 wk postweaning (10 wk). After weaning, methane emissions were recorded over 2 consecutive days (d 57 and 58 on treatment) in polycarbonate chambers. On d 59, individual rumen fluid samples were collected for volatile fatty acid (VFA) analysis and quantification of bacterial, protozoal, and archaeal numbers by real-time PCR. On d 69 and 70, daily milk production was recorded and samples were collected for determination of fat, protein, lactose, casein, and total solids concentration by infrared spectrophotometry, and fatty acid composition by gas chromatography. Treatment with BCM reduced methane production by 33% (21.6 vs. 14.4 L/kg of DMI) compared with nontreated animals, although it did not affect the abundance of rumen bacteria, protozoa, and total methanogenic archaea. The observed improvement in the efficiency of digestive processes was accompanied by a 36% increase in milk yield, probably due to the more propionic type of rumen fermentation and an increase in VFA production. The increase in milk yield was not accompanied by any changes in the concentrations or yields of fat, protein, or lactose. Despite the substantial decrease in methane

  3. Genetic dissection of milk yield traits and mastitis resistance quantitative trait loci on chromosome 20 in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Naveen K; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S; Sahana, Goutam

    2015-12-01

    Intense selection to increase milk yield has had negative consequences for mastitis incidence in dairy cattle. Due to low heritability of mastitis resistance and an unfavorable genetic correlation with milk yield, a reduction in mastitis through traditional breeding has been difficult to achieve. Here, we examined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate for clinical mastitis and milk yield on Bos taurus autosome 20 (BTA20) to determine whether both traits are affected by a single polymorphism (pleiotropy) or by multiple closely linked polymorphisms. In the latter but not the former situation, undesirable genetic correlation could potentially be broken by selecting animals that have favorable variants for both traits. First, we performed a within-breed association study using a haplotype-based method in Danish Holstein cattle (HOL). Next, we analyzed Nordic Red dairy cattle (RDC) and Danish Jersey cattle (JER) with the goal of determining whether these QTL identified in Holsteins were segregating across breeds. Genotypes for 12,566 animals (5,966 HOL, 5,458 RDC, and 1,142 JER) were determined by using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (50K; Illumina, San Diego, CA), which identifies 1,568 single nucleotide polymorphisms on BTA20. Data were combined, phased, and clustered into haplotype states, followed by within- and across-breed haplotype-based association analyses using a linear mixed model. Association signals for both clinical mastitis and milk yield peaked in the 26- to 40-Mb region on BTA20 in HOL. Single-variant association analyses were carried out in the QTL region using whole sequence level variants imputed from references of 2,036 HD genotypes (BovineHD BeadChip; Illumina) and 242 whole-genome sequences. The milk QTL were also segregating in RDC and JER on the BTA20-targeted region; however, an indication of differences in the causal factor(s) was observed across breeds. A previously reported F279Y mutation (rs385640152) within the growth hormone

  4. On-farm evaluation of the effect of coffee pulp supplementation on milk yield and dry matter intake of dairy cows grazing tropical grasses in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pedraza-Beltrán, Paulina; Estrada-Flores, Julieta G; Martínez-Campos, Angel R; Estrada-López, Isael; Rayas-Amor, Adolfo A; Yong-Angel, Gilberto; Figueroa-Medina, Marisol; Nova, Francisca Avilés; Castelán-Ortega, Octavio A

    2012-02-01

    Tropical grasses are the primary nutrient resource for cattle production in the tropics, and they provide low-cost nutrients to cattle. However, its production is constrained by seasonal changes and quality; hence, appropriate usage of relatively inexpensive agricultural by-products is important to profitable livestock production. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing coffee pulp to dairy cows grazing tropical grasses on milk yield and forage intake. Four multiparous crossed Holstein-Brown Swiss-Zebu cows of similar weight and milk yield were used. The effect of 10%, 15% and 20% inclusion of coffee pulp in dairy concentrates on milk yield and forage intake was analysed using a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Results showed that there were no significant effects (P > 0.05) in grass dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition body weight and body condition score due to the inclusion of coffee pulp in the dairy concentrates. It is concluded that coffee pulp can be included at levels of 20% in the concentrate without compromising significantly (P > 0.05) milk yield, milk composition and grass dry matter intake. It also was concluded that cost of concentrate is reduced in 20% by the inclusion of coffee pulp.

  5. Effect of milk yield characteristics, breed, and parity on success of the first insemination in Dutch dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Inchaisri, C; Hogeveen, H; Vos, P L A M; van der Weijden, G C; Jorritsma, R

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of a successful first insemination (SFI). The investigation was performed with 51,791 lactations from 1,396 herds obtained from the Dutch dairy cow database of the Cattle Improvement Co-operative (CRV). Cows that had the first insemination (AI) between 40 and 150 d postpartum were selected. The first AI was classified as successful when cows were not reinseminated and either calved between 267 and 295 d later or were culled within 135 to 295 d after first AI. The lactation curve characteristics of individual lactations were estimated by Wilmink's curve using the test-day milk records from CRV. The lactation curve characteristics (peak milk yield, milk yield at the first-AI date, time of peak yield (PT), and milk persistency) were calculated. Breed, parity, interval from calving to first AI (CFI), lactation curve characteristics, milk production traits, moment of AI related to PT (before or after PT), calf status, month of AI, and month of calving were selected as independent variables for a model with SFI as a dependent variable. A multivariable logistic regression model was used with farm as a random effect. Overall SFI was 44%. The effect of parity on SFI depended on CFI. The first-parity cows had the greatest SFI (0.43) compared with other parities (0.32-0.39) at the same period of CFI before 60 d in milk (DIM), and cows in parity ≥5 had the least SFI (0.38-0.40) when AI was after 60 DIM. After 60 DIM, extending CFI did not improve SFI in the first-parity cows, but SFI was improved in multiparous cows. Holstein-Friesian cows had lesser SFI (0.37) compared with cross-breed cows (0.39-0.46). Twin and stillbirth calving reduced SFI (0.39) compared with a single female calf (0.45) or a male calf (0.43) calving. The SFI in different months of AI varied and depended on CFI. Cows that received AI before 60 DIM had a lesser SFI, especially in March, June, and July (0.18, 0

  6. Associations between paratuberculosis milk ELISA result, milk production, and breed in Canadian dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sorge, U S; Lissemore, K; Godkin, A; Hendrick, S; Wells, S; Kelton, D

    2011-02-01

    The 3 objectives of this study were (1) to quantify milk production differences among cows with different paratuberculosis (ParaTB) milk ELISA results; (2) to determine if production differences existed in lactations preceding the test among cows with different ParaTB milk ELISA results; and (3) to assess whether Channel Island breeds were more likely to test positive with the ParaTB milk ELISA than other dairy breeds. Current and completed lactation records from 35,591 dairy cows in Ontario and western Canada that had been tested with a commercial ParaTB milk ELISA were included in the analysis. The first occurrence of the highest categorical test result was used to classify the cow. Cows were then grouped by the lactation in which the first high-positive (HTP), low-positive, or negative milk ELISA occurred, and comparisons were made within lactation groups. High test-positive cows were defined as those that had an optical density ≥ 1.0 on at least 1 ParaTB milk ELISA. The associations between ParaTB milk ELISA status and milk production, as measured by the 305-d milk yield, were assessed with a series of linear mixed models. The effect of breed on the likelihood of testing positive with the milk ELISA was assessed using a logistic mixed model for the lactation in which the first negative or positive ParaTB milk ELISA occurred. Test-positive cows produced on average 2.9 to 6.8% less milk than negative herdmates in the lactation in which they were tested. The HTP cows produced on average 466, 514, and 598 kg less milk than low-positive herdmates in lactations 1, 2, and 4, respectively. Cows testing low-positive in their second lactation had, on average, a 218-kg higher milk yield in their first lactation than their test-negative herdmates. Otherwise, no association was found between test result and milk production in preceding lactations. Differences in milk production among negative, test-positive, and HTP cows increased with increasing parity. Cows of the

  7. e-Cow: an animal model that predicts herbage intake, milk yield and live weight change in dairy cows grazing temperate pastures, with and without supplementary feeding.

    PubMed

    Baudracco, J; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Holmes, C W; Comeron, E A; Macdonald, K A; Barry, T N; Friggens, N C

    2012-06-01

    This animal simulation model, named e-Cow, represents a single dairy cow at grazing. The model integrates algorithms from three previously published models: a model that predicts herbage dry matter (DM) intake by grazing dairy cows, a mammary gland model that predicts potential milk yield and a body lipid model that predicts genetically driven live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS). Both nutritional and genetic drives are accounted for in the prediction of energy intake and its partitioning. The main inputs are herbage allowance (HA; kg DM offered/cow per day), metabolisable energy and NDF concentrations in herbage and supplements, supplements offered (kg DM/cow per day), type of pasture (ryegrass or lucerne), days in milk, days pregnant, lactation number, BCS and LW at calving, breed or strain of cow and genetic merit, that is, potential yields of milk, fat and protein. Separate equations are used to predict herbage intake, depending on the cutting heights at which HA is expressed. The e-Cow model is written in Visual Basic programming language within Microsoft Excel®. The model predicts whole-lactation performance of dairy cows on a daily basis, and the main outputs are the daily and annual DM intake, milk yield and changes in BCS and LW. In the e-Cow model, neither herbage DM intake nor milk yield or LW change are needed as inputs; instead, they are predicted by the e-Cow model. The e-Cow model was validated against experimental data for Holstein-Friesian cows with both North American (NA) and New Zealand (NZ) genetics grazing ryegrass-based pastures, with or without supplementary feeding and for three complete lactations, divided into weekly periods. The model was able to predict animal performance with satisfactory accuracy, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.81, 0.76 and 0.62 for herbage DM intake, milk yield and LW change, respectively. Simulations performed with the model showed that it is sensitive to genotype by feeding environment

  8. Incorporating mixed rations and formulated grain mixes into the diet of grazing cows: Effects on milk composition and coagulation properties, and the yield and quality of Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Auldist, M J; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Williams, R P W; Moate, P J; Wales, W J

    2016-06-01

    Effects of different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows on the composition and coagulation properties of milk and the subsequent yield and quality of Cheddar cheese were measured. The experiment used milk from 72 Holstein-Friesian cows, averaging 45d in milk, fed according to 1 of 3 feeding strategies: (1) cows grazed a restricted allowance of perennial ryegrass pasture [approximately 14kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day, to ground level] supplemented with milled wheat grain fed in the milking parlor and alfalfa hay offered in the paddock (control); (2) same pasture and allowance as control, supplemented with a formulated grain mix containing wheat grain, corn grain, and canola meal fed in the parlor and alfalfa hay fed in the paddock (FGM); or (3) same pasture and allowance as control, supplemented with a partial mixed ration comprising the same formulated grain mix but mixed with alfalfa hay and presented on a feed pad after each milking (PMR). For all strategies, supplements provided the same metabolizable energy and grain:forage ratio (78:22, DM basis). Within each feeding strategy, milk was sampled from cows receiving either 8 or 16kg (DM) of supplement/cow per day. There were 2 replicated groups of 6 cows per supplement amount per dietary strategy; approximately 250L of milk was sampled from each for analyses of composition and coagulation properties and the manufacture of Cheddar cheese. The experiment had a 14-d adaptation period and a 14-d measurement period. For cows fed according to the control strategy, those fed 16kg/cow per day produced milk with lower concentrations of milk fat than cows fed 8kg/cow per day. This effect was not observed for cows fed according to the FGM and PMR strategies. Milk from cows fed 16kg of DM/cow per day according to the control strategy yielded less Cheddar cheese than milk from cows fed according to the PMR strategy, with cheese yields from FGM cows being intermediate. Amount of supplement offered had

  9. Phenotypic analysis of cheese yields and nutrient recoveries in the curd of buffalo milk, as measured with an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2015-01-01

    Traits associated with cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery in curd are used to describe the efficiency of the cheese-making process. This is fundamental for all dairy species, including the Italian Mediterranean buffalo, which is largely used for milk production aimed at the dairy industry. To assess cheese-making traits among buffalo, a model cheese-manufacturing process was tested; it was capable of processing 24 samples per run, using 0.5-L samples of milk from individual buffalo. In total, 180 buffalo reared in 7 herds located in Northeast Italy were sampled once. Briefly, each sample was weighed and heated (35°C for 30min), inoculated with starter culture (90min), and mixed with rennet (51.2 international milk-clotting units/L of milk). After 10min of gelation, the curd was cut; 5min after the cut, the curd was separated from the whey, and the curd was subjected to draining (for 30min) and pressing (18h). The curd and whey were weighed, analyzed for pH and the total solid, fat, lactose, and protein contents, and subjected to estimation of the energy content. Three measures of cheese yield (%CY), %CYCURD, %CYSOLIDS, and %CYWATER, were computed as the ratios between the weight of the curd, the curd dry matter, and the water retained in the curd, respectively, and the weight of the milk processed. These traits were multiplied by the daily milk yield to define the 3 corresponding measures of daily cheese yield (dCY, kg/d). The milk component recoveries (REC) in the curd, RECFAT, RECPROTEIN, and RECSOLIDS, represented the ratios between the weights of the fat, protein, and total solids in the curd, respectively, and the corresponding components in the milk. Finally, energy recovery (RECENERGY) was estimated. The values for %CYCURD, %CYSOLIDS, %CYWATER, RECPROTEIN, RECFAT, RECSOLIDS, and RECENERGY averaged 25.6, 12.7, 12.9, 80.4, 95.1, 66.7, and 79.3%, respectively, indicating that buffalo milk has a higher aptitude to cheese-making than bovine milk. The effect

  10. Bovine subclinical intramammary infection caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci increases somatic cell count but has no effect on milk yield or composition.

    PubMed

    Tomazi, T; Gonçalves, J L; Barreiro, J R; Arcari, M A; dos Santos, M V

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of subclinical intramammary infection (IMI) caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) as a group and by specific CNS species on milk yield and composition and somatic cell count (SCC) of dairy cows. Selection of cows with IMI caused by CNS was performed by microbiological cultures of composite samples collected from 1,242 dairy cows distributed in 21 dairy herds. After selection of cows, milk yield was measured and milk samples were collected at the mammary quarter level (i.e., 1,140 mammary samples collected from 285 cows) for analysis of milk composition and SCC. In total, 108 isolates of CNS were identified at the species level by PCR-RFLP analysis. Forty-one pairs of contralateral mammary quarters, with and without IMI, were used to evaluate the effect of CNS on milk yield and composition. Mammary quarters infected with CNS had higher geometric mean SCC (306,106 cells/mL) than noninfected contralateral mammary quarters (62,807 cells/mL). Intramammary infection caused by CNS had no effect on milk yield or on contents of fat, crude protein, casein, lactose, total solids, and solids-not-fat. Staphylococcus chromogenes was the most prevalent CNS species in this study and the only species that allowed within-cow evaluation. The IMI caused by S. chromogenes increased SCC but had no effect on milk yield and composition at the quarter level. In conclusion, subclinical mastitis caused by CNS increased the SCC but had no effect on milk yield and composition of dairy cows.

  11. Palmitic acid feeding increases ceramide supply in association with increased milk yield, circulating nonesterified fatty acids, and adipose tissue responsiveness to a glucose challenge.

    PubMed

    Rico, J E; Mathews, A T; Lovett, J; Haughey, N J; McFadden, J W

    2016-11-01

    Reduced insulin action is a key adaptation that facilitates glucose partitioning to the mammary gland for milk synthesis and enhances adipose tissue lipolysis during early lactation. The progressive recovery of insulin sensitivity as cows advance toward late lactation is accompanied by reductions in circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and milk yield. Because palmitic acid can promote insulin resistance in monogastrics through sphingolipid ceramide-dependent mechanisms, palmitic acid (C16:0) feeding may enhance milk production by restoring homeorhetic responses. We hypothesized that feeding C16:0 to mid-lactation cows would enhance ceramide supply and ceramide would be positively associated with milk yield. Twenty multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were enrolled in a study consisting of a 5-d covariate, 49-d treatment, and 14-d posttreatment period. All cows were randomly assigned to a sorghum silage-based diet containing no supplemental fat (control; n=10; 138±45 d in milk) or C16:0 at 4% of ration dry matter (PALM; 98% C16:0; n=10; 136±44 d in milk). Blood and milk were collected at routine intervals. Liver and skeletal muscle tissue were biopsied at d 47 of treatment. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (300mg/kg of body weight) were performed at d -1, 24, and 49 relative to start of treatment. The plasma and tissue concentrations of ceramide and glycosylated ceramide were determined using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using a mixed model with fixed effects of treatment and time, and milk yield served as a covariate. The PALM treatment increased milk yield, energy-corrected milk, and milk fat yield. The most abundant plasma and tissue sphingolipids detected were C24:0-ceramide, C24:0-monohexosylceramide (GlcCer), and C16:0-lactosylceramide. Plasma concentrations of total ceramide and GlcCer decreased as lactation advanced, and ceramide and GlcCer were elevated in cows fed PALM

  12. Variability of the caprine whey protein genes and their association with milk yield, composition and renneting properties in the Sarda breed: 2. The BLG gene.

    PubMed

    Dettori, Maria Luisa; Pazzola, Michele; Pira, Emanuela; Puggioni, Ornella; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo

    2015-11-01

    The variability of the promoter region and the 3'UTR (exon-7) of the BLG gene, encoding the β-lactoglobulin, was investigated by sequencing in 263 lactating Sarda goats in order to assess its association with milk traits. Milk traits included: milk yield, fat, total protein and lactose content, pH, daily fat and protein yield (DFPY), freezing point, milk energy, somatic cell count, total microbial mesophilic count, rennet coagulation time (RCT), curd firming rate (k20) and curd firmness (a30). A total of 7 polymorphic sites were detected and the sequence analysed was given accession number KM817769. Only three SNPs (c.-381C>T, c.-323C>T and c.*420C>A) had minor allele frequency higher than 0.05. The effects of farm, stage of lactation and the interaction farm × stage of lactation significantly influenced all the milk traits (P T and c.*420C>A (P T (P < 0.001). The c.-381TT homozygous goats showed lower pH, RCT and k20 than c.-381CT (P < 0.05). In conclusion the polymorphism of the goat BLG gene did not affect the total protein content of the Sarda goat milk, and only weakly influenced RCT and k20. On the other hand, an interesting effect on milk yields and DFPY emerged in two SNPs. This information might be useful in dairy goat breeding programs.

  13. Associations between polymorphisms of the gene and milk production traits in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Deng, T X; Pang, C Y; Lu, X R; Zhu, P; Duan, A Q; Liang, X W

    2016-03-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 () is an important regulator of mammary gland differentiation and cell survival that has been regarded as a candidate gene affecting milk production traits in mammals. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate significant associations between SNP of the gene and milk production traits in buffaloes. Here, 18 SNP were identified in the buffalo gene, including 15 intronic mutations and 3 exon mutations. All the identified SNP were then genotyped using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry methods from 192 buffaloes. All the SNP were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and 2 haplotype blocks were successfully constructed based on these SNP data, which formed 5 and 3 major haplotypes in the population (>5%), respectively. The results of association analysis showed that only SNP13 located in exon 10 was significantly associated with the milk production traits in the population ( < 0.05). Single nucleotide polymorphism 2, SNP5, SNP8, and SNP9 were associated with protein percentage, and SNP4 and SNP10 were associated with 305-d milk yield ( < 0.05). Our results provide evidence that polymorphisms of the buffalo gene are associated with milk production traits and can be used as a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection in buffalo breeding.

  14. Models to Estimate Lactation Curves of Milk Yield and Somatic Cell Count in Dairy Cows at the Herd Level for the Use in Simulations and Predictive Models

    PubMed Central

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2016-01-01

    Typically, central milk recording data from dairy herds are recorded less than monthly. Over-fitting early in lactation periods is a challenge, which we explored in different ways by reducing the number of parameters needed to describe the milk yield and somatic cell count of individual cows. Furthermore, we investigated how the parameters of lactation models correlate between parities and from dam to offspring. The aim of the study was to provide simple and robust models for cow level milk yield and somatic cell count for fitting to sparse data to parameterize herd- and cow-specific simulation of dairy herds. Data from 610 Danish Holstein herds were used to determine parity traits in milk production regarding milk yield and somatic cell count of individual cows. Parity was stratified in first, second, and third and higher for milk, and first to sixth and higher for somatic cell count. Fitting of herd level parameters allowed for cow level lactation curves with three, two, or one parameters per lactation. Correlations of milk yield and somatic cell count were estimated between lactations and between dam and offspring. The shape of the lactation curves varied markedly between farms. The correlation between lactations for milk yield and somatic cell count was 0.2–0.6 and significant on more than 95% of farms. The variation in the daily milk yield was observed to be a source of variation to the somatic cell count, and the total somatic cell count was less correlated with the milk production than somatic cells per milliliter. A positive correlation was found between relative levels of the total somatic cell count and the milk yield. The variation of lactation and somatic cell count curves between farms highlights the importance of a herd level approach. The one-parameter per cow model using a herd level curve allows for estimating the cow production level from first the recording in the parity, while a two-parameter model requires more recordings for a credible

  15. Record keeping, genetic selection, educational experience and farm management effects on average milk yield per cow, milk fat percentage, bacterial score and bulk tank somatic cell count of dairy farms in the Central region of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rhone, J A; Koonawootrittriron, S; Elzo, M A

    2008-12-01

    A study was conducted to estimate the record keeping, genetic selection, educational, and farm management effects on average milk yield per cow (AYC), milk fat percentage, bacterial score, and bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) of dairy farms in the central region of Thailand. Farms were located in the provinces of Saraburi and Nakhon Ratchisima and were members of the Muaklek dairy cooperative. Records from individual animals were unavailable. Thus, farm records of milk yield, milk fat percentage, bacterial score, and BTCCC were collected from July 1, 2003 through June 30, 2006. Additional record keeping, genetic selection, education, and farm management information was collected through a questionnaire in May of 2006. Data from the Muaklek dairy cooperative and the questionnaire were then merged by a farm identification number. A single trait mixed model was used to analyze AYC, milk fat percentage, and BTSCC, while a log linear model was used to analyze bacterial score. Results showed that farms that kept records on individual animals had higher (P < 0.05) milk fat percentages and lower bacterial scores than farms that did not. Farms that used genetic information (EBV) and phenotypes when selecting sires were higher (P < 0.05) for milk fat percentage than farms that used only phenotypes and personal opinion. Farms milking cows with a single unit milking machine and by hand, had higher (P < 0.05) bacterial scores and BTSCC than farms using only a single or multi unit machine. Overall farms that kept individual animal records, used EBV when selecting sires, used a single method for collecting milk, and used family labor achieved higher performance from their herds than farms that did not.

  16. Effect of minor milk proteins in chymosin separated whey and casein fractions on cheese yield as determined by proteomics and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Wedholm, A; Møller, H S; Stensballe, A; Lindmark-Månsson, H; Karlsson, A H; Andersson, R; Andrén, A; Larsen, L B

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this work was to find regressions between minor milk proteins or protein fragments in the casein or sweet whey fraction and cheese yield because the effect of major milk proteins was evaluated in a previous study. Proteomic methods involving 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry in combination with multivariate data analysis were used to study the effect of variations in milk protein composition in chymosin separated whey and casein fractions on cheese yield. By mass spectrometry, a range of proteins significant for the cheese yield was identified. Among others, a C-terminal fragment of beta-casein had a positive effect on the cheese yield expressed as grams of cheese per 100 g of milk, whereas several other minor fragments of beta-, alpha(s1)-, and alpha(s2)-casein had positive effects on the transfer of protein from milk to cheese. However, the individual effect of each identified protein was relatively low. Therefore, further studies of the relations between different proteins/peptides in the rennet casein or sweet whey fractions and cheese yield are needed for advanced understanding and prediction of cheese yield.

  17. Combining different functions to describe milk, fat, and protein yield in goats using Bayesian multiple-trait random regression models.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, H R; Silva, F F; Siqueira, O H G B D; Souza, N O; Junqueira, V S; Resende, M D V; Borquis, R R A; Rodrigues, M T

    2016-05-01

    We proposed multiple-trait random regression models (MTRRM) combining different functions to describe milk yield (MY) and fat (FP) and protein (PP) percentage in dairy goat genetic evaluation by using Bayesian inference. A total of 3,856 MY, FP, and PP test-day records, measured between 2000 and 2014, from 535 first lactations of Saanen and Alpine goats, including their cross, were used in this study. The initial analyses were performed using the following single-trait random regression models (STRRM): third- and fifth-order Legendre polynomials (Leg3 and Leg5), linear B-splines with 3 and 5 knots, the Ali and Schaeffer function (Ali), and Wilmink function. Heterogeneity of residual variances was modeled considering 3 classes. After the selection of the best STRRM to describe each trait on the basis of the deviance information criterion (DIC) and posterior model probabilities (PMP), the functions were combined to compose the MTRRM. All combined MTRRM presented lower DIC values and higher PMP, showing the superiority of these models when compared to other MTRRM based only on the same function assumed for all traits. Among the combined MTRRM, those considering Ali to describe MY and PP and Leg5 to describe FP (Ali_Leg5_Ali model) presented the best fit. From the Ali_Leg5_Ali model, heritability estimates over time for MY, FP. and PP ranged from 0.25 to 0.54, 0.27 to 0.48, and 0.35 to 0.51, respectively. Genetic correlation between MY and FP, MY and PP, and FP and PP ranged from -0.58 to 0.03, -0.46 to 0.12, and 0.37 to 0.64, respectively. We concluded that combining different functions under a MTRRM approach can be a plausible alternative for joint genetic evaluation of milk yield and milk constituents in goats.

  18. Random regression analysis of test-day milk yields in the first and second lactations of Brazilian Gyr cows.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Herrera, L G; El Faro, L; Bignardi, A B; Pereira, R J; Machado, C H C; Albuquerque, L G

    2015-12-09

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the genetic parameters for test-day milk yields (TDMY) in the first and second lactations using random regression models (RRM) in order to contribute to the application of these models in genetic evaluation of milk yield in Gyr cattle. A total of 53,328 TDMY records from 7118 lactations of 5853 Gyr cows were analyzed. The model included the direct additive, permanent environmental, and residual random effects. In addition, contemporary group and linear and quadratic effects of the age of cows at calving were included as fixed effects. A random regression model fitting fourth-order Legendre polynomials for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, with five classes of residual variance, was applied. In the first lactation, the heritabilities increased from early lactation (0.26) until TDMY3 (0.38), followed by a decrease until the end of lactation. In the second lactation, the estimates increased from the first (0.29) to the fifth test day (0.36), with a slight decrease thereafter, and again increased on the last two test days (0.34 and 0.41). There were positive and high genetic correlations estimated between first-lactation TDMY and the remaining TDMY of the two lactations. The moderate heritability estimates, as well as the high genetic correlations between half the first-lactation TDMY and all TDMY of the two lactations, suggest that the selection based only on first lactation TDMY is the best selection strategy to increase milk production across first and second lactations of Gyr cows.

  19. Comparison of non-linear models to describe the lactation curves for milk yield and composition in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, N

    2016-02-01

    In order to describe the lactation curves of milk yield (MY) and composition in buffaloes, seven non-linear mathematical equations (Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Brody, Dijkstra and Rook) were used. Data were 116,117 test-day records for MY, fat (FP) and protein (PP) percentages of milk from the first three lactations of buffaloes which were collected from 893 herds in the period from 1992 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly production records of dairy buffaloes using the NLIN and MODEL procedures in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using adjusted coefficient of determination (Radj(2)), root means square error (RMSE), Durbin-Watson statistic and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The Dijkstra model provided the best fit of MY and PP of milk for the first three parities of buffaloes due to the lower values of RMSE and AIC than other models. For the first-parity buffaloes, Sikka and Brody models provided the best fit of FP, but for the second- and third-parity buffaloes, Sikka model and Brody equation provided the best fit of lactation curve for FP, respectively. The results of this study showed that the Wood and Dhanoa equations were able to estimate the time to the peak MY more accurately than the other equations. In addition, Nelder and Dijkstra equations were able to estimate the peak time at second and third parities more accurately than other equations, respectively. Brody function provided more accurate predictions of peak MY over the first three parities of buffaloes. There was generally a positive relationship between 305-day MY and persistency measures and also between peak yield and 305-day MY, calculated by different models, within each lactation in the current study. Overall, evaluation of the different equations used in the current study indicated the potential of the non-linear models for fitting monthly productive records of buffaloes.

  20. Effect of a pre-treatment of milk with high pressure homogenization on yield as well as on microbiological, lipolytic and proteolytic patterns of "Pecorino" cheese.

    PubMed

    Vannini, Lucia; Patrignani, Francesca; Iucci, Luciana; Ndagijimana, Maurice; Vallicelli, Melania; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta

    2008-12-10

    The principal aim of this work was to compare Pecorino cheeses obtained from ewes' milk previously subjected to high pressure homogenization (HPH) at 100 MPa with those produced from raw and heat treated ewes' milk. The HPH milk treatment induced a significant increase of the cheese yield and caused a reduction of enterococci, lactococci and yeasts in the curds. Enterococci cell loads remained at lower levels in cheeses obtained from HPH milk over the ripening period. Analyses of free fatty acids, Sodium Dodecil Sulphate (SDS)-PAGE profiles, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Solid Phase Microextraction (GC-MS-SPME) measurements of volatile compounds and sensory traits evidenced that the pressure treatment can be regarded also as a useful tool to differentiate products obtained from the same raw material. In fact such a milk treatment induced a marked lipolysis, an early proteolysis, a relevant modification of the volatile molecule profiles and sensory properties of Pecorino cheese.

  1. Random regression models to account for the effect of genotype by environment interaction due to heat stress on the milk yield of Holstein cows under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Santana, Mário L; Bignardi, Annaiza Braga; Pereira, Rodrigo Junqueira; Menéndez-Buxadera, Alberto; El Faro, Lenira

    2016-02-01

    The present study had the following objectives: to compare random regression models (RRM) considering the time-dependent (days in milk, DIM) and/or temperature × humidity-dependent (THI) covariate for genetic evaluation; to identify the effect of genotype by environment interaction (G×E) due to heat stress on milk yield; and to quantify the loss of milk yield due to heat stress across lactation of cows under tropical conditions. A total of 937,771 test-day records from 3603 first lactations of Brazilian Holstein cows obtained between 2007 and 2013 were analyzed. An important reduction in milk yield due to heat stress was observed for THI values above 66 (-0.23 kg/day/THI). Three phases of milk yield loss were identified during lactation, the most damaging one at the end of lactation (-0.27 kg/day/THI). Using the most complex RRM, the additive genetic variance could be altered simultaneously as a function of both DIM and THI values. This model could be recommended for the genetic evaluation taking into account the effect of G×E. The response to selection in the comfort zone (THI ≤ 66) is expected to be higher than that obtained in the heat stress zone (THI > 66) of the animals. The genetic correlations between milk yield in the comfort and heat stress zones were less than unity at opposite extremes of the environmental gradient. Thus, the best animals for milk yield in the comfort zone are not necessarily the best in the zone of heat stress and, therefore, G×E due to heat stress should not be neglected in the genetic evaluation.

  2. Effect of nursing management and skeletal size at weaning on puberty, skeletal growth rate, and milk production during first lactation of dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Shamay, A; Werner, D; Moallem, U; Barash, H; Bruckental, I

    2005-04-01

    Forty Israeli-Holstein 5-d-old calves were used to determine the effect of increasing calf body weight (BW) and skeletal size during the nursing period on age and skeletal size at puberty and on skeletal size and performance during first lactation. The calves were randomly allotted to 2 experimental groups as follows: milk replacer (MR) [calves were given 0.450 kg/d dry matter of milk replacer for the first 50 d of life] and milk-fed (MF) [calves had free access to milk in two 30-min meals/d]. From weaning to 180 d of age, all calves were fed the same diet. At 180 d of age, the MR and MF calves were each divided into 2 equal subgroups: one subgroup from each treatment was given only growing ration, and the other was given the same ration supplemented with fish meal to supply 2% crude protein (CP) (treatments MR + CP and MF + CP, respectively). Finally, at 270 d of age, all calves were housed together and fed a growing heifer's ration until first calving. During the entire nursing period, the MF calves consumed 9.8% more DM, 39.7% more CP, and 52.4% more metabolizable energy than the MR calves. At 60 d of age, BW and all skeletal parameters were higher in the MF calves than in the MR calves. During the entire rearing period (60 to 550 d), the average BW of the MF calves was greater by 16 kg than the BW of the MR calves. Nursing management did not affect differences in skeletal parameters at calving. Average age at puberty onset was 272 +/- 26.8 d; MF calves reached puberty 23 d earlier than MR calves. Yields of milk (kg/305 d) and fat-corrected milk (FCM, kg/d) were greater for the MF + CP heifers than for the MR heifers. It was concluded that nursing by ad libitum milk, as compared with milk replacer, affected BW but not skeletal size of the adult animal, decreased age of puberty onset, and increased FCM yield at first lactation. Supplementing the diet with 2% CP during the prepubertal period increased BW but not skeletal size of the adult animal and 305-d milk and

  3. Factors affecting variation of different measures of cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery from an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; De Marchi, M; Bittante, G

    2013-01-01

    Cheese yield (CY) is the most important technological trait of milk, because cheese-making uses a very high proportion of the milk produced worldwide. Few studies have been carried out at the level of individual milk-producing animals due to a scarcity of appropriate procedures for model-cheese production, the complexity of cheese-making, and the frequent use of the fat and protein (or casein) contents of milk as a proxy for cheese yield. Here, we report a high-throughput cheese manufacturing process that mimics all phases of cheese-making, uses 1.5-L samples of milk from individual animals, and allows the simultaneous processing of 15 samples per run. Milk samples were heated (35°C for 40 min), inoculated with starter culture (90 min), mixed with rennet (51.2 international milk-clotting units/L of milk), and recorded for gelation time. Curds were cut twice (10 and 15 min after gelation), separated from the whey, drained (for 30 min), pressed (3 times, 20 min each, with the wheel turned each time), salted in brine (for 60 min), weighed, and sampled. Whey was collected, weighed, and sampled. Milk, curd, and whey samples were analyzed for pH, total solids, fat content, and protein content, and energy content was estimated. Three measures of percentage cheese yield (%CY) were calculated: %CY(CURD), %CY(SOLIDS), and %CY(WATER), representing the ratios between the weight of fresh curd, the total solids of the curd, and the water content of the curd, respectively, and the weight of the milk processed. In addition, 3 measures of daily cheese yield (dCY, kg/d) were defined, considering the daily milk yield. Three measures of nutrient recovery (REC) were computed: REC(FAT), REC(PROTEIN), and REC(SOLIDS), which represented the ratio between the weights of the fat, protein, and total solids in the curd, respectively, and the corresponding components in the milk. Energy recovery, REC(ENERGY), represented the energy content of the cheese compared with that in the milk. This

  4. Feed intake, milk yield, and metabolic parameters prior to left displaced abomasum in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Van Winden, S C L; Jorritsma, R; Müller, K E; Noordhuizen, J P T M

    2003-04-01

    As left-displaced abomasum (LDA) often occurs in cows with high contents of fat in the liver (fatty liver), a postpartum fatty liver-inducing regimen was applied to 16 cows. The main interest of the study was whether there were productive or metabolic changes in cows prior to LDA. Therefore, feed intake and milk production were monitored and blood samples were collected from the cows. The LDA occurred in 4 out of 16 dairy cows that were included in the feeding regimen. Compared to cows not developing LDA, LDA-cows had a significantly lower feed intake, 6.5 kg/d less, and milk production, 8 kg/d less, prior to clinical diagnosis of LDA. In the 10-d period preceding clinical diagnosis of LDA, blood concentrations of calcium, glucose, and insulin were significantly lower, whereas blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate, as well as aspartate aminotransferase activities were significantly elevated compared to cows not developing LDA. These preclinical changes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of LDA. It is not certain, however, whether there is a causal association between these parameters and LDA.

  5. The use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to predict cheese yield and nutrient recovery or whey loss traits from unprocessed bovine milk samples.

    PubMed

    Ferragina, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2013-01-01

    Cheese yield is an important technological trait in the dairy industry in many countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis of fresh unprocessed milk samples for predicting cheese yield and nutrient recovery traits. A total of 1,264 model cheeses were obtained from 1,500-mL milk samples collected from individual Brown Swiss cows. Individual measurements of 7 new cheese yield-related traits were obtained from the laboratory cheese-making procedure, including the fresh cheese yield, total solid cheese yield, and the water retained in curd, all as a percentage of the processed milk, and nutrient recovery (fat, protein, total solids, and energy) in the curd as a percentage of the same nutrient contained in the milk. All individual milk samples were analyzed using a MilkoScan FT6000 over the spectral range from 5,000 to 900 wavenumber × cm(-1). Two spectral acquisitions were carried out for each sample and the results were averaged before data analysis. Different chemometric models were fitted and compared with the aim of improving the accuracy of the calibration equations for predicting these traits. The most accurate predictions were obtained for total solid cheese yield and fresh cheese yield, which exhibited coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation (1-VR) of 0.95 and 0.83, respectively. A less favorable result was obtained for water retained in curd (1-VR=0.65). Promising results were obtained for recovered protein (1-VR=0.81), total solids (1-VR=0.86), and energy (1-VR=0.76), whereas recovered fat exhibited a low accuracy (1-VR=0.41). As FTIR spectroscopy is a rapid, cheap, high-throughput technique that is already used to collect standard milk recording data, these FTIR calibrations for cheese yield and nutrient recovery highlight additional potential applications of the technique in the dairy industry, especially for monitoring cheese

  6. Replacing corn silage with different forage millet silage cultivars: effects on milk yield, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brunette, T; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A F

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary replacement of corn silage (CS) with 2 cultivars of forage millet silages [i.e., regular millet (RM) and sweet millet (SM)] on milk production, apparent total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed (ad libitum) a high-forage total mixed ration (68:32 forage:concentrate ratio). Dietary treatments included CS (control), RM, and SM diets. Experimental silages constituted 37% of each diet DM. Three ruminally fistulated cows were used to determine the effect of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation and total-tract nutrient utilization. Relative to CS, RM and SM silages contained 36% more crude protein, 66% more neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 88% more acid detergent fiber. Cows fed CS consumed more dry matter (DM; 24.4 vs. 22.7 kg/d) and starch (5.7 vs. 3.7 kg/d), but less NDF (7.9 vs. 8.7 kg/d) than cows fed RM or SM. However, DM, starch and NDF intakes were not different between forage millet silage types. Feeding RM relative to CS reduced milk yield (32.7 vs. 35.2 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (35.8 vs. 38.0 kg/d) and SCM (32.7 vs. 35.3 kg/d). However, cows fed SM had similar milk, energy-corrected milk, and solids-corrected milk yields than cows fed CS or RM. Milk efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Milk protein concentration was greatest for cows fed CS, intermediate for cows fed SM, and lowest for cows fed RM. Milk concentration of solids-not-fat was lesser, whereas milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed RM than for those fed CS. However, millet silage type had no effect on milk solids-not-fat and milk urea nitrogen levels. Concentrations of milk fat, lactose and total solids were not affected by silage type. Ruminal pH and ruminal NH3-N were greater for cows fed RM and SM than for cows fed CS. Total-tract digestibility of DM (average=67.9%), NDF (average=53

  7. Alternative parameterizations of the multiple-trait random regression model for milk yield and somatic cell score via recursive links between phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, J; Schaeffer, L R

    2011-08-01

    Multiple-trait random regression models with recursive phenotypic link from somatic cell score (SCS) to milk yield on the same test day and with different restrictions on co-variances between these traits were fitted to the first-lactation Canadian Holstein data. Bayesian methods with Gibbs sampling were used to derive inferences about parameters for all models. Bayes factor indicated that the recursive model with uncorrelated environmental effects between traits was the most plausible specification in describing the data. Goodness of fit in terms of a within-trait weighted mean square error and correlation between observed and predicted data was the same for all parameterizations. All recursive models estimated similar negative causal effects from SCS to milk yield (up to -0.4 in 46-115 days in milk in lactation). Estimates of heritabilities, genetic and environmental correlations for the first two regression coefficients (overall level of a trait and lactation persistency) within both traits were similar among models. Genetic correlations between milk and SCS were dependent on the restrictions on genetic co-variances for these traits. Recursive model with uncorrelated system genetic effects between milk and SCS gave estimates of genetic correlations of the opposite sign compared with a regular multiple-trait model. Phenotypic recursion between milk and SCS seemed, however, to be the only source of environmental correlations between these two traits. Rankings of sires for total milk yield in lactation, average daily SCS and persistency for both traits were similar among models. Multiple-trait model with recursive links between milk and SCS and uncorrelated random environmental effects could be an attractive alternative for a regular multiple-trait model in terms of model parsimony and accuracy.

  8. Milk yield and survival of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle after laparoscopic correction of left-displaced abomasum.

    PubMed

    Jorritsma, R; Westerlaan, B; Bierma, M P R; Frankena, K

    2008-06-07

    The milk yield and survival of 91 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows that had had a left-displaced abomasum (LDA) corrected laparoscopically were compared with those of 193 control cows matched for herd, parity and calving date. Ninety per cent of the LDA treatments were performed within four weeks after calving. The risk of being culled during the whole observational period of at least three years was 1.5 times greater for the LDA cows than for their matched herdmates (P<0.01). The risk of being culled in the current lactation was 1.8 times greater for the LDA cows (P=0.01), but risk of being culled after the next calving following the LDA correction was similar for both groups. For the lactation in which the LDA was corrected, there was no difference in the 305-day milk production of 80 of the LDA cows and 182 of the matched cows; however, the mean interval from calving to first service during the same lactation was longer for the LDA cows (115 v 98 days) and the mean calving interval was also longer (451 v 418 days).

  9. Evolution of increased competitiveness in cows trades off with reduced milk yield, fertility and more masculine morphology.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Cristina; Mazza, Serena; Guzzo, Nadia; Mantovani, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    In some species females compete for food, foraging territories, mating, and nesting sites. Competing females can exhibit morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations typical of males, which are commonly considered as secondary sexual traits. Competition and the development of traits increasing competitiveness require much energy and may exert adverse effects on fecundity and survival. From an evolutionary perspective, positive selection for increased competitiveness would then result in evolution of reduced values for traits related to fitness such as fecundity and survival. There is recent evidence for such evolutionary trade-offs involving male competition, but no study has considered competing females so far. Using data from competitions for dominance in cows (Bos taurus), we found negative genetic correlations between traits providing success in competition, that is, fighting ability and fitness traits related to milk production and with fertility (the inverse of parity-conception interval). Fighting ability also showed low but positive genetic correlations with "masculine" morphological traits, and negative correlations with "feminine" traits. A genetic change in traits over time has occurred due to selection on competitiveness, corresponding to an evolutionary process of "masculinization" counteracting the official selection for milk yield. Similar evolutionary trade-off between success in competition and fitness components may be present in various species experiencing female competition.

  10. Early lactation feed intake and milk yield responses of dairy cows offered grass silages harvested at early maturity stages.

    PubMed

    Randby, A T; Weisbjerg, M R; Nørgaard, P; Heringstad, B

    2012-01-01

    The main objective was to evaluate the potential of grass silages of very high quality to support a high milk yield with a low or moderate, or even without concentrate supplementation. Production responses to increased levels of concentrate supplementation with 3 primary growth grass silages differing in digestibility were studied using 66 Norwegian Red dairy cows. Roundbale silage was produced from a timothy-dominated sward at very early (H1), early (H2), and normal (H3) stages of crop maturity. Crops were rapidly wilted (<24h) and a formic acid-based additive was applied. All silages were restrictedly fermented. Silage digestible organic matter in dry matter (DM) values were 747, 708, and 647 g/kg of DM for H1, H2, and H3, respectively. Dietary treatments were fed in a 3×3 factorial arrangement of the 3 silages supplemented with 3 concentrate levels (4, 8, and 12 kg/d) and, additionally, H1 was offered without concentrates and H3 with 16 kg/d, giving a total of 11 diets. Cows, blocked according to parity and calving date, were introduced to the experiment before calving and kept in the experiment until wk 16 of lactation. Silage was offered ad libitum in loose housing and concentrate was available in automatic feed stations. Intake of grass silage when fed as the sole feed was 16.9 kg of DM on average for lactation wk 1 to 16. When H1 was supplemented with 4 or 8 kg of concentrates, silage DM intake did not change, but total DM intake increased to 20.6 and 23.7 kg/d, respectively. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield increased from 23.4 kg when H1 was offered without concentrate supplement to 29.1 and 32.8 kg when supplemented with 4 or 8 kg concentrate, respectively. None of the other diets equaled the yield obtained by H1 plus 8 kg of concentrate. Feed intake and yield of cows offered H3 plus 4 kg of concentrates were strongly constrained by high dietary fiber concentration. They consumed 16.5 g of neutral detergent fiber/kg of body weight and spent more time

  11. Somatic Cells Count and Its Genetic Association with Milk Yield in Dairy Cattle Raised under Thai Tropical Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Jattawa, D; Koonawootrittriron, S; Elzo, M A; Suwanasopee, T

    2012-09-01

    Somatic cells count (SCC), milk yield (MY) and pedigree information of 2,791 first lactation cows that calved between 1990 and 2010 on 259 Thai farms were used to estimate genetic parameters and trends for SCC and its genetic association with MY. The SCC were log-transformed (lnSCC) to make them normally distributed. An average information-restricted maximum likelihood procedure was used to estimate variance components. A bivariate animal model that considered herd-yr-season, calving age, and regression additive genetic group as fixed effects, and animal and residual as random effects was used for genetic evaluation. Heritability estimates were 0.12 (SE = 0.19) for lnSCC, and 0.31 (SE = 0.06) for MY. The genetic correlation estimate between lnSCC and MY was 0.26 (SE = 0.59). Mean yearly estimated breeding values during the last 20 years increased for SCC (49.02 cells/ml/yr, SE = 26.81 cells/ml/yr; p = 0.08), but not for MY (0.37 kg/yr, SE = 0.87 kg/yr; p = 0.68). Sire average breeding values for SCC and MY were higher than those of cows and dams (p<0.01). Heritability estimates for lnSCC and MY and their low but positive genetic correlation suggested that selection for low SCC may be feasible in this population as it is in other populations of dairy cows. Thus, selection for high MY and low SCC should be encouraged in Thai dairy improvement programs to increase profitability by improving both cow health and milk yield.

  12. Standardization of milk using cold ultrafiltration retentates for the manufacture of Swiss cheese: effect of altering coagulation conditions on yield and cheese quality.

    PubMed

    Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Jaeggi, J J; Martinelli, C; Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A

    2011-06-01

    Fortification of cheesemilk with membrane retentates is often practiced by cheesemakers to increase yield. However, the higher casein (CN) content can alter coagulation characteristics, which may affect cheese yield and quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of using ultrafiltration (UF) retentates that were processed at low temperatures on the properties of Swiss cheese. Because of the faster clotting observed with fortified milks, we also investigated the effects of altering the coagulation conditions by reducing the renneting temperature (from 32.2 to 28.3°C) and allowing a longer renneting time before cutting (i.e., giving an extra 5min). Milks with elevated total solids (TS; ∼13.4%) were made by blending whole milk retentates (26.5% TS, 7.7% CN, 11.5% fat) obtained by cold (<7°C) UF with part skim milk (11.4% TS, 2.5% CN, 2.6% fat) to obtain milk with CN:fat ratio of approximately 0.87. Control cheeses were made from part-skim milk (11.5% TS, 2.5% CN, 2.8% fat). Three types of UF fortified cheeses were manufactured by altering the renneting temperature and renneting time: high renneting temperature=32.2°C (UFHT), low renneting temperature=28.3°C (UFLT), and a low renneting temperature (28.3°C) plus longer cutting time (+5min compared to UFLT; UFLTL). Cutting times, as selected by a Wisconsin licensed cheesemaker, were approximately 21, 31, 35, and 32min for UFHT, UFLT, UFLTL, and control milks, respectively. Storage moduli of gels at cutting were lower for the UFHT and UFLT samples compared with UFLTL or control. Yield stress values of gels from the UF-fortified milks were higher than those of control milks, and decreasing the renneting temperature reduced the yield stress values. Increasing the cutting time for the gels made from the UF-fortified milks resulted in an increase in yield stress values. Yield strain values were significantly lower in gels made from control or UFLTL milks compared with gels made from UFHT or UFLT

  13. Short communication: Partial replacement of ground corn with algae meal in a dairy cow diet: Milk yield and composition, nutrient digestibility, and metabolic profile.

    PubMed

    da Silva, G G; Ferreira de Jesus, E; Takiya, C S; Del Valle, T A; da Silva, T H; Vendramini, T H A; Yu, Esther J; Rennó, F P

    2016-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of partially replacing dietary ground corn with a microalgae meal from Prototheca moriformis (composed of deoiled microalgae and soyhulls) on milk yield and composition, nutrient intake, total-tract apparent digestibility, and blood profile of lactating dairy cows. Twenty multiparous Holstein cows (57.7±49.4d in milk, 25.3±5.3 of milk yield, and 590±71kg of live weight at the start of experiment, mean ± standard deviation) were used in a cross-over design experiment, with 21-d periods. Diets were no microalgae meal (CON) or 91.8g/kg of microalgae meal partially replacing dietary ground corn (ALG). Cows showed similar milk yield and composition. The 3.5% fat-corrected milk production was 30.2±1.34kg/d for CON and 31.1±1.42kg/d for ALG. Despite cows having similar dry matter intake, ALG increased neutral detergent fiber and ether extract intake. In addition, cows fed ALG exhibited higher ether extract digestibility. No differences were detected in glucose, urea, amino-aspartate transferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase blood concentrations. Feeding ALG increased the total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein in blood compared with CON. The microalgae meal may partially replace ground corn in diets of lactating cows without impairing the animal's performance.

  14. Impact of three THI levels on somatic cell count, milk yield and composition of multiparous Holstein cows in a subtropical region.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Mohammed A F; El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S

    2017-02-01

    In Egypt, cow's milk represents 52.11% of the total milk production. Climatic condition is mainly expected to impact the welfare and productive performance of livestock animals. Thus, we aimed to explore the impact of temperature-humidity index (THI) on somatic cell count (SCC), milk production and composition on daily milk test records (33600) of Holstein cows under subtropical Egyptian conditions with different levels of THI. Our results revealed that daily milk yield and composition (fat%, protein %, yielded fat, yielded protein and the percentage of lactose) were higher in low THI (31.91kg, 3.91%, 3.22%, 418kg, 349kg and 4.20%, respectively) when compared with high THI. SCC significantly increased 36% from low to high THI. In addition to, it was increased with advanced parities 231.11% from 2nd to 7th parities. At high THI level, SCC was negatively correlated with total MY (r=-0.12P<0.05), 305 MY (r=-0.16P<0.05), protein % (r=-0.15P<0.01), fat% (r=-0.14P<0.01) and lactose % (r=-0.26P<0.01). The current study concluded that dairy cows performance was better in most of the investigated parameters at low THI than those in high THI. Thus, indicating a detrimental effect of THI on both welfare and economic return.

  15. Effects of bovine somatotropin on milk yield and composition in Holstein cows in advanced lactation fed low- or high-energy diets.

    PubMed

    Tarazon-Herrera, M A; Huber, J T; Santos, J E; Nussio, L G

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of Holstein cows to bovine somatotropin (bST) during advanced lactation and its relationship to energy intake. Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows averaging 21 kg of milk/d, and 292 d in milk were assigned to one of three treatment groups in a randomized block design. Blocks were based on the 14 d of pretreatment milk production, and treatment groups were balanced for days in milk. Treatment 1 was a low-energy diet (1.49 Mcal/kg of dry matter) without bST injection; treatment 2 was the low-energy diet plus injection of 500 mg of bST every 14 d; and treatment 3 was a high-energy diet (1.71 Mcal/kg of dry matter) with bST injections as in treatment 2. Treatment was divided into two periods (1 to 49 and 50 to 98 d) to determine if response to bST and energy changed with time on treatment. Results showed that bST significantly (P < 0.05) increased milk, fat-corrected milk, and fat and protein yields; and feed efficiency (fat-corrected milk per dry matter intake) for both periods. Milk yield responses to bST were greater for cows fed the low-than the high-energy diet in both periods. These data show that bST injections for cows in advanced lactation increased performance, but excessive energy diminished the bST response.

  16. Variation of milk coagulation properties, cheese yield, and nutrients recovery in curd of cows of different breeds before, during and after transhumance to highland summer pastures.

    PubMed

    Zendri, Francesco; Ramanzin, Maurizio; Cipolat-Gotet, Claudio; Sturaro, Enrico

    2017-02-01

    This paper aimed at evaluating the effect of summer transhumance to mountain pastures of dairy cows of different breeds on cheese-making ability of milk. Data were from 649 dairy cows of specialized (Holstein Friesian and Brown Swiss) dual purpose (Simmental) and local (mostly Rendena and Alpine Grey) breeds. The Fourier-Transform Infra-Red Spectra (FTIRS) of their milk samples were collected before and after transhumance in 109 permanent dairy farms, and during transhumance in 14 summer farms (with multi-breeds herds) of the Trento Province, north-eastern Italy. A variety of 18 traits describing milk coagulation, curd firming, cheese yield and nutrients recovery in curd/loss in whey were predicted on the basis of FTIRS collected at the individual cow level. Moving the cows to summer farms improved curd firming traits but reduced cheese yields because of an increase of water and fat lost in the whey. During summer grazing, most of cheese-making traits improved, often non-linearly. The milk from summer farms supplementing cows with more concentrates showed better curd firming and cheese yield, because of lower fat lost in the whey. The breed of cows affected almost all the traits with a worst cheese-making ability for milk samples of Holsteins through all the trial, and interacted with concentrate supplementation because increasing compound feed tended to improve cheese-making traits for all breed, with the exception of local breeds for coagulation time and of Brown Swiss for curd firming time. In general, summer transhumance caused a favourable effect on cheese-making aptitude of milk, even though with some difference according to parity, initial days in milk, breed and concentrate supplementation of cows.

  17. Effects of varying forage particle size and fermentable carbohydrates on feed sorting, ruminal fermentation, and milk and component yields of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Maulfair, D D; Heinrichs, A J

    2013-05-01

    Ration sorting is thought to affect ruminal fermentation in such a manner that milk yield milk and components are often decreased. However, the influence of ruminally degradable starch on ration sorting has not been studied. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the interactions between forage particle size (FPS) and ruminally fermentable carbohydrates (RFC) for dry matter intake (DMI), ration sorting, ruminal fermentation, chewing activity, and milk yield and components. In this study, 12 (8 ruminally cannulated) multiparous, lactating Holstein cows were fed a total mixed ration that varied in FPS and RFC. Two lengths of corn silage were used to alter FPS and 2 grind sizes of corn grain were used to alter RFC. It was determined that increasing RFC increased ruminating time and did not affect eating time, whereas increasing FPS increased eating time and did not affect ruminating time. Ruminal fermentation did not differ by altering either FPS or RFC. However, increasing FPS tended to increase mean and maximum ruminal pH and increasing RFC tended to decrease minimum ruminal pH. Particle size distribution became more diverse and neutral detergent fiber content of refusals increased over time, whereas starch content decreased, indicating that cows were sorting against physically effective neutral detergent fiber and for RFC. Selection indices determined that virtually no interactions occurred between FPS and RFC and that despite significant sorting throughout the day, by 24h after feeding cows had consumed a ration very similar to what was offered. This theory was reinforced by particle fraction intakes that very closely resembled the proportions of particle fractions in the offered total mixed ration. An interaction between FPS and RFC was observed for DMI, as DMI decreased with increasing FPS when the diet included low RFC and did not change when the diet included high RFC. Dry matter intake increased with RFC for long diets and did not change

  18. Milk Yield, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Dairy Cows Fed a High-concentrate Diet Blended with Oil Mixtures Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of feeding linseed oil or/and sunflower oil mixed with fish oil on milk yield, milk composition and fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet, 24 crossbred primiparous lactating dairy cows in early lactation were assigned to a completely randomized design experiment. All cows were fed a high-concentrate basal diet and 0.38 kg dry matter (DM) molasses per day. Treatments were composed of a basal diet without oil supplement (Control), or diets of (DM basis) 3% linseed and fish oils (1:1, w/w, LSO-FO), or 3% sunflower and fish oils (1:1, w/w, SFO-FO), or 3% mixture (1:1:1, w/w) of linseed, sunflower, and fish oils (MIX-O). The animals fed SFO-FO had a 13.12% decrease in total dry matter intake compared with the control diet (p<0.05). No significant change was detected for milk yield; however, the animals fed the diet supplemented with SFO-FO showed a depressed milk fat yield and concentration by 35.42% and 27.20%, respectively, compared to those fed the control diet (p<0.05). Milk c9, t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) proportion increased by 198.11% in the LSO-FO group relative to the control group (p<0.01). Milk C18:3n-3 (ALA) proportion was enhanced by 227.27% supplementing with LSO-FO relative to the control group (p<0.01). The proportions of milk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were significantly increased (p<0.01) in the cows fed LSO-FO (0.38%) and MIX-O (0.23%) compared to the control group (0.01%). Dietary inclusion of LSO-FO mainly increased milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), whereas feeding MIX-O improved preformed FA and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). While the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio was found in the LSO-FO, the decreased atherogenecity index (AI) and thrombogenicity index (TI) seemed to be more extent in the MIX-O. Therefore, to maximize milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 PUFA and to minimize milk n-6/n-3 ratio, AI and TI, an ideal supplement would appear to be either LSO-FO or

  19. Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids from plant oils and algae on milk fat yield and composition are associated with mammary lipogenic and SREBF1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Angulo, J; Mahecha, L; Nuernberg, K; Nuernberg, G; Dannenberger, D; Olivera, M; Boutinaud, M; Leroux, C; Albrecht, E; Bernard, L

    2012-12-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine the effects of long-term supplementing diets with saturated or unprotected polyunsaturated fatty acids from two different plant oils rich in either n-3 or n-6 fatty acids (FAs) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich algae on mammary gene expression and milk fat composition in lactating dairy cows. Gene expression was determined from mammary tissue and milk epithelial cells. Eighteen primiparous German Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation were randomly assigned into three dietary treatments that consist of silage-based diets supplemented with rumen-stable fractionated palm fat (SAT; 3.1% of the basal diet dry matter, DM), or a mixture of linseed oil (2.7% of the basal diet DM) plus DHA-rich algae (LINA; 0.4% of the basal diet DM) or a mixture of sunflower oil (2.7% of the basal diet DM) plus DHA-rich algae (SUNA; 0.4% of the basal diet DM), for a period of 10 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, the cows were slaughtered and mammary tissues were collected to study the gene expression of lipogenic enzymes. During the last week, the milk yield and composition were determined, and milk was collected for FA measurements and the isolation of milk purified mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Supplementation with plant oils and DHA-rich algae resulted in milk fat depression (MFD; yield and percentage). The secretion of de novo FAs in the milk was reduced, whereas the secretion of trans-10,cis-12-CLA and DHA were increased. These changes in FA secretions were associated in mammary tissue with a joint down-regulation of mammary lipogenic enzyme gene expression (stearoyl-CoA desaturase, SCD1; FA synthase, FASN) and expression of the regulatory element binding transcription factor (SREBF1), whereas no effect was observed on lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1, mitochondrial (GPAM). A positive relationship between mammary SCD1 and SREBF1 mRNA abundances was observed, suggesting a similar

  20. Milk yield and quality in Guernsey cows fed cottonseed cake-based diets partially substituted with baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) seed cake.

    PubMed

    Madzimure, James; Musimurimwa, Carmen; Chivandi, Eliton; Gwiriri, Lovemore; Mamhare, Eddison

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of partially substituting cottonseed cake with graded levels of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) seed cake (BSC) on milk yield and quality in Guernsey cows. Sixteen cows in mid-lactation and in their third parity were allocated to diets containing 0% (control), 5%, 10%, and 15% BSC in a completely randomized design. Each cow was given a daily feed ration of 6 kg and a basal diet of soya bean stover ad libitum. There were no differences in daily feed intake (P > 0.05), but basal intake differed among all treatment groups with cows on the control diet having the highest intake (30 ± 0.34 kg/day). Mean daily milk yield differed (P < 0.05) among all treatment groups. However, the control had higher milk yield of 12.1 ± 0.73 kg/day, and the 15% BSC had the least yield of 7.46 ± 0.73 kg/day. Cows on the control diet had higher milk butterfat content (6.12%; P < 0.05) than those on the BSC-based diets. Protein content differed (P < 0.05) across all treatment groups with cows on 15% BSC producing the highest protein content (3.43%) while the control had the least (2.6%). The concentration of milk total solids for cows fed on 15% BSC was higher (P < 0.05) than that from cows on other diets. Lactose content was not affected by the diets (P > 0.05). These results indicate that BSC can substitute soya bean cake in dairy diets, but milk production and butterfat content are compromised.

  1. Effects of feeding practices on milk yield and composition in peri-urban and rural smallholder dairy cow and pastoral camel herds in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kashongwe, O B; Bebe, B O; Matofari, J W; Huelsebusch, C G

    2017-03-29

    Associations between feeding practices, milk yield, and composition were assessed in smallholder rural and peri-urban dairy cow (n = 97) and pastoral camel (n = 15) herds. A cross-sectional survey supplemented by follow-up collection of feed and milk samples for laboratory analyses was conducted. Data was analyzed using descriptive, correlation, and analysis of variance statistics. Feeding practices in rural smallholder dairy cows' herds were pastured based (87.7%) with napier grass (89.4%) and concentrates (93.9%) as forage and concentrate supplements. In smallholder peri-urban dairy cows' herds, it was napier grass based (68.4%) with concentrates (100%), oat forages (42.9%), and crop residues (28.6%). Pastoral camel herds were shrub browsing (53%), rangeland pasture grazing (20%), or Euphorbia tirucalli feeding (27%). Smallholder rural farmers offered more feeds (16.1 vs 15.3 kg/day) than peri-urban farmers, hence net energy for lactation (1.4 vs 1.3 Mcal/kg), crude protein (CP) (10 vs 12%), and milk yields (12 vs 9 kg/herd/day) was higher. Milk fat was higher in smallholder peri-urban (4.3%) than that of rural (3.9%). In pastoral camels, E. tirucalli feeding had higher daily milk yield/herd, fat, and CP (63 kg, 4.5 and 3.6%) than shrub browsing (35 kg, 4.2 and 3.0%) and grazing (23 kg yield, 2.6 and 2.7%). Five feeding practices out of 14 in smallholder dairy cattle herds resulted in more than 10 kg milk/cow/day because of low forage-to-concentrate ratio (2.5), inclusion of legume crop residue, or processing forages. They present opportunities for improved production in smallholder herds. In pastoral camel, E. tirucalli feeding showed the highest potential.

  2. Effects of exposure to artificial long days on milk yield, maternal insulin-like growth factor 1 levels and kid growth rate in subtropical goats.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Horacio; Flores, José Alfredo; Delgadillo, José Alberto; Fernández, Ilda G; Flores, Manuel de Jesús; Mejía, Ángel; Elizundia, José Manuel; Bedos, Marie; Ponce, José Luis; Ramírez, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to determine whether any relationship exists between exposure to artificial long days, milk yield, maternal plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels, and kid growth rate in goats. One group of lactating goats was maintained under naturally decreasing day length (control group; n = 19), while in another one, they were kept under artificial long days (LD group; n = 19). Milk yield was higher in goats from the LD group than that in the control group (P < 0.05). Maternal IGF-1 levels at day 57 of lactation were higher (P < 0.05) in goats from the LD group than the levels in the control group and were positively correlated with the total milk yields per goat at days 43 and 57 of lactation (r = 0.77 and r = 0.84, respectively; P < 0.01). Daily weight gain at week 4 was higher (P < 0.01) in kids from the LD group than that in kids from the control group and was correlated with total and average IGF-1 maternal levels (r = 0.60 and r = 0.60, P < 0.05). It was concluded that submitting lactating goats to artificial long days increases milk yield, plasma IGF-1 maternal levels and the growth rate of the kids.

  3. Estimates of genetic parameters for total milk yield over multiple ages in Brazilian Murrah buffaloes using different models.

    PubMed

    Sesana, R C; Baldi, F; Borquis, R R A; Bignardi, A B; Hurtado-Lugo, N A; El Faro, L; Albuquerque, L G; Tonhati, H

    2014-04-14

    The objective of this study was to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for accumulated 305-day milk yield (MY305) over multiple ages, from 24 to 120 months of age, applying random regression (RRM), repeatability (REP) and multi-trait (MT) models. A total of 4472 lactation records from 1882 buffaloes of the Murrah breed were utilized. The contemporary group (herd-year-calving season) and number of milkings (two levels) were considered as fixed effects in all models. For REP and RRM, additive genetic, permanent environmental and residual effects were included as random effects. MT considered the same random effects as did REP and RRM with the exception of permanent environmental effect. Residual variances were modeled by a step function with 1, 4, and 6 classes. The heritabilities estimated with RRM increased with age, ranging from 0.19 to 0.34, and were slightly higher than that obtained with the REP model. For the MT model, heritability estimates ranged from 0.20 (37 months of age) to 0.32 (94 months of age). The genetic correlation estimates for MY305 obtained by RRM (L23.res4) and MT models were very similar, and varied from 0.77 to 0.99 and from 0.77 to 0.99, respectively. The rank correlation between breeding values for MY305 at different ages predicted by REP, MT, and RRM were high. It seems that a linear and quadratic Legendre polynomial to model the additive genetic and animal permanent environmental effects, respectively, may be sufficient to explain more parsimoniously the changes in MY305 genetic variation with age.

  4. Supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol of dairy cows in early lactation--effects on metabolic status, body condition, and milk yield.

    PubMed

    Lomander, H; Frössling, J; Ingvartsen, K L; Gustafsson, H; Svensson, C

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol to dairy cows in early lactation on metabolic status, body condition and milk yield. In total, 673 newly calved cows from 12 commercial Swedish dairy herds were randomized to daily supplementation with 450 g of glycerol (GLY), 300 g of propylene glycol (PG), or nothing (control, CON). Supplements were fed twice daily from 0 to 21 d in milk (DIM) as a top dress on concentrates. For each cow, data on parity, breed, calving date, monthly test-day milk yield, and cases of diseases were collected. Blood samples were taken at approximately 2, 5, and 8 wk postpartum (pp) and analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and insulin. Samples taken within 3 wk pp were also analyzed for insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Measurements of body condition score (BCS) and heart girth (HG) were obtained at approximately 2 and 5 wk pp and at time of first insemination. The effects of supplemental feeding with GLY or PG on the plasma concentrations of glucose, NEFA, BHBA, insulin, and IGF-1, and BCS, HG, and occurrence of disease were analyzed. No differences in BCS or HG or in plasma concentrations of glucose, BHBA, NEFA, or IGF-1 were found between the control group and any of the treatment groups. Cows in the GLY group had lower plasma insulin concentrations during DIM 0 to 63 compared with group CON, but no difference in insulin was found between the PG group and the CON group. Cows supplemented with GLY had a higher milk yield (kg of milk and kg of energy-corrected milk) during the first 90 DIM. Cows in the PG group tended to yield more milk during the same period. No differences in the occurrence of diseases were seen between the groups. In conclusion, supplementation with GLY in early lactation did increase milk yield without a subsequent decrease of metabolic status, and supplementation with PG tended to do the same.

  5. Genetic evaluation using random regression models with different covariance functions for test-day milk yield in an admixture population of Thailand goats.

    PubMed

    Thepparat, Mongkol; Boonkum, Wuttigrai; Duangjinda, Monchai; Tumwasorn, Sornthep; Nakavisut, Sansak; Thongchumroon, Thumrong

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare covariance functions (CF) and estimate the heritability of milk yield from test-day records among exotic (Saanen, Anglo-Nubian, Toggenburg and Alpine) and crossbred goats (Thai native and exotic breed), using a random regression model. A total of 1472 records of test-day milk yield were used, collected from 112 does between 2003 and 2006. CF of the study were Wilmink function, second- and third-order Legendre polynomials, and linear splines 4 knots located at 5, 25, 90 and 155 days in milk (SP25-90) and 5, 35, 95 and 155 of days in milk (SP35-95). Variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood method (REML). Goodness of fit, Akaike information criterion (AIC), percentage of squared bias (PSB), mean square error (MSE), and empirical correlation (RHO) between the observed and predicted values were used to compare models. The results showed that CF had an impact on (co)variance estimation in random regression models (RRM). The RRM with splines 4 knots located at 5, 25, 90 and 155 of days in milk had the lowest AIC, PSB and MSE, and the highest RHO. The heritability estimated throughout lactation obtained with this model ranged from 0.13 to 0.23.

  6. Forced traffic in automatic milking systems effectively reduces the need to get cows, but alters eating behavior and does not improve milk yield of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Bach, A; Devant, M; Igleasias, C; Ferrer, A

    2009-03-01

    Eighty-five lactating Holstein dairy cows in loose housing conditions in 2 symmetrical pens, each containing 28 feeding places, 3 waterers, and 1 automatic milking system (AMS), were used to evaluate the effects of the traffic type imposed on lactating cows through an AMS on milking frequency, feeding behavior, and milk production. The study was a crossover design with 2 periods and 2 treatments. Each period lasted 3 mo, with 1 mo of adaptation within each period. All cows were fed a partial mixed ration twice daily and up to 3 kg/d of a concentrate during the visits to the AMS. Treatments consisted of allowing free traffic of cows throughout the pen or forcing cows to pass through the AMS to access the feed troughs (forced traffic). Individual eating behavior and feed consumption were continuously monitored throughout the study using a computerized system. Individual milk production was recorded at each milking, and milk composition was recorded monthly. In addition, the number of cows brought to the AMS was recorded. The number of daily meals was less, whereas meal duration and meal size were greater with forced traffic (6.6 +/- 0.3 meals/d, 20.4 +/- 0.65 min/meal, and 2.7 +/- 0.09 kg/meal, respectively) than with free traffic (10.1 +/- 0.3 meals/d, 15.7 +/- 0.65 min/meal, and 1.8 +/- 0.09 kg/meal, respectively). Total dry matter intake (21.1 +/- 0.5 and 20.4 +/- 0.58 kg/d, respectively) and milk production (29.8 +/- 0.79 and 30.9 +/- 0.79 kg/d, respectively) were similar in the 2 systems. The number of voluntary and total daily milkings was greater with forced traffic (2.4 +/- 0.04 and 2.5 +/- 0.06 milkings/d, respectively) than with free traffic (1.7 +/- 0.06 and 2.2 +/- 0.04 milkings/d, respectively). Forced traffic improved the number of voluntary milkings, but altered milk quality and eating behavior of dairy cattle.

  7. Interrelationships in lactating Holsteins of rectal and skin temperatures, milk yield and composition, dry matter intake, body weight, and feed efficiency in summer in Alabama.

    PubMed

    Umphrey, J E; Moss, B R; Wilcox, C J; Van Horn, H H

    2001-12-01

    Thirty-two lactating, multiparous Holstein cows were utilized in a 91-d experiment in Auburn, Alabama, during summer to determine whether rectal and skin temperatures and respiration rates are repeatable and interrelated and whether whole cottonseed or calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co., Inc., Princeton, NJ) affected milk production or its constituents. Treatments were (I) control, (II) I plus 10.4% whole cottonseed, (III) I plus 2.6% Megalac, and (IV) I plus 5.2% whole cottonseed plus 1.3% Megalac. Data included 358 to 2644 measurements analyzed as a split-plot design of experiment. Only milk protein percentage and protein-to-fat ratio were significantly affected by dietary treatment. Milk protein percentage was depressed by dietary fat additions, especially by the combination of whole cottonseed and Megalac. Within lactation repeatabilities for milk, fat, protein, and SCM yields ranged from 0.44 to 0.66; two percentages and protein to fat ratio, 0.21 to 0.32; feed efficiency, 0.18; dry matter intake (DMI) and body weight, 0.98 and 0.84; rectal and skin temperatures and respiration rate, 0.001 to 0.055. Partial and simple correlations were similar in sign and magnitude. Noteworthy were partial correlations between milk yield and DMI, 0.367; milk yield and rectal temperature, -0.135; milkyield and respiration rate, 0.102. Skin temperature was unrelated to other variables. Respiration rate was correlated with DMI, 0.270. Results should help researchers designing future experiments involving these responses to predict the number of measures needed to detect differences.

  8. The nonlinear effect of somatic cell count on milk composition, coagulation properties, curd firmness modeling, cheese yield, and curd nutrient recovery.

    PubMed

    Bobbo, T; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between somatic cell count (SCC) in milk and several milk technological traits at the individual cow level. In particular, we determined the effects of very low to very high SCC on traits related to (1) milk yield and composition; (2) coagulation properties, including the traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP) and the new curd firming model parameters; and (3) cheese yield and recovery of milk nutrients in the curd (or loss in the whey). Milk samples from 1,271 Brown Swiss cows from 85 herds were used. Nine coagulation traits were measured: 3 traditional MCP [rennet coagulation time (RCT, min), curd firming rate (k20, min), and curd firmness after 30 min (a30, mm)] and 6 new curd firming and syneresis traits [potential asymptotic curd firmness at infinite time (CFP, mm), curd firming instant rate constant (kCF, % × min(-1)), syneresis instant rate constant (kSR, % × min(-1)), rennet coagulation time estimated using the equation (RCTeq, min), maximum curd firmness achieved within 45 min (CFmax, mm), and time at achievement of CFmax (tmax, min)]. The observed cheese-making traits included 3 cheese yield traits (%CYCURD, %CYSOLIDS, and %CYWATER, which represented the weights of curd, total solids, and water, respectively, as a percentage of the weight of the processed milk) and 4 nutrient recoveries in the curd (RECFAT, RECPROTEIN, RECSOLIDS, and RECENERGY, which each represented the percentage ratio between the nutrient in the curd and milk). Data were analyzed using a linear mixed model with the fixed effects of days in milk, parity, and somatic cell score (SCS), and the random effect of herd-date. Somatic cell score had strong influences on casein number and lactose, and also affected pH; these were traits characterized by a quadratic pattern of the data. The results also showed a negative linear relationship between SCS and milk yield. Somatic cell score influenced almost all of the tested

  9. Effects of replacing grass silage with forage pearl millet silage on milk yield, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brunette, T; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A F

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary replacement of grass silage (GS) with forage millet silages that were harvested at 2 stages of maturity [i.e., vegetative stage and dough to ripe seed (mature) stage] on milk production, apparent total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (60:40 forage:concentrate ratio). Dietary treatments included control (GS), vegetative millet silage (EM), and mature millet silage (MM) diets. Experimental silages comprised 24% of dietary dry matter (DM). Soybean meal and slow-release urea were added in millet diets to balance for crude protein (CP). Three additional ruminally fistulated cows were used to determine the effect of treatments on ruminal fermentation and total-tract nutrient utilization. Cows fed the GS diet consumed more DM (22.9 vs. 21.7 ± 1.02 kg/d) and CP (3.3 vs. 3.1 ± 0.19 kg/d), and similar starch (4.9 ± 0.39 kg/d) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 8.0 ± 0.27 kg/d) compared with cows fed the MM diet. Replacing the EM diet with the MM diet did not affect DM, NDF, or CP intakes. Cows fed the MM diet produced less milk (26.1 vs. 29.1 ± 0.79 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (28.0 vs.30.5 ± 0.92 kg/d), and 4% fat-corrected milk (26.5 vs. 28.3 ± 0.92 kg/d) yields than cows fed the GS diet. However, cows fed diets with EM and GS produced similar yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, and 4% fat-corrected milk. Feed efficiency (milk yield:DM intake) was greater only for cows fed the GS diet than those fed the MM diet. Milk protein yield and concentration were greater among cows fed the GS diet compared with those fed the EM or MM diets. Milk fat and lactose concentrations were not influenced by diet. However, milk urea N was lower for cows fed the GS diet than for those fed the MM diet. Ruminal NH3-N was greater for cows fed the EM diet than for

  10. Random Regression Models Using Legendre Polynomials to Estimate Genetic Parameters for Test-day Milk Protein Yields in Iranian Holstein Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Naserkheil, Masoumeh; Miraie-Ashtiani, Seyed Reza; Nejati-Javaremi, Ardeshir; Son, Jihyun; Lee, Deukhwan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters of milk protein yields in Iranian Holstein dairy cattle. A total of 1,112,082 test-day milk protein yield records of 167,269 first lactation Holstein cows, calved from 1990 to 2010, were analyzed. Estimates of the variance components, heritability, and genetic correlations for milk protein yields were obtained using a random regression test-day model. Milking times, herd, age of recording, year, and month of recording were included as fixed effects in the model. Additive genetic and permanent environmental random effects for the lactation curve were taken into account by applying orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the fourth order in the model. The lowest and highest additive genetic variances were estimated at the beginning and end of lactation, respectively. Permanent environmental variance was higher at both extremes. Residual variance was lowest at the middle of the lactation and contrarily, heritability increased during this period. Maximum heritability was found during the 12th lactation stage (0.213±0.007). Genetic, permanent, and phenotypic correlations among test-days decreased as the interval between consecutive test-days increased. A relatively large data set was used in this study; therefore, the estimated (co)variance components for random regression coefficients could be used for national genetic evaluation of dairy cattle in Iran. PMID:26954192

  11. Detrimental effect of selection for milk yield on genetic tolerance to heat stress in purebred Zebu cattle: Genetic parameters and trends.

    PubMed

    Santana, M L; Pereira, R J; Bignardi, A B; Filho, A E Vercesi; Menéndez-Buxadera, A; El Faro, L

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt to determine the possible detrimental effects of continuous selection for milk yield on the genetic tolerance of Zebu cattle to heat stress, genetic parameters and trends of the response to heat stress for 86,950 test-day (TD) milk yield records from 14,670 first lactations of purebred dairy Gir cows were estimated. A random regression model with regression on days in milk (DIM) and temperature-humidity index (THI) values was applied to the data. The most detrimental effect of THI on milk yield was observed in the stage of lactation with higher milk production, DIM 61 to 120 (-0.099kg/d per THI). Although modest variations were observed for the THI scale, a reduction in additive genetic variance as well as in permanent environmental and residual variance was observed with increasing THI values. The heritability estimates showed a slight increase with increasing THI values for any DIM. The correlations between additive genetic effects across the THI scale showed that, for most of the THI values, genotype by environment interactions due to heat stress were less important for the ranking of bulls. However, for extreme THI values, this type of genotype by environment interaction may lead to an important error in selection. As a result of the selection for milk yield practiced in the dairy Gir population for 3 decades, the genetic trend of cumulative milk yield was significantly positive for production in both high (51.81kg/yr) and low THI values (78.48kg/yr). However, the difference between the breeding values of animals at high and low THI may be considered alarming (355kg in 2011). The genetic trends observed for the regression coefficients related to general production level (intercept of the reaction norm) and specific ability to respond to heat stress (slope of the reaction norm) indicate that the dairy Gir population is heading toward a higher production level at the expense of lower tolerance to heat stress. These trends reflect the genetic

  12. Exploration of lagged relationships between mastitis and milk yield in dairycows using a Bayesian structural equation Gaussian-threshold model

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-Lin; Heringstad, Bjørg; Gianola, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A Gaussian-threshold model is described under the general framework of structural equation models for inferring simultaneous and recursive relationships between binary and Gaussian characters, and estimating genetic parameters. Relationships between clinical mastitis (CM) and test-day milk yield (MY) in first-lactation Norwegian Red cows were examined using a recursive Gaussian-threshold model. For comparison, the data were also analyzed using a standard Gaussian-threshold, a multivariate linear model, and a recursive multivariate linear model. The first 180 days of lactation were arbitrarily divided into three periods of equal length, in order to investigate how these relationships evolve in the course of lactation. The recursive model showed negative within-period effects from (liability to) CM to test-day MY in all three lactation periods, and positive between-period effects from test-day MY to (liability to) CM in the following period. Estimates of recursive effects and of genetic parameters were time-dependent. The results suggested unfavorable effects of production on liability to mastitis, and dynamic relationships between mastitis and test-dayMYin the course of lactation. Fitting recursive effects had little influence on the estimation of genetic parameters. However, some differences were found in the estimates of heritability, genetic, and residual correlations, using different types of models (Gaussian-threshold vs. multivariate linear). PMID:18558070

  13. Genetic evaluation of milk yield in Alpine goats for the first four lactations using random regression models.

    PubMed

    Silva, F G; Torres, R A; Silva, L P; Ventura, H T; Silva, F F; Carneiro, A P S; Nascimento, M; Rodrigues, M T

    2014-12-19

    Random regression models have been used in evaluating test-day milk yield, providing accurate estimates of genetic values in animals. However, herd evaluation with only information from the first lactation may not be the best option from an economic perspective. Other factors should be taken into account, particularly other lactations. Our objective in this study was to analyze the genetic divergence between the first four lactations of Alpine goats. The RENPED software was used to perform descriptive statistics, check for errors in pedigree, recode the data, and for Pearson's and Spearman's correlations. The WOMBAT software was used to estimate the variance components and predict the breeding values. The CALC software was adopted to calculate the percentage of coincidence between the ranking of the animals and the animals kept in common at each lactation evaluation. The results show that selection using only the first lactation in small herds with a low degree of technology can be employed as a palliative measure, in view of the difficulty in evaluating all lactations. However, the selection of breeding goats and the production of catalogues should not be based only on the first lactation, because the results demonstrate inversions in the classification of the best breeders when other lactations are analyzed.

  14. Influence of milk yield, stage of lactation, and body condition on dairy cattle lying behaviour measured using an automated activity monitoring sensor.

    PubMed

    Bewley, Jeffrey M; Boyce, Robert E; Hockin, Jeremy; Munksgaard, Lene; Eicher, Susan D; Einstein, Mark E; Schutz, Michael M

    2010-02-01

    Time spent lying by lactating Holstein-Friesian cows of varying body condition scores (BCS) and milk yield was measured using an animal activity monitor. A 3-week average BCS was calculated for each cow; and in total, 84 cows were selected with 28 cows each among three BCS categories (Thin: BCS<2.75; Moderate: 2.75 > or = BCS<3.25; Heavy: BCS> or = 3.25) and two stage of lactation categories (<150 days in milk or >150 days in milk). Cows were kept in two management systems: parlour/freestall (n=60) or automated milking system/freestall (n=24). Behaviour was recorded for 5.3+/-0.1 d for each cow. Production levels were considered using a 28-d rolling average of daily milk production. Cows that exhibited clinical lameness before or during the observation period were excluded from analyses. For cows exhibiting oestrus, the day prior to, day of, and day following breeding were removed. The final analysis included 77 cows (408 d of observation). A mixed model was fitted to describe average daily hours spent lying. Results demonstrated that lying time increased as days in milk (DIM) increased (P=0.05). Variables that were tested but not significant (P>0.05) were BCS category, parity category (1 or 2) and 28-d rolling average daily milk production. Although a numerical trend for increasing hours spent lying with increasing BCS was observed, after accounting for other factors in the mixed model, BCS did not significantly impact lying time. Continued investigation of these management factors that impact lying time and bouts, using new technologies, more cows, and more herds will help dairy owners better manage facilities and cow movements to optimize this essential behaviour.

  15. Comparative 2D-DIGE proteomic analysis of bovine mammary epithelial cells during lactation reveals protein signatures for lactation persistency and milk yield.

    PubMed

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Singh, Surender; Jena, Manoj K; Varshney, Nishant; Kola, Srujana; Kumar, Sudarshan; Kaushik, Jai K; Grover, Sunita; Dang, Ajay K; Mukesh, Manishi; Prakash, B S; Mohanty, Ashok K

    2014-01-01

    Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end with alveoli which surrounds the lumen. These alveolar mammary epithelial cells (MEC) reflect the milk producing ability of farm animals. In this study, we have used 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry to identify the protein changes in MEC during immediate early, peak and late stages of lactation and also compared differentially expressed proteins in MEC isolated from milk of high and low milk producing cows. We have identified 41 differentially expressed proteins during lactation stages and 22 proteins in high and low milk yielding cows. Bioinformatics analysis showed that a majority of the differentially expressed proteins are associated in metabolic process, catalytic and binding activity. The differentially expressed proteins were mapped to the available biological pathways and networks involved in lactation. The proteins up-regulated during late stage of lactation are associated with NF-κB stress induced signaling pathways and whereas Akt, PI3K and p38/MAPK signaling pathways are associated with high milk production mediated through insulin hormone signaling.

  16. Effects of reduced in utero and post weaning nutrition on milk yield and composition in primiparous beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Can range livestock producers reduce harvested feed inputs, during late pregnancy and heifer development, and maintain sustainable and acceptable production goals? To address this, we conducted a 3-yr study measuring milk production and milk constituent concentrations in primiparous beef heifers (n ...

  17. Associations between pathogen-specific cases of subclinical mastitis and milk yield, quality, protein composition, and cheese-making traits in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bobbo, T; Ruegg, P L; Stocco, G; Fiore, E; Gianesella, M; Morgante, M; Pasotto, D; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-03-29

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between pathogen-specific cases of subclinical mastitis and milk yield, quality, protein composition, and cheese-making traits. Forty-one multibreed herds were selected for the study, and composite milk samples were collected from 1,508 cows belonging to 3 specialized dairy breeds (Holstein Friesian, Brown Swiss, and Jersey) and 3 dual-purpose breeds of Alpine origin (Simmental, Rendena, and Grey Alpine). Milk composition [i.e., fat, protein, casein, lactose, pH, urea, and somatic cell count (SCC)] was analyzed, and separation of protein fractions was performed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven coagulation traits were measured: 5 traditional milk coagulation properties [time from rennet addition to milk gelation (RCT, min), curd-firming rate as the time to a curd firmness (CF) of 20 mm (k20, min), and CF at 30, 45, and 60 min from rennet addition (a30, a45, and a60, mm)], and 6 new curd firming and syneresis traits [potential asymptotical CF at an infinite time (CFP, mm), curd-firming instant rate constant (kCF, % × min(-1)), curd syneresis instant rate constant (kSR, % × min(-1)), modeled RCT (RCTeq, min), maximum CF value (CFmax, mm), and time at CFmax (tmax, min)]. We also measured 3 cheese yield traits, expressing the weights of total fresh curd (%CYCURD), dry matter (%CYSOLIDS), and water (%CYWATER) in the curd as percentages of the weight of the processed milk, and 4 nutrient recovery traits (RECPROTEIN, RECFAT, RECSOLIDS, and RECENERGY), representing the percentage ratio between each nutrient in the curd and milk. Milk samples with SCC > 100,000 cells/mL were subjected to bacteriological examination. All samples were divided into 7 clusters of udder health (UH) status: healthy (cows with milk SCC < 100,000 cells/mL and uncultured); culture-negative samples with low, medium, or high SCC; and culture-positive samples divided into contagious, environmental, and opportunistic

  18. A field trial on the effect of propylene glycol on milk yield and resolution of ketosis in fresh cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis.

    PubMed

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Ospina, P A; Oetzel, G R

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of oral propylene glycol (PG) administration on ketosis resolution and milk yield in cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis (SCK). Cows from 4 freestall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin) were each tested 6 times for SCK from 3 to 16 d in milk on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. Subclinical ketosis was defined as a β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L, [corrected] and clinical ketosis was defined as ≥ 3.0 mmol/L. [corrected]. Cows with SCK were randomized to the treatment group (oral PG) or control group (no PG); treatment cows were drenched with 300 mL of PG once daily from the day they tested 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L [corrected] until the day they tested <1.2 mmol/L. [corrected]. Outcomes evaluated for all farms included time from SCK until BHBA test <1.2 mmol/L [corrected] or until BHBA test ≥ 3.0 mmol/L. [corrected]. Individual milk weights for the first 30 d of lactation were evaluated for the 3 farms monitoring daily milk. Semiparametric proportional hazards models were used to evaluate time to event outcomes; repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess milk weights. A total of 741 of 1,717 (43.2%) eligible enrolled cows had at least one BHBA test of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. [corrected]. Of these, 372 were assigned to the treatment group and 369 to the control group. Based on hazard ratios, PG-treated cows were 1.50 times more likely (95% confidence interval=1.26 to 1.79) to resolve their SCK and 0.54 times less likely (95% confidence interval=0.34 to 0.86) to develop clinical ketosis than control cows. Across the 3 herds measuring individual milk weights, treated cows produced 0.23 kg more milk per milking in the first 30 d of lactation than control cows, for a total difference of 0.69 kg/cow per day. After identification of a treatment by herd interaction, stratification by herd showed that treated cows produced more milk per milking on farm A (0.44 kg) and farm B (0.53 kg) in

  19. Genetic parameters of linear conformation type traits and their relationship with milk yield throughout lactation in mixed-breed dairy goats.

    PubMed

    McLaren, A; Mucha, S; Mrode, R; Coffey, M; Conington, J

    2016-07-01

    Conformation traits are of interest to many dairy goat breeders not only as descriptive traits in their own right, but also because of their influence on production, longevity, and profitability. If these traits are to be considered for inclusion in future dairy goat breeding programs, relationships between them and production traits such as milk yield must be considered. With the increased use of regression models to estimate genetic parameters, an opportunity now exists to investigate correlations between conformation traits and milk yield throughout lactation in more detail. The aims of this study were therefore to (1) estimate genetic parameters for conformation traits in a population of crossbred dairy goats, (2) estimate correlations between all conformation traits, and (3) assess the relationship between conformation traits and milk yield throughout lactation. No information on milk composition was available. Data were collected from goats based on 2 commercial goat farms during August and September in 2013 and 2014. Ten conformation traits, relating to udder, teat, leg, and feet characteristics, were scored on a linear scale (1-9). The overall data set comprised data available for 4,229 goats, all in their first lactation. The population of goats used in the study was created using random crossings between 3 breeds: British Alpine, Saanen, and Toggenburg. In each generation, the best performing animals were selected for breeding, leading to the formation of a synthetic breed. The pedigree file used in the analyses contained sire and dam information for a total of 30,139 individuals. The models fitted relevant fixed and random effects. Heritability estimates for the conformation traits were low to moderate, ranging from 0.02 to 0.38. A range of positive and negative phenotypic and genetic correlations between the traits were observed, with the highest correlations found between udder depth and udder attachment (0.78), teat angle and teat placement (0

  20. Effect of dietary starch level and high rumen-undegradable protein on endocrine-metabolic status, milk yield, and milk composition in dairy cows during early and late lactation.

    PubMed

    Piccioli-Cappelli, F; Loor, J J; Seal, C J; Minuti, A; Trevisi, E

    2014-12-01

    Diet composition defines the amount and type of nutrients absorbed by dairy cows. Endocrine-metabolic interactions can influence these parameters, and so nutrient availability for the mammary gland can significantly vary and affect milk yield and its composition. Six dairy cows in early and then late lactation received, for 28 d in a changeover design, 2 diets designed to provide, within the same stage of lactation, similar amounts of rumen fermentable material but either high starch plus sugar (HS) content or low starch plus sugar content (LS). All diets had similar dietary crude protein and calculated supply of essential amino acids. Dry matter intake within each stage of lactation was similar between groups. Milk yield was similar between groups in early lactation, whereas a higher milk yield was observed in late lactation when feeding HS. At the metabolic level, the main difference observed between the diets in both stages of lactation was lower blood glucose in cows fed LS. The lower glucose availability during consumption of LS caused substantial modifications in the circulating and postprandial pattern of metabolic hormones. Feeding LS versus HS resulted in an increase in the ratio of bovine somatotropin to insulin. This increased mobilization of lipid reserves resulted in higher blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate, which contributed to the higher milk fat content in both stages of lactation in the LS group. This greater recourse to body fat stores was confirmed by the greater loss of body weight during early lactation and the slower recovery of body weight in late lactation in cows fed LS. The lower insulin to glucagon ratio observed in cows fed LS in early and late lactation likely caused an increase in hepatic uptake and catabolism of amino acids, as confirmed by the higher blood urea concentrations. Despite the higher catabolism of amino acids in LS in early lactation, similar milk protein output was observed for both

  1. Phenotypic effects of calving ease on the subsequent fertility and milk production of dam and calf in UK Holstein-Friesian heifers.

    PubMed

    Eaglen, S A E; Coffey, M P; Woolliams, J A; Mrode, R; Wall, E

    2011-11-01

    subsequent to a veterinary-assisted calving, creating a loss of approximately 2 kg of milk per day, compared with a nonassisted calving. Calves being born with difficulties showed a significant reduction in milk yield in first lactation, demonstrating the lifelong effect of a difficult birth. Compared with nonassisted calves, veterinary-assisted calves showed a loss of 710 kg in accumulated 305-d milk yield, which was significant from 129 to 261 d in milk. This suggests that from birth to production, physiological effects of a bad calving are not negated. Results furthermore suggest a beneficial effect of farmer assistance at calving on the milk yield of both dam and calf, when moderate difficulties occurred.

  2. Effect of acarbose on milk yield and composition in early-lactation dairy cattle fed a ration to induce subacute ruminal acidosis.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, C L; Thompson, A; Greenwood, K; Sherington, J; Bruce, C

    2009-09-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis reduces lactation performance in dairy cattle and most often occurs in animals fed a high concentrate:forage ration with large amounts of readily fermentable starch, which results in increased production of volatile fatty acids and lactic acid and a reduction in ruminal pH. Acarbose is commercially available (Glucobay, Bayer, Wuppertal, Germany) and indicated for the control of blood glucose in diabetic patients. In cattle, acarbose acts as an alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitor that slows the rate of degradation of starch to glucose, thereby reducing the rate of volatile fatty acid production and maintaining rumen pH at higher levels. The ability of acarbose to reverse the reduced feed intake and milk fat percentage and yield associated with a high concentrate:forage ration with a high risk of inducing subacute ruminal acidosis was evaluated in 2 experiments with lactating dairy cattle. In 2 preliminary experiments, the effects of a 70:30 concentrate:forage ration on ruminal pH and lactation were evaluated. Ruminal pH was monitored in 5 Holstein steers with ruminal cannulas every 10 min for 5 d. Ruminal pH was <5.5 for at least 4 h in 79% of the animal days. In dairy cows, the 70:30 concentrate:forage ration decreased feed intake 5%, milk fat percentage 7%, and milk fat yield 8% compared with a 50:50 concentrate:forage ration but did not affect milk yield. Early lactating dairy cattle were offered the 70:30 concentrate:forage ration with 0 or 0.75 g/d of acarbose added in a crossover design in 2 experiments. In the first experiment, acarbose increased dry matter feed intake (23.1 vs. 21.6 kg/d) and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield (33.7 vs. 31.7 kg/d) because of an increase in percentage milk fat (3.33 vs. 3.04%) compared with control cows. In the second experiment, cows were fasted for 3 h before the morning feeding to induce consumption of a large meal to mimic conditions that might be associated with unplanned delayed feeding. In this

  3. Kelp meal (Ascophyllum nodosum) did not improve milk yield or mitigate heat stress but increased milk iodine in mid lactation organic Jersey cows during the grazing season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kelp meal (KM) made from dry and ground Ascophyllum nodosum, a brown algae, is often used as a mineral supplement on northeastern organic dairy farms. Twenty (12 primiparous and 8 multiparous) organic Jersey cows with an initial BW of 410 kg (SD ± 39) and DIM of 135 (SD ± 52) were blocked by milk yi...

  4. Locus BoLA-DRB3 is just an ordinary site of the polygene when explaining genetic variance of somatic cell count and milk yield.

    PubMed

    Oprzadek, Jolanta; Sender, Grazyna; Pawlik, Adrianna; Lukaszewicz, Marek

    2015-11-01

    The study aimed at clarifying the problem of the hitherto contradictory results regarding usefulness of BoLA-DRB3 locus as a marker in selection against mastitis and for milk yield. Treating the BoLA-DRB3 locus effect as random was proposed in place of considering it fixed. Somatic cell counts and milk yields recorded monthly on a test day (22,424) of 619 Polish Holstein cows genotyped for BoLA-DRB3 were analysed with an animal model including a random effect for genotype at this locus. The BoLA-DRB3 alleles were defined as restriction patterns obtained with three endonucleases. Two alternative BoLA-DRB3 additive genotype (co)variance structures were constructed for 161 genotypes recorded. One was based on the allelic similarity of the genotypes resulting in element values of 0 (no common allele), 0.5 (one allele in common), and 1 (diagonal). The other considered restriction site similarity (up to 3 in 1 allele) giving element values of 0 (no common restriction sites) and then increasingly in steps of 1/6 up to 6/6 (diagonal), where the numerator represents the number of common sites between genotypes. The DRB3 variance component for the natural logarithm of somatic cell count did not exceed 0.006 of the polygenic additive component or 0.003 for milk yield. Hence, unless we fail to detect the causative site or to properly define traits being the projection of a site, the effect of the genotype at the BoLA-DRB3 locus does not explain variation in somatic cell count and milk yield at a degree expected of a genetic marker.

  5. Comparison of several methods of sires evaluation for total milk yield in a herd of Holstein cows in Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Al-Samarai, F.R.; Abdulrahman, Y.K.; Mohammed, F.A.; Al-Zaidi, F.H.; Al-Anbari, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    A total of 956 lactation records of Holstein cows kept at Kaa Albon station, Imuran Governorate, Yemen during the period from 1991 to 2003 were used to investigate the effect of some genetic and non-genetic factors (Sire, parity, season of calving, year of calving and age at first calving as covariate) on the Total Milk Yield (TMY), Lactation Length (LL), and Dry Period (DP). Components of variance for the random effects (mixed model) were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) methodology. Sires were evaluated for the TMY by three methods, Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) using Harvey program, Transmitting Ability (TA) according to the Least Square Means of sire progeny (TALSM) and according to Means (TAM). Results showed that TMY and DP were affected significantly (P < 0.01) by all factors except season of calving and age at first calving, while LL was affected significantly (P< 0.01) only by year of calving and parity. The averages of the TMY, LL, and DP were 3919.66 kg, 298.28 days, and 114.13 days respectively. The corresponding estimates of heritability (h2) were 0.35, 0.06, and 0.14 respectively. The highest and lowest BLUP values of sires for the TMY were – 542.44 kg and 402.14 kg, while the corresponding estimates for TALSM and TAM were – 470.38, 380.88 kg and – 370.12, 388.50 kg respectively. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients among BLUP, TALSM and TAM ranged from 0.81 to 0.67. These results provide evidence that the selection of sires will improve the TMY in this herd because of the wide differences in genetic poetical among sires, and a moderate estimation of heritability. PMID:26623356

  6. Array of Hall Effect Sensors for Linear Positioning of a Magnet Independently of Its Strength Variation. A Case Study: Monitoring Milk Yield during Milking in Goats

    PubMed Central

    García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Sánchez-Quinche, Angel; Merello, Paloma; Beltrán, Pedro; Peris, Cristófol

    2013-01-01

    In this study we propose an electronic system for linear positioning of a magnet independent of its modulus, which could vary because of aging, different fabrication process, etc. The system comprises a linear array of 24 Hall Effect sensors of proportional response. The data from all sensors are subject to a pretreatment (normalization) by row (position) making them independent on the temporary variation of its magnetic field strength. We analyze the particular case of the individual flow in milking of goats. The multiple regression analysis allowed us to calibrate the electronic system with a percentage of explanation R2 = 99.96%. In our case, the uncertainty in the linear position of the magnet is 0.51 mm that represents 0.019 L of goat milk. The test in farm compared the results obtained by direct reading of the volume with those obtained by the proposed electronic calibrated system, achieving a percentage of explanation of 99.05%. PMID:23793020

  7. Genetic correlations between type and test-day milk yield in small dual-purpose cattle populations: The Aosta Red Pied breed as a case study.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Serena; Guzzo, Nadia; Sartori, Cristina; Mantovani, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at estimating the relationships between linear type traits and milk production in the dual-purpose Aosta Red Pied (ARP) cattle breed, by expressing type traits as factor scores with the same biological meaning of the individual traits. Factor analysis was applied to individual type traits for muscularity and udder of 32,275 first-parity ARP cows, obtaining 3 factor scores for individual muscularity (F1), udder side (F2), and udder conformation (F3). Data from 169,008 test-day records of milk, fat, and protein yield (kg), belonging to the first 3 lactations of 16,605 cows, were also analyzed. After obtaining genetic parameters for both morphological factors and milk production traits through a series of AIREML single-trait models, bivariate analyses were performed on a data set accounting for 201,283 records of 35,530 cows, to assess the phenotypic and genetic correlations among all factor scores and milk yield traits. The heritability estimates obtained proved to be moderate for both groups of traits, ranging from 0.132 (fat) to 0.314 (F1). Muscularity factor showed moderate and negative genetic correlations (ra) with udder size (-0.376) and udder conformation (0.214) factors. A low and negative ra was found between udder factors. Strong and positive ra were found among all the 3 milk production traits and F 0010 (ra≥0.597). Negative ra with milk traits were obtained for both F 0005 and F3, ranging from -0.417 to -0.221. Phenotypic correlations were lower than the genetic ones, and sometimes close to zero. The antagonism between milk production and meat attitude traits suggests that great attention should be paid in assigning proper weight to the traits, comprising functional traits such as udder conformation, included in selection indices for the dual-purpose breed. The ra obtained for factor scores are consistent with previous estimates for the corresponding individual type traits, and this confirms the possible use of factor analysis to

  8. Pathway-based genome-wide association analysis of milk coagulation properties, curd firmness, cheese yield, and curd nutrient recovery in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Dadousis, C; Pegolo, S; Rosa, G J M; Gianola, D; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-02-01

    It is becoming common to complement genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with gene-set enrichment analysis to deepen the understanding of the biological pathways affecting quantitative traits. Our objective was to conduct a gene ontology and pathway-based analysis to identify possible biological mechanisms involved in the regulation of bovine milk technological traits: coagulation properties, curd firmness modeling, individual cheese yield (CY), and milk nutrient recovery into the curd (REC) or whey loss traits. Results from 2 previous GWAS studies using 1,011 cows genotyped for 50k single nucleotide polymorphisms were used. Overall, the phenotypes analyzed consisted of 3 traditional milk coagulation property measures [RCT: rennet coagulation time defined as the time (min) from addition of enzyme to the beginning of coagulation; k20: the interval (min) from RCT to the time at which a curd firmness of 20 mm is attained; a30: a measure of the extent of curd firmness (mm) 30 min after coagulant addition], 6 curd firmness modeling traits [RCTeq: RCT estimated through the CF equation (min); CFP: potential asymptotic curd firmness (mm); kCF: curd-firming rate constant (% × min(-1)); kSR: syneresis rate constant (% × min(-1)); CFmax: maximum curd firmness (mm); and tmax: time to CFmax (min)], 3 individual CY-related traits expressing the weight of fresh curd (%CYCURD), curd solids (%CYSOLIDS), and curd moisture (%CYWATER) as a percentage of weight of milk processed and 4 milk nutrient and energy recoveries in the curd (RECFAT, RECPROTEIN, RECSOLIDS, and RECENERGY calculated as the % ratio between the nutrient in curd and the corresponding nutrient in processed milk), milk pH, and protein percentage. Each trait was analyzed separately. In total, 13,269 annotated genes were used in the analysis. The Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway databases were queried for enrichment analyses. Overall, 21 Gene Ontology and 17 Kyoto Encyclopedia of

  9. Effects of feeding fish meal and n-3 fatty acids on milk yield and metabolic responses in early lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Moussavi, A R Heravi; Gilbert, R O; Overton, T R; Bauman, D E; Butler, W R

    2007-01-01

    The study was designed to test the effects of feeding fish meal (FM) and specific n-3 fatty acids on milk yield and composition, dry matter intake, plasma concentrations of metabolic hormones and metabolites, and liver triglyceride accumulation in early lactating cows. From 5 to 50 d in milk (DIM), cows were fed diets that were isonitrogenous, isoenergetic, and isolipidic containing none (control), 1.25, 2.5, or 5% menhaden FM or 2.3% Ca salts of fish oil fatty acids (CaFOFA). Milk yield (48.2, 49.8, 48.6, 53.5, and 52.2 +/- 1.0 kg/d, respectively) and dry matter intake (22.7, 22.8, 23.0, 23.8, and 24.7 +/- 0.5 kg/d, respectively) differed among diets. Average daily plasma glucose concentration (53.4, 55.3, 51.1, 57.6, and 57.3 +/- 1.3 mg/dL, respectively) was also affected by diet, and plasma insulin concentration was increased by 5% FM and 2.3% Ca-FOFA. At 25 and 50 DIM, blood was collected before feeding and hourly for 11 h after feeding. Plasma glucose concentrations in cows during the day were similar among diets at 25 DIM, but differed at 50 DIM (54.6, 54.4, 52.4, 60.5, and 58.3 +/- 1.4 mg/dL for 0, 1.25, 2.5, and 5% FM or 2.3% CaFOFA, respectively). Plasma insulin was increased in cows fed 5% FM and 2.3% CaFOFA at 25 DIM and was similar among diets at 50 DIM. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on milk composition, energy balance, or on daily plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and urea. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase and hepatic triglyceride concentration in cows did not differ among diets at 21 DIM. Results from this experiment demonstrate that dietary supplementation with FM or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in early lactating dairy cows significantly increased milk yield and DMI with no change in milk composition.

  10. Impact of cow strain and concentrate supplementation on grazing behaviour, milk yield and metabolic state of dairy cows in an organic pasture-based feeding system.

    PubMed

    Heublein, C; Dohme-Meier, F; Südekum, K-H; Bruckmaier, R M; Thanner, S; Schori, F

    2016-12-20

    As ruminants are able to digest fibre efficiently and assuming that competition for feed v. food use would intensify in the future, cereals and other field crops should primarily be destined to cover the dietary needs of humans and monogastric animals such as poultry and pigs. Farming systems with a reduced or absent concentrate supplementation, as postulated by organic agriculture associations, require adapted dairy cows. The aim of this experiment was to examine the impact of concentrate supplementation on milk production, grazing and rumination behaviour, feed intake, physical activity and blood traits with two Holstein-Friesian cow strains and to conclude the consequences for sustainable and organic farming. The experiment was a cross-over study and took place on an organic farm in Switzerland. In all, 12 Swiss Holstein-Friesian (HCH) cows and 12 New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (HNZ) cows, which were paired according to lactation number, days in milk and age for primiparous cows, were used. All cows grazed full time and were supplemented either with 6 kg/day of a commercial, organic cereal-grain mix or received no supplement. After an adaptation period of 21 days, a measurement period of 7 days followed, where milk yield and composition, pasture dry matter intake estimated with the n-alkane double-indicator technique, physical activity based on pedometer measurements, grazing behaviour recorded by automatic jaw movement recorder and blood samples were investigated. Non-supplemented cows had a lower milk yield and supplemented HCH cows produced more milk than supplemented HNZ cows. Grazing time and physical activity were greater for non-supplemented cows. Supplementation had no effect on rumination behaviour, but HNZ cows spent longer ruminating compared with HCH cows. Pasture dry matter intake decreased with the concentrate supplementation. Results of blood analysis did not indicate a strong negative energy balance for either non-supplemented or supplemented cows

  11. Short communication: Supplementing lysine and methionine in a lactation diet containing a high concentration of wet corn gluten feed did not alter milk protein yield.

    PubMed

    Mullins, C R; Weber, D; Block, E; Smith, J F; Brouk, M J; Bradford, B J

    2013-08-01

    Primiparous (n=33) and multiparous (n=63) lactating Holstein cows (186±51 d in milk) were used to evaluate the effects of supplementing metabolizable amino acids using lysine in a matrix of Ca salts of fatty acids (Megamine-L, Arm & Hammer Animal Nutrition, Princeton, NJ) and the isopropyl ester of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (MetaSmart, Adisseo Inc., Antony, France) in diets containing >26% wet corn gluten feed (dry matter basis). Cows were blocked by production level, parity, and pregnancy status, then randomly assigned to 1 of 8 pens and allowed a 7-d adaption period before receiving dietary treatments for 28 d. Pens were assigned randomly to either of 2 diets formulated to differ by metabolizable amino acid supply. Dry matter intake and production were monitored daily and milk components analyzed 3d/wk. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures. The original design of the study consisted of a control diet predicted to be deficient in lysine and methionine; however, after ingredient nutrients were analyzed and modeled with animal requirements at dry matter intake [26.6±0.35 kg/d (mean ± SEM)] and milk production levels achieved during the study (40.1±0.46 kg/d), only marginal deficiencies were predicted for the control (-8.1g/d for lysine; -1g/d for methionine) according to the National Research Council method, whereas the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System 5.0 and 6.1 models indicated positive balances for these amino acids (25.9 and 21.8 g/d for lysine, 14.7 and 18.9 g/d for methionine, respectively). Supplementing 30 g/d of metabolizable lysine in a Ca soap matrix and 2.4 g/d of metabolizable methionine as 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid led to positive predicted lysine and methionine balances by all 3 models, and predicted metabolizable lysine-to-methionine ratios ranging from 2.9 to 3.1. No treatment effects were observed for dry matter intake, milk yield, milk component concentrations or yields, or energy

  12. Effects of selective and complete dry therapy on prevalence of intramammary infection and on milk yield in the subsequent lactation in dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, Carlos; Tardáguila, J Alfonso; De La Fuente, L Fernando; San Primitivo, Fermín

    2004-02-01

    The study was carried out in a commercial flock on 286 Churra breed ewes (566 half-udders) assigned to three lots depending on the type of antibiotic dry therapy received in the lactation previous to the one studied. One-hundred-and-four ewes were given complete therapy in all udders, 103 received selective therapy of infected half-udders, and 79 received no therapy at all. Half-udders of all animals were sampled for bacteriological study at < or = 72 h (lambing), 60 d, 120 d, and 155 d (drying-off) post partum. Dry therapy, parity number, lactation stage and therapy x parity interaction contributed significantly to variation in intramammary infection prevalence. Antibiotic dry therapy had the most significant effect. Prevalence during the whole of the subsequent lactation was significantly lower in lots receiving complete (18.8%) and selective (15.6%) dry therapy than in the untreated control lot (48.3%). Coagulase-negative staphylococci and streptococci (in particular Streptococcus agalactiae) were the organisms most significantly affected by dry therapy. In untreated ewes, prevalence increased noticeably from the 2nd to the 6th and subsequent lactations, but no significant changes were observed in the treated lots. Milk yield in the dry treated lots was 6.9% higher that in the untreated one. It was concluded that complete and selective treatments of ewes at drying-off were efficient and comparable methods of reducing the intramammary infection prevalence, improving bacteriological quality of milk, and increasing milk yield.

  13. Effect of pour-on alphacypermethrin on feed intake, body condition score, milk yield, pregnancy rates, and calving-to-conception interval in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Bifulco, G; Veneziano, V; Cimmino, R; Esposito, L; Auletta, L; Varricchio, E; Balestrieri, A; Claps, S; Campanile, G; Neglia, G

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy of alphacypermethrin (ACYP) on pediculosis due to Haematopinus tuberculatus and to evaluate the influence of the treatment on productive and reproductive performance in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) reared in an intensive system. The trial was performed on 56 pluriparous buffaloes at 86.8 ± 8.1 d in milk. The animals underwent individual louse count and were divided into 2 homogenous groups according to louse count, age, number of lactations, days in milk, live BW, BCS, pregnancy status, and milk yield. Group A (n = 28) was treated by a pour-on formulation of ACYP, and Group S (n = 28) was treated by pour-on saline solution. Individual louse counts were performed weekly on 10 buffaloes in each group. Feed intake was recorded daily and the total mixed ration, individual ingredients, and orts were analyzed to calculate DM ingestion. Individual milk yield was recorded daily and milk samples were analyzed at the beginning of the trial, after 4 wk, and at the end of the trial to assess milk composition. Individual BCS was also evaluated simultaneously. Finally, the animals underwent synchronization of ovulation starting 4 wk after treatment and the pregnancy rate and the calving-conception interval were evaluated. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test and ANOVA for repeated measures. The infestation was constant in Group S, whereas no lice were present in Group A throughout the study. Daily DMI was similar in the 2 groups (16.7 ± 0.4 vs. 16.3 ± 0.3 kg/d in Group A vs. Group S, respectively), although buffaloes in Group A showed higher (P < 0.05) BCS score at the end of the trial (7.39 ± 0.1 vs. 7.14 ± 0.1 in Group A vs. Group S, respectively). The average milk yield/buffalo was higher (P < 0.05) in Group A compared to Group S (10.58 ± 0.1 vs. 10.39 ± 0.1 kg in Group A vs. Group S, respectively) and this was mainly due to the higher milk production recorded in buffaloes at less than 75 d in milk (11.81 ± 0

  14. Genetic and environmental relationships of different measures of individual cheese yield and curd nutrients recovery with coagulation properties of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationships between various cheesemaking-related traits, namely the well-known traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP), the new curd firming and syneresis traits, the cheese yield, and the curd nutrient recoveries or whey losses (all measured at the individual level). Data were obtained from 1,167 Brown Swiss cows reared in 85 herds. A 2-L milk sample was collected once from each animal and assessed for 10 phenotypes related to changes in curd firmness (CF) over time, plus 7 cheesemaking traits. The CF-related traits included 4 traditional single-point lactodynamographic properties [rennet coagulation time (RCT, min); time to a CF of 20mm, min; and the CF 30 and 45 min after rennet addition (a30 and a45, respectively)], 4 parameters used to model the 360 CF data recorded over time for each milk sample [the potential asymptotic CF at infinite time (CFP, mm); the CF instant rate constant, % × min(-1); the syneresis instant rate constant, % × min(-1); and the RCT obtained from modeling individual samples], and 2 traits calculated from individual equations [the maximum CF(CFmax, mm); and the time at CFmax, min]. The cheesemaking traits included 3 cheese yield traits (weights of the fresh curd, curd solids and curd moisture as percent of the weights of the processed milk) and 4 milk nutrient recoveries in the curd (calculated as the percent ratios between a given nutrient in the curd versus that in the processed milk). Bayesian methodology-based multivariate analyses were used to estimate the phenotypic, additive genetic, herd/date, and residual relationships between the aforementioned traits, whereas statistical inferences were based on the marginal posterior distributions of the parameters of concern. The a45, CFP, and CFmax traits were genetically associated with all of the percent cheese yield traits (the additive genetic correlations varied from 0.752 to 0.855 for a45; 0.496 to 0.583 for CFP; and 0.750 to 0

  15. Hot topic: Bovine milk samples yielding negative or nonspecific results in bacterial culturing--the possible role of PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism in mastitis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Schwaiger, K; Wimmer, M; Huber-Schlenstedt, R; Fehlings, K; Hölzel, C S; Bauer, J

    2012-01-01

    A large proportion of mastitis milk samples yield negative or nonspecific results (i.e., no mastitis pathogen can be identified) in bacterial culturing. Therefore, the culture-independent PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism method was applied to the investigation of bovine mastitis milk samples. In addition to the known mastitis pathogens, the method was suitable for the detection of fastidious bacteria such as Mycoplasma spp., which are often missed by conventional culturing methods. The detection of Helcococcus ovis in 4 samples might indicate an involvement of this species in pathogenesis of bovine mastitis. In conclusion, PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism is a promising tool for gaining new insights into the bacteriological etiology of mastitis.

  16. Impact of fat source and dietary fibers on feed intake, plasma metabolites, litter gain and the yield and composition of milk in sows.

    PubMed

    Krogh, U; Bruun, T S; Poulsen, J; Theil, P K

    2016-12-01

    Sow lactation diets often include fat sources without considering the impact on digestion, metabolism and performance. Fiber ingredients may reduce feed intake and are often completely excluded from lactation diets, although locally available ingredients may be cost-efficient alternatives to partly replace cereals in lactation diets. Thus, a standard lactation diet low in dietary fiber, and two high-fiber diets based on sugar beet pulp (SBP) or alfalfa meal (ALF) were formulated. The SBP diet was high in soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), whereas ALF being high in insoluble NSP. Each diet was divided in three portions and combined with 3% soybean oil (SOYO), palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), or glycerol trioctanoate (C8TG) as the dietary fat source. Equal amounts of metabolizable energy were fed to 36 second parity sows from day 105 of gestation and throughout lactation to study the impact on feed intake, plasma metabolites, milk production and litter performance. Backfat thickness and BW of sows were recorded on days 3, 17 and 28 of lactation; blood was sampled on days 3 and 17; milk samples were obtained on days 3, 10, 17 and 24 of lactation; and piglets were weighed on days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of lactation. Litter gain and milk yield during late lactation were greater in sows fed C8TG or SOYO than in sows fed PFAD (P=0.05), whereas loss of BW (P=0.60) and backfat (P=0.70) was unaffected by fat source. Milk protein on days 3 and 10 of lactation were lower in C8TG and SOYO sows, than in PFAD sows (P<0.05). The lowest concentration of plasma lactate on day 3 (P<0.05) and plasma acetate on day 17 (P<0.05) was observed in C8TG sows. Milk yield was unaffected by fiber treatment (P=0.43), whereas milk protein concentration was lowest in ALF sows (P<0.05). Feed intake tended to be lower (P=0.09), and litter gain during the 3rd week of lactation was decreased (P<0.05) in SBP sows. In conclusion, performance was enhanced in SOYO and C8TG compared with PFAD sows

  17. Nutrient utilization, ruminal fermentation, microbial abundances, and milk yield and composition in dairy goats fed diets including tomato and cucumber waste fruits.

    PubMed

    Romero-Huelva, M; Ramos-Morales, E; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2012-10-01

    The effects of replacing 35% of cereals-based concentrate with feed blocks (FB) containing waste fruits of tomato, cucumber, or barley grain in diets for lactating goats on nutrient utilization, ruminal fermentation, microbial N flow to the duodenum, milk yield and quality, methane emissions, and abundances of total bacteria and methanogens were studied. Eight Murciano-Granadina goats (39.4 ± 5.39 kg of body weight, mean ± SD) in the middle of the third lactation were used and 4 diets were studied in a replicated 4×4 Latin square experimental design. Diets consisted of alfalfa hay (A) plus concentrate (C) in a 1:1 ratio (diet AC) or diets in which 35% of the concentrate was replaced with FB including wastes of tomato fruit, cucumber, or barley. In each period, 2 goats were randomly assigned to 1 of the dietary treatments. Intakes of FB including tomato, cucumber, and barley were 208 ± 65, 222 ± 52, and 209 ± 83 g of dry matter per animal and day, respectively. The replacement of 35% of concentrate with FB did not compromise nutrient apparent digestibility, total purine derivative urinary excretion, milk yield and composition, and total bacteria and methanogen abundances. Digestible energy and that in methane and urine were higher for AC than for FB-containing diets, whereas the metabolizable energy value was not affected by diet. The inclusion of tomato and cucumber fruits in FB decreased N in urine and CH(4) emissions compared with AC, which is environmentally relevant. However, tomato-based FB decreased microbial N flow in the rumen, whereas goats fed cucumber-based FB had the highest values for this measurement. Moreover, FB containing barley or tomato and cucumber led to lower rumen volatile fatty acid and NH(3)-N concentrations, respectively. Milk from goats fed diets including tomato and cucumber-based FB had higher linoleic, linolenic, and total polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations than that from goats fed AC. Overall, our study suggests that

  18. Feeding rumen-protected methionine pre- and post-partum increases milk protein content and yield in early lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives were to evaluate the effects of feeding rumen-protected methionine (MET) from 23 d (±12) before calving until 98 days in milk (DIM) on lactation performance, dry matter intake (DMI), body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) change of dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 223) ...

  19. Comprehensive profiles of human milk oligosaccharides yield highly sensitive and specific markers for determining secretor status in lactating mothers.

    PubMed

    Totten, Sarah M; Zivkovic, Angela M; Wu, Shuai; Ngyuen, UyenThao; Freeman, Samara L; Ruhaak, L Renee; Darboe, Momodou K; German, J Bruce; Prentice, Andrew M; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2012-12-07

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), as an abundant and bioactive component of breast milk, work in many ways to promote the health of breast fed infants. The expression of HMOs has been shown to vary in accordance with Lewis blood type and secretor status, as women of different blood types differ in the expression of α1,2 fucosyltransferase (FUT2) and α1,3/4 fucosyltransferase (FUT3). In this study, HMOs were extracted from the milk of 60 women from The Gambia, Africa with various Lewis and secretor blood types. The HMOs were profiled using high resolution HPLC-Chip/TOF mass spectrometry. Notably, the amounts of fucosylation varied significantly between Le(a+b-) nonsecretors, Le(a-b+) and Le(a-b-) secretors, and Le(a-b-) nonsecretors. With higher frequency of expression of the recessive Lewis negative and nonsecretor phenotypes in West African populations, the HMO profiles of several milks from women of these phenotypes were examined, demonstrating decreased amounts of total oligosaccharide abundance and lower relative amounts of fucosylation. Also in this study, four specific fucosylated structures (2'FL, LNFP I, LDFT, and LNDFH I) were determined to be specific and sensitive glycan markers for rapidly determining secretor status without the need for serological testing.

  20. Milk processing quality of suckled/milked goats: effects of milk accumulation interval and milking regime.

    PubMed

    Högberg, M; Dahlborn, K; Hydbring-Sandberg, E; Hartmann, E; Andrén, A

    2016-05-01

    Milk with a high concentration of fat and casein is required for cheese production, and these components have a major impact for both quality and yield of the curd. Recent observations have shown that suckling can elevate milk fat concentration in goats and our aim was therefore to check the hypothesis that animal welfare and cheese-processing properties of goat milk could be optimised by appropriate management of suckled/milked goats. Twelve Swedish dairy goats were kept together with one kid each in 4 different mixed management-systems (milking combined with partial suckling) in a cross-over design. Two milk accumulation intervals were tested; Short = dams and kids were together for 16 h (T16) and Long = ; dams and kids were together for 8 h (T8 h). In addition, two milking regimes were used; Suckled Before Milking = S and Milked Before Suckling = M. Milk accumulation interval referred to how long dams and kids were separated. The milk yield available for processing (milk offtake), was weighed and analysed from each milking occasion and the suckled milk yield was estimated by a weigh-suckle-weigh method (WSW) in combination with observing the suckling behaviour during the free suckling periods. Milking managements, such as 'suckling before milking (S)', increased milk fat concentration compared to milking before suckling (M) and 'Short accumulation treatments (T16)' gave higher milk fat, casein concentration and individual curd yield (%) compared to the 'Long accumulation treatment (T8)'. The total individual curd yield (g) was the same despite treatment, but the animal welfare was most likely higher in T16 where dams and kids spent more time together.

  1. Lactation persistency as a component trait of the selection index and increase in reliability by using single nucleotide polymorphism in net merit defined as the first five lactation milk yields and herd life.

    PubMed

    Togashi, K; Hagiya, K; Osawa, T; Nakanishi, T; Yamazaki, T; Nagamine, Y; Lin, C Y; Matsumoto, S; Aihara, M; Hayasaka, K

    2012-08-01

    We first sought to clarify the effects of discounted rate, survival rate, and lactation persistency as a component trait of the selection index on net merit, defined as the first five lactation milks and herd life (HL) weighted by 1 and 0.389 (currently used in Japan), respectively, in units of genetic standard deviation. Survival rate increased the relative economic importance of later lactation traits and the first five lactation milk yields during the first 120 months from the start of the breeding scheme. In contrast, reliabilities of the estimated breeding value (EBV) in later lactation traits are lower than those of earlier lactation traits. We then sought to clarify the effects of applying single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on net merit to improve the reliability of EBV of later lactation traits to maximize their increased economic importance due to increase in survival rate. Net merit, selection accuracy, and HL increased by adding lactation persistency to the selection index whose component traits were only milk yields. Lactation persistency of the second and (especially) third parities contributed to increasing HL while maintaining the first five lactation milk yields compared with the selection index whose only component traits were milk yields. A selection index comprising the first three lactation milk yields and persistency accounted for 99.4% of net merit derived from a selection index whose components were identical to those for net merit. We consider that the selection index comprising the first three lactation milk yields and persistency is a practical method for increasing lifetime milk yield in the absence of data regarding HL. Applying SNP to the second- and third-lactation traits and HL increased net merit and HL by maximizing the increased economic importance of later lactation traits, reducing the effect of first-lactation milk yield on HL (genetic correlation (rG) = -0.006), and by augmenting the effects of the second- and third

  2. Effects of partial replacement of concentrate with feed blocks on nutrient utilization, microbial N flow, and milk yield and composition in goats.

    PubMed

    Molina-Alcaide, E; Morales-García, E Y; Martín-García, A I; Ben Salem, H; Nefzaoui, A; Sanz-Sampelayo, M R

    2010-05-01

    Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of partial replacement of concentrate with 2 types of feed blocks (FB) on rumen protozoa numbers, nutrient utilization, microbial N flow to the duodenum, and milk yield and composition in goats. The concentrate included oat, corn grain, barley, soybean meal, salt, and vitamin-mineral mixture. The FB (types I and II) were composed of crude 2-stage olive cake (120 or 100g/kg), fava beans (0 or 400g/kg), barley (320 or 200g/kg), beet molasses (220 or 100g/kg), sunflower meal (180 or 0g/kg), quicklime (70 or 90g/kg), salt (60g/kg), urea (0 or 20g/kg), and vitamin-mineral mixture (30g/kg). In experiment 1, 6 adult, dry, nonpregnant, rumen-fistulated Granadina goats (46.9+/-2.15kg of BW) were used and 3 trials were carried out. In each trial, 2 goats were randomly assigned to receive 600g of alfalfa hay and 400g of concentrate (diet AC), 600g of alfalfa hay, 200g of concentrate, and FB I (diet ACBI), or 600g of alfalfa hay, 200g of concentrate, and FB II (diet ACBII) with 6 replications per diet. The FB were supplied ad libitum. The ratio of purine bases to N was higher in solid- and liquid-associated bacteria for FB goats than for AC goats. In experiment 2, 18 Granadina goats (39.6+/-1.89kg of BW) in the middle of the third lactation were used, and 3 trials were carried out by following a 3 x 3 Latin square experimental design. In every trial, 6 animals randomly received 1.0kg of alfalfa hay supplemented with 1.0kg of concentrate (diet AC) or 0.5kg of concentrate and FB I and II (diets ACBI and ACBII) with 18 replications per diet. The FB were supplied ad libitum. The intakes of organic matter and fat were higher with the AC diet than with the FB diets. The intake of acid detergent fiber was higher for FB-containing diets than for the AC diet. The neutral detergent fiber digestibility of FB diets was higher than that of the AC diet. Energy intake was higher for diets AC and ACBII than for ACBI. Microbial N flow was

  3. A case-control study to estimate the effects of acute clinical infection with the Schmallenberg virus on milk yield, fertility and veterinary costs in Swiss dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, M; Lechner, I; Aebi, M; Vögtlin, A; Posthaus, H; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Meylan, M

    2016-04-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was first detected in Switzerland in July 2012 and many Swiss dairy farmers reported acute clinical signs in dairy cattle during the spread of the virus until December 2012. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of an acute infection with SBV on milk yield, fertility and veterinary costs in dairy farms with clinical signs of SBV infection (case farms), and to compare those farms to a matched control group of dairy farms in which cattle did not show clinical signs of SBV infection. Herd size was significantly (p<0.001) larger in case farms (33 cows, n=77) than in control farms (25 cows, n=84). Within case herds, 14.8% (median) of the cows showed acute clinical signs. Managers from case farms indicated to have observed a higher abortion rate during the year with SBV (6.5%) than in the previous year (3.7%). Analysis of fertility parameters based on veterinary bills and data from the breeding associations showed no significant differences between case and control farms. The general veterinary costs per cow from July to December 2012 were significantly higher (p=0.02) in case (CHF 19.80; EUR 16.50) than in control farms (CHF 15.90; EUR 13.25). No differences in milk yield were found between groups, but there was a significant decrease in milk production in case farms in the second half year in 2012 compared to the same period in 2011 (p<0.001) and 2013 (p=0.009). The average daily milk yield per cow (both groups together) was +0.73kg higher (p=0.03) in the second half year 2011 and +0.52kg (p=0.12) in the second half year 2013 compared to the same half year 2012. Fifty-seven percent of the cows with acute clinical signs (n=461) were treated by a veterinarian. The average calculated loss after SBV infection for a standardized farm was CHF 1606 (EUR 1338), which can be considered as low at the national level, but the losses were subject to great fluctuations between farms, so that individual farms could have very

  4. Genome-wide association analysis to identify genotype × environment interaction for milk protein yield and level of somatic cell score as environmental descriptors in German Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Streit, M; Reinhardt, F; Thaller, G; Bennewitz, J

    2013-01-01

    Genotype by environment interaction (G × E) has been widely reported in dairy cattle. If the environment can be measured on a continuous scale, reaction norms can be applied to study G × E. The average herd milk production level has frequently been used as an environmental descriptor because it is influenced by the level of feeding or the feeding regimen. Another important environmental factor is the level of udder health and hygiene, for which the average herd somatic cell count might be a descriptor. In the present study, we conducted a genome-wide association analysis to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that affect intercept and slope of milk protein yield reaction norms when using the average herd test-day solution for somatic cell score as an environmental descriptor. Sire estimates for intercept and slope of the reaction norms were calculated from around 12 million daughter records, using linear reaction norm models. Sires were genotyped for ~54,000 SNP. The sire estimates were used as observations in the association analysis, using 1,797 sires. Significant SNP were confirmed in an independent validation set consisting of 500 sires. A known major gene affecting protein yield was included as a covariable in the statistical model. Sixty (21) SNP were confirmed for intercept with P ≤ 0.01 (P ≤ 0.001) in the validation set, and 28 and 11 SNP, respectively, were confirmed for slope. Most but not all SNP affecting slope also affected intercept. Comparison with an earlier study revealed that SNP affecting slope were, in general, also significant for slope when the environment was modeled by the average herd milk production level, although the two environmental descriptors were poorly correlated.

  5. Effects of long-term feeding of a diet supplemented with clinoptilolite to dairy cows on the incidence of ketosis, milk yield and liver function.

    PubMed

    Katsoulos, P D; Panousis, N; Roubies, N; Christaki, E; Arsenos, G; Karatzias, H

    2006-09-23

    Fifty-two clinically healthy Holstein cows were randomly assigned to one of three groups according to their age and parity. The first group (A) consisted of 17 cows that were fed a concentrate ration supplemented with 1.25 per cent clinoptilolite, the second group (B) consisted of 17 cows fed a ration supplemented with 2.5 per cent clinoptilolite, and the third group (C) consisted of 18 cows, which were fed the basal ration containing no clinoptilolite. The rations were fed from four weeks before the cows' expected parturition dates until the beginning of the next dry period. Blood samples were collected from each animal at the start of the experiment, on the day of calving and then monthly, and analysed for serum glucose, ketone bodies, liver enzymes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total proteins. The milk yield of each cow was recorded monthly. The cows in group B had significantly fewer cases of clinical ketosis during the first month after calving and a higher total milk yield. Feeding the cows with clinoptilolite for a long period had no apparent adverse effects on their liver function, and did not significantly affect the concentrations of glucose, ketone bodies, BUN and total proteins in their serum.

  6. Analysis of selection effect based on kappa casein gene on milk yield production of Iranian Sarabi cattle breed using stochastic simulation.

    PubMed

    Zakizadeh, S; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Reissmann, M; Rahimi, G; Bakhshi, A Jahan

    2007-03-15

    PCR-RFLP was used to genotype 87 Sarabi native cattle of north-western Iran for A and B alleles of kappa casein gene. A 350 bp length of exon 4 and intron 4 was amplified and digested with HinfI endonuclease. Samples were loaded on agarose gel (2%) and genotyped under UV light. Allele frequency of desirable B allele was 0.57. Stochastic simulation was used to generate milk yield trait for a population of 4950 females and 50 males for 15 overlapping generations. Population parameters included 1100 and 436 kg for average milk yield and phenotypic deviation, respectively; with heritability of 0.27. Additive and dominance effects of Kappa Casein gene were considered as 187.63 and 50.37 kg, respectively. Two methods were considered for selection of males based on the first phenotypic record of their dams (PAS) or molecular information of each male, individually (GAS). Females were always selected on their first phenotypic record. Although, there was a significant difference between polygenic and major gene genetic response between two methods after the 5th generations, but there was no significant difference for the sum of polygenic and major gene response. After 15 generations of selection there was no significant difference between inbreeding coefficient under two methods. Selection plan for males based on one single major gene had no advantage over the conventional selection based on dam record in native Sarabi breed.

  7. Relationship of goat milk flow emission variables with milking routine, milking parameters, milking machine characteristics and goat physiology.

    PubMed

    Romero, G; Panzalis, R; Ruegg, P

    2017-04-10

    The aim of this paper was to study the relationship between milk flow emission variables recorded during milking of dairy goats with variables related to milking routine, goat physiology, milking parameters and milking machine characteristics, to determine the variables affecting milking performance and help the goat industry pinpoint farm and milking practices that improve milking performance. In total, 19 farms were visited once during the evening milking. Milking parameters (vacuum level (VL), pulsation ratio and pulsation rate, vacuum drop), milk emission flow variables (milking time, milk yield, maximum milk flow (MMF), average milk flow (AVMF), time until 500 g/min milk flow is established (TS500)), doe characteristics of 8 to 10 goats/farm (breed, days in milk and parity), milking practices (overmilking, overstripping, pre-lag time) and milking machine characteristics (line height, presence of claw) were recorded on every farm. The relationships between recorded variables and farm were analysed by a one-way ANOVA analysis. The relationships of milk yield, MMF, milking time and TS500 with goat physiology, milking routine, milking parameters and milking machine design were analysed using a linear mixed model, considering the farm as the random effect. Farm was significant (P<0.05) in all the studied variables. Milk emission flow variables were similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Milking parameters were adequate in most of the farms, being similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Few milking parameters and milking machine characteristics affected the tested variables: average vacuum level only showed tendency on MMF, and milk pipeline height on TS500. Milk yield (MY) was mainly affected by parity, as the interaction of days in milk with parity was also significant. Milking time was mainly affected by milk yield and breed. Also significant were parity, the interaction of days in milk with parity and overstripping, whereas overmilking

  8. The Prediction of the Expected Current Selection Coefficient of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Associated with Holstein Milk Yield, Fat and Protein Contents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Sup; Shin, Donghyun; Lee, Wonseok; Taye, Mengistie; Cho, Kwanghyun; Park, Kyoung-Do; Kim, Heebal

    2016-01-01

    Milk-related traits (milk yield, fat and protein) have been crucial to selection of Holstein. It is essential to find the current selection trends of Holstein. Despite this, uncovering the current trends of selection have been ignored in previous studies. We suggest a new formula to detect the current selection trends based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). This suggestion is based on the best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) and the Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection both of which are trait-dependent. Fisher's theorem links the additive genetic variance to the selection coefficient. For Holstein milk production traits, we estimated the additive genetic variance using SNP effect from BLUP and selection coefficients based on genetic variance to search highly selective SNPs. Through these processes, we identified significantly selective SNPs. The number of genes containing highly selective SNPs with p-value <0.01 (nearly top 1% SNPs) in all traits and p-value <0.001 (nearly top 0.1%) in any traits was 14. They are phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B), serine/threonine kinase 40 (STK40), collagen, type XI, alpha 1 (COL11A1), ephrin-A1 (EFNA1), netrin 4 (NTN4), neuron specific gene family member 1 (NSG1), estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), neurexin 3 (NRXN3), spectrin, beta, non-erythrocytic 1 (SPTBN1), ADP-ribosylation factor interacting protein 1 (ARFIP1), mutL homolog 1 (MLH1), transmembrane channel-like 7 (TMC7), carboxypeptidase X, member 2 (CPXM2) and ADAM metallopeptidase domain 12 (ADAM12). These genes may be important for future artificial selection trends. Also, we found that the SNP effect predicted from BLUP was the key factor to determine the expected current selection coefficient of SNP. Under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of SNP markers in current generation, the selection coefficient is equivalent to 2*SNP effect.

  9. Milk yield and lactation stage are associated with positive results to ELISA for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy cows from Northern Antioquia, Colombia: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Correa-Valencia, Nathalia María; Ramírez, Nicolás Fernando; Olivera, Martha; Fernández-Silva, Jorge Arturo

    2016-08-01

    Paratuberculosis is a slow-developing infectious disease characterized by chronic granulomatous enterocolitis. This disease has a variable incubation period from 6 months to over 15 years and is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Some studies have been conducted in cattle during the last decades in Colombia. However, those studies were designed using relatively small populations and were not aimed to establish prevalence. This study aimed to determine the MAP seroprevalence in selected dairy herds and to explore risk factors associated with the serology results. Serum samples and related data were collected from 696 randomly selected bovines in 28 dairy herds located in 12 different districts in one of the main dairy municipalities in Colombia (San Pedro de los Milagros). The samples were analyzed using a commercial ELISA kit. The information on risk factors was analyzed using a logistic regression. The apparent seroprevalence was 3.6 % (1/28) at the herd level and 2 % (14/696) at the animal level. The number of days in milk production between 100 and 200 days, and over 200 days as well as the daily milk production between 20 and 40 L/cow, and over 40 L/cow were associated with MAP seropositivity with odds ratios of 4.42, 3.45, 2.53, and 20.38, respectively. This study demonstrates the MAP seroprevalence in dairy herds from Antioquia, Colombia and the possible relationship between MAP seropositivity, milk yield, and lactation stage.

  10. An examination of two concentrate allocation strategies which are based on the early lactation milk yield of autumn calving Holstein Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, D; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare the effects of two concentrate feeding strategies offered with a grass silage and maize silage diet on the dry matter (DM) intake, milk production (MP) and estimated energy balance of autumn calved dairy cows. Over a 2-year period, 180 autumn calving Holstein Friesian cows were examined. Within year, cows were blocked into three MP sub-groups (n=9) (high (HMP), medium (MMP) and low (LMP)) based on the average MP data from weeks 3 and 4 of lactation. Within a block cows were randomly assigned to one of two treatments (n=54), flat rate (FR) concentrate feeding or feed to yield (FY) based on MP sub-group. Cows on the FR treatment were offered a fixed rate of concentrate (5.5 kg DM/cow per day) irrespective of MP sub-group. In the FY treatment HMP, MMP and LMP cows were allocated 7.3, 5.5 and 3.7 kg DM of concentrate, respectively. The mean concentrate offered to the FR and FY treatments was the same. On the FR treatment there was no significant difference in total dry matter intake (TDMI, 17.3 kg) between MP sub-groups. In the FY treatment, however, the TDMI of HMP-FY was 2.2 kg greater than MMP-FY, and 4.5 kg greater than LMP-FY (15.2 kg DM). The milk yield of LMP-FR was 3.5 kg less than the mean of the HMP-FR and MMP-FR treatments (24.5 kg). The milk yield of the HMP-FY treatment was 3.6 and 7.9 kg greater than the MMP-FY and LMP-FY treatments, respectively. The difference in MP between the HMP sub-groups was 2.6 kg, which translates to a response of 1.4 kg of milk per additional 1 kg of concentrate offered. There was no significant difference in MP between the two LMP sub-groups; however, MP increased 0.8 kg per additional 1 kg of concentrate offered between cows on the LMP-FR and LMP-FY treatments. The estimated energy balance was positive for cows on the LMP-FR treatment, but negative for cows on the other treatments. The experiment highlights the variation within a herd in MP response to concentrate, as cows with a

  11. Substitution rate and milk yield response to corn silage supplementation of late-lactation dairy cows grazing low-mass pastures at 2 daily allowances in autumn.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Prieto, L A; Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R

    2011-07-01

    rate was 6g of DM/min lower in supplemented than in unsupplemented treatments (17 vs. 23 g of DM/min). The high milk yield response to supplementation may be related to a cumulative effect of the low-mass pasture (low PI) and the low quality of the pasture, which strongly limited energy supply in unsupplemented cows.

  12. Abrupt changes in forage dry matter of one to three days affect intake and milk yield in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine the effects of one-, two-, and three-day changes in forage dry matter (DM) on lactating cow performance and yield regardless of stage of lactation or parity. Data was compiled from two independent studies to predict overall cow performance. Study A (fall 2009) early la...

  13. Climatic conditions, twining and frequency of milking as factors affecting the risk of fetal losses in high-yielding Holstein cows in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Miguel; López, Ricardo; de Santiago, Ángeles; Veliz, Francisco G; Macías-Cruz, Ulises; Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; García, José Eduardo

    An epidemiological study of risk factors for fetal losses was carried out on 62,403 high-yielding Holstein cows in 29 large highly technified dairy herds in northern Mexico (25° N; 23.5 °C mean annual temperature). Multivariate multiple-group response model indicated that fetal losses between 43 and 260 days of pregnancy were 23 %. Heat-stressed cows at conception (temperature-humidity index, THI >82) were 14 times more likely (P < 0.01) to present fetal losses than not heat-stressed cows (27 vs. 18 %). Heat-stressed cows at 60 days of pregnancy (THI >82) were 4.5 times more likely (P < 0.01) to present fetal losses than cows suffering heat stress in early gestation (29.1 vs. 17.7 %). The proportion of cows experiencing fetal loss was lower for multiparous than primiparous cows (odds ratio; OR = 0.7). Cows with twin pregnancies had significantly increased chances of losing their fetuses than cows with a single fetus (33.6 vs. 20.7 %; P < 0.01). Cows with three milkings per day were 30 % more likely (P < 0.01) to lose their fetuses than cows milked twice daily. Cows calving in winter and spring had significantly increased chances of losing their fetuses than cows calving in summer and fall (30-35 vs. 4-5 %; P < 0.01). It was concluded that, in this particular environment, heat stress exert a great influence on fetal losses in high producing Holstein cows.

  14. Increased feeding frequency increased milk fat yield and may reduce the severity of subacute ruminal acidosis in higher-risk cows.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, K; Gao, X; Oba, M

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether feeding behavior is different between cows at higher or lower risk for subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and whether increasing feeding frequency could be used to reduce the severity of SARA in higher-risk cows. In preliminary studies, 16 ruminally cannulated lactating cows were fed high-grain diets once per day to increase the risk of SARA. After a 17-d diet adaptation, ruminal pH was measured every 30 s over 24 h. Cows were classified as higher-risk (n = 7) or lower-risk (n = 9) for SARA based on an acidosis index (area of pH <5.8/dry matter intake). Feeding behavior was recorded every 5 min over the same 24 h. The 24-h observation period was analyzed in 3 periods of 8 h after feeding. Although there was no significant difference in overall dry matter intake, higher-risk cows spent more time eating in the first 8-h period after feeding than lower-risk cows (186 vs. 153 min) and less time eating in the third 8-h period (19 vs. 43 min). In the primary experiment, 8 ruminally cannulated lactating cows were fed a high-grain diet once per day (1×; 0800 h) or 3 times per day (3×; 0800, 1500, and 2000 h) in a crossover design with 21-d periods (16 d of treatment adaptation and 5 d of data collection). Rumen pH and feeding behavior were measured over 72 h. Behavior data were summarized separately for the 3 periods (0800 to 1500, 1500 to 2200, and 2200 to 0800 h). Four cows were categorized as higher-risk and 4 as lower-risk, based on their acidosis index. The 3× feeding reduced eating time between 0800 and 1500 h (99 vs. 145 min) and increased eating time between 2200 and 0800 h (76 vs. 43 min) for all cows, regardless of category, compared with 1× feeding. For higher-risk cows, 3× feeding reduced the area below pH 5.8 (51 vs. 98 pH × min/d), but it did not affect rumen pH for the lower-risk cows. Milk yield was not different between groups, but 3× feeding increased milk fat yield (1.22 vs. 1.08 kg/d) for all

  15. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in all forms, including condensed, derivative, dry, evaporated, goat’s milk and milk from other animals, lowfat, malted, ... avoid milk from other domestic animals. For example, goat's milk protein is similar to cow's milk protein ...

  16. Associations between age at first calving, rearing average daily weight gain, herd milk yield and dairy herd production, reproduction, and profitability.

    PubMed

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Kvapilík, J; Burdych, J; Crump, P

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of variable intensity in rearing dairy heifers on 33 commercial dairy herds, including 23,008 cows and 18,139 heifers, with age at first calving (AFC), average daily weight gain (ADG), and milk yield (MY) level on reproduction traits and profitability. Milk yield during the production period was analyzed relative to reproduction and economic parameters. Data were collected during a 1-yr period (2011). The farms were located in 12 regions in the Czech Republic. The results show that those herds with more intensive rearing periods had lower conception rates among heifers at first and overall services. The differences in those conception rates between the group with the greatest ADG (≥0.800 kg/d) and the group with the least ADG (≤0.699 kg/d) were approximately 10 percentage points in favor of the least ADG. All the evaluated reproduction traits differed between AFC groups. Conception at first and overall services (cows) was greatest in herds with AFC ≥800 d. The shortest days open (105 d) and calving interval (396 d) were found in the middle AFC group (799 to 750 d). The highest number of completed lactations (2.67) was observed in the group with latest AFC (≥800 d). The earliest AFC group (≤749 d) was characterized by the highest depreciation costs per cow at 8,275 Czech crowns (US$414), and the highest culling rate for cows of 41%. The most profitable rearing approach was reflected in the middle AFC (799 to 750 d) and middle ADG (0.799 to 0.700 kg) groups. The highest MY (≥8,500 kg) occurred with the earliest AFC of 780 d. Higher MY led to lower conception rates in cows, but the highest MY group also had the shortest days open (106 d) and a calving interval of 386 d. The same MY group had the highest cow depreciation costs, net profit, and profitability without subsidies of 2.67%. We conclude that achieving low AFC will not always be the most profitable approach, which will depend upon farm

  17. Genetic parameters of cheese yield and curd nutrient recovery or whey loss traits predicted using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A; Albera, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Ferragina, A; Bittante, G

    2015-07-01

    Cheese yield is the most important technological parameter in the dairy industry in many countries. The aim of this study was to infer (co)variance components for cheese yields (CY) and nutrient recoveries in curd (REC) predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows. A total of 311,354 FTIR spectra representing the test-day records of 29,208 dairy cows (Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental) from 654 herds, collected over a 3-yr period, were available for the study. The traits of interest for each cow consisted of 3 cheese yield traits (%CY: fresh curd, curd total solids, and curd water as a percent of the weight of the processed milk), 4 curd nutrient recovery traits (REC: fat, protein, total solids, and the energy of the curd as a percent of the same nutrient in the processed milk), and 3 daily cheese production traits (daily fresh curd, total solids, and the water of the curd per cow). Calibration equations (freely available upon request to the corresponding author) were used to predict individual test-day observations for these traits. The (co)variance components were estimated for the CY, REC, milk production, and milk composition traits via a set of 4-trait analyses within each breed. All analyses were performed using REML and linear animal models. The heritabilities of the %CY were always higher for Holstein and Brown Swiss cows (0.22 to 0.33) compared with Simmental cows (0.14 to 0.18). In general, the fresh cheese yield (%CYCURD) showed genetic variation and heritability estimates that were slightly higher than those of its components, %CYSOLIDS and %CYWATER. The parameter RECPROTEIN was the most heritable trait in all the 3 breeds, with values ranging from 0.32 to 0.41. Our estimation of the genetic relationships of the CY and REC with milk production and composition revealed that the current selection strategies used in dairy cattle are expected

  18. Effect of milking pipeline height on machine milking efficiency and milk quality in sheep.

    PubMed

    Díaz, J R; Peris, C; Rodríguez, M; Molina, M P; Fernández, N

    2004-06-01

    This experiment studied the effect of milking pipeline height (mid- vs. low-level milking system) on milking efficiency and milk composition. The experiment was of 8 wk duration: 2 wk preexperimental period and 6 wk experimental, in crossover design (2 x 2). Ewes were milked in a 2 x 12 milking parlor with 2 milking pipelines set at a milking vacuum of 36 kPa with a pulsation rate of 180 cycle/min and ratio of 50%. Height of the milkline had no effect on yield of milk at the time of milking, yield after stripping, milk composition, SCC, and number of teatcup fall-offs. Nor did milkline height have any effect on milk lipolysis or on the distribution of fatty acids. The level of free fatty acids was higher in evening than in morning milk (60.5 vs. 25.6 mg/L). Likewise, the increase in the degree of lipolysis between the receiver (40.4 mg/L) and the refrigeration tank (45.8 mg/L) underlines the importance of the milk delivery line design. The parameters (time and flow rate) that define the first peak in the milk emission kinetics were statistically different between lines, so care must be taken when comparing milk emission curves from both types of pipeline.

  19. The relationship between growth hormone polymorphism and growth hormone receptor genes with milk yield and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Z; Atashi, H; Dadpasand, M; Derakhshandeh, A; Ghahramani Seno, M. M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between growth hormone GH/AluI and growth hormone receptor GHR/AluI polymorphisms with milk yield and reproductive performances in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. Blood samples of 150 Holstein cows were collected and their genomic DNA was extracted using Gene-Fanavaran DNA extracting kit. Fragments of the 428 bp of exon 5 growth hormone (GH) gene and the 342 bp of exon 10 growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. PCR products were digested by the AluI restriction enzyme and electrophoresed on 3% agarose gel. Continuous and categorical data were analyzed using linear mixed models through Proc MIXED and logistic regression models through Proc GENMOD of SAS software, respectively. The results showed no relationship between the examined traits and GH/AluI or GHR/AluI genes. A significant relationship was found between GH/AluI polymorphism and dystocia, but the presence of the GH-L allele reduced the incidence of dystocia. The results suggest that the GH-LL genotype reduces dystocia probably by affecting the release of growth hormone; nevertheless, further studies will be needed to examine the relationship between dystocia and GH genotypes. PMID:27175183

  20. Statistical analysis of test-day milk yields using random regression models for the comparison of feeding groups during the lactation period.

    PubMed

    Mielenz, Norbert; Spilke, Joachim; Krejcova, Hana; Schüler, Lutz

    2006-10-01

    Random regression models are widely used in the field of animal breeding for the genetic evaluation of daily milk yields from different test days. These models are capable of handling different environmental effects on the respective test day, and they describe the characteristics of the course of the lactation period by using suitable covariates with fixed and random regression coefficients. As the numerically expensive estimation of parameters is already part of advanced computer software, modifications of random regression models will considerably grow in importance for statistical evaluations of nutrition and behaviour experiments with animals. Random regression models belong to the large class of linear mixed models. Thus, when choosing a model, or more precisely, when selecting a suitable covariance structure of the random effects, the information criteria of Akaike and Schwarz can be used. In this study, the fitting of random regression models for a statistical analysis of a feeding experiment with dairy cows is illustrated under application of the program package SAS. For each of the feeding groups, lactation curves modelled by covariates with fixed regression coefficients are estimated simultaneously. With the help of the fixed regression coefficients, differences between the groups are estimated and then tested for significance. The covariance structure of the random and subject-specific effects and the serial correlation matrix are selected by using information criteria and by estimating correlations between repeated measurements. For the verification of the selected model and the alternative models, mean values and standard deviations estimated with ordinary least square residuals are used.

  1. First parity evaluation of peak milk yield for range cows developed in the same ecophysiological system but receiving different concentrations of harvested feed inputs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduction of harvested feed inputs during heifer development could optimize range livestock production and improve economic feasibility. The objective for this two year study was to measure milk production (kg/d) and milk constituent concentrations (g/d) for 16 primiparous beef cows each year that w...

  2. First parity evaluation of peak milk yield for range cows developed in the same ecophysiological system but receiving different concentrations of harvested feed inputs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Can range livestock producers reduce harvested feed inputs, during heifer development, and maintain production goals? To address this, we conducted a two year study measuring milk production (kg/d) and milk constituent concentrations (g/d) for 16 primiparous beef cows each year that were born from d...

  3. Genetic polymorphisms of short tandem repeat loci D13S305, D13S631 and D13S634 in the Han population of Tianjin, China

    PubMed Central

    SHI, YUNFANG; LI, XIAOZHOU; JU, DUAN; LI, YAN; ZHANG, XIULING; ZHANG, YING

    2015-01-01

    Short tandem repeat (STR) markers, also known as microsatellites, are extensively used in mapping studies, forensics and disease diagnosis due to their small dimension and low mutation and high polymorphism rates. In recent years quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) has been successfully used to amplify STR markers in the prenatal diagnosis of common chromosomal abnormalities. This method provides a diagnosis of common aneuploidies 24–48 h after sampling with low error rates and cost; however, the size of different alleles, frequency, heterozygosity and distribution of STR markers vary among different populations. In the present study three STR markers, D13S305, D13S631 and D13S634, on chromosome 13 were analyzed in 350 unrelated individuals (200 males and 150 females) from the Han population of Tianjin, China using QF-PCR. Eleven, seven and 11 alleles of each marker were observed, respectively. The frequencies of the genotypes were in good agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05). The results showed that these three STR markers were highly polymorphic in the Han population of Tianjin, China. The study has provided basic data for use in the prenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome. PMID:26622392

  4. Genetic polymorphisms of short tandem repeat loci D13S305, D13S631 and D13S634 in the Han population of Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yunfang; Li, Xiaozhou; Ju, Duan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiuling; Zhang, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Short tandem repeat (STR) markers, also known as microsatellites, are extensively used in mapping studies, forensics and disease diagnosis due to their small dimension and low mutation and high polymorphism rates. In recent years quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) has been successfully used to amplify STR markers in the prenatal diagnosis of common chromosomal abnormalities. This method provides a diagnosis of common aneuploidies 24-48 h after sampling with low error rates and cost; however, the size of different alleles, frequency, heterozygosity and distribution of STR markers vary among different populations. In the present study three STR markers, D13S305, D13S631 and D13S634, on chromosome 13 were analyzed in 350 unrelated individuals (200 males and 150 females) from the Han population of Tianjin, China using QF-PCR. Eleven, seven and 11 alleles of each marker were observed, respectively. The frequencies of the genotypes were in good agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05). The results showed that these three STR markers were highly polymorphic in the Han population of Tianjin, China. The study has provided basic data for use in the prenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome.

  5. The 9-MilCA method as a rapid, partly automated protocol for simultaneously recording milk coagulation, curd firming, syneresis, cheese yield, and curd nutrients recovery or whey loss.

    PubMed

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Stocco, G; Bittante, G

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to propose and test a new laboratory cheesemaking procedure [9-mL milk cheesemaking assessment (9-MilCA)], which records 15 traits related to milk coagulation, curd firming, syneresis, cheese yield, and curd nutrients recovery or whey loss. This procedure involves instruments found in many laboratories (i.e., heaters and lacto-dynamographs), with an easy modification of the sample rack for the insertion of 10-mL glass tubes. Four trials were carried out to test the 9-MilCA procedure. The first trial compared 8 coagulation and curd firming traits obtained using regular or modified sample racks to process milk samples from 60 cows belonging to 5 breeds and 3 farms (480 tests). The obtained patterns exhibited significant but irrelevant between-procedure differences, with better repeatability seen for 9-MilCA. The second trial tested the reproducibility and repeatability of the 7 cheesemaking traits obtained using the 9-MilCA procedure on individual samples from 60 cows tested in duplicate in 2 instruments (232 tests). The method yielded very repeatable outcomes for all 7 tested cheese yield and nutrient recovery traits (repeatability >98%), with the exception of the fresh cheese yield (84%), which was affected by the lower repeatability (67%) of the water retained in the curd. In the third trial (96 tests), we found that using centrifugation in place of curd cooking and draining (as adopted in several published studies) reduced the efficiency of whey separation, overestimated all traits, and worsened the repeatability. The fourth trial compared 9-MilCA with a more complex model cheese-manufacturing process that mimics industry practices, using 1,500-mL milk samples (72 cows, 216 tests). The average results obtained from 9-MilCA were similar to those obtained from the model cheeses, with between-method correlations ranging from 78 to 99%, except for the water retained in the curd (r=54%). Our results indicate that new 9-MilCA method is a

  6. Estimating efficiency in automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Castro, A; Pereira, J M; Amiama, C; Bueno, J

    2012-02-01

    Milking data of 34 single automatic milking system (AMS) units on 29 Galician dairy farms were analyzed to determine the system capacity in each farm under actual working conditions. Number of cows, milk yield, milkings per cow per day, actual milking time, rejected milking time, cleaning time, and machine downtime were used to determine the number of cows milked per AMS unit to obtain the optimal values of milkings per cow and milk production. Multiple linear regression data analysis was used to model the linear relationship between the dependent variable, milk yield per AMS per year, and the predictor variables: number of cows per AMS, milkings per cow per day, milk flow rate, and rejections per AMS per year. An AMS unit milked 52.7±9.0 cows daily at 2.69±0.28 milkings per cow, with a total milking downtime of 1,947±978 h/yr and a milk yield of 549,734±126,432 kg/yr. The predictor variables cow and milk flow rate had a greater level of influence on the milk yield per AMS than milkings per cow and rejections, and explained the 87% of the variation. The AMS in Galician dairy farms could facilitate an increase of 16±8.5 cows per AMS without impairing milking performance; in this way, the quantity of milk obtained per robot annually could be increased (185,460±137,460 kg). This would make it possible to recoup the cost of the system earlier. In the present situation, the daily milking throughput could be maximized at 2.4 to 2.6 milkings per cow.

  7. Effects of Milk Yield, Feed Composition, and Feed Contamination with Aflatoxin B1 on the Aflatoxin M1 Concentration in Dairy Cows’ Milk Investigated Using Monte Carlo Simulation Modelling

    PubMed Central

    van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; Camenzuli, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1) in dairy cows’ milk, given predefined scenarios for milk production, compound feed (CF) contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), and inclusion rates of ingredients, using Monte Carlo simulation modelling. The model simulated a typical dairy farm in the Netherlands. Six different scenarios were considered, based on two lactation and three CF composition scenarios. AfB1 contamination of the CF was based on results from the Dutch national monitoring programme for AfB1 in feed materials from 2000 until 2010. Monitoring data from feed materials used in CF production for dairy cattle in the Netherlands were used. Additionally, AfB1 contamination data from an incident in maize in 2013 were used. In each scenario, five different transfer equations of AfB1 from feed to AfM1 in the milk were used, and 1000 iterations were run for each scenario. The results showed that under these six scenarios, the weekly farm concentration of AfM1 in milk was above the EC threshold in less than 1% of the iterations, with all five transfer equations considered. However, this increased substantially in weeks when concentrations from the contaminated maize batch were included, and up to 28.5% of the iterations exceeded the EC threshold. It was also observed that an increase in the milk production had a minimal effect on the exceedance of the AfM1 threshold due to an apparent dilution effect. Feeding regimes, including the composition of CF and feeding roughages of dairy cows, should be carefully considered based on the potential AfM1 contamination of the farm’s milk. PMID:27735836

  8. Effects of oxytocin, machine stripping and milking rate on production loss of cows milked once a day.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, V R; Davis, S R; Copeman, P J

    1993-02-01

    The effect of treatments designed to improve the efficiency of milk removal and minimize loss of production in cows milked once a day (OAD) was assessed in short-term trials involving Friesian and Jersey cows. Trial 1 involved 80 cows and compared twice a day (TAD) milking with OAD milking with the administration of 20 i.u. of oxytocin (OX), OAD milking with udder massage before and during milking (OS) and no treatment during OAD milking (OC). The OX and OS groups had increased yields of milk and milk solids when treatments were applied, though yields were not restored to previous TAD levels. The percentage increase shown by OX cows was greater than that of OS cows for fat yield. The level of residual milk in the udder after milking was lower for the OX group than for the OAD and TAD controls. In Trial 2, 12 cows were subjected to fast or slow rates of milking OAD in each of two periods. Losses in milk, fat and protein yields averaged 9.1, 9.9 and 1.0% respectively. Increased rate of milking reduced milking time and time to let-down but did not affect response to OAD milking. The results showed that treatments that increased the evacuation of the udder during milking and decreased the level of residual milk reduced losses in production that occur on OAD milking. Increasing the rate of milking was ineffective in reducing losses on OAD milking.

  9. Comparison between genetic parameters of cheese yield and nutrient recovery or whey loss traits measured from individual model cheese-making methods or predicted from unprocessed bovine milk samples using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bittante, G; Ferragina, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A

    2014-10-01

    Cheese yield is an important technological trait in the dairy industry. The aim of this study was to infer the genetic parameters of some cheese yield-related traits predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis and compare the results with those obtained using an individual model cheese-producing procedure. A total of 1,264 model cheeses were produced using 1,500-mL milk samples collected from individual Brown Swiss cows, and individual measurements were taken for 10 traits: 3 cheese yield traits (fresh curd, curd total solids, and curd water as a percent of the weight of the processed milk), 4 milk nutrient recovery traits (fat, protein, total solids, and energy of the curd as a percent of the same nutrient in the processed milk), and 3 daily cheese production traits per cow (fresh curd, total solids, and water weight of the curd). Each unprocessed milk sample was analyzed using a MilkoScan FT6000 (Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) over the spectral range, from 5,000 to 900 wavenumber × cm(-1). The FTIR spectrum-based prediction models for the previously mentioned traits were developed using modified partial least-square regression. Cross-validation of the whole data set yielded coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation of 0.65 to 0.95 for all traits, except for the recovery of fat (0.41). A 3-fold external validation was also used, in which the available data were partitioned into 2 subsets: a training set (one-third of the herds) and a testing set (two-thirds). The training set was used to develop calibration equations, whereas the testing subsets were used for external validation of the calibration equations and to estimate the heritabilities and genetic correlations of the measured and FTIR-predicted phenotypes. The coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation results obtained from the training sets were very similar to those obtained from the whole

  10. [Influence of zeolite A supplementation during the dry period of dairy cows on feed intake, on the macro and trace element metabolism around calving and milk yield in the following lactation].

    PubMed

    Grabherr, Hilde; Spolders, Markus; Flachowsky, Gerhard; Fürll, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    The object of the present study was to determine the influence of zeolite A, a calcium binder from the group of the aluminosilicate, on feed intake, macro and trace element metabolism as well as the milk yield in the following lactation in dairy cows. 46 cows were allotted to 2 groups (A--control group and B--experimental group). They were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum 2 weeks before calving. Additionally the cows in group B received 90 g zeolite A/kg dry matter (DM). The individually feed intake was registered daily. The serum was analysed for Ca, Mg, and Pi (inorganic phosphate), Fe, FFA (free fatty acid) and beta-HB (hydroxybutyrate) and the plasma for the trace elements Cu, Zn, and Mn. After calving the milk yield (FCM) and the milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and urea) were analysed. Feed intake of group B, amounting to 6.2 +/- 1.3 kg DM/d was around 48% lower as compared to 12.0 +/- 1.4 kg DM/d for group A. The zeolite addition into the TMR showed a stabilizing effect on the average Ca concentration in the serum around calving. This effect led to a significantly lower Mg concentration on the day of calving and 1 day post partum. The Pi concentration was significantly lower already after the 1st week of zeolite supplementation and on the day of calving as compared to group A. There was no essential effect of zeolite A on the trace element concentration. The depression of feed intake for group B led to a significant increase of FFA one week after beginning zeolite supplementation and of beta-HB around calving. The feed intake post partum as well as the milk yield were not affected by zeolite supplementation. Because decreased feed intake of group B after zeolite supplementation and the occurred hypophosphatemia, it is not acceptable to use zeolite A in the proved dose for preventing milk fever.

  11. Abrupt changes in forage dry matter of one to three days affect intake and milk yield in late lactation dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine if late lactation cows were susceptible to 1-, 2-, and 3-day changes in forage DM. Forty-four Holstein cows (22 primiparous and 22 multiparous), averaging 155 DIM, 42.5 kg/d of milk, and 597 kg body weight, were used in a study conducted from Jan to Mar 2010. Within ea...

  12. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the usual cause, but milk from sheep, goats, buffalo and other mammals also can cause a ... react to cow's milk will react to sheep's, goat's and buffalo's milk. Less commonly, people allergic to ...

  13. Improving the reliability of female fertility breeding values using type and milk yield traits that predict energy status in Australian Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    González-Recio, O; Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to propose changing the selection criteria trait for evaluating fertility in Australia from calving interval to conception rate at d 42 after the beginning of the mating season and (2) to use type traits as early fertility predictors, to increase the reliability of estimated breeding values for fertility. The breeding goal in Australia is conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season. Currently, the Australian model to predict fertility breeding values (expressed as a linear transformation of calving interval) is a multitrait model that includes calving interval (CVI), lactation length (LL), calving to first service (CFS), first nonreturn rate (FNRR), and conception rate. However, CVI has a lower genetic correlation with the breeding goal (conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season) than conception rate. Milk yield, type, and fertility data from 164,318 cow sired by 4,766 bulls were used. Principal component analysis and genetic correlation estimates between type and fertility traits were used to select type traits that could subsequently be used in a multitrait analysis. Angularity, foot angle, and pin set were chosen as type traits to include in an index with the traits that are included in the multitrait fertility model: CVI, LL, CFS, FNRR, and conception rate at d 42 (CR42). An index with these 8 traits is expected to achieve an average bull first proof reliability of 0.60 on the breeding objective (conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season) compared with reliabilities of 0.39 and 0.45 for CR42 only or the current 5-trait Australian model. Subsequently, we used the first eigenvector of a principal component analysis with udder texture, bone quality, angularity, and body condition score to calculate an energy status indicator trait. The inclusion of the energy status indicator trait composite in a multitrait index with CVI, LL, CFS, FNRR, and CR42 achieved a 12-point increase in

  14. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink anything calcium-enriched, make sure it's also dairy-free. Milk and milk products can lurk in ... margarine, baked goods, artificial butter flavor, and non-dairy products. Chocolate is another product that may contain ...

  15. Preterm milk.

    PubMed

    Baum, J D

    1980-03-01

    This editorial addresses the question of how best to feed the low birth weight infant. A study by Atkinson et al. on the composition of preterm mothers' milk found the nitrogen concentration in preterm milk to be considerably higher than in term milk. Preterm milk may be uniquely suited to the growth requirements of preterm infants. With the exception of calcium and phosphorus, preterm milk fits the requirements for preterm infant growth. Because of the difficulties of sustaining lactation without the infant sucking at the breast, partly due to the mother's motivation in the face of all the difficulties of having a baby in a Special Care Baby Unit, and partly due to the associated socioeconomic disadvantages, it is not possible for all mothers who deliver preterm babies to sustain their lactation. The composition of preterm milk should be used as a guide for the preparation of a human milk formula built from human milk products from a milk bank. The development of a human milk formula must take into account variations in the absorption of nutrients in low birth weight infants which may be affected by the processing of the milk, and variations in fat absorption in preterm infants which occur even when they are fed their mothers' fresh unprocessed milk.

  16. Effect of 2 herbal intramammary products on milk quantity and quality compared with conventional and no dry cow therapy.

    PubMed

    Mullen, K A E; Anderson, K L; Washburn, S P

    2014-01-01

    Dry cow therapy, administered at the end of lactation, is aimed at eliminating current and preventing future intramammary (IMM) bacterial infections and typically involves intramammary administration of antibiotics. Certified organic dairies in the United States are restricted from using antibiotics and must consider an alternative therapy or no dry cow therapy. The current study compared 2 herbal products to conventional dry cow therapy and no treatment for a total of 5 treatments over 2 trials. Trial 1 was conducted over 3 yr on 1 research farm and trial 2 included 4 commercial farms plus the research herd over 2 yr. Treatments included (1) a conventional IMM antibiotic and internal teat sealant (penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin and bismuth subnitrate; CON); (2) an herbal IMM product purported to act as a teat sealant (Cinnatube, New AgriTech Enterprises, Locke, NY; CIN); (3) an herbal IMM product (Phyto-Mast, Bovinity Health LLC, Narvon, PA; P-M); (4) Phyto-Mast and Cinnatube (PC); or (5) no dry cow therapy (NT). Each treatment group was balanced by breed, lactation number, due date, herd, and year. However, the CON treatment was used only in the research herd because of the intent to avoid antibiotic usage on the other 4 farms. Comparisons among treatments included the difference between pre- and posttreatment 305-d mature equivalent milk production (trial 1), somatic cell score change from dry-off to freshening at the cow and quarter levels (trials 1 and 2), and milk microbiology change over the dry period (trial 2). We detected no significant differences among treatments for milk yield differences between the lactation following treatment and the lactation preceding treatment. Changes in somatic cell score from one lactation to the next also did not differ significantly among treatments in either trial. Cure rates were not significantly different among treatments; only 19.6% of all quarters were infected at dry off. The proportion of quarters with new

  17. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  18. Effect of bovine genotype on heifer response to repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heifers (n = 4/genotype) from unselected (stable milk yield since 1964, UH) and contemporary (CH) Holsteins that differed in milk yield (6,200 and 11,100 kg milk/305 d) or from Red Angus cows (RA) were fed the same diet ad lib and housed together for 47 d before being challenged with 0.5 microgram L...

  19. Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.

    PubMed

    Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

    2014-02-01

    Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving

  20. Changes in cisternal udder compartment induced by milking interval in dairy goats milked once or twice daily.

    PubMed

    Salama, A A K; Caja, G; Such, X; Peris, S; Sorensen, A; Knight, C H

    2004-05-01

    Fourteen Murciano-Granadina dairy goats were used to evaluate udder compartments (cisternal and alveolar) and cisternal recoil after an oxytocin (OT) challenge at different milking intervals (8, 16, and 24 h) during wk 7 of lactation. Goats were milked once (1x; n = 7) or twice (2x; n = 7) daily from wk 2 of lactation. Average milk yields for wk 4 and 8 were 1.76 and 2.24 L/d, for goats milked 1x and 2x, respectively. For each half udder, cisternal area was measured by ultrasonography and cisternal milk was measured by machine milking after i.v. injection of an OT receptor blocking agent. Alveolar milk was then obtained after i.v. injection of OT. Regardless of milking frequency, alveolar milk increased from 8 to 16 h after milking, but did not change thereafter. Cisternal area and cisternal milk increased linearly (R2 = 0.96 to 0.99) up to 24 h, indicating continuous milk storage in the cistern at any alveoli filling degree. Cisternal to alveolar ratio increased with milking interval (from 57:43 to 75:25), but differences between milking intervals were significant at 8 h only, at which time goats milked 2x showed a greater ratio (1x = 51:49; 2x = 62:38). Despite extended milking intervals, cisterns of goats milked 1x did not become larger than cisterns of goats milked 2x after 5 wk of treatment. The highest correlation between cisternal area and cisternal milk was detected at 8 h after milking (r = 0.74). Primiparous goats had smaller cisternal areas and less cisternal milk than multiparous goats at all milking intervals. Cisternal recoil was studied in a sample of multiparous goats milked 1x (n = 4) and 2x (n = 4) by scanning cisterns by ultrasonography at 0, 5, 15, and 30 min after an OT challenge for each milking interval. Cisternal area increased after OT injection for the 8- and 16-h milking intervals, but no differences were observed for the 24-h interval. Unlike cows, no changes in cisternal area were observed after OT injection, indicating the absence of

  1. Different milk feeding intensities during the first 4 weeks of rearing in dairy calves: Part 1: Effects on performance and production from birth over the first lactation.

    PubMed

    Korst, M; Koch, C; Kesser, J; Müller, U; Romberg, F-J; Rehage, J; Eder, K; Sauerwein, H

    2017-04-01

    mo of lactation were not different among groups, nor was milk composition. Milk yields (305 d) were numerically but not statistically greater in the ad libitum-fed groups during the first lactation (+765 kg for WM-ad lib vs. MR-res; +612 kg for MR-ad lib vs. MR-res). Feeding WM-ad lib and MR-ad lib was 1.37- and 1.21-fold more costly than MR-res, respectively, but amounted to 18, 15, and 13% of the total estimated feed costs until first calving in WM-ad lib, MR-ad lib, and MR-res, respectively. Our study confirms that ad libitum feeding is an attractive measure for rearing dairy calves, both for animal welfare and-with the caveat of a small sample size in trial 2 that led to insufficient power-economic profit from milk.

  2. The Effects of Increased Milking Frequency on Metabolism and Mammary Cell Proliferation in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results of previous studies have shown that increased milking frequency (IMF) during early lactation results in increased milk yield not only during the period of IMF but also after cows have returned to a decreased milking frequency. The cellular mechanisms underpinning this increased milk yield a...

  3. Designer milk.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha

    2007-01-01

    Dairy biotechnology is fast gaining ground in the area of altering milk composition for processing and/or animal and human health by employing nutritional and genetic approaches. Modification of the primary structure of casein, alteration in the lipid profile, increased protein recovery, milk containing nutraceuticals, and replacement for infant formula offer several advantages in the area of processing. Less fat in milk, altered fatty acid profiles to include more healthy fatty acids such as CLA and omega-fats, improved amino acid profiles, more protein, less lactose, and absence of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) are some opportunities of "designing" milk for human health benefits. Transgenic technology has also produced farm animals that secrete in their milk, human lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipase so as to simulate human milk in terms of quality and quantity of these elements that are protective to infants. Cow milk allergenicity in children could be reduced by eliminating the beta-LG gene from bovines. Animals that produce milk containing therapeutic agents such as insulin, plasma proteins, drugs, and vaccines for human health have been genetically engineered. In order to cater to animal health, transgenic animals that express in their mammary glands, various components that work against mastitis have been generated. The ultimate acceptability of the "designer" products will depend on ethical issues such as animal welfare and safety, besides better health benefits and increased profitability of products manufactured by the novel techniques.

  4. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as processed lunchmeats, margarine, baked goods, artificial butter flavor, and non-dairy products. Chocolate is another ... yogurt, milk, pudding, sour cream, and cottage cheese butter, butter flavoring (such as diacetyl), butter fat, butter ...

  5. Got milk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    While celebrities wear white “milk moustaches” in a popular U.S. advertising campaign to promote the drinking of milk, they should also be concerned about the decreased amount of calcium available to many trees.Calcium levels in forest soils have decreased at locations in 10 states in the eastern United States, according to a new report by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) released in time for National Arbor Day on April 30.

  6. Mammary cisternal size, cisternal milk and milk ejection in Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Chirathalattu S; Svennersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin; Bhosrekar, Madhukar R; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2004-05-01

    The internal arrangement of the mammary gland cavity system, cisternal and alveolar milk fractions and the characteristics of milk ejection were investigated in buffaloes. Twenty-four Murrah buffaloes in three different stages of lactation and of two age groups were used. Continuous ultrasound cross-sections during milk ejection induced by exogenous oxytocin were performed to record the latency period of milk ejection. Buffaloes had small cisterns and the cavity area in the teat and gland regions were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The animals had long teat canals (3.1 +/- 0.1 cm), longer in the hind than fore quarters. Cisternal milk yield was low (0.17 +/- 0.01 kg) and cisternal fraction was only 4.9 +/- 0.1% of the total milk. The cisternal area (cm2) was 69.6 +/- 4.6, 51.61 +/- 4.8 and 26.01 +/- 4.8 while the cisternal yield (kg) was 0.32 +/- 0.05, 0.18 +/- 0.05 and 0.05 +/- 0.05 in early, mid and late lactation, respectively. A close correlation (r = 0.87, P < 0.05) existed between the ultrasound cisternal area and cisternal milk yield. The latency period of induced milk ejection was similar to that reported for cows (25 +/- 1 s) and was negatively correlated with milk yield (r = -0.75, P < 0.05). Milk ejection occurred shortly after elevated oxytocin concentrations were present. Delayed milk ejection reported earlier in this species must therefore be due to the absence of cisternal milk and delayed oxytocin release. An increase in teat length and circumference at milk ejection was also evident in the ultrasound cross sections.

  7. Evaluation of the performance of the first automatic milking system for buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Caria, M; Tangorra, F M; Leonardi, S; Bronzo, V; Murgia, L; Pazzona, A

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of buffaloes to automatic milking, examining the relationships between milking interval, milk production, and milking time for this species. A total of 7,550 milking records from an average of 40 buffaloes milked by an automatic milking system (AMS) were analyzed during a 3-mo experimental period at a commercial farm with Italian Mediterranean buffaloes in southern Italy. Date and time of animal identification, milk yield, milking duration, milking interval, and average milk flow rate were determined for each milking. The results were also used to predict the maximum number of milkings per day and the optimal number of buffaloes per AMS for different levels of milk production. The average interval period between 2 consecutive milkings was 10.3 h [standard deviation (SD) 3.3]. Overall, 3.4 and 25.7% of the milkings had an interval of ≤ 6 h or >12 h, respectively. Milking duration averaged 8.3 min per buffalo per milking (SD 2.7). The average milk flow rate was 1.3 kg/min (SD 0.5) at a milk yield of 2.8 kg per milking (SD 1.4). Assuming that the milking station is occupied 80% of the time, the number of milkings ranged from 136 to 152 per day and the optimal number of buffaloes per AMS ranged from 59 to 66 when the production level increased from 2 to 5 kg of milk per milking. Automatic milking systems are suitable for buffalo, opening new options for the management of dairy buffalo farms.

  8. Evaluation of different milking practices for optimum production performance in Sahiwal cows.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Naveed; Abdullah, Muhammad; Fiaz, Muhammad; Bhatti, Jalees Ahmad; Iqbal, Zeeshan Muhammad; Bangulzai, Nasrullah; Choi, Chang Weon; Jo, Ik Hwan

    2014-01-01

    The production performance of multiparous lactating Sahiwal cows (n = 24) was evaluated according to both milking frequency and method. Selected animals were randomly divided into four groups containing six animals each under a completely randomized design. Cows in groups A & B were milked by the hand milking method three times per day, respectively. Similarly, cows in groups C & D were milked by the machine milking method two and three times per day, respectively. All animals were maintained under uniform feeding and management conditions. Dry matter intake was high in animal groups milked three times per day, and it remained unchanged between the hand and machine milking methods. Milk yield was higher (P < 0.05) in cows milked three times compared to those milked twice per day, and it did not differ between hand and machine milking methods. Milk fat percentage was higher (P < 0.05) in cows milked twice per day compared to those milked three times using both machine and hand milking methods. The percentage of total solids showed a similar pattern as the fat percentage. However, percentages of protein, lactose, and non-fat solids in milk were not significantly different (P > 0.05) among the treatment groups. Collectively, the results show that milking three times per day instead of twice at 8-hour intervals can enhance milk yield in Sahiwal cows using both hand and machine milking methods.

  9. On-farm evaluation of the effect of metabolic diseases on the shape of the lactation curve in dairy cows through the MilkBot lactation model.

    PubMed

    Hostens, M; Ehrlich, J; Van Ranst, B; Opsomer, G

    2012-06-01

    The effects of metabolic diseases (MD) occurring during the transition period on milk production of dairy cows have been evaluated in many different ways, often with conflicting conclusions. The present study used a fitted lactation model to analyze specific aspects of lactation curve shape and magnitude in cows that avoided culling or death in the first 120 d in milk (DIM). Production and health records of 1,946 lactations in a 1-yr follow-up study design were collected from a transition management facility in Germany to evaluate both short- and long-term effects of MD on milk production. Milk production data were fitted with the nonlinear MilkBot lactation model, and health records were used to classify cows as healthy (H), affected by one MD (MD), or by multiple MD (MD+). The final data set contained 1,071 H, 348 MD, and 136 MD+ cows, with distinct incidences of 3.7% twinning, 4.8% milk fever, 3.6% retained placenta, 15.4% metritis, 8.3% ketosis, 2.0% displaced abomasum, and 3.7% mastitis in the first 30 DIM. The model containing all healthy and diseased cows showed that lactations classified as H had milk production that increased faster (lower ramp) and also declined faster (lower persistence) compared with cows that encountered one or more metabolic problems. The level of production (scale) was only lowered in MD+ cows compared with H and MD cows. Although the shape of the lactation curve changed when cows encounter uncomplicated (single) MD or complicated MD (more than one MD), the slower increase to a lower peak seemed to be compensated for by greater persistency, resulting in the overall 305-d milk production only being lowered in MD+ cows. In the individual disease models, specific changes in the shape of the lactation curve were found for all MD except twinning. Milk fever, retained placenta, ketosis, and mastitis mainly affected the lactation curve when accompanied by another MD, whereas metritis and displaced abomasum affected the lactation curve

  10. An empirical method for prediction of cheese yield.

    PubMed

    Melilli, C; Lynch, J M; Carpino, S; Barbano, D M; Licitra, G; Cappa, A

    2002-10-01

    Theoretical cheese yield can be estimated from the milk fat and casein or protein content of milk using classical formulae, such as the VanSlyke formula. These equations are reliable predictors of theoretical or actual yield based on accurately measured milk fat and casein content. Many cheese makers desire to base payment for milk to dairy farmers on the yield of cheese. In small factories, however, accurate measurement of fat and casein content of milk by either chemical methods or infrared milk analysis is too time consuming and expensive. Therefore, an empirical test to predict cheese yield was developed which uses simple equipment (i.e., clinical centrifuge, analytical balance, and forced air oven) to carry out a miniature cheese making, followed by a gravimetric measurement of dry weight yield. A linear regression of calculated theoretical versus dry weight yields for milks of known fat and casein content was calculated. A regression equation of y = 1.275x + 1.528, where y is theoretical yield and x is measured dry solids yield (r2 = 0.981), for Cheddar cheese was developed using milks with a range of theoretical yield from 7 to 11.8%. The standard deviation of the difference (SDD) between theoretical cheese yield and dry solids yield was 0.194 and the coefficient of variation (SDD/mean x 100) was 1.95% upon cross validation. For cheeses without a well-established theoretical cheese yield equation, the measured dry weight yields could be directly correlated to the observed yields in the factory; this would more accurately reflect the expected yield performance. Payments for milk based on these measurements would more accurately reflect quality and composition of the milk and the actual average recovery of fat and casein achieved under practical cheese making conditions.

  11. Effects of vacuum level and pulsation rate on milk ejection and milk flow traits in Tunisian dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Atigui, Moufida; Marnet, Pierre-Guy; Barmat, Ahmed; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to compare the effects of milking at two vacuum levels (38 and 48 kPa) and three pulsation rates (60, 90, and 120 cpm) on milk production and milk flow characteristics. Six multiparous Maghrebi camels in late lactation and once daily milked were used. The best combination of setting for camel's milking was high vacuum and low pulsation rate (48 kPa/60 cpm). Milk yield and average and peak milk flow rate were the highest, while milking time was the shortest using this combination of setting (3.05 ± 0.30 kg, 1.52 ± 0.21 kg/min, 2.52 ± 0.21 kg/min, and 3.32 ± 0.31 min, respectively). Lower vacuum level lengthened milking time by more than 100 % and was not sufficient to extract milk correctly (1.69 to 2.48 times less milk yield harvested), suggesting a negative interaction with the stimulatory effect of pulsation. Higher pulsation rates did not better stimulate the camels and induced more bimodality and lower milk flow rates. Animal characteristics and liner/claw design affect machine milking and further investigations must be carried out to verify their effects and to study long-term effect of high vacuum level on udder health and teat condition.

  12. Premilking teat preparation for Australian pasture-based cows milked by an automated milking system.

    PubMed

    Davis, K L; Fulkerson, W J; Garcia, S C; Dickeson, D; Barchia, I M

    2008-07-01

    Economic viability of automatic milking systems (AMS) within an Australian pasture-based farming system will be largely determined by the throughput (cows milked/h), which is the result of processes occurring while the cow is in the AMS milking crate. Premilking udder preparation is automated and optional on all AMS. Yet, very few conventional farms in Australia conduct premilking teat preparation regimens, with the majority (78%) strategically washing only visibly dirty teats before milking cup attachment. The objective was to determine the impact of udder preparation in an AMS on the total time spent by cows in the AMS milking unit (crate time). An experiment was conducted with 80 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows in a crossover design over two 5-wk periods to determine the effect of premilking teat preparation (no wash vs. wash) on milk yield, milk harvest rates, and total crate time per milking session in an AMS. Within this study there was no significant effect of treatment on quarter milk conductivity (no wash = 4,858 vs. wash = 4,829 +/- SE = 17 microS/cm), milk blood concentration (no wash = 115.7 vs. wash = 112.3 +/- 7.3 ppm) or test-day somatic cell counts (no wash = 2.044 vs. wash = 2.039 +/- 0.025 log(10) SCC). There was similar total daily milk yield for the 2 treatments (no wash = 20.5 vs. wash = 20.1 +/- 0.2 kg of milk), but a greater mean quarter milk flow rate resulting from the wash treatment (no wash = 0.950 vs. wash = 0.981 +/- 0.013 kg of milk/min). The faster milking was not sufficient to counter the time associated with washing, resulting in longer crate time (no wash = 6.02 vs. wash = 7.12 +/- 0.08 min/milking session) and therefore, lower harvest rate (no wash = 2.08 vs. wash = 1.74 +/- 0.02 kg of milk/min crate time). Not washing teats would allow more efficient AMS utilization by potentially allowing more cows to be milked per machine, which would likely have a positive effect on the economic viability of this technology. The results

  13. Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Yogurt-cheese Manufactured with Ultrafiltrated Cow's Milk and Soy Milk Blends

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Mok, Bo Ram; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Yoon, Yoh Chang; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop yogurt-cheese using cow’s milk, ultrafiltrated cow’s milk, and soy milk. The addition of soy milk and ultrafiltrated milk increased the amount of protein in the yogurt-cheese. Yogurt-cheeses were made using cheese base using 10% and 20% soy milk with raw and ultrafiltrated cow’s milk, and stored at 4℃ during 2 wk. The yield of yogurt-cheeses made with added soy milk was decreased and the cutting point was delayed compared to yogurt-cheese made without soy milk. Yogurt-cheese made using ultrafiltrated cow’s milk showed the highest yield. However, yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk had higher protein content and titratable acidity than yogurt-cheese made using raw and ultrafiltrated cow’s milk. Fat and lactose contents in the yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk were lower. Yogurt-cheeses made with added soy milk contained several soy protein bands corresponding to the sizes of α2-, β-, and κ-casein band. Yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk had similar elasticity to yogurt-cheese made without soy milk but had lower cohesiveness. There was no significant difference in the number of lactic acid bacteria in the different cheeses, as all had over 8.0 Log CFU/g. Considering these data and the fact that proteins and fats of vegetable origin with high biological value were observed as well as unsaturated fats, yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk can be considered to be a functional food. PMID:26761829

  14. Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Yogurt-cheese Manufactured with Ultrafiltrated Cow's Milk and Soy Milk Blends.

    PubMed

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Mok, Bo Ram; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Yoon, Yoh Chang; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop yogurt-cheese using cow's milk, ultrafiltrated cow's milk, and soy milk. The addition of soy milk and ultrafiltrated milk increased the amount of protein in the yogurt-cheese. Yogurt-cheeses were made using cheese base using 10% and 20% soy milk with raw and ultrafiltrated cow's milk, and stored at 4℃ during 2 wk. The yield of yogurt-cheeses made with added soy milk was decreased and the cutting point was delayed compared to yogurt-cheese made without soy milk. Yogurt-cheese made using ultrafiltrated cow's milk showed the highest yield. However, yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk had higher protein content and titratable acidity than yogurt-cheese made using raw and ultrafiltrated cow's milk. Fat and lactose contents in the yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk were lower. Yogurt-cheeses made with added soy milk contained several soy protein bands corresponding to the sizes of α2-, β-, and κ-casein band. Yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk had similar elasticity to yogurt-cheese made without soy milk but had lower cohesiveness. There was no significant difference in the number of lactic acid bacteria in the different cheeses, as all had over 8.0 Log CFU/g. Considering these data and the fact that proteins and fats of vegetable origin with high biological value were observed as well as unsaturated fats, yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk can be considered to be a functional food.

  15. Vacuum levels and milk-flow-dependent vacuum drops affect machine milking performance and teat condition in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Besier, J; Bruckmaier, R M

    2016-04-01

    Different levels of claw vacuum during machine milking may influence milking performance and teat condition. The claw vacuum acts on the teat and is responsible for removal and transport of milk but is also causing potential effects on the teat tissue. In the absence of milk flow, the claw vacuum is similar as the system vacuum. During milk flow, the claw vacuum drops to lower levels depending on lifting height and tube length and diameter, which may influence milking performance and the mechanical load on the teat tissue. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of high system vacuum and extremely low claw vacuum during milk flow on milking performance and teat condition after milking recorded by ultrasound. Treatments were control (treatment 1) with a system vacuum of 42 and a minimum claw vacuum during milk flow of 33 kPa; treatment 2 representing a system vacuum of 50 kPa, with a minimum claw vacuum almost similar as treatment 1 (34 kPa); and treatment 3 with the same system vacuum as treatment 1 but a claw vacuum drop during milk flow down to 24 kPa. Total milk yield was similar in all treatments, but strip yield was lower in treatment 3 than in the other treatments. Milk flow was similar in treatment 1 and treatment 2, but was reduced in treatment 3, thus causing a prolonged milking time in treatment 3. Teat wall thickness was increased and teat cistern diameter was decreased in treatment 2 as compared with the other treatments. The results demonstrate that the minimum claw vacuum had the main influence on milking performance independent of the level of the system vacuum and related vacuum drops and a low minimum claw vacuum caused low milk flow and long milking times. Teat condition at the end of milking, however, was mainly dependent on the system vacuum, and the load on the teat tissue was obviously increased at a system vacuum of 50 kPa. This effect was obviously occurring toward the end of milking when milk flow decreased and hence

  16. Individual differences in behavioral and physiological responsiveness of primiparous dairy cows to machine milking.

    PubMed

    Van Reenen, C G; Van der Werf, J T N; Bruckmaier, R M; Hopster, H; Engel, B; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Blokhuis, H J

    2002-10-01

    An experiment was performed in primiparous dairy cows (n = 23) to examine consistency of individual differences in reactivity to milking, and correlations between measures of behavior, physiology, and milk ejection. Responsiveness to milking was monitored during the first machine milking, on d 2 of lactation, and during milkings on d 4 and 130 of lactation. Measurements included kicking and stepping behavior, plasma cortisol and plasma oxytocin, heart rate, milk yield, milking time, milk flow rate, and residual milk obtained after administration of exogenous oxytocin. With repeated early lactation milkings, residual milk and the incidence of abnormal milk flow curves decreased. On d 130 of lactation all heifers exhibited normal milk ejection. Except for higher plasma cortisol concentrations on d 2, all measures were consistent over time between d 2 and 4 of lactation as indicated by significant rank correlations. Individual differences in the behavioral response to udder preparation were consistent over time between early lactation milkings and d 130 of lactation. Residual milk, milk yield, maximum milk flow rate, plasma oxytocin and heart rate during udder preparation were similarly interrelated on d 2 and 4 of lactation. High heart rate responses on d 2 and 4 were associated with enhanced inhibition of milk ejection. In contrast, behavior recorded during the milking process was unrelated to ease of milk removal. Our results indicate that milking at the beginning of lactation may be stressful to some heifers, to the extent that milk ejection is inhibited, but less disturbing to others. The existence of consistent behavioral and physiological responses in the present study suggests that responsiveness of dairy heifers to milking is mediated by stable animal characteristics.

  17. Milk Allergy in Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... though, they can have symptoms if mom has dairy products in her diet . A milk allergy is not ... milk allergy, it's important for you to avoid dairy products because the milk protein that causes allergic reactions ...

  18. Growth hormone and milking frequency act differently on goat mammary gland in late lactation.

    PubMed

    Boutinaud, M; Rousseau, C; Keisler, D H; Jammes, H

    2003-02-01

    In ruminants, milk yield can be affected by treatment with growth hormone (rbGH) and/or changes in frequency of milking. Frequent milkings encourage the maintenance of lactation, whereas infrequent milkings result in mammary involution. Our objective was to evaluate the influence of rbGH treatment and milking frequency on mammary gland morphology and milk composition. After adaptation to twice-daily milkings, six Saanen goats in late lactation were milked once daily from one udder-half and thrice-daily from the other udder-half. Concurrently, three of the six goats received daily injections of rbGH. After 23 d of treatment, milking frequency significantly affected milk yield (+8% vs. -26% for thrice- vs. once-daily milking). Additionally, treatments of rbGH increased milk yield from thrice-daily milked udder-halves (+19%), but failed to abate the reduction in milk yield from once-daily milked udder-halves (-31%). Mammary glands were heavier in the frequently milked udder-halves and in GH-treated goats. Based on histological and DNA analysis of mammary tissues, it was determined that milking frequency clearly affected epithelial cell numbers and alveolar diameter, whereas rbGH induced a potential cell hypertrophy and only a tendency to increase and/or maintain the mammary cell number. RNA concentration and kappa casein gene expression were not affected by treatments. In udder-halves milked once-daily, low casein:whey protein ratios, high Na+:K+ ratios, and high somatic cell counts (SCC) were indicative of changes in epithelial permeability, which rbGH treatment facilitated. The present data suggest that milking frequency and exogenous treatments of rbGH use different cellular mechanisms to influence mammary gland morphology and milk production.

  19. Effect of sunflower oil supplementation and milking frequency reduction on sheep milk production and composition.

    PubMed

    Prieto, N; Bodas, R; López-Campos, Ó; Andrés, S; López, S; Giráldez, F J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of milking frequency reduction and dietary lipid supplementation on intake, BW, and milk yield and composition in high yielding dairy ewes. Ten lactating Assaf ewes were allocated into 2 experimental groups (n=5). Ewes were fed alfalfa hay ad libitum and 34 g·kg(-1) of BW of a concentrate feed with either 0 (Control group) or 43 g of sunflower oil·kg(-1) of DM (SO group). The experiment lasted 63 d and consisted of 3 periods. During Period 1 (from d 1 to 21), ewes were milked twice a day. During Period 2 (from d 22 to 49), ewes were unilaterally milked, so that each gland of each ewe was milked either once or twice daily. During Period 3 (from d 50 to the end of the experiment), both udder halves were again milked twice daily. Intake, BW, and milk composition were controlled weekly and milk production from each half udder was recorded twice a week. Total DM intake, BW, and milk yield in Period 1 were not significantly (P>0.10) affected by dietary treatments. Milk yield tended to be increased in the ewes fed the SO diet in periods 2 (P=0.093) and 3 (P=0.067). Oil supplementation (SO diet) significantly (P<0.05) decreased milk protein and total solids concentrations in the 3 experimental periods and fat content in Period 3, and tended (P=0.077) to decline fat content in Period 2. Lactose content and somatic cell count (SCC) were unaffected (P>0.10) by dietary lipid supplementation in any of the experimental periods. There were no significant (P>0.10) differences between half udders in milk yield and composition in Period 1, and in SCC in any of the experimental periods. Fat and total solids contents were unaffected (P>0.10) by reducing milking frequency. Nevertheless, milk protein content was increased (P<0.001) when glands were milked only once daily whereas milk yield and lactose content were decreased (P=0.001). The interaction between gland and diet was significant for lactose in Period 2, suggesting a

  20. Transfer of dietary zinc and fat to milk--evaluation of milk fat quality, milk fat precursors, and mastitis indicators.

    PubMed

    Wiking, L; Larsen, T; Sehested, J

    2008-04-01

    The present study demonstrated that the zinc concentration in bovine milk and blood plasma is significantly affected by the intake of saturated fat supplements. Sixteen Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4 periods of 12 d, and 4 dietary treatments were conducted. A total mixed ration based on corn silage, grass-clover silages, and pelleted sugar beet pulp was used on all treatments. A high de novo milk fat diet was formulated by adding rapeseed meal and molasses in the total mixed ration [39 mg of Zn/kg of dry matter (DM)], and a low de novo diet by adding saturated fat, fat-rich rapeseed cake, and corn (34 mg of Zn/kg of DM). Dietary Zn levels were increased by addition of ZnO to 83 and 80 mg of Zn/kg of DM. Treatments did not affect daily DM intake, or yield of energy-corrected milk, milk fat, or milk protein. The high de novo diet significantly increased milk fat percentage and milk content of fatty acids with chain length from C6 to C16, and decreased content of C18 and C18:1. Treatments did not influence milk free fatty acids at 4 degrees C at 0 or 28 h after milking. The average diameter of milk fat globules was significantly greater in milk from cows offered low de novo diets. Furthermore, the low de novo diet significantly increased the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids and d-beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood plasma, the latter was also increased in milk. Treatments did not affect the enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase in milk or the activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in blood plasma. The low de novo diet significantly increased plasma Zn and milk Zn content, whereas dietary Zn level did not in itself influence these parameters. This indicates that the transfer of fat from diet to milk might facilitate transfer of Zn from diet to milk.

  1. Human Milk Banking.

    PubMed

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula.

  2. Robotic milking: Feeding strategies and economic returns.

    PubMed

    Bach, Alex; Cabrera, Victor

    2017-02-16

    than milk yield. This approach requires that not only the amount of feed offered to each cow but also the composition of the feed vary according to the different nutrient needs of the cows. This review discusses the opportunities and pitfalls of milking and feeding cows in an AMS and summarizes different feeding strategies to maximize profits by managing the nutrition of the cows individually.

  3. Cow's milk and children

    MedlinePlus

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  4. 21 CFR 131.110 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.110 Milk. (a... by adding thereto cream, concentrated milk, dry whole milk, skim milk, concentrated skim milk,...

  5. Composition of milk from llamas in the United States.

    PubMed

    Morin, D E; Rowan, L L; Hurley, W L; Braselton, W E

    1995-08-01

    Neonatal llamas must receive supplemental milk when the dam has inadequate milk yield or fails to accept the cria. Data on llama milk composition are limited, and selection of suitable milk supplements has been difficult. Milk from 83 llamas on eight farms in four states (Illinois, Kentucky, Michigan, and Colorado) was collected, and milk composition was analyzed. Llamas had no history or signs of mastitis, and major mastitis pathogens were not isolated from the milk. Total solids were determined gravimetrically. A colorimetric method, a dye-binding assay, and the modified Mojonnier method were used to quantify lactose, protein, and fat, respectively. Concentrations of seven macrominerals and 17 trace elements were obtained by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and Cl was quantified by anion chromatography. Llama milk was higher in sugar (6.5%) and lower in fat (2.7%) and energy content (70.0 kcal/100 g) than milks of domestic ruminants. Llama milk also contained more Ca and less Na, K, and Cl. In general, milk composition was not affected by stage of lactation, lactation number, or body condition score of the llama, but several milk constituents varied among farms.

  6. Short communication: Monitoring nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk: effects of lactation and productive season.

    PubMed

    Martini, Mina; Altomonte, Iolanda; Salari, Federica; Caroli, Anna M

    2014-11-01

    Milk nutritional characteristics are especially interesting when donkey milk is aimed at consumption by children and the elderly. The aim of this study was to monitor the nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk during lactation and productive season to provide information on the milk characteristics and to study action plans to improve milk yield and quality. Thirty-one pluriparous jennies belonging to the same farm were selected. Individual samples of milk from the morning milking were taken once per month starting from the d 30 of lactation until d 300. Milk yield and dry matter, fat, and ash content were constant throughout the experimental period. Milk total protein content showed a progressive decrease during the first 6 mo of lactation; after this period, the protein percentages remained constant (1.50%). Caseins and lactose were lower until d 60 of lactation and remained constant thereafter. During summer and autumn, milk yield and casein and lactose contents were higher, whereas during the spring season, higher protein and ash contents were found. The percentages of fat and dry matter were stable as were most of the minerals in the milk, except for calcium, which was higher in the spring. In conclusion, Amiata donkey milk was found to be relatively stable during lactation. This is an advantage in terms of the production and trade of a food product with consistent characteristics. The different milk yield and quality during the productive seasons were probably related to better adaptability of the animals to warm and temperate periods.

  7. Starch levels on performance, milk composition and energy balance of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carmo, Carolina Almeida; Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Martinez, Junio Cesar; Correa, Paulo; Pedroso, Alexandre Mendonça; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of starch levels in diets with the replacement of citrus pulp for corn on milk yield, milk composition, and energy balance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in seven 4 × 4 Latin squares conducted concurrently, and each experimental period consisted of 20 days (16 days for adaptation and 4 days for sampling). The experimental treatments comprised four starch levels: 15, 20, 25, and 30% in the diet. The dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing starch levels. The milk yield and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield showed quadratic response to increasing starch levels. The milk protein content and milk total solids content responded linearly to increasing starch levels. The feed efficiency, milk lactose content, milk urea nitrogen, plasma urea nitrogen, and plasma glucose concentration were not affected by starch levels. The estimated net energy for lactation (NEL) intake increased linearly as the starch level was raised. Although the milk NEL output per kilogram of milk was not affected by starch, the milk NEL output daily responded quadratically to starch levels. In addition, the NEL in body weight gain also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. The efficiency of energy use for milk yield and the NEL efficiency for production also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. Diets for mid-lactating dairy cows producing around 30 kg/day of milk should be formulated to provide around 25% starch to optimize performance.

  8. Human Milk MicroRNA and Total RNA Differ Depending on Milk Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Alsaweed, Mohammed; Hepworth, Anna R.; Lefèvre, Christophe; Hartmann, Peter E.; Geddes, Donna T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT MicroRNA have been recently discovered in human milk signifying potentially important functions for both the lactating breast and the infant. Whilst human milk microRNA have started to be explored, little data exist on the evaluation of sample processing, and analysis to ensure that a full spectrum of microRNA can be obtained. Human milk comprises three main fractions: cells, skim milk, and lipids. Typically, the skim milk fraction has been measured in isolation despite evidence that the lipid fraction may contain more microRNA. This study aimed to standardize isolation of microRNA and total RNA from all three fractions of human milk to determine the most appropriate sampling and analysis procedure for future studies. Three different methods from eight commercially available kits were tested for their efficacy in extracting total RNA and microRNA from the lipid, skim, and cell fractions of human milk. Each fraction yielded different concentrations of RNA and microRNA, with the highest quantities found in the cell and lipid fractions, and the lowest in skim milk. The column‐based phenol‐free method was the most efficient extraction method for all three milk fractions. Two microRNAs were expressed and validated in the three milk fractions by qPCR using the three recommended extraction kits for each fraction. High expression levels were identified in the skim and lipid milk factions for these microRNAs. These results suggest that careful consideration of both the human milk sample preparation and extraction protocols should be made prior to embarking upon research in this area. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 2397–2407, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25925799

  9. Human Milk MicroRNA and Total RNA Differ Depending on Milk Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Alsaweed, Mohammed; Hepworth, Anna R; Lefèvre, Christophe; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T; Hassiotou, Foteini

    2015-10-01

    MicroRNA have been recently discovered in human milk signifying potentially important functions for both the lactating breast and the infant. Whilst human milk microRNA have started to be explored, little data exist on the evaluation of sample processing, and analysis to ensure that a full spectrum of microRNA can be obtained. Human milk comprises three main fractions: cells, skim milk, and lipids. Typically, the skim milk fraction has been measured in isolation despite evidence that the lipid fraction may contain more microRNA. This study aimed to standardize isolation of microRNA and total RNA from all three fractions of human milk to determine the most appropriate sampling and analysis procedure for future studies. Three different methods from eight commercially available kits were tested for their efficacy in extracting total RNA and microRNA from the lipid, skim, and cell fractions of human milk. Each fraction yielded different concentrations of RNA and microRNA, with the highest quantities found in the cell and lipid fractions, and the lowest in skim milk. The column-based phenol-free method was the most efficient extraction method for all three milk fractions. Two microRNAs were expressed and validated in the three milk fractions by qPCR using the three recommended extraction kits for each fraction. High expression levels were identified in the skim and lipid milk factions for these microRNAs. These results suggest that careful consideration of both the human milk sample preparation and extraction protocols should be made prior to embarking upon research in this area.

  10. Real-time evaluation of milk quality as reflected by clotting parameters of individual cow's milk during the milking session, between day-to-day and during lactation.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi; Jacoby, Shamay; Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil

    2013-09-01

    together with high milk yield >50 l/day, and late in lactation together with low milk yield<15 l/day and estrous (0 to 5 days) were also important influencing factors for low-quality milk. However, ∼50% of the tested variables did not explain any of the factors responsible for the cow producing milk in the low - 10% Afi-CF.

  11. Assessing liner performance using on-farm milk meters.

    PubMed

    Penry, J F; Leonardi, S; Upton, J; Thompson, P D; Reinemann, D J

    2016-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to quantify and compare the interactive effects of liner compression, milking vacuum level, and pulsation settings on average milk flow rates for liners representing the range of liner compression of commercial liners. A secondary objective was to evaluate a methodology for assessing liner performance that can be applied on commercial dairy farms. Eight different liner types were assessed using 9 different combinations of milking system vacuum and pulsation settings applied to a herd of 80 cows with vacuum and pulsation conditions changed daily for 36d using a central composite experimental design. Liner response surfaces were created for explanatory variables milking system vacuum (Vsystem) and pulsator ratio (PR) and response variable average milk flow rate (AMF=total yield/total cups-on time) expressed as a fraction of the within-cow average flow rate for all treatments (average milk flow rate fraction, AMFf). Response surfaces were also created for between-liner comparisons for standardized conditions of claw vacuum and milk ratio (fraction of pulsation cycle during which milk is flowing). The highest AMFf was observed at the highest levels of Vsystem, PR, and overpressure. All liners showed an increase in AMF as milking conditions were changed from low to high standardized conditions of claw vacuum and milk ratio. Differences in AMF between liners were smallest at the most gentle milking conditions (low Vsystem and low milk ratio), and these between-liner differences in AMF increased as liner overpressure increased. Differences were noted with vacuum drop between Vsystem and claw vacuum depending on the liner venting system, with short milk tube vented liners having the greater vacuum drop than mouthpiece chamber vented liners. The accuracy of liner performance assessment in commercial parlors fitted with milk meters can be improved by using a central composite experimental design with a repeated center point treatment

  12. Effects of milk powders in milk chocolate.

    PubMed

    Liang, B; Hartel, R W

    2004-01-01

    The physical characteristics of milk powders used in chocolate can have significant impact on the processing conditions needed to make that chocolate and the physical and organoleptic properties of the finished product. Four milk powders with different particle characteristics (size, shape, density) and "free" milk fat levels (easily extracted with organic solvent) were evaluated for their effect on the processing conditions and characteristics of chocolates in which they were used. Many aspects of chocolate manufacture and storage (tempering conditions, melt rheology, hardness, bloom stability) were dependent on the level of free milk fat in the milk powder. However, particle characteristics of the milk powder also influenced the physical and sensory properties of the final products.

  13. Impact of increasing milk production on whole farm environmental management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing herd milk production can provide both economic benefit to the producer and environmental benefit to society. Simulated dairy farms with average annual herd productions from 16,000 to 30,000 lb/cow illustrate that increasing milk yield per cow improves feed efficiency, reduces feed costs a...

  14. 9 CFR 94.16 - Milk and milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milk and milk products. 94.16 Section... RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.16 Milk and milk products. (a) The following milk products are exempt from the... for importation into the United States under this part; (2) Butter; and (3) Butteroil. (b) Milk...

  15. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    PubMed

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy.

  16. Selenium content of milk and milk products of Turkey. II.

    PubMed

    Yanardağ, R; Orak, H

    1999-04-01

    Selenium content of 1028 milk and milk products of Turkey are presented in this study. The selenium content of human milk (colostrum, transitional, and mature milk), various kinds of milk [cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, paper boxes (3%, 1.5%, 0.012% fat), bottled milk, condensed milk (10% fat), mineral added milk (1.6%), and banana, strawberry, and chocolate milk] and milk products (kefir, yogurt, Ayran, various cheese, coffee cream, ice cream, butter, margarine, milk powder, and fruit yogurt) in Turkey were determined by a spectrofluorometric method. The selenium levels of cow milks collected from 57 cities in Turkey were also determined. Selenium levels in cow milk varied with geographical location in Turkey and were found to be lowest for Van and highest for Aksaray. The results [milk (cow, sheep, goat, buffalo and human) and milks products] were compared with literature data from different countries.

  17. Evaluation of maternal performance of daughters from high and low milk EPD sires.

    PubMed

    Baker, J F; Boyd, M E; Brown, A H; Franke, D E; Thompson, C E

    2003-06-01

    Angus bulls (n = 24) were selected for either high or low milk EPD, but with similar growth EPD and mated within location (n = 6) at random to Angus cows. Daughters from these matings were bred to calve first at 2 yr of age to common reference sires across locations. Lactation records for 192 daughters were used to evaluate 12-h milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, and weaning weight of offspring. Milk production was measured four times during the lactation at regular intervals within location. Dams were separated from their calves the night before milking and milked with a portable milking machine the next morning to estimate 12-h milk yield. A sample of the milk was collected from each cow and analyzed for percentages of milk fat and protein. Data were analyzed as repeated records of the dam. Fixed effects were location, genetic line of sire, gender of calf within location, and milking period, with postpartum interval used as a covariate. Fixed effects and the random effects of sire of dam nested within line, sire of calf, and year were estimated by REML. Genetic line was an important source of variation for milk yield (P < 0.01) and percentage of milk fat (P = 0.03) but not for percentage of milk protein (P = 0.49). Location was significant for all three milk variables (P < 0.01), but the interactions between line and location were not significant. Gender of calf was significant for milk yield (P = 0.04) but not for percentage of milk fat or protein. Line (P = 0.02), location (P = 0.01), calf gender (P = 0.01), and age at weaning (P = 0.01) were significant sources of variation for weaning weight but the interaction of line and location was not (P = 0.69). The correlation coefficient between the sire's milk EPD and 12-h milk yield was significantly different from zero (r = 0.56). The difference between the least squares means for high and low lines for milk yield was 0.66 kg/12 h and the difference was 15.3 kg for weaning weight. The results indicate

  18. Milk phospholipids: Organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid compared with conventional milk.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, T; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the phospholipid content of conventional milk with that of organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The membrane enclosing the fat globules of milk is composed, in part, of phospholipids, which have properties of interest for the development of so-called functional foods and technologically novel ingredients. They include phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and the sphingophospholipid sphingomyelin (SM). Milk from organically managed cows contains higher levels of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids than conventionally produced milk, but we know of no study with analogous comparisons of major phospholipid contents. In addition, the use of polyunsaturated-lipid-rich feed supplement (extruded linseed) has been reported to increase the phospholipid content of milk. Because supplementation with linseed and increased unsaturated fatty acid content are the main dietary modifications used for production of CLA-rich milk, we investigated whether these modifications would lead to this milk having higher phospholipid content. We used HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection to determine PE, PI, PC, PS, and SM contents in 16 samples of organic milk and 8 samples of CLA-rich milk, in each case together with matching reference samples of conventionally produced milk taken on the same days and in the same geographical areas as the organic and CLA-rich samples. Compared with conventional milk and milk fat, organic milk and milk fat had significantly higher levels of all the phospholipids studied. This is attributable to the differences between the 2 systems of milk production, among which the most influential are probably differences in diet and physical exercise. The CLA-rich milk fat had significantly higher levels of PI, PS, and PC than conventional milk fat, which is also attributed to dietary differences: rations for

  19. Associations between lameness and production, feeding and milking attendance of Holstein cows milked with an automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Bach, Alex; Dinarés, Martí; Devant, Maria; Carré, Xavier

    2007-02-01

    A longitudinal study involving 73 primiparous (PP) and 47 multiparous (MP) Holstein cows was conducted over an 8-month period to assess the associations between locomotion score (LCS) and milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), feeding behaviour, and number of visits to an automatic milking system (AMS). Twice weekly, all cows were locomotion scored (scale 1-5) by the same observer. Individual eating behaviour and individual feed consumption at each cow visit to the feed troughs, individual milk production, the time of milking, and the number of milkings for each cow were recorded for the day of locomotion scoring and the day before and after. Dependent variables, such as milk yield, DMI, etc. were modelled using a mixed-effects model with parity, LCS, days in milk (DIM), the exponential of -0.05 DIM, and the interaction between parity and LCS, as fixed effects and random intercepts and random slopes for the linear and the exponential of -0.05DIM effects within cow. LCS did not affect time of attendance at feed troughs, but affected the location that cows occupied in the feed troughs. The time devoted to eating and DMI decreased with increasing LCS. Milk production decreased with LCS>3. The number of daily visits to the AMS also decreased with increasing LCS. The cows with high LCS were fetched more often than the cows with low LCS. Overall, PP cows were more sensitive to the effects of increasing LCS than were MP cows. The decrease in milk production observed with increasing LCS seemed to be affected similarly by the decrease in DMI and by the decrease in number of daily visits to the AMS. A further economic loss generated by lame cows with AMS will be associated with the additional labour needed to fetch them.

  20. Immune response, productivity and quality of milk from grazing goats as affected by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovana; Santillo, Antonella; Marino, Rosaria; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess how diet supplemented with fish oil and linseed improve the immune profile, the production performance, and milk quality of grazing goats by a diet supplementation of fish oil or linseed. Twenty-four Garganica grazing goats were divided into three groups named control (CON), fish oil (FO) and linseed (LIN) according to the fat supplement received in their diet. In vivo immune responses were evaluated by monitoring cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in order to verify the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation on goats' health status. Goat milk samples were analysed weekly to determine milk chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and somatic cell count. Diet based on linseed supplementation (LIN) significantly increased milk yield by 30%, milk fat yield by 67%, protein yield by 34%, and casein yield by 41% as compared with CON. Fat content increased by 30% in LIN milk as compared with CON milk, and by 12% as compared with FO milk. Linseed modified milk fatty acid profile; LIN milk showed lower SFA and higher PUFA than FO milk. The modified fatty acid composition of LIN milk resulted in lower AI and TI indexes than FO and CON milk. Linseed and fish oil administration can reduce humoral immunity of goats, but has no effect in their cellular immunity. Dietary linseed supplementation in grazing dairy goat supports feeding programs to improve milk composition and quality, and a modulation of their immune responses.

  1. Milk Allergy in Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... which normally fights infections, overreacts to proteins in cow's milk (the basis for most commercial baby formulas). ... days to weeks after they're first given cow milk-based formula. Breastfed infants have a lower ...

  2. Breastfeeding and Breast Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information​ ​​Breastfeeding, also called ...

  3. Milk-alkali syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000332.htm Milk-alkali syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Milk-alkali syndrome is a condition in which there ...

  4. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  5. 21 CFR 131.111 - Acidified milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.111 Acidified milk. (a... ingredients. Cream, milk, partially skimmed milk, or skim milk, used alone or in combination. (d)...

  6. Importance of casein micelle size and milk composition for milk gelation.

    PubMed

    Glantz, M; Devold, T G; Vegarud, G E; Lindmark Månsson, H; Stålhammar, H; Paulsson, M

    2010-04-01

    The economic output of the dairy industry is to a great extent dependent on the processing of milk into other milk-based products such as cheese. The yield and quality of cheese are dependent on both the composition and technological properties of milk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the importance and effects of casein (CN) micelle size and milk composition on milk gelation characteristics in order to evaluate the possibilities for enhancing gelation properties through breeding. Milk was collected on 4 sampling occasions at the farm level in winter and summer from dairy cows with high genetic merit, classified as elite dairy cows, of the Swedish Red and Swedish Holstein breeds. Comparisons were made with milk from a Swedish Red herd, a Swedish Holstein herd, and a Swedish dairy processor. Properties of CN micelles, such as their native and rennet-induced CN micelle size and their zeta-potential, were analyzed by photon correlation spectroscopy, and rennet-induced gelation characteristics, including gel strength, gelation time, and frequency sweeps, were determined. Milk parameters of the protein, lipid, and carbohydrate profiles as well as minerals were used to obtain correlations with native CN micelle size and gelation characteristics. Milk pH and protein, CN, and lactose contents were found to affect milk gelation. Smaller native CN micelles were shown to form stronger gels when poorly coagulating milk was excluded from the correlation analysis. In addition, milk pH correlated positively, whereas Mg and K correlated negatively with native CN micellar size. The milk from the elite dairy cows was shown to have good gelation characteristics. Furthermore, genetic progress in relation to CN micelle size was found for these cows as a correlated response to selection for the Swedish breeding objective if optimizing for milk gelation characteristics. The results indicate that selection for smaller native CN micelles and lower milk pH through breeding would

  7. Milk, flavoured milk products and caries.

    PubMed

    Levine, R S

    2001-07-14

    The consumption of flavoured milk increased by 50% between 1992 and 1999 and dental health educators need to know if these and other sugar and fruit juice sweetened milk products, such as fruit yoghurts, are acceptable as snack items. Available evidence suggests that their cariogenicity is negligible to low and consumed in moderation they are a preferable alternative to similarly sweetened soft drinks.

  8. Milk demystified by chemistry.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-09-01

    This article traces the decline of milk from a heavenly elixir to a tradeable food. Early cultures regarded milk not as a simple nutrient, but a living fluid. Heroes and gods were believed to have been nurtured by animals after being abandoned. Character traits were assumed to be transmitted by milk; infantile diseases were attributed to "bad milk", whereas "good milk" was used as a remedy. With chemical methods developed at the end of the 18th century, it became known that human milk was higher in sugar and lower in protein than cow's milk. During the 19th century, "scientific" feeding emerged that meant modifying cow's milk to imitate the proportion of nutrients in human milk. In Boston from 1893, Rotch initiated the "percentage" method, requiring a physician's prescription. In Paris from 1894, Budin sterilized bottled infant milk. In Berlin in 1898, Rubner measured oxygen and energy uptake by calorimetry, prompting feeding by calories, and Czerny introduced regulated feeding by the clock. These activities ignored the emotional dimension of infant nutrition and the anti-infective properties of human milk. They may have also enhanced the decline in breastfeeding, which reached an all-time low in 1971. Milk's demystification made artificial nutrition safer, but paved the way for commercially produced infant formula.

  9. Special Milk Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Special Milk Program provides milk to children in schools, child care institutions and eligible camps that do not participate in other Federal child nutrition meal service programs. The program reimburses schools and institutions for the milk they serve. In 2008, 4,676 schools and residential child care institutions participated, along with…

  10. Effect of automatic cluster removers on milking efficiency and teat condition of Manchega ewes.

    PubMed

    Bueso-Ródenas, J; Romero, G; Arias, R; Rodríguez, A M; Díaz, J R

    2015-06-01

    Milking operations represent more than 50% of the work on a dairy ewe farm. The implementation of automatic cluster removers (ACR) is gaining popularity, as it allows the operator to avoid manual cluster detachments, simplifying the milking routines. The aim of this study was to discover the effect on the milking of Manchega ewes over an entire lactation period by using this type of devices, set up with 2 different combinations of milk flow threshold (MF) and delay time (DT) and comparing them with the traditional method using manual cluster removal. During a 15-d pre-experimental period, the animals were milked without ACR and sampling was performed to select 108 ewes and distribute them into 3 groups of similar characteristics according to their parity, milk yield, milking duration, and mammary gland sanitary status. Later, each group was milked for a duration of 4 mo in 3 different conditions: 1 with manual cluster removal, the second setting the ACR at MF 150 g/min and DT 20 s, and the third setting the ACR at MF 200 g/min and DT 10 s. Samplings of milking fraction, milking duration, milk composition, mammary gland sanitary status, teat-end status, and vacuum level in the short milk tubes during milking were performed. The use of ACR limited the vacuum drops in the short milk tubes and the edema in the teat end after milking, although no reduction in the number of new cases of mastitis was observed and the milk composition did not change. Moreover, it was noted that the use of ACR set with MF 150 g/min and DT 20 s was more efficient than the manual cluster removal, as it obtained a similar amount of extracted milk but took less time. Conversely, the use of ACR set with MF 200 g/min and DT 10 s involved a higher reduction in individual milking duration and the milking duration of groups of animals but reduced milk extracted.

  11. Association between milking practices and psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk.

    PubMed

    Molineri, Ana I; Signorini, Marcelo L; Cuatrín, Alejandra L; Canavesio, Vilma R; Neder, Verónica E; Russi, Norma B; Bonazza, Julio C; Calvinho, Luis F

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine on-farm risk factors for psychrotrophic bacterial counts in bulk tank milk from dairy farms in Argentina. Raw milk samples from bulk tanks of 27 dairy farms were examined for total psychrotrophic counts (TPC), proteolytic psychrotrophic counts (PPC) and lipolytic psychrotrophic counts (LPC) (dependent or outcome variables). A survey recording infrastructure conditions, milking equipment and milking management (independent variables) was performed. Bivariate association proofs and logistic regression analyses were used to determine association between independent variables and psychrotrophic bacterial counts. Milk cooled in plate heat exchangers or barrel tanks were 16.39 and 10.52 times more likely to yield TPC and PPC above the standard established for high quality milk compared with milk cooled in bulk tanks, respectively. Periodic cleaning of cooling tanks (3 times a week or daily) was associated with lower TPC (approximately 1.5 log CFU/ml) than weekly cleaning frequency and farms where milkers did not wash their hands during milking time were 7.81 times more likely to have higher PPC. No association was found between LPC and any of the independent variables. The only variable associated with TPC and PPC in a logistic regression model was the refrigeration system used on the farm. Dairy farms that possessed bulk milk cooling tanks yielded the lowest bacterial counts. Results of this study highlight the importance of both the type of cooling system used on the farm and its adequate hygienic maintenance for obtaining low pshychrotrophic counts at dairy farm.

  12. The effect of homogenization and milk fat fractions on the functionality of Mozzarella cheese.

    PubMed

    Rowney, M K; Hickey, M W; Roupas, P; Everett, D W

    2003-03-01

    Mozzarella cheese was manufactured from milk containing either a low (olein) or a high (stearin) melting point fraction of milk fat or anhydrous milk fat. The fat was dispersed into skim milk by homogenization at 2.6 MPa before being manufactured into cheese. The melting point of the milk fat did not affect the size or shape of the fat globules, nor was there any effect of homogenization on the polymorphic state of the milk fat. There were no changes in milk fat globule size and shape concomitant with the amount of free oil formed. The polymorphic state of the milk fat did affect the amount of free oil formed and the apparent viscosity of the cheese. The lower melting point fraction yielded a larger amount of free oil. The higher melting point fraction yielded a higher viscosity of melted cheese at 60 degrees C. Mozzarella cheese was also manufactured from homogenized milk, nonhomogenized milk, and a 1:1 ratio of the two, without altering the milk fat composition. Increasing the proportion of homogenized milk yielded a lower free oil content and higher viscosity of the cheese.

  13. Multiple-trait multiple-country genetic evaluation of Holstein bulls for female fertility and milk production traits.

    PubMed

    Nilforooshan, M A; Jakobsen, J H; Fikse, W F; Berglund, B; Jorjani, H

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of including milk yield data in the international genetic evaluation of female fertility traits to reduce or eliminate a possible bias because of across-country selection for milk yield. Data included two female fertility traits from Great Britain, Italy and the Netherlands, together with milk yield data from the same countries and from the United States, because the genetic trends in other countries may be influenced by selection decisions on bulls in the United States. Potentially, female fertility data had been corrected nationally for within-country selection and management biases for milk yield. Using a multiple-trait multiple across-country evaluation (MT-MACE) for the analysis of female fertility traits with milk yield, across-country selection patterns both for female fertility and milk yield can be considered simultaneously. Four analyses were performed; one single-trait multiple across-country evaluation analysis including only milk yield data, one MT-MACE analysis including only female fertility traits, and one MT-MACE analysis including both female fertility and milk yield traits. An additional MT-MACE analysis was performed including both female fertility and milk yield traits, but excluding the United States. By including milk yield traits to the analysis, female fertility reliabilities increased, but not for all bulls in all the countries by trait combinations. The presence of milk yield traits in the analysis did not considerably change the genetic correlations, genetic trends or bull rankings of female fertility traits. Even though the predicted genetic merits of female fertility traits hardly changed by including milk yield traits to the analysis, the change was not equally distributed to the whole data. The number of bulls in common between the two sets of Top 100 bulls for each trait in the two analyses of female fertility traits, with and without the four milk yield traits and their rank

  14. Human milk banking.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing.

  15. Glycobiology of human milk.

    PubMed

    Newburg, D S

    2013-07-01

    Glycans are characteristic components of milk, and each species has unique patterns of specific carbohydrates. Human milk is unusually rich in glycans, with the major components being lactose and oligosaccharides, representing approximately 6.8 and 1% of the milk, respectively. Other sources of glycans in human milk include monosaccharides, mucins, glycosaminoglycans, glycoproteins, glycopeptides, and glycolipids. In human milk, the presence and patterns of these glycans vary depending upon the stage of lactation and the maternal genes and their genetic polymorphisms that control glycosyl transferases. The synthesis of milk glycans utilizes a significant portion of the metabolic energy that the mother expends when producing her milk, but other than lactose, these glycans contribute little to the nutritional needs of the infant. The data herein support several functions. 1) Many human milk glycans inhibit pathogens from binding to the intestinal mucosa. 2) Human milk glycans attenuate inflammation. 3) Glycans also directly stimulate the growth of beneficial (mutualist) bacteria of the microbiota (formerly considered commensal microflora of the intestine); these mutualists and their fermentation products can, in turn, (a) inhibit pathogens, (b) modulate signaling and inflammation, and (c) the fermentation products can be absorbed and utilized as a source of dietary calories. These functions can help direct and support intestinal postnatal growth, development, and ontogeny of colonization. The many functions of the milk glycans may synergistically protect infants from disease. Hence, human milk glycans and their homologs may serve as novel prophylactic or therapeutic agents for a diverse range of deleterious conditions.

  16. Technical note: Effects of attachment of hind teats before cleaning and attachment of front teats on milking characteristics in automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Besier, J; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Wellnitz, O; Bruckmaier, R M

    2017-04-01

    Milking characteristics differ between the 4 quarters of a dairy cow udder. In particular, milking time is mostly prolonged in hind quarters compared with front quarters because of the usually higher amount of stored milk. The standard milking routine (STDMR) in both conventional and automatic milking systems (AMS) consists of teat preparation of all 4 quarters, followed by attachment of the 4 teat cups, regardless of the distribution of milk between quarters. In the current study, an alternative teat preparation and milking routine (ALTMR) in AMS was tested, which consisted of cleaning and starting the milking of hind teats before cleaning and attachment of front teats. The hypothesis was based on the fact that hind quarters have usually a longer milking time than front quarters. Starting the milking of hind quarters while the front teats are being cleaned may reduce the difference in the end of milking between front and hind quarters and thus reduce total milking time. Both routines were tested on 5 Swedish dairy farms equipped with AMS in a 4-wk experiment in which treatments were alternated weekly. Total milk yield did not differ between treatments. Machine-on time (MOT) was longer in ALTMR than in STDMR because the difference in milking time between hind and front quarters was less than the time needed to prepare the front teats. However, the longer MOT in ALTMR was compensated by a shorter total preparation time, including the attachment of the first teat cup, as only the hind teats (instead of all 4 teats) were cleaned before milking was started. This resulted in a similar total milking time from start of cleaning of the first quarter until the end of milking of the last quarter in both treatments. Because of the prolonged MOT, average milk flow rate was lower in ALTMR than STDMR. Peak flow rate was higher in ALTMR than STDMR, but only in teat cups 1 (first attached, hind quarter) and 3 (third attached, front quarter), whereas main milk flow was higher in

  17. Review of present knowledge on machine milking and intensive milk production in dromedary camels and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Judit

    2016-06-01

    The camel dairy industry has gone through major development in the last decade. The world's first large-scale camel dairy farm was established 10 years ago in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and since then, several commercial and scientific projects have been started, and more studies have been published demonstrating increasing interest in camel milk. The aims of this paper are to summarize relevant published data on factors influencing milk production under intensive management, compare those with our own observations obtained from Emirates Industry for Camel Milk and Products (EICMP), and highlight areas of research that are indispensable for further development. As in other species, the most important factors influencing milk yield are genetic and individual variation, age, parity, stage of lactation, nutrition, management, season, photoperiod, etc. However, the precise role of the various factors has not been thoroughly studied in camels and based on our understanding of the basic physiological processes, endocrine control is minimal. In addition, machine milking of dromedaries is still at early stage and requires research for improvement of the technology and defining factors affecting and improving milk ejection. The role of environment (like photoperiod, nutrition) should also be investigated as there is significant annual variation both in milk quantity and quality that might influence the processing characteristics of raw camel milk. The large pool of animals and thoroughly recorded data at EICMP provide an excellent opportunity for increasing milk production and improving milk quality using various methods, like feeding, management, reproduction, selection, and breeding.

  18. 9 CFR 94.16 - Milk and milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk and milk products. 94.16 Section... VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.16 Milk and milk products. (a) The following milk products are exempt from the provisions of this part:...

  19. 9 CFR 94.16 - Milk and milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk and milk products. 94.16 Section... VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.16 Milk and milk products. (a) The following milk products are exempt from the provisions of this part:...

  20. 9 CFR 94.16 - Milk and milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk and milk products. 94.16 Section... VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.16 Milk and milk products. (a) The following milk products are exempt from the provisions of this part:...

  1. Pattern of γ-glutamyl transferase activity in cow milk throughout lactation and relationships with metabolic conditions and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Calamari, L; Gobbi, L; Russo, F; Cappelli, F Piccioli

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of this experiment was to study the γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity in milk during lactation and its relationship with metabolic status of dairy cows, milk yield, milk composition, and cheesemaking properties. The study was performed in a tied stall barn and involved 20 lactations from 12 healthy multiparous Italian Friesian dairy cows. During lactation starting at d 10, milk samples were collected weekly and analyzed for composition, somatic cells count, titratable acidity, and milk coagulation properties. The GGT activity was measured in defatted samples. Blood samples were collected weekly to assess biochemical indicators related to energy, protein, and mineral metabolism, markers of inflammation and some enzyme activities. The lactations of each cow were retrospectively categorized into 2 groups according to their milk GGT activity value through lactation. A median value of GGT activity in the milk of all lactations was calculated (3,045 U/L), and 10 lactations with lower GGT activity were classified as low while 10 lactations with greater GGT activity were classified as high. The average value of milk GGT activity during lactation was 3,863 and 3,024 U/L for high and low, respectively. The GGT activity decreased in early lactation and reached minimum values in the second month (3,289 and 2,355 U/L for high and low, respectively). Thereafter GGT activity increased progressively, reaching values in late lactation of 4,511 and 3,540 U/L in high and low, respectively. On average, milk yield was 40.81 and 42.76 kg/d in high and low, respectively, and a negative partial correlation with milk GGT activity was observed. A greater milk protein concentration was observed in high (3.39%) compared with low (3.18%), and a positive partial correlation with milk GGT activity was observed. Greater titratable acidity in high than that in low (3.75 vs. 3.45 degrees Soxhlet-Henkel/50 mL, respectively) was also observed. Plasma glucose was greater in

  2. The effect of incomplete milking or nursing on milk production, blood metabolites, and immune functions of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carbonneau, E; de Passillé, A M; Rushen, J; Talbot, B G; Lacasse, P

    2012-11-01

    During the transition from pregnancy to lactation, the sudden increase in nutrient demand for milk production causes metabolic perturbations and is associated with immunosuppression and a high incidence of metabolic and infectious diseases in high-yielding cows. In this study, we examined whether limiting milk harvest postpartum while maintaining milking stimulus could improve the metabolic status of cows without reducing overall milk production. Forty-seven Holstein cows were milked completely twice a day from calving (control); milked incompletely (about one-third of expected milk production was collected) twice a day until d 5 after calving (incomplete); or left to nurse their calf until d 5 and milked once a day from d 3 to d 5 (nursing). All cows were milked twice a day from d 6 to the end of the experiment (d 61). During the treatment period (d 1 to 5), milk production averaged 27.3 and 9.7 kg/d for the control and incomplete treatments, respectively. We observed no residual effect of treatment on milk production, which averaged 47.8, 45.7, and 46.4 kg/d for the control, incomplete, and nursing treatments, respectively, between wk 2 and 9. The dry matter intake of the cows was similar during and after treatment. From wk 2 to 9, milk protein and lactose percentage were not affected by treatments, but milk fat tended to be higher in control cows than in cows milked partially (incomplete + nursing). Blood concentrations of glucose and phosphorus were lower and concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were higher in control cows than in partially milked cows during the treatment period. The positive effects on glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate remained significant up to d 28. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation and secretion of IL-4 were depressed during the postpartum period, and proliferation tended to be greater for cells incubated in serum from cows in the incomplete treatment on d 5 but lower on d 61. We observed no

  3. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    PubMed

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  4. Relationships between milks differentiated on native milk fat globule characteristics and fat, protein and calcium compositions.

    PubMed

    Couvreur, S; Hurtaud, C

    2017-03-01

    Many studies have shown that milk fat globule (MFG) diameter varies in dairy cows in relation to diet and/or breed. However, the mechanisms governing the size of the fat globules remain hypothetical. Our objective was to determine the variable biochemical characteristics (fat, protein, fatty acids (FA), casein and calcium (Ca) contents) between individual milk which differed in both MFG diameter and membrane content, in order to speculate about the links between milk synthesis and MFG secretion. With this aim, we built five databases of individual milk samples from 21 experiments performed between 2003 and 2011. Three of them grouped data from trials dealing with breed/diet effects and included information about: (i) MFG size/membrane, fat and protein contents (n=982), (ii) previous parameters plus FA profile (n=529) and (iii) previous parameters plus true protein composition and calcium contents (n=101). A hierarchical clustering analysis performed on these three databases yielded four groups differing in the MFG characteristics. We observed significant differences among groups for the following parameters: (i) fat content and fat : protein ratio; (ii) de novo and polyunsaturated FA contents; (iii) Ca contents. These relationships could result from potential process regulating the synthesis and secretion of MFG: (i) the apical membrane turnover for MFG secretion and (ii) cytoplasmic lipid droplet formation in the lactocyte during its migration from the basal to the apical pole. The two other databases grouped data from trials dealing with milking frequency (n=211), milking kinetics and milk type (residual v. cisternal) (n=224). They were used to study the relationships between the size of the MFG and milk composition for high native fat contents (from 60 up to 100 g/kg in residual milks). We observed curvilinear relationships between the size of the MFG and fat content, as well as with the fat : protein ratio. This result suggests that MFG diameter reaches a

  5. Investigation of the migration of triclabendazole residues to milk products manufactured from bovine milk, and stability therein, following lactating cow treatment.

    PubMed

    Power, C; Danaher, M; Sayers, R; O'Brien, B; Clancy, C; Furey, A; Jordan, K

    2013-10-01

    Triclabendazole (TCB) is a flukicide used in the treatment of liver fluke in cattle; however, its use is currently prohibited in lactating dairy cows. In this study, following administration of 10% Fasinex (triclabendazole, Novartis Animal Health UK Ltd., Camberley, UK) the milk of 6 animals was used to manufacture dairy products, to ascertain if TCB residues in milk migrate into dairy products. The detection limit of the ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method used was 0.67 μg/kg. The highest concentrations of TCB residue measured, within the individual cow milk yield, was 1,529 ± 244 µg/kg (n=6), on d 2 posttreatment. Days 2 and 23 posttreatment represented high and low residue concentrations, respectively. At each of these 2 time points, the milk was pooled into 2 independent aliquots and refrigerated. Milk products, including cheese, butter, and skim milk powder were manufactured using pasteurized and unpasteurized milk from each aliquot. The results for high residue milks demonstrated that TCB residues concentrated in the cheese by a factor of 5 (5,372 vs. 918 µg/kg for cheese vs. milk) compared with the starting milk. Residue concentrations are the sum of TCB and its metabolites, expressed as keto-TCB. Residues were concentrated in the butter by a factor of 9 (9,177 vs. 1,082 μg/kg for butter vs. milk) compared with the starting milk. For milk, which was separated to skim milk and cream fractions, the residues were concentrated in the cream. Once skim milk powder was manufactured from the skim milk fraction, the residue in powder was concentrated 15-fold compared with the starting skim milk (7,252 vs. 423 µg/kg for powder vs. skim milk), despite the high temperature (185 °C) required during powder manufacture. For products manufactured from milk with low residue concentrations at d 23 posttreatment, TCB residues were detected in butter, cheese, and skim milk powder, even though there was no detectable residue in the

  6. Microstructure of fat globules in whole milk after thermosonication treatment.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez-Aguirre, D; Mawson, R; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V

    2008-09-01

    The structure of fat globules in whole milk was studied after heat and thermosonication treatments to observe what happens during these processes at the microscopic level using scanning electron microscopy. Raw whole milk was thermosonicated in an ultrasonic processor-Hielscher UP400S (400 W, 24 kHz, 120 microm amplitude), using a 22-mm probe at 63 degrees C for 30 min. Heat treatment involved heating the milk at 63 degrees C for 30 min. Color and fat content were measured to correlate the images with analytical measurements. The results showed that the surface of the fat globule was completely roughened after thermosonication. Ultrasound waves were responsible for disintegrating the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) by releasing the triacylglycerols. Furthermore, the overall structure of milk after sonication showed smaller fat globules (smaller than 1 microm) and a granular surface. This was due to the interaction between the disrupted MFGM and some casein micelles. Minor changes in the aspect of the globules between thermal and raw milks were detected. Color measurements showed higher L* values for sonicated samples. Sonicated milk was whiter (92.37 +/- 0.20) and generally showed a better degree of luminosity and homogenization compared to thermal treated milk (88.25 +/- 0.67) and raw milk (87.82 +/- 0.18). Fat content analysis yielded a higher value after sonication (4.24%) compared to untreated raw milk (4.04%) because fat extraction is more efficient after sonication. The advantages of thermosonicated milk are that it can be pasteurized and homogenized in just 1 step, it can be produced with important cost savings, and it has better characteristics, making thermosonication a potential processing method for milk and most other dairy products.

  7. Molecular Ecology of Listeria monocytogenes: Evidence for a Reservoir in Milking Equipment on a Dairy Farm▿

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, Alejandra A.; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S.; Karns, Jeffrey S.; Zurakowski, Michael J.; Pradhan, Abani K.; Zadoks, Ruth N.; Boor, Kathryn J.; Schukken, Ynte H.

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal study aimed to detect Listeria monocytogenes on a New York State dairy farm was conducted between February 2004 and July 2007. Fecal samples were collected every 6 months from all lactating cows. Approximately 20 environmental samples were obtained every 3 months. Bulk tank milk samples and in-line milk filter samples were obtained weekly. Samples from milking equipment and the milking parlor environment were obtained in May 2007. Fifty-one of 715 fecal samples (7.1%) and 22 of 303 environmental samples (7.3%) were positive for L. monocytogenes. A total of 73 of 108 in-line milk filter samples (67.6%) and 34 of 172 bulk tank milk samples (19.7%) were positive for L. monocytogenes. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from 6 of 40 (15%) sampling sites in the milking parlor and milking equipment. In-line milk filter samples had a greater proportion of L. monocytogenes than did bulk tank milk samples (P < 0.05) and samples from other sources (P < 0.05). The proportion of L. monocytogenes-positive samples was greater among bulk tank milk samples than among fecal or environmental samples (P < 0.05). Analysis of 60 isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) yielded 23 PFGE types after digestion with AscI and ApaI endonucleases. Three PFGE types of L. monocytogenes were repeatedly found in longitudinally collected samples from bulk tank milk and in-line milk filters. PMID:19114514

  8. Effect of milking frequency and diet on milk production, energy balance, and reproduction in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Patton, J; Kenny, D A; Mee, J F; O'Mara, F P; Wathes, D C; Cook, M; Murphy, J J

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of reduced milking frequency and increased dietary energy density in early lactation on milk production, energy balance, and subsequent fertility. Sixty-six spring-calving, multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: once-daily milking on a standard diet (1xST); 3-times daily milking on a standard diet (3xST); and 3-times daily milking on a high-energy diet. Treatments were imposed for the first 28 d of lactation, after which all groups were milked twice daily and fed the standard diet. During the treatment period, the 1xST cows had 19.6% lower milk yield and higher milk fat and milk protein concentrations (15.7 and 10.2%, respectively) compared with 3xST. Dry matter (DM) intake was similar between 1xST and 3xST during the treatment period (12.64 vs. 13.25 kg/ d; SED = 0.82). Daily energy balance was less negative for 1xST compared with 3xST during wk 1 to 3 of lactation [-3.92 vs. -5.30 unité fourragère lait (UFL)/d; SED = 0.65; 1 UFL is equal to the net energy for lactation of 1 kg of standard air-dry barley]. During the treatment period, the cows on the high-energy diet had 17% higher milk yield, higher DM intake (15.5 vs. 13.9 kg/d; SED = 0.71), and similar energy balance (-4.45 vs. -4.35 UFL/d; SED = 0.65) compared to 3xST. Diet had no significant effect on any of the fertility variables measured. The interval to first ovulation was shorter for 1xST than 3xST (18.3d vs. 28.6d; SED = 1.76). In conclusion, once-daily milking in early lactation may promote earlier resumption of ovarian cyclicity, mediated through improved nutritional status.

  9. Effects of high concentrations of dietary crude glycerin on dairy cow productivity and milk quality.

    PubMed

    Ezequiel, J M B; Sancanari, J B D; Machado Neto, O R; da Silva, Z F; Almeida, M T C; Silva, D A V; van Cleef, F O S; van Cleef, E H C B

    2015-11-01

    An increasing worldwide interest in alternative fuel sources and in a more diversified energy matrix has provided incentives for the biodiesel industry, generating large amounts of the by-product crude glycerin, a potential alternative feed for dairy cows. A replicated 3×3 Latin square study was conducted to evaluate the effects of high concentrations of crude glycerin on dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid profile, and blood metabolites of medium-yield cows. Ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (n=6; 587 ± 39 kg of body weight; 114 ± 29 d in milk; and 20 ± 1.5 kg/d milk yield) were used in the study. The experimental period included 2 wk for adaptation and 1 wk for data collection. Cows were fed diets containing 0 (control), 15, or 30% crude glycerin (83% glycerol). Cows were milked, milk weights were recorded twice daily, and milk samples were collected for milk quality analyses at d 18 and 19 in each experimental period. Feeding cows with crude glycerin linearly decreased dry-matter intake, the 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and the solid-corrected milk yield. Hepatic enzymes were not affected by dietary treatments, except gamma-glutamyl transferase, which was decreased with the 15% crude glycerin diet. Serum glucose and albumin showed quadratic effect with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Plasma cholesterol as well as total protein linearly decreased with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Milk fat concentration and yield showed a quadratic effect of treatments. Solid yield decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Odd-chain fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat linearly increased with addition of crude glycerin in the diets. Together, these results suggest that crude glycerin has potential to replace corn; however, feeding diets in which corn is replaced with crude glycerin at 30% of dietary DM greatly reduces animal performance.

  10. Effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat on milk production and energy partitioning.

    PubMed

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Lock, A L

    2015-10-01

    The effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat to provide a diet with similar net energy for lactation (NEL) density on yields of milk and milk components and on energy partitioning were evaluated in a crossover design experiment. Holstein cows (n = 32; 109 ± 22 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence. Treatments were a high-starch diet containing 33% corn grain (mixture of dry ground and high-moisture corn; HS) or a high-fiber, high-fat diet containing 2.5% palmitic acid-enriched fatty acid (FA) supplement (HFF). Diets contained corn silage, alfalfa silage, and wheat straw as forage sources; HS contained 32% starch, 3.2% FA, and 25% neutral detergent fiber, whereas HFF contained 16% starch, 5.4% FA, and 33% neutral detergent fiber. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced milk yield, milk protein concentration, and milk protein yield, but increased milk fat concentration, milk fat yield, milk energy output, and milk to feed ratio (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake). The HFF treatment reduced the yield of de novo synthesized (< 16-carbon) milk FA and increased the yield of 16-carbon milk FA. Yield of preformed (> 16-carbon) milk FA was not different. The HFF treatment increased plasma concentrations of triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids, but decreased plasma concentration of insulin. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced body weight gain, change in body condition score, and fat thickness over the rump and rib. Calculated body energy gain, as a fraction of NEL use, was less for HFF than HS, whereas milk energy as a fraction of NEL use was increased for HFF. We concluded that the 2 treatments resulted in similar apparent NEL densities and intakes, but the HS treatment partitioned more energy toward body gain whereas the HFF treatment partitioned more energy toward milk. A high-fiber, high-fat diet might diminish the incidence of over conditioning in mid-lactation cows while

  11. Effects of increasing milking frequency during the last 28 days of gestation on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy balance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rastani, R R; Del Rio, N Silva; Gressley, T F; Dahl, G E; Grummer, R R

    2007-04-01

    Forty-eight Holstein cows were used in a randomized block design to evaluate different dry period lengths and prepartum milking frequencies (MF) on subsequent milk production, milk composition, solids-corrected milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), and energy balance. Lactating cows, milked 2 times/d, began a 7-d covariate period 35 d prior to the expected calving date. Cows were milked 0 times/d (0x), 1 time/d (1x), and 4 times/d (4x) for the last 28 d of gestation. If milk production decreased to less than 0.5 kg/milking or 1 kg/d, milking via machine ceased; however, teat stimulation continued 1 or 4 times/d according to the treatment assignment. All cows were milked 2 times/d postpartum (wk 1 to 10). Prepartum DMI tended to be greater for 1x and 4x compared with 0x. Prepartum, cows milked 1x produced 17% less milk than cows milked 4x (5.9 and 7.1 kg/d, respectively). There were no differences in prepartum and postpartum body condition scores, body weights, and DMI. Postpartum milk production by cows following their third or greater gestation was greater for 0x and 4x compared with 1x. Postpartum milk production by cows following their second gestation was significantly decreased with increased MF (0x vs. 1x and 4x). Regardless of parity, postpartum solids-corrected milk was greater for 0x compared with 1x and 4x. Postpartum fat yield was greater for 0x vs. 4x, with 1x being intermediate. Postpartum protein yield was greater for 0x vs. 4x, whereas 0x tended to have greater protein yield than 1x. Postpartum energy balance was greater for 1x and 4x relative to 0x. Continuous milking (1x and 4x) resulted in a loss of milk production in the subsequent lactation for cows following their second gestation; however, for cows following their third or greater gestation, increasing the MF from 1x to 4x in the last 28 d of gestation alleviated the loss in milk production.

  12. Breast-milk jaundice.

    PubMed

    Brooten, D; Brown, L; Hollingsworth, A; Tanis, J; Bakewell-Sachs, S

    1985-01-01

    The syndrome of breast-milk jaundice, which often results in cessation of breastfeeding, maternal anxiety, and guilt, may be increasing. Research to date on pregnanediol, increased lipase, and free fatty acids as the causes of breast milk jaundice is reviewed. Variations in current treatment are presented and nursing measures supportive of parents and continued breastfeeding are provided.

  13. Milk metabolome relates enteric methane emission to milk synthesis and energy metabolism pathways.

    PubMed

    Antunes-Fernandes, E C; van Gastelen, S; Dijkstra, J; Hettinga, K A; Vervoort, J

    2016-08-01

    Methane (CH4) emission of dairy cows contributes significantly to the carbon footprint of the dairy chain; therefore, a better understanding of CH4 formation is urgently needed. The present study explored the milk metabolome by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (milk volatile metabolites) and nuclear magnetic resonance (milk nonvolatile metabolites) to better understand the biological pathways involved in CH4 emission in dairy cattle. Data were used from a randomized block design experiment with 32 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows and 4 diets. All diets had a roughage:concentrate ratio of 80:20 (dry matter basis) and the roughage was grass silage (GS), corn silage (CS), or a mixture of both (67% GS, 33% CS; 33% GS, 67% CS). Methane emission was measured in climate respiration chambers and expressed as CH4 yield (per unit of dry matter intake) and CH4 intensity (per unit of fat- and protein-corrected milk; FPCM). No volatile or nonvolatile metabolite was positively related to CH4 yield, and acetone (measured as a volatile and as a nonvolatile metabolite) was negatively related to CH4 yield. The volatile metabolites 1-heptanol-decanol, 3-nonanone, ethanol, and tetrahydrofuran were positively related to CH4 intensity. None of the volatile metabolites was negatively related to CH4 intensity. The nonvolatile metabolites acetoacetate, creatinine, ethanol, formate, methylmalonate, and N-acetylsugar A were positively related to CH4 intensity, and uridine diphosphate (UDP)-hexose B and citrate were negatively related to CH4 intensity. Several volatile and nonvolatile metabolites that were correlated with CH4 intensity also were correlated with FPCM and not significantly related to CH4 intensity anymore when FPCM was included as covariate. This suggests that changes in these milk metabolites may be related to changes in milk yield or metabolic processes involved in milk synthesis. The UDP-hexose B was correlated with FPCM, whereas citrate was not. Both metabolites were

  14. Relationships between early-life growth, intake, and birth season with first-lactation performance of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Chester-Jones, H; Heins, B J; Ziegler, D; Schimek, D; Schuling, S; Ziegler, B; de Ondarza, M B; Sniffen, C J; Broadwater, N

    2017-03-08

    The objective was to determine the relationships between early-life parameters [including average daily gain (ADG), body weight (BW), milk replacer intake, starter intake, and birth season] and the first-lactation performance of Holstein cows. We collected data from birth years 2004 to 2012 for 2,880 Holstein animals. Calves were received from 3 commercial dairy farms and enrolled in 37 different calf research trials at the University of Minnesota Southern Research and Outreach Center from 3 to 195 d. Upon trial completion, calves were returned to their respective farms. Milk replacer options included varying protein levels and amounts fed, but in the majority of studies, calves were fed a milk replacer containing 20% crude protein and 20% fat at 0.57 kg/calf daily. Most calves (93%) were weaned at 6 wk. Milk replacer dry matter intake, starter intake, ADG, and BW at 6 wk were 21.5 ± 2.2 kg, 17.3 ± 7.3 kg, 0.53 ± 0.13 kg/d, and 62.4 ± 6.8 kg, respectively. Average age at first calving and first-lactation 305-d milk yield were 715 ± 46.5 d and 10,959 ± 1,527 kg, respectively. We conducted separate mixed-model analyses using the REML model-fitting protocol of JMP (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) to determine the effect of early-life BW or ADG, milk replacer and starter intake, and birth season on first-lactation 305-d milk, fat, and true protein yield. Greater BW and ADG at 6 wk resulted in increased first-lactation milk and milk component yields. Intake of calf starter at 8 wk had a significant positive relationship with first-lactation 305-d yield of milk and milk components. Milk replacer intake, which varied very little in this data set, had no effect on first-lactation 305-d yield of milk and milk components. Calves born in the fall and winter had greater starter intake, BW, and ADG at 8 wk. However, calves born in the summer had a higher 305-d milk yield during their first lactation than those born in the fall and winter. Improvements were modest, and

  15. Genetic and environmental relationships between body condition score and milk production traits in Canadian Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Loker, S; Bastin, C; Miglior, F; Sewalem, A; Schaeffer, L R; Jamrozik, J; Ali, A; Osborne, V

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters of first-lactation body condition score (BCS), milk yield, fat percentage (Fat%), protein percentage (Prot%), somatic cell score (SCS), milk urea nitrogen (MUN), lactose percentage (Lact%), and fat to protein ratio (F:P) using multiple-trait random regression animal models. Changes in covariances between BCS and milk production traits on a daily basis have not been investigated before and could be useful for determining which BCS estimated breeding values (EBV) might be practical for selection in the future. Field staff from Valacta milk recording agency (Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada) collected BCS from Québec herds several times per cow throughout the lactation. Average daily heritabilities and genetic correlations among the various traits were similar to literature values. On an average daily basis, BCS was genetically unfavorably correlated with milk yield (i.e., increased milk yield was associated with lower body condition). The unfavorable genetic correlation between BCS and milk yield became stronger as lactation progressed, but was equivalent to zero for the first month of lactation. Favorable genetic correlations were found between BCS with Prot%, SCS, and Lact% (i.e., greater BCS was associated with greater Prot%, lower SCS, and greater Lact%). These correlations were strongest in early lactation. On an average daily basis, BCS was not genetically correlated with Fat% or MUN, but was negatively correlated with F:P. Furthermore, BCS at 5 and 50 d in milk (DIM) had the most favorable genetic correlations with milk production traits over the lactation (at 5, 50, 150, and 250 DIM). Thus, early lactation BCS EBV shows potential for selection. Regardless, this study showed that the level of association BCS has with milk production traits is not constant over the lactation. Simultaneous selection for both BCS and milk production traits should be considered, mainly due to the unfavorable

  16. Nutritive value of maize silage in relation to dairy cow performance and milk quality.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nazir A; Yu, Peiqiang; Ali, Mubarak; Cone, John W; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2015-01-01

    Maize silage has become the major forage component in the ration of dairy cows over the last few decades. This review provides information on the mean content and variability in chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) profile and ensiling quality of maize silages, and discusses the major factors which cause these variations. In addition, the effect of the broad range in chemical composition of maize silages on the total tract digestibility of dietary nutrients, milk production and milk composition of dairy cows is quantified and discussed. Finally, the optimum inclusion level of maize silage in the ration of dairy cows for milk production and composition is reviewed. The data showed that the nutritive value of maize silages is highly variable and that most of this variation is caused by large differences in maturity at harvest. Maize silages ensiled at a very early stage (dry matter (DM) < 250 g kg(-1)) were particularly low in starch content and starch/neutral detergent fibre (NDF) ratio, and resulted in a lower DM intake (DMI), milk yield and milk protein content. The DMI, milk yield and milk protein content increased with advancing maturity, reaching an optimum level for maize silages ensiled at DM contents of 300-350 g kg(-1), and then declined slightly at further maturity beyond 350 g kg(-1). The increases in milk (R(2) = 0.599) and protein (R(2) = 0.605) yields with maturity of maize silages were positively related to the increase in starch/NDF ratio of the maize silages. On average, the inclusion of maize silage in grass silage-based diets improved the forage DMI by 2 kg d(-1), milk yield by 1.9 kg d(-1) and milk protein content by 1.2 g kg(-1). Further comparisons showed that, in terms of milk and milk constituent yields, the optimum grass/maize silage ratio depends on the quality of both the grass and maize silages. Replacement of grass silage with maize silage in the ration, as well as an increasing maturity of the maize silages, altered the milk FA profile

  17. A longitudinal study of factors influencing the result of a Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis antibody ELISA in milk of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, S W F; Veldman, E; Rutten, V P M G; Koets, A P

    2015-04-01

    The influence of milk yield and milk composition on the diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by milk ELISA in the context of the total IgG secretion patterns in milk throughout lactation and serum concentrations were investigated. A 2-yr trial was performed in which 1,410 dairy cows were sampled monthly and MAP milk ELISA status and milk yield and composition were determined. Data were analyzed by mixed model analysis. Milk yield was found to significantly influence ELISA results expressed as sample-to-positive (S/P) ratios. For each 5-kg increase in milk, the S/P ratio has to be multiplied by 0.89; therefore, high milk yield can change the MAP milk ELISA outcome of a cow in early infection from positive to negative. Parity influenced ELISA outcome significantly, indicating that cows with a parity >1 are more likely to be identified by milk testing. Also, herd was an important predictor, showing that herd prevalence influences the milk ELISA strongly. Other factors influencing the S/P ratios were protein concentration, somatic cell count, and days in milk. The IgG concentration and mass excreted per day were determined longitudinally in a subset of 41 cows of which samples and data of a complete lactation were available. Again, the IgG concentration in milk was mainly influenced by milk yield. The total IgG mass secreted per day in milk was found to be relatively constant, with a mean of 8.70 ± 5.38 g despite an increasing IgG concentration in serum at the same time. The variation of IgG concentration in milk can be mainly attributed to dilution through changes in milk yield. This supports the assumption that concentrations of MAP-specific antibodies are influenced by changes in milk yield similarly. In conclusion, we confirmed that antibody concentrations, and therefore MAP ELISA outcome, were influenced by milk yield, herd, and parity. To enhance performance, milk ELISA tests should either be performed in early or late lactation, when

  18. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  19. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  20. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  1. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  2. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  3. Breast-milk jaundice.

    PubMed

    Poland, R L

    1981-07-01

    The inhibiting agent of UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UDPGT), inhibition of which is associated with breast milk jaundice syndrome in infants, was thought to be 3(alpha),20(beta)-pregnandiol. European researchers have begun in vitro investigations to discover the inhibiting substance, and all studies have confirmed it is a nonesterified fatty acid. The strong association between breast milk jaundice, elevated values of nonesterified fatty acids, and unstimulated lipase in UDPGT-inhibitory milk was confirmed by electrophoretic technique. The mechanisms responsible for production of prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubeinemia in infants, however, is not understood. 2 theories have been offered: 1) that milk triglyceride digestion before the milk reaches the duodenum leads to early absorption of most of the liberated glycerol that might otherwise be used by intestinal epithelium to resynthesize triglycerides; or 2) inhibitory human milk may facilitate the enterohepatic recirculation of bilirubin (reabsorption of bilirubin from intestinal lumen). Breast-feeding per se does not result in an increased incidence of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia; it is rather those infants who receive insufficient amounts of breast milk who develop the condition.

  4. DoMINO: Donor milk for improved neurodevelopmental outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Provision of mother’s own milk is the optimal way to feed infants, including very low birth weight infants (VLBW, <1500 g). Importantly for VLBW infants, who are at elevated risk of neurologic sequelae, mother’s own milk has been shown to enhance neurocognitive development. Unfortunately, the majority of mothers of VLBW infants are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk and thus supplementation with formula or donor milk is necessary. Given the association between mother’s own milk and neurodevelopment, it is important to ascertain whether provision of human donor milk as a supplement may yield superior neurodevelopmental outcomes compared to formula. Our primary hypothesis is that VLBW infants fed pasteurized donor milk compared to preterm formula as a supplement to mother’s own milk for 90 days or until hospital discharge, whichever comes first, will have an improved cognitive outcome as measured at 18 months corrected age on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd ed. Secondary hypotheses are that the use of pasteurized donor milk will: (1) reduce a composite of death and serious morbidity; (2) support growth; and (3) improve language and motor development. Exploratory research questions include: Will use of pasteurized donor milk: (1) influence feeding tolerance and nutrient intake (2) have an acceptable cost effectiveness from a comprehensive societal perspective? Methods/Design DoMINO is a multi-centre, intent-to-treat, double blinded, randomized control trial. VLBW infants (n = 363) were randomized within four days of birth to either (1) pasteurized donor milk or (2) preterm formula whenever mother’s own milk was unavailable. Study recruitment began in October 2010 and was completed in December 2012. The 90 day feeding intervention is complete and long-term follow-up is underway. Discussion Preterm birth and its complications are a leading cause long-term morbidity among Canadian children. Strategies to mitigate this

  5. Invited review: A commentary on predictive cheese yield formulas.

    PubMed

    Emmons, D B; Modler, H W

    2010-12-01

    Predictive cheese yield formulas have evolved from one based only on casein and fat in 1895. Refinements have included moisture and salt in cheese and whey solids as separate factors, paracasein instead of casein, and exclusion of whey solids from moisture associated with cheese protein. The General, Barbano, and Van Slyke formulas were tested critically using yield and composition of milk, whey, and cheese from 22 vats of Cheddar cheese. The General formula is based on the sum of cheese components: fat, protein, moisture, salt, whey solids free of fat and protein, as well as milk salts associated with paracasein. The testing yielded unexpected revelations. It was startling that the sum of components in cheese was <100%; the mean was 99.51% (N × 6.31). The mean predicted yield was only 99.17% as a percentage of actual yields (PY%AY); PY%AY is a useful term for comparisons of yields among vats. The PY%AY correlated positively with the sum of components (SofC) in cheese. The apparent low estimation of SofC led to the idea of adjusting upwards, for each vat, the 5 measured components in the formula by the observed SofC, as a fraction. The mean of the adjusted predicted yields as percentages of actual yields was 99.99%. The adjusted forms of the General, Barbano, and Van Slyke formulas gave predicted yields equal to the actual yields. It was apparent that unadjusted yield formulas did not accurately predict yield; however, unadjusted PY%AY can be useful as a control tool for analyses of cheese and milk. It was unexpected that total milk protein in the adjusted General formula gave the same predicted yields as casein and paracasein, indicating that casein or paracasein may not always be necessary for successful yield prediction. The use of constants for recovery of fat and protein in the adjusted General formula gave adjusted predicted yields equal to actual yields, indicating that analyses of cheese for protein and fat may not always be necessary for yield prediction

  6. Prenatal Maternal and Possible Transgenerational Epigenetic Effects on Milk Production

    PubMed Central

    Gudex, Boyd; Johnson, David; Singh, Kuljeet

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether the prenatal maternal environment in dairy cattle influences the postnatal milking performance of the resulting daughters and grand-daughters. Linear mixed models were used to analyse whole season milk production from ∼46000 Jersey and ∼123000 Holstein Friesian cows in their 1st and 2nd lactations. Variation in the prenatal environment was associated with a small but significant (P<0.05) proportion of the total phenotypic variation (0.010 to 0.015) in all traits in Holstein Friesian cows and in the first lactation milk volume (0.011) and milk protein (0.011), and the second lactation milk fat (0.015) in the Jersey breed. This indicates that the prenatal environment does influence the adult performance of the subsequent daughter. Associations between daughter performance and dam and grand-dam traits indicative of their prenatal environment were also estimated. A one litre increase in the dam’s herd test milk volume was associated with a 7.5 litre increase in the daughters’ whole season milk yield and a 1% increase in either the dams’ herd test milk fat or protein percentage was associated with a reduction in daughter whole season milk volume (−49.6 and −45.0 litres for dam fat and protein, respectively). Similar results between the grand-dam herd test traits ansd the daughters’ whole season milk production were observed with a 1% increase in either grand-dam milk fat or protein percentage associated with a reduction in daughter whole season milk yield (−34.7 and −9.7 litres for fat and protein, respectively). This study revealed that the prenatal environment of the dam and the grand-dam can influence milk production in the subsequent daughters, though the effects are small. The similarity of the results between the dam daughter and the grand-dam daughter analyses suggests that the majority of the prenatal maternal effects are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:24901792

  7. Milk Bottom-Up Proteomics: Method Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Delphine; Ezernieks, Vilnis; Elkins, Aaron; Nguyen, Nga; Moate, Peter J.; Cocks, Benjamin G.; Rochfort, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Milk is a complex fluid whose proteome displays a diverse set of proteins of high abundance such as caseins and medium to low abundance whey proteins such as ß-lactoglobulin, lactoferrin, immunoglobulins, glycoproteins, peptide hormones, and enzymes. A sample preparation method that enables high reproducibility and throughput is key in reliably identifying proteins present or proteins responding to conditions such as a diet, health or genetics. Using skim milk samples from Jersey and Holstein-Friesian cows, we compared three extraction procedures which have not previously been applied to samples of cows' milk. Method A (urea) involved a simple dilution of the milk in a urea-based buffer, method B (TCA/acetone) involved a trichloroacetic acid (TCA)/acetone precipitation, and method C (methanol/chloroform) involved a tri-phasic partition method in chloroform/methanol solution. Protein assays, SDS-PAGE profiling, and trypsin digestion followed by nanoHPLC-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) analyses were performed to assess their efficiency. Replicates were used at each analytical step (extraction, digestion, injection) to assess reproducibility. Mass spectrometry (MS) data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002529. Overall 186 unique accessions, major and minor proteins, were identified with a combination of methods. Method C (methanol/chloroform) yielded the best resolved SDS-patterns and highest protein recovery rates, method A (urea) yielded the greatest number of accessions, and, of the three procedures, method B (TCA/acetone) was the least compatible of all with a wide range of downstream analytical procedures. Our results also highlighted breed differences between the proteins in milk of Jersey and Holstein-Friesian cows. PMID:26793233

  8. The minerals of milk.

    PubMed

    Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    The salt of milk constitutes a small part of milk (8-9 g.L(-1)); this fraction contains calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium for the main cations and inorganic phosphate, citrate and chloride for the main anions. In milk, these ions are more or less associated between themselves and with proteins. Depending on the type of ion, they are diffusible (cases of sodium, potassium and chloride) or partially associated with casein molecules (cases of calcium, magnesium, phosphate and citrate), to form large colloidal particles called casein micelles. Today, our knowledge and understanding concerning this fraction is relatively complete. In this review, the different models explaining (i) the nature and distribution of these minerals (especially calcium phosphate) in both fractions of milk and (ii) their behaviour in different physico-chemical conditions, are discussed.

  9. Human Milk Fortification.

    PubMed

    Simmer, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is the feed of choice for preterm infants. However, human milk does not provide enough nutrition, especially protein, for preterm infants to achieve target growth rates similar to those in utero (15-20 g/kg per day). Fortifiers for human milk, manufactured from bovine milk, are commercially available and routinely used for patients born <32 weeks' gestation prior to discharge home. Recent recommended dietary intakes (RDI) have been revised. Up to 4.2 g of protein and 135 kcal/kg per day is recommended for infants born very preterm. Additional supplements are needed to current commercial fortifiers to achieve these RDI and reduce the incidence of ex-uterine growth failure. A human milk fortifier that is manufactured from donor human milk is available in some developed countries and may confer some clinical benefits, including a reduction in necrotizing enterocolitis. Fortification can be added in a standardized protocol as per manufacturers' instructions. Human milk composition can be analyzed and fortification individualized to take into account the large variation from mother to mother. Alternatively, fortification can be increased in a stepwise manner based on assumed composition while monitoring blood urea levels for safety. The current aim is to prevent preterm infants dropping percentiles and falling below the 10th percentile at 36 weeks' corrected gestational age or discharge home. More data are required on how best to fortify human milk for preterm infants to achieve optimal growth, development and health outcomes in the long term. There is an urgent need for well-designed and informed randomized clinical trials in this vulnerable preterm population.

  10. Sources of Clostridia in Raw Milk on Farms▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Julien, Marie-Claude; Dion, Patrice; Lafrenière, Carole; Antoun, Hani; Drouin, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    A PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method was used to examine on-farm sources of Clostridium cluster I strains in four dairy farms over 2 years. Conventional microbiological analysis was used in parallel to monitor size of clostridial populations present in various components of the milk production chain (soil, forage, grass silage, maize silage, dry hay, and raw milk). PCR amplification with Clostridium cluster I-specific 16S rRNA gene primers followed by DGGE separation yielded a total of 47 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which varied greatly with respect to frequency of occurrence. Some OTUs were found only in forage, and forage profiles differed according to farm location (southern or northern Québec). More clostridial contamination was found in maize silage than in grass silage. Milk represented a potential environment for certain OTUs. No OTU was milk specific, indicating that OTUs originated from other environments. Most (83%) of the OTUs detected in raw milk were also found in grass or maize silage. Milk DGGE profiles differed according to farm and sampling year and fit into two distinct categories. One milk profile category was characterized by the presence of a few dominant OTUs, the presence of which appeared to be more related to farm management than to feed contamination. OTUs were more varied in the second profile category. The identities of certain OTUs frequently found in milk were resolved by cloning and sequencing. Clostridium disporicum was identified as an important member of clostridial populations transmitted to milk. Clostridium tyrobutyricum was consistently found in milk and was widespread in the other farm environments examined. PMID:18757576

  11. Standardization of milk using cold ultrafiltration retentates for the manufacture of parmesan cheese.

    PubMed

    Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Jaeggi, J J; Bostley, A L; Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A

    2004-09-01

    The effects of using cold ultrafiltered (UF) retentates (both whole and skim milk) on the coagulation, yield, composition, and ripening of Parmesan cheese were investigated. Milks for cheese making were made by blending cold UF retentates with partially skimmed milk to obtain blends with 14.2% solids and a casein:fat ratio of 1.1. Cutting times, as selected by the cheese-maker, were approximately 15 and approximately 20 min for experimental and control milks, respectively. Storage modulus values at cutting were similar, but yield stress values were significantly higher in UF retentate standardized milks. Cheese yields were significantly higher in UF retentate standardized milks (approximately 12%) compared with control milk (cream removed) (approximately 7 to 8%). Significantly higher protein recoveries were obtained in cheeses manufactured using cold UF retentates. There were no differences in the pH and moisture contents of the cheeses prior to brining, and there was no residual lactose or galactose left in the cheeses. Using UF retentates resulted in a significant reduction in whey volume as well as a higher proportion of protein in the solids of the whey. Proteolysis, free fatty acids, and sensory properties of the cheeses were similar. The use of milk concentrated by cold UF is a promising way of improving the yield of Parmesan cheese without compromising cheese quality. The question remaining to be answered by the cheesemaker is whether it is economical to do so.

  12. Prediction of preweaning ADG in beef calves from milk fatty acid methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown milk yield (MWT) has an important influence on calf preweaning ADG (PRWADG), but MWT accounts for only a moderate amount of variation in PRWADG. The objective of this study was to determine if milk fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), alone and in combination with MWT, could improve a...

  13. Bayesian segregation analysis of milk flow in Swiss dairy cattle using Gibbs sampling

    PubMed Central

    Ilahi, Houcine; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2004-01-01

    Segregation analyses with Gibbs sampling were applied to investigate the mode of inheritance and to estimate the genetic parameters of milk flow of Swiss dairy cattle. The data consisted of 204 397, 655 989 and 40 242 lactation records of milk flow in Brown Swiss, Simmental and Holstein cattle, respectively (4 to 22 years). Separate genetic analyses of first and multiple lactations were carried out for each breed. The results show that genetic parameters especially polygenic variance and heritability of milk flow in the first lactation were very similar under both mixed inheritance (polygenes + major gene) and polygenic models. Segregation analyses yielded very low major gene variances which favour the polygenic determinism of milk flow. Heritabilities and repeatabilities of milk flow in both Brown Swiss and Simmental were high (0.44 to 0.48 and 0.54 to 0.59, respectively). The heritability of milk flow based on scores of milking ability in Holstein was intermediate (0.25). Variance components and heritabilities in the first lactation were slightly larger than those estimates for multiple lactations. The results suggest that milk flow (the quantity of milk per minute of milking) is a relevant measurement to characterise the cows milking ability which is a good candidate trait to be evaluated for a possible inclusion in the selection objectives in dairy cattle. PMID:15339633

  14. Random regression models using different functions to model milk flow in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Laureano, M M M; Bignardi, A B; El Faro, L; Cardoso, V L; Tonhati, H; Albuquerque, L G

    2014-09-12

    We analyzed 75,555 test-day milk flow records from 2175 primiparous Holstein cows that calved between 1997 and 2005. Milk flow was obtained by dividing the mean milk yield (kg) of the 3 daily milking by the total milking time (min) and was expressed as kg/min. Milk flow was grouped into 43 weekly classes. The analyses were performed using a single-trait Random Regression Models that included direct additive genetic, permanent environmental, and residual random effects. In addition, the contemporary group and linear and quadratic effects of cow age at calving were included as fixed effects. Fourth-order orthogonal Legendre polynomial of days in milk was used to model the mean trend in milk flow. The additive genetic and permanent environmental covariance functions were estimated using random regression Legendre polynomials and B-spline functions of days in milk. The model using a third-order Legendre polynomial for additive genetic effects and a sixth-order polynomial for permanent environmental effects, which contained 7 residual classes, proved to be the most adequate to describe variations in milk flow, and was also the most parsimonious. The heritability in milk flow estimated by the most parsimonious model was of moderate to high magnitude.

  15. Quantitative secretion and maximal secretion capacity of retinol, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol into cows' milk.

    PubMed

    Jensen, S K; Johannsen, A K; Hermansen, J E

    1999-11-01

    Changes in the contents of retinol, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene in plasma, milk and milk fat from 38 Holstein-Friesian cows were followed during their first lactation, and the quantitative and kinetic relationships for secretion of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene from blood into milk were determined. The cows were assigned to three groups such that all cows in the same group had the same sire. Milk yield and milk fat content differed with stage of lactation, but not according to sire. The plasma concentrations of retinol, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene differed with stage of lactation; in addition, retinol and beta-carotene concentration also differed according to sire. The concentrations of all three vitamins in milk and milk fat differed according to sire and stage of lactation. Furthermore, the total secretion of retinol, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene into milk (expressed as mg/d) differed with sire and stage of lactation. The quantitative secretion of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene from blood into milk followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics for active transport across membranes. Values of maximum secretory capacity Vmax and the half-rate constant K(m) for both alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene varied according to sire. Overall means for Vmax for alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene were 32.4 and 2.5 mg/d. Thus, the daily secretion of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene is limited in quantity, and is independent of the yields of milk and milk fat. It follows that continuing breeding and management systems that focus solely on increasing milk and milk fat yield will result in a steady dilution in the milk fat of these vitamins and antioxidants important for the immune defence of the cows and oxidative stability of milk products. The genetic variation found offers the possibility of utilizing these variations in breeding systems.

  16. Milk Enhancements Improve Milk Consumption and Increase Meal Participation in the NSLP: The School Milk Pilot Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Karen; Zipay, Diane; Patey, Camellia; Meyer, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objective of the School Milk Pilot Test and the Westside School Milk Pilot Study was to test the effect of a milk enhancement initiative to make milk more appealing and attractive to elementary and secondary school students and to improve milk consumption. Methods: 146 schools participated in the national School Milk Pilot…

  17. Effect of dietary rumen-protected choline on milk production of dairy cows: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sales, J; Homolka, P; Koukolová, V

    2010-08-01

    Research studies presented inconsistent results on the effects and action of choline in dairy cow diets. A meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of dietary rumen-protected choline on production characteristics of dairy cows. Dry matter intake (kg/d), milk yield (kg/d), milk fat (% and kg/d), and milk protein (% and kg/d) were evaluated as dependent variables in models. The number of treatment means varied from 20 obtained in 7 studies for milk fat and protein contents to 34 from 11 studies (12 experiments) for milk yield. Accounting for experiment as a random effect, DMI, milk yield, milk protein content, and milk protein yield could adequately be related to levels of dietary rumen-protected choline chloride by a logistic model. Marginal responses in milk yield decreased from 131.5 to 0.037 g of milk/g of dietary rumen-protected choline chloride when supplementation increased from 6 to 50 g/d. From estimated values for the metabolizable Met supplied by diets, it appears that dietary rumen-protected choline chloride functions as a methyl donor to spare Met for milk protein synthesis. However, more accurate input data on Met status of diets are needed to confirm this. Within the range of 6 to 50 g/d of rumen-protected choline chloride, milk fat content decreased linearly at a rate of 0.00339% for a 1g/d increase in dietary rumen-protected choline chloride. This illustrates that dietary rumen-protected choline chloride has no effect on milk fat content. Numerous physiological and dietary factors probably related to responses obtained with dietary rumen-protected choline supplementation, and the precise mechanism of choline action in the lactating dairy cow warrants further investigation.

  18. Milk fat responses to dietary supplementation of short- and medium-chain fatty acids in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vyas, D; Teter, B B; Erdman, R A

    2012-09-01

    Short-and medium-chain fatty acids (SMCFA), which are synthesized de novo in the mammary gland, are reduced to a much greater extent than the long-chain fatty acids during diet-induced milk fat depression. Our hypothesis was that SMCFA are limiting for milk fat synthesis even under conditions when milk fat is not depressed. Our objective was to test the potential limitation of SMCFA on milk fat synthesis via dietary supplementation. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows (107±18 d in milk) were fed a corn silage-based total mixed ration. Cows were randomly assigned to groups of 4 per pen and supplemented with 1 of 4 dietary fat supplements (600 g/d) supplied in a 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d experimental periods. Treatments consisted of fat supplements containing mixtures of calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Megalac; Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) and an SMCFA mixture (S; 3.3% C8, 7.6% C10, 9.85% C12, 32.12% C14, and 47.11% C16) that contained 0, 200, 400, and 600 g/d of S substituted for Megalac (S0, S200, S400, and S600, respectively). No treatment effects were observed for dry matter and fat-corrected milk. However, milk yield was decreased with S600. Milk fat increased linearly by 0.17, 0.25, and 0.33 percentage units for the respective S treatments. However, fat yield peaked at S200 and milk protein concentration and yield was significantly decreased at the higher S levels because of a linear trend toward decreased milk yield in the S600 treatment. In conclusion, SMCFA supplementation linearly increased milk fat concentration but decreased milk production at the higher levels of supplementation. The dietary inclusion of SMCFA had no effects on total milk fat yield.

  19. Effect of monensin on recovery from diet-induced milk fat depression.

    PubMed

    Rico, D E; Holloway, A W; Harvatine, K J

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of monensin (MN) on the time course of recovery from diet-induced milk fat depression. Milk fat depression was induced in all cows (n = 16) during the first phase of each period by feeding a low-fiber, high-unsaturated fat diet [25.3% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 6.9% fatty acids (FA), and 3.24% C18:2] with MN (450mg/cow per day) for 10 to 14d. A recovery phase of 18d followed, where cows were switched to a higher-fiber and lower unsaturated fat diet (31.2% NDF, 4.3% FA, and 1.7% C18:2). According to a crossover design, treatments during recovery were (1) control (no MN supplementation) or (2) continued MN supplementation. Milk yield, milk composition, and milk FA profile were measured every 3d during recovery. No effect was observed of MN on dry matter intake or yield of milk, milk protein, and lactose. Milk fat concentration and yield increased progressively during recovery in both treatments. Monensin decreased milk fat yield from d 6 to 15, but it was the same as the control on d 18. A treatment by time interaction on milk fat concentration was detected, which was decreased by MN only on d 3 and 6. The yield of milk de novo synthesized FA increased progressively in both treatments and was not affected by treatment. Similarly, yield of 16-C FA increased progressively, but was decreased by MN on d 6 and 9. Preformed FA yield was lower in the MN group from d 6 to 15, but was not different from the control on d 18. Importantly, milk FA concentration of trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid rapidly decreased in both groups; however, MN slightly increased trans-10 C18:1 concentration above baseline on d 15 and 18. In conclusion, MN supplementation had minimal effect on recovery of normal rumen biohydrogenation and de novo FA synthesis during recovery from milk fat depression by correction of dietary starch, NDF, and polyunsaturated FA concentration, but moderately decreased

  20. Formation of volatile compounds in kefir made of goat and sheep milk with high polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Cais-Sokolińska, D; Wójtowski, J; Pikul, J; Danków, R; Majcher, M; Teichert, J; Bagnicka, E

    2015-10-01

    This article explored the formation of volatile compounds during the production of kefir from goat and sheep milks with high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as a result of feeding animals forage supplemented with maize dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The increased PUFA content of the goat and sheep milks resulted in significant changes to the fermentation process. In particular, apart from an increase in the time taken to ferment sheep milk, fermentation yielded less 2,3-butanedione. The highest quantities of this compound were assayed in kefir produced from goat milk with an increased content of PUFA. An increase of PUFA significantly elevated ethanal synthesis during lactose-alcohol fermentation of sheep milk. Neither the origin of milk (sheep or goat) nor the level of PUFA had any statistical effect on the amount of ethanal assayed during the fermentation of milk and within the finished product. The proportion of l(+)-lactic acid was higher in kefirs produced using goat milk compared with sheep milk and did not depend on the content of PUFA in milk fat. The content of PUFA had a significant effect on the aroma profile of the resulting kefirs. An increase in PUFA content resulted in the loss of whey aroma in goat milk kefirs and the animal odor in sheep milk kefirs, and a creamy aroma became more prevalent in kefirs made from sheep milk.

  1. Analysis of milk by FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Sylwester; Szostak, Roman; Czaja, Tomasz; Zachwieja, Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    Fat, protein, carbohydrates and dry matter were quantified in commercial bovine milk samples, with the relative standard errors of prediction (RSEP) in the 3.4-6.1% range, using the partial least squares (PLS) method based on Raman spectra of liquid milk samples. Results of a better quality were obtained from a PLS model derived from IR spectra registered using single reflection ATR diamond accessory, which yielded RSEP values of 2.4-4.4%. The data indicated IR single reflection ATR spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy in combination with multivariate modelling using the PLS method, allowed for the reliable, simultaneous quantitative determination of macronutrients in milk. The low signal to noise ratio of Raman spectra affects the quality of fat quantification especially for strongly defatted milk samples.

  2. Evaluation of fertility in relation to milk production and productivity of Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Jamuna, V; Chakravarty, A K

    2016-08-01

    Intense selection of buffaloes for milk production at organized herds of the country without giving due attention to fertility traits has lead to deterioration in their performances. The study was initiated to assess the relationship between milk production and productivity with fertility in Murrah buffaloes. In the present study, fertility was defined in terms of pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes. Pregnancy rate measures the percentage of non-pregnant animals that become pregnant during each oestrous cycle. Data pertaining to 1224 lactation records of Murrah buffaloes spread over a period 22 years from 1993 to 2014 were analyzed in the study. It was observed that pregnancy rate is negatively associated with 305days or less milk yield (-0.08±0.04) and wet average (-0.12±0.02) and positively associated with life time (0.15±0.03) in Murrah buffaloes. Wet average is defined as average daily milk yield per lactation of Murrah buffaloes. To achieve around 2000kg 305days or less milk yield and 7.5kg wet average, the level of pregnancy rate in Murrah buffaloes should vary between 30 and 50%. The per unit change in pregnancy rate with respect to milk yield in Murrah buffaloes, were studied using regression analysis. The results suggest that increasing hundred kilogram in 305days or one kilogram milk yield per day in 305days, pregnancy rate reduced by 0.9% in overall lactations of Murrah buffaloes. By increasing hundred kilogram life time 305days or less milk yield and one kilogram life time wet average, pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes reduced by about 0.2% and 0.34%, respectively. The study quantifies the decline of pregnancy rate with increase of lactation milk yield and wet average in Murrah buffaloes and emphasis the importance of fertility i.e. pregnancy rate in the evaluation and breeding programmes of Murrah buffaloes.

  3. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of Minas fresh cheese made with goat milk, cow milk, or a mixture of both.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, A M S; Bezerril, F F; Madruga, M S; Batista, A S M; Magnani, M; Souza, E L; Queiroga, R C R E

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess and compare the nutritional, technological, and sensory characteristics of Minas fresh cheese made with goat milk, cow milk, or a mixture of the two stored in cold conditions for 21d. The yield and centesimal composition of the cheeses were not affected by the type of milk used in their preparation. Reductions were observed in the moisture content, pH, proteolysis index, and instrumental hardness; moreover, increases were observed in the syneresis, acidity index, and depth of proteolysis index in all cheeses. The percentages of caprylic, capric, oleic, and linoleic fatty acids were higher in goat milk cheese and cheese made with a mixture of goat and cow milk compared with cow milk cheese, and a sensory evaluation revealed differences in color, flavor, and aroma between the cheeses. The preparation of Minas fresh cheese with a mixture of goat and cow milk can be a viable alternative for dairy products in the market that can be characterized as high-quality products that meet consumer demands.

  4. Genetic parameters of milk production traits and fatty acid contents in milk for Holstein cows in parity 1-3.

    PubMed

    Bastin, C; Soyeurt, H; Gengler, N

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of milk, fat, and protein yields, fat and protein contents, somatic cell count, and 17 groups and individual milk fatty acid (FA) contents predicted by mid-infrared spectrometry for first-, second- and third-parity Holstein cows. Edited data included records collected in the Walloon region of Belgium from 37,768 cows in parity 1,22,566 cows in parity 2 and 8221 in parity 3. A total of 69 (23 traits for three parities) single-trait random regression animal test-day models were run. Approximate genetic correlations among traits were inferred from pairwise regressions among estimated breeding values of cow having observations. Heritability and genetic correlation estimates from this study reflected the origins of FA: de novo synthetized or originating from the diet and the body fat mobilization. Averaged daily heritabilities of FA contents in milk ranged between 0.18 and 0.47. Average daily genetic correlations (averaged across days in milk and parities) among groups and individual FA contents in milk ranged between 0.31 and 0.99. The genetic variability of FAs in combination with the moderate to high heritabilities indicated that FA contents in milk could be changed by genetic selection; however, desirable direction of change in these traits remains unclear and should be defined with respect to all issues of importance related to milk FA.

  5. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  6. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  7. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  8. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  9. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  10. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  11. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  12. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  13. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  14. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  15. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  16. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  17. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  18. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  19. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  20. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  1. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  2. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  3. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  4. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  5. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  6. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  7. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  8. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  9. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  10. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  11. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  12. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  13. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  14. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  15. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  16. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  17. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  18. 21 CFR 131.130 - Evaporated milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evaporated milk. 131.130 Section 131.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.130 Evaporated milk. (a) Description. Evaporated milk is the liquid food obtained by partial removal of water only from milk....

  19. Human Milk Lipids.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Human milk lipids provide the infant with energy and essential vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and bioactive components. Adding complex lipids and milk fat globule membranes to vegetable oil-based infant formula has the potential to enhance infant development and reduce infections. Cholesterol provision with breastfeeding modulates infant sterol metabolism and may induce long-term benefits. Some 98-99% of milk lipids are comprised by triacylglycerols, whose properties depend on incorporated fatty acids. Attention has been devoted to the roles of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic (DHA) and arachidonic (ARA) acids. Recent studies on gene-diet interaction (Mendelian randomization) show that breastfeeding providing DHA and ARA improves cognitive development and reduces asthma risk at school age particularly in those children with a genetically determined lower activity of DHA and ARA synthesis. It appears prudent to follow the biological model of human milk in the design of infant formula as far as feasible, unless conclusive evidence for the suitability and safety of other choices is available. The recent European Union legislative stipulation of a high formula DHA content without required ARA deviates from this concept, and such a novel formula composition has not been adequately evaluated. Great future opportunities arise with significant methodological progress for example in lipidomic analyses and their bioinformatic evaluation, which should enhance understanding of the biology of human milk lipids. Such knowledge might lead to improved dietary advice to lactating mothers as well as to further opportunities to enhance infant formula composition.

  20. Online evaluation of milk quality according to coagulation properties for its optimal distribution for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Leitner, G; Lavi, Y; Merin, U; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, L; Katz, G

    2011-06-01

    The potential for application of online devices for providing real-time analysis of milk-clotting parameters during milking was studied. The experiment tested established relationships between glandular-level bacterial infection and milk-clotting parameters as evaluated by visible or near-infrared spectroscopy. The parameters yielded by the AfiLab (S.A.E. Afikim, Afikim, Israel) online device were shown to be applicable to derivation of real-time estimations of milk-clotting parameters on the individual cow level. The ability of the AfiLab to perform this task was validated online and statistically by calibration against laboratory testing procedures.

  1. Early lactation production, health, and welfare characteristics of cows selected for extended lactation.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, J O; Mogensen, L; Kristensen, T

    2017-02-01

    Some cows are able to achieve relatively high milk yields during extended lactations beyond 305 d in milk, and farmers may be able to use this potential by selecting the most suitable cows for an extended lactation. However, the decision to postpone insemination has to rely on information available in early lactation. The main objectives of this study were, therefore, to assess the association between the information available in early lactation and the relative milk production of cows on extended lactation, and to investigate if this information can be used to differentiate time of first insemination between cows. Data came from 4 Danish private herds practicing extended lactation in which some cows are selected to have a delayed time of planned first insemination. Average herd size varied from 93 to 157 cows, and milk yield varied from 7,842 to 12,315 kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM) per cow per year across herds. The analysis was based on 422 completed extended lactations (427 ± 87 d), and each lactation was assigned to 1 of 3 (low, medium, and high) milk performance groups (MPG) within parity group within herd based on a standardized lactation yield. For cows in the high MPG, peak ECM yield, and ECM yield at dry off were significantly greater, the relative reduction in milk yield between 60 and 305 d in milk was significantly smaller, and a smaller proportion had a body condition score (scale: 1-5) at dry off of 3.5 or greater compared with cows in low MPG. Previous lactation days in milk at peak ECM yield and ECM yield at dry off were higher, the relative reduction in milk yield between 60 and 305 d in milk was smaller, and the number of inseminations per conception was higher for multiparous cows in high MPG compared with low. Current lactation ECM yield at second and third milk recording were greater for cows in high MPG compared with low. A principal component analysis indicated that variables related to fertility, diseases, and milk yield explained most

  2. Breast milk - pumping and storing

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 9 hours. DO NOT refreeze. DO NOT microwave breast milk. Overheating destroys nutrients, and "hot spots" ... burn your baby. Bottles may explode when you microwave them for too long. When leaving breast milk ...

  3. Biosensor assay for determination of haptoglobin in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Akerstedt, Maria; Björck, Lennart; Persson Waller, Karin; Sternesjö, Ase

    2006-08-01

    Despite more than 30 years of research into mastitis diagnostics, there are few alternatives to the somatic cell count (SCC) in practical use for identification of cows with subclinical mastitis. Mastitis is not only an animal welfare problem, but also affects the yield, composition and technological properties of milk. Hence, dairy cooperatives give farmers a premium quality payment to encourage low SCC although there is no clear scientific data defining the level of SCC in bulk tank milk that is associated with additional benefits in terms of milk quality. Recent research on alternative markers for inflammatory reactions in the lactating cow, e.g. in mastitis, includes investigations of the acute phase protein, haptoglobin (Hp). So far, the content of Hp in milk has mainly been studied in relation to mastitis diagnostics, with little attention given to its importance for milk composition and technological properties. At present, Hp in milk is measured using ELISA, but this technique is not suitable for routine large-scale analysis. In recent years, optical biosensor technology has been used for automated and rapid quantitative analysis of different components in milk, but so far not for analysis of acute phase proteins. The aim of the present study was to develop a rapid and sensitive biosensor method to determine Hp in milk. An affinity sensor assay based on the interaction between Hp and haemoglobin was developed using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor technology. The assay was used to analyse Hp in composite milk samples from cows without any clinical signs of mastitis and quarter milk samples with a weak to strong reaction in the California Mastitis Test (CMT). A commercial ELISA for determination of Hp in milk was used for comparison. The limit of detection (LOD) of the biosensor assay was determined as 1.1 mg/l. Within-assay and between-day variations were determined both with bulk tank milk spiked with human Hp and with composite milk samples

  4. The effect of diets on milk production and composition, and on lactation curves in pastured dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Min, B R; Hart, S P; Sahlu, T; Satter, L D

    2005-07-01

    A 2-yr study investigated effects of different levels of concentrate supplementation on milk production, composition, and lactation curves in pastured dairy goats. For both years, 44 Alpine goats (Capra hircus; 55 +/- 11 kg body weight) were randomly allocated to 4 groups. Animals were supplemented with 0.66 (treatments A and B), 0.33 (treatment C), or 0 kg of concentrate (treatment D) per kg of milk over 1.5 kg/d. Mixed vegetative forages were rotationally grazed by the goats (treatments B, C, and D), except that treatment A was confined and fed alfalfa hay. Individual milk production was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected once every 2 wk for the 7-mo period (March to September) and analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, urea-N, nonesterified fatty acids, and allantoin (second year only). Milk yield and composition varied among dietary treatments, with some measures affected by year. Average daily milk yield was lowest for treatment D. The increased level of concentrate supplementation in treatment A led to 22% greater milk yield compared with treatment D. Milk production increased by 1.7 and 0.9 kg for each additional kilogram of concentrate fed per day during the first and second years, respectively. Average peak yield, time of peak yield, and persistency were lower for treatment D than for other treatments. The percentage of milk fat was lower for treatment D than for other treatments. Concentration of milk protein was greater for treatments A and B during the first year, and was higher for treatment C than for other treatments during the second year. Average milk lactose concentration was higher for treatments B and C than for other treatments. However, milk urea-N concentration in treatment A was higher than other treatments. Milk allantoin, used to estimate microbial proteins synthesis, was 20 to 25% greater for treatment A than for other treatments. Averaged across year, plasma urea-N and nonesterified fatty acids concentration were lowest for

  5. Lipid oxidation volatiles absent in milk after selected ultrasound processing.

    PubMed

    Juliano, Pablo; Torkamani, Amir Ehsan; Leong, Thomas; Kolb, Veronika; Watkins, Peter; Ajlouni, Said; Singh, Tanoj Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasonic processing can suit a number of potential applications in the dairy industry. However, the impact of ultrasound treatment on milk stability during storage has not been fully explored under wider ranges of frequencies, specific energies and temperature applications. The effect of ultrasonication on lipid oxidation was investigated in various types of milk. Four batches of raw milk (up to 2L) were sonicated at various frequencies (20, 400, 1000, 1600 and 2000kHz), using different temperatures (4, 20, 45 and 63°C), sonication times and ultrasound energy inputs up to 409kJ/kg. Pasteurized skim milk was also sonicated at low and high frequency for comparison. In selected experiments, non-sonicated and sonicated samples were stored at 4°C and were drawn periodically up to 14days for SPME-GCMS analysis. The cavitational yield, characterized in all systems in water, was highest between 400kHz and 1000kHz. Volatile compounds from milk lipid oxidation were detected and exceeded their odor threshold values at 400kHz and 1000kHz at specific energies greater than 271kJ/kg in raw milk. However, no oxidative volatile compounds were detected below 230kJ/kg in batch systems at the tested frequencies under refrigerated conditions. Skim milk showed a lower energy threshold for oxidative volatile formation. The same oxidative volatiles were detected after various passes of milk through a 0.3L flow cell enclosing a 20kHz horn and operating above 90kJ/kg. This study showed that lipid oxidation in milk can be controlled by decreasing the sonication time and the temperature in the system depending on the fat content in the sample among other factors.

  6. Milk and fat production in dairy cattle influenced by advanced subclinical bovine leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, M C; Shanks, R D; Lewin, H A

    1989-01-01

    Genetic potentials (pedigree-estimated breeding value) for milk and for fat were compared in cows grouped according to subclinical stage of bovine leukemia virus infection. Genetic potential for milk production was significantly greater in seropositive cows with persistent lymphocytosis (622 +/- 72 kg) and in seropositive hematologically normal cows (554 +/- 34 34 kg) than in seronegative herdmates (418 +/- 53 kg). When 305-day twice-daily-milking mature equivalent milk production records for the current lactation were adjusted for genetic potential, bovine leukemia virus-infected cows that were hematologically normal had significantly greater milk production than did seronegative herdmates, suggesting that early bovine leukemia virus infection was positively associated with milk yield. Genetic potential for fat production was significantly greater for cows with persistent lymphocytosis (21 +/- 2 kg) than for other seropositive (16 +/- 1 kg) and seronegative herdmates (13 +/- 2 kg); however, 305-day twice-daily-milking mature equivalent fat production for the current lactation was not significantly different between the groups. Thus, cows with persistent lymphocytosis did not produce fat according to their genetic potential. As an apparent consequence of tendencies for greater milk yield and less fat production, milk fat percentage was significantly reduced in cows with persistent lymphocytosis (3.33 +/- 0.09%) and other seropositive cows (3.48 +/- 0.05%) relative to seronegative herdmates (3.67 +/- 0.07%). These results suggest a need to reevaluate the economic impact of bovine leukemia virus infection on the dairy industry. PMID:2536940

  7. Milk and fat production in dairy cattle influenced by advanced subclinical bovine leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, M C; Shanks, R D; Lewin, H A

    1989-02-01

    Genetic potentials (pedigree-estimated breeding value) for milk and for fat were compared in cows grouped according to subclinical stage of bovine leukemia virus infection. Genetic potential for milk production was significantly greater in seropositive cows with persistent lymphocytosis (622 +/- 72 kg) and in seropositive hematologically normal cows (554 +/- 34 34 kg) than in seronegative herdmates (418 +/- 53 kg). When 305-day twice-daily-milking mature equivalent milk production records for the current lactation were adjusted for genetic potential, bovine leukemia virus-infected cows that were hematologically normal had significantly greater milk production than did seronegative herdmates, suggesting that early bovine leukemia virus infection was positively associated with milk yield. Genetic potential for fat production was significantly greater for cows with persistent lymphocytosis (21 +/- 2 kg) than for other seropositive (16 +/- 1 kg) and seronegative herdmates (13 +/- 2 kg); however, 305-day twice-daily-milking mature equivalent fat production for the current lactation was not significantly different between the groups. Thus, cows with persistent lymphocytosis did not produce fat according to their genetic potential. As an apparent consequence of tendencies for greater milk yield and less fat production, milk fat percentage was significantly reduced in cows with persistent lymphocytosis (3.33 +/- 0.09%) and other seropositive cows (3.48 +/- 0.05%) relative to seronegative herdmates (3.67 +/- 0.07%). These results suggest a need to reevaluate the economic impact of bovine leukemia virus infection on the dairy industry.

  8. Effect of omission of machine stripping on milk production and parlor throughput in East Friesian dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    McKusick, B C; Thomas, D L; Berger, Y M

    2003-02-01

    Due to the large cisternal storage capacity and non-vertical teat placement in most dairy ewes, machine stripping is commonly performed to remove milk not obtained by the machine. However, stripping requires individual manual intervention, lengthens the milking routine, and could inadvertently lead to overmilking of other ewes in the parlor. The objective of the present experiment was to estimate the effect of omission of machine stripping on milk production and parlor throughput. East Friesian crossbred dairy ewes that had been machine milked and stripped twice daily from d 0 to 79 postpartum, were randomly assigned to two stripping treatments for the remainder of lactation: normal stripping (S, n = 24), or no stripping (NS, n = 24). The NS ewes yielded 14% less commercial milk during the experiment, but had similar lactation length, milk composition, and somatic cell count compared to S ewes. Average machine milk yield (amount of milk obtained without manual intervention) tended to be greater for NS compared to S ewes. Average machine-on time for S ewes was longer than for NS ewes because of stripping, which may have resulted in over-milking of many ewes in the S group. Results from a milking simulation indicated that parlor throughput would increase by 33%, and overmilking would not occur when stripping was omitted from the milking routine. These results collectively suggest that residual milk left in the udder as a result of omission of machine stripping does not negatively influence milk quality and the loss in commercial milk yield could be compensated for by improved parlor throughput.

  9. Deciphering the genetic blueprint behind Holstein milk proteins and production.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Taeheon; Son, Jun Kyu; Yoon, Ho-Baek; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Jeong, Jin Young; Cho, Yong-Min; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Lim, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Kwanghyeon; Kim, Tae-Hun; Kwon, Eung Gi; Nam, Jungrye; Kwak, Woori; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2014-05-14

    Holstein is known to provide higher milk yields than most other cattle breeds, and the dominant position of Holstein today is the result of various selection pressures. Holstein cattle have undergone intensive selection for milk production in recent decades, which has left genome-wide footprints of domestication. To further characterize the bovine genome, we performed whole-genome resequencing analysis of 10 Holstein and 11 Hanwoo cattle to identify regions containing genes as outliers in Holstein, including CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN3, and KIT whose products are likely involved in the yield and proteins of milk and their distinctive black-and-white markings. In addition, genes indicative of positive selection were associated with cardiovascular disease, which is related to simultaneous propagation of genetic defects, also known as inbreeding depression in Holstein.

  10. Donor human milk banking and the emergence of milk sharing.

    PubMed

    Landers, Susan; Hartmann, Ben T

    2013-02-01

    Donor human milk has emerged as the preferred substrate to feed extremely preterm infants, when mother's own milk is unavailable. This article summarizes the clinical data demonstrating the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of feeding donor human milk to premature babies. It describes the current state of milk banking in North America, as well as other parts of the world, and the differing criteria for donor selection, current pasteurization techniques, and quality control measures. A risk assessment methodology is proposed, which would allow milk banks globally to assess the safety of their process and respond appropriately to differing risk environments.

  11. Human Milk-Treatment and Quality of Banked Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Picaud, Jean-Charles; Buffin, Rachel

    2017-03-01

    The aim of human milk banks is to deliver safe and high quality donor human milk. Treatment of human milk has to destroy most microorganisms while preserving immunological and nutrient components, which is obtained when using low time low temperature pasteurization. However it destroys bile-simulated lipase, reduces lactoferrin, lysozyme, immunoglobulins, and bactericidal capacity of human milk. New methods are under investigation such as high temperature short time pasteurization, high pressure processing, or ultraviolet irradiation. They have been tested in experimental conditions and there are promising results, but they have to be tested in real conditions in human milk bank.

  12. Drugs in breast milk.

    PubMed

    1974-03-15

    Data on the pharmacology of drugs in breast milk are incomplete. The concentration in milk of drugs present in maternal blood depends on the lipid solubility of the drug and its degree of ionization. The immature renal and hepatic functions in the nursing infant can delay excretion of drugs. There has been no documented harm to nursing infants due to maternal use of oral contraceptives although long-term studies are unavailalbe. Breast feeding is contraindicated if the mother uses therapeutic doses of radioactive iodine, is a severe chronic alcoholic, or takes corticosteroids, phenobarbitone, and anticancer drugs. During lactation, drugs should be avoided as much as possible.

  13. The effect of temperament and responsiveness towards humans on the behavior, physiology and milk production of multi-parous dairy cows in a familiar and novel milking environment.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Mhairi A; Rogers, Andrea R; Verkerk, Gwyneth A

    2012-10-10

    The objectives of this study were to investigate whether; 1) temperament or 2) behavioral responsiveness to humans, can affect the behavior, physiology and productivity of dairy cows being milked in a familiar and novel milking environment. Temperament of multi-parous cows was defined based on exit time from a restraint device, as High Responders (HR; n=10), Medium Responders (MR; n=10) or Low Responders (LR; n=10). The behavioral response of cows to humans was assessed using four tests: restraint, exit speed, avoidance distance test and a voluntary approach test. Cows were milked according to their established routines in a rotary (familiar) milking parlor and behavioral, physiological and production data were collected over five consecutive days, including heart rate, cortisol and oxytocin concentrations and milk yield. The following week, cows were milked in a novel environment (herringbone parlor within the same farm facility) over five consecutive days, and the data and sample collection program was repeated. Cows were then given an exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge to measure adrenal responsiveness. Exit time was negatively correlated with the behavioral responses of cows to restraint and human avoidance distance (HAD) in the paddock and arena. The behavioral response of cows to the milking process was greater in MR than LR and HR cows in the familiar and novel milking environments. Milk yields were greater in LR than HR cows in the novel but not the familiar milking parlor. Oxytocin concentrations increased during milking in the novel environment, regardless of cow temperament. In the familiar and novel environments, heart rates were higher in HR than LR cows before and during milking and rMSSD was lower in HR cows during milking in a novel environment. There was no difference in cortisol concentrations between LR and HR cows in response to an ACTH challenge, but HR cows had higher baseline cortisol levels than LR cows. The number of leg

  14. Manipulation of milk production and quality by use of somatotropin in dairy ruminants other than cow.

    PubMed

    Baldi, A

    1999-10-01

    The ability of recombinant bovine somatotropin (BST) to enhance milk production is well established in cows and in other dairy ruminants. In dairy ewes, we found increased milk yield (20-30%) following treatment with BST, which did not negatively affect the gross composition or coagulating properties of milk, except in the advanced stage of lactation, when the percentages of milk protein and fat were reduced and the coagulation time was improved (shorter) compared with untreated animals. In dairy goats, administration of BST increased overall milk yield by 14-29%. Our studies and those of others on the Italian river buffalo showed that BST treatment increased milk yield by about 17%, or more, when associated with dietary protected fat, without affecting milk protein content. In general, studies on dairy ruminants show that treatment with BST increases milk production in the short term (immediate postinjection period) and that there is also a medium to long term effect on persistency of lactation. There is evidence that mammary gland involution can be at least partially reversed by BST administration, and this could be due to limitation in the decrease in mammary parenchyma as lactation progresses and/or to modulation of the plasmin-plasminogen system.

  15. Physical and sensory properties of dairy products from cows with various milk fatty acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Chen, She; Bobe, Gerd; Zimmerman, Shelly; Hammond, Earl G; Luhman, Cindie M; Boylston, Terri D; Freeman, Albert E; Beitz, Donald C

    2004-06-02

    Dairy products from milk of cows fed diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have a more health-promoting fatty acid composition and are softer but often have oxidized flavors. Dairy products made from cow's milk that has more- or less-unsaturated fatty acid compositions were tested for differences in texture and flavor from those made from bulk-tank milk. The milk was manufactured into butter, vanilla ice cream, yogurt, Provolone cheese, and Cheddar cheese. The products were analyzed for fatty acid composition, physical properties, and flavor. Milk of cows with a more monounsaturated fatty acid composition yielded products with a more monounsaturated fatty acid composition that were softer and had a satisfactory flavor. Thus, selection of cows for milk fatty acid composition can be used to produce dairy products that are probably more healthful and have a softer texture.

  16. Alfalfa containing the glyphosate-tolerant trait has no effect on feed intake, milk composition, or milk production of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Combs, D K; Hartnell, G F

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this experiment was to assess if feeding glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa affects feed intake, milk composition, or milk production of dairy cows. One alfalfa (Medicago sativa), variety expressing the CP4 EPSPS protein and grown in southeastern Washington State was harvested at the late vegetative stage as hay. Three commercial conventional varieties of alfalfa hay of similar nutrient composition and harvested in the same geographic region were fed to cows as controls. The commercial hays were selected to be similar in crude protein [18% of dry matter (DM)] and neutral detergent fiber (40% of DM) to the glyphosate-tolerant hay. Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows were fed diets containing alfalfa hay (39.7% of diet DM) from either the glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa, or 1 of the 3 conventional varieties. Diets contained at least 15.7% crude protein and 29% neutral detergent fiber. Experimental design was a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square. Periods were 28 d and feed intake, milk yield, and milk composition were summarized over the last 14 d of each period. Daily milk yield (38.0 kg) and 4% fat-corrected milk (34.7 kg) were not affected by treatment. Milk fat (3.44%) and milk true protein (2.98%) were also not affected by source of hay. Milk lactose (4.72%) and soldis-not-fat (8.5%) did not differ due to treatment. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments (24.4 kg/d). These results are consistent with data from feeding trials with other glyphosate-tolerant crops and previously reported compositional comparisons of glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa with controls. Milk production, milk composition, feed intake, and feed efficiency were not affected by feeding diets that contained nearly 40% glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa hay to lactating dairy cows.

  17. Campylobacter jejuni Infections Associated with Raw Milk Consumption--Utah, 2014.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kenneth R; Dunn, Angela C; Burnett, Cindy; McCullough, Laine; Dimond, Melissa; Wagner, Jenni; Smith, Lori; Carter, Amy; Willardson, Sarah; Nakashima, Allyn K

    2016-04-01

    In May 2014, the Utah Public Health Laboratory (UPHL) notified the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) of specimens from three patients infected with Campylobacter jejuni yielding indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. All three patients had consumed raw (unpasteurized and nonhomogenized) milk from dairy A. In Utah, raw milk sales are legal from farm to consumer with a sales permit from the Utah Department of Agriculture and Food (UDAF). Raw milk dairies are required to submit monthly milk samples to UDAF for somatic cell and coliform counts, both of which are indicators of raw milk contamination. Before this cluster's identification, dairy A's routine test results were within acceptable levels (<400,000 somatic cells/mL and <10 coliform colony forming units/mL). Subsequent enhanced testing procedures recovered C. jejuni, a fastidious organism, in dairy A raw milk; the isolate matched the cluster pattern. UDAF suspended dairy A's raw milk permit during August 4-October 1, and reinstated the permit when follow-up cultures were negative. Additional cases of C. jejuni infection were identified in October, and UDAF permanently revoked dairy A's permit to sell raw milk on December 1. During May 9-November 6, 2014, a total of 99 cases of C. jejuni infection were identified. Routine somatic cell and coliform counts of raw milk do not ensure its safety. Consumers should be educated that raw milk might be unsafe even if it meets routine testing standards.

  18. Temporal changes in milk proteomes reveal developing milk functions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xinliu; McMahon, Robert J; Woo, Jessica G; Davidson, Barbara S; Morrow, Ardythe L; Zhang, Qiang

    2012-07-06

    Human milk proteins provide essential nutrition for growth and development, and support a number of vital developmental processes in the neonate. A complete understanding of the possible functions of human milk proteins has been limited by incomplete knowledge of the human milk proteome. In this report, we have analyzed the proteomes of whey from human transitional and mature milk using ion-exchange and SDS-PAGE based protein fractionation methods. With a larger-than-normal sample loading approach, we are able to largely extend human milk proteome to 976 proteins. Among them, 152 proteins are found to render significant regulatory changes between transitional milk and mature milk. We further found that immunoglobulins sIgA and IgM are more abundant in transitional milk, whereas IgG is more abundant in mature milk, suggesting a transformation in defense mechanism from newborns to young infants. Additionally, we report a more comprehensive view of a complement system and associated regulatory apparatus in human milk, demonstrating the presence and function of a system similar to that found in the circulation but prevailed by alternative pathway in complement activation. Proteins involved in various aspects of carbohydrate metabolism are also described, revealing either a transition in milk functionality to accommodate carbohydrate-rich secretions as lactation progresses, or a potentially novel way of looking at the metabolic state of the mammary tissue. Lately, a number of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are found to be in higher abundance in transitional milk and may be relevant to the development of infants' gastrointestinal tract in early life. In contrast, the ECM protein fibronectin and several of the actin cytoskeleton proteins that it regulates are more abundant in mature milk, which may indicate the important functional role for milk in regulating reactive oxygen species.

  19. Grazing season and forage type influence goat milk composition and rennet coagulation properties.

    PubMed

    Inglingstad, R A; Steinshamn, H; Dagnachew, B S; Valenti, B; Criscione, A; Rukke, E O; Devold, T G; Skeie, S B; Vegarud, G E

    2014-01-01

    Two different types of pasture (cultivated and rangeland) and 2 different hay qualities (high and low quality) were examined for their effects on goat milk composition and rennet coagulation properties. Furthermore, the effect of dietary treatments in both the early and late grazing season was studied. As lactation stage is known to influence milk composition, the goats in the early and late grazing season were in the same lactation stage at the start of the experiment. The milk composition was influenced both by dietary treatment and season. Milk from goats on pasture was superior to those on hay by containing a higher content of protein and casein, and the goats on cultivated pasture had the highest milk yield. Casein composition was significantly influenced by forage treatment. Goats grazing on cultivated pasture had higher contents of αs1-casein and also of κ-casein compared with the other treatments, whereas goats grazing on rangeland had the highest content of β-casein. Factors such as milk yield, casein micelle size, αs2-casein, and calcium content were reduced in late compared with early season. More favorable rennet coagulation properties were achieved in milk from the early grazing season, with shorter firming time and higher curd firmness compared with milk from the late grazing season, but the firming time and curd firmness were not prominently influenced by forage treatment. The content of αs2-casein and calcium in the milk affected the firming time and the curd firmness positively. The influence of season and forage treatment on especially milk yield, casein content, and rennet coagulation properties is of economic importance for both the dairy industry and goat milk farmers.

  20. Real-time visual/near-infrared analysis of milk-clotting parameters for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Leitner, G; Merin, U; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, L; Bezman, D; Katz, G

    2012-07-01

    The economical profitability of the dairy industry is based on the quality of the bulk milk collected in the farms, therefore it was based on the herd level rather than on the individual animals at real time. Udder infection and stage of lactation are directly related to the quality of milk produced on the herd level. However, improvement of milk quality requires testing each animal's milk separately and continuously. Recently, it was postulated that online equipment can estimate milk quality according to its clotting parameters, and thus result in better economical return for cheese making. This study further investigated the potential application of the AfiLab™ equipment to provide real-time analysis of milk-clotting parameters for cheese manufacture and cheese yield on quarter (1018) and individual cow (277) levels. Days in milk, lactose, log SCC and udder infection were found to have a significant effect on curd firmness and cheese properties and yield. The results clearly indicate that: (a) the parameter Afi-CF determined with the AfiLab™ is suitable for assessing milk quality for its clotting parameters, a value which is not provided by merely measuring fat and protein content on the gland and the cow levels; (b) bacterial type is the single major cause of reduced milk quality, with variations depending on the bacterial species; and (c) early and late lactation also had negative effects on milk-clotting parameters. Cheese made from the various milk samples that were determined by the Afilab™ to be of higher quality for cheese making resulted in higher yield and better texture, which were related mainly to the bacterial species and stage of lactation.

  1. Mammary epithelial cells isolated from milk are a valuable, non-invasive source of mammary transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Boutinaud, Marion; Herve, Lucile; Lollivier, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Milk is produced in the udder by mammary epithelial cells (MEC). Milk contains MEC, which are gradually exfoliated from the epithelium during lactation. Isolation of MEC from milk using immunomagnetic separation may be a useful non-invasive method to investigate transcriptional regulations in ruminants’ udder. This review aims to describe the process of isolating MEC from milk, to provide an overview on the studies that use this method to analyze gene expression by qRT PCR and to evaluate the validity of this method by analyzing and comparing the results between studies. In several goat and cow studies, consistent reductions in alpha-lactalbumin mRNA levels during once-daily milking (ODM) and in SLC2A1 mRNA level during feed restriction are observed. The effect of ODM on alpha-lactalbumin mRNA level was similarly observed in milk isolated MEC and mammary biopsy. Moreover, we and others showed decreasing alpha-lactalbumin and increasing BAX mRNA levels with advanced stages of lactation in dairy cows and buffalo. The relevance of using the milk-isolated MEC method to analyze mammary gene expression is proven, as the transcript variations were also consistent with milk yield and composition variations under the effect of different factors such as prolactin inhibition or photoperiod. However, the RNA from milk-isolated MEC is particularly sensitive to degradation. This could explain the differences obtained between milk-isolated MEC and mammary biopsy in two studies where gene expression was compared using qRT-PCR or RNA Sequencing analyses. As a conclusion, when the RNA quality is conserved, MEC isolated from milk are a valuable, non-invasive source of mammary mRNA to study various factors that impact milk yield and composition (ODM, feeding level, endocrine status, photoperiod modulation, and stage of lactation). PMID:26579195

  2. Amino acid nutrition beyond methionine and lysine for milk protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amino acids are involved in many important physiological processes affecting the production, health, and reproduction of high-producing dairy cows. Most research and recommendations for lactating dairy cows has focused on methionine and lysine for increasing milk protein yield. This is because these...

  3. Increasing palmitic acid intake enhances milk production and prevents glucose-stimulated fatty acid disappearance without modifying systemic glucose tolerance in mid-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mathews, A T; Rico, J E; Sprenkle, N T; Lock, A L; McFadden, J W

    2016-11-01

    Feeding saturated fatty acids may enhance milk yield in part by decreasing insulin sensitivity and shifting glucose utilization toward the mammary gland. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of palmitic acid (C16:0) on milk production and insulin sensitivity in cows. Twenty multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were enrolled in a study consisting of a 5-d covariate, 49-d treatment, and 14-d posttreatment period. All cows received a common sorghum silage-based diet and were randomly assigned to a diet containing no supplemental fat (control; n=10; 138±45d in milk) or C16:0 at 4% of ration DM (PALM; 98% C16:0; n=10; 136±44d in milk). Blood and milk were collected at routine intervals. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (300mg/kg of body weight) were performed at d -1, 24, and 49 relative to start of treatment. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using a mixed model with fixed effects of treatment and time, and milk yield served as a covariate. The PALM treatment increased milk yield by wk 7. Furthermore, PALM increased milk fat yield and energy-corrected milk at wk 3 and 7. Changes in milk production occurred in parallel with enhanced energy intake. Increased milk fat yield during PALM treatment was due to increased C16:0 and C16:1 incorporation; PALM had no effect on concentration of milk components, BW, or body condition score. Two weeks posttreatment, energy-corrected milk and milk fat yield remained elevated in PALM-fed cows whereas yields of milk were similar between treatments. Increased milk fat yield after PALM treatment was due to increased de novo lipogenesis and uptake of preformed fatty acids. The basal concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in plasma increased by d 4, 6, and 8 of PALM treatment, a response not observed thereafter. Although PALM supplementation did not modify insulin, glucose, or triacylglycerol levels in plasma, total cholesterol in plasma was elevated by wk 3. Estimated insulin sensitivity was lower during the

  4. Variability of acetone in milk in a large low-production dairy herd: a longitudinal case study.

    PubMed

    Heuer, C; Wangler, A; Schukken, Y H; Noordhuizen, J P

    2001-05-01

    The objective of this study was to relate acetone in milk with cow and management factors in one low producing dairy herd (5260 kg milk per 305-day lactation). Milk acetone was measured in regular monthly milk samples one to three times within 100 days of lactation in 4433 lactations (2639 cows, 7800 measurements) from one herd over a period of 32 months (1988-91). Associations between milk acetone and cow factors and surrogate measures of management were evaluated by variance components of multiple fixed effect models. Lactation stage, calendar month of study, production groups and milk yield were strong, and percentage milk fat and parity were weak predictors of milk acetone. There was a trend of increasing body weight loss from the first to the second month of lactation with increasing milk acetone level. A substantial increase in milk production in 1991 was accompanied by an almost twofold rise in milk acetone. It was concluded that environmental parameters had strong relationships with milk acetone even in this low-producing herd.

  5. Genetic Parameters of Milk β-Hydroxybutyric Acid and Acetone and Their Genetic Association with Milk Production Traits of Holstein Cattle.

    PubMed

    Lee, SeokHyun; Cho, KwangHyun; Park, MiNa; Choi, TaeJung; Kim, SiDong; Do, ChangHee

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the genetic parameters of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and acetone concentration in milk by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy along with test-day milk production traits including fat %, protein % and milk yield based on monthly samples of milk obtained as part of a routine milk recording program in Korea. Additionally, the feasibility of using such data in the official dairy cattle breeding system for selection of cows with low susceptibility of ketosis was evaluated. A total of 57,190 monthly test-day records for parities 1, 2, and 3 of 7,895 cows with pedigree information were collected from April 2012 to August 2014 from herds enrolled in the Korea Animal Improvement Association. Multi-trait random regression models were separately applied to estimate genetic parameters of test-day records for each parity. The model included fixed herd test-day effects, calving age and season effects, and random regressions for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Abundance of variation of acetone may provide a more sensitive indication of ketosis than many zero observations in concentration of milk BHBA. Heritabilities of milk BHBA levels ranged from 0.04 to 0.17 with a mean of 0.09 for the interval between 4 and 305 days in milk during three lactations. The average heritabilities for milk acetone concentration were 0.29, 0.29, and 0.22 for parities 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There was no clear genetic association of the concentration of two ketone bodies with three test-day milk production traits, e