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Sample records for 305-day milk production

  1. Using L-M BP Algorithm Forecase the 305 Days Production of First-Breed Dairy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaoli; Qi, Guoqiang; Shen, Weizheng; Jian, Sun

    Aiming at the shortage of conventional BP algorithm, a BP neural net works improved by L-M algorithm is put forward. On the basis of the network, a Prediction model for 305 day's milk productions was set up. Traditional methods finish these data must spend at least 305 days, But this model can forecast first-breed dairy's 305 days milk production ahead of 215 days. The validity of the improved BP neural network predictive model was validated through the experiments.

  2. Effects of stage of pregnancy on variance components, daily milk yields and 305-day milk yield in Holstein cows, as estimated by using a test-day model.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, T; Hagiya, K; Takeda, H; Osawa, T; Yamaguchi, S; Nagamine, Y

    2016-08-01

    Pregnancy and calving are elements indispensable for dairy production, but the daily milk yield of cows decline as pregnancy progresses, especially during the late stages. Therefore, the effect of stage of pregnancy on daily milk yield must be clarified to accurately estimate the breeding values and lifetime productivity of cows. To improve the genetic evaluation model for daily milk yield and determine the effect of the timing of pregnancy on productivity, we used a test-day model to assess the effects of stage of pregnancy on variance component estimates, daily milk yields and 305-day milk yield during the first three lactations of Holstein cows. Data were 10 646 333 test-day records for the first lactation; 8 222 661 records for the second; and 5 513 039 records for the third. The data were analyzed within each lactation by using three single-trait random regression animal models: one model that did not account for the stage of pregnancy effect and two models that did. The effect of stage of pregnancy on test-day milk yield was included in the model by applying a regression on days pregnant or fitting a separate lactation curve for each days open (days from calving to pregnancy) class (eight levels). Stage of pregnancy did not affect the heritability estimates of daily milk yield, although the additive genetic and permanent environmental variances in late lactation were decreased by accounting for the stage of pregnancy effect. The effects of days pregnant on daily milk yield during late lactation were larger in the second and third lactations than in the first lactation. The rates of reduction of the 305-day milk yield of cows that conceived fewer than 90 days after the second or third calving were significantly (P<0.05) greater than that after the first calving. Therefore, we conclude that differences between the negative effects of early pregnancy in the first, compared with later, lactations should be included when determining the optimal number of days open

  3. Effects of stage of pregnancy on variance components, daily milk yields and 305-day milk yield in Holstein cows, as estimated by using a test-day model.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, T; Hagiya, K; Takeda, H; Osawa, T; Yamaguchi, S; Nagamine, Y

    2016-08-01

    Pregnancy and calving are elements indispensable for dairy production, but the daily milk yield of cows decline as pregnancy progresses, especially during the late stages. Therefore, the effect of stage of pregnancy on daily milk yield must be clarified to accurately estimate the breeding values and lifetime productivity of cows. To improve the genetic evaluation model for daily milk yield and determine the effect of the timing of pregnancy on productivity, we used a test-day model to assess the effects of stage of pregnancy on variance component estimates, daily milk yields and 305-day milk yield during the first three lactations of Holstein cows. Data were 10 646 333 test-day records for the first lactation; 8 222 661 records for the second; and 5 513 039 records for the third. The data were analyzed within each lactation by using three single-trait random regression animal models: one model that did not account for the stage of pregnancy effect and two models that did. The effect of stage of pregnancy on test-day milk yield was included in the model by applying a regression on days pregnant or fitting a separate lactation curve for each days open (days from calving to pregnancy) class (eight levels). Stage of pregnancy did not affect the heritability estimates of daily milk yield, although the additive genetic and permanent environmental variances in late lactation were decreased by accounting for the stage of pregnancy effect. The effects of days pregnant on daily milk yield during late lactation were larger in the second and third lactations than in the first lactation. The rates of reduction of the 305-day milk yield of cows that conceived fewer than 90 days after the second or third calving were significantly (P<0.05) greater than that after the first calving. Therefore, we conclude that differences between the negative effects of early pregnancy in the first, compared with later, lactations should be included when determining the optimal number of days open

  4. Genotype by environment interactions on culling rates and 305-day milk yield of Holstein cows in 3 US regions.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, S; Lourenco, D A L; Misztal, I; Lawlor, T J

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate genotype by environment interactions for culling rates and milk production in large and small dairy herds in 3 US regions, using genotypes, pedigree, and phenotypes. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker variances were also estimated in these different environments. Culling rates including cow mortality were based on 6 Dairy Herd Improvement termination codes reported by dairy producers. Separate data sets for culling rates and 305-d milk yield were created for large and small dairy herds in the US regions of the Southeast (SE), Southwest (SW), and Northeast (NE) for the first 3 lactation cows that calved between 1999 and 2008. Genomic information from 42,503 SNP markers on 34,506 bulls was included in the analysis to predict genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) of culling rates and 305-d milk yield with a single-step genomic BLUP using a bivariate threshold-linear model. Cow replacement rates in large SE and NE herds were higher. Heritability estimates of culling rates ranged from 0.03 to 0.11, but the differences were small between large and small herds and among the 3 US regions. Genetic correlations between culling rates and 305-d milk yield were medium to high for cows sold for poor production and reproduction problems. Correlations of GEBV for culling rates among the 3 US regions ranged from 0.34 to 0.92 and were lower between the SW and the other regions, especially in small herds. Correlations of GEBV between large and small herds ranged from 0.44 to 0.90 and were lower in the SW. These results indicate genotype by environment interactions of cow culling rate between the US regions and between large and small herds. Correlations of top 30 SNP marker effects for culling rates between 2 US regions ranged from 0.64 to 0.98 and were higher than those of more SNP marker effects except for a culling reason "sold for dairy purpose." Those correlations between large and small herds ranged from 0.67 to 0

  5. Mediterranean milk and milk products.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Jörg

    2004-03-01

    Milk and dairy products are part of a healthy Mediterranean diet which, besides cow's milk, also consists of sheep's, goat's and buffalo's milk--alone or as a mixture---as raw material. The fat and protein composition of the milk of the various animal species differs only slightly, but in every case it has a high priority in human nutrition. The milk proteins are characterized by a high content of essential amino acids. Beyond that macromolecules,which have various biological functions, are available or may be formed by proteolysis in milk. Taking this into consideration, the technology of different well-known Italian and German cheese types is presented and the differences as well as correspondences regarding nutrition are discussed. Especially Ricotta and Mascarpone are discussed in detail. Ricotta represents a special feature as this cheese is traditionally made of whey and cream. Thus the highly valuable whey proteins which contain a higher amount of the amino acids lysine, methionine and cysteic acid in comparison to casein and, additionally, to soy protein, are made usable for human nutrition. Finally, it is pointed out on the basis of individual examples that technologies to enrich whey proteins in cheese are already available and in use. Thus, the flavor of low fat cheese is improved and the nutritional value is increased. PMID:15052494

  6. 9 CFR 94.16 - Milk and milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milk and milk products. 94.16 Section... RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.16 Milk and milk products. (a) The following milk products are exempt from...

  7. 9 CFR 94.16 - Milk and milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk and milk products. 94.16 Section... VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.16 Milk and milk products. (a) The following milk products are exempt from the provisions of this part:...

  8. 9 CFR 94.16 - Milk and milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk and milk products. 94.16 Section... VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.16 Milk and milk products. (a) The following milk products are exempt from the provisions of this part:...

  9. Selenium content of milk and milk products of Turkey. II.

    PubMed

    Yanardağ, R; Orak, H

    1999-04-01

    Selenium content of 1028 milk and milk products of Turkey are presented in this study. The selenium content of human milk (colostrum, transitional, and mature milk), various kinds of milk [cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, paper boxes (3%, 1.5%, 0.012% fat), bottled milk, condensed milk (10% fat), mineral added milk (1.6%), and banana, strawberry, and chocolate milk] and milk products (kefir, yogurt, Ayran, various cheese, coffee cream, ice cream, butter, margarine, milk powder, and fruit yogurt) in Turkey were determined by a spectrofluorometric method. The selenium levels of cow milks collected from 57 cities in Turkey were also determined. Selenium levels in cow milk varied with geographical location in Turkey and were found to be lowest for Van and highest for Aksaray. The results [milk (cow, sheep, goat, buffalo and human) and milks products] were compared with literature data from different countries.

  10. Integrating Fasciolosis Control in the Dry Cow Management: The Effect of Closantel Treatment on Milk Production

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, Johannes; Hostens, Miel; Jacobs, Jos; Van Ranst, Bonny; Duchateau, Luc; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a parasite of ruminants with a worldwide distribution and an apparent increasing incidence in EU member states. Effective control in dairy cattle is hampered by the lack of flukicides with a zero-withdrawal time for milk, leaving the dry period as the only time that preventive treatment can be applied. Here, we present the results of a blinded, randomized and placebo-controlled trial on 11 dairy herds (402 animals) exposed to F. hepatica to 1) assess the effect of closantel treatment at dry-off (or 80–42 days before calving in first-calving heifers) on milk production parameters and 2) evaluate if a number of easy-to-use animal parameters is related to the milk production response after treatment. Closantel treatment resulted in a noticeable decrease of anti-F. hepatica antibody levels from 3–6 months after treatment onwards, a higher peak production (1.06 kg) and a slightly higher persistence (9%) of the lactation, resulting in a 305-day milk production increase of 303 kg. No effects of anthelmintic treatment were found on the average protein and fat content of the milk. Milk production responses after treatment were poor in meagre animals and clinically relevant higher milk production responses were observed in first-lactation animals and in cows with a high (0.3–0.5 optical density ratio (ODR)), but not a very high (≥0.5 ODR) F. hepatica ELISA result on a milk sample from the previous lactation. We conclude that in dairy herds exposed to F. hepatica, flukicide treatment at dry-off is a useful strategy to reduce levels of exposure and increase milk production in the subsequent lactation. Moreover, the results suggest that treatment approaches that only target selected animals within a herd can be developed based on easy-to-use parameters. PMID:22916226

  11. Genetic Parameters of Milk β-Hydroxybutyric Acid and Acetone and Their Genetic Association with Milk Production Traits of Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, SeokHyun; Cho, KwangHyun; Park, MiNa; Choi, TaeJung; Kim, SiDong; Do, ChangHee

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the genetic parameters of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and acetone concentration in milk by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy along with test-day milk production traits including fat %, protein % and milk yield based on monthly samples of milk obtained as part of a routine milk recording program in Korea. Additionally, the feasibility of using such data in the official dairy cattle breeding system for selection of cows with low susceptibility of ketosis was evaluated. A total of 57,190 monthly test-day records for parities 1, 2, and 3 of 7,895 cows with pedigree information were collected from April 2012 to August 2014 from herds enrolled in the Korea Animal Improvement Association. Multi-trait random regression models were separately applied to estimate genetic parameters of test-day records for each parity. The model included fixed herd test-day effects, calving age and season effects, and random regressions for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Abundance of variation of acetone may provide a more sensitive indication of ketosis than many zero observations in concentration of milk BHBA. Heritabilities of milk BHBA levels ranged from 0.04 to 0.17 with a mean of 0.09 for the interval between 4 and 305 days in milk during three lactations. The average heritabilities for milk acetone concentration were 0.29, 0.29, and 0.22 for parities 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There was no clear genetic association of the concentration of two ketone bodies with three test-day milk production traits, even if some correlations among breeding values of the test-day records in this study were observed. These results suggest that genetic selection for low susceptibility of ketosis in early lactation is possible. Further, it is desirable for the breeding scheme of dairy cattle to include the records of milk acetone rather than the records of milk BHBA. PMID:27608643

  12. Milk production of Jersey and Fleckvieh × Jersey cows in a pasture-based feeding system.

    PubMed

    Goni, Sindisile; Muller, Carel Johan Christiaan; Dube, Bekezela; Dzama, Kennedy

    2015-01-01

    Milk production parameters of purebred Jersey (J) cows and Fleckvieh × Jersey (F × J) cows in a pasture-based feeding system were compared using standard milk recording procedures. Milk, fat and protein production was adjusted to 305 days per lactation and corrected for age at calving. Effects of breed, parity, month and year were estimated for milk, fat and protein yield as well as fat and protein percentage, using the general linear model procedure. Fixed effects identified as affecting milk production parameters significantly were breed, parity and year. F × J cows produced significantly more milk than J cows (6141 ± 102 and 5398 ± 95 kg milk, respectively). Similarly, fat and protein yields were significantly higher in F × J (272 ± 4 and 201 ± 3 kg, respectively) than in Jersey cows (246 ± 3 and 194 ± 2 kg, respectively). Fat and protein percentages only differed slightly in absolute terms being 4.61 ± 0.04% fat in the Jersey compared to 4.47 ± 0.04% fat in the F × J. Protein levels for J and F × J cows were 3.62 ± 0.03 and 3.51 ± 0.03%, respectively. Despite a lower fat percentage, F × J crossbred cows may be more productive than purebred Jersey cows which may be due to heterotic effects.

  13. Associations between milk protein polymorphisms and milk production traits.

    PubMed

    Bovenhuis, H; Van Arendonk, J A; Korver, S

    1992-09-01

    Associations between milk protein genotypes and milk production traits were estimated from 6803 first lactation records. Exact tests of associated hypotheses and unbiased estimates of genotype effects were from an animal model. Milk protein genotype effects were estimated using a model in which each milk protein gene was analyzed separately (single-gene analysis) and a model in which all milk protein genes were analyzed simultaneously (multigene analysis). The results of the two models indicate that some effects ascribed to certain milk protein genes in the single-gene analysis are not effects of the milk protein gene itself but of linked genes. Results from this study and from literature indicate that the kappa-casein gene or a very closely linked gene affects protein percentage, and the beta-lactoglobulin gene or a very closely linked gene affects fat percentage. Furthermore, effects of beta-casein genotypes on milk production, fat percentage, and protein yield were significant, and beta-lactoglobulin genotypes had significant effects on milk production and protein yield. It is less clear whether those effects are due to effects of milk protein genes themselves or to effects of linked genes.

  14. 9 CFR 94.16 - Milk and milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk and milk products. 94.16 Section... VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.16...

  15. 9 CFR 94.16 - Milk and milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk and milk products. 94.16 Section... VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.16...

  16. Random Regression Models Are Suitable to Substitute the Traditional 305-Day Lactation Model in Genetic Evaluations of Holstein Cattle in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Padilha, Alessandro Haiduck; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo; Costa, Cláudio Napolis; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two random regression models (RRM) fitted by fourth (RRM4) and fifth-order Legendre polynomials (RRM5) with a lactation model (LM) for evaluating Holstein cattle in Brazil. Two datasets with the same animals were prepared for this study. To apply test-day RRM and LMs, 262,426 test day records and 30,228 lactation records covering 305 days were prepared, respectively. The lowest values of Akaike’s information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and estimates of the maximum of the likelihood function (−2LogL) were for RRM4. Heritability for 305-day milk yield (305MY) was 0.23 (RRM4), 0.24 (RRM5), and 0.21 (LM). Heritability, additive genetic and permanent environmental variances of test days on days in milk was from 0.16 to 0.27, from 3.76 to 6.88 and from 11.12 to 20.21, respectively. Additive genetic correlations between test days ranged from 0.20 to 0.99. Permanent environmental correlations between test days were between 0.07 and 0.99. Standard deviations of average estimated breeding values (EBVs) for 305MY from RRM4 and RRM5 were from 11% to 30% higher for bulls and around 28% higher for cows than that in LM. Rank correlations between RRM EBVs and LM EBVs were between 0.86 to 0.96 for bulls and 0.80 to 0.87 for cows. Average percentage of gain in reliability of EBVs for 305-day yield increased from 4% to 17% for bulls and from 23% to 24% for cows when reliability of EBVs from RRM models was compared to those from LM model. Random regression model fitted by fourth order Legendre polynomials is recommended for genetic evaluations of Brazilian Holstein cattle because of the higher reliability in the estimation of breeding values. PMID:26954176

  17. Effects of continuous milking during a field trial on productivity, milk protein yield and health in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Köpf, M; Gellrich, K; Küchenhoff, H; Meyer, H H D; Kliem, H

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this field study with an automatic milking system was to evaluate the effects of omitting the dry period on health and productivity during the subsequent lactation in dairy cows. A total of 98 German Simmental cows of six Southern German farms were assigned randomly to two experimental groups: The first group was dried-off 56 days before calving (D for dried-off, n=49), and the second group was milked continuously during this period until calving (CM for continuous milking, n=49). From the latter a third group emerged, including cows that dried-off themselves spontaneously (DS for dried-off spontaneously, n=14). Blood serum values of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and IGF-1 showed most pronounced fluctuations in D cows. Over the entire study period, the concentrations of BHBA and NEFA were markedly lower in the CM and DS groups. Furthermore, IGF-1 concentration was lowest for D cows and also decrease in back fat thickness was more pronounced. Mean concentration of milk protein was markedly higher in CM and DS cows (3.70% and 3.71%) compared with D cows (3.38%). Owing to the lower 305-day milk yield (-15.6%) and the lower total milk yield (-3.1%), the total amount of produced protein in the subsequent lactation was 2.5% (6.8 kg) lower, although the additional protein amount in CM cows from week -8 to calving was 35.7 kg. The greatest benefit resulted from positive effects on fertility and the lower incidence of diseases: CM cows had their first oestrus 1 week earlier compared with D cows, they also conceived earlier and showed a significantly lower risk of developing hypocalcaemia, ketosis and puerperal disorders. The present study showed that the costs of medical treatment and milk losses were twice as high in D cows, compared with CM and DS cows, and thus the reduced costs because of the more stable health outweighed the financial losses of milk yield by +18.49 € per cow and lactation. PMID:26263029

  18. Automatic milking systems, farm size, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Rotz, C A; Coiner, C U; Soder, K J

    2003-12-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) offer relief from the demanding routine of milking. Although many AMS are in use in Europe and a few are used in the United States, the potential benefit for American farms is uncertain. A farm-simulation model was used to determine the long-term, whole-farm effect of implementing AMS on farm sizes of 30 to 270 cows. Highest farm net return to management and unpaid factors was when AMS were used at maximal milking capacity. Adding stalls to increase milking frequency and possibly increase production generally did not improve net return. Compared with new traditional milking systems, the greatest potential economic benefit was a single-stall AMS on a farm size of 60 cows at a moderate milk production level (8600 kg/cow). On other farm sizes using single-stall type robotic units, losses in annual net return of 0 dollars to 300 dollars/cow were projected, with the greatest losses on larger farms and at high milk production (10,900 kg/cow). Systems with one robot serving multiple stalls provided a greater net return than single-stall systems, and this net return was competitive with traditional parlors for 50- to 130-cow farm sizes. The potential benefit of AMS was improved by 100 dollars/cow per year if the AMS increased production an additional 5%. A 20% reduction in initial equipment cost or doubling milking labor cost also improved annual net return of an AMS by up to 100 dollars/cow. Annual net return was reduced by 110 dollars/cow, though, if the economic life of the AMS was reduced by 3 yr for a more rapid depreciation than that normally used with traditional milking systems. Thus, under current assumptions, the economic return for an AMS was similar to that of new parlor systems on smaller farms when the milking capacity of the AMS was well matched to herd size and milk production level.

  19. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets...

  20. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets...

  1. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets...

  2. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets...

  3. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets...

  4. Factors associated with increased milk production for automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marlène; Hess, Justin P; Christenson, Brock M; McIntyre, Kolby K; Smink, Ben; van der Kamp, Arjen J; de Jong, Lisanne G; Döpfer, Dörte

    2016-05-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) are increasingly popular throughout the world. Our objective was to analyze 635 North American dairy farms with AMS for (risk) factors associated with increased milk production per cow per day and milk production per robot per day. We used multivariable generalized mixed linear regressions, which identified several significant risk factors and interactions of risk factors associated with milk production. Free traffic was associated with increased production per cow and per robot per day compared with forced systems, and the presence of a single robot per pen was associated with decreased production per robot per day compared with pens using 2 robots. Retrofitted farms had significantly less production in the first 4 yr since installation compared with production after 4 yr of installation. In contrast, newly built farms did not see a significant change in production over time since installation. Overall, retrofitted farms did not produce significantly more or less milk than newly constructed farms. Detailed knowledge of factors associated with increased production of AMS will help guide future recommendations to producers looking to transition to an AMS and maximize their production.

  5. Major advances in fresh milk and milk products: fluid milk products and frozen desserts.

    PubMed

    Goff, H D; Griffiths, M W

    2006-04-01

    Major technological advances in the fluid milk processing industry in the last 25 yr include significant improvements in all the unit operations of separation, standardization, pasteurization, homogenization, and packaging. Many advancements have been directed toward production capacity, automation, and hygienic operation. Extended shelf-life milks are produced by high heat treatment, sometimes coupled with microfiltration or centrifugation. Other nonthermal methods have also been investigated. Flavored milk beverages have increased in popularity, as have milk beverages packaged in single-service, closeable plastic containers. Likewise, the frozen dairy processing industry has seen the development of large-capacity, automated processing equipment for a wide range of products designed to gain market share. Significant advancements in product quality have been made, many of these arising from improved knowledge of the functional properties of ingredients and their impact on structure and texture. Incidents of foodborne disease associated with dairy products continue to occur, necessitating even greater diligence in the control of pathogen transmission. Analytical techniques for the rapid detection of specific types of microorganisms have been developed and greatly improved during this time. Despite tremendous technological advancements for processors and a greater diversity of products for consumers, per capita consumption of fluid milk has declined and consumption of frozen dairy desserts has been steady during this 25-yr period.

  6. Bacteriological examination of milk and milk products sold in Harare.

    PubMed

    Igumbor, E O; Obi, C L; Milingo, T

    2000-01-01

    A study to assess the bacteriological quality of milk and ice cream was conducted using the direct plate count method and the methylene blue dye reduction test. A total of 105 milk and 95 ice cream samples were obtained form two factories (depots) and distributing supermarkets (outlets) in Harare. Under the methylene blue test, all milk and ice cream samples passed the hour and 2 hour tests respectively. However, 99% of the milk and 69% of the ice cream samples reduced the dye after 5.5 and 4 hrs respectively. The results from the direct plate counts revealed the presence of both pathogens and non-pathogens. The median plate counts in the milk and ice cream were found 400 cfu / ml and 100 cfu / ml respectively. Organisms isolated in both samples and in all outlets were similar, these included Bacillus spp. Coagulase Staphlococcus spp., microcuccus spp., Steptococcus spp., Diphthroids, Fusiform bacterial Klebsiella spp., and Citrobacter spp. No significant differences were found in the plate counts of the samples obtained from the depots and outlets for the milk (P = 0.542, df = 1)) and ice cream samples (P = 0.377, df = 1). Results further revealed that there was no significant difference in isolates obtained form strawberry ice cream (0.0096). The study has therefore, revealed that milk and milk product sold in various outlets in Harare contained a variety of bacteria of public health importance and also that the methylene blue dye reduction test is not reliable for the detection of bacterial contaminants in dairy products. It is thus suggested that the use of methylene blue dyes be adapted in combination with other tests such as the plate count in assessing bacterial contaminants in milk products.

  7. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products...

  8. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products...

  9. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products...

  10. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products...

  11. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products...

  12. Impact of foot-and-mouth disease on milk production on a large-scale dairy farm in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Nicholas A; Alexander, Neal; Stärk, Katharina D C; Dulu, Thomas D; Sumption, Keith J; James, Andrew D; Rushton, Jonathan; Fine, Paul E M

    2015-06-15

    The economic impact of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has been poorly characterised particularly in endemic settings where such knowledge is important for decision-making on disease control with limited resources. In order to address this, a study was designed using individual animal data from a large-scale dairy farm in Kenya to estimate the impact of an FMD outbreak due to serotype SAT2 virus on milk yield. Daily milk yields from 218 mainly European-breed cattle that were lactating during the 29-day outbreak period were considered in the analysis. At the herd level, the average daily yields decreased from around 20 to 13kg per cow, recovering approximately 2 months after the commencement of the outbreak. Generalised estimating equations (GEE) and an autoregressive correlation matrix were used to compare yields of reported clinical FMD cases and non-cases. No difference was found between reported clinical and non-clinical cases suggesting inaccurate case recording, poor sensitivity of the case definition and subclinical infections being present. To further investigate the impact of FMD, yields were predicted for each individual animal based on historic data from the same herd using a similar GEE approach. For cattle lactating during the outbreak, comparisons were made between actual and predicted yields from the commencement of the outbreak to 305 days lactation using a linear regression model. Animals produced significantly less than predicted if in parity 2 or greater and between 0 and 50 days in milk (DIM) at the start of the outbreak period. The maximum effect was seen among animals in parity ≥4 and between 0 and 50 DIM at the start of the outbreak, producing on average 688.7kg (95%CI 395.5, 981.8) less milk than predicted for their remaining lactation, representing an average 15% reduction in the 305 day production for these animals. Generalisation of the results requires caution as the majority of Kenyan milk is produced in smallholder farms. However, such

  13. 21 CFR 139.120 - Milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Milk macaroni products. 139.120 Section 139.120... Noodle Products § 139.120 Milk macaroni products. (a) Milk macaroni products are the class of food, each...), except that: (1) Milk is used as the sole moistening ingredient in preparing the dough; or in lieu...

  14. 21 CFR 139.120 - Milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Milk macaroni products. 139.120 Section 139.120... Noodle Products § 139.120 Milk macaroni products. (a) Milk macaroni products are the class of food, each...), except that: (1) Milk is used as the sole moistening ingredient in preparing the dough; or in lieu...

  15. 21 CFR 139.120 - Milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Milk macaroni products. 139.120 Section 139.120... Noodle Products § 139.120 Milk macaroni products. (a) Milk macaroni products are the class of food, each...), except that: (1) Milk is used as the sole moistening ingredient in preparing the dough; or in lieu...

  16. 21 CFR 139.120 - Milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk macaroni products. 139.120 Section 139.120... Noodle Products § 139.120 Milk macaroni products. (a) Milk macaroni products are the class of food, each...), except that: (1) Milk is used as the sole moistening ingredient in preparing the dough; or in lieu...

  17. 21 CFR 139.120 - Milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Milk macaroni products. 139.120 Section 139.120... Noodle Products § 139.120 Milk macaroni products. (a) Milk macaroni products are the class of food, each...), except that: (1) Milk is used as the sole moistening ingredient in preparing the dough; or in lieu...

  18. Nutrient content of milk and milk products: water soluble vitamins in baby milk formulae.

    PubMed

    Scott, K J; Bishop, D R

    1985-11-01

    A study of the content of water soluble vitamins in the 12 baby milk formulae available in the UK in April 1983 showed that levels of vitamins in the individual brands were generally in excess of those declared by the manufacturer. For cows' milk based formulae the mean excess of vitamins over the declared level was 94%. Vitamin levels in prepared formulae averaged three times the minimum recommended level. The average level of B vitamins in prepared cows' milk based formulae was six times higher than in mature human milk. For the two soya based products, the levels of vitamins were generally in excess of the declared level and levels of vitamin B12, biotin and, in one sample, vitamin B6 were considerably in excess of those found in mature human milk.

  19. Study on the STAT5A/AvaI polymorphism in Jersey cows and association with milk production traits.

    PubMed

    Dario, Cataldo; Selvaggi, Maria

    2011-11-01

    In mammals, the STAT proteins (signal transducers and activators of transcription) are a group of cytoplasmic transcription factors that mediate the actions of many peptide hormones and cytokines within target cells. In this study, the STAT5A/AvaI polymorphism was investigated with the PCR-RFLP technique in a sample of 191 Jersey cows reared in southern Italy. This polymorphism is localized in the coding region of the bovine STAT5A gene. It is a substitution C → T at position 6853 within the exon 7. All the possible genotypes for the C/T polymorphism were identified. The overall frequencies of alleles C and T were 0.75 and 0.25 respectively. In order to study the relationship between this SNP and milk production traits, data for 305-day milk production were used. Significant differences between CC and CT genotypes were found in milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY), solids not fat (SNF) yield, total solids (TS) yield (P < 0.01) and protein yield (PY) (P < 0.05). In particular the CC cows produced more milk than CT ones (6196.07 vs. 5744.66 kg) without differences in protein and fat content. As a consequence, CC cows yielded more fat, protein, solids not fat and total solids than CT. As far as concerns lactose and ash contents and the fat/protein ratio, no significant difference was found between the two genotypes. Even if further studies should be carry out to assess the role of this SNP on production traits, it is possible to conclude that STAT5A/AvaI polymorphism seems to be a promising indirect marker to improve milk production traits in cattle.

  20. 75 FR 1027 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Milk and Milk Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... Milk and Milk Products AGENCY: Office for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting and... draft United States positions that will be discussed at the 9th Session of the Codex Committee on Milk and Milk Products (CCMMP) of the Codex ] Alimentarius Commission (Codex), which will be held...

  1. 7 CFR 58.627 - Milk and dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk and dairy products. 58.627 Section 58.627... Material § 58.627 Milk and dairy products. To produce ice cream and related products the raw milk and cream... commingled milk and cream meeting the bacteriological requirements of No. 1 shall be used....

  2. 7 CFR 58.627 - Milk and dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk and dairy products. 58.627 Section 58.627... Material § 58.627 Milk and dairy products. To produce ice cream and related products the raw milk and cream... commingled milk and cream meeting the bacteriological requirements of No. 1 shall be used....

  3. 7 CFR 58.627 - Milk and dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk and dairy products. 58.627 Section 58.627... Material § 58.627 Milk and dairy products. To produce ice cream and related products the raw milk and cream... commingled milk and cream meeting the bacteriological requirements of No. 1 shall be used....

  4. 7 CFR 58.627 - Milk and dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milk and dairy products. 58.627 Section 58.627... Material § 58.627 Milk and dairy products. To produce ice cream and related products the raw milk and cream... commingled milk and cream meeting the bacteriological requirements of No. 1 shall be used....

  5. 7 CFR 58.627 - Milk and dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk and dairy products. 58.627 Section 58.627... Material § 58.627 Milk and dairy products. To produce ice cream and related products the raw milk and cream... commingled milk and cream meeting the bacteriological requirements of No. 1 shall be used....

  6. [Milk and milk products: food sources of calcium].

    PubMed

    Farré Rovira, Rosaura

    2015-04-07

    The importance of calcium in human nutrition, the mechanisms of absorption and excretion of the element, and the factors affecting them with special reference to dietary factors are described. After reviewing daily dietary intakes of calcium and the main contributors in European and Spanish population, recommended intakes in Spain, the Nordic countries and the United States are mentioned. In relation to the dietary sources of calcium it has to be noted that the value of a given food as a source of a nutrient depends on its content in the food, the bioavailability of the nutrient and the usual food consumption. The calcium contents of potential food sources of the element are reported and its value is estimated according to the potential absorbability of the calcium they contain. The benefits of milk and dairy products as sources of calcium are also highlighted. Populations such as children or elderly may require fortified foods or supplements to satisfy their high calcium needs, so some examples of the efficacy of this supplementation are discussed. It is concluded that food and drinks are the best choice to obtain calcium. Taking into account the calcium content, the usual portion size and the consumption habits milk and dairy products, nuts, green leafy vegetables and legumes can provide adequate amounts of calcium. However, milk and dairy products constitute the best dietary source thanks to the bioavailability of the calcium they contain.

  7. Novel trends in engineered milk products.

    PubMed

    Chandrapala, Jayani; Zisu, Bogdan

    2016-08-01

    Food engineering within the dairy sector is an ever developing field of study purely based on the application of engineering principles and concepts to any aspect of dairy product manufacturing and operations. The last 25 years of science and technology devoted to milk and milk products have led to major advances. The purpose of this paper is to review the history and current status of some engineered milk products and to speculate regarding future trends. Much of the advancement has been directed towards production capacity, mechanisation, automation, hygiene within the processing plant, safety, extensions in shelf life, and new product introductions that bring variety and convenience for the consumer. Significant advancements in product quality have been made, many of these arising from improved knowledge of the functional properties of ingredients and their impact on structure and texture. In addition, further improvements focused on energy efficiency and environmental sustainability have been made and will be needed in the future. PMID:27600960

  8. Polymorphisms of the IL8 gene correlate with milking traits, SCS and mRNA level in Chinese Holstein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Renjin; Yang, Zhangping; Ji, Dejun; Mao, Yongjiang; Chen, Ying; Li, Yunlong; Wu, Haitao; Wang, Xiaolong; Chang, Lingling

    2011-08-01

    To explore the relation of Interleukin-8 (IL8) gene polymorphism with immunity against mastitis in dairy cow, the polymorphism of IL8 gene was investigated in 610 Chinese Holstein cow from 30 bull families in a dairy farm in Shanghai using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique, and milk yield, milk fat percentage, milk protein percentage, 305 day corrected milk yield, 305 day milk fat yield, 305 day milk protein yield and somatic cell score (SCS) were measured and analyzed, and the mRNA levels of IL8 genotypes in blood were detected by real-time PCR. The results showed that three genotypes, KK, KA and AA were detected with frequencies of 0.187, 0.451, and 0.362, respectively. The gene frequencies of K and A were 0.412 and 0.588, respectively. The significant association of the IL8 mutations with milk yield, 305 day milk protein yield, 305 day corrected milk yield and 305 day milk fat yield, SCS, and significant association with milk protein percentage were identified, while their association with milk fat percentage were not significant. KK had higher milk yield, 305 day milk protein yield, 305 day corrected milk yield and 305 day milk fat yield than AA or KA, and the least square mean of SCS of KK was significantly lower than that of AA or KA. AA had significant lower milk protein yield than KK or KA. The relative IL8 mRNA level of KK in blood was the highest. These findings demonstrated that IL8 genotype significantly correlated with mastitis resistance and the locus could be a useful genetic marker for mastitis resistance selection and breeding in Chinese Holstein. PMID:21113675

  9. Milk Fat Globule structure & function; nanosciece comes to milk production

    PubMed Central

    Argov, Nurit; Lemay, Danielle G; German, J Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The biological process of fat globule assembly and secretion produces highly complex globule compositions and structures with many properties now recognized to be the direct result of these structures. During homogenization, fat globules are broken down and subsequently structures and surfaces different than the native state are formed. This process alters the milk fat globule unique macrostructure and the effects associated to their structure would be expected to be lost. In the present overview, the need for continued research of the fundamental aspects of the mechanism involved in milk fat globules synthesis secretion and size distribution, as well as establishing ways to regulate those processes are highlighted. Ultimately these insights will guide food technology to developing a new generation of structure based functional foods and as highlighted in this overview, dairy functional products should be the pioneering commodity. PMID:24363495

  10. 7 CFR 1126.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1126.15 Section 1126.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  11. 7 CFR 1033.15 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk products. 1033.15 Section 1033.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.15 Fluid milk products. See § 1000.15....

  12. 7 CFR 1131.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1131.15 Section 1131.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  13. 7 CFR 1126.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1126.15 Section 1126.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  14. 7 CFR 1126.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1126.15 Section 1126.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  15. 7 CFR 1000.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1000.15 Section 1000.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.15 Fluid milk product. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, fluid...

  16. 7 CFR 1032.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1032.15 Section 1032.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  17. 7 CFR 1005.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1005.15 Section 1005.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  18. 7 CFR 1030.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1030.15 Section 1030.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  19. 7 CFR 1131.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1131.15 Section 1131.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  20. 7 CFR 1000.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1000.15 Section 1000.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.15 Fluid milk product. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, fluid...

  1. 7 CFR 1131.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1131.15 Section 1131.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  2. 7 CFR 1124.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1124.15 Section 1124.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  3. 7 CFR 1124.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1124.15 Section 1124.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  4. 7 CFR 1001.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1001.15 Section 1001.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  5. 7 CFR 1030.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1030.15 Section 1030.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  6. 7 CFR 1006.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1006.15 Section 1006.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  7. 7 CFR 1007.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1007.15 Section 1007.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  8. 7 CFR 1126.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1126.15 Section 1126.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  9. 7 CFR 1007.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1007.15 Section 1007.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  10. 7 CFR 1000.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1000.15 Section 1000.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.15 Fluid milk product. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, fluid...

  11. 7 CFR 1001.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1001.15 Section 1001.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  12. 7 CFR 1131.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1131.15 Section 1131.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  13. 7 CFR 1030.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1030.15 Section 1030.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  14. 7 CFR 1124.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1124.15 Section 1124.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  15. 7 CFR 1007.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1007.15 Section 1007.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  16. 7 CFR 1006.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1006.15 Section 1006.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  17. 7 CFR 1006.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1006.15 Section 1006.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  18. 7 CFR 1005.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1005.15 Section 1005.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  19. 7 CFR 1032.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1032.15 Section 1032.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  20. 7 CFR 1124.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1124.15 Section 1124.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  1. 7 CFR 1005.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1005.15 Section 1005.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  2. 7 CFR 1000.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1000.15 Section 1000.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.15 Fluid milk product. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, fluid...

  3. 7 CFR 1001.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1001.15 Section 1001.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  4. 7 CFR 1033.15 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk products. 1033.15 Section 1033.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.15 Fluid milk products. See § 1000.15....

  5. 7 CFR 1007.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1007.15 Section 1007.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  6. 7 CFR 1006.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1006.15 Section 1006.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  7. 7 CFR 1124.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1124.15 Section 1124.15 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  8. 7 CFR 1033.15 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk products. 1033.15 Section 1033.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.15 Fluid milk products. See § 1000.15....

  9. 7 CFR 1001.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1001.15 Section 1001.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  10. 7 CFR 1001.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1001.15 Section 1001.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  11. 7 CFR 1030.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1030.15 Section 1030.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  12. 7 CFR 1033.15 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk products. 1033.15 Section 1033.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.15 Fluid milk products. See § 1000.15....

  13. 7 CFR 1032.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1032.15 Section 1032.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  14. 7 CFR 1005.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1005.15 Section 1005.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  15. 7 CFR 1126.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1126.15 Section 1126.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  16. 7 CFR 1032.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1032.15 Section 1032.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  17. 7 CFR 1032.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1032.15 Section 1032.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  18. 7 CFR 1007.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1007.15 Section 1007.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  19. 7 CFR 1000.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1000.15 Section 1000.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.15 Fluid milk product. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, fluid...

  20. 7 CFR 1033.15 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk products. 1033.15 Section 1033.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.15 Fluid milk products. See § 1000.15....

  1. 7 CFR 1030.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1030.15 Section 1030.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  2. 7 CFR 1131.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1131.15 Section 1131.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  3. 7 CFR 1005.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1005.15 Section 1005.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  4. 7 CFR 1006.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1006.15 Section 1006.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  5. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Britni M; Stallings, Jon W; Clay, John S; Rhoads, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC) cows (n = 94,440); cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC) contemporaries (n = 141,365). In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall). Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however, heat stress at

  6. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Britni M.; Stallings, Jon W.; Clay, John S.; Rhoads, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC) cows (n = 94,440); cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC) contemporaries (n = 141,365). In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall). Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however, heat stress at

  7. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Britni M; Stallings, Jon W; Clay, John S; Rhoads, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC) cows (n = 94,440); cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC) contemporaries (n = 141,365). In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall). Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however, heat stress at

  8. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Mccoy, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Caro, Janicce L.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, such as aboard the International Space Station (ISS) or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of this project was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel- through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products.

  9. Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmuleva, N. I.; Barinov, E. Ya.; Petukhov, V. L.

    2003-05-01

    The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - Cs-137 and Sr-90 in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. Cs-137 level was 3.7...9.2 times higher than Sr-90 one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg).

  10. 21 CFR 139.121 - Nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.121 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.121 Nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed by this section...

  11. 21 CFR 139.121 - Nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.121 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.121 Nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed by this section...

  12. 21 CFR 139.121 - Nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.121 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.121 Nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed by this section...

  13. 21 CFR 139.121 - Nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.121 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.121 Nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed by this section...

  14. 21 CFR 139.121 - Nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.121 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.121 Nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed by this section...

  15. 21 CFR 139.122 - Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.122... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.122 Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the enriched macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed...

  16. 21 CFR 139.122 - Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.122... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.122 Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the enriched macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed...

  17. 9 CFR 94.2 - Fresh (chilled or frozen) products (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. 94.2 Section 94.2 Animals and... (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. (a) The importation of fresh (chilled or frozen) products (other than meat and milk and milk products) derived from ruminants or...

  18. 9 CFR 94.2 - Fresh (chilled or frozen) products (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. 94.2 Section 94.2 Animals and... (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. (a) The importation of fresh (chilled or frozen) products (other than meat and milk and milk products) derived from ruminants or...

  19. 9 CFR 94.2 - Fresh (chilled or frozen) products (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. 94.2 Section 94.2 Animals and... (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. (a) The importation of fresh (chilled or frozen) products (other than meat and milk and milk products) derived from ruminants or...

  20. 9 CFR 94.2 - Fresh (chilled or frozen) products (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. 94.2 Section 94.2 Animals and... (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. (a) The importation of fresh (chilled or frozen) products (other than meat and milk and milk products) derived from ruminants or...

  1. Consumption of milk and milk products in the population of the Upper Silesian agglomeration inhabitants

    PubMed Central

    Kardas, Marek; Grochowska-Niedworok, Elżbieta; Całyniuk, Beata; Kolasa, Ilona; Grajek, Mateusz; Bielaszka, Agnieszka; Kiciak, Agata; Muc-Wierzgoń, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Background Providing the appropriate amount of nutrients at every stage of life is a key element determining the proper development and functioning of the body. Objective Because of the nutritional value and resulting position of milk and milk products in the daily diet, this study was undertaken to assess the consumption of milk and milk products among the inhabitants of the Upper Silesian agglomeration. Design The survey covered 600 people, including 339 women (56.5%) and 261 men (43.5%) aged 18–78 years. To assess the consumption of milk and milk products, as a research tool an original survey with the closed-ended and open-ended questions was used. The questions concerned the characteristics of the surveyed group and various aspects of the consumption of milk and milk products. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using the Statistica 10.0 program with a chi-square test for quality features. Results The level of consumption of milk and milk products among the Upper Silesian agglomeration inhabitants is insufficient in relation to nutrition recommendations. However, despite many controversies surrounding milk, the respondents also claimed that it played an important role in their daily diet. Conclusions The most frequently consumed type of milk in the surveyed group is ultra heat treated (UHT) milk with average fat content. PMID:26942408

  2. Modelling milk production from feed intake in dairy cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.L.

    1985-05-01

    Predictive models were developed for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Since Holsteins comprised eighty-five percent of the data, the predictive models developed for Holsteins were used for the development of a user-friendly computer model. Predictive models included: milk production (squared multiple correlation .73), natural log (ln) of milk production (.73), four percent fat-corrected milk (.67), ln four percent fat-corrected milk (.68), fat-free milk (.73), ln fat-free milk (.73), dry matter intake (.61), ln dry matter intake (.60), milk fat (.52), and ln milk fat (.56). The predictive models for ln milk production, ln fat-free milk and ln dry matter intake were incorporated into a computer model. The model was written in standard Fortran for use on mainframe or micro-computers. Daily milk production, fat-free milk production, and dry matter intake were predicted on a daily basis with the previous day's dry matter intake serving as an independent variable in the prediction of the daily milk and fat-free milk production. 21 refs.

  3. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Modified dry milk products. 58.235 Section 58.235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  4. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Modified dry milk products. 58.235 Section 58.235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  5. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modified dry milk products. 58.235 Section 58.235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  6. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Modified dry milk products. 58.235 Section 58.235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  7. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Modified dry milk products. 58.235 Section 58.235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents...

  8. Use it or lose it: enhancing milk production efficiency by frequent milking of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wall, E H; McFadden, T B

    2008-03-01

    In the past century, great strides have been made toward optimizing milk production efficiency of dairy cows. One of the key findings that has emerged is that the milk yield of dairy cows is responsive to demands of offspring or milk removal; hence, milk production can be increased by frequent milking. Early studies illustrated the galactopoietic effect of frequent milking during the entire lactation, with 3 times daily milking increasing milk yield by up to 20% relative to twice daily milking. Later studies reported that cows produced more milk during the entire lactation if they were allowed to suckle a calf for the first 3 to 4 mo of lactation. The results of these experiments laid the groundwork for current research, which has identified a time during early lactation wherein the mammary gland of dairy cows is especially receptive to the stimulus of frequent milking. This window of time has been slowly whittled down from the first 10 wk of lactation to the first 6 wk, and it was subsequently established that frequent milking for a short duration within the first 3 wk of lactation can increase milk production through the remainder of lactation [corrected] In addition, there is strong evidence that this milk yield response is locally regulated. Consequently, the concept of "use it or lose it" is becoming more clearly established; that is, the stimulus of frequent milking during early lactation permanently increases the milk production capacity of the mammary gland. Exciting research opportunities now present themselves, and ongoing experiments seek to identify the local factors that are involved in the regulation of milk production efficiency of dairy cows.

  9. Sequencing the transcriptome of milk production: milk trumps mammary tissue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of normal human mammary gland development and function have mostly relied on cell culture, limited surgical specimens, and rodent models. Although RNA extracted from human milk has been used to assay the mammary transcriptome non-invasively, this assay has not been adequately validated in primates. Thus, the objectives of the current study were to assess the suitability of lactating rhesus macaques as a model for lactating humans and to determine whether RNA extracted from milk fractions is representative of RNA extracted from mammary tissue for the purpose of studying the transcriptome of milk-producing cells. Results We confirmed that macaque milk contains cytoplasmic crescents and that ample high-quality RNA can be obtained for sequencing. Using RNA sequencing, RNA extracted from macaque milk fat and milk cell fractions more accurately represented RNA from mammary epithelial cells (cells that produce milk) than did RNA from whole mammary tissue. Mammary epithelium-specific transcripts were more abundant in macaque milk fat, whereas adipose or stroma-specific transcripts were more abundant in mammary tissue. Functional analyses confirmed the validity of milk as a source of RNA from milk-producing mammary epithelial cells. Conclusions RNA extracted from the milk fat during lactation accurately portrayed the RNA profile of milk-producing mammary epithelial cells in a non-human primate. However, this sample type clearly requires protocols that minimize RNA degradation. Overall, we validated the use of RNA extracted from human and macaque milk and provided evidence to support the use of lactating macaques as a model for human lactation. PMID:24330573

  10. A Qualitative Investigation of Adults' Perceived Benefits, Barriers and Strategies for Consuming Milk and Milk Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Mary E.; Mistry, Chetan; Bourne, Jessica E.; Perrier, Marie-Josee; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Milk and milk products provide important nutrients and have been associated with numerous health benefits in addition to bone health, including a healthy weight and a reduction of risk for certain conditions such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer. Nonetheless, consumption of milk and milk…

  11. Public health and the safety of milk and milk products from sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Klinger, I; Rosenthal, I

    1997-08-01

    Goats and sheep rank third and fourth in terms of global milk production from different species, but unlike cow milk, which has stringent hygiene and quality regulations, microbiological standards for the production and distribution of goat milk and sheep milk are more relaxed. Difficulties in managing the sanitary quality of sheep and goat milk derive from a series of factors including the low level of production per head, the milking system, the difficulty involved in machine milking, the conditions under which the herds or flocks are raised, adverse climatic conditions and the spread of production over a wide geographic area. Fresh goat milk is consumed by infants and others with allergies to cow milk and is also used for on-farm manufactured cheese, with or without thermal treatment. The high fat content and peculiar taste of cheeses made from ewe milk are also very popular. These cheese varieties, which are mostly still of 'artisan-type', are not covered by regulatory definitions and the dispute over the use of raw versus pasteurised milk is still alive. However, in documented intoxications recorded after the consumption of cheese, there has always been evidence of incorrect temperature control during pasteurisation, the deliberate addition of raw milk, or contamination during storage. Compositional differences between the milk from cows, ewes and goats (chemical composition of lipids, phosphatase level, freezing point, natural bacterial inhibitor levels, somatic cell count, etc.) preclude the nondiscriminatory use of bovine standards for regulatory purposes. Quality standards adjusted for the specifics of ewe/goat milk should be considered. The production of safe cheese is linked to a series of conditions which ensure consumer health, primarily pasteurisation. In the absence of pasteurisation, all cheeses made from raw milk should be subjected to strict periodic controls.

  12. Hyperoxaluria and Genitourinary Disorders in Children Ingesting Almond Milk Products.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Demetrius; Lieb, Jessica

    2015-11-01

    We describe 3 children presenting with hematuria, dysuria or kidney stones, and hyperoxaluria believed to be related to ingestion of excessive amounts of almond milk products. Our investigation of the oxalate content of several popular plant-based milk substitutes indicates that almond milk products are a particularly rich source of dietary oxalate. All genitourinary and urinary metabolic disturbances resolved after discontinuation of almond milk ingestion. Therefore, pediatricians should be aware of this potential link.

  13. Quantification of cow's milk percentage in dairy products - a myth?

    PubMed

    Mayer, Helmut K; Bürger, J; Kaar, N

    2012-07-01

    The substitution of ewe's and goat's milk for cheaper cow's milk is still a fraudulent practice in the dairy industry. Moreover, soy-based products (e.g., soy milk, yoghurt) have to be checked for cow's milk as they are an alternative for people suffering from an allergy against bovine milk proteins. This work reports the evaluation of different protein-based electrophoretic methods and DNA-based techniques for the qualitative detection as well as the quantitative determination of cow's milk percentage in dairy and soy milk products. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) of γ-caseins using an optimized pH gradient was appropriate not only for the detection of cow's milk, but also for an estimation of cow's milk percentage in mixed-milk cheese varieties. Urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) proved the method of choice to detect cow's milk in soy milk products, whereas IEF and SDS-PAGE of proteins were not applicable due to false-positive results. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was used to confirm the results of protein-based electrophoretic methods. Problems inherent in quantitative analysis of cow's milk percentage using protein-based techniques and even more using DNA-based methods were emphasized. Applicability of quantitative real-time PCR for the determination of cow's milk percentage in mixed-milk cheese was shown to be hampered by several factors (e.g., somatic cell count of milk; technological parameters influencing the final DNA concentration in ripened commercial cheese samples). The implementation of certified reference standards (of major relevant cheese groups) containing 50% cow's milk was urgently recommended to enable at least a yes/no decision in commercial mixed-milk cheese samples. PMID:22349339

  14. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmele, Michele; Morford, Megan; Khodadad, Christina; Spencer, Lashelle; Richards, Jeffrey; Strayer, Richard; Caro, Janicce; Hummerick, Mary; Wheeler, Ray

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, such as aboard the International Space Station (ISS) or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of this project was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel- through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms.

  15. Microbiological quality of goat's milk obtained under different production systems.

    PubMed

    Kyozaire, J K; Veary, C M; Petzer, I M; Donkin, E F

    2005-06-01

    In order to determine the safety of milk produced by smallholder dairy goat farms, a farm-based research study was conducted on commercial dairy goat farms to compare the microbiological quality of milk produced using 3 different types of dairy goat production systems (intensive, semi-intensive and extensive). A survey of dairy goat farms in and around Pretoria carried out by means of a questionnaire revealed that most of the smallholder dairy goat farms surveyed used an extensive type of production system. The method of milking varied with the type of production system, i.e. machine milking; bucket system machine milking and hand-milking, respectively. Udder half milk samples (n=270) were analysed, of which 31.1% were infected with bacteria. The lowest intra-mammary infection was found amongst goats in the herd under the extensive system (13.3%), compared with 43.3% and 36.7% infection rates under the intensive and semi-intensive production systems, respectively. Staphylococcus intermedius (coagulase positive), Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans (both coagulase negative), were the most common cause of intramammary infection with a prevalence of 85.7% of the infected udder halves. The remaining 14.3% of the infection was due to Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriology of bulk milk samples on the other hand, showed that raw milk obtained by the bucket system milking machine had the lowest total bacterial count (16,450 colony forming units (CFU)/ml) compared to that by pipeline milking machine (36,300 CFU/ml) or hand-milking (48,000 CFU/ml). No significant relationship was found between the somatic cell counts (SCC) and presence of bacterial infection in goat milk In comparison with the herds under the other 2 production systems, it was shown that dairy goat farming under the extensive production system, where hand-milking was used, can be adequate for the production of safe raw goat milk.

  16. Distribution of Animal Drugs between Skim Milk and Milk Fat Fractions in Spiked Whole Milk: Understanding the Potential Impact on Commercial Milk Products.

    PubMed

    Hakk, Heldur; Shappell, Nancy W; Lupton, Sara J; Shelver, Weilin L; Fanaselle, Wendy; Oryang, David; Yeung, Chi Yuen; Hoelzer, Karin; Ma, Yinqing; Gaalswyk, Dennis; Pouillot, Régis; Van Doren, Jane M

    2016-01-13

    Seven animal drugs [penicillin G (PENG), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX), oxytetracycline (OTET), erythromycin (ERY), ketoprofen (KETO), thiabendazole (THIA), and ivermectin (IVR)] were used to evaluate the drug distribution between milk fat and skim milk fractions of cow milk. More than 90% of the radioactivity was distributed into the skim milk fraction for ERY, KETO, OTET, PENG, and SDMX, approximately 80% for THIA, and 13% for IVR. The distribution of drug between milk fat and skim milk fractions was significantly correlated to the drug's lipophilicity (partition coefficient, log P, or distribution coefficient, log D, which includes ionization). Data were fit with linear mixed effects models; the best fit was obtained within this data set with log D versus observed drug distribution ratios. These candidate empirical models serve for assisting to predict the distribution and concentration of these drugs in a variety of milk and milk products. PMID:26652058

  17. The association between calfhood bovine respiratory disease complex and subsequent departure from the herd, milk production, and reproduction in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Aaron P; Larson, Robert L; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Hanzlicek, Gregg A; Bartle, Steven J; Thomson, Daniel U

    2016-05-15

    OBJECTIVE To describe the frequency of calfhood producer-identified bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in Holstein replacement heifers on 1 large farm and determine associations between development of BRDC at ≤ 120 days of age (BRDC120) with milk production estimate, calving interval, and risk of departure from the herd (DFH). DESIGN Retrospective, observational study. ANIMALS 14,024 Holstein heifer calves born on 1 farm. PROCEDURES Data were obtained from herd management records. Cox proportional hazard and generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to assess associations for variables of interest (BRDC120 status, demographic data, and management factors) with DFH, milk production estimate, and calving interval. RESULTS Except for the year 2007, animals identified as having BRDC120 were 1.62 to 4.98 times as likely to leave the herd before first calving, compared with those that did not have this designation. Calves identified as having BRDC prior to weaning were 2.62 times as likely to have DFH before first calving as those classified as developing BRDC after weaning. Cows identified as having BRDC120 were 1.28 times as likely to have DFH between the first and second calving as were other cows. The BRDC120 designation was associated with a 233-kg (513-lb) lower 305-day mature equivalent value for first lactation milk production, but was not associated with longer or shorter calving intervals at maturity. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Dairy cattle identified as having BRDC120 had increased risk of DFH before the first or second calving and lower first-lactation milk production estimates, compared with results for cattle without this finding. Further investigation of these associations is warranted. PMID:27135672

  18. Relationships of growth hormone gene and milk protein polymorphisms to milk production traits in Simmental cattle.

    PubMed

    Falaki, M; Prandi, A; Corradini, C; Sneyers, M; Gengler, N; Massart, S; Fazzini, U; Burny, A; Portetelle, D; Renaville, R

    1997-02-01

    The importance of milk proteins and the positive effect of administration of growth hormone (GH) on milk production, and the presence in some dairy cattle lines of greater GH concentrations prompted us to examine the presence of restriction fragment length polymorphism at the GH gene using the restriction enzyme TaqI and to investigate associations between this polymorphism in Simmental cows and bulls, as well as milk protein variants in Simmental cows, and milk production traits. Blood and milk were sampled from 279 Italian Simmental cows and semen was collected from 148 bulls of the same breed. Two fragment bands, denoted A and B, of 6200 and 5200 bp respectively, were examined and three patterns, AA, AB and BB, were found in both animal samples. All variants previously reported in other studies, for kappa, beta, and alpha s1-caseins, and beta-lactoglobulin, were found in the cows' samples. For the cows' samples, a BLUP (Best Linear Unbiased Predictor) analysis of results was performed using a REML (Restricted Maximum Likelihood) program and known heritabilities, whereas for bulls we have performed a General Linear Model analysis. The effect of GH gene polymorphism, using TaqI restriction enzyme, on milk production traits was not significant, but bulls of BB pattern had a higher breeding value for milk yield than AA bulls (P < 0.05). For the kappa-casein genotypic effects, cows of AB genotype gave milk with 1.53 +/- 0.70 g/kg less fat than cows of AA genotype. In addition, breeding values for milk protein content were significantly higher in BB bulls, with 0.87 +/- 0.32 and 0.71 +/- 0.34 g/kg more milk protein than AA and AB bulls respectively. Thus, our results revealed a GH gene polymorphism and indicated significant effects of milk protein polymorphisms on milk production traits in the Italian Simmental breed.

  19. Milk production of West African Dwarf goats in the Gambia.

    PubMed

    Jaitner, J; Njie, M; Corr, N; Dempfle, L

    2006-04-01

    Goats are important in the low-input systems of West Africa and their main importance lies in their role for income and saving. In addition, it is known that milk offtake for home consumption is also important. In order to obtain information about the real importance of milk offtake, a recording scheme was operated in 27 villages in the Central River Division of The Gambia from July 1998 until January 2000. Detailed information was obtained from about 1500 kiddings. In the recording scheme, any sheep being milked as well as the goats of the International Trypanotolerance Centre nucleus flock were also recorded. In the villages, 36% of all lactations were used for milk offtake, but the fraction milked was lower for the first two lactations. The average length of lactation was 127 days and the average daily milk offtake was 0.18 L. Goats are milked once a day and the residual milk is left for the kids. Milking starts about one week after parturition and stops when the goat becomes pregnant or the kid(s) die or the goat is drying off. The repeatability of the 90-day milk offtake was 0.24 +/- 0.09. Sixty-five percent of goat owner were women and a large fraction of goat owners also owned cattle. Goat milk was used exclusively for home consumption. It is concluded that in breeding and extension work more attention should be given to aspects of milk production.

  20. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption).

  1. Nutrition Knowledge and Milk and Milk Product Consumption in a Group of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster-Coull, Lisa; Sabry, Jean Henderson

    1993-01-01

    To examine the relationship between nutrition knowledge and milk/milk product consumption by women, data were collected from 457 female office employees. Statistically significant relationships were found between level of nutrition knowledge and age, education, and occupation. No statistically significant relationships between nutrition knowledge…

  2. Impact of increasing milk production on whole farm environmental management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing herd milk production can provide both economic benefit to the producer and environmental benefit to society. Simulated dairy farms with average annual herd productions from 16,000 to 30,000 lb/cow illustrate that increasing milk yield per cow improves feed efficiency, reduces feed costs a...

  3. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk... pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. (a) No... pasteurization are provided for by regulation, such as in part 133 of this chapter for curing of certain...

  4. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk... pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. (a) No... pasteurization are provided for by regulation, such as in part 133 of this chapter for curing of certain...

  5. Profiles of human milk oligosaccharides and production of some human milk oligosaccharides in transgenic animals.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Pedro Antonio

    2012-05-01

    During the decade of the 1990s and the first years of the current century, our group embarked on a project to study and synthesize human milk oligosaccharides. This report describes 2 unexpected collateral observations from that endeavor. The first observation was the detection and confirmation of 2 rare neutral human milk oligosaccharides profiles that were uncovered while assessing oligosaccharide content in hundreds of samples of human milk. One of these lacked fucosylated structures altogether, and the other lacked the oligosaccharide 3-fucosyllactose [Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)Glc]. We used glycoconjugate probes to determine whether the unusual profiles were mirrored by fucosylation of milk glycoproteins. The results show that the lack of fucosylated oligosaccharides in these samples corresponds to the absence of equivalent fucosylated motifs in milk glycoproteins. The second finding was a shortened and distinct lactation process in transgenic rabbits expressing the human fucosyltransferase 1. During the first day of lactation, these animals expressed milk that contained both lactose and 2'-fucosylactose, but on the second day, the production of milk was severely diminished, and by the fourth day, no lactose was detected in their milk. Meanwhile, the concentration of fucosylated glycoproteins increased from the onset of lactation through its premature termination. These 2 findings may shed light on the glycobiology of milk and perhaps on mammary gland differentiation.

  6. Role of milk protein-based products in some quality attributes of goat milk yogurt.

    PubMed

    Gursel, A; Gursoy, A; Anli, E A K; Budak, S O; Aydemir, S; Durlu-Ozkaya, F

    2016-04-01

    Goat milk yogurts were manufactured with the fortification of 2% (wt/vol) skim goat milk powder (SGMP), sodium caseinate (NaCn), whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), or yogurt texture improver (YTI). Yogurts were characterized based on compositional, microbiological, and textural properties; volatile flavor components (with gas chromatography); and sensory analyses during storage (21d at 5 °C). Compared with goat milk yogurt made by using SGMP, the other goat milk yogurt variants had higher protein content and lower acidity values. Goat milk yogurts with NaCn and WPC, in particular, had better physical characteristics. Using WPI caused the hardest structure in yogurt, leading to higher syneresis values. Acetaldehyde and ethanol formation increased with the incorporation of WPI, WPC, or YTI to yogurt milk. The tyrosine value especially was higher in the samples with NaCn and YTI than in the samples with WPC and WPI. Counts of Streptococcus thermophilus were higher than the counts of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, possibly due to a stimulatory effect of milk protein-based ingredients other than SGMP on the growth of S. thermophilus. Yogurt with NaCn was the best accepted among the yogurts. For the parameters used, milk protein-based products such as NaCn or WPC have promising features as suitable ingredients for goat milk yogurt manufacture. PMID:26874417

  7. Role of milk protein-based products in some quality attributes of goat milk yogurt.

    PubMed

    Gursel, A; Gursoy, A; Anli, E A K; Budak, S O; Aydemir, S; Durlu-Ozkaya, F

    2016-04-01

    Goat milk yogurts were manufactured with the fortification of 2% (wt/vol) skim goat milk powder (SGMP), sodium caseinate (NaCn), whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), or yogurt texture improver (YTI). Yogurts were characterized based on compositional, microbiological, and textural properties; volatile flavor components (with gas chromatography); and sensory analyses during storage (21d at 5 °C). Compared with goat milk yogurt made by using SGMP, the other goat milk yogurt variants had higher protein content and lower acidity values. Goat milk yogurts with NaCn and WPC, in particular, had better physical characteristics. Using WPI caused the hardest structure in yogurt, leading to higher syneresis values. Acetaldehyde and ethanol formation increased with the incorporation of WPI, WPC, or YTI to yogurt milk. The tyrosine value especially was higher in the samples with NaCn and YTI than in the samples with WPC and WPI. Counts of Streptococcus thermophilus were higher than the counts of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, possibly due to a stimulatory effect of milk protein-based ingredients other than SGMP on the growth of S. thermophilus. Yogurt with NaCn was the best accepted among the yogurts. For the parameters used, milk protein-based products such as NaCn or WPC have promising features as suitable ingredients for goat milk yogurt manufacture.

  8. 9 CFR 94.2 - Fresh (chilled or frozen) products (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. 94.2 Section 94.2 Animals and... (chilled or frozen) products (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. (a) The... ruminants or swine, originating in, shipped from, or transiting any region designated in § 94.1(a) as...

  9. Situation of mycotoxins in milk, dairy products and human milk in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed Abd Alla, A; Neamat-Allah, A; Aly, S E

    2000-06-01

    ABSTACT: Milk and dairy products purchased at Egyptian markets and breast milk from lactating mothers in Cairo and Giza governorates were analyzed for some mycotoxins. Three of 15 cows' milk samples were found positive for Afl. M1 with mean value 6.3 ppb. Only one sample of dried milk was positive (5 ppb). Two of 10 hard cheese samples contained detectable levels of Afl. M1 (3and 6 ppb), whereas one sample containing Afl. B1 and G1 (10 and 4 ppb resp.). For soft cheese one sample of 10 was positive for Afl. M1 (0.5 ppb). Blue veined cheeses were free of Afl. M1 and PR-toxins.For breast milk two of 10 samples were positive for Afl. M1 (20%) with mean value 2.75 ppb, while 3 of 10 samples were positive for Ochratoxin A (30 %).

  10. Effect of sunflower oil supplementation and milking frequency reduction on sheep milk production and composition.

    PubMed

    Prieto, N; Bodas, R; López-Campos, Ó; Andrés, S; López, S; Giráldez, F J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of milking frequency reduction and dietary lipid supplementation on intake, BW, and milk yield and composition in high yielding dairy ewes. Ten lactating Assaf ewes were allocated into 2 experimental groups (n=5). Ewes were fed alfalfa hay ad libitum and 34 g·kg(-1) of BW of a concentrate feed with either 0 (Control group) or 43 g of sunflower oil·kg(-1) of DM (SO group). The experiment lasted 63 d and consisted of 3 periods. During Period 1 (from d 1 to 21), ewes were milked twice a day. During Period 2 (from d 22 to 49), ewes were unilaterally milked, so that each gland of each ewe was milked either once or twice daily. During Period 3 (from d 50 to the end of the experiment), both udder halves were again milked twice daily. Intake, BW, and milk composition were controlled weekly and milk production from each half udder was recorded twice a week. Total DM intake, BW, and milk yield in Period 1 were not significantly (P>0.10) affected by dietary treatments. Milk yield tended to be increased in the ewes fed the SO diet in periods 2 (P=0.093) and 3 (P=0.067). Oil supplementation (SO diet) significantly (P<0.05) decreased milk protein and total solids concentrations in the 3 experimental periods and fat content in Period 3, and tended (P=0.077) to decline fat content in Period 2. Lactose content and somatic cell count (SCC) were unaffected (P>0.10) by dietary lipid supplementation in any of the experimental periods. There were no significant (P>0.10) differences between half udders in milk yield and composition in Period 1, and in SCC in any of the experimental periods. Fat and total solids contents were unaffected (P>0.10) by reducing milking frequency. Nevertheless, milk protein content was increased (P<0.001) when glands were milked only once daily whereas milk yield and lactose content were decreased (P=0.001). The interaction between gland and diet was significant for lactose in Period 2, suggesting a

  11. FLUORIDE CONTENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SOY MILK PRODUCTS IN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Rirattanapong, Opas; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In Thailand, the consumption of soy milk products is common but there is limited data about their fluoride content. The purpose of this study was to es- timate the fluoride content of soy milk products available in Thailand. Fluoride content was determined for 76 brands of soy milk using a F-ion-specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.78 μg/ml. The fluoride content was not related to sugar content, soy bean content or the sterilization process. Among 3 brands of soy milk containing tea powder extract, the fluoride content was high (1.25 to 3.78 μg/ml). Most brands of soy milk tested in our study had fluoride content below the optimal daily intake but brands containing tea powder extract if consumed by children may increase their risk for fluorosis.

  12. Milk production in lactating buffalo receiving recombinantly produced bovine somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Ludri, R S; Upadhyay, R C; Singh, M; Guneratne, J R; Basson, R P

    1989-09-01

    Thirty healthy Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in their second to fourth lactations were selected from the herd at the National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, India, for use in a 35-d study to determine the effects of recombinantly produced bovine somatotropin on milk production, milk composition, and dry matter intake. Treatments were daily injections of 0, 25, or 50 mg somatotropin per animal for 14 d. All buffalo consumed green chopped fodder ad libitum plus a predetermined quantity of concentrate mixture to each animal, based on individual milk production during the 14-d pretreatment period. The quantity of concentrate mixture fed to each buffalo was not altered during the study. Net increase in milk volume for groups receiving 25 and 30 mg somatotropin was 16.8 and 29.5% over controls. Milk composition, DM intake, and body weights were not affected by treatment. PMID:2592642

  13. FLUORIDE CONTENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SOY MILK PRODUCTS IN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Rirattanapong, Opas; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In Thailand, the consumption of soy milk products is common but there is limited data about their fluoride content. The purpose of this study was to es- timate the fluoride content of soy milk products available in Thailand. Fluoride content was determined for 76 brands of soy milk using a F-ion-specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.78 μg/ml. The fluoride content was not related to sugar content, soy bean content or the sterilization process. Among 3 brands of soy milk containing tea powder extract, the fluoride content was high (1.25 to 3.78 μg/ml). Most brands of soy milk tested in our study had fluoride content below the optimal daily intake but brands containing tea powder extract if consumed by children may increase their risk for fluorosis. PMID:27086437

  14. Milk: the new white gold? Milk production options for smallholder farmers in Southern Mali.

    PubMed

    de Ridder, N; Sanogo, O M; Rufino, M C; van Keulen, H; Giller, K E

    2015-07-01

    Until the turn of the century, farmers in West Africa considered cotton to be the 'white gold' for their livelihoods. Large fluctuations in cotton prices have led farmers to innovate into other business including dairy. Yet the productivity of cows fed traditional diets is very poor, especially during the long dry season. This study combines earlier published results of farmer participatory experiments with simulation modelling to evaluate the lifetime productivity of cows under varying feeding strategies and the resulting economic performance at farm level. We compared the profitability of cotton production to the innovation of dairy. The results show that milk production of the West African Méré breed could be expanded if cows are supplemented and kept stall-fed during the dry season. This option seems to be profitable for better-off farmers, but whether dairy will replace (some of) the role of cotton as the white gold for these smallholder farmers will depend on the cross price elasticity of cotton and milk. Farmers may (partly) replace cotton production for fodder production to produce milk if the price of cotton remains poor (below US$0.35/kg) and the milk price relatively strong (higher than US$0.38/kg). Price ratios need to remain stable over several seasons given the investments required for a change in production strategy. Furthermore, farmers will only seize the opportunity to engage in dairy if marketing infrastructure and milk markets are further developed.

  15. Genetic value of herd life adjusted for milk production.

    PubMed

    Allaire, F R; Gibson, J P

    1992-05-01

    Cow herd life adjusted for lactational milk production was investigated as a genetic trait in the breeding objective. Under a simple model, the relative economic weight of milk to adjusted herd life on a per genetic standard deviation basis was equal to CVY/dCVL where CVY and CVL are the genetic coefficients of variation of milk production and adjusted herd life, respectively, and d is the depreciation per year per cow divided by the total fixed costs per year per cow. The relative economic value of milk to adjusted herd life at the prices and parameters for North America was about 3.2. An increase of 100-kg milk was equivalent to 2.2 mo of adjusted herd life. Three to 7% lower economic gain is expected when only improved milk production is sought compared with a breeding objective that included both production and adjusted herd life for relative value changed +/- 20%. A favorable economic gain to cost ratio probably exists for herd life used as a genetic trait to supplement milk in the breeding objective. Cow survival records are inexpensive, and herd life evaluations from such records may not extend the generation interval when such an evaluation is used in bull sire selection.

  16. Q fever through consumption of unpasteurised milk and milk products - a risk profile and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Gale, P; Kelly, L; Mearns, R; Duggan, J; Snary, E L

    2015-05-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii which is endemic in cattle, sheep and goats in much of the world, including the United Kingdom (UK). There is some epidemiological evidence that a small proportion of cases in the developed world may arise from consumption of unpasteurised milk with less evidence for milk products such as cheese. Long maturation at low pH may give some inactivation in hard cheese, and viable C. burnetii are rarely detected in unpasteurised cheese compared to unpasteurised milk. Simulations presented here predict that the probability of exposure per person to one or more C. burnetii through the daily cumulative consumption of raw milk in the UK is 0·4203. For those positive exposures, the average level of exposure predicted is high at 1266 guinea pig intraperitoneal infectious dose 50% units (GP_IP_ID50 ) per person per day. However, in the absence of human dose-response data, the case is made that the GP_IP_ID50 unit represents a very low risk through the oral route. The available evidence suggests that the risks from C. burnetii through consumption of unpasteurised milk and milk products (including cheese) are not negligible but they are lower in comparison to transmission via inhalation of aerosols from parturient products and livestock contact.

  17. Mycotoxins in Bovine Milk and Dairy Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Becker-Algeri, Tania Aparecida; Castagnaro, Denise; de Bortoli, Kennidy; de Souza, Camila; Drunkler, Deisy Alessandra; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a literature review of the occurrence of several mycotoxins in bovine milk and dairy products, because it is the main type of milk produced and marketed worldwide. Mycotoxins are produced by different genera of filamentous fungi and present serious health hazards such as carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Under favorable growth conditions, toxigenic fungi produce mycotoxins which contaminate the lactating cow's feedstuff. During metabolism, these mycotoxins undergo biotransformation and are secreted in milk. Data show that there is a seasonal trend in the levels of mycotoxins in milk, with these being higher in the cold months probably due to the prolonged storage required for the cattle feeds providing favorable conditions for fungal growth. Good agricultural and storage practices are therefore of fundamental importance in the control of toxigenic species and mycotoxins. Although aflatoxins (especially aflatoxin M1 ) are the mycotoxins of greater incidence in milk and dairy products, this review shows that other mycotoxins, such as fumonisin, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and deoxynivalenol, can also be found in these products. Given that milk is widely consumed and is a source of nutrients, especially in childhood, a thorough investigation of the occurrence of mycotoxins as well the adoption of measures to minimize their contamination of milk is essential.

  18. Mycotoxins in Bovine Milk and Dairy Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Becker-Algeri, Tania Aparecida; Castagnaro, Denise; de Bortoli, Kennidy; de Souza, Camila; Drunkler, Deisy Alessandra; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a literature review of the occurrence of several mycotoxins in bovine milk and dairy products, because it is the main type of milk produced and marketed worldwide. Mycotoxins are produced by different genera of filamentous fungi and present serious health hazards such as carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Under favorable growth conditions, toxigenic fungi produce mycotoxins which contaminate the lactating cow's feedstuff. During metabolism, these mycotoxins undergo biotransformation and are secreted in milk. Data show that there is a seasonal trend in the levels of mycotoxins in milk, with these being higher in the cold months probably due to the prolonged storage required for the cattle feeds providing favorable conditions for fungal growth. Good agricultural and storage practices are therefore of fundamental importance in the control of toxigenic species and mycotoxins. Although aflatoxins (especially aflatoxin M1 ) are the mycotoxins of greater incidence in milk and dairy products, this review shows that other mycotoxins, such as fumonisin, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and deoxynivalenol, can also be found in these products. Given that milk is widely consumed and is a source of nutrients, especially in childhood, a thorough investigation of the occurrence of mycotoxins as well the adoption of measures to minimize their contamination of milk is essential. PMID:26799355

  19. Process audits versus product quality monitoring of bulk milk.

    PubMed

    Velthuis, A G J; van Asseldonk, M A P M

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of milk quality is based on bulk milk testing and farm certification on process quality audits. It is unknown to what extent dairy farm audits improve milk quality. A statistical analysis was conducted to quantify possible associations between bulk milk testing and dairy farm audits. The analysis comprised 64.373 audit outcomes on 26,953 dairy farms, which were merged with all conducted laboratory tests of bulk milk samples 12 mo before the audit. Each farm audit record included 271 binary checklist items and 52 attention point variables (given to farmers if serious deviations were observed), both indicating possible deviations from the desired farm situation. Test results included somatic cell count (SCC), total bacterial count (TBC), antimicrobial drug residues (ADR), level of butyric acid spores (BAB), freezing point depression (FPD), level of free fatty acid (FFA), and milk sediment (SED). Results show that numerous audit variables were related to bulk milk test results, although the goodness of fit of the models was generally low. Cow hygiene, clean cubicles, hygiene of milking parlor, and utility room were positively correlated with superior product quality, mainly with respect to SCC, TBC, BAB, FPD, FFA, and SED. Animal health or veterinary drugs management (i.e., drug treatment recording, marking of treated animals, and storage of veterinary drugs) related to SCC, FPD, FFA, and SED. The availability of drinking water was related to TBC, BAB, FFA, and SED, whereas maintenance of the milking equipment was related mainly to SCC, FPD, and FFA. In summary, bulk milk quality and farm audit outcomes are, to some degree, associated: if dairy farms are assessed negatively on specific audit aspects, the bulk milk quality is more likely to be inferior. However, the proportion of the total variance in milk test results explained by audits ranged between 4 and 13% (depending on the specific bulk milk test), showing that auditing dairy farms provides

  20. Prenatal Maternal and Possible Transgenerational Epigenetic Effects on Milk Production

    PubMed Central

    Gudex, Boyd; Johnson, David; Singh, Kuljeet

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether the prenatal maternal environment in dairy cattle influences the postnatal milking performance of the resulting daughters and grand-daughters. Linear mixed models were used to analyse whole season milk production from ∼46000 Jersey and ∼123000 Holstein Friesian cows in their 1st and 2nd lactations. Variation in the prenatal environment was associated with a small but significant (P<0.05) proportion of the total phenotypic variation (0.010 to 0.015) in all traits in Holstein Friesian cows and in the first lactation milk volume (0.011) and milk protein (0.011), and the second lactation milk fat (0.015) in the Jersey breed. This indicates that the prenatal environment does influence the adult performance of the subsequent daughter. Associations between daughter performance and dam and grand-dam traits indicative of their prenatal environment were also estimated. A one litre increase in the dam’s herd test milk volume was associated with a 7.5 litre increase in the daughters’ whole season milk yield and a 1% increase in either the dams’ herd test milk fat or protein percentage was associated with a reduction in daughter whole season milk volume (−49.6 and −45.0 litres for dam fat and protein, respectively). Similar results between the grand-dam herd test traits ansd the daughters’ whole season milk production were observed with a 1% increase in either grand-dam milk fat or protein percentage associated with a reduction in daughter whole season milk yield (−34.7 and −9.7 litres for fat and protein, respectively). This study revealed that the prenatal environment of the dam and the grand-dam can influence milk production in the subsequent daughters, though the effects are small. The similarity of the results between the dam daughter and the grand-dam daughter analyses suggests that the majority of the prenatal maternal effects are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:24901792

  1. Automatic milking systems in the Protected Designation of Origin Montasio cheese production chain: effects on milk and cheese quality.

    PubMed

    Innocente, N; Biasutti, M

    2013-02-01

    Montasio cheese is a typical Italian semi-hard, semi-cooked cheese produced in northeastern Italy from unpasteurized (raw or thermised) cow milk. The Protected Designation of Origin label regulations for Montasio cheese require that local milk be used from twice-daily milking. The number of farms milking with automatic milking systems (AMS) has increased rapidly in the last few years in the Montasio production area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a variation in milking frequency, associated with the adoption of an automatic milking system, on milk quality and on the specific characteristics of Montasio cheese. Fourteen farms were chosen, all located in the Montasio production area, with an average herd size of 60 (Simmental, Holstein-Friesian, and Brown Swiss breeds). In 7 experimental farms, the cows were milked 3 times per day with an AMS, whereas in the other 7 control farms, cows were milked twice daily in conventional milking parlors (CMP). The study showed that the main components, the hygienic quality, and the cheese-making features of milk were not affected by the milking system adopted. In fact, the control and experimental milks did not reveal a statistically significant difference in fat, protein, and lactose contents; in the casein index; or in the HPLC profiles of casein and whey protein fractions. Milk from farms that used an AMS always showed somatic cell counts and total bacterial counts below the legal limits imposed by European Union regulations for raw milk. Finally, bulk milk clotting characteristics (clotting time, curd firmness, and time to curd firmness of 20mm) did not differ between milk from AMS and milk from CMP. Montasio cheese was made from milk collected from the 2 groups of farms milking either with AMS or with CMP. Three different cheese-making trials were performed during the year at different times. As expected, considering the results of the milk analysis, the moisture, fat, and protein contents of the

  2. Automatic milking systems in the Protected Designation of Origin Montasio cheese production chain: effects on milk and cheese quality.

    PubMed

    Innocente, N; Biasutti, M

    2013-02-01

    Montasio cheese is a typical Italian semi-hard, semi-cooked cheese produced in northeastern Italy from unpasteurized (raw or thermised) cow milk. The Protected Designation of Origin label regulations for Montasio cheese require that local milk be used from twice-daily milking. The number of farms milking with automatic milking systems (AMS) has increased rapidly in the last few years in the Montasio production area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a variation in milking frequency, associated with the adoption of an automatic milking system, on milk quality and on the specific characteristics of Montasio cheese. Fourteen farms were chosen, all located in the Montasio production area, with an average herd size of 60 (Simmental, Holstein-Friesian, and Brown Swiss breeds). In 7 experimental farms, the cows were milked 3 times per day with an AMS, whereas in the other 7 control farms, cows were milked twice daily in conventional milking parlors (CMP). The study showed that the main components, the hygienic quality, and the cheese-making features of milk were not affected by the milking system adopted. In fact, the control and experimental milks did not reveal a statistically significant difference in fat, protein, and lactose contents; in the casein index; or in the HPLC profiles of casein and whey protein fractions. Milk from farms that used an AMS always showed somatic cell counts and total bacterial counts below the legal limits imposed by European Union regulations for raw milk. Finally, bulk milk clotting characteristics (clotting time, curd firmness, and time to curd firmness of 20mm) did not differ between milk from AMS and milk from CMP. Montasio cheese was made from milk collected from the 2 groups of farms milking either with AMS or with CMP. Three different cheese-making trials were performed during the year at different times. As expected, considering the results of the milk analysis, the moisture, fat, and protein contents of the

  3. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products, and animal feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 µg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line ...

  4. Fate of ivermectin residues in ewes' milk and derived products.

    PubMed

    Cerkvenik, Vesna; Perko, Bogdan; Rogelj, Irena; Doganoc, Darinka Z; Skubic, Valentin; Beek, Wim M J; Keukens, Henk J

    2004-02-01

    The fate of ivermectin (IVM) residues was studied throughout the processing of daily bulk milk from 30 ewes (taken up to 33 d following subcutaneous administration of 0.2 mg IVM/kg b.w.) in the following milk products: yoghurt made from raw and pasteurized milk; cheese after pressing; 30- and 60-day ripened cheese; and whey, secondary whey and whey proteins obtained after cheese-making (albumin cheese). The concentration of the H2B1a component of IVM was analysed in these dairy products using an HPLC method with fluorescence detection. The mean recovery of the method was, depending on the matrix, between 87 and 100%. Limits of detection in the order of only 0.1 microg H2B1a/kg of product were achieved. Maximum concentrations of IVM were detected mostly at 2 d after drug administration to the ewes. The highest concentration of IVM was found on day 2 in 60-day ripened cheese (96 microg H2B1a/kg cheese). Secondary whey was the matrix with the lowest concentration of IVM (<0.6 microg H2B1a/ kg). Residue levels fell below the limits of detection between day 5 (for secondary whey) and day 25 (for all cheese samples). In the matrices investigated, linear correlations between daily concentrations of IVM, milk fat and solid content were evident. During yoghurt production, fermentation and thermal stability of IVM was observed. During cheese production, approximately 35% of the IVM, present in the raw (bulk) milk samples, was lost. From the results it was concluded that the processing of ewes' milk did not eliminate the drug residues under investigation. The consequences of IVM in the human diet were discussed. Milk from treated animals should be excluded from production of fat products like cheese for longer after treatment with IVM than for lower fat products.

  5. Major advances in concentrated and dry milk products, cheese, and milk fat-based spreads.

    PubMed

    Henning, D R; Baer, R J; Hassan, A N; Dave, R

    2006-04-01

    Advances in dairy foods and dairy foods processing since 1981 have influenced consumers and processors of dairy products. Consumer benefits include dairy products with enhanced nutrition and product functionality for specific applications. Processors convert raw milk to finished product with improved efficiencies and have developed processing technologies to improve traditional products and to introduce new products for expanding the dairy foods market. Membrane processing evolved from a laboratory technique to a major industrial process for milk and whey processing. Ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis have been used extensively in fractionation of milk and whey components. Advances in cheese manufacturing methods have included mechanization of the making process. Membrane processing has allowed uniform composition of the cheese milk and starter cultures have become more predictable. Cheese vats have become larger and enclosed as well as computer controlled. Researchers have learned to control many of the functional properties of cheese by understanding the role of fat and calcium distribution, as bound or unbound, in the cheese matrix. Processed cheese (cheese, foods, spreads, and products) maintain their importance in the industry as many product types can be produced to meet market needs and provide stable products for an extended shelf life. Cheese delivers concentrated nutrients of milk and bio-active peptides to consumers. The technologies for the production of concentrated and dried milk and whey products have not changed greatly in the last 25 yr. The size and efficiencies of the equipment have increased. Use of reverse osmosis in place of vacuum condensing has been proposed. Modifying the fatty acid composition of milkfat to alter the nutritional and functional properties of dairy spread has been a focus of research in the last 2 decades. Conjugated linoleic acid, which can be increased in milkfat by alteration of the cow's diet, has been reported to have

  6. Rapid determination of cholesterol in milk and milk products by direct saponification and capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fletouris, D J; Botsoglou, N A; Psomas, I E; Mantis, A I

    1998-11-01

    A simple method is described for the determination of cholesterol in milk and milk products. Samples (0.2 g) are saponified in capped tubes with 0.5 M methanolic KOH solution by heating for 15 min at 80 degrees C. Water is added to the mixtures, and the unsaponifiable fractions are extracted with hexane to be further analyzed by capillary gas chromatography. Because of the rapid sample preparation and gas chromatographic procedures, a single sample can be analyzed in 30 min. Overall recovery was 98.6%, and the linearity was excellent for the fortification range examined. Precision data that were based on the variation within and between days suggested an overall relative standard deviation value of 1.4%. The method has been successfully applied to quantitate cholesterol in a variety of milk products.

  7. Rapid determination of sodium in milk and milk products by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Masotti, F; Erba, D; De Noni, I; Pellegrino, L

    2012-06-01

    A capillary zone electrophoresis method for the determination of Na in milk and milk products was developed and compared with an International Organization for Standardization/International Dairy Federation standard method that is based on flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The adoption of a background electrolyte consisting of 10 mM imidazole adjusted to pH 3.75 by the addition of oxalic acid allowed baseline separation of Na from other milk cations and from Li ion, which was adopted as an internal standard. Method validation was performed and the results for linearity, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and recovery are presented. The procedure was tested on commercial milk samples differing in fat content (whole, semiskimmed, and skimmed) and processing conditions (pasteurization, UHT sterilization, and microfiltration). The reliability of the method was confirmed for different varieties of cheese and other milk products. The method enables the routine measurement of Na content by a rapid and accurate capillary zone electrophoresis procedure. PMID:22612924

  8. A novel method for species identification in milk and milk-based products.

    PubMed

    Reale, Silvia; Campanella, Angela; Merigioli, Amalia; Pilla, Fabio

    2008-02-01

    This study describes a method for species-specific detection of animal DNA from different species (cattle, sheep, goat, water buffalo) in milk and dairy products. A primer set was designed in conserved region on the basis of the alignment of the sequence codifying the genomic kappa-casein gene in order to amplify all four species with a single primer pair. Polymorphisms were detected via minisequencing with extension primers designed in conserved sequences for haplotype determination that allow unambiguous assignment to each species. The method was successfully applied to the detection of raw and pasteurized milk from the four different species considered as well as to cheese products from the retail trade. Estimation of the limit of detection was carried out using a progression of dilutions of genomic DNA as well as DNA isolated from milk of a known number of somatic cells from different species in order to be able to achieve detection rates as low as 0.1% bovine milk mixed with buffalo milk.

  9. Origin of haloacetic acids in milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes

    2016-04-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are formed during the process of water disinfection. Therefore their presence in foods can be correlated with the addition of or contact with treated water. To determine the origin of HAAs in milk and dairy products, firstly a chromatographic method was developed for their determination. The sample treatment involves deproteination of milk followed by derivatization/extraction of the HAAs in the supernatant. About 20% of the foods analyzed contained two HAAs - which in no case exceeded 2 μg L(-1), that can be ascribed to contamination from sanitizers usually employed in the dairy industry. The process of boiling tap water (containing HAAs) for the preparation of powdered infant formula did not remove them; therefore it would be advisable to prepare this type of milk with mineral water (free of HAAs). In addition, it is possible to establish if the milk has been adulterated with treated water through the determination of HAAs.

  10. [Milk and dairy products for human nutrition: contribution of technology].

    PubMed

    Maubois, Jean-Louis

    2008-04-01

    The complex composition of milk has led to the development of innovative technological processes such as membrane separation. The dairy industry is now able to offer consumers safe classical products (liquid milk, raw-milk cheeses) with little or no heat treatment. Indeed, heat treatment undermines the organoleptic qualities and bioactivity of many molecules found in milk. New technologies, and especially membrane microfiltration, have allowed researchers to identify two groups of milk proteins in terms of their human absorption kinetics: slow micellar casein and fast whey proteins. The highly purified products thus obtained are used for infant foods and slimming aids, and as functional ingredients. The same technologies have been applied to colostrum, yielding a sterile "serocolostrum" containing biologically active immunoglobulins, growth factors, and polypeptides. Combined with other separation techniques, membrane technologies should soon allow the separation and purification of minor milk proteins described as having essential roles in bone calcium uptake and vitamin transport, for example. The use of enzymatic membrane reactors has led to the identification of several bioactive peptides, such as--kappa-caseinomacropeptide, which induces CCK (cholecystokinin) secretion and thus regulates food intake and lipid assimilation,--alpha(S1) CN (91-100), a compound with benzodiazepine activity,-- kappaCN (106-116), which has anti-thrombotic activity by inhibiting blood platelet binding to fibrinogen, and--alpha(S) and beta casein phosphopeptides, which are thought to increase iron and calcium absorption.

  11. Nisin Production Utilizing Skimmed Milk Aiming to Reduce Process Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Andrade, Maura Sayuri; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    Nisin is a natural additive for conservation of food, pharmaceutical, and dental products and can be used as a therapeutic agent. Nisin inhibits the outgrowth of spores, the growth of a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study was performed to optimize large-scale nisin production in skimmed milk and subproducts aiming at low-costs process and stimulating its utilization. Lactococcus lactis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 11454 was developed in a rotary shaker (30°C/36 h/100 rpm) in diluted skimmed milk and nisin activity, growth parameters, and media components were also studied. Nisin activity in growth media was expressed in arbitrary units (AU/mL) and converted to standard nisin concentration (Nisaplin®, 25 mg of pure nisin is 1.0×106 AU/mL). Nisin activity in skimmed milk 2.27 gtotal solids was up to threefold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 4.54 gtotal solids and was up to 85-fold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 1.14 gtotal solids. L. lactis was assayed in a New Brunswick fermentor with 1.5 L of diluted skimmed milk (2.27 gtotal solids) and airflow of 1.5 mL/min (30°C/36/200 rpm), without pH control. In this condition nisin activity was observed after 4 h (45.07 AU/mL) and in the end of 36 h process (3312.07 AU/mL). This work shows the utilization of a low-cost growth medium (diluted skimmed milk) to nisin production with wide applications. Furthermore, milk subproducts (milk whey) can be exploited in nisin production, because in Brazil 50% of milk whey is disposed with no treatment in rivers and because of high organic matter concentrations it is considered an important pollutant. In this particular case an optimized production of an antimicrobial would be lined up with industrial disposal recycling.

  12. Nisin production utilizing skimmed milk aiming to reduce process cost.

    PubMed

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Andrade, Maura Sayuri; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    2007-04-01

    Nisin is a natural additive for conservation of food, pharmaceutical, and dental products and can be used as a therapeutic agent. Nisin inhibits the outgrowth of spores, the growth of a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. This study was performed to optimize large-scale nisin production in skimmed milk and subproducts aiming at low-costs process and stimulating its utilization. Lactococcus lactis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 11454 was developed in a rotary shaker (30 degrees C/36 h/100 rpm) in diluted skimmed milk and nisin activity, growth parameters, and media components were also studied. Nisin activity in growth media was expressed in arbitrary units (AU/mL) and converted to standard nisin concentration (Nisaplin, 25 mg of pure nisin is 1.0x10(6) AU/mL). Nisin activity in skimmed milk 2.27 g(total solids) was up to threefold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 4.54 g(total solids) and was up to 85-fold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 1.14 g(total solids). L. lactis was assayed in a New Brunswick fermentor with 1.5 L of diluted skimmed milk (2.27 g(total solids)) and airflow of 1.5 mL/min (30 degrees C/36/200 rpm), without pH control. In this condition nisin activity was observed after 4 h (45.07 AU/mL) and in the end of 36 h process (3312.07 AU/mL). This work shows the utilization of a low-cost growth medium (diluted skimmed milk) to nisin production with wide applications. Furthermore, milk subproducts (milk whey) can be exploited in nisin production, because in Brazil 50% of milk whey is disposed with no treatment in rivers and because of high organic matter concentrations it is considered an important pollutant. In this particular case an optimized production of an antimicrobial would be lined up with industrial disposal recycling. PMID:18478413

  13. The effect of twinning on milk yield, dystocia, calf birth weight and open days in Holstein dairy cows of Iran.

    PubMed

    Hossein-Zadeh, N G

    2010-12-01

    Calving records of Iranian Holsteins from April 1998 to September 2006 comprising 16 herds with 104,572 calving events representing 4045 twin births were used to evaluate reported open days, calving difficulties and calf birth weight in single- and twin-births and the relationship exists between twinning and milk production. A logistic regression model was constructed to analyse dystocia for single- and twin-births. In addition, statistical analyses of 305-day milk yield, open days and calf birth weight were performed using the general linear models procedure. The odds of dystocia was greater after twin births [p < 0.0001; odds ratio (OR) = 2.32]. The odds of dystocia decreased from parity 1 to parity 2 and beyond (p < 0.0001; OR = 0.44). Open days were significantly different between single (129.28 days) and twin (144.88 days) births (p < 0.05). Calf birth weights were significantly greater for singletons than twins (43.33 kg vs. 34.36 kg; p < 0.05). In addition, twin-calved cows had greater 305-day milk production than single-calved cows (p < 0.05). In general, development of practical management strategies to cope with the negative effects associated with twinning on dairies is critical, especially if the trend towards increased twinning in the dairy cattle population continues.

  14. Calcium absorbability from milk products, an imitation milk, and calcium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Recker, R.R.; Bammi, A.; Barger-Lux, M.J.; Heaney, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Whole milk, chocolate milk, yogurt, imitation milk (prepared from dairy and nondairy products), cheese, and calcium carbonate were labeled with /sup 45/Ca and administered as a series of test meals to 10 healthy postmenopausal women. Carrier Ca content of the test meals was held constant at 250 mg and subjects fasted before each meal. The absorbability of Ca from the six sources was compared by measuring fractional absorption by the double isotope method. The mean absorption values for all six sources were tightly clustered between 21 and 26% and none was significantly different from the others using one-way analysis of variance. We conclude that none of the sources was significantly superior or inferior to the others.

  15. An evaluation of life cycle assessment of European milk production.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming-Jia; Humphreys, James; Holden, Nicholas M

    2011-03-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a method regulated by ISO that conveys the environmental impact of products. LCA studies of the same product should be comparable to benefit environmental policy making. LCA of milk production has evaluated environmental issues such as greenhouse gas emissions, resource utilisation and land use change. Thirteen LCA studies of European milk production were analysed for comparability, and direct comparison was difficult due to technical issues, arbitrary choices and inconsistent assumptions. The strengths and weaknesses of LCA for evaluating an agricultural system are identified and improvements for comparability of future studies are also considered. Future LCA of milk production should ensure that: (1) the production system is appropriately characterized according to the goal of study; (2) a clear description of the system boundary and allocation procedures is provided according to ISO standards; (3) a common functional unit, probably Energy Corrected Milk, should be used or assumed fat and protein content presented to enable comparisons; (4) where appropriate, site-specific emission factors and characterization factors should be used in environmental hotspots (e.g. manure management, spreading of synthetic fertilizer, production of purchased feed), and phosphorous loss should be better addressed; (5) a range of impact categories including climate change, energy use, land use, acidification and eutrophication should be used to assess pollution swapping, all of which are subject to national or regional directives; perhaps in the future biodiversity should also be included; and (6) the sensitivity to choices of methods and uncertainty of final results should be evaluated. PMID:21055870

  16. Fermented milks and milk products as functional foods--a review.

    PubMed

    Shiby, V K; Mishra, H N

    2013-01-01

    Fermented foods and beverages possess various nutritional and therapeutic properties. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a major role in determining the positive health effects of fermented milks and related products. The L. acidophilus and Bifidobacteria spp are known for their use in probiotic dairy foods. Cultured products sold with any claim of health benefits should meet the criteria of suggested minimum number of more than 10⁶ cfu/g at the time of consumption. Yoghurt is redefined as a probiotic carrier food. Several food powders like yoghurt powder and curd (dahi) powder are manufactured taking into consideration the number of organisms surviving in the product after drying. Such foods, beverages and powders are highly acceptable to consumers because of their flavor and aroma and high nutritive value. Antitumor activity is associated with the cell wall of starter bacteria and so the activity remains even after drying. Other health benefits of fermented milks include prevention of gastrointestinal infections, reduction of serum cholesterol levels and antimutagenic activity. The fermented products are recommended for consumption by lactose intolerant individuals and patients suffering from atherosclerosis. The formulation of fermented dietetic preparations and special products is an expanding research area. The health benefits, the technology of production of fermented milks and the kinetics of lactic acid fermentation in dairy products are reviewed here.

  17. Evaluation of different milking practices for optimum production performance in Sahiwal cows.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Naveed; Abdullah, Muhammad; Fiaz, Muhammad; Bhatti, Jalees Ahmad; Iqbal, Zeeshan Muhammad; Bangulzai, Nasrullah; Choi, Chang Weon; Jo, Ik Hwan

    2014-01-01

    The production performance of multiparous lactating Sahiwal cows (n = 24) was evaluated according to both milking frequency and method. Selected animals were randomly divided into four groups containing six animals each under a completely randomized design. Cows in groups A & B were milked by the hand milking method three times per day, respectively. Similarly, cows in groups C & D were milked by the machine milking method two and three times per day, respectively. All animals were maintained under uniform feeding and management conditions. Dry matter intake was high in animal groups milked three times per day, and it remained unchanged between the hand and machine milking methods. Milk yield was higher (P < 0.05) in cows milked three times compared to those milked twice per day, and it did not differ between hand and machine milking methods. Milk fat percentage was higher (P < 0.05) in cows milked twice per day compared to those milked three times using both machine and hand milking methods. The percentage of total solids showed a similar pattern as the fat percentage. However, percentages of protein, lactose, and non-fat solids in milk were not significantly different (P > 0.05) among the treatment groups. Collectively, the results show that milking three times per day instead of twice at 8-hour intervals can enhance milk yield in Sahiwal cows using both hand and machine milking methods. PMID:26290702

  18. Bacteriological quality of raw milk used for production of a Brazilian farmstead raw milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Costa Sobrinho, Paulo de Souza; Marçal de Faria, Camila Andreata; Silva Pinheiro, Julia; Gonçalves de Almeida, Héllen; Vieira Pires, Christiano; Silva Santos, Aline

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the bacteriological quality of raw cow's milk utilized for the production of Traditional Minas Serro cheese, a Brazilian farmstead raw milk cheese. Raw milk samples were collected from six farmstead cheese operations manufacturing raw milk cheese from cow's milk. Coliform count (CC) and Escherichia coli counts were determined using Petrifilm™ EC plates, and Staphylococcus aureus counts were determined using Petrifilm™ Staph Express count plates. The standard plate count (SPC) was determined using plate count agar. The somatic cell count (SCC) was determined with a DeLaval cell counter. The detection of Listeria monocytogenes was based in the ISO 11290-1 protocol. A total of 165 samples were analyzed, and the SPC was 1.85-7.88 log CFU/mL. Coliform were detected in 140 (84.8%) of the 165 samples, with counts of 1-6.39 log CFU/mL. E. coli was detected in 17 (10.3%) samples, with counts of 1-2.18 log CFU/mL. The SCC in raw milk was 10,000-1,390,000 cells per mL, with mean and geometric mean values of 247,000 and 162,181, respectively. The SCC did not differ significantly between the seasons (p>0.05), but differed between different farms (p<0.05). None of the 155 samples were positive for the presence of Listeria monocytogenes. S. aureus was isolated in 145 (94.1%) of the 154 samples, and the count was 1.47-5.03 log CFU/mL. The median of SPC, CC, and S. aureus counts differed significantly between seasons and between farms (p<0.05). Our results indicate that raw milk for production of farmstead raw milk cheese has a low incidence of L. monocytogenes and a high incidence of S. aureus, and suggest that measurements (such as SCC or SPC) may not serve as a predictor of other bacterial (including pathogenic) presence.

  19. Review of present knowledge on machine milking and intensive milk production in dromedary camels and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Judit

    2016-06-01

    The camel dairy industry has gone through major development in the last decade. The world's first large-scale camel dairy farm was established 10 years ago in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and since then, several commercial and scientific projects have been started, and more studies have been published demonstrating increasing interest in camel milk. The aims of this paper are to summarize relevant published data on factors influencing milk production under intensive management, compare those with our own observations obtained from Emirates Industry for Camel Milk and Products (EICMP), and highlight areas of research that are indispensable for further development. As in other species, the most important factors influencing milk yield are genetic and individual variation, age, parity, stage of lactation, nutrition, management, season, photoperiod, etc. However, the precise role of the various factors has not been thoroughly studied in camels and based on our understanding of the basic physiological processes, endocrine control is minimal. In addition, machine milking of dromedaries is still at early stage and requires research for improvement of the technology and defining factors affecting and improving milk ejection. The role of environment (like photoperiod, nutrition) should also be investigated as there is significant annual variation both in milk quantity and quality that might influence the processing characteristics of raw camel milk. The large pool of animals and thoroughly recorded data at EICMP provide an excellent opportunity for increasing milk production and improving milk quality using various methods, like feeding, management, reproduction, selection, and breeding.

  20. Review of present knowledge on machine milking and intensive milk production in dromedary camels and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Judit

    2016-06-01

    The camel dairy industry has gone through major development in the last decade. The world's first large-scale camel dairy farm was established 10 years ago in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and since then, several commercial and scientific projects have been started, and more studies have been published demonstrating increasing interest in camel milk. The aims of this paper are to summarize relevant published data on factors influencing milk production under intensive management, compare those with our own observations obtained from Emirates Industry for Camel Milk and Products (EICMP), and highlight areas of research that are indispensable for further development. As in other species, the most important factors influencing milk yield are genetic and individual variation, age, parity, stage of lactation, nutrition, management, season, photoperiod, etc. However, the precise role of the various factors has not been thoroughly studied in camels and based on our understanding of the basic physiological processes, endocrine control is minimal. In addition, machine milking of dromedaries is still at early stage and requires research for improvement of the technology and defining factors affecting and improving milk ejection. The role of environment (like photoperiod, nutrition) should also be investigated as there is significant annual variation both in milk quantity and quality that might influence the processing characteristics of raw camel milk. The large pool of animals and thoroughly recorded data at EICMP provide an excellent opportunity for increasing milk production and improving milk quality using various methods, like feeding, management, reproduction, selection, and breeding. PMID:26992732

  1. Enhancing milk and fertility performances using selection index developed for Indian Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Valsalan, Jamuna; Chakravarty, Atish Kumar; Patil, Chandrashekhar Santosh; Dash, Shakti Kant; Mahajan, Atul Chandrashekhar; Kumar, Vijay; Vohra, Vikas

    2014-08-01

    Selection for genetically superior Murrah buffaloes under Network Project on Buffalo Improvement, India, is presently based on milk yield, and it was observed that even in the absence of any direct selection pressure applied on fertility, there has been a downward trend in fertility associated with the selection for milk yield. The aim of the study was to develop selection indices which include fertility besides milk yield in Murrah buffaloes. Data pertaining to 1,224 lactation records spread over a period of 19 years were recorded and analyzed in the study. The negative association of pregnancy rate (fertility) with a 305-day milk yield (-0.08 ± 0.04) and wet average (-0.12 ± 0.02) indicated the importance of incorporating fertility trait in the construction of selection index. Four types of selection indices were constructed and evaluated. Two indices were developed using expected producing ability 305-days milk yield (EPAMY) with 6.5 and 4% fat in milk along with expected fertilizing ability (EFA). The other two indices developed consist of expected producing ability wet average (EPA WA) and EFA. The index involving (EPA WA and EFA) was found to be a more effective selection criterion in our herd, as the accuracy of index was more (0.61), in comparison to the index involving EPA MY and EFA. The robustness of selection index was assessed by increasing the relative economic values of included traits by 25 and 50%, and accuracy of the index remains almost stable without much change. The developed selection strategy involving EPA WA and EFA should be considered for the genetic evaluation of Murrah buffaloes, as it has a potential for maximizing the lifetime reproduction and production performances of the breed.

  2. Deciphering the Genetic Blueprint behind Holstein Milk Proteins and Production

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Taeheon; Son, Jun Kyu; Yoon, Ho-Baek; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Jeong, Jin Young; Cho, Yong-Min; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Lim, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Kwanghyeon; Kim, Tae-Hun; Kwon, Eung Gi; Nam, Jungrye; Kwak, Woori; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2014-01-01

    Holstein is known to provide higher milk yields than most other cattle breeds, and the dominant position of Holstein today is the result of various selection pressures. Holstein cattle have undergone intensive selection for milk production in recent decades, which has left genome-wide footprints of domestication. To further characterize the bovine genome, we performed whole-genome resequencing analysis of 10 Holstein and 11 Hanwoo cattle to identify regions containing genes as outliers in Holstein, including CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN3, and KIT whose products are likely involved in the yield and proteins of milk and their distinctive black-and-white markings. In addition, genes indicative of positive selection were associated with cardiovascular disease, which is related to simultaneous propagation of genetic defects, also known as inbreeding depression in Holstein. PMID:24920005

  3. Human milk kills Giardia lamblia by generating toxic lipolytic products.

    PubMed

    Reiner, D S; Wang, C S; Gillin, F D

    1986-11-01

    This study supports our previous hypotheses that normal human milk kills Giardia lamblia trophozoites in vitro and that this killing is due to the release of free fatty acids (FFAs) from milk triglycerides by action of the bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSL) of human milk. Heat-stable killing of G. lamblia was generated when normal human milk was preincubated with sodium cholate, which activates BSL. Moreover, both the skim-milk (containing BSL) and cream (containing mainly triglycerides) fractions were required to kill G. lamblia. We measured the toxicity of FFA and other products of lipolysis to G. lamblia. cis-Unsaturated FFAs (LD50 less than 12 microM), three of four monoglycerides, and four of five lysophosphatidylcholines were toxic to the parasites (LD50 less than 100 microM). In contrast, the parasites were not harmed by the corresponding diglycerides, phosphatidylcholines, triolein, or glycerol. Thus, products of lipid hydrolysis in the normal digestive tract are toxic to G. lamblia. We also demonstrated that albumin and conjugated bile salts, which bind FFA, partially protected trophozoites from killing by oleic acid.

  4. Mutagenicity of the products obtained from heated milk systems.

    PubMed

    Rogers, A M; Shibamoto, T

    1982-06-01

    Methylene chloride extracts of the browning reaction products prepared from model systems consisting of major milk components (casein and/or lactose, and non-fat dried milk) were tested for mutagenicity in the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay. Samples obtained by heating aqueous solutions of these components under either neutral or basic (pH 10) conditions exhibited no significant mutagenic activity when tested with or without S-9 mix. The addition of common food additives, such as sodium nitrite, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene, to the aqueous solutions did not enhance the mutagenic activity of the browning samples. On the other hand, the tar samples prepared by heating the same milk components in the dry state exhibited strong mutagenicity, primarily to Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and only with S-9 mix. A casein/lactose mixture and non-fat dried milk were also heated with baking soda in the dry state. The presence of the baking soda enhanced the mutagenicity of the browning products; the tar from the non-fat dried milk heated with baking soda was the most potently mutagenic of all the samples towards strain TA98 and also produced a positive response in strain TA100 in the presence of S-9 mix. PMID:7201951

  5. Mutagenicity of the products obtained from heated milk systems.

    PubMed

    Rogers, A M; Shibamoto, T

    1982-06-01

    Methylene chloride extracts of the browning reaction products prepared from model systems consisting of major milk components (casein and/or lactose, and non-fat dried milk) were tested for mutagenicity in the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay. Samples obtained by heating aqueous solutions of these components under either neutral or basic (pH 10) conditions exhibited no significant mutagenic activity when tested with or without S-9 mix. The addition of common food additives, such as sodium nitrite, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene, to the aqueous solutions did not enhance the mutagenic activity of the browning samples. On the other hand, the tar samples prepared by heating the same milk components in the dry state exhibited strong mutagenicity, primarily to Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and only with S-9 mix. A casein/lactose mixture and non-fat dried milk were also heated with baking soda in the dry state. The presence of the baking soda enhanced the mutagenicity of the browning products; the tar from the non-fat dried milk heated with baking soda was the most potently mutagenic of all the samples towards strain TA98 and also produced a positive response in strain TA100 in the presence of S-9 mix.

  6. Quantitative trait loci underlying milk production traits in sheep.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; El-Zarei, M F; Alvarez, L; Bayón, Y; de la Fuente, L F; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J-J

    2009-08-01

    Improvement of milk production traits in dairy sheep is required to increase the competitiveness of the industry and to maintain the production of high quality cheese in regions of Mediterranean countries with less favourable conditions. Additional improvement over classical selection could be reached if genes with significant effects on the relevant traits were specifically targeted by selection. However, so far, few studies have been undertaken to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) in dairy sheep. In this study, we present a complete genome scan performed in a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep to identify chromosomal regions associated with phenotypic variation observed in milk production traits. Eleven half-sib families, including a total of 1213 ewes, were analysed following a daughter design. Genome-wise multi-marker regression analysis revealed a genome-wise significant QTL for milk protein percentage on chromosome 3. Eight other regions, localized on chromosomes 1, 2, 20, 23 and 25, showed suggestive significant linkage associations with some of the analysed traits. To our knowledge, this study represents the first complete genome scan for milk production traits reported in dairy sheep. The experiment described here shows that analysis of commercial dairy sheep populations has the potential to increase our understanding of the genetic determinants of complex production-related traits.

  7. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in milk and milk products, their virulence gene profile and anti-bio gram

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Shivani; Brahmbhatt, M. N.; Chatur, Y. A.; Nayak, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: During the last decades, number of food poisoning cases due to Campylobacter occurred, immensely. After poultry, raw milk acts as a second main source of Campylobacter. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to detect the prevalence of Campylobacters in milk and milk products and to know the antibiotic sensitivity and virulence gene profile of Campylobacter spp. in Anand city, Gujarat, India. Material and Methods: A total of 240 samples (85 buffalo milk, 65 cow milk, 30 cheese, 30 ice-cream and 30 paneer) were collected from the different collection points in Anand city. The samples were processed by microbiological culture method, and presumptive isolates were further confirmed by genus and species-specific polymerase chain reaction using previously reported primer. The isolates were further subjected to antibiotic susceptibility assay and virulence gene detection. Result: Campylobacter species were detected in 7 (2.91%) raw milk samples whereas none of the milk product was positive. All the isolate identified were Campylobacter jejuni. Most of the isolates showed resistance against nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and tetracyclin. All the isolates have three virulence genes cadF, cdtB and flgR whereas only one isolate was positive for iamA gene and 6 isolates were positive for fla gene. Conclusion: The presence of Campylobacter in raw milk indicates that raw milk consumption is hazardous for human being and proper pasteurization of milk and adaptation of hygienic condition will be necessary to protect the consumer from this zoonotic pathogen. PMID:27046986

  8. Real-time evaluation of milk quality as reflected by clotting parameters of individual cow's milk during the milking session, between day-to-day and during lactation.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Gabriel; Merin, Uzi; Jacoby, Shamay; Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil

    2013-09-01

    Real-time analysis of milk coagulation properties as performed by the AfiLab™ milk spectrometer introduces new opportunities for the dairy industry. The study evaluated the performance of the AfiLab™ in a milking parlor of a commercial farm to provide real-time analysis of milk-clotting parameters -Afi-CF for cheese manufacture and determine its repeatability in time for individual cows. The AfiLab™ in a parlor, equipped with two parallel milk lines, enables to divert the milk on-line into two bulk milk tanks (A and B). Three commercial dairy herds of 220 to 320 Israeli Holstein cows producing ∼11 500 l during 305 days were selected for the study. The Afi-CF repeatability during time was found significant (P < 0.001) for cows. The statistic model succeeded in explaining 83.5% of the variance between Afi-CF and cows, and no significant variance was found between the mean weekly repeated recordings. Days in milk and log somatic cell count (SCC) had no significant effect. Fat, protein and lactose significantly affected Afi-CF and the empirical van Slyke equation. Real-time simulations were performed for different cutoff levels of coagulation properties where the milk of high Afi-CF cutoff value was channeled to tank A and the lower into tank B. The simulations showed that milk coagulation properties of an individual cow are not uniform, as most cows contributed milk to both tanks. Proportions of the individual cow's milk in each tank depended on the selected Afi-CF cutoff. The assessment of the major causative factors of a cow producing low-quality milk for cheese production was evaluated for the group that produced the low 10% quality milk. The largest number of cows in those groups at the three farms was found to be cows with post-intramammary infection with Escherichia coli and subclinical infections with streptococci or coagulase-negative staphylococci (∼30%), although the SCC of these cows was not significantly different. Early time in lactation

  9. In-line milk filter analysis: Escherichia coli O157 surveillance of milk production holdings.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Brenda P; Murphy, Mary; Buckley, James F; Gilroy, Deirdre; Rowe, Michael T; McCleery, David; Fanning, Séamus

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157 is a major etiological agent of food-borne illness. Bovine animals are recognized reservoirs for this organism and represent a significant source from where these pathogens can enter the food chain. Food products derived from these animals are convenient vehicles, and are often the focal point(s) of infection. As a useful strategy to provide herd-level surveillance and to investigate for the presence of this pathogen in a population of Irish dairy cattle, milk filters from 97 farms were analysed by conventional culture and other methods. Five hundred and thirty-six milk filters were evaluated over a 2-year period. Filters from 12 of the 97 farms (12%) were found to contain E. coli O157, based on culture methods. Sixteen verocytotoxigenic E. coli O157 organisms were recovered and characterized in detail. The farm families in each case were consuming raw milk from their respective herds. The potential risk to public health associated with the detection of E. coli O157 and the local consumption of raw milk are discussed.

  10. Review: Production and functionality of active peptides from milk.

    PubMed

    Muro Urista, C; Álvarez Fernández, R; Riera Rodriguez, F; Arana Cuenca, A; Téllez Jurado, A

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, research on the production of active peptides obtained from milk and their potential functionality has grown, to a great extent. Bioactive peptides have been defined as specific protein fragments that have a positive impact on body functions or conditions, and they may ultimately have an influence on health. Individual proteins of casein or milk-derived products such as cheese and yogurt have been used as a protein source to study the isolation and activity of peptides with several applications. Currently, the milk whey waste obtained in the production of cheese also represents a protein source from which active peptides could be isolated with potential industrial applications. The active properties of milk peptides and the results found with regard to their physiological effects have led to the classification of peptides as belonging to the group of ingredients of protein nature, appropriate for use in functional foods or pharmaceutical formulations. In this study, the main peptides obtained from milk protein and the past research studies about its production and biological activities will be explained. Second, an analysis will be made on the methods to determinate the biological activities, the separation of bioactive peptides and its structure identification. All of these form the base required to obtain synthetic peptides. Finally, we explain the experimental animal and human trials done in the past years. Nevertheless, more research is required on the design and implementation of equipment for the industrial production and separation of peptides. In addition, different authors suggest that more emphasis should therefore be given to preclinical studies, proving that results are consistent and that effects are demonstrated repeatedly by several research human groups.

  11. Epigenetic regulation of milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kuljeet; Erdman, Richard A; Swanson, Kara M; Molenaar, Adrian J; Maqbool, Nauman J; Wheeler, Thomas T; Arias, Juan A; Quinn-Walsh, Erin C; Stelwagen, Kerst

    2010-03-01

    It is well established that milk production of the dairy cow is a function of mammary epithelial cell (MEC) number and activity and that these factors can be influenced by diverse environmental influences and management practises (nutrition, milk frequency, photoperiod, udder health, hormonal and local effectors). Thus, understanding how the mammary gland is able to respond to these environmental cues provides a huge potential to enhance milk production of the dairy cow. In recent years our understanding of molecular events within the MEC underlying bovine lactation has been advanced through mammary microarray studies and will be further advanced through the recent availability of the bovine genome sequence. In addition, the potential of epigenetic regulation (non-sequence inheritable chemical changes in chromatin, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which affect gene expression) to manipulate mammary function is emerging. We propose that a substantial proportion of unexplained phenotypic variation in the dairy cow is due to epigenetic regulation. Heritability of epigenetic marks also highlights the potential to modify lactation performance of offspring. Understanding the response of the MEC (cell signaling pathways and epigenetic mechanisms) to external stimuli will be an important prerequisite to devising new technologies for maximising their activity and, hence, milk production in the dairy cow.

  12. Demand for functional and nutritional enhancements in specialty milk products.

    PubMed

    Gulseven, Osman; Wohlgenant, Michael

    2014-10-01

    This article investigates the socio-demographic determinants affecting the demand for functional and nutritional enhancements in milk products based on a two-stage model. In order to derive the implicit market values of these enhancements, first we estimated the relationship between the prices of differentiated dairy products and the amount or respectively the presence of specific characteristics in these products. Next, using these implicit prices along with the information on households' demographic background, we analyzed the socio-demographic factors that affect consumer demand for specific functional and nutritional enhancements. The model is estimated using a combined panel data set based on AC Nielsen Retail Homescan Panel and the USDA Nutrient Database. Our results indicate that being lactose/cholesterol free (LFCF) and organic implies substantially higher price premiums, whereas soy has a negative price. Socio-demographic factors such as income, racial profile, presence of children; education level and age have significant effects on the demand for functional enhancements. Specialty milk consumption increases with age, education, and presence of kids, whereas it declines with income. The ratio of specialty milk consumption to total milk consumption is substantially higher among Hispanic, Asian and African-American households. PMID:24997409

  13. Milk production systems in Central Uganda: a farm economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Garcia, Otto; Balikowa, David; Kiconco, Doris; Hemme, Torsten; Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe

    2008-05-01

    The Ugandan dairy sector is developing rapidly over recent years and is dominated by small-scale farmers owning more than 90 percent of the national cattle population. Due to market forces and higher competition for production factors, milk production systems are intensifying, necessitating proper understanding of the new production tendencies. Three intensive and four extensive production systems were identified and analysed, using TIPI-CAL (Technology Impact Policy Impact Calculations model). The results show that the production systems are very different in many respects but share similar development trends. Whereas intensive systems use graded animals and invest heavily into feeding, buildings and machinery, extensive systems use local breeds and invest minimally. Total cost of milk production falls with increasing herd size, while dairy returns vary among farms from 18 to 35 USD/100 Kg of milk. All systems make an economic profit, except the intensive one-cow farm, which heavily employs family resources in dairying. Due to better management of resources and access to inputs and markets, dairy farming closer to urban areas and using improved breeds is highly profitable, especially with larger herd sizes. Stakeholders should favour such practices as well as others which can improve productivity, especially in African countries where traditional systems dominate dairying.

  14. Milk production responses to a change in dietary starch concentration vary by production level in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2015-07-01

    The effects of dietary starch concentration on yield of milk and milk components were evaluated in a crossover design experiment. Holstein cows (n=32; 115±22 d in milk) with a wide range in milk yield (28 to 62kg/d) were assigned randomly within level of milk yield to a treatment sequence. Treatments were diets containing 30% dry ground corn (CG) or 30% soyhulls (SH) on a DM basis. Diets containing corn silage and alfalfa silage were formulated to contain 16% crude protein, 24% forage neutral detergent fiber, and either 27 or 44% neutral detergent fiber and 30 or 12% starch for CG and SH, respectively. Cows were fed a diet intermediate to the treatments during a preliminary 14-d period. Treatment periods were 28 d with measurements taken throughout the period for energy calculations and the final 5 d used for data and sample collection for production variables. Compared with SH, CG increased dry matter intake, and yields of milk, milk protein, milk fat, and energy-corrected milk, as well as milk protein concentration. Treatment did not affect milk fat concentration. Yield of de novo synthesized and preformed milk fatty acids increased with CG. Treatment interacted with level of preliminary milk production for several response variables (yields of milk, milk protein, milk fat, energy-corrected milk, and 3.5% fat-corrected milk). Compared with SH, the CG treatment increased energy-corrected milk in higher-producing cows with a lesser response to CG as milk yield decreased. The CG treatment increased milk:feed compared with the SH treatment, but not body weight or body condition score. In conclusion, higher-producing cows benefited from the high-starch diet, and lower-producing cows were able to maintain production when most of the starch was replaced with nonforage fiber. PMID:25981075

  15. 78 FR 11791 - Flavored Milk; Petition to Amend the Standard of Identity for Milk and 17 Additional Dairy Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Lowfat and Nonfat Yogurt and to Amend the Standard for Yogurt'' (74 FR 2443, January 15, 2009). Thus, FDA... and reduce childhood obesity by providing for lower-calorie flavored milk products. They state that lower-calorie flavored milk would particularly benefit school children who, according to IDFA and...

  16. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. 1240.61 Section 1240.61 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  17. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. 1240.61 Section 1240.61 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  18. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. 1240.61 Section 1240.61 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  19. [Investigation of the residue of the fasciolicide nitroxynil in milk and dairy products].

    PubMed

    Takeba, K; Matsumoto, M

    1992-02-01

    A sensitive gas chromatographic method with electron capture detection of the fasciolicide, nitroxynil, in milk and dairy products was developed and was applied to assess nitroxynil concentration in cow's milk after subcutaneous injection of three lactating cows. The level of nitroxynil in cow's milk reached a maximum (0.25-0.26 micrograms/ml) in 6-30 hours, and was undetectable within 8 weeks. Analysis of nitroxynil concentrations in cream, skimmed milk, curd and whey prepared from nitroxynil excreting cow's milk showed that the chemical became concentrated in cream and curd. Nitroxynil appeared to be stable at temperature used in LTLT and HTST pasteurization with the rate of degradation in milk being less than 10%. Investigation of nitroxynil residues in milk (raw, liquid whole, processed) and dairy products (processed cheese, natural cheese, butter, sweetened condensed milk, evaporated skimmed milk, skimmed milk powder, formulated milk powder) was performed during 1976-1979. Nitroxynil was detected in 20% of milk samples at a maximum level of 39 ng/ml, with one formulated milk powder at level of 0.34 ng/g. Confirmation of nitroxynil was performed by GCMS. The results of this investigation were promptly reported to the government. Since then administrative guidance was provided leading to appropriated use of nitroxynil thereafter. The ordinance controlling dairy production amended in 1979 revised the withdrawal time for medicines administrated to cows from "three days" to "the period when medicine remains in the milk". There was no mutagenicity of nitroxynil evident by the Ames test.

  20. Distribution of animal drugs between skim milk and milk fat fractions in spiked whole milk: Understanding the potential impact on commercial milk products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven animal drugs [penicillin G (PENG), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX), oxytetracycline (OTET), erythromycin (ERY), ketoprofen (KETO), thiabendazole (THIA) and ivermectin (IVR)] were used to evaluate drug distribution between milk fat and skim milk fractions of cow milk. Greater than 90% of radioactivity...

  1. Temporary alterations to postpartum milking frequency affect whole-lactation milk production and the energy status of pasture-grazed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Phyn, C V C; Kay, J K; Rius, A G; Morgan, S R; Roach, C G; Grala, T M; Roche, J R

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the immediate and long-term effects of temporary alterations to postpartum milking frequency (MF) on milk production, body condition score (BCS), and indicators of energy status in pasture-grazed cows supplemented with concentrates. Multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 150) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups at calving: milked twice daily (2 ×) throughout lactation (control), or milked either once daily (1 ×) or 3 times daily (3 ×) for 3 or 6 wk immediately postpartum, and then 2 × for the remainder of lactation. During wk 1 to 3 postpartum, cows milked 1 × produced 15% less milk and 17% less energy-corrected milk (ECM) than cows milked 2 ×. This immediate production loss increased to 20% less milk and 22% less ECM during wk 4 to 6 postpartum for cows that remained on 1 × milking; these animals also produced less than 1 × cows switched to 2 × milking after 3 wk. During wk 8 to 32, when all cows were milked 2 ×, those previously milked 1 × had sustained reductions in milk (-6%) and ECM (-8%) yields, which were not affected by the duration of reduced postpartum MF. In contrast, cows milked 3 × postpartum had 7% greater milk yields during wk 1 to 6 compared with 2 × controls, irrespective of the duration of increased MF. Milk yields also remained numerically greater (+5%) during wk 8 to 32 in cows previously milked 3 ×. Nevertheless, yields of ECM were not increased by 3 × milking, because of lower milk fat and protein contents that persisted for the rest of lactation. In addition, indicators of cow energy status reflected an increasing state of negative energy balance with increasing MF. Cows milked 1 × postpartum had greater plasma glucose and lower plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations during the reduced MF, and plasma glucose remained lower for 2 wk after cows had switched to 2 × milking. Moreover, BCS was improved relative to 2 × controls from wk 5 to 6. In contrast, cows milked 3 × had lower plasma

  2. Association of bovine β-casein protein variant I with milk production and milk protein composition.

    PubMed

    Visker, M H P W; Dibbits, B W; Kinders, S M; van Valenberg, H J F; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to detect new polymorphisms in the bovine β-casein (β-CN) gene and to evaluate association of (new) β-CN protein variants with milk production traits and milk protein composition. Screening of the β-CN gene in genomic DNA from 72 Holstein Friesian (HF) bulls resulted in detection of 19 polymorphisms and revealed the presence of β-CN protein variant I in the Dutch HF population. Studies of association of β-CN protein variants with milk composition usually do not discriminate protein variant I from variant A2. Association of β-CN protein variants with milk composition was studied in 1857 first-lactation HF cows and showed that associations of protein variants A2 and I were quite different for several traits. β-CN protein variant I was significantly associated with protein percentage and protein yield, and with αs1 -casein (αs1 -CN), αs2 -casein (αs2 -CN), κ-casein (κ-CN), α-lactalbumin (α-LA), β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), casein index and casein yield. Inferring β-κ-CN haplotypes showed that β-CN protein variant I occurred only with κ-CN variant B. Consequently, associations of β-κ-CN haplotype IB with protein percentage, κ-CN, α-LA, β-LG and casein index are likely resulting from associations of κ-CN protein variant B, while associations of β-κ-CN haplotype IB with αs1 -CN and αs2 -CN seem to be resulting from associations of β-CN variant I.

  3. 21 CFR 139.122 - Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... than 0.9 mg and not more than 1.2 mg of folic acid, and not less than 13 mg and not more than 16.5 mg... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.122 Section 139.122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  4. 21 CFR 139.122 - Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... than 0.9 mg and not more than 1.2 mg of folic acid, and not less than 13 mg and not more than 16.5 mg... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.122 Section 139.122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  5. Assessment of dietary ratios of red clover and grass silages on milk production and milk quality in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Moorby, J M; Lee, M R F; Davies, D R; Kim, E J; Nute, G R; Ellis, N M; Scollan, N D

    2009-03-01

    Twenty-four multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square changeover design experiment to test the effects of changing from ryegrass (Lolium perenne) silage to red clover (Trifolium pratense) silage in graded proportions on feed intakes, milk production, milk organoleptic qualities, and whole-body nitrogen partitioning. Four dietary treatments, comprising ad libitum access to 1 of 4 forage mixtures plus a standard allowance of 4 kg/d dairy concentrates, were offered. The 4 forage mixtures were, on a dry matter (DM) basis: 1) 100% grass silage, 2) 66% grass silage: 34% red clover silage, 3) 34% grass silage: 66% red clover silage, and 4) 100% red clover silage. In each of 4 experimental periods, there were 21 d for adaptation to diets and 7 d for measurements. There was an increase in both DM intakes and milk yields as the proportion of red clover in the diet increased. However, the increase in milk yield was not as great as the increase in DM intake, so that the efficiency of milk production, in terms of yield (kg) of milk per kg of DM intake, decreased. The concentrations of protein, milk fat, and the shorter chain saturated fatty acids decreased, whereas C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and long-chain PUFA (C20+) increased as the proportion of red clover in the diet increased. There was little effect of dietary treatment on the organoleptic qualities of milk as assessed by taste panel analysis. There were no effects on the aroma of milk, on aftertaste, or overall liking of the milk. Milk was thicker and creamier in color when cows were fed grass silage compared with red clover silage. The flavor of milk was largely unaffected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, increasing the proportion of red clover in the diet of dairy cows increased feed intakes and milk yields, decreased the concentration of fat and protein in milk, increased PUFA for healthiness, and had little effect on milk organoleptic characteristics. PMID

  6. Adoption of technology, management practices, and production systems in US milk production.

    PubMed

    Khanal, A R; Gillespie, J; MacDonald, J

    2010-12-01

    The introduction of new technology, management practices, and alternative production systems has resulted in rapid structural change in the US dairy industry. This paper examines adoption rates and adopter characteristics for the following dairy technologies, practices, and systems: holding pen with an udder washer, milking units with automatic take-offs, genetic selection technologies, recombinant bovine somatotropin, membership in the Dairy Herd Improvement Association, computerized feed delivery systems, computerized milking systems, use of a nutritionist to design feed rations, grazing, milking cows 3 times daily, and milking parlors. Four of these were used on a greater percentage of farms in 2005 than in 2000, but increased farm sizes and the interaction of farm size with adoption suggest a greater percentage of milk being produced under each, with the exception of grazing. Except for grazing, technologies were generally complementary. PMID:21094776

  7. Adoption of technology, management practices, and production systems in US milk production.

    PubMed

    Khanal, A R; Gillespie, J; MacDonald, J

    2010-12-01

    The introduction of new technology, management practices, and alternative production systems has resulted in rapid structural change in the US dairy industry. This paper examines adoption rates and adopter characteristics for the following dairy technologies, practices, and systems: holding pen with an udder washer, milking units with automatic take-offs, genetic selection technologies, recombinant bovine somatotropin, membership in the Dairy Herd Improvement Association, computerized feed delivery systems, computerized milking systems, use of a nutritionist to design feed rations, grazing, milking cows 3 times daily, and milking parlors. Four of these were used on a greater percentage of farms in 2005 than in 2000, but increased farm sizes and the interaction of farm size with adoption suggest a greater percentage of milk being produced under each, with the exception of grazing. Except for grazing, technologies were generally complementary.

  8. Selection for milk production from a lactation biology viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Akers, R M

    2000-05-01

    The success of selection for increased milk production in dairy cows is apparent. Certainly, many herds now have average production levels that would have only been associated with the best producers in the herd 30 yr ago. There are, of course, many reasons for this success. Among these are improvements in genetic selection methods and associated use of artificial insemination, better fulfillment of nutritional needs and diet formulation, and careful attention to mastitis control and milking management. Development of new management tools (i.e., bovine somatotropin, improved crops, estrus detection devices, estrus synchronization, monitoring of individual animal performance, and disease prevention) should not be forgotten. Although many aspects of a dairy operation determine overall performance and profitability, the focus of this paper is the udder. Information indicates that both the structure and function of the bovine mammary gland have been directly impacted by long-term selection for increased milk production but improved functionality may have been more important. This review also considered studies that attempt to develop techniques and measurements for possible selection of genetically superior animals including measurement of circulating hormones and direct assay of mammary tissue function. PMID:10821592

  9. Production and chemical composition of two dehydrated fermented dairy products based on cow or goat milk.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Fernández, Jorge; Díaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, Maria J M; Hijano, Silvia; Nestares, Teresa; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the differences between the main macro and micronutrients including proteins, fat, minerals and vitamins in cow and goat dehydrated fermented milks. Fermented goat milk had higher protein and lower ash content. All amino acids (except for Ala), were higher in fermented goat milk than in fermented cow milk. Except for the values of C11:0, C13:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:5, C22:5 and the total quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, all the other fatty acid studied were significantly different in both fermented milks. Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Se were higher in fermented goat milk. Fermented goat milk had lower amounts of folic acid, vitamin E and C, and higher values of vitamin A, D3, B6 and B12. The current study demonstrates the better nutritional characteristics of fermented goat milk, suggesting a potential role of this dairy product as a high nutritional value food. PMID:26869113

  10. The acceptability of milk and milk products in populations with a high prevalence of lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Scrimshaw, N S; Murray, E B

    1988-10-01

    1) Most humans, like other mammals, gradually lose the intestinal enzyme lactase after infancy and with it the ability to digest lactose, the principle sugar in milk. At some point in prehistory, a genetic mutation occurred and lactase activity persisted in a majority of the adult population of Northern and Central Europe. 2) Persistence of intestinal lactase, the uncommon trait worldwide, is inherited as a highly penetrant autosomal-dominant characteristic. Both types of progeny are almost equally common when one parent is a lactose maldigester and the other a lactose digester. 3) The incidence of lactose maldigestion is usually determined in adults by the administration in the fasting state of a 50-g dose of lactose in water, the equivalent of that in 1 L of milk. Measurement is made of either the subsequent rise in blood glucose or the appearance of additional hydrogen in the breath. It is also sometimes identified by measuring lactase activity directly in a biopsy sample from the jejunum. For children the test dose is reduced according to weight. Depending on the severity of the lactase deficiency and other factors, the test dose may result in abdominal distention, pain, and diarrhea. 4) The frequency of lactose maldigestion varies widely among populations but is high in nearly all but those of European origin. In North American adults lactose maldigestion is found in approximately 79% of Native Americans, 75% of blacks, 51% of Hispanics, and 21% of Caucasians. In Africa, Asia, and Latin America prevalence rates range from 15-100% depending on the population studied. 5) Whenever the lactose ingested exceeds the capacity of the intestinal lactase to split it into the simple sugars glucose and galactose, which are absorbed directly, it passes undigested to the large intestine. There it is fermented by the colonic flora, with short-chain fatty acids and hydrogen gas as major products. The gas produced can cause abdominal distention and pain and diarrhea may also

  11. 75 FR 61418 - Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements...: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: This document proposes to amend the recommended manufacturing milk... goat milk from 1,000,000 cells per milliliter to 1,500,000 cells per milliliter. This proposal...

  12. Milk yield and lactation length of Ghana Sanga and its crosses with the Friesian raised under agropastoral system.

    PubMed

    Darfour-Oduro, K A; Sottie, E T; Hagan, B A; Okantah, S A

    2010-03-01

    Milk yield traits and lactation length of two breeds of cattle raised on natural pasture with little or no supplementation were assessed. A total of 42 573 daily milk records on 98 Friesian-Sanga cows collected over a period of 10 years and 17 790 daily milk records on 72 Sanga cows spanning a 6-year period were used in the study. Traits examined for each breed were daily milk yield, total milk yield, 305-day milk yield, 305-day milk yield/day and lactation length. Friesian-Sanga cows outperformed their Sanga counterparts in all traits studied. Friesian-Sanga cows had an average daily milk yield of 1.35 +/- 0.00 kg; average total milk yield of 266 +/- 12 kg; average 305-day milk yield of 339 +/- 10 kg; average 305-day milk yield/ day of 1.11 +/- 0.03 kg and mean lactation length of 201.1 +/- 6.9 days. Average values for Sanga cows were 1.01 +/- 0.00 kg as daily milk yield; 162 +/- 12 kg as total milk yield; 244 +/- 10 kg as 305-day milk yield; 0.80 +/- 0.03 kg as 305-day milk yield/day. Mean lactation length for Sanga cows was 164.1 +/- 9.4 days. Season of calving significantly (P < 0.05) influenced daily milk yield of Friesian-Sanga cows and all traits of Sanga cows with animals calving in the major rainy season surpassing those that calved in the minor and dry seasons. Daily milk yield for both Friesian-Sanga and Sanga cows was significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by season of lactation. Daily milk yield gradually declined from second parity towards the sixth parity for Friesian-Sanga cows. A gradual increase in daily milk yield from first to third parity was observed in Sanga cows. Year of calving significantly influenced all traits for both breeds. Genetic improvement in milk yield traits and lactation length is achievable for both breeds of cattle as co-efficient of variation of traits were moderate to high.

  13. [The thermophilic streptomycetes flora in milk powders and condensed milk products (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Falkowski, J

    1978-08-01

    247 specimens of powdered milk and 165 of condensed milk were tested for their contamination with thermophile Streptomycetes. Colonies of these contaminants were isolated from all specimens of powdered milk and from 73 samples of condensed sweeted milk. The isolated strains corresponded with the following species of thermophilic Streptomycetes: Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Tsiklinsky 1899, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Tsiklinsky 1899 "giant colonies", Micromonospora sp. (Agre et al., 1).

  14. Mapping quantitative trait loci for milk production and genetic polymorphisms of milk proteins in dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Barillet, Francis; Arranz, Juan-José; Carta, Antonello

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present recent advances in the molecular dissection of complex traits in dairy sheep and discuss their possible impact on breeding schemes. In the first step, we review the literature data on genetic polymorphisms and the effects of sheep alphas1-casein and beta-lactoglobulin loci. It is concluded that the results are rather inconsistent and cannot be used in dairy sheep selection. In a second step, we describe the strategy implemented in France, Italy and Spain taking advantage of the genetic maps for QTL detection. These studies were part of a European project, called "genesheepsafety", which investigated both milk production and functional traits. Preliminary QTL results are presented for production traits.

  15. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in milk and milk products in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ivbade, Akhigbe; Ojo, Olufemi Ernest; Dipeolu, Morenike Atinuke

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 is a major cause of food-borne illnesses in humans. This study investigated the presence of STEC O157 in milk and milk products in Ogun State, Nigeria. Of a total of 202 samples 10 (5%) were positive for STEC O157 including 1 (2%) of 50 raw milk samples, 3 (6%) of 50 samples of fresh local cheese, 1 (2%) of 50 samples of fried local cheese and 5 (9.6%) of 52 fermented milk samples. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the prevalence of STEC O157 among the sample types. Of 10 isolates, shiga toxin 1 gene (stx1) was detected only in 2 samples (20%), shiga toxin 2 (stx2) was extracted only in 6 samples (60%), stx1 /stx2 in 2 samples (20.0%), intimin gene (eaeA) in 5 samples (50%), and enterohaemolysin (E-hlyA) gene was isolated in 7 (70%) samples. Rates of resistance of the STEC O157 isolates were: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 100%, ampicillin 100%, chloramphenicol 60%, nalidixic acid 20%, norfloxacin 10%, streptomycin 30%, sulphamethoxazole/trimethprim 20%, and tetracycline 90%. The isolates were all susceptible to ciprofloxacin and neomycin. The presence of virulent multidrug resistant E. coli O157 strains in milk and milk products as revealed by this study unveils a risk of human exposure to these potentially fatal pathogens following consumption of contaminated products. PMID:25273960

  16. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in milk and milk products in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ivbade, Akhigbe; Ojo, Olufemi Ernest; Dipeolu, Morenike Atinuke

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 is a major cause of food-borne illnesses in humans. This study investigated the presence of STEC O157 in milk and milk products in Ogun State, Nigeria. Of a total of 202 samples 10 (5%) were positive for STEC O157 including 1 (2%) of 50 raw milk samples, 3 (6%) of 50 samples of fresh local cheese, 1 (2%) of 50 samples of fried local cheese and 5 (9.6%) of 52 fermented milk samples. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the prevalence of STEC O157 among the sample types. Of 10 isolates, shiga toxin 1 gene (stx1) was detected only in 2 samples (20%), shiga toxin 2 (stx2) was extracted only in 6 samples (60%), stx1 /stx2 in 2 samples (20.0%), intimin gene (eaeA) in 5 samples (50%), and enterohaemolysin (E-hlyA) gene was isolated in 7 (70%) samples. Rates of resistance of the STEC O157 isolates were: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 100%, ampicillin 100%, chloramphenicol 60%, nalidixic acid 20%, norfloxacin 10%, streptomycin 30%, sulphamethoxazole/trimethprim 20%, and tetracycline 90%. The isolates were all susceptible to ciprofloxacin and neomycin. The presence of virulent multidrug resistant E. coli O157 strains in milk and milk products as revealed by this study unveils a risk of human exposure to these potentially fatal pathogens following consumption of contaminated products.

  17. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products and animal feed.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangmei; Luo, Pengjie; Tang, Shusheng; Beier, Ross C; Wu, Xiaoping; Yang, Lili; Li, Yanwei; Xiao, Xilong

    2011-06-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 μg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line on the strip test completely disappeared at this concentration. The limit of detection was 2 μg/mL (or 2 μg/g) for milk drinks, yogurt, condensed milk, cheese, and animal feed and 1 μg/g for milk powder. Sample pretreatment was simple and rapid, and the results can be obtained within 3-10 min. A parallel analysis of MEL in 52 blind raw milk samples conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed comparable results to those obtained from the strip test. The results demonstrate that the developed method is suitable for the onsite determination of MEL residues in a large number of samples.

  18. Association of serum prolactin and oxytocin with milk production in mothers of preterm and term infants.

    PubMed

    Hill, Pamela D; Aldag, Jean C; Demirtas, Hakan; Naeem, Villian; Parker, Noah P; Zinaman, Michael J; Chatterton, Robert T

    2009-04-01

    The present study was designed to compare milk production and hormone responses (prolactin [PRL], oxytocin [OT]) and to determine associations of hormone levels with milk production in mothers of preterm (PT) and term (TM) infants during the first 6 weeks postpartum. Mothers of PT infants (n = 95) were all pump dependent; mothers of TM infants (n = 98) were all feeding their infant at breast. Mothers of nonnursing PT infants produced less milk over time compared to mothers of TM infants. A higher proportion of PT mothers had lower basal PRL levels compared with TM mothers. PRL and frequency of breast stimulation combined positively influenced milk production in PT mothers. OT levels were higher in PT versus TM mothers, but OT was not related to milk production. Further study is warranted regarding interventions to enhance milk production, particularly in pump-dependent mothers of PT infants.

  19. Investigation of the migration of triclabendazole residues to milk products manufactured from bovine milk, and stability therein, following lactating cow treatment.

    PubMed

    Power, C; Danaher, M; Sayers, R; O'Brien, B; Clancy, C; Furey, A; Jordan, K

    2013-10-01

    Triclabendazole (TCB) is a flukicide used in the treatment of liver fluke in cattle; however, its use is currently prohibited in lactating dairy cows. In this study, following administration of 10% Fasinex (triclabendazole, Novartis Animal Health UK Ltd., Camberley, UK) the milk of 6 animals was used to manufacture dairy products, to ascertain if TCB residues in milk migrate into dairy products. The detection limit of the ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method used was 0.67 μg/kg. The highest concentrations of TCB residue measured, within the individual cow milk yield, was 1,529 ± 244 µg/kg (n=6), on d 2 posttreatment. Days 2 and 23 posttreatment represented high and low residue concentrations, respectively. At each of these 2 time points, the milk was pooled into 2 independent aliquots and refrigerated. Milk products, including cheese, butter, and skim milk powder were manufactured using pasteurized and unpasteurized milk from each aliquot. The results for high residue milks demonstrated that TCB residues concentrated in the cheese by a factor of 5 (5,372 vs. 918 µg/kg for cheese vs. milk) compared with the starting milk. Residue concentrations are the sum of TCB and its metabolites, expressed as keto-TCB. Residues were concentrated in the butter by a factor of 9 (9,177 vs. 1,082 μg/kg for butter vs. milk) compared with the starting milk. For milk, which was separated to skim milk and cream fractions, the residues were concentrated in the cream. Once skim milk powder was manufactured from the skim milk fraction, the residue in powder was concentrated 15-fold compared with the starting skim milk (7,252 vs. 423 µg/kg for powder vs. skim milk), despite the high temperature (185 °C) required during powder manufacture. For products manufactured from milk with low residue concentrations at d 23 posttreatment, TCB residues were detected in butter, cheese, and skim milk powder, even though there was no detectable residue in the

  20. An overview on the presence of cyclopropane fatty acids in milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Caligiani, Augusta; Marseglia, Angela; Palla, Gerardo

    2014-08-01

    A survey was carried out to determine the presence of cyclopropane fatty acids (CPFA) in various dairy products. CPFA such as lactobacillic acid and dihydrosterculic acid are components of bacterial membranes and have been recently detected in milk from cows fed with maize silage. In this paper about 200 dairy samples comprising cow, sheep, and goat milk, cheese, yogurt/fermented milk, and butter were analyzed. Results showed that cow milks were generally positive to CPFA (0.014-0.105% of total fatty acids), while goat, yak, and sheep milks were negative. Experimental yogurt and fermented milks showed the same CPFA content of the starting milk. Positive to CPFA were also the majority of samples of commercial butter and cheeses, except some PDO cheeses as Parmigiano-Reggiano and Fontina, cheeses from mountain regions, and goat and sheep cheeses. These data suggest that the presence of CPFA in dairy products could be used as a marker of silage feeding. PMID:25033416

  1. An overview on the presence of cyclopropane fatty acids in milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Caligiani, Augusta; Marseglia, Angela; Palla, Gerardo

    2014-08-01

    A survey was carried out to determine the presence of cyclopropane fatty acids (CPFA) in various dairy products. CPFA such as lactobacillic acid and dihydrosterculic acid are components of bacterial membranes and have been recently detected in milk from cows fed with maize silage. In this paper about 200 dairy samples comprising cow, sheep, and goat milk, cheese, yogurt/fermented milk, and butter were analyzed. Results showed that cow milks were generally positive to CPFA (0.014-0.105% of total fatty acids), while goat, yak, and sheep milks were negative. Experimental yogurt and fermented milks showed the same CPFA content of the starting milk. Positive to CPFA were also the majority of samples of commercial butter and cheeses, except some PDO cheeses as Parmigiano-Reggiano and Fontina, cheeses from mountain regions, and goat and sheep cheeses. These data suggest that the presence of CPFA in dairy products could be used as a marker of silage feeding.

  2. Production and processing of milk from transgenic goats expressing human lysozyme in the mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Maga, E A; Shoemaker, C F; Rowe, J D; Bondurant, R H; Anderson, G B; Murray, J D

    2006-02-01

    The potential for applying biotechnology to benefit animal agriculture and food production has long been speculated. The addition of human milk components with intrinsic antimicrobial activity and positive charge to livestock milk by genetic engineering has the potential to benefit animal health, as well as food safety and production. We generated one line of transgenic goats as a model for the dairy cow designed to express human lysozyme in the mammary gland. Here we report the characterization of the milk from 5 transgenic females of this line expressing human lysozyme in their milk at 270 microg/mL or 68% of the level found in human milk. Milk from transgenic animals had a lower somatic cell count, but the overall component composition of the milk and milk production were not different from controls. Milk from transgenic animals had a shorter rennet clotting time and increased curd strength. Milk of such nature may be of benefit to the producer by influencing udder health and milk processing.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus reservoirs during traditional Austrian raw milk cheese production.

    PubMed

    Walcher, Georg; Gonano, Monika; Kümmel, Judith; Barker, Gary C; Lebl, Karin; Bereuter, Othmar; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Wagner, Martin; Stessl, Beatrix

    2014-11-01

    Sampling approaches following the dairy chain, including microbiological hygiene status of critical processing steps and physicochemical parameters, contribute to our understanding of how Staphylococcus aureus contamination risks can be minimised. Such a sampling approach was adopted in this study, together with rapid culture-independent quantification of Staph. aureus to supplement standard microbiological methods. A regional cheese production chain, involving 18 farms, was sampled on two separate occasions. Overall, 51·4% of bulk milk samples were found to be Staph. aureus positive, most of them (34·3%) at the limit of culture-based detection. Staph. aureus positive samples >100 cfu/ml were recorded in 17·1% of bulk milk samples collected mainly during the sampling in November. A higher number of Staph. aureus positive bulk milk samples (94·3%) were detected after applying the culture-independent approach. A concentration effect of Staph. aureus was observed during curd processing. Staph. aureus were not consistently detectable with cultural methods during the late ripening phase, but >100 Staph. aureus cell equivalents (CE)/ml or g were quantifiable by the culture-independent approach until the end of ripening. Enterotoxin gene PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing provided evidence that livestock adapted strains of Staph. aureus mostly dominate the post processing level and substantiates the belief that animal hygiene plays a pivotal role in minimising the risk of Staph. aureus associated contamination in cheese making. Therefore, the actual data strongly support the need for additional sampling activities and recording of physicochemical parameters during semi-hard cheese-making and cheese ripening, to estimate the risk of Staph. aureus contamination before consumption.

  4. Milk production responses to dietary stearic acid vary by production level in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2015-03-01

    Effects of stearic acid supplementation on feed intake and metabolic and production responses of dairy cows with a wide range of milk production (32.2 to 64.4 kg/d) were evaluated in a crossover design experiment with a covariate period. Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows (142±55 d in milk) were assigned randomly within level of milk yield to treatment sequence. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet dry matter) with stearic acid (SA; 98% C18:0) or control (soyhulls). The diets were based on corn silage and alfalfa and contained 24.5% forage neutral detergent fiber, 25.1% starch, and 17.3% crude protein. Treatment periods were 21 d with the final 4 d used for data and sample collection. Compared with the control, SA increased dry matter intake (DMI; 26.1 vs. 25.2 kg/d) and milk yield (40.2 vs. 38.5 kg/d). Stearic acid had no effect on the concentration of milk components but increased yields of fat (1.42 vs. 1.35 kg/d), protein (1.19 vs. 1.14 kg/d), and lactose (1.96 vs. 1.87 kg/d). The SA treatment increased 3.5% fat-corrected milk (3.5% FCM; 40.5 vs. 38.6 kg/d) but did not affect feed efficiency (3.5% FCM/DMI, 1.55 vs. 1.53), body weight, or body condition score compared with the control. Linear interactions between treatment and level of milk yield during the covariate period were detected for DMI and yields of milk, fat, protein, lactose, and 3.5% FCM; responses to SA were positively related to milk yield of cows. The SA treatment increased crude protein digestibility (67.4 vs. 65.5%), tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility (43.6 vs. 42.3%), decreased fatty acid (FA) digestibility (56.6 vs. 76.1%), and did not affect organic matter digestibility. Fatty acid yield response, calculated as the additional FA yield secreted in milk per unit of additional FA intake, was only 13.3% for total FA and 8.2% for C18:0 plus cis-9 C18:1. Low estimated digestibility of the SA supplement was at least partly responsible for the low FA yield response

  5. Characterizing Milk Production Related Genes in Holstein Using RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Minseok; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Kwondo; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Jeong, Jin Young; Park, Sungkwon; Oh, Young Kyun; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-01-01

    Although the chemical, physical, and nutritional properties of bovine milk have been extensively studied, only a few studies have attempted to characterize milk-synthesizing genes using RNA-seq data. RNA-seq data was collected from 21 Holstein samples, along with group information about milk production ability; milk yield; and protein, fat, and solid contents. Meta-analysis was employed in order to generally characterize genes related to milk production. In addition, we attempted to investigate the relationship between milk related traits, parity, and lactation period. We observed that milk fat is highly correlated with lactation period; this result indicates that this effect should be considered in the model in order to accurately detect milk production related genes. By employing our developed model, 271 genes were significantly (false discovery rate [FDR] adjusted p-value<0.1) detected as milk production related differentially expressed genes. Of these genes, five (albumin, nitric oxide synthase 3, RNA-binding region (RNP1, RRM) containing 3, secreted and transmembrane 1, and serine palmitoyltransferase, small subunit B) were technically validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in order to check the accuracy of RNA-seq analysis. Finally, 83 gene ontology biological processes including several blood vessel and mammary gland development related terms, were significantly detected using DAVID gene-set enrichment analysis. From these results, we observed that detected milk production related genes are highly enriched in the circulation system process and mammary gland related biological functions. In addition, we observed that detected genes including caveolin 1, mammary serum amyloid A3.2, lingual antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin 4 (CATHL4), cathelicidin 6 (CATHL6) have been reported in other species as milk production related gene. For this reason, we concluded that our detected 271 genes would be strong candidates for

  6. Cheese production using kefir culture entrapped in milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kanellaki, Maria

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of kefir culture entrapped in casein and in whey protein as starter cultures for the production of Feta-type cheese. Microbiological analysis showed that counts of enterobacteria, coliforms, and staphylococci were significantly reduced due to kefir culture. In addition, the effect of kefir culture on the formation of volatile compounds, such as esters, organic acids, alcohols, carbonyl compounds, and lactones, was also investigated using the SPME GC/MS technique. Cheese samples produced with kefir culture entrapped in milk proteins presented improved profile of aroma-related compounds. Principal component analysis of the results indicated that the volatile composition of the different cheese types was dependent on the nature of the starter culture. Finally, the sensory evaluation showed that the products produced with kefir culture had a soft, fine taste, and were of improved quality.

  7. Characterization of Cronobacter recovered from dried milk and related products

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Cronobacter is a recently proposed genus consisting of six genomospecies that encompass the organisms previously identified as Enterobacter sakazakii. Cronobacter are opportunistic pathogens and are known to cause serious infections in infants, particularly neonates. High case fatality rates have been associated with infections and acute sequelae can occur in survivors with severe ramifications on neurological development. Infant formula has been identified as one route of transmission for infection in infants. However, the primary reservoirs for subsequent contamination of foods with Cronobacter remain undefined due to the ubiquitous nature of these organisms. More recently, infections in adults have been reported, especially amongst the elderly and patients who are immunocompromised. To help prevent the transmission of infection, it is important to identify the main food sources for Cronobacter. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Cronobacter isolated from dried-milk and related products available in an Egyptian food market. Results In total sixteen Cronobacter strains were isolated from 152 dairy-based products. These were identified and characterized using pheno- and genotyping experiments. Real-time PCR confirmed the detection of Cronobacter. Following antibiotic susceptibility tests, 3 strains showed resistance to trimethoprim and/or neomycin. Phenotype profiles were generated based on key biochemical distinguishing tests. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) identified 8 PFGE types amongst the collection of strains. Repetitive sequence based PCR (rep-PCR) analysis identified 3 rep-PCR types amongst the collection of strains. Sequencing of the recN gene was used to differentiate among the recently described species of Cronobacter. Conclusion This study identified the presence of Cronobacter in dried milk and related products sourced from the Nile-Delta region of Egypt. Although the majority of the strains were susceptible to

  8. Short communication: economics of sex-biased milk production.

    PubMed

    Ettema, J F; Østergaard, S

    2015-02-01

    In a recent data study using 2.4 million lactations of 1.5 million cows, it was reported that gestation of a female calf in the first parity increases cumulative milk production by approximately 445kg over the first 2 lactations. The reported effect in this study is large and remarkable because it has not been found before. To our knowledge, the economic implications of this or any other sex bias have not been studied. The objective of the current study was to quantify the reported influence of fetal sex across lactations by using a simulation model of a dairy herd including youngstock. Two scenarios were evaluated and compared with a scenario in which cows and heifers were exclusively bred with conventional (nonsexed) semen. In the first scenario, sexed semen was used moderately-on 30% of all heifers and 30% of the first parity cows. A second scenario was studied in which sexed semen was used intensively-on all heifers and 50% of the first-parity cows. The simulated proportion of cows giving birth to 2 consecutive heifers increased from 23% when using exclusively conventional semen up to 31 and 48% when using sexed semen moderately and intensively, respectively. The proportion of cows having 2 consecutive bulls decreased from 27% (conventional semen only) to 20 and 8% when using sexed semen moderately and intensively, respectively. When incorporating the sex bias in the simulation model, the simulated milk yield in the scenario in which sexed semen was used moderately increased by 48kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM) per cow/yr, compared with only 36kg of ECM when not incorporating the sex bias in the model. For the scenario in which sexed semen was used intensively, milk yield increased by 66 and 99kg of ECM when excluding and including the sex bias, respectively. The economic implications of the assumed sex bias were €4.0 and €9.9 per cow/yr, in the scenarios in which sexed semen was used moderately and intensively, respectively. PMID:25497789

  9. Genetic variants in mammary development, prolactin signalling and involution pathways explain considerable variation in bovine milk production and milk composition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The maintenance of lactation in mammals is the result of a balance between competing signals from mammary development, prolactin signalling and involution pathways. Dairy cattle are an interesting case study to investigate the effect of polymorphisms that affect the function of genes in these pathways. In dairy cattle, lactation yields and milk composition (for example protein percentage and fat percentage) are routinely recorded, and these vary greatly between individuals. In this study, we test 8058 single nucleotide polymorphisms in or close to genes in these pathways for association with milk production traits and determine the proportion of variance explained by each pathway, using data on 16 812 dairy cattle, including Holstein-Friesian and Jersey bulls and cows. Results Single nucleotide polymorphisms close to genes in the mammary development, prolactin signalling and involution pathways were significantly associated with milk production traits. The involution pathway explained the largest proportion of genetic variation for production traits. The mammary development pathway also explained additional genetic variation for milk volume, fat percentage and protein percentage. Conclusions Genetic variants in the involution pathway explained considerably more genetic variation in milk production traits than expected by chance. Many of the associations for single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes in this pathway have not been detected in conventional genome-wide association studies. The pathway approach used here allowed us to identify some novel candidates for further studies that will be aimed at refining the location of associated genomic regions and identifying polymorphisms contributing to variation in lactation volume and milk composition. PMID:24779965

  10. Diet and cooling interactions on physiological responses of grazing dairy cows, milk production and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, M. R.; Valtorta, S. E.; Leva, P. E.; Gaggiotti, M. C.; Conti, G. A.; Gregoret, R. F.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of diet and cooling in the holding pen before milking on rectal temperature, respiration rate and milk production and composition. Fifty-eight lactating Holstein cows were used in a factorial split-plot design, at Rafaela Experimental Station from 12 January to 3 March 2003. The treatments were combinations of two diets: control (CD) and balanced (BD) with two levels of cooling before milking: none (NSF) and a sprinkler and fans (SF). Forage:concentrate ratios for CD and BD were 81:19 and 68:32, respectively. Cows were milked twice daily. Milk production was recorded daily, and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and urea) was analysed twice a week. The physiological data were recorded once a week, before the cattle entered the holding pen and after milking, in the afternoon. Average maximum weekly temperature humidity index was 75.4 and ranged from 61.4 to 83. There were highly significant effects of cooling on physiological responses. Milk production was affected by diet and cooling, with no interaction; the highest and lowest production of milk was 22.42 and 20.07 l/cow per day, for BD+SF and CD+NSF, respectively. Protein was affected by diet, and was higher for BD (3.17 vs. 3.08%). There were interaction effects on milk fat at the 8% level, the highest concentration being 3.65% for BD+NFS. It was concluded that under grazing conditions, cooling by sprinkler and fans before milking improves the comfort of dairy cows, and that the effects on milk production and composition are enhanced when diets are specially formulated for heat-stress periods.

  11. Milk production, quality, and consumption in Jimma (Ethiopia): Facts and producers', retailers', and consumers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Piepers, S; Tefera, M; Getachew, Y; Supré, K; DeVliegher, S

    2016-02-01

    Four studies were performed to quantify milk production, quality and consumption in the town Jimma, Ethiopia. First, 47 dairy farmers and 44 milk retailers were interviewed to gain more insights in dairy farming and marketing, and associated constraints. Second, bulk milk samples (n=188) were collected for 4 consecutive weeks to investigate milk quality [Total Bacterial Counts (TBC), Coliform Counts (CC), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC), and antimicrobial residues]. Third, (bulk) milk samples from 32 farms, 46 milk retailers and the 3 local milk collection centers were collected to determine the presence of oxacillin susceptible-and oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fourth, 208 adult inhabitants were interviewed to gain more insight in milk consumption and associated concerns of consumers. The average dairy farm included in the studies consisted of 5 lactating cows, produced 43 liters of milk per day and was owned by male, literate adults. Milk was sold to retailers (71% of the production) and directly to customers (25%) without any quality control, whereas 4% was self-consumed. Shortage of animal nutrition and adulteration of the milk were the main constraints for farmers and retailers, respectively. The median TBC, CC and SCC were 122,500CFU/mL, 1,005CFU/mL and 609,500cells/mL, respectively. Antimicrobial residues were detected in 20% of all samples. In general, the milk quality was considered to be poor (TBC>10,000CFU/mL, and/or CC>100CFU/mL, and/or SCC>400,000cells/mL and/or presence of antimicrobial residues) in 97% of all samples. S. aureus was isolated from 12 (38%), 13 (33%), and 2 out of 3 of the milk samples originating from the dairy farms, the milk retailers, and the milk collection centers, respectively. Seven (26%) of the isolates were resistant to oxacillin suggesting the presence of MRSA (Lee, 2003). Local milk is occasionally consumed by adults but more frequently by children. Adults mainly drink spontaneously fermented milk (57% of 105

  12. Milk production, quality, and consumption in Jimma (Ethiopia): Facts and producers', retailers', and consumers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Piepers, S; Tefera, M; Getachew, Y; Supré, K; DeVliegher, S

    2016-02-01

    Four studies were performed to quantify milk production, quality and consumption in the town Jimma, Ethiopia. First, 47 dairy farmers and 44 milk retailers were interviewed to gain more insights in dairy farming and marketing, and associated constraints. Second, bulk milk samples (n=188) were collected for 4 consecutive weeks to investigate milk quality [Total Bacterial Counts (TBC), Coliform Counts (CC), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC), and antimicrobial residues]. Third, (bulk) milk samples from 32 farms, 46 milk retailers and the 3 local milk collection centers were collected to determine the presence of oxacillin susceptible-and oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fourth, 208 adult inhabitants were interviewed to gain more insight in milk consumption and associated concerns of consumers. The average dairy farm included in the studies consisted of 5 lactating cows, produced 43 liters of milk per day and was owned by male, literate adults. Milk was sold to retailers (71% of the production) and directly to customers (25%) without any quality control, whereas 4% was self-consumed. Shortage of animal nutrition and adulteration of the milk were the main constraints for farmers and retailers, respectively. The median TBC, CC and SCC were 122,500CFU/mL, 1,005CFU/mL and 609,500cells/mL, respectively. Antimicrobial residues were detected in 20% of all samples. In general, the milk quality was considered to be poor (TBC>10,000CFU/mL, and/or CC>100CFU/mL, and/or SCC>400,000cells/mL and/or presence of antimicrobial residues) in 97% of all samples. S. aureus was isolated from 12 (38%), 13 (33%), and 2 out of 3 of the milk samples originating from the dairy farms, the milk retailers, and the milk collection centers, respectively. Seven (26%) of the isolates were resistant to oxacillin suggesting the presence of MRSA (Lee, 2003). Local milk is occasionally consumed by adults but more frequently by children. Adults mainly drink spontaneously fermented milk (57% of 105

  13. Clinical study report on milk production in the offspring of a somatic cell cloned Holstein cow.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masahiro; Tsuchiya, Hideki; Hamano, Seizo; Inaba, Toshio; Kawate, Noritoshi; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2013-12-17

    This study examined two female offspring of a somatic cell cloned Holstein cow that had reproduction problems and milk production performance issues. The two offspring heifers, which showed healthy appearances and normal reproductive characteristics, calved on two separate occasions. The mean milk yields of the heifers in the first lactation period were 9,037 kg and 7,228 kg. The relative mean milk yields of these cows were 111.2% and 88.9%, respectively, when compared with that of the control group. No particular clinical abnormalities were revealed in milk yields and milk composition rate [e.g., fat, protein and solids-not-fat (SNF)], and reproductive characteristics of the offspring of the somatic cell cloned Holstein cow suggested that the cloned offspring had normal milk production.

  14. Clinical Study Report on Milk Production in the Offspring of a Somatic Cell Cloned Holstein Cow

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Masahiro; TSUCHIYA, Hideki; HAMANO, Seizo; INABA, Toshio; KAWATE, Noritoshi; TAMADA, Hiromichi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study examined two female offspring of a somatic cell cloned Holstein cow that had reproduction problems and milk production performance issues. The two offspring heifers, which showed healthy appearances and normal reproductive characteristics, calved on two separate occasions. The mean milk yields of the heifers in the first lactation period were 9,037 kg and 7,228 kg. The relative mean milk yields of these cows were 111.2% and 88.9%, respectively, when compared with that of the control group. No particular clinical abnormalities were revealed in milk yields and milk composition rate [e.g., fat, protein and solids-not-fat (SNF)], and reproductive characteristics of the offspring of the somatic cell cloned Holstein cow suggested that the cloned offspring had normal milk production. PMID:23955271

  15. A quantitative study of enterotoxin production by sheep milk staphylococci.

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, L; Gaya, P; Medina, M; Nuñez, M

    1988-01-01

    Of 124 staphylococcal strains isolated from sheep milk, 78 produced enterotoxin A, B, C, or D when evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Enterotoxins A and D, elaborated by 44 and 43 strains, respectively, showed the highest incidence. Enterotoxin production by coagulase-negative strains (one Staphylococcus cohnii, three S. epidermidis, five S. haemolyticus, and four S. xylosus) was detected. Linear and logarithmic-logarithmic regressions of optical density on enterotoxin concentration yielded the best-fitting equations for enterotoxin quantitation. A significantly higher incidence of enterotoxin producers and significantly higher levels of enterotoxins produced were recorded for coagulase-positive, thermostable nuclease-positive, hemolysis-positive, or mannitol-positive strains. Mannitol utilization was the best test for discriminating between enterotoxigenic and nonenterotoxigenic staphylococci. PMID:3355142

  16. Socioeconomic and productive characterization of dual-purpose farms oriented to milk production in a subtropical region of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Albarrán-Portillo, Benito; Rebollar-Rebollar, Samuel; García-Martínez, Anastacio; Rojo-Rubio, Rolando; Avilés-Nova, Francisca; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the socioeconomic, production characteristics and milk production cost of dual-purpose farms (DPF) oriented to milk production in a subtropical region of Central Mexico. The study focused on ten DPF that produce milk all year round, to gather socioeconomic characteristics of farmers (age, family structure, education level), farm resources (land holding, herd structure, infrastructure, management) and economic information during the year 2008. Family labour (FL) covers 66% of labour needs. The average milk production cost was US$0.21, fluctuating from US$0.19 to US$0.31 during the rainy and dry season, respectively. Supplements and hired labour (HL) accounted for 48 and 35% of milk production cost, respectively. Milk production generated daily incomes that covered daily operation costs of farms, as well as the economic needs of the farming family. Calves represented important incomes that ranged between 30 and 50% of total annual farm incomes, cashed in once or twice a year. Milk production provides economic stability to DPF, whereas FL and low input use are key elements that allow low costs in the production of milk and calves in DPF in Central Mexico.

  17. Genetic and environmental relationships between body condition score and milk production traits in Canadian Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Loker, S; Bastin, C; Miglior, F; Sewalem, A; Schaeffer, L R; Jamrozik, J; Ali, A; Osborne, V

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters of first-lactation body condition score (BCS), milk yield, fat percentage (Fat%), protein percentage (Prot%), somatic cell score (SCS), milk urea nitrogen (MUN), lactose percentage (Lact%), and fat to protein ratio (F:P) using multiple-trait random regression animal models. Changes in covariances between BCS and milk production traits on a daily basis have not been investigated before and could be useful for determining which BCS estimated breeding values (EBV) might be practical for selection in the future. Field staff from Valacta milk recording agency (Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada) collected BCS from Québec herds several times per cow throughout the lactation. Average daily heritabilities and genetic correlations among the various traits were similar to literature values. On an average daily basis, BCS was genetically unfavorably correlated with milk yield (i.e., increased milk yield was associated with lower body condition). The unfavorable genetic correlation between BCS and milk yield became stronger as lactation progressed, but was equivalent to zero for the first month of lactation. Favorable genetic correlations were found between BCS with Prot%, SCS, and Lact% (i.e., greater BCS was associated with greater Prot%, lower SCS, and greater Lact%). These correlations were strongest in early lactation. On an average daily basis, BCS was not genetically correlated with Fat% or MUN, but was negatively correlated with F:P. Furthermore, BCS at 5 and 50 d in milk (DIM) had the most favorable genetic correlations with milk production traits over the lactation (at 5, 50, 150, and 250 DIM). Thus, early lactation BCS EBV shows potential for selection. Regardless, this study showed that the level of association BCS has with milk production traits is not constant over the lactation. Simultaneous selection for both BCS and milk production traits should be considered, mainly due to the unfavorable

  18. Supporting small-scale dairy farmers in increasing milk production: evidence from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Sraïri, Mohamed Taher; El Jaouhari, Meryem; Saydi, Abdessalam; Kuper, Marcel; Le Gal, Pierre-Yves

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of technical support provided to five small-scale cattle farms in the Tadla irrigation scheme (Morocco) on their milk yield. The first stage consisted of assessing the initial management of dairy herds, especially feeding strategies, and their effects on milk output. This diagnosis revealed major gaps between the existing and the potential milk yield, due to insufficient and imbalanced dietary rations. Based on this diagnosis, technical support was adapted to the reality of each farm by regularly adjusting the dietary rations to the production potential of lactating cows using available feed resources. The production potential of either pure Holstein or crossbred cows was based on the herd's physiological status and its genetic merit. Results showed that milk production could be rapidly improved by balanced dietary rations that enabled the average milk yield of lactating cows to be reached, while optimising feed costs and reducing the cost of milk production. Providing technical support to dairy farms should have a significant impact on overall milk production at different scales (irrigation scheme, plant supply area, national production) while alleviating the poverty of small-scale farmers. It would require the involvement of farmers' organisations such as milk collection co-operatives to replace services provided by the State, which is currently withdrawing from extension activities.

  19. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum L. seeds on milk production in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Abedzadeh, Shirin; Taghiabadi, Elahe

    2014-08-01

    Pimpinella anisum L. (P. anisum) is used as a galactagogue in traditional medicine; hence, the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum seeds on milk production in rats was evaluated. The milk production was assessed by measuring the pups' weights during the suckling period. The intraperitoneal LD(50) values of P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 4.93 and 3.77 g/kg, respectively. The aqueous (1 g/kg) and ethanolic extracts (1 g/kg) increased the milk production significantly (p < 0.001), with about 68.1% and 81% more milk being produced, respectively, than in the control group. The pups gained weight during the study period with the aqueous (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.05) and ethanolic (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.01) extracts. Thus, P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts can increase milk production in rats. PMID:25151455

  20. Short communication: The water footprint of dairy products: case study involving skim milk powder.

    PubMed

    Ridoutt, B G; Williams, S R O; Baud, S; Fraval, S; Marks, N

    2010-11-01

    In the context of global water scarcity and food security concerns, water footprints are emerging as an important sustainability indicator in the agriculture and food sectors. Using a recently developed life cycle assessment-based methodology that takes into account local water stress where operations occur, the normalized water footprints of milk products from South Gippsland, one of Australia's major dairy regions, were 14.4 L/kg of total milk solids in whole milk (at farm gate) and 15.8 L/kg of total milk solids in skim milk powder (delivered to export destination). These results demonstrate that dairy products can be produced with minimal potential to contribute to freshwater scarcity. However, not all dairy production systems are alike and the variability in water footprints between systems and products should be explored to obtain strategic insights that will enable the dairy sector to minimize its burden on freshwater systems from consumptive water use.

  1. Production and composition of Iberian sow's milk and use of milk nutrients by the suckling Iberian piglet.

    PubMed

    Aguinaga, M A; Gómez-Carballar, F; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F

    2011-08-01

    Sixteen purebred Iberian (IB) sows were used in two consecutive trials to determine the efficiency of conversion of sow's milk into piglet body weight (BW) gain and the relationship between milk protein and body protein retention and between milk energy yield and body energy retention in the nursing IB piglet. In each trial, four sows were selected in order to evaluate their milk production, litter growth and nutrient balance measurements, together with four additional sows for milk sampling. Litter size was equalized to six piglets. Daily milk yield (MY) was determined weekly by the weigh-suckle-weigh technique over a 34-day lactation period. Piglets were weighed individually at birth and then weekly from day 5 of lactation. Milk samples were collected on days 5, 12, 19, 26 and 34 post partum. The comparative slaughter procedure was used to determine piglet nutrient and energy retention. One piglet from each litter was slaughtered at birth and four on the morning of day 35. Total MY was on average 5.175 ± 0.157 kg/day. The average chemical composition (g/kg) of the milk was 179 ± 4 dry matter, 53.4 ± 1.0 CP, 58.5 ± 3.8 fat, 10.4 ± 0.3 ash and 56.9 ± 2.3 lactose. Milk gross energy (GE) was 4.626 ± 0.145 MJ/kg. Milk intake per piglet tended to increase in trial 2 (832 v. 893 g/day; P = 0.066). Piglet BW gain contained (g/kg) 172.1 ± 1.3 protein, 151.5 ± 3.5 fat, 41.4 ± 0.6 ash and 635 ± 3 water and 10.127 ± 0.126 MJ GE/kg. Throughout the 34-day nursing period, the piglets grew at an average rate of 168 ± 3 g/day. The ratio of daily piglet BW gain to daily MY was 0.195 ± 0.002 g/g and the gain per MJ milk GE intake was 41.9 ± 0.5 g/MJ. The overall efficiency of protein accretion (g CP gain/g CP milk intake) was low and declined in trial 2 (0.619 v. 0.571; P = 0.016). Nutrient and energy deposition between birth and weaning were 27.4 ± 0.5 g/day protein, 24.2 ± 0.8 g/day fat and 1615 ± 40 kJ/day energy. Piglet energy requirements for maintenance were

  2. Valuation of milk composition and genotype in cheddar cheese production using an optimization model of cheese and whey production.

    PubMed

    Johnson, H A; Parvin, L; Garnett, I; DePeters, E J; Medrano, J F; Fadel, J G

    2007-02-01

    A mass balance optimization model was developed to determine the value of the kappa-casein genotype and milk composition in Cheddar cheese and whey production. Inputs were milk, nonfat dry milk, cream, condensed skim milk, and starter and salt. The products produced were Cheddar cheese, fat-reduced whey, cream, whey cream, casein fines, demineralized whey, 34% dried whey protein, 80% dried whey protein, lactose powder, and cow feed. The costs and prices used were based on market data from March 2004 and affected the results. Inputs were separated into components consisting of whey protein, ash, casein, fat, water, and lactose and were then distributed to products through specific constraints and retention equations. A unique 2-step optimization procedure was developed to ensure that the final composition of fat-reduced whey was correct. The model was evaluated for milk compositions ranging from 1.62 to 3.59% casein, 0.41 to 1.14% whey protein, 1.89 to 5.97% fat, and 4.06 to 5.64% lactose. The kappa casein genotype was represented by different retentions of milk components in Cheddar cheese and ranged from 0.715 to 0.7411 kg of casein in cheese/kg of casein in milk and from 0.7795 to 0.9210 kg of fat in cheese/kg of fat in milk. Milk composition had a greater effect on Cheddar cheese production and profit than did genotype. Cheese production was significantly different and ranged from 9,846 kg with a high-casein milk composition to 6,834 kg with a high-fat milk composition per 100,000 kg of milk. Profit (per 100,000 kg of milk) was significantly different, ranging from $70,586 for a high-fat milk composition to $16,490 for a low-fat milk composition. However, cheese production was not significantly different, and profit was significant only for the lowest profit ($40,602) with the kappa-casein genotype. Results from this model analysis showed that the optimization model is useful for determining costs and prices for cheese plant inputs and products, and that it can

  3. Life cycle assessment of milk production from commercial dairy farms: the influence of management tactics.

    PubMed

    Yan, M-J; Humphreys, J; Holden, N M

    2013-07-01

    Little consideration has been given to how farm management, specifically tactics used to implement the management strategy, may influence the carbon footprint (CF) and land use for milk produced on commercial farms. In this study, the CF and land use of milk production from 18 Irish commercial dairy farms were analyzed based on foreground data from a 12-mo survey capturing management tactics and background data from the literature. Large variation was found in farm attributes and management tactics; for example, up to a 1.5-fold difference in fertilizer nitrogen input was used to support the same stocking density, and up to a 3.5-fold difference in concentrate fed for similar milk output per cow. However, the coefficient of variation for milk CF between farms only varied by 13% and for land use by 18%. The overall CF and overall land use of the milk production from the 18 dairy farms was 1.23±0.04kg of CO2 Eq and 1.22±0.05 m(2) per kilogram of energy-corrected milk. Milk output per cow, economic allocation between exports of milk and liveweight, and on-farm diesel use per ha were found to be influential factors on milk CF, whereas the fertilizer N rate, milk output per cow, and economic allocation between exports of milk and liveweight were influential on land use. Effective sward management of white clover within a few farms appeared to lower the CF but increased on-farm land use. It was concluded that a combination of multiple tactics determines CF and land use for milk production on commercial dairy farms and, although these 2 measures of environmental impact are correlated, a farm with a low CF did not always have low land use and vice versa.

  4. Life cycle assessment of milk production from commercial dairy farms: the influence of management tactics.

    PubMed

    Yan, M-J; Humphreys, J; Holden, N M

    2013-07-01

    Little consideration has been given to how farm management, specifically tactics used to implement the management strategy, may influence the carbon footprint (CF) and land use for milk produced on commercial farms. In this study, the CF and land use of milk production from 18 Irish commercial dairy farms were analyzed based on foreground data from a 12-mo survey capturing management tactics and background data from the literature. Large variation was found in farm attributes and management tactics; for example, up to a 1.5-fold difference in fertilizer nitrogen input was used to support the same stocking density, and up to a 3.5-fold difference in concentrate fed for similar milk output per cow. However, the coefficient of variation for milk CF between farms only varied by 13% and for land use by 18%. The overall CF and overall land use of the milk production from the 18 dairy farms was 1.23±0.04kg of CO2 Eq and 1.22±0.05 m(2) per kilogram of energy-corrected milk. Milk output per cow, economic allocation between exports of milk and liveweight, and on-farm diesel use per ha were found to be influential factors on milk CF, whereas the fertilizer N rate, milk output per cow, and economic allocation between exports of milk and liveweight were influential on land use. Effective sward management of white clover within a few farms appeared to lower the CF but increased on-farm land use. It was concluded that a combination of multiple tactics determines CF and land use for milk production on commercial dairy farms and, although these 2 measures of environmental impact are correlated, a farm with a low CF did not always have low land use and vice versa. PMID:23660142

  5. Anaerobic digestion and milking frequency as mitigation strategies of the environmental burden in the milk production system.

    PubMed

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Lovarelli, Daniela; Sandrucci, Anna; Tamburini, Alberto; Fiala, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess, through a cradle to farm gate Life Cycle Assessment, different mitigation strategies of the potential environmental impacts of milk production at farm level. The environmental performances of a conventional intensive dairy farm in Northern Italy (baseline scenario) were compared with the results obtained: from the introduction of the third daily milking and from the adoption of anaerobic digestion (AD) of animal slurry in a consortium AD plant. The AD plant, fed only with animal slurries coming also from nearby farms. Key parameters concerning on-farm activities (forage production, energy consumptions, agricultural machines maintenance, manure and livestock management), off-farm activities (production of fertilizers, pesticides, bedding materials, purchased forages, purchased concentrate feed, replacement animals, agricultural machines manufacturing, electricity, fuel) and transportation were considered. The functional unit was 1kg fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM) leaving the farm gate. The selected environmental impact categories were: global warming potential, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation and non-renewable energy use. The production of 1kg of FPCM caused, in the baseline scenario, the following environmental impact potentials: global warming potential 1.12kg CO2 eq; acidification 15.5g SO2 eq; eutrophication 5.62g PO4(3-) eq; photochemical oxidation 0.87g C2H4 eq/kg FPCM; energy use 4.66MJeq. The increase of milking frequency improved environmental performances for all impact categories in comparison with the baseline scenario; in particular acidification and eutrophication potentials showed the largest reductions (-11 and -12%, respectively). In anaerobic digestion scenario, compared to the baseline one, most of the impact potentials were strongly reduced. In particular the most important advantages were in terms of acidification (-29%), global warming (-22%) and eutrophication potential (-18

  6. Anaerobic digestion and milking frequency as mitigation strategies of the environmental burden in the milk production system.

    PubMed

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Lovarelli, Daniela; Sandrucci, Anna; Tamburini, Alberto; Fiala, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess, through a cradle to farm gate Life Cycle Assessment, different mitigation strategies of the potential environmental impacts of milk production at farm level. The environmental performances of a conventional intensive dairy farm in Northern Italy (baseline scenario) were compared with the results obtained: from the introduction of the third daily milking and from the adoption of anaerobic digestion (AD) of animal slurry in a consortium AD plant. The AD plant, fed only with animal slurries coming also from nearby farms. Key parameters concerning on-farm activities (forage production, energy consumptions, agricultural machines maintenance, manure and livestock management), off-farm activities (production of fertilizers, pesticides, bedding materials, purchased forages, purchased concentrate feed, replacement animals, agricultural machines manufacturing, electricity, fuel) and transportation were considered. The functional unit was 1kg fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM) leaving the farm gate. The selected environmental impact categories were: global warming potential, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation and non-renewable energy use. The production of 1kg of FPCM caused, in the baseline scenario, the following environmental impact potentials: global warming potential 1.12kg CO2 eq; acidification 15.5g SO2 eq; eutrophication 5.62g PO4(3-) eq; photochemical oxidation 0.87g C2H4 eq/kg FPCM; energy use 4.66MJeq. The increase of milking frequency improved environmental performances for all impact categories in comparison with the baseline scenario; in particular acidification and eutrophication potentials showed the largest reductions (-11 and -12%, respectively). In anaerobic digestion scenario, compared to the baseline one, most of the impact potentials were strongly reduced. In particular the most important advantages were in terms of acidification (-29%), global warming (-22%) and eutrophication potential (-18

  7. Comparative evaluation of non-genetic factors affecting milk yield and composition of Red Dane and Jersey cattle in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Nyamushamba, Godfrey Bernard; Halimani, Tinyiko Edward; Imbayarwo-Chikosi, Venancio Edward; Tavirimirwa, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate non genetic factors affecting milk yield and milk composition in Zimbabwean Red Dane and Jersey cattle cattle. A total of 1004 and 10 986 unedited Red Dane and Jersey 305-day lactation records respectively, were obtained from Livestock Identification Trust (LIT) containing 22 herds (1 Red Dane herd and 21 Jersey herds), with Red Dane calving in the period 2004 to 2009 (giving year of birth from 1998 to 2007) and Jersey cows calving in the period 1996 to 2008 (giving year of birth from 1994 to 2005). The General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of the Statistical Analysis System (SAS, 2004) version 9.1.3 was used to determine the genetic parameters and environmental factors. Calving interval, month of calving, parity and quadratic effects of age at calving fitted as covariates significantly (P < 0.0001) affected the milk, fat and protein yields. Milk, fat and protein yields obtained increased with an increase in calving interval. There was a linear and quadratic relationship between the production traits and age at calving of the Jersey cattle implying that milk, fat and protein yields increase with age of the animal. It is thus important to preadjust data for these environmental factors when carrying out genetic evaluations of production traits in dairy cattle.

  8. Economic impact of reduced milk production associated with Johne's disease on dairy operations in the USA.

    PubMed

    Losinger, Willard C

    2005-11-01

    Accurately assessing the economic impacts of diseases and other factors that affect milk production requires that the demand for milk be taken into account. Because demand for milk in the USA is relatively inelastic (i.e., consumers generally purchase a somewhat fixed amount over a given time frame, regardless of fluctuations in price), consumers tend to reap much of the benefit of enhanced production. An examination of the economic impacts of Johne's disease indicated that reduced milk production, associated with the determination of dairy operations as Johne's-positive, reduced consumer surplus by 770 million dollars+/- 690 million dollars, and resulted in a total loss of 200 million dollars+/- 160 million dollars to the US economy in 1996. Most of the economic surplus lost by consumers was transferred to producers, whose economic surplus increased by 570 million dollars+/- 550 million dollars as a result of the reduced milk production associated with Johne's disease. Uncertainty analysis showed that the estimated reduction in milk production on Johne's-positive dairy operations accounted for most of the uncertainty in the economic-impact estimates. If Johne's disease had not been present on US dairy operations, then an additional 580 million+/-460 million kg of milk would have been produced, but the price would have fallen by 1.1+/-1.0 cents/kg, and the total value of the milk would have decreased by 580 million dollars+/- 560 million dollars. PMID:16223457

  9. Bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin derived from milk: production and applications.

    PubMed

    Tomita, M; Wakabayashi, H; Yamauchi, K; Teraguchi, S; Hayasawa, H

    2002-01-01

    Bovine lactoferrin is produced on an industrial scale from cheese whey or skim milk. The safety of purified lactoferrin has been confirmed from the results of a reverse mutation test using bacteria, a 13-week oral repeated-dose toxicity study in rats, and clinical studies. In order to apply active lactoferrin to various products, a process for its pasteurization was developed. Subsequently, lactoferrin has been used in a wide variety of products since it was first added to infant formula in 1986. A pepsin hydrolysate of lactoferrin is also used in infant formula. This hydrolysate contains a potent antimicrobial peptide named lactoferricin that is derived from the lactoferrin molecule by pepsin digestion. Semilarge-scale purification of lactoferricin can be performed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Lactoferricin also exhibits several biological actions and appears to be the functional domain of lactoferrin. Recent studies have demonstrated that oral administration of lactoferrin or lactoferricin exerts a host-protective effect in various animals and in humans. The results of these studies strongly suggest that the effects of oral lactoferrin are mediated by modulation of the immune system. Further elucidation of the clinical efficacy and mechanism of action of lactoferrin will increase the value of lactoferrin-containing products.

  10. Microbial contamination of milk and dairy products from restaurants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Sospedra, Isabel; Rubert, Josep V; Soler, Carla; Soriano, Jose M; Mañes, Jordi

    2009-12-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality of milk and some dairy products, including 95 lots of warm milk, 95 lots of milk conserved at room temperature, and 75 lots of dairy products collected from restaurants in Spain. According to the European microbiological criteria (92/46/EEC, 93/43/EEC, and Commission Regulation No. 2073/2005), 31% and 35% of the total examined lots exceed the adopted limits of mesophilic aerobic counts and Enterobacteriaceae, respectively. This may be due to incorrect handling of milk and dairy products and inadequate cleaning and sanitization of milk container. Further, 2% of all the lots examined were positive for the presence of Escherichia coli. All lots, however, were negative for Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp. These results emphasize the need for applying and maintaining good hygienic practices in the restaurants. PMID:19737068

  11. Effects of calcium montmorillonite clay and aflatoxin exposure on dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Maki, C R; Thomas, A D; Elmore, S E; Romoser, A A; Harvey, R B; Ramirez-Ramirez, H A; Phillips, T D

    2016-02-01

    .86, 7.38, 0.64, and 0.23, ± 1.71 µg/d, for AFD, NSP-0.5%+AFD, NSP-1%+AFD, NSP-1%, and CON, respectively. More specifically, 1.07±0.08% of the daily AF intake was transferred to the milk of cows consuming the AFD, whereas the AF transfer rates in milk from cows that consumed the NSP-0.5%+AFD and NSP-1%+AFD were 0.52 and 0.32±0.08%. Results from this research demonstrate that feeding NSP to lactating cows is an effective method to reduce the transfer and excretion of AFM1 in milk with no negative effects on dry matter intake, milk production, and composition.

  12. Effects of calcium montmorillonite clay and aflatoxin exposure on dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Maki, C R; Thomas, A D; Elmore, S E; Romoser, A A; Harvey, R B; Ramirez-Ramirez, H A; Phillips, T D

    2016-02-01

    .86, 7.38, 0.64, and 0.23, ± 1.71 µg/d, for AFD, NSP-0.5%+AFD, NSP-1%+AFD, NSP-1%, and CON, respectively. More specifically, 1.07±0.08% of the daily AF intake was transferred to the milk of cows consuming the AFD, whereas the AF transfer rates in milk from cows that consumed the NSP-0.5%+AFD and NSP-1%+AFD were 0.52 and 0.32±0.08%. Results from this research demonstrate that feeding NSP to lactating cows is an effective method to reduce the transfer and excretion of AFM1 in milk with no negative effects on dry matter intake, milk production, and composition. PMID:26709170

  13. Increased milk production by Holstein cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We hypothesized that consumption of endophyte-infected fescue during the dry period inhibits mammary differentiation and subsequent milk produ...

  14. 76 FR 36078 - Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 61418). The Notice of Proposal to Change the document provided for a 60-day comment period... Agricultural Marketing Service Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements...: Notice. SUMMARY: This document amends the recommended manufacturing milk requirements...

  15. Short communication: Rapid antibiotic screening tests detect antibiotic residues in powdered milk products.

    PubMed

    Kneebone, J; Tsang, P C W; Townson, D H

    2010-09-01

    Rapid antibiotic screening tests are widely used in the dairy industry to monitor milk for the presence of antibiotic residues above regulated levels. Given the persistent concern over contamination of milk products with antibiotic residues, we investigated the utility of IDEXX Snap test devices (IDEXX Laboratories Inc., Westbrook, ME) as tools for detecting antibiotic residues in powdered milk products. Five powdered milk products were reconstituted according to manufacturer specification with distilled water: Carnation (Nestlé USA Inc., Solon, OH), Nido youth and Nido adult (Nestlé Mexico Inc., Mexico City, Mexico), ELK (Campina, Eindhoven, the Netherlands), and Regilait (Saint-Martin-Belle-Roche, France). Positive samples were generated by spiking reconstituted milk with penicillin G, cephapirin, or tetracycline to either the European Union-regulated maximum residue limit or the FDA-regulated safe/tolerance level, whichever was lower. Control, unspiked negative milk samples and positive samples were tested with appropriate IDEXX Snap test kits (penicillin G and cephapirin with New Beta-Lactam, tetracycline with New Tetracycline). All samples yielded definitive results consistent with expectations, and there were no instances of false-positive or false-negative readings. These results suggest that both the New Beta-Lactam and New Tetracycline IDEXX Snap test kits effectively detect antibiotic residues in commercially available powdered milk samples and are useful tools for monitoring antibiotic residues in reconstituted powdered milk products. PMID:20723670

  16. Analysis of phthalates in milk and milk products by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Chu, Xiaogang; Ling, Yun; Huang, Junrong; Chang, James

    2014-10-01

    A new analytical method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 27 phthalates in milk and milk products. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation method. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap) was used for the separation and detection of all the analytes. The method was validated by taking into consideration the guidelines specified in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and 2007/19/EC. The extraction recoveries were in a range of 90.7% to 104.6%, with coefficient of variation <5.6%. The 27 compounds behave dynamic range in the 0.1-1000μgkg(-1) concentration, with correlation coefficient >0.99. The limits of detection for the analytes are in the range 0.32-2.6μgkg(-1). This method has been successfully applied on screening of phthalates in 96 commercial milk and milk product samples.

  17. Milk production and composition responds to dietary neutral detergent fiber and starch ratio in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng; Bu, Dengpan; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Xiaoqiao; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Ting; Niu, Junli; Ma, Lu

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) : starch ratio could be considered as a nutritional indicator to evaluate carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis. Eight primiparous dairy cows were assigned to four total mixed rations with NDF : starch ratios of 0.86, 1.18, 1.63 and 2.34 from T1 to T4 in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dry matter intake and milk production were decreased from T1 to T4. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, NDF and crude protein were linearly decreased from T1 to T4. As NDF : starch ratio increased, milk protein content and production, and milk lactose content and production were linearly reduced. However, milk fat content was linearly increased from T1 to T4. Quadratic effect was observed on milk fat production with the highest level in T3. Averaged rumen pH was linearly increased from T1 to T4, and subacute rumen acidosis occurred in T1. Ruminal propionate and butyrate concentration were linearly decreased, and microbial crude protein and metabolizable protein decreased from T1 to T4. It is concluded that NDF : starch ratio can be considered as a potential indicator to evaluate dietary carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis.

  18. Effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat on milk production and energy partitioning.

    PubMed

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Lock, A L

    2015-10-01

    maintaining high milk production. PMID:26233447

  19. Effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat on milk production and energy partitioning.

    PubMed

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Lock, A L

    2015-10-01

    maintaining high milk production.

  20. Effects of milk protein genotypes on the variation for milk production traits of Holstein and Jersey cows in California.

    PubMed

    Ojala, M; Famula, T R; Medrano, J F

    1997-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to form appropriate composite kappa-beta-alpha(s1)-CN genotypes in order to assess which genotypes were favorably associated with first lactation milk production, fat and protein percentages, and fat and protein production for data of 916 Holstein and 116 Jersey cows. Multiple-trait animal models were used with assumed fixed effects for herd, year and season of calving, age at calving, days open, composite kappa-beta-alpha(s1)-CN genotypes, and beta-LG genotypes. The differences between the beta-LG genotypes for production traits were not statistically significant for either breed. The proportion of phenotypic variance that was due to the composite kappa-beta-alpha(s1)-Cn genotypes was 5% for milk production, 4% for protein production, and 3% for fat percentage. The kappa-beta-alpha(s1)-CN genotype ABA1A2BB was superior to the comparable AAA1A2BB and ABA1A1BB genotypes by 252 and 338 kg for first lactation milk yield, respectively, and 8.7 and 11.5 kg for protein yield, respectively. Thus, neither the beta-CN A2 allele nor the kappa-CN B allele alone had a positive effect on milk and protein production, but the joint effect was strongly positive. These results may be explained by epistatic effects between the kappa-CN and beta-CN loci and possibly by closely linked quantitative trait loci with favorable alleles on the kappa-beta-alpha(s1)-CN BA2B haplotype.

  1. Genes of the RNASE5 pathway contain SNP associated with milk production traits in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Identification of the processes and mutations responsible for the large genetic variation in milk production among dairy cattle has proved challenging. One approach is to identify a biological process potentially involved in milk production and to determine the genetic influence of all the genes included in the process or pathway. Angiogenin encoded by angiogenin, ribonuclease, RNase A family 5 (RNASE5) is relatively abundant in milk, and has been shown to regulate protein synthesis and act as a growth factor in epithelial cells in vitro. However, little is known about the role of angiogenin in the mammary gland or if the polymorphisms present in the bovine RNASE5 gene are associated with lactation and milk production traits in dairy cattle. Given the high economic value of increased protein in milk, we have tested the hypothesis that RNASE5 or genes in the RNASE5 pathway are associated with milk production traits. First, we constructed a “RNASE5 pathway” based on upstream and downstream interacting genes reported in the literature. We then tested SNP in close proximity to the genes of this pathway for association with milk production traits in a large dairy cattle dataset. Results The constructed RNASE5 pathway consisted of 11 genes. Association analysis between SNP in 1 Mb regions surrounding these genes and milk production traits revealed that more SNP than expected by chance were associated with milk protein percent (P < 0.05 significance). There was no significant association with other traits such as milk fat content or fertility. Conclusions These results support a role for the RNASE5 pathway in milk production, specifically milk protein percent, and indicate that polymorphisms in or near these genes explain a proportion of the variation for this trait. This method provides a novel way of understanding the underlying biology of lactation with implications for milk production and can be applied to any pathway or gene set to test whether

  2. Effects of high concentrations of dietary crude glycerin on dairy cow productivity and milk quality.

    PubMed

    Ezequiel, J M B; Sancanari, J B D; Machado Neto, O R; da Silva, Z F; Almeida, M T C; Silva, D A V; van Cleef, F O S; van Cleef, E H C B

    2015-11-01

    An increasing worldwide interest in alternative fuel sources and in a more diversified energy matrix has provided incentives for the biodiesel industry, generating large amounts of the by-product crude glycerin, a potential alternative feed for dairy cows. A replicated 3×3 Latin square study was conducted to evaluate the effects of high concentrations of crude glycerin on dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid profile, and blood metabolites of medium-yield cows. Ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (n=6; 587 ± 39 kg of body weight; 114 ± 29 d in milk; and 20 ± 1.5 kg/d milk yield) were used in the study. The experimental period included 2 wk for adaptation and 1 wk for data collection. Cows were fed diets containing 0 (control), 15, or 30% crude glycerin (83% glycerol). Cows were milked, milk weights were recorded twice daily, and milk samples were collected for milk quality analyses at d 18 and 19 in each experimental period. Feeding cows with crude glycerin linearly decreased dry-matter intake, the 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and the solid-corrected milk yield. Hepatic enzymes were not affected by dietary treatments, except gamma-glutamyl transferase, which was decreased with the 15% crude glycerin diet. Serum glucose and albumin showed quadratic effect with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Plasma cholesterol as well as total protein linearly decreased with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Milk fat concentration and yield showed a quadratic effect of treatments. Solid yield decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Odd-chain fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat linearly increased with addition of crude glycerin in the diets. Together, these results suggest that crude glycerin has potential to replace corn; however, feeding diets in which corn is replaced with crude glycerin at 30% of dietary DM greatly reduces animal performance. PMID:26298757

  3. Effect of added carbohydrates on glycemic and insulin responses to children’s milk products.

    PubMed

    Brand-Miller, Jennie; Atkinson, Fiona; Rowan, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Powdered milk products for children (Growing Up Milk Powders or GUMPs) containing added carbohydrates such as glucose and sucrose are now well established in parts of Asia. We surveyed GUMPs in Malaysia and Indonesia to determine the content of added carbohydrates. The ingredient lists and nutrition information panels were used to calculate the percentage of declared carbohydrates contributed by added carbohydrates and a subset of seven products was tested for their glycemic index (GI) and insulin responses in healthy adults. The glycemic load for each product was calculated. In total, 58 products (n = 24 in Malaysia and n = 34 in Indonesia) were surveyed. Added carbohydrate content (excluding fibre) ranged from 0 to 21.5 g per serve. Milk powders without added sources of carbohydrate had similar GI values to standard liquid whole milk. Products containing maltodextrins, corn or glucose syrups increased the GI by more than 2-fold, and glycemic load (GL) by 7-fold compared to milk powders with no added carbohydrates. Insulin responses were significantly but not strongly correlated with glucose responses (r = 0.32, p < 0.006). Children's milk powders containing higher levels of added carbohydrate ingredients elicit higher glucose and insulin responses than liquid or powdered whole milk. PMID:23306187

  4. Continuous lactation in dairy cows: effect on milk production and mammary nutrient supply and extraction.

    PubMed

    Madsen, T G; Nielsen, M O; Andersen, J B; Ingvartsen, K L

    2008-05-01

    Reports over the past decade have indicated that normal lactational performance can be achieved in genetically superior and high-producing dairy cows, even when the dry period between 2 lactations is omitted. The hypothesis tested in this experiment was that normal lactogenesis I and metabolic function may be achievable in continuously milked high-yielding dairy cows as a result of the genetic selection for lactation performance and hence longevity of mammary epithelial cells. The milk production and mammary nutrient uptake in response to omission of the dry period for cows with an expected peak milk yield higher than 45 kg/d were studied in 28 Holstein dairy cows managed without bovine somatotropin. Performance and metabolic parameters were followed in late gestation and in the following early lactation. Fourteen cows were milked continuously throughout late gestation, and another 14 dairy cows experienced a 7-wk prepartum dry period. Continuous milking during the prepartum period reduced milk production in the following early lactation period by >20%. The reduced milk production could not be readily ascribed to inefficiency of the mechanisms responsible for nutrient uptake by the lactating mammary epithelial cells, nor to systemic endocrine changes. This suggests that lowered mammary nutrient uptake must have been associated with reduced mammary blood flow, metabolic activity, or both, most likely as a result of disturbed lactogenesis I prepartum or lactogenesis II postpartum triggered by as yet unknown local mechanisms. Milk protein content was elevated by 0.4 percentage units in the continuously milked cows. The underlying reason is unknown, but given the current pricing system for milk, it deserves to be further investigated.

  5. Carbon footprint of dairy goat milk production in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon

  6. Carbon footprint of dairy goat milk production in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon

  7. Production of staphylococcal enterotoxins in microbial broth and milk by Staphylococcus aureus strains harboring seh gene.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Justyna; Podkowik, Magdalena; Bystroń, Jarosław; Bania, Jacek

    2016-10-17

    Twenty Staphylococcus aureus strains harboring seh gene, including one carrying also sec gene and 11 sea gene, were grown in BHI+YE broth and milk and were tested for SEA, SEC and SEH production. All strains decreased pH of BHI+YE broth at 24h and increased them at 48h. Seventeen S. aureus strains grown in milk changed pH for no >0.3 unit until 48h. Three other S. aureus strains significantly decreased pH during growth in milk. All S. aureus produced SEH in BHI+YE broth in amounts ranging from 95 to 1292ng/ml, and from 170 to 4158ng/ml at 24 and 48h, respectively. SEH production in milk by 17 strains did not exceed 23ng/ml at 24h and 36ng/ml at 48h. Three S. aureus strains able to decrease milk pH produced 107-3029ng/ml and 320-4246ng/ml of SEH in milk at 24 and 48h, respectively. These strains were grown in milk and BHI+YE broth with pH stabilized at values near neutral leading to a significant decrease of SEH production. Representative weak SEH producers were grown in milk at reduced pH resulting in moderate increase in SEH production. SEA was produced in milk by 10S. aureus strains at 24-151ng/ml at 24h, and 31-303ng/ml at 48h. SEA production in milk was higher or comparable as in BHI+YE broth in 3 strains and lower for remaining strains. Production of SEC by sec-positive S. aureus strains was lower in milk than in BHI+YE broth, ranging from 131 to 2319ng/ml at 24 and 48h in milk and 296-30,087ng/ml in BHI+YE at 24 and 48h. Both lacE and lacG transcripts involved in lactose metabolism were significantly up-regulated in milk in strong SEH producers. In these strains hld, rot and sarA transcripts were up-regulated in milk as compared to weak SEH producers. Stabilization of milk pH at a value of raw milk significantly down-regulated hld, rot and sarA RNA in strong SEH producers. Milk was generally found unfavorable for enterotoxin production. However, certain S. aureus strains were not restricted in SEH and SEA expression in milk, unlike SEC which remained down

  8. Effects of milk type, production month, and brand on fatty acid composition: A case study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Park, Inmyoung; Oh, Jin-Young; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the difference in fatty acid (FA) composition of organic and conventional milk at the retail market level in Korea for different milk production months and brands. The essential FA contents of the milk vary significantly under the combined effects of milk type, production month, and brand. Chemometric analysis reveals a greater difference between milk types than between production months and identifies significantly different levels of nutritionally desirable FAs-notably C18:3 n-3, C18:2 n-6 c and t-in the organic and conventional milks. Notwithstanding the limited sampling size and period, the results from this study may provide a better understanding of the nutritional quality of organic milk to consumers who are interested in organic milk intake. PMID:26593475

  9. The dopamine antagonist domperidone increases prolactin concentration and enhances milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lacasse, P; Ollier, S

    2015-11-01

    In previous studies, our team showed that the inhibition of prolactin (PRL) secretion by the dopamine agonist quinagolide reduces milk production in dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of administration of a dopamine antagonist on basal and milking-induced PRL concentrations in blood and on milk production during positive energy balance and feed restriction in dairy cows. Eighteen mid-lactation Holstein cows received daily s.c. injections of either domperidone (300 mg, DOMP, n=9) or the vehicle, canola oil (CTL, n=9), for 5 wk. During wk 5, all cows were fed at 65% of their dry matter intake in the previous week. Blood and milk samples were collected before (for blood) and during (for milk) the a.m. milking thrice weekly from d -9 to 41 (8d after the last injection). In addition, blood samples were collected during the a.m. milking on d -1 (before the first injection), and on d 1, 28, and 34. Basal PRL concentration was similar in both groups before the start of the treatments. Domperidone injections caused a gradual increase in basal PRL concentration. Feed restriction reduced basal PRL concentration in both the CTL and DOMP cows, but PRL concentration remained higher in the DOMP cows. Prolactin concentration remained elevated in the DOMP cows 7d after the last injection. The milk concentration of PRL increased during the DOMP treatment, but the increase was smaller than that observed in serum. In the CTL cows, the milking-induced PRL release above the premilking concentration was similar on d -1, 1, and 28 but was reduced during feed restriction. In the DOMP cows, the milking-induced PRL release was similar on d -1 and 1 but was reduced on d 28 and 34. Milk production was similar for both groups before the treatments started but was greater in the DOMP cows during the treatment period, at 2.9 ± 0.6 and 2.4 ± 0.6 kg/d greater during wk 3 and 4 of treatment, respectively. Milk production declined in both groups during feed

  10. Food safety in raw milk production: risk factors associated to bacterial DNA contamination.

    PubMed

    Cerva, Cristine; Bremm, Carolina; Reis, Emily Marques dos; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Loiko, Márcia Regina; Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Cenci, Alexander; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos

    2014-06-01

    While human illness from milkborne pathogens may be linked to contamination of the product after pasteurization or improper pasteurization, such diseases are usually associated with consumption of raw milk or its by-products. Molecular biology tools were applied to investigate contamination by Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., some pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni in 548 raw milk samples from 125 dairy farms established in two regions from southern Brazil. Moreover, 15 variables were evaluated for their association with raw milk contamination levels, and the risk factors were determined by multiple regression analysis. Salmonella spp. were more frequently detected, followed by pathogenic E. coli. There was difference in contamination index between the regions, in which risk factors such as temporary cattle confinement, low milk production, low milking machine cleaning frequency, and milk storage area without tile walls were identified. The risk factors were specific to each region studied. Nevertheless, the data can be used to improve milk quality of dairy farms/herds with similar management practices.

  11. Evaluation of local energy sources in milk production in a tropical silvopastoral system with Erythrina poeppigiana.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ferrer, Guillermo; Mendoza-Martínez, Germán; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; Alayón-Gamboa, Armando

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of four local energy sources (sorghum grain, green banana, polished rice, and sugarcane molasses) fed to dairy cows on intake, milk production and composition, and economic viability in a silvopastoral system in Costa Rica (Turrialba). Twelve grazing cows (Jersey × Central American Milking Creole), with a mean live weight of 332 kg (SD 34), were supplemented with 0.5 kg of dry matter (DM)/100 kg/LW of Erythrina porppigiana fresh foliage daily. Experimental design was a replicated change-over 4 × 4 Latin Square. The pasture composition was 11 and 17 % of star grass (Cynodon niemfuensis), 32 and 28 % of ruzzi grass (Brachiaria rusisiensis), and 45 and 42 % of natural grasses (Axonopus compresus and Paspalum conjugatum) at initial and final times of the essay, respectively. The grass allowance was 30.14 DM/cow/day. Significant differences were found among treatments for variable milk fat content (P < 0.05). Sorghum presented the highest (41.2 g/kg milk) content of milk fat, followed by green banana (39.2 g/kg milk), polished rice (38.3 g/kg milk) and molasses (38.1 g/kg milk). Non-significant differences (P > 0.05) resulted for total milk production (sorghum 9.0 kg/cow/day; green banana 8.9 kg/cow/day; polished rice 8.8 kg/cow/day; molasses 8.6 kg/cow/day) and fat-corrected milk (FCM). The financial analysis showed that all treatments were economically viable; however, supplementation with green bananas and molasses were the most favorable due to the low costs incurred. PMID:25863954

  12. Evaluation of local energy sources in milk production in a tropical silvopastoral system with Erythrina poeppigiana.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ferrer, Guillermo; Mendoza-Martínez, Germán; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; Alayón-Gamboa, Armando

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of four local energy sources (sorghum grain, green banana, polished rice, and sugarcane molasses) fed to dairy cows on intake, milk production and composition, and economic viability in a silvopastoral system in Costa Rica (Turrialba). Twelve grazing cows (Jersey × Central American Milking Creole), with a mean live weight of 332 kg (SD 34), were supplemented with 0.5 kg of dry matter (DM)/100 kg/LW of Erythrina porppigiana fresh foliage daily. Experimental design was a replicated change-over 4 × 4 Latin Square. The pasture composition was 11 and 17 % of star grass (Cynodon niemfuensis), 32 and 28 % of ruzzi grass (Brachiaria rusisiensis), and 45 and 42 % of natural grasses (Axonopus compresus and Paspalum conjugatum) at initial and final times of the essay, respectively. The grass allowance was 30.14 DM/cow/day. Significant differences were found among treatments for variable milk fat content (P < 0.05). Sorghum presented the highest (41.2 g/kg milk) content of milk fat, followed by green banana (39.2 g/kg milk), polished rice (38.3 g/kg milk) and molasses (38.1 g/kg milk). Non-significant differences (P > 0.05) resulted for total milk production (sorghum 9.0 kg/cow/day; green banana 8.9 kg/cow/day; polished rice 8.8 kg/cow/day; molasses 8.6 kg/cow/day) and fat-corrected milk (FCM). The financial analysis showed that all treatments were economically viable; however, supplementation with green bananas and molasses were the most favorable due to the low costs incurred.

  13. Greater Mortality and Morbidity in Extremely Preterm Infants Fed a Diet Containing Cow Milk Protein Products

    PubMed Central

    Schanler, Richard J.; Lee, Martin L.; Rechtman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Provision of human milk has important implications for the health and outcomes of extremely preterm (EP) infants. This study evaluated the effects of an exclusive human milk diet on the health of EP infants during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. Subjects and Methods: EP infants <1,250 g birth weight received a diet consisting of either human milk fortified with a human milk protein-based fortifier (HM) (n=167) or a diet containing variable amounts of milk containing cow milk-based protein (CM) (n=93). Principal outcomes were mortality, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), growth, and duration of parenteral nutrition (PN). Results: Mortality (2% versus 8%, p=0.004) and NEC (5% versus 17%, p=0.002) differed significantly between the HM and CM groups, respectively. For every 10% increase in the volume of milk containing CM, the risk of sepsis increased by 17.9% (p<0.001). Growth rates were similar between groups. The duration of PN was 8 days less in the subgroup of infants receiving a diet containing <10% CM versus ≥10% CM (p<0.02). Conclusions: An exclusive human milk diet, devoid of CM-containing products, was associated with lower mortality and morbidity in EP infants without compromising growth and should be considered as an approach to nutritional care of these infants. PMID:24867268

  14. Free Maillard Reaction Products in Milk Reflect Nutritional Intake of Glycated Proteins and Can Be Used to Distinguish "Organic" and "Conventionally" Produced Milk.

    PubMed

    Schwarzenbolz, Uwe; Hofmann, Thomas; Sparmann, Nina; Henle, Thomas

    2016-06-22

    Using LC-MS/MS and isotopically labeled standard substances, quantitation of free Maillard reaction products (MRPs), namely, N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), 5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (pyrraline, PYR), N(δ)-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H), and N(ε)-fructosyllysine (FL), in bovine milk was achieved. Considerable variations in the amounts of the individual MRPs were found, most likely as a consequence of the nutritional uptake of glycated proteins. When comparing commercial milk samples labeled as originating from "organic" or "conventional" farming, respectively, significant differences in the content of free PYR (organic milk, 20-300 pmol/mL; conventional milk, 400-1000 pmol/mL) were observed. An analysis of feed samples indicated that rapeseed and sugar beet are the main sources for MRPs in conventional farming. Furthermore, milk of different dairy animals (cow, buffalo, donkey, goat, ewe, mare, camel) as well as for the first time human milk was analyzed for free MRPs. The distribution of their concentrations, with FL and PYR as the most abundant in human milk and with a high individual variability, also points to a nutritional influence. As the components of concentrated feed do not belong to the natural food sources of ruminants and equidae, free MRPs in milk might serve as indicators for an adequate animal feeding in near-natural farming and can be suitable parameters to distinguish between an "organic" and "conventional" production method of milk. PMID:27213835

  15. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling milk production in dairy cattle by exploiting progeny testing

    SciTech Connect

    Georges, M.; Nielsen, D.; Mackinnon, M.; Mishra, A.; Okimoto, R.; Sargeant, L.S.; Steele, M.R.; Zhao, X.; Pasquino, A.T.

    1995-02-01

    We have exploited {open_quotes}progeny testing{close_quotes} to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the genetic variation of milk production in a selected dairy cattle population. A total of 1,518 sires, with progeny tests based on the milking performances of >150,000 daughters jointly, was genotyped for 159 autosomal microsatellites bracketing 1645 centimorgan or approximately two thirds of the bovine genome. Using a maximum likelihood multilocus linkage analysis accounting for variance heterogeneity of the phenotypes, we identified five chromosomes giving very strong evidence (LOD score {ge} 3) for the presence of a QTL controlling milk production: chromosomes 1, 6, 9, 10 and 20. These findings demonstrate that loci with considerable effects on milk production are still segregating in highly selected populations and pave the way toward marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding. 44 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Infections associated with milk and dairy products in Europe and North America, 1980-85*

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, J. C. M.

    1987-01-01

    Outbreaks of infection associated with milk and other dairy products in Europe and North America from 1980 to 1985 are reviewed. Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. were the most commonly identified etiological agents, while other infections of animal origin, in particular listeriosis and yersiniosis, were increasingly reported. Most infections were attributed to untreated cows' milk or cheese, but also increasingly to contaminated ”heat-treated” products. Heat-treatment is highly effective in controlling foodborne disease, but may be insufficient if not complemented by high standards of hygiene throughout production and processing. Large community outbreaks of salmonellosis, listeriosis, and yersiniosis in Canada, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the USA that were associated with contaminated ”heat-treated” liquid milk, powdered milk, or cheese emphasize the vulnerability of dairy produce. PMID:3311443

  17. Modulation of Mammary Gland Development and Milk Production by Growth Hormone Expression in GH Transgenic Goats.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zekun; Lin, Jian; Ye, Lulu; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Jianquan; Yang, Qian; Yu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Mammary gland development during puberty and reconstruction during pregnancy and lactation is under the control of circulating endocrine hormones, such as growth hormone, which are released from the pituitary. In this study, we explored the influence of overexpression of growth hormone in the mammary gland on breast development and milk production in goats. Using transcriptome sequencing, we found that the number of highly expressed genes was greater in GH transgenic goats than non-transgenic goats. Furthermore, KEGG pathway analysis showed that the majority of the genes belonged to the MAPK signaling pathway and the ECM-receptor interaction pathway. The expression of genes related to breast development was further confirmed using qRT-PCR. Interestingly, both milk production and milk quality were increased. The results of these experiments imply that overexpression of growth hormone in the breast may stimulate breast development and enhances milk production by modulating alveolar cell proliferation or branching through the MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:27445863

  18. Modulation of Mammary Gland Development and Milk Production by Growth Hormone Expression in GH Transgenic Goats

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Zekun; Lin, Jian; Ye, Lulu; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Jianquan; Yang, Qian; Yu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Mammary gland development during puberty and reconstruction during pregnancy and lactation is under the control of circulating endocrine hormones, such as growth hormone, which are released from the pituitary. In this study, we explored the influence of overexpression of growth hormone in the mammary gland on breast development and milk production in goats. Using transcriptome sequencing, we found that the number of highly expressed genes was greater in GH transgenic goats than non-transgenic goats. Furthermore, KEGG pathway analysis showed that the majority of the genes belonged to the MAPK signaling pathway and the ECM-receptor interaction pathway. The expression of genes related to breast development was further confirmed using qRT-PCR. Interestingly, both milk production and milk quality were increased. The results of these experiments imply that overexpression of growth hormone in the breast may stimulate breast development and enhances milk production by modulating alveolar cell proliferation or branching through the MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:27445863

  19. Modulation of Mammary Gland Development and Milk Production by Growth Hormone Expression in GH Transgenic Goats.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zekun; Lin, Jian; Ye, Lulu; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Jianquan; Yang, Qian; Yu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Mammary gland development during puberty and reconstruction during pregnancy and lactation is under the control of circulating endocrine hormones, such as growth hormone, which are released from the pituitary. In this study, we explored the influence of overexpression of growth hormone in the mammary gland on breast development and milk production in goats. Using transcriptome sequencing, we found that the number of highly expressed genes was greater in GH transgenic goats than non-transgenic goats. Furthermore, KEGG pathway analysis showed that the majority of the genes belonged to the MAPK signaling pathway and the ECM-receptor interaction pathway. The expression of genes related to breast development was further confirmed using qRT-PCR. Interestingly, both milk production and milk quality were increased. The results of these experiments imply that overexpression of growth hormone in the breast may stimulate breast development and enhances milk production by modulating alveolar cell proliferation or branching through the MAPK signaling pathway.

  20. Bioactive Peptides in Milk and Dairy Products: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Woo; Nam, Myoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Functionally and physiologically active peptides are produced from several food proteins during gastrointestinal digestion and fermentation of food materials with lactic acid bacteria. Once bioactive peptides (BPs) are liberated, they exhibit a wide variety of physiological functions in the human body such as gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. These functionalities of the peptides in human health and physiology include antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antioxidative, antithrombotic, opioid, anti-appetizing, immunomodulatory and mineral-binding activities. Most of the bioactivities of milk proteins are latent, being absent or incomplete in the original native protein, but full activities are manifested upon proteolytic digestion to release and activate encrypted bioactive peptides from the original protein. Bioactive peptides have been identified within the amino acid sequences of native milk proteins. Due to their physiological and physico-chemical versatility, milk peptides are regarded as greatly important components for health promoting foods or pharmaceutical applications. Milk and colostrum of bovine and other dairy species are considered as the most important source of natural bioactive components. Over the past a few decades, major advances and developments have been achieved on the science, technology and commercial applications of bioactive components which are present naturally in the milk. Although the majority of published works are associated with the search of bioactive peptides in bovine milk samples, some of them are involved in the investigation of ovine or caprine milk. The advent of functional foods has been facilitated by increasing scientific knowledge about the metabolic and genomic effects of diet and specific dietary components on human health. PMID:26877644

  1. Assessment of dietary ratios of red clover and corn silages on milk production and milk quality in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Moorby, J M; Ellis, N M; Davies, D R

    2016-10-01

    Twenty-four multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square changeover design experiment to test the effects of changing from corn (Zea mays) silage to red clover (Trifolium pratense) silage in graded proportions on feed intakes, milk production, and whole-body N and P partitioning. Three dietary treatments with ad libitum access to 1 of 3 forage mixtures plus a standard allowance of 4kg/d dairy concentrates were offered. The 3 treatment forage mixtures were, on a dry matter (DM) basis: (1) R10: 90% corn silage and 10% red clover silage, (2) R50: 50% corn silage and 50% red clover silage, and (3) R90: 10% corn silage and 90% red clover silage. In each of 3 experimental periods, there were 21d for adaptation to diets, and 7d for measurements. Diet crude protein intakes increased, and starch intakes decreased, as the silage mixture changed from 90% corn to 90% red clover, although the highest forage DM intakes and milk yields were achieved on diet R50. Although milk fat yields were unaffected by diet, milk protein yields were highest with the R 0250 diet. Whole-body partitioning of N was measured in a subset of cows (n=9), and both the daily amount and proportion of N consumed that was excreted in feces and urine increased as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased. However, the apparent efficiency of utilization of feed N for milk protein production decreased from 0.33g/g for diet R10 to 0.25g/g for diet R90. The urinary excretion of purine derivatives (sum of allantoin and uric acid) tended to increase, suggesting greater flow of microbial protein from the rumen, as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased, and urinary creatinine excretion was affected by diet. Fecal shedding of E. coli was not affected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, even though microbial protein flow may have been greatest from the R 0450 diet, optimum feed intakes and milk yields were achieved on a diet that contained a

  2. The effect of temperament and responsiveness towards humans on the behavior, physiology and milk production of multi-parous dairy cows in a familiar and novel milking environment.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Mhairi A; Rogers, Andrea R; Verkerk, Gwyneth A

    2012-10-10

    The objectives of this study were to investigate whether; 1) temperament or 2) behavioral responsiveness to humans, can affect the behavior, physiology and productivity of dairy cows being milked in a familiar and novel milking environment. Temperament of multi-parous cows was defined based on exit time from a restraint device, as High Responders (HR; n=10), Medium Responders (MR; n=10) or Low Responders (LR; n=10). The behavioral response of cows to humans was assessed using four tests: restraint, exit speed, avoidance distance test and a voluntary approach test. Cows were milked according to their established routines in a rotary (familiar) milking parlor and behavioral, physiological and production data were collected over five consecutive days, including heart rate, cortisol and oxytocin concentrations and milk yield. The following week, cows were milked in a novel environment (herringbone parlor within the same farm facility) over five consecutive days, and the data and sample collection program was repeated. Cows were then given an exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge to measure adrenal responsiveness. Exit time was negatively correlated with the behavioral responses of cows to restraint and human avoidance distance (HAD) in the paddock and arena. The behavioral response of cows to the milking process was greater in MR than LR and HR cows in the familiar and novel milking environments. Milk yields were greater in LR than HR cows in the novel but not the familiar milking parlor. Oxytocin concentrations increased during milking in the novel environment, regardless of cow temperament. In the familiar and novel environments, heart rates were higher in HR than LR cows before and during milking and rMSSD was lower in HR cows during milking in a novel environment. There was no difference in cortisol concentrations between LR and HR cows in response to an ACTH challenge, but HR cows had higher baseline cortisol levels than LR cows. The number of leg

  3. New immunosensor for Lactoferrin determination in human milk and several pharmaceutical dairy milk products recommended for the unweaned diet.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Luigi; Martini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Mauro

    2008-09-29

    Thorough research was carried out on Lactoferrin immunosensor development. Furthermore, two different competitive procedures were used for Lactoferrin determination, in which either the antigen (Lactoferrin) or the antibody (anti-Lactoferrin) was, respectively, conjugated with horseradish peroxidase enzyme using a biotinylation process. The biotinylation of Lactoferrin and the subsequently used competition procedure for the immunosensor measurement were to get ready. Three different kinds of immunosensors were implemented, in all cases using the peroxidase enzyme as marker and hydrogen peroxide as substrate, but alternatively using as transducers one of the following sensors: (i) an amperometric electrode for H2O2, (ii) a Clark electrode and (iii) an iodide electrode. After optimizing the "competitive" measurement procedures and the transducer, the new Lactoferrin immunosensor was used for the determination of Lactoferrin content in human milk and in different types of dried milks or other dairy products, specifically produced and sold in chemist's shops to feed unweaned children in the first few months of life.

  4. Efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle (Bos Indicus).

    PubMed

    Saha, Debashis; Gupta, Radhe Shyam; Singh Baghel, Ramesh Pratap; Khare, Ankur

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted on efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle. 18 lactating crossbred cattle of early to mid-lactation, approximate body weight (375.39±23.43 kg), milk yield, parity and stage of lactation were divided into three groups of six animals each and were fed 0, 50 and 100% diammonium phosphate (DAP) in the mineral mixture of concentrates for 120 days. The chaffed mixed roughage (berseem + wheat straw) and concentrate mixture was fed to supply about nearly 18:82 concentrate to roughage ratio on dry matter basis. Tap water was available to the animals twice daily. A metabolism trial of seven days was conducted at the end of experiment to study digestibility of organic nutrients and balances of energy. DAP did not affect the nutrient intake, body weight changes, digestibility of Dry matter (DM), Crude protein (CP), Ether extract (EE), Crude fiber (CF), Nitrogen free extract (NFE) and daily milk yield. It was concluded that the at 46.07 Mcal Gross energy intake level the losses in feces, urine, methane and heat production was 45.82%, 5.40%, 4.31% and 33.01%, respectively, and net energy retention for milk production was 11.43%. The gross efficiency of conversion of metabolic energy ME for milk production was 35.69% and the net efficiency of conversion of ME for milk production was 39.56%. PMID:25610572

  5. Efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle (Bos Indicus)

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Debashis; Gupta, Radhe Shyam; Singh Baghel, Ramesh Pratap; Khare, Ankur

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted on efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle. 18 lactating crossbred cattle of early to mid-lactation, approximate body weight (375.39±23.43 kg), milk yield, parity and stage of lactation were divided into three groups of six animals each and were fed 0, 50 and 100% diammonium phosphate (DAP) in the mineral mixture of concentrates for 120 days. The chaffed mixed roughage (berseem + wheat straw) and concentrate mixture was fed to supply about nearly 18:82 concentrate to roughage ratio on dry matter basis. Tap water was available to the animals twice daily. A metabolism trial of seven days was conducted at the end of experiment to study digestibility of organic nutrients and balances of energy. DAP did not affect the nutrient intake, body weight changes, digestibility of Dry matter (DM), Crude protein (CP), Ether extract (EE), Crude fiber (CF), Nitrogen free extract (NFE) and daily milk yield. It was concluded that the at 46.07 Mcal Gross energy intake level the losses in feces, urine, methane and heat production was 45.82%, 5.40%, 4.31% and 33.01%, respectively, and net energy retention for milk production was 11.43%. The gross efficiency of conversion of metabolic energy ME for milk production was 35.69% and the net efficiency of conversion of ME for milk production was 39.56%. PMID:25610572

  6. Effects of pumping style on milk production in mothers of non-nursing preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Hill, P D; Aldag, J C; Chatterton, R T

    1999-09-01

    Milk production was examined in 39 lactating mothers of non-nursing preterm infants from 2 tertiary care centers. The purposes of this study were (1) to compare milk production of those using sequential single (SEQ) or simultaneous double (SIM) breast-pumping regimen, and (2) to examine the relationship of selected variables to inadequate (< 3500 g/week) and adequate (> or = 3500 g/week) milk production. In multivariate analysis, mothers using SIM produced a similar amount of milk by weight during weeks 2 to 5 postpartum compared to those using SEQ. A logistic regression model including frequency of kangaroo care, frequency of pumping, high versus low income, and previous breastfeeding experience was predictive of mothers producing adequate versus inadequate milk volume 79% of the time. All of the mothers producing > 3500 g at week 2 produced adequate amounts of milk at weeks 4 and 5. None of the mothers producing < 1700 g at week 2 reached adequate production by weeks 4 and 5. Of the remaining mothers who produced 1700 g to 3500 g at week 2, 54% achieved adequate production during weeks 4 and 5 postpartum.

  7. Influence of milk production potential on forage dry matter intake by multiparous and primiparous Brangus females.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C R; Lalman, D L; Brown, M A; Appeddu, L A; Buchanan, D S; Wettemann, R P

    2003-07-01

    Brangus cows (n = 29) were used in three experiments to evaluate the effects of parity (multiparous vs. primiparous) and potential genetic merit for milk production (high vs. low) on forage intake during late gestation, early lactation, and late lactation. Cows were selected for milk production based on their sire's EPD for milk production (MEPD). Cows had ad libitum access to (130% of previous 2-d average intake) low-quality hay (5.3% CP and 76% NDF), and cottonseed meal was supplemented to ensure adequate degradable intake protein. All females were adapted to diets for at least 7 d, and individual intake data were collected for 9 d. During the lactation trials, actual milk production was determined using a portable milking machine following a 12-h separation from calves. During late gestation, multiparous cows consumed 24% more (P = 0.01) forage DM (kg/d) than primiparous cows; however, parity class did not influence forage intake when intake was expressed relative to BW. Furthermore, MEPD did not influence forage intake during late gestation. During early lactation, multiparous cows produced 66% more (P < 0.001) milk than primiparous cows, and high MEPD tended (P = 0.10) to produce more milk than low MEPD. Multiparous cows consumed 19% more (P < 0.0001) forage DM than did primiparous cows when expressed on an absolute basis, but not when expressed on a BW basis. High-MEPD cows consumed 8% more (P < 0.05) forage DM than did low-MEPD cows. During late lactation, multiparous cows produced 84% more milk than primiparous cows, although MEPD did not influence (P = 0.40) milk yield. In addition, multiparous cows consumed 17% more (P < 0.01) forage DM per day than primiparous cows, but when intake was expressed relative to BW, neither parity nor MEPD influenced forage DMI during late lactation. Milk yield and BW explained significant proportions of the variation in forage DMI during early and late lactation. Each kilogram increase in milk yield was associated with a 0

  8. Immune response, productivity and quality of milk from grazing goats as affected by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovana; Santillo, Antonella; Marino, Rosaria; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess how diet supplemented with fish oil and linseed improve the immune profile, the production performance, and milk quality of grazing goats by a diet supplementation of fish oil or linseed. Twenty-four Garganica grazing goats were divided into three groups named control (CON), fish oil (FO) and linseed (LIN) according to the fat supplement received in their diet. In vivo immune responses were evaluated by monitoring cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in order to verify the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation on goats' health status. Goat milk samples were analysed weekly to determine milk chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and somatic cell count. Diet based on linseed supplementation (LIN) significantly increased milk yield by 30%, milk fat yield by 67%, protein yield by 34%, and casein yield by 41% as compared with CON. Fat content increased by 30% in LIN milk as compared with CON milk, and by 12% as compared with FO milk. Linseed modified milk fatty acid profile; LIN milk showed lower SFA and higher PUFA than FO milk. The modified fatty acid composition of LIN milk resulted in lower AI and TI indexes than FO and CON milk. Linseed and fish oil administration can reduce humoral immunity of goats, but has no effect in their cellular immunity. Dietary linseed supplementation in grazing dairy goat supports feeding programs to improve milk composition and quality, and a modulation of their immune responses. PMID:27033938

  9. Effect of method of feeding protein and protein insolubility on milk production by Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Baxter, H D; Montgomery, M J; Waldo, D R; Owen, J R

    1983-10-01

    Each of two feeding trials used 32 first and second lactation Jersey cows to evaluate four methods of protein supplementation of corn silage: A) 20% crude protein grain mixture, B) 1.36 kg of soybean meal replaced an equal amount of grain mixture, C) 2.27 kg of alfalfa-orchardgrass hay daily and 16% crude protein grain mixture, and D) 2.72 kg of soybean meal mixed with the silage daily. Concentrates were fed at 1 to 4 kg fat-corrected milk for treatments A, B, and C. All cows received 1.18 kg of 16% crude protein concentrate mixture daily in the milking parlor. Protein contents, as percents of dry matter intake, for respective treatments were 12.9, 15.0, 12.7, and 17.2. Treatments did not differ significantly for milk production, fat-corrected milk, and change of body weight; however, percents milk fat for 1.36 and 2.72 kg soybean meal were higher. In trial 2, protein insolubility of ration components was determined by four extracting methods: A) autoclaved rumen fluid, B) sodium chloride solution, C) Burroughs' solution, and D) boiling water. Insoluble protein intake determined by autoclaved rumen fluid and hot water methods accounted for more of the variance of milk and fat-corrected milk production than total protein intake.

  10. Use of a corn milling product in diets for dairy cows to alleviate milk fat depression.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P

    2012-04-01

    Various diet formulation strategies were evaluated to alleviate milk fat depression using a corn milling product (CMP) that contained approximately 28% crude protein, 34% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 12% starch (dry basis). The control diet comprised mostly corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn grain, and soybean meal and contained approximately 22% forage NDF (fNDF), 28% total NDF, and 33% starch. Another diet included 25% CMP that replaced corn grain and soybean meal and contained 27% starch and 33% NDF. Two other diets included 25 or 40% CMP that replaced forage and concentrate and contained 19 and 17% fNDF, 31 and 32% total NDF, and 30 and 28% starch, respectively. Diets were fed to 16 mid-lactation Holstein cows in 4 replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares. Milk fat percentage was low for the control diet (2.9%) but increased to 3.5% when cows were fed the diet with 25% CMP that replaced concentrate. Cows fed diets with 25 or 40% CMP that replaced forage and concentrate also had low milk fat percentages (3.0 and 2.9%, respectively). Intake was lowest for cows fed the control diet. Milk yield was reduced when CMP replaced only concentrate but because of the substantial increase in milk fat, the yield of energy-corrected milk was greater. Calculated energy use (maintenance+milk+body weight change) divided by dry matter intake was similar for the control and for the diet in which CMP replaced only concentrate, but it decreased linearly as increasing amounts of CMP replaced both forage and concentrate. A quadratic equation using the ratio of dietary starch to fNDF was the best predictor of milk fat percentage (ratios >1.4 were associated with reduced milk fat). Overall, CMP was effective at alleviating milk fat depression when it replaced corn grain but not when it replaced forage and concentrate.

  11. Sustainability evaluation of pasteurized milk production with a life cycle assessment approach: An Iranian case study.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Shahin; Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Mohammadi, Issa; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Mousazadeh, Hossein; Clark, Sean

    2016-08-15

    Agro-food systems play a significant role in the economies of all nations due to energy use and the resulting environmental consequences. The sustainability of these systems is determined by a multitude of interacting economic, social and environmental factors. Dairy production presents a relevant example of the sustainability trade-offs that occur within such systems. On the one hand, dairy production constitutes an important part of the human diet, but it is also responsible for significant emissions of potent greenhouse gases and other pollutants. In this study, the environmental aspects of pasteurized milk production in Iran were investigated using a life-cycle approach. Three sub-systems, namely feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory, were taken into account to determine how and where Iranian pasteurized milk production might be made more environmentally friendly and energy efficient. The results clearly demonstrate that the feed production stage was the hot spot in pasteurized milk production in terms of energy consumption, environmental burdens and economic costs. The largest share of the total production costs belonged to animal feeds (43%), which were part of the feed production stage. The largest consumers of energy in the production of raw milk were alfalfa (30.3%), concentrate (24%), straw (17.8%) and maize (10.9%) for cows, followed by diesel fuel (6.6%) and electricity (5.6%). The global warming potential for the production of 1000kg of raw milk at the dairy-farm gate was estimated at 457kg CO2,eq. Thus, more than 69% of the total impact at the milk-processing gate resulted from the previous two sub-systems (feed production and dairy farm), with the feed-production stage accounting for the largest fractions of the environmental burdens. PMID:27110976

  12. Sustainability evaluation of pasteurized milk production with a life cycle assessment approach: An Iranian case study.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Shahin; Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Mohammadi, Issa; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Mousazadeh, Hossein; Clark, Sean

    2016-08-15

    Agro-food systems play a significant role in the economies of all nations due to energy use and the resulting environmental consequences. The sustainability of these systems is determined by a multitude of interacting economic, social and environmental factors. Dairy production presents a relevant example of the sustainability trade-offs that occur within such systems. On the one hand, dairy production constitutes an important part of the human diet, but it is also responsible for significant emissions of potent greenhouse gases and other pollutants. In this study, the environmental aspects of pasteurized milk production in Iran were investigated using a life-cycle approach. Three sub-systems, namely feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory, were taken into account to determine how and where Iranian pasteurized milk production might be made more environmentally friendly and energy efficient. The results clearly demonstrate that the feed production stage was the hot spot in pasteurized milk production in terms of energy consumption, environmental burdens and economic costs. The largest share of the total production costs belonged to animal feeds (43%), which were part of the feed production stage. The largest consumers of energy in the production of raw milk were alfalfa (30.3%), concentrate (24%), straw (17.8%) and maize (10.9%) for cows, followed by diesel fuel (6.6%) and electricity (5.6%). The global warming potential for the production of 1000kg of raw milk at the dairy-farm gate was estimated at 457kg CO2,eq. Thus, more than 69% of the total impact at the milk-processing gate resulted from the previous two sub-systems (feed production and dairy farm), with the feed-production stage accounting for the largest fractions of the environmental burdens.

  13. Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Milk and Milk Products in Kaduna, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Usman, U B; Kwaga, J K P; Kabir, J; Olonitola, O S; Radu, S; Bande, F

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Listeria (L.) monocytogenes isolated from milk and milk products in Kaduna, Nigeria, were subjected to a multiplex PCR assay to identify virulence-associated genes (such as prf A, inl A, hly A, act A, and iap). Of the 36 isolates, 9 (25%) were positive for one or two virulence-associated genes. Based on the sample type, 6 (16.9%) of the isolates that possessed virulence-associated genes were obtained from raw milk, 2 (3.2%) from "Manshanu," and 1 (2.8%) from "Kindrimo." Sequence and phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA revealed that Nigerian L. monocytogenes isolates (NGA 34A, NGA 35A, NGA 41A, and NGA 38A), when compared with reference L. monocytogenes, were grouped into two distinct clusters, A and B, with sequence (NGA 34A, NGA 35A, and NGA 41A) phylogenetically closer to J1776; N1-011A; R2-502; J1816; and J2-031, whereas L. monocytogenes isolate (NGA 38A) clustered with EDG; J1-220; J1926; J1817; and J2-1091. The separation of the Nigerian L. monocytogenes isolates into linage A (responsible for epidemic listeriosis) and lineage B (responsible for sporadic cases of listeriosis) is of public health concern and that local isolates might have potentials for human food borne listeriosis based on the virulence factors so far identified. PMID:27597873

  14. Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Milk and Milk Products in Kaduna, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, J.; Olonitola, O. S.; Radu, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Listeria (L.) monocytogenes isolated from milk and milk products in Kaduna, Nigeria, were subjected to a multiplex PCR assay to identify virulence-associated genes (such as prf A, inl A, hly A, act A, and iap). Of the 36 isolates, 9 (25%) were positive for one or two virulence-associated genes. Based on the sample type, 6 (16.9%) of the isolates that possessed virulence-associated genes were obtained from raw milk, 2 (3.2%) from “Manshanu,” and 1 (2.8%) from “Kindrimo.” Sequence and phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA revealed that Nigerian L. monocytogenes isolates (NGA 34A, NGA 35A, NGA 41A, and NGA 38A), when compared with reference L. monocytogenes, were grouped into two distinct clusters, A and B, with sequence (NGA 34A, NGA 35A, and NGA 41A) phylogenetically closer to J1776; N1-011A; R2-502; J1816; and J2-031, whereas L. monocytogenes isolate (NGA 38A) clustered with EDG; J1-220; J1926; J1817; and J2-1091. The separation of the Nigerian L. monocytogenes isolates into linage A (responsible for epidemic listeriosis) and lineage B (responsible for sporadic cases of listeriosis) is of public health concern and that local isolates might have potentials for human food borne listeriosis based on the virulence factors so far identified.

  15. Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Milk and Milk Products in Kaduna, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, J.; Olonitola, O. S.; Radu, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Listeria (L.) monocytogenes isolated from milk and milk products in Kaduna, Nigeria, were subjected to a multiplex PCR assay to identify virulence-associated genes (such as prf A, inl A, hly A, act A, and iap). Of the 36 isolates, 9 (25%) were positive for one or two virulence-associated genes. Based on the sample type, 6 (16.9%) of the isolates that possessed virulence-associated genes were obtained from raw milk, 2 (3.2%) from “Manshanu,” and 1 (2.8%) from “Kindrimo.” Sequence and phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA revealed that Nigerian L. monocytogenes isolates (NGA 34A, NGA 35A, NGA 41A, and NGA 38A), when compared with reference L. monocytogenes, were grouped into two distinct clusters, A and B, with sequence (NGA 34A, NGA 35A, and NGA 41A) phylogenetically closer to J1776; N1-011A; R2-502; J1816; and J2-031, whereas L. monocytogenes isolate (NGA 38A) clustered with EDG; J1-220; J1926; J1817; and J2-1091. The separation of the Nigerian L. monocytogenes isolates into linage A (responsible for epidemic listeriosis) and lineage B (responsible for sporadic cases of listeriosis) is of public health concern and that local isolates might have potentials for human food borne listeriosis based on the virulence factors so far identified. PMID:27597873

  16. Outbreak of staphylococcal food intoxication after consumption of pasteurized milk products, June 2007, Austria.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Daniela; Fretz, Rainer; Winter, Petra; Mann, Michaela; Höger, Gerda; Stöger, Anna; Ruppitsch, Werner; Ladstätter, Johann; Mayer, Norbert; de Martin, Alfred; Allerberger, Franz

    2009-01-01

    On June 13, 2007, the public health authority informed the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety about 40 children from two neighboring elementary schools who had fallen ill with abdominal cramps and vomiting on June 8. School milk products consumed on June 8 were suspected as the source of the outbreak. On June 8, the milk products provided by local dairy X to eight elementary schools and two nurseries. The short incubation period - all cases fell ill on the day on which the products were consumed - and the short duration of illness (1-2 days) strongly suggested intoxication. In order to identify the causative pathogen, its reservoir and the mode of transmission, a descriptive-epidemiological and microbiological investigation and a retrospective cohort study were conducted. Six of the 10 institutions served by dairy X completed questionnaires on demographics and food consumption. One school had a 79% response rate (203/258) and was chosen as the basis for our cohort study. A total of 166 of the 1025 children (16.2%) at the 10 institutions fulfilled the case definition. Consumption of milk, cacao milk or vanilla milk originating from dairy X was associated with a 37.8 times higher risk of becoming a case (95% CI: 2.3-116.5). Unopened milk products left over at the affected institutions yielded staphylococcal enterotoxins A and D. Six out of 64 quarter milk samples from three of 16 cows producing milk for dairy X tested positive for S. aureus. The isolates produced enterotoxins A and D, yielded genes encoding enterotoxins and D, and showed spa type t2953. S. aureus isolated from the nasal swab of the dairy owner harbored genes encoding enterotoxins C, G, H and I, and showed spa type t635. Our investigation revealed that the milk products produced in dairy X on June 7 were the source of the outbreak on June 8. The cows - not the dairy owner - the likely reservoir of the enterotoxin-producing S. aureus. From the risk assessment of the production process at the

  17. Comparison of contaminant and residue levels in organic and conventional milk and meat products from northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Ghidini, S; Zanardi, E; Battaglia, A; Varisco, G; Ferretti, E; Campanini, G; Chizzolini, R

    2005-01-01

    Due to the growing interest in organic products, a comparison between the chemical safety of organic and conventional products was undertaken. Milk and meat were the products chosen for study. The parameters evaluated to assess chemical safety were organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, cadmium and mycotoxin contamination. Pesticides and PCBs residues in both organic and conventional milk and meat were lower than legal limits. Lead and cadmium residues were very low and did not differ between organic and conventional products. However, aflatoxin M1 contamination in some but not all samples of organic milk was significantly higher than those of conventional milk, although factors other than organic production might be implicated.

  18. Neither Milk Production, Milk Transfer Nor Pup Growth Hormone Account for Reduced Body Weights of Rat Pups Reared In Hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bear, L. A.; Chowdhury, J. H.; Grindeland, R. E.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Studies spanning the gravity continuum from 0 to 2-g are revealing new insights into how mammalian reproduction and development may proceed in the microgravity of space. Rat pups reared from either conception or midgestation in hypergravity (hg) weigh 6-15% less than 1-g controls. In the present study we analyzed maternal and pup factors that may account for reduced body weight of hg reared pups. Beginning on Gestational day (G)11 of the rats' 22 day pregnancy, rat dams and their litters were continuously exposed to either 1.5-g, 1.75-g or 2.0-g. Prolaction (Prl) and oxytocin (OT) were measured in hg-exposed dams during either pregnancy (G20) or lactation (Postnatal day [P] 10). Gravity related differences in Prl were not observed whereas OT was depressed during lactation in hg dams relative to controls (p less than 0.05). Milk transfer measured during a discrete suckling episode was actually increased in hg-reared litters and comparable numbers of milk-letdowns were observed in the two conditions. Recent reports using dwarfing phenotypes in mouse mutants have provided evidence for postnatal dependence on growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). Plasma GH measured in P10 pups using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was significantly elevated in hg pups relative to 1-g controls (mean +/- sd., ng/ml: 2.0-g, 10.6 [3.0], 1.5-g 8.9 [4.0], 1.0-g, 7.95 [3.1]). Together, these findings suggest that neither milk production, milk transfer nor pup GH play significant roles in reduced body weights of hg-reared pups. Studies underway are focused on insulin-like growth factors.

  19. Organochlorine pesticide distribution in an organic production system for cow's milk in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Murga, María N; Gutiérrez, Rey; Vega, Salvador; Pérez, José J; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Yamasaki, Alberto; Ruíz, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of organochlorine pesticides in samples of forage, soil, water, and milk in four units of an organic production system for cow´s milk (samples of forage, milk, soil, and water) in Tecpatan, Chiapas, Mexico. The organochlorine pesticides were extracted from forage, soil and water based on the USEPA (2005) guideline and from milk based on the IDF 1991 guideline. The pesticides were identified and quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (CG-ECD). In general, the highest average concentration of total pesticides was found in the samples of milk and forage (311 ± 328 and 116.5 ±77 ng g(-1) respectively). Although, the production systems analyzed are organic, organochlorine pesticides were detected in all environmental samples (forage, soil, water, and organic milk). Although no values surpassed the defined limits of Mexican and International regulation it is advisable that a monitoring program of contaminants in these production systems is continued.

  20. Organochlorine pesticide distribution in an organic production system for cow's milk in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Murga, María N; Gutiérrez, Rey; Vega, Salvador; Pérez, José J; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Yamasaki, Alberto; Ruíz, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of organochlorine pesticides in samples of forage, soil, water, and milk in four units of an organic production system for cow´s milk (samples of forage, milk, soil, and water) in Tecpatan, Chiapas, Mexico. The organochlorine pesticides were extracted from forage, soil and water based on the USEPA (2005) guideline and from milk based on the IDF 1991 guideline. The pesticides were identified and quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (CG-ECD). In general, the highest average concentration of total pesticides was found in the samples of milk and forage (311 ± 328 and 116.5 ±77 ng g(-1) respectively). Although, the production systems analyzed are organic, organochlorine pesticides were detected in all environmental samples (forage, soil, water, and organic milk). Although no values surpassed the defined limits of Mexican and International regulation it is advisable that a monitoring program of contaminants in these production systems is continued. PMID:27228789

  1. The effect of oilseeds in diets of lactating cows on milk production and methane emissions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K A; Kincaid, R L; Westberg, H H; Gaskins, C T; Lamb, B K; Cronrath, J D

    2002-06-01

    Thirty-six lactating multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to diets that contained 2.3, 4.0, and 5.6% fat for an entire lactation to determine the effect of oilseeds on milk composition, production, and methane emissions. The diets were formulated so that whole cottonseeds and canola oilseeds provided equal amounts of added fat. Methane emissions were measured every 3 mo from two replicates of four cows per treatment using a room tracer approach. Dry matter intakes and yields of milk and FCM were greater for cows fed the diets containing oilseeds. Although the concentration of protein in milk was reduced, yields of both protein and fat tended to be increased by the addition of fat. Within the milk fat, the concentrations of C10, C12, C14:0, and C16:0 were reduced and concentrations of C18, C18:1, and trans-C18:1 were increased in response to dietary oilseeds. In serum, urea-N was increased by the dietary oilseeds. Supplementation of diets with oilseeds did not affect methane emissions but tended to increase the efficiency of milk produced per unit of methane emitted. A 1.7% addition of fat to the control diet from a combination of oilseed types increased yields of milk without reducing methane emission rates. The strategy of using unsaturated fats from oilseeds to substantially reduce methane emissions was ineffective, although yield of milk was increased.

  2. Production of Transgenic-Cloned Pigs Expressing Large Quantities of Recombinant Human Lysozyme in Milk

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Shengzhe; Wu, Fangfang; Wen, Xiao; Li, Zhiyuan; Li, Yan; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Zhao, Yaofeng; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Human lysozyme is a natural non-specific immune factor in human milk that plays an important role in the defense of breastfed infants against pathogen infection. Although lysozyme is abundant in human milk, there is only trace quantities in pig milk. Here, we successfully generated transgenic cloned pigs with the expression vector pBAC-hLF-hLZ-Neo and their first generation hybrids (F1). The highest concentration of recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) with in vitro bioactivity was 2759.6 ± 265.0 mg/L in the milk of F0 sows. Compared with wild-type milk, rhLZ milk inhibited growth of Escherichia coli K88 during the exponential growth phase. Moreover, rhLZ in milk from transgenic sows was directly absorbed by the intestine of piglets with no observable anaphylactic reaction. Our strategy may provide a powerful tool for large-scale production of this important human protein in pigs to improve resistance to pathogen infection. PMID:25955256

  3. Effects of particle size and formaldehyde treatment of soybean meal on milk production and composition for dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Crawford, R J; Hoover, W H

    1984-09-01

    Twenty-four lactating dairy cattle were used to study the effects of formaldehyde treatment and reduction of particle size of soybean meal on milk production and composition. Cows were fed diets containing one of the following soybean meals: 1) untreated, coarse; 2) untreated, fine; 3) formaldehyde-treated, fine. Formaldehyde reduced the solubility of soybean meal protein from 22.7 to 2.9%. Grinding soybean meal reduced particle size from 842 to 249 micron. Formaldehyde treatment did not affect intake or milk production but resulted in higher efficiency of milk production (1.43 versus 1.46 kg fat-corrected milk/kg dry matter intake). Milk protein (3.08 versus 2.85%) and solids-not-fat (8.51 versus 8.35%) contents were reduced by formaldehyde. Cows fed fine soybean meal had higher dry matter intakes (22.0 versus 20.8 kg dry matter/day) and gained more body weight; however, milk production was not affected by particle size. Grinding soybean meal reduced production efficiency (1.47 versus 1.42 kg milk/kg dry matter intake) and milk fat (3.70 versus 3.33%). Lack of production response and reduced milk protein from formaldehyde treatment suggests possible overprotection of protein. Fine grinding of soybean meal appeared to favor body weight gain rather than milk production.

  4. The effect of pulsation ratio on teat condition, milk somatic cell count and productivity in dairy cows in automatic milking.

    PubMed

    Ferneborg, Sabine; Svennersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin

    2015-11-01

    The pulsation ratio of a milking machine affects milk flow and milking time, and has also been reported to influence teat condition and milk somatic cell count (SCC). However, most studies comparing pulsation ratios have been performed on conventional cluster milking (whole-udder level), where effects such as deteriorated teat end condition and increased milk SCC are likely to be caused by over-milking on teats that are emptied faster than the other teats. When the teat cups are detached from each udder quarter separately which can be done in automatic milking systems (AMS), the risk of over-milking, especially in front teats, may be significantly reduced. This study investigated the effects of pulsation ratio on teat end condition, milk SCC, milk yield, milking time and milk flow in an automatic milking system where each udder quarter is milked separately. In total, 356 cows on five commercial farms were included in a split-udder design experiment comparing three pulsation ratios (60:40, 70:30 and 75:25) with the standard pulsation ratio (65:35) during 6 weeks. Pulsation rate was 60 cycles/min and vacuum level 46 kPa. The 70:30 and 75:25 ratios increased peak and average milk flow and the machine-on time was shorter with 75:25, while both peak and average milk flows were lower and machine-on time was longer with the 60:40 ratio. No negative effects on teat condition or milk SCC were observed with any of the pulsation ratios applied during the study. Thus it is possible that increased pulsation ratio can be used to increase milking efficiency in AMS where quarter milking is applied.

  5. The effect of pulsation ratio on teat condition, milk somatic cell count and productivity in dairy cows in automatic milking.

    PubMed

    Ferneborg, Sabine; Svennersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin

    2015-11-01

    The pulsation ratio of a milking machine affects milk flow and milking time, and has also been reported to influence teat condition and milk somatic cell count (SCC). However, most studies comparing pulsation ratios have been performed on conventional cluster milking (whole-udder level), where effects such as deteriorated teat end condition and increased milk SCC are likely to be caused by over-milking on teats that are emptied faster than the other teats. When the teat cups are detached from each udder quarter separately which can be done in automatic milking systems (AMS), the risk of over-milking, especially in front teats, may be significantly reduced. This study investigated the effects of pulsation ratio on teat end condition, milk SCC, milk yield, milking time and milk flow in an automatic milking system where each udder quarter is milked separately. In total, 356 cows on five commercial farms were included in a split-udder design experiment comparing three pulsation ratios (60:40, 70:30 and 75:25) with the standard pulsation ratio (65:35) during 6 weeks. Pulsation rate was 60 cycles/min and vacuum level 46 kPa. The 70:30 and 75:25 ratios increased peak and average milk flow and the machine-on time was shorter with 75:25, while both peak and average milk flows were lower and machine-on time was longer with the 60:40 ratio. No negative effects on teat condition or milk SCC were observed with any of the pulsation ratios applied during the study. Thus it is possible that increased pulsation ratio can be used to increase milking efficiency in AMS where quarter milking is applied. PMID:26411595

  6. Once-daily milking during a feed deficit decreases milk production but improves energy status in early lactating grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kay, J K; Phyn, C V C; Rius, A G; Morgan, S R; Grala, T M; Roche, J R

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of milking frequency (MF) at 2 feeding levels (FL) on milk production, body condition score, and metabolic indicators of energy status in grazing dairy cows during early lactation. Multiparous Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cows (n=120) grazed pasture and were milked twice daily (2×) from calving until 34 ± 6 d in milk (mean ± standard deviation). Cows were then allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of 2 FL: adequately fed [AF; 14.3 kg dry matter intake (DMI)/cow per d] or underfed (UF; 8.3 kg of DMI/cow per d) and 2 MF: 2× or once daily (1×). Treatments were imposed for 3 wk. After the treatment period, all cows were offered a generous pasture allowance (grazing residuals >1,600 kg of dry matter/ha) and milked 2×. During the 3-wk treatment period, we observed an interaction between FL and MF for energy-corrected milk (ECM), such that the decrease due to 1× milking was greater in AF than in UF cows (20 and 14% decrease, respectively). No interactions were found posttreatment. Cows previously UF produced 7% less ECM than AF cows during wk 4 to 12; however, no subsequent effect was observed of the previous underfeeding. Cows previously milked 1× produced 5% less ECM during wk 4 to 12, and differences remained during wk 13 to 23. During the 3-wk treatment period, UF cows lost 0.2 body condition score units (1-10 scale) and this was not affected by 1× milking. During the treatment period, UF cows had lower plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I, and greater nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations than AF cows. Cows milked 1× had greater plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I, and lower nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations compared with cows milked 2×. In conclusion, energy status was improved by 1× milking; however, when UF cows were milked 1

  7. Using Life Cycle Assessment methodology to assess UHT milk production in Portugal.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Castanheira, Erica G; Dias, Ana Cláudia; Arroja, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Milk and dairy products constitute an important ingredient in the human diet. Ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk is the main dairy product consumed in Portugal and its production entails large inputs of resources which derive on negative environmental effects such as nutrient enrichment of the ecosystem and climate change. In this study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was considered for the environmental assessment of packaged UHT milk produced in Portugal, including simple (whole, semi-skimmed and skimmed) and cocoa milk from a cradle-to-gate perspective and to identify the environmental hot spots. Results showed that the production of the raw milk in the dairy farm is the main hot spot in almost all the categories under assessment mainly due to the emissions from enteric fermentation, manure management and fertilisers production and application. Furthermore, on-site emissions derived from dairy factory are remarkable together with the packages and energy requirements production. The values reported in this study are in the range of other related papers. However, differences were also identified due to several reasons such as allocation approach, data sources, characterisation factors, farm management regimes and assumptions considered. Therefore, these aspects should be carefully addressed and sensitivity to the assumptions and uncertainty of the results should be evaluated. PMID:23178782

  8. Efficiency in milk production on Reunion Island: dealing with land scarcity.

    PubMed

    D'Haese, M; Speelman, S; Alary, V; Tillard, E; D'Haese, L

    2009-08-01

    This paper aims to analyze efficiency on dairy farms in Reunion Island, a French overseas district located in the Indian Ocean. On this island, dairy farming is promoted with financial and technical support from the European Union, with the French and local governments aiming at reducing dependency on imports of milk powder and dairy products and creating employment. A critical factor for increasing the local milk production is the limited availability of arable land because of the small size and the volcanic nature of the island. In this paper, we study the efficiency levels of dairy production on 34 farms by using a data envelopment analysis approach. The average technical efficiency score of farms, assuming constant returns to scale, was 0.927, with 19 out of 34 farms not being efficient. The technical efficiency with a variable returns to scale specification was 0.951. The efficiency with which farmers used their land (subvector efficiencies) was estimated in a second model. The average subvector efficiencies calculated with constant returns to scale and variable returns to scale models were lower than the technical efficiencies. The farmers on the efficiency frontier had a relatively higher milk production, milk production per cow, and land surface than those who were less efficient. A policy promoting better use of the land on inefficient farms should increase the milk production-to-land ratio. Possible on-farm strategies are improved feeding systems, farms having their own heifer breeding, and improved genetics.

  9. Milk production responses to different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Auldist, M J; Marett, L C; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2016-01-01

    Milk production responses of grazing cows offered supplements in different ways were measured. Holstein-Friesian cows, averaging 45 d in milk, were allocated into 8 groups of 24, with 2 groups randomly assigned to each of 4 feeding strategies. These were control: cows grazed a restricted allowance of perennial ryegrass pasture supplemented with milled wheat grain fed in the milking parlor and alfalfa hay offered in the paddock; FGM: same pasture and allowance as the control supplemented with a formulated grain mix containing wheat grain, corn grain, and canola meal fed in the parlor and alfalfa hay fed in the paddock; PMRL: same pasture and allowance as the control, supplemented with a PMR consisting of the same FGM but mixed with alfalfa hay and presented on a feed pad after each milking; and PMRH: same PMR fed in the same way as PMRL but with a higher pasture allowance. For all strategies, supplements provided the same metabolizable energy and grain:forage ratio [75:25, dry matter (DM) basis]. Each group of 24 cows was further allocated into 4 groups of 6, which were randomly assigned to receive 8, 12, 14, or 16 kg of DM supplement/cow per d. Thus, 2 replicated groups per supplement amount per dietary strategy were used. The experiment had a 14-d adaptation period and a 14-d measurement period. Pasture allowance, measured to ground level, was approximately 14 kg of DM/d for control, FGM, and PMRL cows, and 28 kg of DM/d for the PMRH cows, and was offered in addition to the supplement. Positive linear responses to increasing amounts of supplement were observed for yield of milk, energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein for cows on all 4 supplement feeding strategies. Production of energy-corrected milk was greatest for PMRH cows, intermediate for FGM and PMRL cows, and lowest for control cows. Some of these differences in milk production related to differences in intake of pasture and supplement. Milk fat concentration decreased with increasing amount of supplement

  10. Milk production responses to different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Auldist, M J; Marett, L C; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2016-01-01

    Milk production responses of grazing cows offered supplements in different ways were measured. Holstein-Friesian cows, averaging 45 d in milk, were allocated into 8 groups of 24, with 2 groups randomly assigned to each of 4 feeding strategies. These were control: cows grazed a restricted allowance of perennial ryegrass pasture supplemented with milled wheat grain fed in the milking parlor and alfalfa hay offered in the paddock; FGM: same pasture and allowance as the control supplemented with a formulated grain mix containing wheat grain, corn grain, and canola meal fed in the parlor and alfalfa hay fed in the paddock; PMRL: same pasture and allowance as the control, supplemented with a PMR consisting of the same FGM but mixed with alfalfa hay and presented on a feed pad after each milking; and PMRH: same PMR fed in the same way as PMRL but with a higher pasture allowance. For all strategies, supplements provided the same metabolizable energy and grain:forage ratio [75:25, dry matter (DM) basis]. Each group of 24 cows was further allocated into 4 groups of 6, which were randomly assigned to receive 8, 12, 14, or 16 kg of DM supplement/cow per d. Thus, 2 replicated groups per supplement amount per dietary strategy were used. The experiment had a 14-d adaptation period and a 14-d measurement period. Pasture allowance, measured to ground level, was approximately 14 kg of DM/d for control, FGM, and PMRL cows, and 28 kg of DM/d for the PMRH cows, and was offered in addition to the supplement. Positive linear responses to increasing amounts of supplement were observed for yield of milk, energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein for cows on all 4 supplement feeding strategies. Production of energy-corrected milk was greatest for PMRH cows, intermediate for FGM and PMRL cows, and lowest for control cows. Some of these differences in milk production related to differences in intake of pasture and supplement. Milk fat concentration decreased with increasing amount of supplement

  11. How can farming intensification affect the environmental impact of milk production?

    PubMed

    Bava, L; Sandrucci, A; Zucali, M; Guerci, M; Tamburini, A

    2014-07-01

    The intensification process of the livestock sector has been characterized in recent decades by increasing output of product per hectare, increasing stocking rate, including more concentrated feed in the diet, and improving the genetic merit of the breeds. In dairy farming, the effects of intensification on the environmental impact of milk production are not completely clarified. The aim of the current study was to assess the environmental impacts of dairy production by a life cycle approach and to identify relations between farming intensity and environmental performances expressed on milk and land units. A group of 28 dairy farms located in northern Italy was involved in the study; data collected during personal interviews of farmers were analyzed to estimate emissions (global warming potential, acidification, and eutrophication potentials) and nonrenewable source consumption (energy and land use). The environmental impacts of milk production obtained from the life cycle assessment were similar to those of other recent studies and showed high variability among the farms. From a cluster analysis, 3 groups of farms were identified, characterized by different levels of production intensity. Clusters of farms showed similar environmental performances on product basis, despite important differences in terms of intensification level, management, and structural characteristics. Our study pointed out that, from a product perspective, the most environmentally friendly way to produce milk is not clearly identifiable. However, the principal component analysis showed that some characteristics related to farming intensification, such as milk production per cow, dairy efficiency, and stocking density, were negatively related to the impacts per kilogram of product, suggesting a role of these factors in the mitigation strategy of environmental burden of milk production on a global scale. Considering the environmental burden on a local perspective, the impacts per hectare were

  12. How can farming intensification affect the environmental impact of milk production?

    PubMed

    Bava, L; Sandrucci, A; Zucali, M; Guerci, M; Tamburini, A

    2014-07-01

    The intensification process of the livestock sector has been characterized in recent decades by increasing output of product per hectare, increasing stocking rate, including more concentrated feed in the diet, and improving the genetic merit of the breeds. In dairy farming, the effects of intensification on the environmental impact of milk production are not completely clarified. The aim of the current study was to assess the environmental impacts of dairy production by a life cycle approach and to identify relations between farming intensity and environmental performances expressed on milk and land units. A group of 28 dairy farms located in northern Italy was involved in the study; data collected during personal interviews of farmers were analyzed to estimate emissions (global warming potential, acidification, and eutrophication potentials) and nonrenewable source consumption (energy and land use). The environmental impacts of milk production obtained from the life cycle assessment were similar to those of other recent studies and showed high variability among the farms. From a cluster analysis, 3 groups of farms were identified, characterized by different levels of production intensity. Clusters of farms showed similar environmental performances on product basis, despite important differences in terms of intensification level, management, and structural characteristics. Our study pointed out that, from a product perspective, the most environmentally friendly way to produce milk is not clearly identifiable. However, the principal component analysis showed that some characteristics related to farming intensification, such as milk production per cow, dairy efficiency, and stocking density, were negatively related to the impacts per kilogram of product, suggesting a role of these factors in the mitigation strategy of environmental burden of milk production on a global scale. Considering the environmental burden on a local perspective, the impacts per hectare were

  13. More milk from forage: Milk production, blood metabolites, and forage intake of dairy cows grazing pasture mixtures and spatially adjacent monocultures.

    PubMed

    Pembleton, Keith G; Hills, James L; Freeman, Mark J; McLaren, David K; French, Marion; Rawnsley, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    There is interest in the reincorporation of legumes and forbs into pasture-based dairy production systems as a means of increasing milk production through addressing the nutritive value limitations of grass pastures. The experiments reported in this paper were undertaken to evaluate milk production, blood metabolite concentrations, and forage intake levels of cows grazing either pasture mixtures or spatially adjacent monocultures containing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens), and plantain (Plantago lanceolata) compared with cows grazing monocultures of perennial ryegrass. Four replicate herds, each containing 4 spring-calving, cross-bred dairy cows, grazed 4 different forage treatments over the periods of early, mid, and late lactation. Forage treatments were perennial ryegrass monoculture (PRG), a mixture of white clover and plantain (CPM), a mixture of perennial ryegrass, white clover, and plantain (RCPM), and spatially adjacent monocultures (SAM) of perennial ryegrass, white clover, and plantain. Milk volume, milk composition, blood fatty acids, blood β-hydroxybutyrate, blood urea N concentrations, live weight change, and estimated forage intake were monitored over a 5-d response period occurring after acclimation to each of the forage treatments. The acclimation period for the early, mid, and late lactation experiments were 13, 13, and 10 d, respectively. Milk yield (volume and milk protein) increased for cows grazing the RCPM and SAM in the early lactation experiment compared with cows grazing the PRG, whereas in the mid lactation experiment, milk fat increased for the cows grazing the RCPM and SAM when compared with the PRG treatments. Improvements in milk production from grazing the RCPM and SAM treatments are attributed to improved nutritive value (particularly lower neutral detergent fiber concentrations) and a potential increase in forage intake. Pasture mixtures or SAM containing plantain and white clover could be a

  14. Effects of milk protein loci on first lactation production in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Lin, C Y; McAllister, A J; Ng-Kwai-Hang, K F; Hayes, J F

    1986-03-01

    A total of 920 cows of Holstein-based H line, Ayrshire-based A line, and cross-bred C line between H and A lines was used to determine the genotypic and gene frequencies of milk protein types and to study the relationships of milk protein loci to first lactation yields. Effects of milk protein loci on first lactation performance were examined using classification and gene substitution models. Gene frequencies at the five milk protein loci studied were similar to those reported in the literature. Gene substitution at alpha s1-casein locus showed the greatest effects on first lactation yields compared to those at other milk protein loci. Unfortunately, the favorable B allele at this locus is almost fixed (the frequency of the B allele = .955), a result of long-term selection for high milk production in dairy cattle. The extremely high frequency of a favorable allele at the alpha s1-casein locus imposes a limitation for further genetic improvement at this locus unless a more favorable mutation can be induced. Although favorable alleles at beta-casein, kappa-casein, and beta-lactoglobulin loci exerted smaller effects on first lactation performance than those at the alpha s1-casein locus, their moderate frequencies in the current population can be raised to improve lactation yields through milk protein typing. The combined contribution of the four milk protein loci accounted for 8.9% of phenotypic variance in milk yield, 8.6% in protein yield, ad 5.0% in fat yield.

  15. Beneficial health effects of milk and fermented dairy products--review.

    PubMed

    Ebringer, L; Ferencík, M; Krajcovic, J

    2008-01-01

    Milk is a complex physiological liquid that simultaneously provides nutrients and bioactive components that facilitate the successful postnatal adaptation of the newborn infant by stimulating cellular growth and digestive maturation, the establishment of symbiotic microflora, and the development of gut-associated lymphoid tissues. The number, the potency, and the importance of bioactive compounds in milk and especially in fermented milk products are probably greater than previously thought. They include certain vitamins, specific proteins, bioactive peptides, oligosaccharides, organic (including fatty) acids. Some of them are normal milk components, others emerge during digestive or fermentation processes. Fermented dairy products and probiotic bacteria decrease the absorption of cholesterol. Whey proteins, medium-chain fatty acids and in particular calcium and other minerals may contribute to the beneficial effect of dairy food on body fat and body mass. There has been growing evidence of the role that dairy proteins play in the regulation of satiety, food intake and obesity-related metabolic disorders. Milk proteins, peptides, probiotic lactic acid bacteria, calcium and other minerals can significantly reduce blood pressure. Milk fat contains a number of components having functional properties. Sphingolipids and their active metabolites may exert antimicrobial effects either directly or upon digestion.

  16. Investigating the genetic polymorphism of sheep milk proteins: a useful tool for dairy production.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Maria; Laudadio, Vito; Dario, Cataldo; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2014-12-01

    Sheep is the second most important dairy species after cow worldwide, and especially in the Mediterranean and Middle East regions. In some countries, the difficult environmental conditions require a peculiar adaptation and, in these contexts, sheep are able to provide higher quality protein than cattle. In the least-developed countries, the amount of dairy sheep and ovine milk production is progressively increasing. In order to improve dairy productions, in particular those with local connotations, it is necessary to obtain in-depth information regarding milk quality and rheological properties. The genetic polymorphisms of milk proteins are often associated with quantitative and qualitative parameters in milk and are potential candidate markers that should be included in breeding strategies similar to those already available for cattle. Due to the current and growing interest in this topic and considering the large amount of new information, the aim of this study was to review the literature on sheep milk protein polymorphisms with a particular emphasis on recent findings in order to give scientists useful support. Moreover, the effects of different protein variants on milk yield and composition are discussed.

  17. Associations between polymorphisms of the gene and milk production traits in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Deng, T X; Pang, C Y; Lu, X R; Zhu, P; Duan, A Q; Liang, X W

    2016-03-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 () is an important regulator of mammary gland differentiation and cell survival that has been regarded as a candidate gene affecting milk production traits in mammals. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate significant associations between SNP of the gene and milk production traits in buffaloes. Here, 18 SNP were identified in the buffalo gene, including 15 intronic mutations and 3 exon mutations. All the identified SNP were then genotyped using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry methods from 192 buffaloes. All the SNP were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and 2 haplotype blocks were successfully constructed based on these SNP data, which formed 5 and 3 major haplotypes in the population (>5%), respectively. The results of association analysis showed that only SNP13 located in exon 10 was significantly associated with the milk production traits in the population ( < 0.05). Single nucleotide polymorphism 2, SNP5, SNP8, and SNP9 were associated with protein percentage, and SNP4 and SNP10 were associated with 305-d milk yield ( < 0.05). Our results provide evidence that polymorphisms of the buffalo gene are associated with milk production traits and can be used as a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection in buffalo breeding.

  18. Associations between polymorphisms of the gene and milk production traits in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Deng, T X; Pang, C Y; Lu, X R; Zhu, P; Duan, A Q; Liang, X W

    2016-03-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 () is an important regulator of mammary gland differentiation and cell survival that has been regarded as a candidate gene affecting milk production traits in mammals. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate significant associations between SNP of the gene and milk production traits in buffaloes. Here, 18 SNP were identified in the buffalo gene, including 15 intronic mutations and 3 exon mutations. All the identified SNP were then genotyped using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry methods from 192 buffaloes. All the SNP were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and 2 haplotype blocks were successfully constructed based on these SNP data, which formed 5 and 3 major haplotypes in the population (>5%), respectively. The results of association analysis showed that only SNP13 located in exon 10 was significantly associated with the milk production traits in the population ( < 0.05). Single nucleotide polymorphism 2, SNP5, SNP8, and SNP9 were associated with protein percentage, and SNP4 and SNP10 were associated with 305-d milk yield ( < 0.05). Our results provide evidence that polymorphisms of the buffalo gene are associated with milk production traits and can be used as a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection in buffalo breeding. PMID:27065255

  19. Milk production response to feeding alfalfa silage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In mini-silo trials, silages treated with a Lactobacillus plantarum silage inoculant (Ecosyl, Yorkshire, UK) had increased in vitro rumen microbial biomass production compared to untreated. Our objective was to determine if alfalfa silage treated with this inoculant could produce a milk production r...

  20. Pasture intake and milk production of dairy cows rotationally grazing on multi-species swards.

    PubMed

    Roca-Fernández, A I; Peyraud, J L; Delaby, L; Delagarde, R

    2016-09-01

    Increasing plant species diversity has been proposed as a means for enhancing annual pasture productivity and decreasing seasonal variability of pasture production facing more frequent drought scenarios due to climate change. Few studies have examined how botanical complexity of sown swards affects cow performance. A 2-year experiment was conducted to determine how sward botanical complexity, from a monoculture of ryegrass to multi-species swards (MSS) (grasses-legumes-forb), affect pasture chemical composition and nutritive value, pasture dry matter (DM) intake, milk production and milk solids production of grazing dairy cows. Five sward species: perennial ryegrass (L as Lolium), white clover and red clover (both referred to as T as Trifolium because they were always sown together), chicory (C as Cichorium) and tall fescue (F as Festuca) were assigned to four grazing treatments by combining one (L), three (LT), four (LTC) or five (LTCF) species. Hereafter, the LT swards are called mixed swards as a single combination of ryegrass and clovers, whereas LTC and LTCF swards are called MSS as a combination of at least four species from three botanical families. The experimental area (8.7 ha) was divided into four block replicates with a mineral nitrogen fertilisation of 75 kg N/ha per year for each treatment. In total, 13 grazing rotations were carried out by applying the same grazing calendar and the same pasture allowance of 19 kg DM/cow per day above 4 cm for all treatments. Clover represented 20% of DM for mixed and MSS swards; chicory represented 30% of DM for MSS and tall fescue represented 10% of DM for LTCF swards. Higher milk production (+1.1 kg/day) and milk solids production (+0.08 kg/day) were observed for mixed swards than for ryegrass swards. Pasture nutritive value and pasture DM intake were unaffected by the inclusion of clover. Pasture DM, organic matter and NDF concentrations were lower for MSS than for mixed swards. Higher milk production (+0.8 kg

  1. Changes of the human gut microbiome induced by a fermented milk product.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Patrick; Pons, Nicolas; Agrawal, Anurag; Oozeer, Raish; Guyonnet, Denis; Brazeilles, Rémi; Faurie, Jean-Michel; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E T; Houghton, Lesley A; Whorwell, Peter J; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Kennedy, Sean P

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota (GM) consists of resident commensals and transient microbes conveyed by the diet but little is known about the role of the latter on GM homeostasis. Here we show, by a conjunction of quantitative metagenomics, in silico genome reconstruction and metabolic modeling, that consumption of a fermented milk product containing dairy starters and Bifidobacterium animalis potentiates colonic short chain fatty acids production and decreases abundance of a pathobiont Bilophila wadsworthia compared to a milk product in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, n = 28). The GM changes parallel improvement of IBS state, suggesting a role of the fermented milk bacteria in gut homeostasis. Our data challenge the view that microbes ingested with food have little impact on the human GM functioning and rather provide support for beneficial health effects. PMID:25209713

  2. Large scale production of recombinant human lactoferrin in the milk of transgenic cows.

    PubMed

    van Berkel, Patrick H C; Welling, Mick M; Geerts, Marlieke; van Veen, Harry A; Ravensbergen, Bep; Salaheddine, Mourad; Pauwels, Ernest K J; Pieper, Frank; Nuijens, Jan H; Nibbering, Peter H

    2002-05-01

    The limited capacity of current bioreactors has led the biopharmaceutical industry to investigate alternative protein expression systems. The milk of transgenic cattle may provide an attractive vehicle for large-scale production of biopharmaceuticals, but there have been no reports on the characteristics of such recombinant proteins. Here we describe the production of recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF), an iron-binding glycoprotein involved in innate host defense, at gram per liter concentrations in bovine milk. Natural hLF from human milk and rhLF had identical iron-binding and -release properties. Although natural hLF and rhLF underwent differential N-linked glycosylation, they were equally effective in three different in vivo infection models employing immunocompetent and leukocytopenic mice, and showed similar localization at sites of infection. Taken together, the results illustrate the potential of transgenic cattle in the large-scale production of biopharmaceuticals. PMID:11981562

  3. Changes of the human gut microbiome induced by a fermented milk product.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Patrick; Pons, Nicolas; Agrawal, Anurag; Oozeer, Raish; Guyonnet, Denis; Brazeilles, Rémi; Faurie, Jean-Michel; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E T; Houghton, Lesley A; Whorwell, Peter J; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Kennedy, Sean P

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota (GM) consists of resident commensals and transient microbes conveyed by the diet but little is known about the role of the latter on GM homeostasis. Here we show, by a conjunction of quantitative metagenomics, in silico genome reconstruction and metabolic modeling, that consumption of a fermented milk product containing dairy starters and Bifidobacterium animalis potentiates colonic short chain fatty acids production and decreases abundance of a pathobiont Bilophila wadsworthia compared to a milk product in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, n = 28). The GM changes parallel improvement of IBS state, suggesting a role of the fermented milk bacteria in gut homeostasis. Our data challenge the view that microbes ingested with food have little impact on the human GM functioning and rather provide support for beneficial health effects.

  4. Milk and Serum J5-Specific Antibody Responses, Milk Production Change, and Clinical Effects following Intramammary Escherichia coli Challenge for J5 Vaccinate and Control Cows▿

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David J.; Mallard, Bonnie A.; Burton, Jeanne L.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Gröhn, Yrjo T.

    2007-01-01

    Holstein dairy cows (four J5 vaccinates and four controls) selected for no recorded intramammary disease and low somatic cell count (SCC) during the previous lactation were challenged by intramammary infusion of Escherichia coli. Vaccination with J5 was at 8 weeks and again 4 weeks before the anticipated calving date. Cows were challenged at 8 to 16 days in milk (DIM). Shedding of E. coli in milk was significantly higher among controls than vaccinates (no shedding) from 6 h to 21 h postchallenge. From 21 h to 132 h postchallenge, SCC in challenged quarters of controls (5,429,000/ml) was significantly higher than that of vaccinates (490,000/ml). On the day after challenge, milk production in control cows was 8 kg less, while vaccinates gained 0.5 kg, a significant difference. In serum immediately prior to challenge, J5-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) was significantly higher, IgG2 was nearly significantly higher, and IgM was the same in J5 vaccinates relative to controls. Vaccinates had proportionally more IgG2 in serum postcalving and in the first 12 h following challenge and less IgG2 in milk 24 h after challenge than the controls, approaching statistical significance. The ratio of J5-specific IgG1 and IgG2 combined compared to IgM was significantly higher in vaccinates than in controls in prechallenge serum (ratios of 15.8 and 3.2, respectively) and milk (5.0 and 1.3, respectively). Cows with higher IgM titers in milk 12 h postchallenge produced significantly less milk. Vaccination with J5 was significantly associated with higher production of J5-specific IgG1 and IgG2 in early lactation, reduced SCC, faster clearance of E. coli from milk, and less milk production loss following intramammary challenge. PMID:17460115

  5. Short communication: Effect of oregano and caraway essential oils on the production and flavor of cow milk.

    PubMed

    Lejonklev, J; Kidmose, U; Jensen, S; Petersen, M A; Helwing, A L F; Mortensen, G; Weisbjerg, M R; Larsen, M K

    2016-10-01

    Many essential oils and their terpene constituents display antimicrobial properties, which may affect rumen metabolism and influence milk production parameters. Many of these compounds also have distinct flavors and aromas that may make their way into the milk, altering its sensory properties. Essential oils from caraway (Carum carvi) seeds and oregano (Origanum vulgare) plants were included in dairy cow diets to study the effects on terpene composition and sensory properties of the produced milk, as well as feed consumption, production levels of milk, and methane emissions. Two levels of essential oils, 0.2 and 1.0g of oil/kg of dry matter, were added to the feed of lactating cows for 24d. No effects on feed consumption, milk production, and methane emissions were observed. The amount and composition of volatile terpenes were altered in the produced milk based on the terpene content of the essential oils used, with the total amount of terpenes increasing when essential oils were added to the diet. Sensory properties of the produced milk were altered as well, and milk samples from animals receiving essential oil treatment were perceived as having a fresher aroma and lower stored aroma and flavor. The levels of essential oils used in this study mimic realistic levels of essential oils in herbs from feed, but were too low to affect milk production and methane emissions, and their inclusion in the animal diet did not adversely affect milk flavor. PMID:27522414

  6. Short communication: Effect of oregano and caraway essential oils on the production and flavor of cow milk.

    PubMed

    Lejonklev, J; Kidmose, U; Jensen, S; Petersen, M A; Helwing, A L F; Mortensen, G; Weisbjerg, M R; Larsen, M K

    2016-10-01

    Many essential oils and their terpene constituents display antimicrobial properties, which may affect rumen metabolism and influence milk production parameters. Many of these compounds also have distinct flavors and aromas that may make their way into the milk, altering its sensory properties. Essential oils from caraway (Carum carvi) seeds and oregano (Origanum vulgare) plants were included in dairy cow diets to study the effects on terpene composition and sensory properties of the produced milk, as well as feed consumption, production levels of milk, and methane emissions. Two levels of essential oils, 0.2 and 1.0g of oil/kg of dry matter, were added to the feed of lactating cows for 24d. No effects on feed consumption, milk production, and methane emissions were observed. The amount and composition of volatile terpenes were altered in the produced milk based on the terpene content of the essential oils used, with the total amount of terpenes increasing when essential oils were added to the diet. Sensory properties of the produced milk were altered as well, and milk samples from animals receiving essential oil treatment were perceived as having a fresher aroma and lower stored aroma and flavor. The levels of essential oils used in this study mimic realistic levels of essential oils in herbs from feed, but were too low to affect milk production and methane emissions, and their inclusion in the animal diet did not adversely affect milk flavor.

  7. Effect of stocking rate on pasture production, milk production, and reproduction of dairy cows in pasture-based systems.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, K A; Penno, J W; Lancaster, J A S; Roche, J R

    2008-05-01

    Ninety-four cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 stocking rates (2.2, 2.7, 3.1, 3.7, and 4.3 cows/ha) in a completely randomized design for 3 years. Herds were seasonal calving, with only minor differences in grazing management to optimize the profitability of each stocking rate (SR). Pasture production and quality data, milk and milk component data, and reproduction data were collected, averaged for SR treatment, and linear and quadratic contrasts on SR were evaluated. In addition, the Wilmink exponential model (y(t) = a + b x e((-0.05t) )+ c x t) was fitted to milk yield within lactation, and the parameters were averaged by SR treatment and analyzed as above. The median variation explained by the function for individual lactations was 84%. The amount of pasture grown tended to increase, and the quality of the pasture on offer increased linearly with increasing SR, reducing some of the negative impact of SR on the availability of pasture per cow. Milk production per cow declined linearly with increasing SR, although there was a tendency for most production variables to decline quadratically, with the negative effect of SR declining with increasing SR. The effect on milk production per cow was primarily because of a lower peak milk yield and a greater post-peak decline (less persistent milk profile), although a decline in lactation length with increasing SR was responsible for 24% of the effect of SR on milk yield. Milk production per hectare increased linearly with increasing SR, and there was only a small difference (approximately 3%/cow per ha) in the efficiency of converting feed dry matter into milk energy. Stocking rate did not affect reproductive success. The data are consistent with the need for a more robust measure of SR than cows per hectare because farms will differ in the genetic merit of their cows and in the potential to produce pasture. We introduce the concept of a comparative SR, whereby the carrying capacity of the farm is defined by the BW of

  8. Effects of pistachio by-products on digestibility, milk production, milk fatty acid profile and blood metabolites in Saanen dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Sedighi-Vesagh, R; Naserian, A A; Ghaffari, M H; Petit, H V

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pistachio by-products (PBP) on nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in Saanen dairy goats. Nine multiparous lactating Saanen goats (on day 90 post-partum, 45 ± 2/kg BW) were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with three treatment diets: 1) control diet (alfalfa hay based), 2) 32% PBP and 3) 32% PBP + polyethylene glycol (PEG-4000; 1 g/kg dry matter). Each period lasted 21 days, including 14 day for treatment adaptation and 7 day for data collection. Pistachio by-products significantly decreased (p < 0.01) crude protein (CP) digestibility compared with the control diet (64.4% vs. 58.7%), but PEG addition did not differ for CP digestibility of goats fed 32% PBP + PEG and those fed the two other diets. The digestibility of NDF tended (p = 0.06) to decrease for goats fed PBP compared with those fed the control diet. Yields of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk were not affected by dietary treatments. Compared with the control diet, PBP supplementation appreciably changed the proportions of almost all the milk FA measured; the main effects were decreases (p < 0.01) in FA from 8:0 to 16:0 and increases (p < 0.01) proportions of cis-9, trans-11 18:2 and trans-11 18:1, monounsaturated FA, polyunsaturated FA and long-chain FA. The saturated FA, short-chain FA and medium-chain FA proportions were lower (p < 0.01) in goats fed the two PBP supplemented diet than in those fed the control diet and PEG addition led to intermediate proportions of saturated FA, unsaturated and monounsaturated FA. Inclusion of PBP in the diet decreased (p < 0.01) plasma concentrations of glucose and urea nitrogen compared with the control diet. It was concluded that PBP can be used as forage in the diet of dairy goats without interfering with milk yield. Inclusion of 32% PBP in the diet of dairy goats had beneficial effects on milk FA profile but PEG addition to PBP

  9. Milk, dairy products, and their functional effects in humans: a narrative review of recent evidence.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Francesco; Strata, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Milk is a widely consumed beverage that is essential to the diet of several millions of people worldwide because it provides important macro- and micronutrients. Milk is recognized as being useful during childhood and adolescence because of its composition; however, its relatively high saturated fat proportion raises issues of potential detrimental effects, namely on the cardiovascular system. This review evaluates the most recent literature on dairy and human health, framed within epidemiologic, experimental, and biochemical evidence. As an example, the effects of milk (notably skimmed milk) on body weight appear to be well documented, and the conclusions of the vast majority of published studies indicate that dairy consumption does not increase cardiovascular risk or the incidence of some cancers. Even though the available evidence is not conclusive, some studies suggest that milk and its derivatives might actually be beneficial to some population segments. Although future studies will help elucidate the role of milk and dairy products in human health, their use within a balanced diet should be considered in the absence of clear contraindications.

  10. Invited review: The application of alkaline phosphatase assays for the validation of milk product pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Rankin, S A; Christiansen, A; Lee, W; Banavara, D S; Lopez-Hernandez, A

    2010-12-01

    Standard practices for indirectly assessing the pasteurization status of milk products are primarily based on the thermal inactivation kinetics of the endogenous milk enzyme, alkaline phosphatase (ALP). This assessment provides an invaluable, if not required, tool for both regulatory and in-house process control and validation. Endogenous milk ALP manifests a slightly higher heat resistance than the pathogenic microflora upon which pasteurization time and temperature requirements are based. Hence, ALP activity is recognized and accepted as the method of choice for the rapid validation of milk product pasteurization. However, ALP assays have notable limitations that must be understood if they are to be administered and interpreted correctly and the results are to be applied judiciously. Issues such as the reactivation of heat-denatured ALP and the presence of both heat-stable and -labile microbial ALP are addressed. A discussion of ALP in the milk of nonbovine species is presented based on the limited literature available. Some discussion of research involving alternative pasteurization indicators also is presented. This article is intended to summarize the pertinent details of the ALP assay for dairy products (noting the basis and limitations of various methods) and the processing, handling, and known compositional factors that influence the assay results.

  11. Effects of calcium montmorillonite clay and aflatoxin exposure on dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifteen primiparous crossbred dairy cows that were 114 ± 14 d in milk and weighed 533 ± 56 kg were used in a replicated 5×5 Latin square to test the efficacy of NovaSil Plus (NSP) for the reduction of aflatoxin (AF) metabolite (AFM1) in milk and the effect of NSP on milk composition. Cows were hous...

  12. Acute allergic reactions in Vietnamese children after drinking a new milk product.

    PubMed

    Vo, Thuan Huu; Le, Ninh Hoang; Patel, Mahomed Said; Phan, Lan Trong; Tran Minh, Nhu Nguyen

    2012-02-01

    In early October 2009, pediatricians in hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) reported an unusual increase in the number of children presenting with an acute onset of itchy rash and some with breathing difficulties shortly after drinking milk products. The pediatricians considered the illness to be an allergic reaction to milk. The objective of our investigation was to identify the cause of this acute illness. Following early case reports, all hospitals in HCMC were requested to report cases of this illness. Parents were advised to take children with symptoms to a hospital immediately. A case-series was conducted to generate hypotheses on the possible causes of the illness and was followed by a case-control study to test the hypothesis. Parents of all cases and controls were interviewed face-to-face. The association between food items and the allergy was tested using conditional logistics regression. From 9 to 28 October 2009, 19 cases fulfilled the case definition, and 16 of the 17 cases included in the study had consumed milk supplemented with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) shortly before the onset of illness. Fifty age-matched, neighborhood controls were enrolled into the case control study. Of the 30 food items consumed by study participants in the preceding 24 h, only the odds ratio (OR) of milk supplemented with GOS was statistically significant: OR=34.0 (95% CI=3.9, 294.8). Laboratory tests of this milk product did not reveal any unusual properties, chemicals, or other toxic substances. This is the first report of an acute allergic reaction to fresh milk supplemented with GOS. However, the specific allergen in this product was not identified. Further cases were not reported once this product was withdrawn from sale. Vietnam's food safety authorities should expand laboratory capacity to detect allergens in food products.

  13. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type.

    PubMed

    Mays, A R; Brown, M A; von Tunglen, D L; Rosenkrans, C F

    2014-03-01

    reduced 0.72, 0.68, and 0.71 kg/d per unit increase in log horn fly count. Our results indicate that horn fly infestations reduce milk yield and quality of spring-calving beef cows depending on sire breed and month of lactation. Development of sustainable beef production systems may include selecting breed types whose milk yield and quality is less influenced by horn flies, allowing for better expression of genetic potential for milk yield in nutritionally challenging environments. PMID:24492544

  14. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type.

    PubMed

    Mays, A R; Brown, M A; von Tunglen, D L; Rosenkrans, C F

    2014-03-01

    reduced 0.72, 0.68, and 0.71 kg/d per unit increase in log horn fly count. Our results indicate that horn fly infestations reduce milk yield and quality of spring-calving beef cows depending on sire breed and month of lactation. Development of sustainable beef production systems may include selecting breed types whose milk yield and quality is less influenced by horn flies, allowing for better expression of genetic potential for milk yield in nutritionally challenging environments.

  15. Milk production response to varying protein supply is independent of forage digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Alstrup, L; Weisbjerg, M R; Hymøller, L; Larsen, M K; Lund, P; Nielsen, M O

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this experiment was to examine whether the positive response in milk production to increased crude protein (CP) supply in dairy cows was dependent on the digestibility of the forage. Forty-eight lactating Danish Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 4 rations: (1) high digestibility and high CP concentration (HdHp), (2) high digestibility and low CP concentration (HdLp), (3) low digestibility and high CP concentration (LdHp), and (4) low digestibility and low CP concentration (LdLp). All rations contained 30% corn silage, 25% grass-clover silage, and 45% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Different digestibilities were obtained by replacing a high-digestible grass-clover silage combined with a high-digestible corn silage with a low-digestible grass-clover silage combined with a low-digestible corn silage. Organic matter digestibilities were 79.8 and 74.7% in the high- and low-digestibility rations, respectively. Dietary CP concentration in the ration was increased by substituting barley and sugar beet pulp with rapeseed meal and soybean meal, whereby CP increased from 13.9 to 14.0% (Lp) to 15.7 to 16.0% (Hp). All cows were offered 3 kg of the same concentrate per day in the automatic milking system in addition to the mixed ration. Every feeding period lasted 3 wk, and DM intake and milk yield were measured in the last week in each period, and milk samples for determining milk composition, including fatty acid content, and blood samples were taken during the last 3d of each period. Dry matter intake increased by 2.2 kg/d on Hd compared with Ld and by 0.7 kg/d on Hp compared with Lp. The positive effect on DM intake was reflected in the energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield, as a higher ration digestibility increased the ECM yield by 1.7 kg/d and a higher CP concentration increased it by 1.2 kg/d. We detected no interaction between forage digestibility and CP concentration on milk production. Reduced digestibility was

  16. Novel in vitro systems for prediction of veterinary drug residues in ovine milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    González-Lobato, L; Real, R; Herrero, D; de la Fuente, A; Prieto, J G; Marqués, M M; Alvarez, A I; Merino, G

    2014-01-01

    A new in vitro tool was developed for the identification of veterinary substrates of the main drug transporter in the mammary gland. These drugs have a much higher chance of being concentrated into ovine milk and thus should be detectable in dairy products. Complementarily, a cell model for the identification of compounds that can inhibit the secretion of drugs into ovine milk, and thus reduce milk residues, was also generated. The ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) is responsible for the concentration of its substrates into milk. The need to predict potential drug residues in ruminant milk has prompted the development of in vitro cell models over-expressing ABCG2 for these species to detect veterinary drugs that interact with this transporter. Using these models, several substrates for bovine and caprine ABCG2 have been found, and differences in activity between species have been reported. However, despite being of great toxicological relevance, no suitable in vitro model to predict substrates of ovine ABCG2 was available. New MDCKII and MEF3.8 cell models over-expressing ovine ABCG2 were generated for the identification of substrates and inhibitors of ovine ABCG2. Five widely used veterinary antibiotics (marbofloxacin, orbifloxacin, sarafloxacin, danofloxacin and difloxacin) were discovered as new substrates of ovine ABCG2. These results were confirmed for the bovine transporter and its Y581S variant using previously generated cell models. In addition, the avermectin doramectin was described as a new inhibitor of ruminant ABCG2. This new rapid assay to identify veterinary drugs that can be concentrated into ovine milk will potentially improve detection and monitoring of veterinary drug residues in ovine milk and dairy products.

  17. Yersinia enterocolitica infections associated with improperly pasteurized milk products: southwest Pennsylvania, March-August, 2011.

    PubMed

    Longenberger, A H; Gronostaj, M P; Yee, G Y; Johnson, L M; Lando, J F; Voorhees, R E; Waller, K; Weltman, A C; Moll, M; Lyss, S B; Cadwell, B L; Gladney, L M; Ostroff, S M

    2014-08-01

    In July 2011, a cluster of Yersinia enterocolitica infections was detected in southwestern Pennsylvania, USA. We investigated the outbreak's source and scope in order to prevent further transmission. Twenty-two persons were diagnosed with yersiniosis; 16 of whom reported consuming pasteurized dairy products from dairy A. Pasteurized milk and food samples were collected from this dairy. Y. enterocolitica was isolated from two products. Isolates from both food samples and available clinical isolates from nine dairy A consumers were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Environmental and microbiological investigations were performed at dairy A and pasteurization deficiencies were noted. Because consumption of pasteurized milk is common and outbreaks have the potential to become large, public health interventions such as consumer advisories or closure of the dairy must be implemented quickly to prevent additional cases if epidemiological or laboratory evidence implicates pasteurized milk as the outbreak source.

  18. Siderophore production and utilization by milk spoilage Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Brown, A G; Luke, R K J

    2010-04-01

    Many bacteria respond to potentially growth-limiting availability of iron by producing low-molecular-weight iron chelators (siderophores). The aim of this work was to examine the siderophores synthesized and utilized by Pseudomonas spp. implicated in milk spoilage. Twenty isolates of Pseudomonas spp. previously shown to have significant milk spoilage potential were tested for the ability to produce siderophores. Of these, 14 produced pyoverdin and 2 of these also produced pyochelin; 1 produced only pyochelin; 1 produced only salicylate; 2 produced non-pyoverdin, hydroxamate-containing siderophore; and 2 produced chrome azurol sulfonate reactive material that was neither pyoverdin nor pyochelin. There was considerable diversity among the pyoverdins produced. All isolates were shown to utilize iron complexed with exogenous pyoverdin, but usage of particular exogenous pyoverdins differed among isolates. Interference with the iron-uptake systems of the Pseudomonas spp. may be a means by which food spoilage can be slowed, and the pyoverdin system would appear to be a potential target. However, given the diversity of pyoverdins produced and utilized, and the presence of other siderophores, successful interference with bacterial iron acquisition in this context may be challenging. PMID:20338412

  19. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  20. Aflatoxin M₁ in raw, UHT milk and dairy products in Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Santini, Antonello; Raiola, Assunta; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Macaluso, Andrea; Bognanno, Matteo; Galvano, Fabio; Ritieni, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    A survey on 73 milk samples from different animal breeds and 24 dairy products samples from Sicily, Italy, was carried out for the presence of aflatoxin M₁ (AFM1) by LC-fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity cleanup. AFM1 was detected in 48% and 42% of the milk and dairy samples at concentration ranges between <5.0-16.0 and <5.0-18.0 ng L⁻¹, respectively. Within the raw milk samples, 92% had an AFM1 content below 5.0 ng L⁻¹, in 7% of the cases it was in the range 5.0-10.0 ng L⁻¹ and 1% was contaminated between 10.0 and 20.0 ng L⁻¹. For the dairy products, ultra-high-temperature treated (UHT) milk, milk cream and cheese, the incidence was 42%, of which 83% contained less than 5.0 ng L⁻¹ and 17% contained 10.0-20.0 ng L⁻¹ AFM1. The levels of contamination found justify continuous monitoring for public health and to reduce consumer exposure.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in Norwegian raw milk cheese production.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Ragnhild Aakre; Heggebø, Ragna; Sunde, Elin Bekvik; Skjervheim, Magne

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes during the cheese making process in small-scale raw milk cheese production in Norway. The prevalence of S. aureus in bovine and caprine raw milk samples was 47.3% and 98.8%, respectively. An increase in contamination during the first 2-3 h resulted in a 73.6% prevalence of contamination in the bovine curd, and 23 out of 38 S. aureus-negative bovine milk samples gave rise to S. aureus-positive curds. The highest contamination levels of S. aureus were reached in both caprine and bovine cheese after 5-6 h (after the first pressing). There was no contamination of L. monocytogenes in caprine cheeses and only one (1.4%) contaminated bovine cheese. This work has increased our knowledge about S. aureus and L. monocytogenes contamination during the process of raw milk cheese production and gives an account of the hygiene status during the manufacture of Norwegian raw milk cheeses.

  2. Milk production of dairy cows fed wet corn gluten feed during the dry period and lactation.

    PubMed

    Kononoff, P J; Ivan, S K; Matzke, W; Grant, R J; Stock, R A; Klopfenstein, T J

    2006-07-01

    An experiment was conducted with 36 primiparous and 40 multiparous Holstein cows to examine the effects of feeding wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) on 305-d milk production, dry matter (DM) intake, body condition score (BCS), and health. The experimental treatments included: 1) control--WCGF not fed (n = 27); 2) WCGF-L-cows received diets containing WCGF (38% DM basis) during lactation (n = 23); and 3) WCGF-DL--cows received diets containing WCGF (38% DM basis) during the dry period and lactation (n = 26). During the dry period, cows consuming WCGF were observed to have a significant gain in BCS (0.07 +/- 0.06) compared with a loss in BCS in cows fed the control diet (control = -0.11 +/- 0.06 and WCGF-L = -0.04 +/- 0.06). During lactation, there were no differences by treatment on BCS. Cows consuming WCGF during lactation consumed more feed compared with the control: 25.4, 23.8, and 21.2 +/- 0.76 kg/d for WCGF-L, WCGF-DL, and the control, respectively. Milk production was higher for cows consuming WCGF: 35.0, 34.7, and 31.1 +/- 2.1 kg/d for WCGF-L, WCGF-DL, and the control, respectively. No differences were found in either DM intake or actual milk yield between the WCGF-L and WCGF-DL treatments, indicating that prepartum diets did not influence lactational performance. The WCGF diets resulted in significant reductions in the concentration of milk fat (3.94, 3.74, and 4.15 +/- 0.08% for WCGF-L, WCGF-DL, and the control, respectively), but because total milk yield was increased, there were no differences in total milk fat yield. In addition, 3.5% of fat-corrected milk tended to be affected by diet: 38.9, 36.3, and 34.7 +/- 1.93 kg/d for WCGF-L, WCGF-DL, and the control, respectively. The increasing effect of DM intake and milk yield in cows consuming WCGF resulted in a similar efficiency of 3.5% fat-corrected milk production for all treatments, averaging 1.5 +/- 0.09. Total protein yields were significantly higher for cows consuming WCGF diets during lactation: 1.15, 1

  3. Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.

    PubMed

    Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

    2014-02-01

    Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving

  4. Effect of sensor systems for cow management on milk production, somatic cell count, and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Steeneveld, W; Vernooij, J C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-06-01

    To improve management on dairy herds, sensor systems have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. It is not known whether using sensor systems also improves measures of health and production in dairy herds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of using sensor systems on measures of health and production in dairy herds. Data of 414 Dutch dairy farms with (n=152) and without (n=262) sensor systems were available. For these herds, information on milk production per cow, days to first service, first calving age, and somatic cell count (SCC) was provided for the years 2003 to 2013. Moreover, year of investment in sensor systems was available. For every farm year, we determined whether that year was before or after the year of investment in sensor systems on farms with an automatic milking system (AMS) or a conventional milking system (CMS), or whether it was a year on a farm that never invested in sensor systems. Separate statistical analyses were performed to determine the effect of sensor systems for mastitis detection (color, SCC, electrical conductivity, and lactate dehydrogenase sensors), estrus detection for dairy cows, estrus detection for young stock, and other sensor systems (weighing platform, rumination time sensor, fat and protein sensor, temperature sensor, milk temperature sensor, urea sensor, β-hydroxybutyrate sensor, and other sensor systems). The AMS farms had a higher average SCC (by 12,000 cells/mL) after sensor investment, and CMS farms with a mastitis detection system had a lower average SCC (by 10,000 cells/mL) in the years after sensor investment. Having sensor systems was associated with a higher average production per cow on AMS farms, and with a lower average production per cow on CMS farms in the years after investment. The most likely reason for this lower milk production after investment was that on 96% of CMS farms, the sensor system investment occurred

  5. Foods for Special Dietary Needs: Non-dairy Plant-based Milk Substitutes and Fermented Dairy-type Products.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Outi Elina; Wanhalinna, Viivi; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke Karin

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of consumers opt for plant-based milk substitutes for medical reasons or as a lifestyle choice. Medical reasons include lactose intolerance, with a worldwide prevalence of 75%, and cow's milk allergy. Also, in countries where mammal milk is scarce and expensive, plant milk substitutes serve as a more affordable option. However, many of these products have sensory characteristics objectionable to the mainstream western palate. Technologically, plant milk substitutes are suspensions of dissolved and disintegrated plant material in water, resembling cow's milk in appearance. They are manufactured by extracting the plant material in water, separating the liquid, and formulating the final product. Homogenization and thermal treatments are necessary to improve the suspension and microbial stabilities of commercial products that can be consumed as such or be further processed into fermented dairy-type products. The nutritional properties depend on the plant source, processing, and fortification. As some products have extremely low protein and calcium contents, consumer awareness is important when plant milk substitutes are used to replace cow's milk in the diet, e.g. in the case of dairy intolerances. If formulated into palatable and nutritionally adequate products, plant-based substitutes can offer a sustainable alternative to dairy products. PMID:25575046

  6. Effect of corn silage from an herbicide-tolerant genetically modified variety on milk production and absence of transgenic DNA in milk.

    PubMed

    Phipps, R H; Jones, A K; Tingey, A P; Abeyasekera, S

    2005-08-01

    Data from 60 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 12-wk continuous design feeding trial. Cows were allocated to 1 of 4 experimental treatments (T1 to T4). In T1 and T2, the total mixed ration (TMR) contained either corn silage from the genetically modified (GM) variety Chardon Liberty Link, which is tolerant to the herbicide glufosinate ammonium, or its near isogenic nonGM counterpart, whereas the TMR used in T3 and T4 contained corn silage from the commercially available nonGM varieties Fabius and Antares, respectively. The objectives of the study were to determine if the inserted gene produced a marked effect on chemical composition, nutritive value, feed intake, and milk production, and to determine if transgenic DNA and the protein expressed by the inserted gene could be detected in bovine milk. The nutritive value, fermentation characteristics, mineral content, and amino acid composition of all 4 silages were similar. There were no significant treatment effects on milk yield, milk composition, and yield of milk constituents, and the dry matter (DM) intake of the GM variety was not significantly different from the 2 commercial varieties. However, although the DM intake noted for the nonGM near-isogenic variety was similar to the commercial varieties, it was significantly lower when compared with the GM variety. Polymerase chain reaction analyses of milk samples collected at wk 1, 6, and 12 of the study showed that none of the 90 milk samples tested positive, above a detection limit of 2.5 ng of total genomic DNA/mL of milk, for either tDNA (event T25) or the single-copy endogenous Zea mays gene, alcohol dehydrogenase. Using ELISA assays, the protein expressed by the T25 gene was not detected in milk.

  7. Supporting Production of Milk and Milk Components on Low Protein Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is increasing interest in minimizing crude protein (CP) content of diets fed to dairy cows to reduce production costs and to improve environmental sustainability. Dietary CP not utilized for production is lost largely in the urine, the most polluting form of excretory nitrogen (N). Because mic...

  8. Genetic parameters for milk production traits and breeding goals for Gir dairy cattle in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prata, M A; Faro, L E; Moreira, H L; Verneque, R S; Vercesi Filho, A E; Peixoto, M G C D; Cardoso, V L

    2015-01-01

    To implement an animal breeding program, it is important to define the production circumstances of the animals of interest to determine which traits of economic interest will be selected for the breeding goal. The present study defined breeding goals and proposed selection indices for milk production and quality traits of Gir dairy cattle. First, a bioeconomic model was developed to calculate economic values. The genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated based on records from 22,468 first-lactation Gir dairy cows and their crosses for which calving occurred between 1970 and 2011. Statistical analyses were carried out for the animal model, with multitrait analyses using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Two situations were created in the present study to define the breeding goals: 1) including only milk yield in the breeding goal (HGL1) and 2) including fat and protein in addition to the milk yield (HGL2). The heritability estimates for milk, protein, and fat production were 0.33 ± 0.02, 0.26 ± 0.02, and 0.24 ± 0.02, respectively. All phenotypic and genetic correlations were highly positive. The economic values for milk, fat, and protein were US$0.18, US$0.27, and US$7.04, respectively. The expected economic responses for HGL2 and for HGL1 were US$126.30 and US$79.82, respectively. These results indicate that milk component traits should be included in a selection index to rank animals evaluated in the National Gir Dairy Breeding Program developed in Brazil.

  9. Chemometric approach to texture profile analysis of kombucha fermented milk products.

    PubMed

    Malbaša, Radomir; Jevrić, Lidija; Lončar, Eva; Vitas, Jasmina; Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Sanja; Milanović, Spasenija; Kovačević, Strahinja

    2015-09-01

    In the present work, relationships between the textural characteristics of fermented milk products obtained by kombucha inoculums with various teas were investigated by using chemometric analysis. The presented data which describe numerically the textural characteristics (firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and index of viscosity) were analysed. The quadratic correlation was determined between the textural characteristics of fermented milk products obtained at fermentation temperatures of 40 and 43 °C, using milk with 0.8, 1.6 and 2.8% milk fat and kombucha inoculums cultivated on the extracts of peppermint, stinging nettle, wild thyme and winter savory. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was performed to identify the similarities among the fermented products. The best mathematical models predicting the textural characteristics of investigated samples were developed. The results of this study indicate that textural characteristics of sample based on winter savory have a significant effect on textural characteristics of samples based on peppermint, stinging nettle and wild thyme, which can be very useful in the determination of products texture profile. PMID:26345015

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus mundtii QAUEM2808, Isolated from Dahi, a Fermented Milk Product

    PubMed Central

    Farah, N.; Mehdi, A.; Soomro, S. I.; Soomro, N. I.; Tareb, R.; Desmasures, N.; Vernoux, J. P.; Bakhtiar, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus mundtii QAUEM2808 has been isolated from dahi, an indigenous fermented milk product of Pakistan. Here, we report the draft genome sequence for this strain, which consists of 160 contigs corresponding to 2,957,514 bp and a G+C content of 38.5%. PMID:27635009

  11. Effects of Different Protein Supplements on Milk Production and Nutrient Utilization in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen (8 ruminally cannulated) multiparous and 8 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in 6 replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares to test the effects of feeding supplemental protein as urea, solvent soybean meal (SSBM), cottonseed meal (CSM), or canola meal (CM) on milk production, nutrient utili...

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum Strain DIVETGP, Isolated from Cow's Milk for Grana Padano Production.

    PubMed

    Soggiu, Alessio; Piras, Cristian; Gaiarsa, Stefano; Bendixen, Emøke; Panitz, Frank; Bendixen, Christian; Sassera, Davide; Brasca, Milena; Bonizzi, Luigi; Roncada, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We announce the draft genome sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain DIVETGP. This strain was isolated from cow's milk used for Grana Padano cheese production. The genome was obtained using Illumina HiSeq technology and comprises 45 contigs for 3,018,999 bp, with a G+C content of 30.8%.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus mundtii QAUEM2808, Isolated from Dahi, a Fermented Milk Product.

    PubMed

    Farah, N; Mehdi, A; Soomro, S I; Soomro, N I; Tareb, R; Desmasures, N; Vernoux, J P; Bakhtiar, S M; Imran, M

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus mundtii QAUEM2808 has been isolated from dahi, an indigenous fermented milk product of Pakistan. Here, we report the draft genome sequence for this strain, which consists of 160 contigs corresponding to 2,957,514 bp and a G+C content of 38.5%. PMID:27635009

  14. Low levels of aflatoxin B1, ricin and milk enhance recombinant protein production in mammalian cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changing the optimal tissue culture medium by adding low levels of environmental stress such as 1 µM of the fungal toxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), 1 ng of the castor bean protein toxin ricin in transduced mammalian cells or 1% reconstituted milk enhances transcription and increases production of the foll...

  15. Environmental profile and critical temperature effects on milk production of Holstein cows in desert climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igono, M. O.; Bjotvedt, G.; Sanford-Crane, H. T.

    1992-06-01

    The environmental profile of central Arizona is quantitatively described using meteorological data between 1971 and 1986. Utilizing ambient temperature criteria of hours per day less than 21° C, between 21 and 27° C, and more than 27° C, the environmental profile of central Arizona consists of varying levels of thermoneutral and heat stress periods. Milk production data from two commercial dairy farms from March 1990 to February 1991 were used to evaluate the seasonal effects identified in the environmental profile. Overall, milk production is lower during heat stress compared to thermoneutral periods. During heat stress, the cool period of hours per day with temperature less than 21° C provides a margin of safety to reduce the effects of heat stress on decreased milk production. Using minimum, mean and maximum ambient temperatures, the upper critical temperatures for milk production are 21, 27 and 32° C, respectively. Using the temperature-humidity index as the thermal environment indicator, the critical values for minimum, mean and maximum THI are 64, 72 and 76, respectively.

  16. Long-term effects of ad libitum whole milk prior to weaning and prepubertal protein supplementation on skeletal growth rate and first-lactation milk production.

    PubMed

    Moallem, U; Werner, D; Lehrer, H; Zachut, M; Livshitz, L; Yakoby, S; Shamay, A

    2010-06-01

    Our objectives were to determine the effects of rapid growth rate during the preweaning period and prepubertal protein supplementation on long-term growth pattern and milk production during the first lactation. Forty-six Israeli Holstein heifer calves were fed either milk replacer (MR) or whole milk (WM) from 4 to 60 d age. Calves had free access to WM or MR for 30 min twice daily and free-choice water and starter mix for the entire day. From weaning until 150 d of age, all heifers were fed the same ration. At 150 d of age the heifers were divided into 2 subgroups, with one subgroup supplemented with an additional 2% protein until 320 d of age. Thereafter, all heifers were housed and fed together until calving. Another cluster of 20 heifers was raised on MR and WM treatments and 3 animals from each nursery treatment were slaughtered at 60 d and 10 mo age to determine effects of nursery treatment on organ and adipose tissue mass. Prior to weaning, the MR heifers consumed 0.12 kg/d more DM than the WM heifers, but metabolizable energy intake was not different. Body weight at weaning and average daily gain during the preweaning period were 3.1 kg and 0.074 kg/d higher, respectively, in the WM treatment than in the MR treatment, with no differences in other measurements. Nursery feeding treatment and added protein had no effect on growth rate in the prepubertal period, but the postweaning difference in BW between the WM and MR heifers remained throughout the entire rearing period. The age at first insemination was 23 d earlier and age at pregnancy and first calving was numerically lower for the WM heifers than for the MR heifers. Adipose tissue weights at weaning were doubled in the WM calves. First-lactation milk production and 4% fat-corrected milk were 10.3 and 7.1% higher, respectively, for WM heifers than for MR heifers, whereas prepubertal added protein tended to increase milk yield. In conclusion, preweaning WM at high feeding rates appears to have long

  17. Water footprint analysis for the assessment of milk production in Brandenburg (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drastig, K.; Prochnow, A.; Kraatz, S.; Klauss, H.; Plöchl, M.

    2010-09-01

    The working group "Adaptation to Climate Change" at the Leibniz-Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim (ATB) is introduced. This group calculates the water footprint for agricultural processes and farms, distinguished into green water footprint, blue water footprint, and dilution water footprint. The green and blue water demand of a dairy farm plays a pivotal role in the regional water balance. Considering already existing and forthcoming climate change effects there is a need to determine the water cycle in the field and in housing for process chain optimisation for the adaptation to an expected increasing water scarcity. Resulting investments to boost water productivity and to improve water use efficiency in milk production are two pathways to adapt to climate change effects. In this paper the calculation of blue water demand for dairy farming in Brandenburg (Germany) is presented. The water used for feeding, milk processing, and servicing of cows over the time period of ten years was assessed in our study. The preliminary results of the calculation of the direct blue water footprint shows a decreasing water demand in the dairy production from the year 1999 with 5.98×109 L/yr to a water demand of 5.00×109 L/yr in the year 2008 in Brandenburg because of decreasing animal numbers and an improved average milk yield per cow. Improved feeding practices and shifted breeding to greater-volume producing Holstein-Friesian cow allow the production of milk in a more water sustainable way. The mean blue water consumption for the production of 1 kg milk in the time period between 1999 to 2008 was 3.94±0.29 L. The main part of the consumed water seems to stem from indirect used green water for the production of feed for the cows.

  18. Production of recombinant human proinsulin in the milk of transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xi; Kraft, Jana; Ni, Yingdong; Zhao, Feng-Qi

    2014-01-01

    There is a steady increasing demand for insulin worldwide. Current insulin manufacturing capacities can barely meet this increasing demand. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of producing human proinsulin in the milk of transgenic animals. Four lines of transgenic mice harboring a human insulin cDNA with expression driven by the goat β-casein gene promoter were generated. The expression level of human proinsulin in milk was as high as 8.1 g/L. The expression of the transgene was only detected in the mammary gland during lactation, with higher levels at mid-lactation and lower levels at early and late lactation. The blood glucose and insulin levels and the major milk compositions were unchanged, and the transgenic animals had no apparent health defects. The mature insulin derived from the milk proinsulin retained its biological activity. In conclusion, our study provides supporting evidence to explore the production of high levels of human proinsulin in the milk of dairy animals. PMID:25267062

  19. Production and properties of health-promoting proteins and peptides from bovine colostrum and milk.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, H J

    2013-01-01

    The high nutritive value and diverse functional properties of milk proteins are well known. Beyond these qualities, milk proteins have attracted growing scientific and commercial interest as a source of biologically active molecules. Such proteins are found in abundance in colostrum which is the initial milk secreted by mammalian species during late pregnancy and the first few days after birth of the offspring. The best characterized colostrum-based bioactive proteins include alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and growth factors. All of them can nowadays be enriched and purified on an industrial scale from bovine colostral whey or cheese whey. These native proteins exhibit a wide range of biological activities that are known to affect the digestive function, metabolic responses to absorbed nutrients, growth and development of organs and disease resistance. Also, some of these proteins may prove beneficial in reduction of the risks of chronic human diseases reflected by the metabolic syndrome. It is speculated that such potentially beneficial effects are partially attributed to bioactive peptides derived from intact proteins. These peptides can be liberated during gastrointestinal digestion or fermentation of milk by starter cultures. The efficacy of a few peptides has been established in animal and human studies and the number of commercial products supplemented with specific milk peptides is envisaged to increase on global markets. Bovine colostrum appears as a highly potential source of biologically active native proteins and peptide fractions for inclusion as health-promoting ingredients in various food applications. PMID:24200017

  20. Evidence for acne-promoting effects of milk and other insulinotropic dairy products.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2011-01-01

    Acne vulgaris, the most common skin disease of western civilization, has evolved to an epidemic affecting more than 85% of adolescents. Acne can be regarded as an indicator disease of exaggerated insulinotropic western nutrition. Especially milk and whey protein-based products contribute to elevations of postprandial insulin and basal insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plasma levels. It is the evolutional principle of mammalian milk to promote growth and support anabolic conditions for the neonate during the nursing period. Whey proteins are most potent inducers of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide secreted by enteroendocrine K cells which in concert with hydrolyzed whey protein-derived essential amino acids stimulate insulin secretion of pancreatic β-cells. Increased insulin/IGF-I signaling activates the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt pathway, thereby reducing the nuclear content of the transcription factor FoxO1, the key nutrigenomic regulator of acne target genes. Nuclear FoxO1 deficiency has been linked to all major factors of acne pathogenesis, i.e. androgen receptor transactivation, comedogenesis, increased sebaceous lipogenesis, and follicular inflammation. The elimination of the whey protein-based insulinotropic mechanisms of milk will be the most important future challenge for nutrition research. Both, restriction of milk consumption or generation of less insulinotropic milk will have an enormous impact on the prevention of epidemic western diseases like obesity, diabetes mellitus, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and acne.

  1. Enumeration and confirmation of Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas caviae, and Aeromonas sobria isolated from raw milk and other milk products in Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Melas, D S; Papageorgiou, D K; Mantis, A I

    1999-05-01

    A total of 138 raw cow's and 57 raw ewe's milk samples; 80 pasteurized cow's milk samples; 39 Anthotyros cheese, 36 Manouri cheese, and 23 Feta cheese samples; and 15 rice pudding samples were examined for the presence and any countable population of Aeromonas species. Twenty-two (15.9%) of the 138 cow's milk samples analyzed were contaminated with A. hydrophila. In 13 of these samples, populations of 3.0x10(2) to 5.0x10(3) CFU/ml were counted in starch ampicillin agar (SAA). Eighteen cow's milk samples (13.0%) were contaminated with A. caviae, and in eight of these samples, populations of 2.0x10(2) to 3.0x10(3) CFU/ml were counted in SAA. Five cow's milk samples (3.6%) were contaminated with A. sobria, and in two of these samples, populations of 2.5x10(3) and 5.0x10(3) CFU/ml were counted in SAA. Eleven cow's milk samples (7.9%) were contaminated with other Aeromonas spp. not classified. Eight (14.0%) of the 57 ewe's milk samples analyzed were contaminated with A. hydrophila. In these samples, populations of 5.0x10(2) to 5.0x10(3) CFU/ml were counted in SAA. Six ewe's milk samples (10.5%) were contaminated with A. caviae, and populations of 1.5x10(2) to 1.0x10(3) CFU/ ml were counted in SAA. Two ewe's milk samples (3.5%) were contaminated with A. sobria, and populations counted in SAA were 5.0x10(2) and 1.0x10(3) CFU/ml. Four samples (7.0%) were contaminated with other Aeromonas spp. not classified. A. hydrophila was recovered in 4 (10.2%) and 3 (8.3%) of the Anthotyros and Manouri cheese samples analyzed, respectively, but no countable populations were noted in SAA. None of the pasteurized milk, Feta cheese, and rice pudding samples yielded Aeromonas spp. The results of this work indicate that motile Aeromonas are common in raw milk in Greece. Also, the presence of A. hydrophila in the whey cheeses Anthotyros and Manouri indicates that postprocessing contaminations of these products with motile Aeromonas may occur during production.

  2. Anaerobic sporeformers and their significance with respect to milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Conor J; Gleeson, David; Jordan, Kieran; Beresford, Tom P; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D

    2015-03-16

    Sporeforming bacteria are a significant concern for the international dairy industry. Spores present in milk survive heat treatments and can persist during downstream processing. If they are present in sufficient numbers in dairy products they can cause spoilage or lead to illness as a result of toxin production. While many reviews have highlighted the threat posed by spores of aerobic bacteria to the dairy industry, few have focused on problems caused by the array of different species of anaerobic sporeformers (Clostridium and related genera) that can be found in milk. This is despite of the fact that members of these bacteria are found throughout the dairy farm environment, and can be toxigenic, neurotoxigenic or spoilage bacteria. This makes the possible presence of Clostridium and related spores in bulk tank milk (BTM) important from both a financial and a public health perspective. In this review dairy associated anaerobic sporeformers are assessed from a number of perspectives. This includes the taxonomy of this group of bacteria, the important subgroup of this genus the "sulphite reducing clostridia" (SRC), how these bacteria are detected in milk products, the epidemiological data regarding pathogenic species and strains within the SRC group as well as the influence of farming practices on the presence of SRC in BTM.

  3. The occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus on a farm with small-scale production of raw milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, H J; Mørk, T; Rørvik, L M

    2005-11-01

    In recent years, the small-scale production of raw milk products has increased in Norway, and there is some concern that such foods may pose a risk of staphylococcal food poisoning to consumers. The aim of the study was to evaluate potential sources of contamination of raw milk cheese with Staphylococcus aureus on a bovine dairy farm with small-scale production. Samples for bacteriological analyses (n = 144) were collected from the animals, the environment, processing equipments, from humans, and from cheeses at various stages of production. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 10 of 11 cows, the farmer, equipment, the environment, and the cheese. Seventy-five Staph. aureus isolates were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, tested for enterotoxin (SE) production by reversed passive latex agglutination, for SE genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and for penicillin resistance by the cloverleaf method. Five different pulsotypes were identified and SE gene fragments were identified in 11 isolates, but no isolates produced SE or were penicillin resistant. Staphylococcus aureus was found throughout the farm, and appeared to be spread with the milk to the environment, equipment, and to products. One pulsotype dominated and was identified from most sample sites on the farm. Raw milk products are vulnerable to contamination with Staph. aureus. Strategies to reduce the occurrence of Staph. aureus in bulk milk are of particular importance on farms where milk is used for raw milk products.

  4. Triennial Lactation Symposium: Opportunities for improving milk production efficiency in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Connor, E E; Hutchison, J L; Olson, K M; Norman, H D

    2012-05-01

    Increasing feed costs and the desire to improve environmental stewardship have stimulated renewed interest in improving feed efficiency of livestock, including that of US dairy herds. For instance, USDA cost projections for corn and soybean meal suggest a 20% increase over 2010 pricing for a 16% protein mixed dairy cow ration in 2011, which may lead to a reduction in cow numbers to maintain profitability of dairy production. Furthermore, an October 2010 study by The Innovation Center for US Dairy to assess the carbon footprint of fluid milk found that the efficiency of feed conversion is the single greatest factor contributing to variation in the carbon footprint because of its effects on methane release during enteric fermentation and from manure. Thus, we are conducting research in contemporary US Holsteins to identify cows most efficient at converting feed to milk in temperate climates using residual feed intake (RFI), a measure used successfully to identify the beef cattle most efficient at converting feed to gain. Residual feed intake is calculated as the difference between predicted and actual feed intake to support maintenance and production (e.g., growth in beef cattle, or milk in dairy cattle). Heritability estimates for RFI in dairy cattle reported in the literature range from 0.01 to 0.38. Selection for a decreased RFI phenotype can reduce feed intake, methane production, nutrient losses in manure, and visceral organ weights substantially in beef cattle. We have estimated RFI during early lactation (i.e., to 90 d in milk) in the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Holstein herd and observed a mean difference of 3.7 kg/d (P < 0.0001) in actual DMI between the efficient and inefficient groups (±0.5 SD from the mean RFI of 0), with no evidence of differences (P > 0.20) in mean BW, ADG, or energy-corrected milk exhibited between the 2 groups. These results indicate promise for using RFI in dairy cattle to improve feed conversion to milk. Previous and

  5. Effect of casein genes - beta-LGB, DGAT1, GH, and LHR - on milk production and milk composition traits in crossbred Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Molee, A; Poompramun, C; Mernkrathoke, P

    2015-03-30

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of a single gene and composite genotype of the casein gene family, including the beta-lactoglobulin gene (beta-LGB), acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 gene (DGAT1), growth hormone gene (GH), and luteinizing hormone receptor gene (LHR) on milk yield, milk composition, the percentage of fat, protein, solids-not-fat, and total solid in crossbred Holsteins. A total of 231 crossbred Holstein cows were examined for the study. The genotype of the beta-casein gene was analyzed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, while the alpha-S1, alpha-S2, kappa-casein, DGAT1, beta-LGB, and GH genes were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. The association between genes and milk yield and milk composition was analyzed. Three pairs of genes, for which significant associations were detected, were beta + kappa-casein, DGAT1 + beta-casein, and GH + beta-LGB. In the single-gene model, most loci are significantly associated with traits. A significant association between the composite genotype and the traits was detected in all composite genotypes. GH + beta-LGB appears to be the most suitable variants for improving milk production and percentage of milk protein. Overall, the effects of the composite genotype and single gene were different. A physical or functional relationship between genes is necessary for investigating gene markers.

  6. Effect of monensin on milk production by Holstein and Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Van der Werf, J H; Jonker, L J; Oldenbroek, J K

    1998-02-01

    Effects of the administration of monensin via concentrates to dairy cows were studied in two trials. In one trial, 64 Holstein cows were assigned to four groups that received 0, 150, 300, or 450 mg/d of monensin from 5 to 24 wk postpartum. Milk production tended to increase (4.0, 3.3, and 5.4%, respectively) for the three groups of treated cows. Fat content was decreased by 0.09, 1.89, and 4.09 g/kg, respectively, for these same three groups. The effect on protein content was small and nonsignificant. Feed intake was reduced in treated cows, although not significantly, and feed efficiency was improved by monensin. In a confirmatory trial, 58 Holstein and 22 Jersey cows were allocated either to a control group or to a treatment group that received 300 mg/d of monensin from 5 to 36 wk postpartum during the first lactation and from 2 wk before calving to 36 wk postpartum during a subsequent lactation. During the first lactation, cows in the treatment group showed a 7% increase in milk production, a relative decrease (1.4 g/kg) in milk fat content, and equal protein content compared with cows in the control group. Body weight gain and body condition scores near the end of the treatment period were higher for cows in the treatment group. A decrease in blood ketone concentrations was found between 7 and 56 d of lactation. Treatment effects on milk production differed between breeds and within genetic lines. Jersey cows were less responsive than were Holstein cows, and Holstein cows with a high ratio of breeding values for protein and fat showed larger milk production responses. Results from the second lactation showed similar differences between the two groups as did those from the first lactation.

  7. Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto on milk production, rumen fermentation and ruminal microbiome of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sun, P; Wang, J Q; Deng, L F

    2013-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of Bacillus subtilis natto, which was initially isolated from fermented soybeans on milk production, rumen fermentation and ruminal microbiome in dairy cows. In Experiment 1, 36 early lactation Chinese Holstein dairy cows (56 ± 23 days in milk) were randomly assigned to three groups: Control, cows were fed total mixed ration (TMR); BSNLOW, TMR plus 0.5 × 1011 colony-forming units (cfu) of B. subtilis natto/cow per day; and BSNHIGH, TMR plus 1.0 × 1011 cfu of B. subtilis natto/cow per day. During the 70-day treatment period, daily milk production and daily milk composition were determined in individual cows. The results showed that supplementing dairy cows with 0.5 × 1011 and 1.0 × 1011 cfu of B. subtilis natto linearly increased (P < 0.01) milk production (25.2 and 26.4 kg/day v. 23.0 kg/day), 4% fat-corrected milk (27.3 and 28.1 kg/day v. 24.2 kg/day), energy-corrected milk (27.3 and 28.2 kg/day v. 24.2 kg/day), as well as milk fat (1.01 and 1.03 kg/day v. 0.88 kg/day), protein (0.77 and 0.82 kg/day v. 0.69 kg/day) and lactose yield (1.16 and 1.22 kg/day v. 1.06 kg/day) but decreased milk somatic cell counts (SCC) by 3.4% to 5.5% (P < 0.01) in BSNLOW and BSNHIGH treatments compared with Control. In Experiment 2, four rumen-cannulated dairy cows were fed the basal diet from 1 to 7 days (pre-trial period) and rumen samples were collected on days 6 and 7; the same cows then were fed 1.0 × 1011 cfu/day B. subtilis natto from days 8 to 21 (trial period) and rumen samples were collected on days 20 and 21. B. subtilis natto was discontinued from days 22 to 28 (post-trial period) and rumen samples were collected on days 27 and 28. Compared with the pre- and post-periods, ruminal pH decreased by 2.7% to 3.0% during the trial period (P < 0.01), whereas ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), total volatile fatty acids and molar proportion of propionate (P < 0.01) and valerate (P < 0.05) increased. Molar proportion of acetate

  8. Danish Holsteins Favor Bull Offspring: Biased Milk Production as a Function of Fetal Sex, and Calving Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows with no farmer assistance or with veterinary assistance during the most recent calving produced less milk. There were also indications that dams would favor a bull fetus by decreasing milk production during the second pregnancy if the calf born in the first parity was a heifer. We hypothesize that size of calves is a confounding factor for milk production. However, calving weight was not available in the present data set to test this hypothesis. PMID:25874441

  9. Gene regulation of UDP-galactose synthesis and transport: Potential rate limiting processes in initiation of milk production in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactose synthesis is believed to be rate-limiting for milk production. However, understanding the molecular events controlling lactose synthesis in humans is still rudimentary. We have utilized our established model of the RNA isolated from breast milk fat globule from 7 healthy exclusively breastfe...

  10. Milk proteins-derived bioactive peptides in dairy products: molecular, biological and methodological aspects.

    PubMed

    Dziuba, Bartłomiej; Dziuba, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Proteins are one of the primary components of the food, both in terms of nutrition and function. They are main source of amino acids, essential for synthesis of proteins, and also source of energy. Additionally, many proteins exhibit specific biological activities, which may have effect on functional or pro-health properties of food products. These proteins and their hydrolysis products, peptides, may influence the properties of food and human organism. The number of commercially available food products containing bioactive peptides is very low, apart from that milk proteins are their rich source. It could be supposed that number of available products with declared activity will rise in near future because of observed strong uptrend on interest in such products. Molecular and biological properties of milk proteins, as precursors of bioactive peptides was characterised in the work. Therefore, the strategy of research and obtaining of such peptides both in laboratory and industrial scale, as well as the range of their commercial application, was presented. Several examples of research efforts presenting high potential to develop new products containing bioactive peptides from milk proteins and predetermined as nutraceuticals was described.

  11. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production and Composition during Multiple Lactations

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Britni M.; Stallings, Jon W.; Clay, John S.; Rhoads, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress at the time of conception affects the subsequent milk production of primiparous Holstein cows; however, it is unknown whether these effects are maintained across multiple lactations. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and measurements of milk production and composition in cows retained within a herd for multiple lactations. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included milk production data and milk composition data from over 75,000 and 44,000 Holstein cows, respectively, born between 2000 and 2010 in Florida, Georgia, and Texas. Conception dates were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress conceived (HSC) cows; cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral conceived (TNC) contemporaries. Adjusted 305-d mature equivalent milk, protein percent and fat percent were evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS. Milk production was significantly affected by periconceptional heat stress. When a significant difference or tendency for a difference was detected between the HSC and TNC cows, the TNC produced more milk in all but one comparison. The advantage in milk production for the TNC cows over the HSC cows ranged from 82 ± 42 to 399 ± 61 kg per lactation. Alterations in fat and protein percentage were variable and most often detected in first lactations (first > second or third). Overall, the most striking result of this study is the consistency of the relationship between HSC and milk production. The nature of this relationship suggests that heat stress at or around the time of conception impairs cow milk yield throughout her lifetime. PMID:26496650

  12. Effect of flaxseed supplementation rate and processing on the production, fatty acid profile, and texture of milk, butter, and cheese.

    PubMed

    Oeffner, S P; Qu, Y; Just, J; Quezada, N; Ramsing, E; Keller, M; Cherian, G; Goddick, L; Bobe, G

    2013-02-01

    Health and nutrition professionals advise consumers to limit consumption of saturated fatty acids and increase the consumption of foods rich in n-3 fatty acids. Researchers have previously reported that feeding extruded flaxseed, which is high in C18:3n-3, improves the fatty acid profile of milk and dairy products to less saturated fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3. Fat concentrations in milk and butter decreased when cows were fed higher concentrations of extruded flaxseed. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal rate of flaxseed supplementation for improving the fatty acid profile without decreasing production characteristics of milk and dairy products. By using a double 5 × 5 Latin square design, 10 mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows were fed extruded (0, 0.91, 1.81, and 2.72 kg/d) and ground (1.81 kg/d) flaxseed as a top dressing for 2-wk periods each. At the end of each 2-wk treatment period, milk and serum samples were taken. Milk was subsequently manufactured into butter and fresh Mozzarella cheese. Increasing supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed improved the fatty acid profile of milk, butter, and cheese gradually to less saturated and atherogenic fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3 by increasing concentrations of C18:3n-3 in serum. The less saturated fatty acid profile was associated with decreased hardness and adhesiveness of refrigerated butter, which likely cause improved spreadability. Supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed did not affect dry matter intake of the total mixed ration, milk composition, and production of milk, butter, or cheese. Flaxseed processing did not affect production, fatty acid profile of milk, or texture of butter and cheese. Feeding up to 2.72 kg/d of extruded flaxseed to mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows may improve nutritional and functional properties of milk fat without compromising production parameters.

  13. Short communication: Genetic study of methane production predicted from milk fat composition in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    van Engelen, S; Bovenhuis, H; Dijkstra, J; van Arendonk, J A M; Visker, M H P W

    2015-11-01

    Dairy cows produce enteric methane, a greenhouse gas with 25 times the global warming potential of CO2. Breeding could make a permanent, cumulative, and long-term contribution to methane reduction. Due to a lack of accurate, repeatable, individual methane measurements needed for breeding, indicators of methane production based on milk fatty acids have been proposed. The aim of the present study was to quantify the genetic variation for predicted methane yields. The milk fat composition of 1,905 first-lactation Dutch Holstein-Friesian cows was used to investigate 3 different predicted methane yields (g/kg of DMI): Methane1, Methane2, and Methane3. Methane1 was based on the milk fat proportions of C17:0anteiso, C18:1 rans-10+11, C18:1 cis-11, and C18:1 cis-13 (R(2)=0.73). Methane2 was based on C4:0, C18:0, C18:1 trans-10+11, and C18:1 cis-11 (R(2)=0.70). Methane3 was based on C4:0, C6:0, and C18:1 trans-10+11 (R(2)=0.63). Predicted methane yields were demonstrated to be heritable traits, with heritabilities between 0.12 and 0.44. Breeding can, thus, be used to decrease methane production predicted based on milk fatty acids. PMID:26364110

  14. Assessment of the effects of iodine value on fatty acid digestibility, feed intake, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Firkins, J L; Eastridge, M L

    1994-08-01

    Data were pooled from 11 studies evaluating supplemental fat sources differing primarily in degree of saturation (tallow, animal-vegetable fat, vegetable oil, and hydrogenated fats). Data were standardized as proportions of the respective controls to reduce variation among individual studies and were subjected to stepwise multiple regression against the iodine value of fats, the percentage increases of total fatty acids in diets above the respective controls, or the ratio of total C16 to C18 fatty acids in fats (only for hydrogenated fats). Increased iodine value (increasing unsaturation) of fats increased apparent fatty acid digestibility, especially as iodine value increased from 11 to 27. For partially hydrogenated fat sources, as the ratio of C16 to C18 fatty acids increased, digestibility also increased, especially with increasing iodine value (positive interaction). Beneficial effects of higher C16:C18 ratio were reduced as amount of added fat increased (negative interaction). Dry matter intake and FCM production decreased as iodine value increased, perhaps because of inhibition of fiber digestion or metabolic regulation of DMI. Milk protein percentage depression averaged .2 percentage units for most fats. However, as partially hydrogenated fat sources became more saturated, milk protein depression appeared to be less evident; increased ratio of C16:C18 of fatty acids appeared to increase milk protein percentage. Despite the lower apparent digestibility of fatty acids of hydrogenated fats, increased milk production and percentages of fat and protein appeared to make them more economical than more unsaturated fats.

  15. Short communication: Genetic study of methane production predicted from milk fat composition in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    van Engelen, S; Bovenhuis, H; Dijkstra, J; van Arendonk, J A M; Visker, M H P W

    2015-11-01

    Dairy cows produce enteric methane, a greenhouse gas with 25 times the global warming potential of CO2. Breeding could make a permanent, cumulative, and long-term contribution to methane reduction. Due to a lack of accurate, repeatable, individual methane measurements needed for breeding, indicators of methane production based on milk fatty acids have been proposed. The aim of the present study was to quantify the genetic variation for predicted methane yields. The milk fat composition of 1,905 first-lactation Dutch Holstein-Friesian cows was used to investigate 3 different predicted methane yields (g/kg of DMI): Methane1, Methane2, and Methane3. Methane1 was based on the milk fat proportions of C17:0anteiso, C18:1 rans-10+11, C18:1 cis-11, and C18:1 cis-13 (R(2)=0.73). Methane2 was based on C4:0, C18:0, C18:1 trans-10+11, and C18:1 cis-11 (R(2)=0.70). Methane3 was based on C4:0, C6:0, and C18:1 trans-10+11 (R(2)=0.63). Predicted methane yields were demonstrated to be heritable traits, with heritabilities between 0.12 and 0.44. Breeding can, thus, be used to decrease methane production predicted based on milk fatty acids.

  16. The carbon footprint of pasture-based milk production: can white clover make a difference?

    PubMed

    Yan, M-J; Humphreys, J; Holden, N M

    2013-02-01

    Carbon footprint (CF) calculated by life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare greenhouse gas emissions from pasture-based milk production relying mainly on (1) fertilizer N (FN), or (2) white clover (WC). Data were sourced from studies conducted at Solohead Research Farm in Ireland between 2001 and 2006. Ten FN pastures stocked between 2.0 and 2.5 livestock units (LU)/ha with fertilizer N input between 180 and 353 kg/ha were compared with 6 WC pastures stocked between 1.75 and 2.2 LU/ha with fertilizer N input between 80 and 99 kg/ha. The WC-based system had 11 to 23% lower CF compared with FN (average CF was 0.86 to 0.87 and 0.97 to 1.13 kg of CO(2)-eq/kg of energy-corrected milk, respectively, 91% economic allocation). Emissions of both N(2)O and CO(2) were lower in WC, whereas emissions of CH(4) (per kg of energy-corrected milk) were similar in both systems. Ratio sensitivity analysis indicated that the difference was not caused by error due to modeling assumptions. Replacing fertilizer N by biological nitrogen fixation could lower the CF of pasture-based milk production.

  17. Milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a tool to investigate ovarian cyclicity of water buffaloes in relation to body condition score and milk production

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Application of assisted reproductive technologies in buffaloes is limited to some extent by farmers’ inability to detect oestrus because of its poor expression. The present study aimed at investigating reliability of a milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assess the ovarian cyclicity during post partum, oestrus and post-breeding periods in water buffaloes. Methods Progesterone concentrations were measured by an ELISA in milk of 23 postpartum buffaloes in relation to oestrus, pregnancy, body condition score (BCS) and milk production. Two milk samples were taken at 10 days intervals, every month starting from day 30 and continued to day 150 post partum. BCS and milk production were recorded during sample collection. Milk samples from bred buffaloes were collected at Day 0 (day of breeding), Days 10–12 and Days 22–24. Defatted milk was preserved at −80°C until analysis. Pregnancy was confirmed by palpation per rectum on Days 70–90. Results Seventeen buffaloes had 47 ovulatory cycles, one to four in each, 13 were detected in oestrus once (28 % oestrus detection rate). Progesterone concentration ≥1 ng/ml in one of the two 10-day-interval milk samples reflected ovulation and corpus luteum formation. The intervals between calving to first luteal activity and to first detected oestrus varied from 41 to 123 days (n = 17) and 83 to 135 (n = 13) days, respectively. Eight buffaloes were bred in the course of the study and seven were found pregnant. These buffaloes had a progesterone profile of low (<1 ng/ml), high (≥ 1 ng/ml) and high (≥ 1 ng/ml) on Day 0, Days 10–12 and Days 22–24, respectively. Buffaloes cycling later in the postpartum period had fewer missed oestruses (P < 0.05). Buffaloes with a superior BCS had a shorter calving to oestrus interval and produced more milk (P < 0.05). Conclusions Milk progesterone ELISA is a reliable tool for monitoring ovarian cyclicity and good BCS may

  18. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the word “Milk” on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... following the circled K or U on a product label indicates the presence of milk protein or a ...

  19. Milk production and composition of mid-lactation cows consuming perennial ryegrass-and chicory-based diets.

    PubMed

    Muir, S K; Ward, G N; Jacobs, J L

    2014-02-01

    Dry matter intakes (DMI), nutrient selection, and milk production responses of dairy cows grazing 3 herbage-based diets offered at 2 allowances were measured. The 2 allowances were 20 (low) and 30 (high) kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day and these were applied to 3 herbage types: perennial ryegrass (PRG) and chicory (CHIC+) monocultures and a mixed sward of chicory and perennial ryegrass (MIX). The CHIC+ diet was supplemented with alfalfa hay (approximately 2 kg of DM/cow per day) to maintain dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration and all diets were supplemented with energy-based pellets (6 kg of DM/cow per day). Holstein-Friesian dairy cows averaging 136 ± 30 d in milk were allocated to 4 replicates of the 6 treatments using stratified randomization procedures. Cows were adapted to their experimental diets over a 14-d period, with measurements of DMI, milk yield, and composition conducted over the following 10 d. Herbage DMI was lowest (12.8 vs. 14.0 kg of DM/d) for CHIC+ compared with the MIX and PRG, although total forage intake (grazed herbage plus hay) was similar (14.0 to 15.0 kg of DM/d) across the 3 treatments. Milk production, milk protein, and milk fat concentrations were not different between herbage types. Grazed herbage DMI increased with increasing herbage allowance and this was associated with increased milk protein concentration (3.23 to 3.34%) and total casein production (41.7 to 43.6 mg/g). Concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk fat, particularly linoleic acid, were increased in milk from cows offered the CHIC+ or the MIX diets, indicating potential benefits of chicory herbage on milk fatty acid concentrations. Although feeding CHIC+ or MIX did not increase milk yield, these herbage types could be used as an alternative to perennial ryegrass pasture in spring. PMID:24290818

  20. Improved milk production performance of smallholder farms in West Java (Indonesia).

    PubMed

    Sembada, Pria; Duteurtre, Guillaume; Purwanto, Bagus Priyo; Suryahadi

    2016-04-01

    In Indonesia, because of the rapidly growing demand for dairy products, the development of milk production in rural communities can play a strong role in reducing poverty. However, the development of smallholder dairy production requires adequate support from the government, development organizations, and private firms. To assess the needs and situations of poor dairy farmers, we conducted a study in Ciater sub-district in West Java Province to compare the current situation with the situation that prevailed 4 years ago, i.e., before the implementation of a dairy development project. Data were collected from 61 farms in June 2014. The average number of cows on the farms surveyed was three to four, and each relied on cultivating an average of 0.4 ha of forage. Results showed that thanks to the project activities, milk productivity per cow and net income from milk production increased by 25% between 2010 and 2014. These results underline the importance of providing training and technical support for the development of the livelihoods of dairy smallholders.

  1. Production of Conjugated Linoleic and Conjugated α-Linolenic Acid in a Reconstituted Skim Milk-Based Medium by Bifidobacterial Strains Isolated from Human Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Villar-Tajadura, María Antonia; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luis Miguel; Martín, Virginia; Gómez de Segura, Aránzazu; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Fontecha, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Eight bifidobacterial strains isolated from human breast milk have been tested for their abilities to convert linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA) to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and conjugated α-linolenic acid (CLNA), respectively. These bioactive lipids display important properties that may contribute to the maintenance and improvement human health. Three selected Bifidobacterium breve strains produced CLA from LA and CLNA from LNA in MRS (160–170 and 210–230 μg mL−1, resp.) and, also, in reconstituted skim milk (75–95 and 210–244 μg mL−1, resp.). These bifidobacterial strains were also able to simultaneously produce both CLA (90–105 μg mL−1) and CLNA (290–320 μg mL−1) in reconstituted skim milk. Globally, our findings suggest that these bifidobacterial strains are potential candidates for the design of new fermented dairy products naturally containing very high concentrations of these bioactive lipids. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing CLNA production and coproduction of CLA and CLNA by Bifidobacterium breve strains isolated from human milk in reconstituted skim milk. PMID:25110689

  2. Production of conjugated linoleic and conjugated α-linolenic acid in a reconstituted skim milk-based medium by bifidobacterial strains isolated from human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Villar-Tajadura, María Antonia; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luis Miguel; Martín, Virginia; Gómez de Segura, Aránzazu; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Requena, Teresa; Fontecha, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Eight bifidobacterial strains isolated from human breast milk have been tested for their abilities to convert linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA) to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and conjugated α-linolenic acid (CLNA), respectively. These bioactive lipids display important properties that may contribute to the maintenance and improvement human health. Three selected Bifidobacterium breve strains produced CLA from LA and CLNA from LNA in MRS (160-170 and 210-230 μg mL(-1), resp.) and, also, in reconstituted skim milk (75-95 and 210-244 μg mL(-1), resp.). These bifidobacterial strains were also able to simultaneously produce both CLA (90-105 μg mL(-1)) and CLNA (290-320 μg mL(-1)) in reconstituted skim milk. Globally, our findings suggest that these bifidobacterial strains are potential candidates for the design of new fermented dairy products naturally containing very high concentrations of these bioactive lipids. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing CLNA production and coproduction of CLA and CLNA by Bifidobacterium breve strains isolated from human milk in reconstituted skim milk.

  3. Production of polyhydroxyalcanoates (PHAs) using milk whey and dairy wastewater activated sludge production of bioplastics using dairy residues.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Francesca; Chiampo, Fulvia

    2010-04-01

    The production of polyhydroxyalcanoates (PHAs), which are biodegradable plastics, was studied using milk whey and dairy wastewater activated sludge to define a suitable C/N ratio, the pre-treatments required to reduce the protein content, and the effect of pH correction. The results show good production of PHAs at a C/N=50 and without pH correction. The use of dairy wastewater activated sludge has the advantage of not requiring aseptic conditions. PMID:20226388

  4. Compliance status of product labels to the international code on marketing of breast milk substitutes.

    PubMed

    Ergin, Ahmet; Hatipoğlu, Celile; Bozkurt, Ali Ihsan; Erdoğan, Aslı; Güler, Serdar; Ince, Gülberat; Kavurgacı, Nuran; Oz, Ahmet; Yeniay, Mustafa K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the compliance status of product labels regarding Article 9 of the International Code on Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code) in Denizli province, Turkey. A cross-sectional study design was employed to determine the compliance status. The product labels were obtained from a convenience sample of five supermarkets, one store and 5 pharmacies in the City centre and district of Honaz. Using a data collection form prepared by previously published studies, data were collected between July 26, 2010 and August 06, 2010. Data collection form included 13 criteria. In addition, we checked the boxes for the availability of a Turkish written label. Forty product labels of 7 companies were reached and evaluated. These products consisted of 83.0% of the products marketed by these companies in Turkey. Thirty seven (92.5%) of the labels violated Article 9 of the Code in terms of one or more criteria. Thirty four (85.0%) of the labels had photos or pictures idealizing the use of infant formula. Nine (22.5%) had a photo, a picture or any representation of an infant, and five (12.5%) had text which idealize the use of infant formula or discouraging breastfeeding. Eight (20%) did not state that breastfeeding is the best. Four (10%) had a term such as 'similar to breast milk or human milk'. In conclusion, the majority of the product labels of breast milk substitutes marketed in our country violate the Code. It is appropriate that the Turkish Ministry of Health, medical organizations, companies, and NGOs work more actively to increase awareness of this issue. PMID:22367068

  5. A comparison of the environmental impact of Jersey compared with Holstein milk for cheese production.

    PubMed

    Capper, J L; Cady, R A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the environmental impact of Jersey or Holstein milk production sufficient to yield 500,000 t of cheese (equivalent cheese yield) both with and without recombinant bovine somatotropin use. The deterministic model used 2009 DairyMetrics (Dairy Records Management Systems, Raleigh, NC) population data for milk yield and composition (Jersey: 20.9 kg/d, 4.8% fat, 3.7% protein; Holstein: 29.1 kg/d, 3.8% fat, 3.1% protein), age at first calving, calving interval, and culling rate. Each population contained lactating and dry cows, bulls, and herd replacements for which rations were formulated according to DairyPro (Agricultural Modeling and Training Systems, Cornell, Ithaca, NY) at breed-appropriate body weights (BW), with mature cows weighing 454 kg (Jersey) or 680 kg (Holstein). Resource inputs included feedstuffs, water, land, fertilizers, and fossil fuels. Waste outputs included manure and greenhouse gas emissions. Cheese yield (kg) was calculated according to the Van Slyke equation. A yield of 500,000 t of cheese required 4.94 billion kg of Holstein milk compared with 3.99 billion kg of Jersey milk-a direct consequence of differences in milk nutrient density (fat and protein contents) between the 2 populations. The reduced daily milk yield of Jersey cows increased the population size required to supply sufficient milk for the required cheese yield, but the differential in BW between the Jersey and Holstein breeds reduced the body mass of the Jersey population by 125×10(3) t. Consequently, the population energy requirement was reduced by 7,177×10(6) MJ, water use by 252×10(9) L, and cropland use by 97.5×10(3) ha per 500,000 t of cheese yield. Nitrogen and phosphorus excretion were reduced by 17,234 and 1,492 t, respectively, through the use of Jersey milk to yield 500,000 t of Cheddar cheese. The carbon footprint was reduced by 1,662×10(3) t of CO(2)-equivalents per 500,000 t of cheese in Jersey cows compared with

  6. The ability of exogenous growth hormone to maintain milk production during prolonged lactation in the mouse is more evident with reduced nursing frequency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although growth hormone (GH) increases milk production in dairy animals, the milk production response of lactating rodents to this treatment has been variable. Milk removal frequency in the lactating mouse is about 10-fold higher than that of lactating dairy cows. The hypothesis tested in this study...

  7. Milk kefir: composition, microbial cultures, biological activities, and related products.

    PubMed

    Prado, Maria R; Blandón, Lina Marcela; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Rodrigues, Cristine; Castro, Guillermo R; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir's exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir's microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  8. Milk kefir: composition, microbial cultures, biological activities, and related products

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Maria R.; Blandón, Lina Marcela; Vandenberghe, Luciana P. S.; Rodrigues, Cristine; Castro, Guillermo R.; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos R.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir’s exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir’s microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance. PMID:26579086

  9. Genetic and genomic dissection of Prolactin revealed potential association with milk production traits in riverine buffalo.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, A; Maryam, J

    2016-08-01

    Milk yield and quality has been a major selection criterion for genetic improvement in livestock species. Role of Prolactin gene in determining milk quality in terms of protein profile, lactose, lipids and other imperative macromolecules is very important. In this context, genetic profiling of Prolactin gene in riverine buffalo of Pakistan was performed and potential genetic markers were identified illustrating worth of this gene in marker-assisted selection of superior dairy buffaloes. Series of wet and dry lab experimentation was performed starting with genomic DNA isolation from true to breed representatives of indigenous river buffalo (Nili-Ravi). After amplification of coding regions of Prolactin gene, products were eluted and sequenced by Sanger's chain termination method and aligned to get variations in genomic region. A total of 15 novel variations were identified and analyzed statistically for their significance at population level, haplotypes were constructed, and association was estimated. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to evaluate the rate of evolution for Prolactin gene in various mammalian species. Lastly, biological networking for this molecule was predicted to get the bigger pictorial of its functional machinery. Pathway analysis was performed to find its physiological mode of action in milk synthesis. This is a first report toward complete genetic screening of Prolactin gene in Pakistani buffaloes. Results of this study not only provide an insight for potential role of Prolactin gene in milk-producing abilities of buffalo but also suggest new directions for exploration of more genes that may have promising role to enhance future milk production capabilities of river buffalo breeds of Asian region through marker-assisted selection. PMID:27240674

  10. Milk production, milk composition, live weight change and milk Fatty Acid composition in lactating dairy cows in response to whole linseed supplementation.

    PubMed

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of whole linseed supplementation on performances and milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The control group received 300 g of palm oil. The second group was supplemented with 344 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed plus 150 g of palm oil and the third group was supplemented with 688 g/d of top-dressed whole linseed. All cows also received ad libitum grass silage (Brachiaria ruziziensis), had free access to clean water and were individually housed in a free-stall unit and individually fed according to treatments. Residual feeds were collected on 2 consecutive days weekly and at the end of the experiment. Feed samples were pooled to make representative samples for proximate and detergent analyses. Daily milk yields were recorded. Milk samples were collected on 2 consecutive days weekly. Live weights were recorded at the start and at the end of the experiment. Milk samples were taken on d 56 of the experiment and subjected to milk fatty acid composition. The results showed no statistical significant differences in intakes, live weight change, milk yields and milk compositions, however, C18:1, C18:3 and unsaturated FAs were increased while saturated FAs were reduced by whole linseed supplementation. It is recommended that the addition of 300 g/d oil from whole linseed could be beneficial to lactating dairy cows in early lactation. PMID:25049891

  11. Genetic parameters of milk production traits and fatty acid contents in milk for Holstein cows in parity 1-3.

    PubMed

    Bastin, C; Soyeurt, H; Gengler, N

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of milk, fat, and protein yields, fat and protein contents, somatic cell count, and 17 groups and individual milk fatty acid (FA) contents predicted by mid-infrared spectrometry for first-, second- and third-parity Holstein cows. Edited data included records collected in the Walloon region of Belgium from 37,768 cows in parity 1,22,566 cows in parity 2 and 8221 in parity 3. A total of 69 (23 traits for three parities) single-trait random regression animal test-day models were run. Approximate genetic correlations among traits were inferred from pairwise regressions among estimated breeding values of cow having observations. Heritability and genetic correlation estimates from this study reflected the origins of FA: de novo synthetized or originating from the diet and the body fat mobilization. Averaged daily heritabilities of FA contents in milk ranged between 0.18 and 0.47. Average daily genetic correlations (averaged across days in milk and parities) among groups and individual FA contents in milk ranged between 0.31 and 0.99. The genetic variability of FAs in combination with the moderate to high heritabilities indicated that FA contents in milk could be changed by genetic selection; however, desirable direction of change in these traits remains unclear and should be defined with respect to all issues of importance related to milk FA.

  12. On the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Prandini, A; Tansini, G; Sigolo, S; Filippi, L; Laporta, M; Piva, G

    2009-05-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic fungal metabolites found in foods and feeds. When ruminants eat AFB(1)-feedstuffs, they metabolise the toxin and excrete AFM(1) in milk. To control AFM(1) in foods it is necessary to reduce AFB(1) contamination of feeds for dairy cattle by preventing fungal growth and AFB(1) formation in agricultural commodities intended for animal use. Corn and corn-based products are one of the most contaminated feedstuffs; therefore risk factor analysis of AFB(1) contamination in corn is necessary to evaluate risk of AFM(1) contamination in milk and milk products. During the corn silage production, the aflatoxins production is mostly influenced by: harvest time; fertilization; irrigation; pest control; silage moisture; and storage practices. Due to the lower moisture at harvest and to the conservation methods, the corn grain is mostly exposed to the contamination by Aspergillus species. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the probability of this contaminant through choice of: hybrids; seeding time and density; suitable ploughing and fertirrigation; and chemical or biological control. Grains harvested with the lowest possible moisture and conservation moisture close to or less than 14% are necessary to reduce contamination risks, as is maintaining mass to homogeneous moisture. Kernel mechanical damage, grain cleaning practices and conservation temperature are also factors which need to be carefully controlled.

  13. Effects of a proteolytic feed enzyme on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Eun, J-S; Beauchemin, K A

    2005-06-01

    The effects of exogenous proteolytic enzyme (EPE) on intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance were determined using 8 lactating Holstein cows in a double 4 x4 Latin square experiment with a 2 x2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets based on barley silage and alfalfa hay as the forage sources were formulated to maintain different forage to concentrate ratios [60:40 vs. 34:66, dry matter (DM) basis]. Four dietary treatments were tested: high forage (HF) without EPE (HF-EPE), HF with EPE (HF+EPE), low forage (LF) without EPE (LF-EPE), and LF with EPE (LF+EPE). The EPE, which contained proteolytic activity but negligible fibrolytic activity, was added to the concentrate portion of the diets after pelleting at a rate of 1.25 mL/kg of DM. Adding EPE to the diet increased total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, N, acid detergent fiber, and neutral detergent fiber, with larger increases in digestibility observed for cows fed LF+EPE. Effects of added EPE on in vivo digestibility were consistent with improvements in gas production and degradability of the individual components of the TMR observed in vitro. Ruminal enzymic activities of xylanase and endoglucanase increased with addition of EPE to the diet, which may have accounted for improvements in fiber digestion. However, feeding EPE unexpectedly decreased feed intake of cows, which offset the benefits of improved feed digestibility. Consequently, milk yield of cows fed high or low forage diets decreased with adding EPE. Nevertheless, dairy efficiency, expressed as milk/DM intake, was highest for the LF+EPE diet. Addition of EPE to the diet increased milk fat and milk lactose percentages, but decreased milk protein percentage of cows fed a low forage diet. For cows fed high forage diets, EPE only increased milk lactose percentage. Efficiency of N use for milk production was decreased for both the high and low forage diets when EPE was added to the diet. Mean ruminal pH was

  14. Casein haplotypes and their association with milk production traits in the Finnish Ayrshire cattle.

    PubMed

    Velmala, R; Vilkki, J; Elo, K; Mäki-Tanila, A

    1995-12-01

    Polymorphism of casein genes was studied in half-sib families of artificial insemination bulls of the Finnish Ayrshire dairy breed. Ten grandsires and 300 of their sons were genotyped for the following polymorphisms: alpha s1-casein (B, C), beta-casein (A1, A2), the microsatellite within the kappa-casein gene (ms5, ms4) and kappa-casein (A, B, E). Nine different combinations of these alleles, casein haplotypes, were found. Associations between casein haplotypes and milk production traits (milk and protein yield, fat and protein percentage and milking speed) were studied with ordinary least-squares analysis to find a direct effect of the haplotypes or an association within individual grandsire families using the granddaughter design. Estimated breeding values of sons were obtained from cow evaluation by animal model. No direct effect of the casein haplotypes on the traits was found. Within grandsire families, in one out of four families the chromosomal segment characterized by haplotype 3 (B-A2-ms4-A) was associated with an increase in milk yield (P < 0.01) and a decrease in fat percentage (P < 0.01) when contrasted with haplotype 8 (B-A1-ms4-E). The results provide evidence that in the Finnish Ayrshire breed at least one quantitative trait locus affecting the genetic variation in yields traits is segregating linked to either haplotype 3 (B-A2-ms4-A) or 8 (B-A1-ms4-E).

  15. Detection of genetic variants affecting cattle behaviour and their impact on milk production: a genome-wide association study.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Juliane; Brand, Bodo; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Graunke, Katharina L; Langbein, Jan; Knaust, Jacqueline; Kühn, Christa; Schwerin, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Behaviour traits of cattle have been reported to affect important production traits, such as meat quality and milk performance as well as reproduction and health. Genetic predisposition is, together with environmental stimuli, undoubtedly involved in the development of behaviour phenotypes. Underlying molecular mechanisms affecting behaviour in general and behaviour and productions traits in particular still have to be studied in detail. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study in an F2 Charolais × German Holstein cross-breed population to identify genetic variants that affect behaviour-related traits assessed in an open-field and novel-object test and analysed their putative impact on milk performance. Of 37,201 tested single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), four showed a genome-wide and 37 a chromosome-wide significant association with behaviour traits assessed in both tests. Nine of the SNPs that were associated with behaviour traits likewise showed a nominal significant association with milk performance traits. On chromosomes 14 and 29, six SNPs were identified to be associated with exploratory behaviour and inactivity during the novel-object test as well as with milk yield traits. Least squares means for behaviour and milk performance traits for these SNPs revealed that genotypes associated with higher inactivity and less exploratory behaviour promote higher milk yields. Whether these results are due to molecular mechanisms simultaneously affecting behaviour and milk performance or due to a behaviour predisposition, which causes indirect effects on milk performance by influencing individual reactivity, needs further investigation. PMID:26515756

  16. Detection of genetic variants affecting cattle behaviour and their impact on milk production: a genome-wide association study.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Juliane; Brand, Bodo; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Graunke, Katharina L; Langbein, Jan; Knaust, Jacqueline; Kühn, Christa; Schwerin, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Behaviour traits of cattle have been reported to affect important production traits, such as meat quality and milk performance as well as reproduction and health. Genetic predisposition is, together with environmental stimuli, undoubtedly involved in the development of behaviour phenotypes. Underlying molecular mechanisms affecting behaviour in general and behaviour and productions traits in particular still have to be studied in detail. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study in an F2 Charolais × German Holstein cross-breed population to identify genetic variants that affect behaviour-related traits assessed in an open-field and novel-object test and analysed their putative impact on milk performance. Of 37,201 tested single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), four showed a genome-wide and 37 a chromosome-wide significant association with behaviour traits assessed in both tests. Nine of the SNPs that were associated with behaviour traits likewise showed a nominal significant association with milk performance traits. On chromosomes 14 and 29, six SNPs were identified to be associated with exploratory behaviour and inactivity during the novel-object test as well as with milk yield traits. Least squares means for behaviour and milk performance traits for these SNPs revealed that genotypes associated with higher inactivity and less exploratory behaviour promote higher milk yields. Whether these results are due to molecular mechanisms simultaneously affecting behaviour and milk performance or due to a behaviour predisposition, which causes indirect effects on milk performance by influencing individual reactivity, needs further investigation.

  17. Genome-wide association mapping of milk production traits in Braunvieh cattle.

    PubMed

    Maxa, J; Neuditschko, M; Russ, I; Förster, M; Medugorac, I

    2012-09-01

    A whole-genome association study of milk production traits: milk yield, protein yield, fat yield, protein percentage, and fat percentage, was performed on the population of Braunvieh cattle. Five hundred and fifty-four progeny-tested bulls and 36,219 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers on 29 Bos taurus autosomes (BTA) were included in the analysis. A principal component analysis was conducted to adjust for the effect of population stratification in the analyzed data set. For the principal component analysis, genome-wide relationships between individuals were calculated. Three different criteria (Horn's test, Kaiser's criterion, and Jolliffe's criterion) were tested to determine the number of significant principal components. Estimation of putative associations between SNP and milk production traits was carried out using a linear regression model in R software (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria). Significant principal components, adjusting for population stratification separately for each criterion and family relationships and genotypes at individual SNP were included as fixed effects in the model. The inflation factor λ and quantile-quantile plots were calculated to compare how the different criteria deal with stratification in our mapping population. Based on the analyses on all of the aforementioned criteria, we can conclude that Jolliffe's criterion deals the best with population stratification. Furthermore, significance thresholds for a given genome-wide false discovery rate of 5% were estimated and used for specific traits. Three of the analyzed traits showed genome-wide significant association with SNP. Two SNP had an effect on milk yield on BTA4, 2 SNP affected fat yield on BTA14 and BTA23, and 1 SNP was associated with fat percent on BTA1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in this study as associated with milk production traits will further contribute to the mapping of corresponding quantitative trait loci

  18. Enterotoxin Gene Profile and Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Bovine Bulk Milk and Milk Products of Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tarekgne, Enquebaher K; Skjerdal, Taran; Skeie, Siv; Rudi, Knut; Porcellato, Davide; Félix, Benjamin; Narvhus, Judith A

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is an important foodborne disease worldwide, and milk and milk products are commonly associated with SFP outbreaks. The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of staphylococcal enterotoxin (se) genes in Staphylococcus aureus from raw cow's milk and milk products and to assess their genetic background with the spa typing method. Of the 549 samples (297 bulk milk and 162 milk product samples) collected from Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia, 160 (29.1%) were positive for S. aureus, of which 82 (51%) were found to harbor se genes by a modified multiplex PCR. Nine se genes were identified: sea (n = 12), seb (n = 3), sec (n = 3), sed(n = 4), seg (n = 49), seh (n = 2), sei (n = 40), sej (n = 1), and tsst-1 (n = 24). The classical type of genes accounted for 27%. Of the 82 enterotoxigenic isolates, 41.5 and 12.4% harbored two or more se genes, respectively. The highest gene association was observed between sei and seg, whereas sea and seb were always found together with the new types of se genes. Altogether, 18 genotypes of toxin genes were identified, and 33% of the samples contained > 5 log CFU ml(-1) S. aureus. spa typing identified 22 spa types and three novel spa sequences, which showed the high genetic diversity of the isolates. No apparent relationship was observed between spa type and se genes. Of the 25 spa types, 13 (52%) were from raw milk, 3 (12%) from milk products, and 9 (36%) from both types of sample. Types t314 (20.7%,n = 17), t458 (18.3%, n = 15), and t6218 (9.8%, n= 8) were the most common spa types identified and were widely distributed in three of the eight studied localities. This is the first study from the Tigray region to report the high distribution of enterotoxigenic S. aureus with a diversified genetic background from dairy food. The study may provide valuable data for microbial food safety risk assessment, molecular epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies of S. aureus in Ethiopia.

  19. Enterotoxin Gene Profile and Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Bovine Bulk Milk and Milk Products of Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tarekgne, Enquebaher K; Skjerdal, Taran; Skeie, Siv; Rudi, Knut; Porcellato, Davide; Félix, Benjamin; Narvhus, Judith A

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is an important foodborne disease worldwide, and milk and milk products are commonly associated with SFP outbreaks. The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of staphylococcal enterotoxin (se) genes in Staphylococcus aureus from raw cow's milk and milk products and to assess their genetic background with the spa typing method. Of the 549 samples (297 bulk milk and 162 milk product samples) collected from Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia, 160 (29.1%) were positive for S. aureus, of which 82 (51%) were found to harbor se genes by a modified multiplex PCR. Nine se genes were identified: sea (n = 12), seb (n = 3), sec (n = 3), sed(n = 4), seg (n = 49), seh (n = 2), sei (n = 40), sej (n = 1), and tsst-1 (n = 24). The classical type of genes accounted for 27%. Of the 82 enterotoxigenic isolates, 41.5 and 12.4% harbored two or more se genes, respectively. The highest gene association was observed between sei and seg, whereas sea and seb were always found together with the new types of se genes. Altogether, 18 genotypes of toxin genes were identified, and 33% of the samples contained > 5 log CFU ml(-1) S. aureus. spa typing identified 22 spa types and three novel spa sequences, which showed the high genetic diversity of the isolates. No apparent relationship was observed between spa type and se genes. Of the 25 spa types, 13 (52%) were from raw milk, 3 (12%) from milk products, and 9 (36%) from both types of sample. Types t314 (20.7%,n = 17), t458 (18.3%, n = 15), and t6218 (9.8%, n= 8) were the most common spa types identified and were widely distributed in three of the eight studied localities. This is the first study from the Tigray region to report the high distribution of enterotoxigenic S. aureus with a diversified genetic background from dairy food. The study may provide valuable data for microbial food safety risk assessment, molecular epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies of S. aureus in Ethiopia. PMID

  20. Effect of extruded linseeds alone or in combination with fish oil on intake, milk production, plasma metabolite concentrations and milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Delavaud, C; Shingfield, K J; Chilliard, Y

    2015-05-01

    Based on the potential benefits for long-term human health, there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for lowering medium-chain saturated fatty acids (FA) and increasing specific unsaturated FA in ruminant milk. Dietary supplements of extruded linseeds (EL), fish oil (FO) or a mixture of EL and FO increase cis-9,trans-11 CLA and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated FA in bovine milk. Supplements of FO cause milk fat depression in lactating cows, but information for dairy goats is limited. A total of 14 Alpine goats were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square with 28-days experimental periods to examine the effects of EL alone or in combination with FO on animal performance, milk fat synthesis and milk FA composition. Treatments comprised diets based on natural grassland hay supplemented with no additional oil (control), 530 of EL or 340 g/day of EL and 39 g/day of FO (ELFO). Compared with the control, ELFO tended (P=0.08) to lower milk fat yield, whereas EL increased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (15% and 10%, respectively). Relative to EL, ELFO decreased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (19% and 17%, respectively). Relative to the control and ELFO, EL decreased (P<0.05) milk 10:0 to 16:0 and odd- and branched-chain FA content and increased 18:0, cis-18:1, trans-13 18:1 (and their corresponding ∆-9 (desaturase products), trans-12,cis-14 CLA, cis-13,trans-15 CLA, cis-12,trans-14 CLA and trans-11,cis-13 CLA and 18:3n-3 concentrations. ELFO was more effective for enriching (P<0.05) milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 18:1 concentrations (up to 5.4- and 7.1-fold compared with the control) than EL (up to 1.7- and 2.5-fold increases). Furthermore, ELFO resulted in a substantial increase in milk trans-10 18:1 concentration (5.4% total FA), with considerable variation between individual animals. Relative to the control and EL, milk fat responses to ELFO were characterized by increases (P<0.05) in milk trans-16:1 (Δ9 to 11), trans-18:1 (Δ6

  1. Effect of extruded linseeds alone or in combination with fish oil on intake, milk production, plasma metabolite concentrations and milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Delavaud, C; Shingfield, K J; Chilliard, Y

    2015-05-01

    Based on the potential benefits for long-term human health, there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for lowering medium-chain saturated fatty acids (FA) and increasing specific unsaturated FA in ruminant milk. Dietary supplements of extruded linseeds (EL), fish oil (FO) or a mixture of EL and FO increase cis-9,trans-11 CLA and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated FA in bovine milk. Supplements of FO cause milk fat depression in lactating cows, but information for dairy goats is limited. A total of 14 Alpine goats were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square with 28-days experimental periods to examine the effects of EL alone or in combination with FO on animal performance, milk fat synthesis and milk FA composition. Treatments comprised diets based on natural grassland hay supplemented with no additional oil (control), 530 of EL or 340 g/day of EL and 39 g/day of FO (ELFO). Compared with the control, ELFO tended (P=0.08) to lower milk fat yield, whereas EL increased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (15% and 10%, respectively). Relative to EL, ELFO decreased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (19% and 17%, respectively). Relative to the control and ELFO, EL decreased (P<0.05) milk 10:0 to 16:0 and odd- and branched-chain FA content and increased 18:0, cis-18:1, trans-13 18:1 (and their corresponding ∆-9 (desaturase products), trans-12,cis-14 CLA, cis-13,trans-15 CLA, cis-12,trans-14 CLA and trans-11,cis-13 CLA and 18:3n-3 concentrations. ELFO was more effective for enriching (P<0.05) milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 18:1 concentrations (up to 5.4- and 7.1-fold compared with the control) than EL (up to 1.7- and 2.5-fold increases). Furthermore, ELFO resulted in a substantial increase in milk trans-10 18:1 concentration (5.4% total FA), with considerable variation between individual animals. Relative to the control and EL, milk fat responses to ELFO were characterized by increases (P<0.05) in milk trans-16:1 (Δ9 to 11), trans-18:1 (Δ6

  2. Milk Thistle Constituents Inhibit Raloxifene Intestinal Glucuronidation: A Potential Clinically Relevant Natural Product-Drug Interaction.

    PubMed

    Gufford, Brandon T; Chen, Gang; Vergara, Ana G; Lazarus, Philip; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Paine, Mary F

    2015-09-01

    Women at high risk of developing breast cancer are prescribed selective estrogen response modulators, including raloxifene, as chemoprevention. Patients often seek complementary and alternative treatment modalities, including herbal products, to supplement prescribed medications. Milk thistle preparations, including silibinin and silymarin, are top-selling herbal products that may be consumed by women taking raloxifene, which undergoes extensive first-pass glucuronidation in the intestine. Key constituents in milk thistle, flavonolignans, were previously shown to be potent inhibitors of intestinal UDP-glucuronosyl transferases (UGTs), with IC50s ≤ 10 μM. Taken together, milk thistle preparations may perpetrate unwanted interactions with raloxifene. The objective of this work was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of individual milk thistle constituents on the intestinal glucuronidation of raloxifene using human intestinal microsomes and human embryonic kidney cell lysates overexpressing UGT1A1, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10, isoforms highly expressed in the intestine that are critical to raloxifene clearance. The flavonolignans silybin A and silybin B were potent inhibitors of both raloxifene 4'- and 6-glucuronidation in all enzyme systems. The Kis (human intestinal microsomes, 27-66 µM; UGT1A1, 3.2-8.3 µM; UGT1A8, 19-73 µM; and UGT1A10, 65-120 µM) encompassed reported intestinal tissue concentrations (20-310 µM), prompting prediction of clinical interaction risk using a mechanistic static model. Silibinin and silymarin were predicted to increase raloxifene systemic exposure by 4- to 5-fold, indicating high interaction risk that merits further evaluation. This systematic investigation of the potential interaction between a widely used herbal product and chemopreventive agent underscores the importance of understanding natural product-drug interactions in the context of cancer prevention.

  3. Rapid Screening of Bovine Milk Oligosaccharides in a Whey Permeate Product and Domestic Animal Milks by Accurate Mass Database and Tandem Mass Spectral Library.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Otter, Don E; Barile, Daniela

    2016-08-17

    A bovine milk oligosaccharide (BMO) library, prepared from cow colostrum, with 34 structures was generated and used to rapidly screen oligosaccharides in domestic animal milks and a whey permeate powder. The novel library was entered into a custom Personal Compound Database and Library (PCDL) and included accurate mass, retention time, and tandem mass spectra. Oligosaccharides in minute-sized samples were separated using nanoliquid chromatography (nanoLC) coupled to a high resolution and sensitive quadrupole-Time of Flight (Q-ToF) MS system. Using the PCDL, 18 oligosaccharides were found in a BMO-enriched product obtained from whey permeate processing. The usefulness of the analytical system and BMO library was further validated using milks from domestic sheep and buffaloes. Through BMO PCDL searching, 15 and 13 oligosaccharides in the BMO library were assigned in sheep and buffalo milks, respectively, thus demonstrating significant overlap between oligosaccharides in bovine (cow and buffalo) and ovine (sheep) milks. This method was shown to be an efficient, reliable, and rapid tool to identify oligosaccharide structures using automated spectral matching. PMID:27428379

  4. Rapid Screening of Bovine Milk Oligosaccharides in a Whey Permeate Product and Domestic Animal Milks by Accurate Mass Database and Tandem Mass Spectral Library.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Otter, Don E; Barile, Daniela

    2016-08-17

    A bovine milk oligosaccharide (BMO) library, prepared from cow colostrum, with 34 structures was generated and used to rapidly screen oligosaccharides in domestic animal milks and a whey permeate powder. The novel library was entered into a custom Personal Compound Database and Library (PCDL) and included accurate mass, retention time, and tandem mass spectra. Oligosaccharides in minute-sized samples were separated using nanoliquid chromatography (nanoLC) coupled to a high resolution and sensitive quadrupole-Time of Flight (Q-ToF) MS system. Using the PCDL, 18 oligosaccharides were found in a BMO-enriched product obtained from whey permeate processing. The usefulness of the analytical system and BMO library was further validated using milks from domestic sheep and buffaloes. Through BMO PCDL searching, 15 and 13 oligosaccharides in the BMO library were assigned in sheep and buffalo milks, respectively, thus demonstrating significant overlap between oligosaccharides in bovine (cow and buffalo) and ovine (sheep) milks. This method was shown to be an efficient, reliable, and rapid tool to identify oligosaccharide structures using automated spectral matching.

  5. Gold nanostructure-integrated silica-on-silicon waveguide for the detection of antibiotics in milk and milk products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozhikandathil, Jayan; Badilescu, Simona; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran

    2012-10-01

    Antibiotics are extensively used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases. The use of antibiotics for the treatment of animals used for food production raised the concern of the public and a rapid screening method became necessary. A novel approach of detection of antibiotics in milk is reported in this work by using an immunoassay format and the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance property of gold. An antibiotic from the penicillin family that is, ampicillin is used for testing. Gold nanostructures deposited on a glass substrate by a novel convective assembly method were heat-treated to form a nanoisland morphology. The Au nanostructures were functionalized and the corresponding antibody was absorbed from a solution. Solutions with known concentrations of antigen (antibiotics) were subsequently added and the spectral changes were monitored step by step. The Au LSPR band corresponding to the nano-island structure was found to be suitable for the detection of the antibody antigen interaction. The detection of the ampicillin was successfully demonstrated with the gold nano-islands deposited on glass substrate. This process was subsequently adapted for the integration of gold nanostructures on the silica-on-silicon waveguide for the purpose of detecting antibiotics.

  6. Effect of stocking rate on milk and pasture productivity and supplementary feed use for spring calving pasture fed dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Patton, D; Pierce, K M; Horan, B

    2016-07-01

    The productivity of grazing systems is primarily limited by the scale and efficiency of systems applied to the grazable land platform adjacent to the milking parlor. The objective of this study was to compare forage production, utilization and quality, milk production, and requirement for supplementary feeds for 2 different grazing platform stocking rate (GPSR) treatments over 4 yr. Animals were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 GPSR treatments: high-closed (HC; 3.1 cows/ha) and high-open (HO; 4.5 cows/ha), which were designed to represent alternative GPSR in a post-European Union milk quota, spring calving, pasture-based milk production system. Animal production data were analyzed using Proc MIXED of SAS with GPSR, year, and parity included as fixed effects in the final model. Within a seasonal spring calving grazing system, at high GPSR and offering moderate amounts of additional supplements based on pasture supply deficits, both systems produced more milk and fat plus protein per hectare in comparison with Irish commercial dairy farms. Although requiring additional supplementation, increased GPSR resulted in increased milk production per hectare but also in an increased requirement for concentrate and forage supplementation during lactation. No significant influence of GPSR was found on body weight and body condition score or reproductive performance during the 4-yr study period. In addition, GPSR also had no effect on pasture production, utilization, or quality during the study period. The strategic use of additional supplements with restricted pasture availability at higher GPSR maintained milk production per cow and significantly increased milk production per hectare. PMID:27108176

  7. PEDIOCIN PRODUCTION IN MILK BY PEDIOCOCCUS ACIDILACTICI IN CO-CULTURE WITH STREPTOCOCCUS THERMOPHILUS AND LACTOBACILLUS DELBRUECKII SUBSP. BULGARICUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of pediocin in milk by Pediococcus acidilactici was evaluated in co-culture with the dairy fermentation cultures Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. The cultures were tested singly or in different combinations...

  8. [Transgenic cattle constitute a breakthrough in production of innovative medicine. From milk to medicine].

    PubMed

    Salaheddine, M; Thole, E; Brink, M

    2002-04-01

    The continuously increasing demand for biomolecules, e.g. human proteins, for applications in human health care, is one of the main driving forces for the development of safe, large-scale production systems. One very promising approach is the production of biomolecules in the milk of transgenic cattle. By using nuclear transfer technology, transgenic cattle can be generated in a very safe and efficient manner, thereby offering a significant time reduction when compared to conventional breeding methods. As a result, that the transgenic cattle platform offers an efficient, safe and cost-effective method for producing large amounts of biopharmaceuticals, which is essential to the development of innovative health care products.

  9. Milk production in dairy goats supplemented with different levels of ruminally protected methionine.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Mélendez, Erick; Mendoza, Germán D; Castrejón-Pineda, Francisco A; Ducoing-Watty, Andrés E

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the study reported in this Research Communication was to evaluate graded levels of ruminally protected methionine (RPM) in dairy goat rations on milk production and live weight changes during 155 d of lactation. Twenty-five primiparous dairy goats (crosses of Toggenburg, French Alpine and Saanen; 45·4 ± 1·0 kg BW) were fed a basal diet (10·10% CP, 6·13 DP and 2·34 Mcal/kg ME) of corn silage, oat hay, alfalfa hay and concentrate (80% forage, 20% concentrate). After kidding, the treatments, which consisted of four oral doses of ruminally protected methionine (RPM) at 0, 1, 2 and 3 g/d, were randomly assigned to the goats. The experiment was conducted for 110 d with measurements of milk production and composition, body weight and dry matter intake. No treatment effects were detected in milk production and composition. However, goats with RPM showed a positive live weight changes during lactation which were improved as dose was increased (linear P < 0·01) whereas goats without RPM showed weight loss during the experiment. PMID:27048778

  10. Genetic association between SNPs in the DGAT1 gene and milk production traits in Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Ana Cláudia; de Camargo, Gregório Miguel Ferreira; Stafuzza, Nedenia Bonvino; Aspilcueta-Borquis, Rusbel Raul; Venturini, Guilherme Costa; Dias, Marina Mortati; Cardoso, Diercles Francisco; Tonhati, Humberto

    2016-10-01

    This study identified polymorphisms in the DGAT1 gene in Murrah buffaloes and investigated the associations to milk production and quality traits (milk, fat and protein yields and percentages, somatic cell count). Genomic DNA was extracted from hair follicles collected from the tail of 196 females. Three SNPs were identified in DGAT1 gene by sequencing. Statistical analyses were performed to verify the linkage and the association between polymorphisms and traits. The estimated value of r (2) between two SNPs in exon 17 (g.11,783G > A and g.11,785 T > C) was 0.029. SNP g.11,785 T > C was significantly associated (P < 0.05) to fat and protein percentage. Dominance effect was significant for milk and fat yields and protein percentage (P < 0.05). The additive effect of the SNP g.11,785 T > C was significant for protein production and somatic cell count (P < 0.05). It indicates that assisted marker selection might be done with considerations to balance production and udder health.

  11. Genetic association between SNPs in the DGAT1 gene and milk production traits in Murrah buffaloes.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Ana Cláudia; de Camargo, Gregório Miguel Ferreira; Stafuzza, Nedenia Bonvino; Aspilcueta-Borquis, Rusbel Raul; Venturini, Guilherme Costa; Dias, Marina Mortati; Cardoso, Diercles Francisco; Tonhati, Humberto

    2016-10-01

    This study identified polymorphisms in the DGAT1 gene in Murrah buffaloes and investigated the associations to milk production and quality traits (milk, fat and protein yields and percentages, somatic cell count). Genomic DNA was extracted from hair follicles collected from the tail of 196 females. Three SNPs were identified in DGAT1 gene by sequencing. Statistical analyses were performed to verify the linkage and the association between polymorphisms and traits. The estimated value of r (2) between two SNPs in exon 17 (g.11,783G > A and g.11,785 T > C) was 0.029. SNP g.11,785 T > C was significantly associated (P < 0.05) to fat and protein percentage. Dominance effect was significant for milk and fat yields and protein percentage (P < 0.05). The additive effect of the SNP g.11,785 T > C was significant for protein production and somatic cell count (P < 0.05). It indicates that assisted marker selection might be done with considerations to balance production and udder health. PMID:27469895

  12. Development of a non-dairy probiotic fermented product based on almond milk and inulin.

    PubMed

    Bernat, Neus; Cháfer, Maite; Chiralt, Amparo; González-Martínez, Chelo

    2015-09-01

    A new fermented almond "milk" that combined the properties of both almonds and probiotics was considered to cover the current versatile health-promoting foods' demand. Almond milk fermentation with probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus thermophilus was studied by using a Central Composite design with response surface methodology, and different factors (glucose, fructose, inulin and starters) were optimised to assure high probiotic survivals in the final product. The optimal formulation was physicochemically characterised throughout cold storage (28 days) and both probiotic survivals to in vitro digestion and proteolysis were quantified. Results showed that a high probiotic population (>10(7) cfu/mL) was obtained in the previously optimised almond milk throughout storage time, which correspond to the addition of 0.75 g of glucose/100 mL, 0.75 g of fructose/100 mL, 2 g/100 mL inulin and 6 mL/100 mL inoculum. Glucose was used as the main nutrient and the production of mannitol by L. reuteri was detected. The fermentation process increased the viscosity values, forming a weak gel structure, whose physical properties hardly changed. Probiotic bacteria notably survived (51%) to the in vitro digestion, surely related to the inulin presence, which would add value to the developed product by enhancing the potential health benefits of its consumption.

  13. [Simultaneous determination of various aseptics and sweeteners in milk and dairy products].

    PubMed

    Song, Ge; Jiang, Jindou; Zhang, Qiumei

    2010-03-01

    A method for simultaneous determination of acesulfame, benzoic acid, sodium saccharin, sorbic acid, and aspartame in milk and dairy products using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. The proteins in milk and dairy products were mostly eliminated by the precipitators. Three aseptics and two sweeteners were separated on a C18 column with the mobile phase of methanol-0.05 mol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate under gradient elution. With a diode array detector, acesulfame, benzoic acid, and sorbic acid were detected at 230 nm and sodium saccharin and aspartame were detected at 210 nm. The recoveries were 96.0% - 103.5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range of 1.93% - 2.76%. The detection limits of acesulfame, benzoic acid, sodium saccharin, sorbic acid and aspartame were 1.0, 1.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 microg/g, respectively. This method can be used for the routine analysis of these additives in milk and dairy products.

  14. Effect of microclimate alteration on milk production and composition in Murrah buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Seerapu, Sandeep Reddy; Kancharana, Ananda Rao; Chappidi, Venkata Seshaiah; Bandi, Eswara Rao

    2015-01-01

    increased feed intake in buffaloes resulting increased milk production, fat and SNF yield which was due to decreased heat stress in buffaloes. PMID:27047058

  15. Milk production and nutrient partitioning as measured by (13)C enrichment of milk components during C3 and C4 plant feeding in purebred Holstein and in Charolais × Holstein F2 crossbred cows.

    PubMed

    Hillal, Hany; Voigt, Jürgen; Metges, Cornelia C; Hammon, Harald M

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient partitioning was investigated in cows with different genetic merits for milk production by measuring (13)C/(12)C ratios (reported by delta values δ(13)C) in milk components in response to C3 (grass silage) and C4 diets (corn silage). We hypothesised that changes of δ(13)C in milk differ between Holstein (HOL; high milk production) and Charolais × Holstein cows with medium (CHM) and low (CHL) milk production. Changes of δ(13)C (Δδ(13)C) in milk components were estimated by calculating differences of δ(13)C due to switch from C3 to C4 feeding. After switch to C4 feeding, Δδ(13)C of lactose was greater in HOL than in CHL. Immediate Δδ(13)C of milk fat was the lowest in CHL. The maximal Δδ(13)C of casein was the lowest in HOL. The proportion of carbon in milk derived from diet increased with milk yield, indicating the main impact of the milk production level, but minor impact of breed, on nutrient partitioning towards the mammary gland.

  16. Evaluation of tropical grasses for milk production by dual-purpose cows in tropical Mexico.

    PubMed

    Juarez Lagunes, F I; Fox, D G; Blake, R W; Pell, A N

    1999-10-01

    Two experiments using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System were conducted to characterize the carbohydrate and protein fractions and corresponding rates of digestion of 15 tropical pasture grasses and to evaluate their ability to support milk production by dual-purpose cows. In the first experiment, ranges in carbohydrate and protein fractions of 15 grasses at 35 to 42 d of regrowth were: neutral detergent fiber (NDF) 63.5 to 74.9% of DM; permanganate lignin 4.7 to 7.8% of NDF; CP 5.5 to 11.9% of DM; and soluble protein 15.1 to 44.1% of crude protein (CP). The ranges of rates of digestion expressed as percent per hour were neutral detergent solubles (7.5 to 27.4); NDF (3.8 to 8.4); and neutral detergent insoluble protein (2.9 to 9.5). Predictions of the amount of milk that could be produced based on the amount of metabolizable energy supplied by the diet decreased 35% when NDF increased from 60 to 80%, and increased 88% when the rate of digestion of NDF increased from 3 to 6%/h. The milk production that could be sustained based on metabolizable protein in the diet doubled as CP increased from 4 to 12%. In the second experiment, nitrogen fertilization reduced NDF 7.3% and increased CP 84% without changing protein solubility, resulting in increased rumen nitrogen and metabolizable protein balances. With all forages, the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System predicted that availability of metabolizable protein would limit milk production. Predicted microbial growth was limited by ruminally available protein rather than by available carbohydrate.

  17. Genomic selection using indicator traits to reduce the environmental impact of milk production.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, H Hansen; Fikse, W F; Kargo, M; Sørensen, A C; Johansson, K; Rydhmer, L

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this simulation study was to test the hypothesis that phenotype information of specific indicator traits of environmental importance recorded on a small-scale can be implemented in breeding schemes with genomic selection to reduce the environmental impact of milk production. A stochastic simulation was undertaken to test alternative breeding strategies. The breeding goal consisted of milk production, a functional trait, and environmental impact (EI). The indicator traits (IT) for EI were categorized as large-, medium-, or small-scale, depending on how the traits were recorded. The large-scale traits were stayability and stature; the medium-scale traits were live weight and methane in the breath of the cow measured during milking; and the small-scale traits were residual feed intake and methane recorded in a respiration chamber. Simulated scenarios considered information for just one IT in addition to information for milk production and functional traits. The annual monetary genetic gain was highest in the large-scale scenario that included stayability as IT. The annual monetary gain in the scenarios with medium- or small-scale IT varied from €50.5 to 47.5. The genetic gain improvement in EI was, however, best in the scenarios where the genetic correlation between IT and EI was ≥0.30 and the accuracy of direct genomic value was ≥0.40. The genetic gain in EI was 26 to 34% higher when indicator traits such as greenhouse gases in the breath of the cow and methane recorded in respiration chamber were used compared with a scenario where no indicator trait was included. It is possible to achieve increased genetic gain in EI by using a highly correlated indicator trait, but it requires that the established reference population for the indicator trait is large enough so that the accuracy of direct genomic values will be reasonably high.

  18. Pilot production of recombinant human clotting factor IX from transgenic sow milk.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-ling; Chang, Yuo-sheng; Lin, Yin-shen; Yen, Chon-ho

    2012-06-01

    Valuable pharmaceutical proteins produced from the mammary glands of transgenic livestock have potential use in the biomedical industry. In this study, recombinant human clotting factor IX (rhFIX) produced from transgenic sow milk for preclinical animal studies have been established. The transgenic sow milk was skimmed and treated with sodium phosphate buffer to remove abundant casein protein. Then, the γ-carboxylated rhFIX fraction was segregated through the Q Sepharose chromatography from uncarboxylated one. For safety issue, the process included virus inactivation by solvent/detergent (S/D) treatment. Subsequently, the S/D treated sample was loaded into the Heparin Sepharose column to recover the rhFIX fraction, which was then reapplied to the Heparin Sepharose column to enhance rhFIX purity and lower the ratio of activated form rhFIX (rhFIXa) easily. This was possible due to the higher affinity of the Heparin affinity sorbent for rhFIXa than for the rhFIX zymogen. Furthermore, an IgA removal column was used to eliminate porcine IgA in purified rhFIX. Finally, nanofiltration was performed for viral clearance. Consequently, a high-quality rhFIX product was produced (approximately 700 mg per batch). Other values for final rhFIX preparation were as follows: purity, >99%; average specific activity, 415.6±57.7 IU/mL and total milk impurity, <0.5 ng/mg. This is the first report that described the whole process and stable production of bioactive rhFIX from transgenic sow milk. The overall manufacturing process presented here has the potential for industrial production of rhFIX for treatment of hemophilia B patients.

  19. Crushed sunflower, flax, or canola seeds in lactating dairy cow diets: effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M; Benchaar, C; Holtshausen, L

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of reducing enteric methane production from dairy cows by incorporating into the diet various sources of long-chain FA varying in their degree of saturation and ruminal availability. The experiment was conducted as a crossover design with 16 lactating dairy cows maintained in 2 groups and fed 4 dietary treatments in four 28-d periods. Eight ruminally cannulated primiparous cows (96 +/- 18 d in milk) were assigned to group 1 and 8 multiparous cows (130 +/- 31 d in milk) were assigned to group 2. The dietary treatments were: 1) a commercial source of calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CTL), 2) crushed sunflower seeds (SS), 3) crushed flaxseed (FS), and 4) crushed canola seed (CS). The oilseeds added 3.1 to 4.2% fat to the diet (DM basis). All 3 oilseed treatments decreased methane production (g/d) by an average of 13%. When corrected for differences in dry matter intake (DMI), compared with CTL, methane production (g/kg of DM intake) was decreased by feeding FS (-18%) or CS (-16%) and was only numerically decreased (-10%) by feeding SS. However, compared with the CTL, feeding SS or FS lowered digestible DMI by 16 and 9%, respectively, because of lowered digestibility. Thus, only CS lowered methane per unit of digestible DM intake. Feeding SS and CS decreased rumen protozoal counts, but there were no treatment effects on mean ruminal pH or total volatile fatty acid concentration. Milk efficiency (3.5% fat corrected milk/DMI), milk yield, and component yield and concentrations were not affected by oilseed treatments. The study shows that adding sources of long-chain fatty acids to the diet in the form of processed oilseeds can be an effective means of reducing methane emissions. However, for some oilseeds such as SS or FS, the reduction in methane can be at the expense of diet digestibility. The use of crushed CS offers a means of mitigating methane without negatively affecting diet digestibility, and

  20. Crushed sunflower, flax, or canola seeds in lactating dairy cow diets: effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M; Benchaar, C; Holtshausen, L

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of reducing enteric methane production from dairy cows by incorporating into the diet various sources of long-chain FA varying in their degree of saturation and ruminal availability. The experiment was conducted as a crossover design with 16 lactating dairy cows maintained in 2 groups and fed 4 dietary treatments in four 28-d periods. Eight ruminally cannulated primiparous cows (96 +/- 18 d in milk) were assigned to group 1 and 8 multiparous cows (130 +/- 31 d in milk) were assigned to group 2. The dietary treatments were: 1) a commercial source of calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CTL), 2) crushed sunflower seeds (SS), 3) crushed flaxseed (FS), and 4) crushed canola seed (CS). The oilseeds added 3.1 to 4.2% fat to the diet (DM basis). All 3 oilseed treatments decreased methane production (g/d) by an average of 13%. When corrected for differences in dry matter intake (DMI), compared with CTL, methane production (g/kg of DM intake) was decreased by feeding FS (-18%) or CS (-16%) and was only numerically decreased (-10%) by feeding SS. However, compared with the CTL, feeding SS or FS lowered digestible DMI by 16 and 9%, respectively, because of lowered digestibility. Thus, only CS lowered methane per unit of digestible DM intake. Feeding SS and CS decreased rumen protozoal counts, but there were no treatment effects on mean ruminal pH or total volatile fatty acid concentration. Milk efficiency (3.5% fat corrected milk/DMI), milk yield, and component yield and concentrations were not affected by oilseed treatments. The study shows that adding sources of long-chain fatty acids to the diet in the form of processed oilseeds can be an effective means of reducing methane emissions. However, for some oilseeds such as SS or FS, the reduction in methane can be at the expense of diet digestibility. The use of crushed CS offers a means of mitigating methane without negatively affecting diet digestibility, and

  1. Genomic analysis of dominance effects on milk production and conformation traits in Fleckvieh cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Estimates of dominance variance in dairy cattle based on pedigree data vary considerably across traits and amount to up to 50% of the total genetic variance for conformation traits and up to 43% for milk production traits. Using bovine SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) genotypes, dominance variance can be estimated both at the marker level and at the animal level using genomic dominance effect relationship matrices. Yield deviations of high-density genotyped Fleckvieh cows were used to assess cross-validation accuracy of genomic predictions with additive and dominance models. The potential use of dominance variance in planned matings was also investigated. Results Variance components of nine milk production and conformation traits were estimated with additive and dominance models using yield deviations of 1996 Fleckvieh cows and ranged from 3.3% to 50.5% of the total genetic variance. REML and Gibbs sampling estimates showed good concordance. Although standard errors of estimates of dominance variance were rather large, estimates of dominance variance for milk, fat and protein yields, somatic cell score and milkability were significantly different from 0. Cross-validation accuracy of predicted breeding values was higher with genomic models than with the pedigree model. Inclusion of dominance effects did not increase the accuracy of the predicted breeding and total genetic values. Additive and dominance SNP effects for milk yield and protein yield were estimated with a BLUP (best linear unbiased prediction) model and used to calculate expectations of breeding values and total genetic values for putative offspring. Selection on total genetic value instead of breeding value would result in a larger expected total genetic superiority in progeny, i.e. 14.8% for milk yield and 27.8% for protein yield and reduce the expected additive genetic gain only by 4.5% for milk yield and 2.6% for protein yield. Conclusions Estimated dominance variance was substantial

  2. Intravenous injections of cobalt reduce fatty acid desaturation products in milk and blood of lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Taugbøl, O; Karlengen, I J; Salbu, B; Aastveit, A H; Harstad, O M

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether intravenous infusion of Co affects levels of fatty acid desaturation products in bovine milk. Six cows were assigned to two replicated 3 × 3 Latin squares with 14-day periods. Treatment occurred on days 1 to 5 and depuration occurred on days 6-14. Two treatments were tested, the first consisting of per os supplementation of 3.5 g Co daily in the form of Co acetate and the second consisting of intravenous injection of 175 mg Co daily in the form of Co acetate diluted in saline solution. The third treatment was a control. Both Co treatments decreased cis-9 18:1 levels from approximately 18 to 14 g/100 g fatty acids, and increased 18:0 levels from 11 to 17 g/100 g fatty acids in milk fat (p < 0.001). The proportions of cis-9 10:1, cis-9 12:1, cis-9 14:1, cis-9 16:1 and cis-9 17:1 decreased (p < 0.001), whereas 17:0 and trans-11 18:1 increased (p < 0.001). In blood plasma, levels of cis (6,9,12) 18:3 (p < 0.001) and cis (8,11,14,17) 20:4 (p = 0.008) decreased after both the Co treatments. It is concluded that intravenous supply of Co reduces levels of fatty acid desaturation products in both bovine milk and blood.

  3. Non-contact evaluation of milk-based products using air-coupled ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, S.; Hindle, S. A.; Sandoz, J.-P.; Gan, T. H.; Hutchins, D. A.

    2006-07-01

    An air-coupled ultrasonic technique has been developed and used to detect physicochemical changes of liquid beverages within a glass container. This made use of two wide-bandwidth capacitive transducers, combined with pulse-compression techniques. The use of a glass container to house samples enabled visual inspection, helping to verify the results of some of the ultrasonic measurements. The non-contact pulse-compression system was used to evaluate agglomeration processes in milk-based products. It is shown that the amplitude of the signal varied with time after the samples had been treated with lactic acid, thus promoting sample destabilization. Non-contact imaging was also performed to follow destabilization of samples by scanning in various directions across the container. The obtained ultrasonic images were also compared to those from a digital camera. Coagulation with glucono-delta-lactone of skim milk poured into this container could be monitored within a precision of a pH of 0.15. This rapid, non-contact and non-destructive technique has shown itself to be a feasible method for investigating the quality of milk-based beverages, and possibly other food products.

  4. Designer milk.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha

    2007-01-01

    Dairy biotechnology is fast gaining ground in the area of altering milk composition for processing and/or animal and human health by employing nutritional and genetic approaches. Modification of the primary structure of casein, alteration in the lipid profile, increased protein recovery, milk containing nutraceuticals, and replacement for infant formula offer several advantages in the area of processing. Less fat in milk, altered fatty acid profiles to include more healthy fatty acids such as CLA and omega-fats, improved amino acid profiles, more protein, less lactose, and absence of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) are some opportunities of "designing" milk for human health benefits. Transgenic technology has also produced farm animals that secrete in their milk, human lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipase so as to simulate human milk in terms of quality and quantity of these elements that are protective to infants. Cow milk allergenicity in children could be reduced by eliminating the beta-LG gene from bovines. Animals that produce milk containing therapeutic agents such as insulin, plasma proteins, drugs, and vaccines for human health have been genetically engineered. In order to cater to animal health, transgenic animals that express in their mammary glands, various components that work against mastitis have been generated. The ultimate acceptability of the "designer" products will depend on ethical issues such as animal welfare and safety, besides better health benefits and increased profitability of products manufactured by the novel techniques.

  5. Designer milk.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha

    2007-01-01

    Dairy biotechnology is fast gaining ground in the area of altering milk composition for processing and/or animal and human health by employing nutritional and genetic approaches. Modification of the primary structure of casein, alteration in the lipid profile, increased protein recovery, milk containing nutraceuticals, and replacement for infant formula offer several advantages in the area of processing. Less fat in milk, altered fatty acid profiles to include more healthy fatty acids such as CLA and omega-fats, improved amino acid profiles, more protein, less lactose, and absence of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) are some opportunities of "designing" milk for human health benefits. Transgenic technology has also produced farm animals that secrete in their milk, human lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipase so as to simulate human milk in terms of quality and quantity of these elements that are protective to infants. Cow milk allergenicity in children could be reduced by eliminating the beta-LG gene from bovines. Animals that produce milk containing therapeutic agents such as insulin, plasma proteins, drugs, and vaccines for human health have been genetically engineered. In order to cater to animal health, transgenic animals that express in their mammary glands, various components that work against mastitis have been generated. The ultimate acceptability of the "designer" products will depend on ethical issues such as animal welfare and safety, besides better health benefits and increased profitability of products manufactured by the novel techniques. PMID:17900499

  6. Novel cellobiose 2-epimerases for the production of epilactose from milk ultrafiltrate containing lactose.

    PubMed

    Krewinkel, Manuel; Kaiser, Jana; Merz, Michael; Rentschler, Eva; Kuschel, Beatrice; Hinrichs, Jörg; Fischer, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    A selected number of enzymes have recently been assigned to the emerging class of cellobiose 2-epimerases (CE). All CE convert lactose to the rare sugar epilactose, which is regarded as a new prebiotic. Within this study, the gene products of 2 potential CE genes originating from the mesophilic bacteria Cellulosilyticum lentocellum and Dysgonomonas gadei were recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli and purified by chromatography. The enzymes have been identified as novel CE by sequence analysis and biochemical characterizations. The biochemical characterizations included the determination of the molecular weight, the substrate spectrum, and the kinetic parameters, as well as the pH and temperature profiles in buffer and food matrices. Both identified CE epimerize cellobiose and lactose into the C2 epimerization products glucosylmannose and epilactose, respectively. The epimerization activity for lactose was maximal at pH 8.0 or 7.5 and 40°C in defined buffer systems for the CE from C. lentocellum and the CE from D. gadei, respectively. In addition, biotransformations of the foodstuff milk ultrafiltrate containing lactose were demonstrated. The CE from D. gadei was produced in a stirred-tank reactor (12 L) and purified using an automatic system. Enzyme production and purification in this scale indicates that a future upscaling of CE production is possible. The bioconversions of lactose in milk ultrafiltrate were carried out either in a batch process or in a continuously operated enzyme membrane reactor (EMR) process. Both processes ran at an industrially relevant low temperature of 8°C to reduce undesirable microbial growth. The enzyme was reasonably active at the low process temperature because the CE originated from a mesophilic organism. An epilactose yield of 29.9% was achieved in the batch process within 28 h of operation time. In the continuous EMR process, the epilactose yield in the product stream was lower, at 18.5%. However, the enzyme productivity

  7. [The effect of large scale and traditional technologies of husbandry on milk production costs].

    PubMed

    Krechler, E

    1983-01-01

    In 1979 and 1980 an investigation into the current reserves in milk production in the enterprises with comparable farming conditions was performed by means of the calculation of prime costs per 1 litre of milk. As found during the study period, the costs of investment depreciation are much higher when using the large-scale technology than the conventional one, however, this is counterbalanced by lower labour costs, differing according to the labour organization. The large-scale technology is characterized by lower costs of feeds and bedding, animal depreciation and internal transport. The rate of profitability in the values of +12.98% and +15.92% for the years 1979 and 1980, respectively, is in the large-scale technology higher than in the conventional technology (+7.74% and +9.96%).

  8. Milk production and distribution in nine western states in the 1950s

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.M.; Whicker, F.W.

    1987-03-01

    This report provides information on milk distribution and dairy cattle feeding practices in Nevada, Utah and portions of seven other adjacent states during the 1950s. The information was gathered to support the US Department of Energy's ''Offsite Radiation Exposure Review Project (ORERP).'' This project is charged with providing radiation dose estimates for residents of Nevada, Utah, and surrounding states from nuclear weapons testing conducted at the Nevada Test Site from 1951 through 1962. The information on milk production and distribution is essential for assessment of the internal organ doses received by people as a result of ingesting radioactive fallout-contaminated foods. The information is used as input data for Colorado State University's PATHWAY computer code which estimates the ingestion of twenty radionuclides by people relative to a given level of fallout deposition.

  9. Determination of heavy metals in milk and fermented milk products by potentiometric stripping analysis with constant inverse current in the analytical step.

    PubMed

    Suturović, Zvonimir; Kravić, Snežana; Milanović, Spasenija; Durović, Ana; Brezo, Tanja

    2014-07-15

    A simple and rapid method for the direct determination of cadmium, lead and copper in milk and fermented milk products by potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) with oxygen as an oxidant and with inverse current imposed through the stripping step is described. For the more selective metals determination a samples pretreatment by the microwave acid extraction was applied. Due to the significant increase of the modified technique sensitivity, the detection limits of 0.30, 1.7 and 3.8 μg/l were obtained, for cadmium, lead and copper, respectively. The method accuracy was confirmed by analysing the standard reference material (SRM 1577 b). The contents of cadmium, lead and copper in milk samples were in the range of 2.13-4.82, 54.3-95.2 and 112.2-124.7 μg/kg, respectively, whereas in the samples of fermented milk products in the range of 6.30-24.1, 210.1-463.6 and 260.0-320.7 μg/kg, respectively.

  10. Effect of grain and forage fractions of corn silage on milk production and composition in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Boivin, M; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y

    2013-02-01

    Corn silage (CS) is associated with a reduction in milk fat content. The fact that CS is constituted of a grain and a forage fraction could explain this effect. This experiment evaluated the effect of grain fraction of CS on rumen fermentation, production performance and milk composition. Earless CS (ECS) was harvested after manually removing corn ears from the plant. Whole CS (WCS) was harvested from the same field on the same day. Eight (four ruminally fistulated) multiparous Holstein cows (84 days in milk) were utilized in a double 4 × 4 Latin square with 21-day periods. Treatments were (dry matter (DM) basis) (1) 23.0% WCS; (2) 12.4% ECS plus 10.6% high moisture corn (HMC) to obtain reconstituted CS (RCS); (3) 23.0% ECS; and (4) 23.0% timothy silage (TS). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and were fed as total mixed ration once a day. DM intake (DMI), milk yield, 4.0% fat-corrected milk (FCM), as well as protein concentration and yield were higher for WCS than ECS. Compared with WCS, cows tended to eat less with RCS, and produced less milk and milk protein. However, yield of FCM was similar between WCS and RCS. Milk fat concentration and yield, as well as the specific ratio of t11 18:1 to t10 18:1 in milk fat did not differ among diets. Milk urea-N tended to be higher for ECS than WCS and TS, whereas ruminal NH3-N was higher with ECS than TS. Rumen pH decreased linearly with time after feeding but was not different between treatments. Higher acetate and lower propionate concentration resulted in greater acetate to propionate ratio with ECS compared with WCS. In conclusion, removing grain fraction from CS decreased milk production and modified rumen fermentation without affecting milk fat concentration and yield. Moreover, despite some differences in DMI and total ruminal volatile fatty acid concentration between WCS and RCS, the restoration of FCM yield, using HMC in RCS diets, to a level of production similar to WCS highlights the importance of

  11. Milk production and energy efficiency of Holstein and Jersey-Holstein crossbred dairy cows offered diets containing grass silage.

    PubMed

    Xue, B; Yan, T; Ferris, C F; Mayne, C S

    2011-03-01

    Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey-Holstein crossbred dairy cows (all primiparous) were used in a repeated 2 (genotype) × 2 (concentrate level) factorial design study involving a total of 4 periods (each of 6-wk duration), designed to examine the effect of cross-breeding on the efficiency of milk production and energy use. The 4 periods began at 5, 11, 27, and 33 wk of lactation, respectively. Animals were offered a completely mixed diet containing grass silage and concentrates, with the level of concentrate in the diet either 30 or 70% of dry matter (DM). During the final 10 d of each period, ration digestibility and energy use was measured, the latter in indirect open-circuit respiration calorimeters. No significant interaction existed between cow genotype and dietary concentrate level for feed intake, milk production, or any of the energy use parameters measured. Across the 2 genotypes, total DM intake, milk yield, and milk protein and lactose concentrations increased with increasing dietary concentrate level. Thus, cows offered the high-concentrate diet had a higher gross energy (GE) intake, and a higher energy output in feces, urine, milk as heat, and a higher metabolizable energy (ME) intake as a proportion of GE intake and as a proportion of digestible energy intake. Across the 2 levels of concentrates, the Jersey-Holstein cows had a significantly higher total DM intake and body condition score, and produced milk with higher fat, protein, and energy concentrations, compared with those of the Holstein cows. In addition, the Jersey-Holstein cows had a significantly higher GE intake and energy output in urine, methane, and milk. However, crossbreeding had no significant effect on energy digestibility or metabolizability, energy partitioning between milk and body tissue, or the efficiency of ME use for lactation. Relating ME intake to milk energy output and heat production indicated that crossbreeding did not influence ME requirement for maintenance or energy

  12. Identification and Characterization of Psychrotolerant Sporeformers Associated with Fluid Milk Production and Processing

    PubMed Central

    Ivy, Reid A.; Ranieri, Matthew L.; Martin, Nicole H.; den Bakker, Henk C.; Xavier, Bruno M.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Psychrotolerant spore-forming bacteria represent a major challenge to the goal of extending the shelf life of pasteurized dairy products. The objective of this study was to identify prominent phylogenetic groups of dairy-associated aerobic sporeformers and to characterize representative isolates for phenotypes relevant to growth in milk. Analysis of sequence data for a 632-nucleotide fragment of rpoB showed that 1,288 dairy-associated isolates (obtained from raw and pasteurized milk and from dairy farm environments) clustered into two major divisions representing (i) the genus Paenibacillus (737 isolates, including the species Paenibacillus odorifer, Paenibacillus graminis, and Paenibacillus amylolyticus sensu lato) and (ii) Bacillus (n = 467) (e.g., Bacillus licheniformis sensu lato, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus weihenstephanensis) and genera formerly classified as Bacillus (n = 84) (e.g., Viridibacillus spp.). When isolates representing the most common rpoB allelic types (ATs) were tested for growth in skim milk broth at 6°C, 6/9 Paenibacillus isolates, but only 2/8 isolates representing Bacillus subtypes, grew >5 log CFU/ml over 21 days. In addition, 38/40 Paenibacillus isolates but only 3/47 Bacillus isolates tested were positive for β-galactosidase activity (including some isolates representing Bacillus licheniformis sensu lato, a common dairy-associated clade). Our study confirms that Paenibacillus spp. are the predominant psychrotolerant sporeformers in fluid milk and provides 16S rRNA gene and rpoB subtype data and phenotypic characteristics facilitating the identification of aerobic spore-forming spoilage organisms of concern. These data will be critical for the development of detection methods and control strategies that will reduce the introduction of psychrotolerant sporeformers and extend the shelf life of dairy products. PMID:22247129

  13. RAPD and SCAR markers as potential tools for detection of milk origin in dairy products: Adulterant sheep breeds in Serra da Estrela cheese production.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Joana T; Ribeiro, Tânia I B; Rocha, João B; Nunes, João; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

    2016-11-15

    Serra da Estrela Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheese is the most famous Portuguese cheese and has a high commercial value. However, the adulteration of production with cheaper/lower-quality milks from non-autochthones ovine breeds compromises the quality of the final product and undervalues the original PDO cheese. A Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was developed for efficient detection of adulterant breeds in milk mixtures used for fraudulent production of this cheese. Furthermore, Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) markers were designed envisioning the detection of milk adulteration in processed dairy foods. The RAPD-SCAR technique is here described, for the first time, to be potentially useful for detection of milk origin in dairy products. In this sense, our findings will play an important role on the valorization of Serra da Estrela cheese, as well as on other high-quality dairy products prone to adulteration, contributing to the further development of the dairy industry. PMID:27283677

  14. RAPD and SCAR markers as potential tools for detection of milk origin in dairy products: Adulterant sheep breeds in Serra da Estrela cheese production.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Joana T; Ribeiro, Tânia I B; Rocha, João B; Nunes, João; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

    2016-11-15

    Serra da Estrela Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheese is the most famous Portuguese cheese and has a high commercial value. However, the adulteration of production with cheaper/lower-quality milks from non-autochthones ovine breeds compromises the quality of the final product and undervalues the original PDO cheese. A Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was developed for efficient detection of adulterant breeds in milk mixtures used for fraudulent production of this cheese. Furthermore, Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) markers were designed envisioning the detection of milk adulteration in processed dairy foods. The RAPD-SCAR technique is here described, for the first time, to be potentially useful for detection of milk origin in dairy products. In this sense, our findings will play an important role on the valorization of Serra da Estrela cheese, as well as on other high-quality dairy products prone to adulteration, contributing to the further development of the dairy industry.

  15. Altering physically effective fiber intake through forage proportion and particle length: digestion and milk production.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A

    2007-07-01

    Intake of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) of dairy cows was altered by adjusting the proportion of forage in the diet and forage particle length, and effects on nutrient intake, site and extent of digestion, microbial N synthesis, and milk production were measured. The experiment was designed as a triplicated 4 x 4 Latin square using 12 lactating dairy cows, with 4 that were ruminally and duodenally cannulated, 4 that were ruminally cannulated, and 4 that were intact. Thus, the site and extent of digestion, and microbial N synthesis were measured in a single 4 x 4 Latin square. Treatments were arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial design; 2 forage particle lengths (FPL) of alfalfa silage (short and long) were combined with low (35:65) and high (60:40) forage:concentrate (F:C) ratios (dry matter basis). Dietary peNDF content was determined from the sum of the proportion (dry matter basis) of dietary dry matter retained either on the 2 screens (8- and 19-mm) or on the 3 screens (1.18-, 8-, and 19-mm) of the Penn State Particle Separator multiplied by the neutral detergent fiber content of the diet. An increased F:C ratio reduced intakes of dry matter and starch by 9 and 46%, respectively, but increased intake of fiber from forage sources by 53%. Digestibility of dry matter in the total tract was not affected, whereas total digestion of fiber and N was improved by increasing the F:C ratio. Improved total fiber digestion resulted from higher ruminal digestion, which was partially due to a shift in starch digestion from the rumen to the intestine with the increased F:C ratio. Actual milk yield was decreased but production of 4% fat-corrected milk was similar between the low and high F:C diets because of increased milk fat content. Increased FPL increased intake of peNDF, especially when the high F:C diet was fed. However, nutrient intakes, N metabolism in the digestive tract, and milk production were not affected. Digestibility of neutral detergent fiber in

  16. [Comparative study of the effects of different sour milk products on the intestinal microflora of healthy infants].

    PubMed

    Safronova, A I; Sorvacheva, T N; Kurkova, V I; Toboleva, M A; Kuznetsova, G G; Efimov, B A; Pikina, A P; Kon', I Ia

    2001-01-01

    Our study was aimed to investigate in comparable conditions the composition of intestinal microflora of healthy infants who were given 9 types of fermented milk products. There were observed 103 practically healthy infants aged from 4 month to 1,5 years old. The obtained data have shown that studied products improve intestinal microflora in infants. Significant increase of bifidobacteria in infants intestines was promoted by fermented milk products containing alive bifidobacteria with rather high acidity. The most of products which contain bifidobacteria decreased the level of hemolisinproducing Escherichia coli and coagulase-positive staphylococcus. The products which not contain bifidobacteria decreased the level of Candida albicans and protei.

  17. Effects of feeding rumen-degradable valine on milk production in late-lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hultquist, Kayla M; Casper, David P

    2016-02-01

    The study objective was to determine if feeding the rumen-degradable AA Val can increase milk production comparable to recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST). Eight multiparous late-lactating (255±26.4 d in milk) Holstein dairy cows were blocked by milk yield (34.1±8.25 kg/d) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods (7 d for dietary adaptation and 14 d for data collection). Treatments were control (CON), a single injection of recombinant bST (rbST), and Val fed at 40 (V40) and 80 g/d (V80). Cows were fed a total mixed ration with a distillers dried grains carrier at 113.4 g/d containing none or added AA. Dry matter intake (21.3, 22.0, 22.8, and 21.5 kg/d for CON, rbST, V40, and V80, respectively) was similar among treatments, except cows receiving V40 had greater dry matter intake than cows receiving V80. Milk yield (22.0, 26.1, 25.2, and 24.9 kg/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (22.1, 25.4, 24.4, and 24.3 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (22.7, 26.1, 25.1, and 24.9 kg/d) were increased at similar amounts for cows receiving rbST, V40, and V80 compared with CON cows. Milk fat percentages (3.51, 3.36, 3.32, and 3.38%) were greatest for CON cows compared with cows receiving V40, whereas cows receiving other treatments were intermediate and similar. Milk protein percentages (3.20, 3.12, 3.15, and 3.13%) were greater for CON cows compared with cows receiving rbST and V40, whereas cows receiving V80 were intermediate and similar. Ruminal isobutyrate (1.19, 1.24, 1.44, and 1.74 mol/100 mol) concentrations were increased for cows receiving V40 and V80 compared with CON and rbST cows, with cows receiving V80 having greater concentrations than cows receiving V40. Plasma growth hormone concentrations (1.78, 1.99, 1.55, and 1.45 ng/mL) were greater for cows receiving rbST compared with cows receiving V40 and V80, whereas CON cows were intermediate and similar. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations (60.4, 106

  18. Effects of feeding rumen-degradable valine on milk production in late-lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hultquist, Kayla M; Casper, David P

    2016-02-01

    The study objective was to determine if feeding the rumen-degradable AA Val can increase milk production comparable to recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST). Eight multiparous late-lactating (255±26.4 d in milk) Holstein dairy cows were blocked by milk yield (34.1±8.25 kg/d) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods (7 d for dietary adaptation and 14 d for data collection). Treatments were control (CON), a single injection of recombinant bST (rbST), and Val fed at 40 (V40) and 80 g/d (V80). Cows were fed a total mixed ration with a distillers dried grains carrier at 113.4 g/d containing none or added AA. Dry matter intake (21.3, 22.0, 22.8, and 21.5 kg/d for CON, rbST, V40, and V80, respectively) was similar among treatments, except cows receiving V40 had greater dry matter intake than cows receiving V80. Milk yield (22.0, 26.1, 25.2, and 24.9 kg/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (22.1, 25.4, 24.4, and 24.3 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (22.7, 26.1, 25.1, and 24.9 kg/d) were increased at similar amounts for cows receiving rbST, V40, and V80 compared with CON cows. Milk fat percentages (3.51, 3.36, 3.32, and 3.38%) were greatest for CON cows compared with cows receiving V40, whereas cows receiving other treatments were intermediate and similar. Milk protein percentages (3.20, 3.12, 3.15, and 3.13%) were greater for CON cows compared with cows receiving rbST and V40, whereas cows receiving V80 were intermediate and similar. Ruminal isobutyrate (1.19, 1.24, 1.44, and 1.74 mol/100 mol) concentrations were increased for cows receiving V40 and V80 compared with CON and rbST cows, with cows receiving V80 having greater concentrations than cows receiving V40. Plasma growth hormone concentrations (1.78, 1.99, 1.55, and 1.45 ng/mL) were greater for cows receiving rbST compared with cows receiving V40 and V80, whereas CON cows were intermediate and similar. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations (60.4, 106

  19. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; Kholif, S M; Kholif, A E; Matloup, O H; Salem, A Z M; Elella, A Abu

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001) and acetate (p = 0.034) concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013) in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007) and milk fat content (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05) milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance.

  20. Effects of calcium soaps and rumen undegradable protein on the milk production and composition of dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Casals, R; Caja, G; Such, X; Torre, C; Calsamiglia, S

    1999-05-01

    Forty-eight Manchega dairy ewes were used during a complete lactation in a 2 x 2 factorial design to determine the effects of supplementing diets with fat (calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids, CSFA) and rumen undegradable protein (RUP) on milk production and composition. Factors tested were amounts of CSFA (0 or 200 g/kg) and RUP (300 or 450 g/kg crude protein) in the concentrate. RUP was altered by adding a mixture of maize gluten meal and blood meal. Lactation was divided into one nursing period (period 1, weeks 1-4), and three milking periods (periods 2-4, weeks 5-8, 9-14 and 15-21). Concentrates were given at 0.8 kg/d during periods 1 and 2, and at 0.6 kg/d in periods 3 and 4. Ewes grazed rotationally in an Italian rye-grass pasture and received a daily supplement of 0.8 kg vetch-oat hay during period 1, and 0.3 kg lucerne hay during periods 2-4. For the whole lactation, supplemental fat markedly increased milk fat content (+23%) and yield (+16%), and decreased milk protein content (-9%). The positive effect of feeding CSFA on milk fat content was more evident at the beginning of lactation; however, its negative effect on milk protein was more pronounced in late lactation. Supplementary RUP had little effect, increasing milk protein content only in period 3, when the crude protein content of pasture was lower. Milk yield and lamb growth were not affected by dietary treatments. The results indicated that CSFA can be useful for increasing the milk fat content of dairy ewes at pasture, which may help farmers to produce milk reaching the minimum requirements of fat content for the cheese industry.

  1. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats

    PubMed Central

    Morsy, T. A.; Kholif, S. M.; Kholif, A. E.; Matloup, O. H.; Salem, A. Z. M.; Elella, A. Abu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001) and acetate (p = 0.034) concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013) in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007) and milk fat content (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05) milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance. PMID:26104519

  2. The effects of supplementation with a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wall, Emma H; Doane, Perry H; Donkin, Shawn S; Bravo, David

    2014-09-01

    Plant extracts (PE) are naturally occurring chemicals in plants, and many of these molecules have been reported to influence production efficiency of dairy and beef animals. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a PE additive (CE; an encapsulated blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) on the milk production performance of lactating dairy cows across a range of doses. In experiment 1, 32 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows in mid-lactation were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (350mg/d; n=16 cows/treatment) for 6 wk. In experiment 2, 48 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (200, 400, or 600mg/d; n=12 animals/treatment) for 8 wk. A 1-wk covariate period was included in both experiments. In both experiments, individual dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk composition, and somatic cell count were recorded daily. In experiment 1, CE was associated with an increase in DMI in both parity groups but an increase in milk production of multiparous cows only. In experiment 2, milk yield of multiparous cows was decreased at the 2 highest doses, whereas milk yield of primiparous cows was increased at the low and high doses of CE. These responses were accompanied by similar changes in DMI; therefore, CE did not affect feed efficiency. We observed no effect of CE on SCC or milk composition; however, treatment by parity interactions were detected for each of these variables that have not been described previously. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol can increase DMI and milk production in lactating dairy cows. In addition, environmental factors appear to influence the response to CE, including dose and parity, and these should be explored further. PMID:25022677

  3. The effects of supplementation with a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wall, Emma H; Doane, Perry H; Donkin, Shawn S; Bravo, David

    2014-09-01

    Plant extracts (PE) are naturally occurring chemicals in plants, and many of these molecules have been reported to influence production efficiency of dairy and beef animals. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a PE additive (CE; an encapsulated blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) on the milk production performance of lactating dairy cows across a range of doses. In experiment 1, 32 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows in mid-lactation were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (350mg/d; n=16 cows/treatment) for 6 wk. In experiment 2, 48 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (200, 400, or 600mg/d; n=12 animals/treatment) for 8 wk. A 1-wk covariate period was included in both experiments. In both experiments, individual dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk composition, and somatic cell count were recorded daily. In experiment 1, CE was associated with an increase in DMI in both parity groups but an increase in milk production of multiparous cows only. In experiment 2, milk yield of multiparous cows was decreased at the 2 highest doses, whereas milk yield of primiparous cows was increased at the low and high doses of CE. These responses were accompanied by similar changes in DMI; therefore, CE did not affect feed efficiency. We observed no effect of CE on SCC or milk composition; however, treatment by parity interactions were detected for each of these variables that have not been described previously. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol can increase DMI and milk production in lactating dairy cows. In addition, environmental factors appear to influence the response to CE, including dose and parity, and these should be explored further.

  4. A novel method of analyzing daily milk production and electrical conductivity to predict disease onset.

    PubMed

    Lukas, J M; Reneau, J K; Wallace, R; Hawkins, D; Munoz-Zanzi, C

    2009-12-01

    This study evaluates the changes in milk production (yield; MY) and milk electrical conductivity (MEC) before and after disease diagnosis and proposes a cow health monitoring scheme based on observing individual daily MY and MEC. All reproductive and health events were recorded on occurrence, and MY and MEC were collected at each milking from January 2004 through November 2006 for 587 cows. The first 24 mo (January 2004 until December 2005) were used to investigate the effects of disease on MY and MEC, model MY and MEC of healthy animals, and develop a health monitoring scheme to detect disease based on changes in a cow's MY or MEC. The remaining 11 mo of data (January to November 2006) were used to compare the performance of the health monitoring schemes developed in this study to the disease detection system currently used on the farm. Mixed model was used to examine the effect of diseases on MY and MEC. Days in milk (DIM), DIM x DIM, and ambient temperature were entered as quantitative variables and number of calves, parity, calving difficulty, day relative to breeding, day of somatotropin treatment, and 25 health event categories were entered as categorical variables. Significant changes in MY and MEC were observed as early as 10 and 9 d before diagnosis. Greatest cumulative effect on MY over the 59-d evaluation period was estimated for miscellaneous digestive disorders (mainly diarrhea) and udder scald, at -304.42 and -304.17 kg, respectively. The greatest average daily effect was estimated for milk fever with a 10.36-kg decrease in MY and 8.3% increase in MEC. Milk yield and MEC was modeled by an autoregressive model using a subset of healthy cow records. Six different self-starting cumulative sum and Shewhart charting schemes were designed using 3 different specificities (98, 99, and 99.5%) and based on MY alone or MY and MEC. Monitoring schemes developed in this study issue alerts earlier relative to the day of diagnosis of udder, reproductive, or metabolic

  5. Effects of fermentation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on product quality and fatty acids of goat milk yogurt.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ru; Chen, Han; Chen, Hui; Ding, Wu

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fermentation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on the product quality of goat milk yogurt using traditional yogurt starter was studied through single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiments. The optimum fermentation condition was evaluated by the titratable acidity of goat milk yogurt, water-retaining capability, sensory score, and texture properties; the fatty acids of the fermented goat milk were determined by a gas chromatograph. Results indicate that high product quality of goat milk yogurt can be obtained and the content of short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids can be decreased significantly when amount of sugar added was 7%, inoculation amount was 3%, the ratio of 3 lactic acid bacteria--Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, and L. rhamnosus GG--was 1:1:3, and fermentation temperature was 42°C.

  6. Effects of fermentation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on product quality and fatty acids of goat milk yogurt.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ru; Chen, Han; Chen, Hui; Ding, Wu

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fermentation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on the product quality of goat milk yogurt using traditional yogurt starter was studied through single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiments. The optimum fermentation condition was evaluated by the titratable acidity of goat milk yogurt, water-retaining capability, sensory score, and texture properties; the fatty acids of the fermented goat milk were determined by a gas chromatograph. Results indicate that high product quality of goat milk yogurt can be obtained and the content of short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids can be decreased significantly when amount of sugar added was 7%, inoculation amount was 3%, the ratio of 3 lactic acid bacteria--Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, and L. rhamnosus GG--was 1:1:3, and fermentation temperature was 42°C. PMID:26601583

  7. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shikha; Singh, Mahendra; Roy, Ashwani Kumar; Thakur, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG]) or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]). DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body condition score (BCS) was recorded. Energy balance and gross feed efficiency (GFE) were calculated. DMI and BCS were recorded and milk yield (MY), fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat, energy balance were measured. The fat corrected milk yield was calculated. Results: The DMI was non-significant between groups and periods of study. BCS of buffaloes improved in the SG than CG (p<0.01). The energy intake in terms of total digestible nutrients (TDN%), TDN intake, digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy/kg of milk, DE of milk, net energy, and GFE were higher (p<0.01) in SG during post-partum period. Crude protein intake was statistically similar in both the groups. MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG than in CG during 95 days of early lactation. Milk fat, fat corrected MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG however protein, lactose and solid not fat content did not varied between the groups. The feed efficiency of the SG was higher (p<0.01) than the CG during the post-partum period. Conclusion: It was inferred that prilled fat supplementation augments energy balance and milk production in transition Murrah buffaloes. PMID:27057108

  8. Amino acids and mammary gland development: nutritional implications for milk production and neonatal growth.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Reza; Wu, Zhenlong; Hou, Yongqing; Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    Milk is synthesized by mammary epithelial cells of lactating mammals. The synthetic capacity of the mammary gland depends largely on the number and efficiency of functional mammary epithelial cells. Structural development of the mammary gland occurs during fetal growth, prepubertal and post-pubertal periods, pregnancy, and lactation under the control of various hormones (particularly estrogen, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I, progesterone, placental lactogen, and prolactin) in a species- and stage-dependent manner. Milk is essential for the growth, development, and health of neonates. Amino acids (AA), present in both free and peptide-bound forms, are the most abundant organic nutrients in the milk of farm animals. Uptake of AA from the arterial blood of the lactating dam is the ultimate source of proteins (primarily β-casein and α-lactalbumin) and bioactive nitrogenous metabolites in milk. Results of recent studies indicate extensive catabolism of branched-chain AA (leucine, isoleucine and valine) and arginine to synthesize glutamate, glutamine, alanine, aspartate, asparagine, proline, and polyamines. The formation of polypeptides from AA is regulated not only by hormones (e.g., prolactin, insulin and glucocorticoids) and the rate of blood flow across the lactating mammary gland, but also by concentrations of AA, lipids, glucose, vitamins and minerals in the maternal plasma, as well as the activation of the mechanistic (mammalian) target rapamycin signaling by certain AA (e.g., arginine, branched-chain AA, and glutamine). Knowledge of AA utilization (including metabolism) by mammary epithelial cells will enhance our fundamental understanding of lactation biology and has important implications for improving the efficiency of livestock production worldwide. PMID:27042295

  9. Detection of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk and dairy products by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Gücükoğlu, Ali; Kevenk, T Onur; Uyanik, Tolga; Cadirci, Ozgür; Terzi, Göknur; Alişarli, Mustafa

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in 122 samples, including 60 raw milk, 32 white cheese, 10 kashar cheese, 10 butter, and 10 ice cream samples obtained from Samsun province, Turkey. In this study, S. aureus was detected in 64 samples, including raw milk (45/60; 75%), white cheese (12/32; 37.5%), kashar cheese (3/10; 30%), butter (3/10; 30%), and ice cream (1/10; 10%) samples. A total of 81 isolates were identified as S. aureus by PCR with the presence of 16S rRNA and nuc genes. The presence of genes encoding the staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) SEA, SEB, SEC, and SED was detected by multiplex PCR. According to the analysis, seven isolates from the raw milk samples (7/51; 13.7%) were enterotoxigenic; five of them produced SEA (5/7; 71.4%), one produced SEB (1/7; 14.2%), and one produced SEA+SEB (1/7; 14.2%). Four isolates from the white cheese samples (4/21; 19%) produced the SEA (1/4; 25%), SEC (1/4; 25%), SED (1/4; 25%), and SEA+SED (1/4; 25%) toxins. Two isolates from the kashar cheese samples (2/4; 50%) were found to be enterotoxigenic; one produced SEA (1/2; 50%) and the other produced SED (1/2; 50%). One isolate from the butter samples (1/4; 25%) showed enterotoxigenic character (SEB, 1/1; 100%). The products were found to be potentially hazardous to public health because of the fact that levels of contamination were higher than 105-106 cfu/g ml in 39% (25/64, 17 raw milk, 7 white cheese, and 1 butter) of the analyzed samples.

  10. Abomasal or ruminal administration of flax oil and hulls on milk production, digestibility, and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kazama, R; Côrtes, C; da Silva-Kazama, D; Gagnon, N; Benchaar, C; Zeoula, L M; Santos, G T D; Petit, H V

    2010-10-01

    Four ruminally fistulated primiparous lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of the site of administration (rumen or abomasum) of flax oil and flax hulls on diet digestibility and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows. The treatments were 1) oil and hulls administered in the rumen and abomasal infusion of water (RUM/RUM), 2) oil and hulls infused in the abomasum (ABO/ABO), 3) oil administered in the rumen and hulls infused in the abomasum (RUM/ABO), and 4) oil infused in the abomasum and hulls placed in the rumen (ABO/RUM). Cows on the ABO/ABO and RUM/RUM treatments had the highest and lowest amounts of basal dry matter eaten, respectively. Higher dry matter digestibility was obtained when flax oil bypassed the rumen (ABO/ABO and ABO/RUM) compared with when flax oil was administered directly in the rumen (RUM/ABO and RUM/RUM). Apparent digestibility of ether extract was higher when flax hulls were administered in the rumen (RUM/RUM and ABO/RUM) compared with when flax hulls were infused in the abomasum (ABO/ABO and RUM/ABO). The lowest digestibility of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber was obtained when both flax products were added in the rumen, which may be attributed to the high amount of oil present in the rumen (7.8% of total dry matter input). The lowest yield of 4% fat-corrected milk was obtained for cows on the RUM/RUM treatment, probably as a result of lower dry matter intake and digestibility of fiber. Milk concentrations of protein, fat, total solids, and lactose were similar among treatments. Administration of oil and hulls in the rumen resulted in the highest concentrations of intermediate products of biohydrogenation and total trans fatty acids in milk fat compared with the other treatments. All ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in milk fat were lower than the 4 to 1 ratio recommended to improve human health. These results suggest that the presence of both flax oil and flax hulls in

  11. The association between milk urea nitrogen and DHI production variables in western commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R G; Young, A J

    2003-09-01

    A retrospective observational study was conducted using data from Dairy Herd Improvement monthly tests to investigate the association between milk urea nitrogen (MUN) concentration and milk yield, milk protein, milk fat percentage, SCC, and parity for commercial Holstein and Jersey herds in Utah, Idaho, and Montana. Mean MUN for Holstein cows was 15.5 mg/ dl (5.5 mmol/L) MUN and 14.1 mg/dl (5.0 mmol/L) for Jersey cows. Mean MUN, categorized by 30-d increments of days in milk (DIM), paralleled changes in milk values and followed a curvilinear shape. For Holstein cows, concentrations of MUN were different among lactation groups 1, 2, and 3+ for the first 90 DIM for Holsteins. Overall, concentrations of MUN were lower during for the first 30 DIM compared with all other DIM categories for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Multivariate regression models of MUN by milk protein showed that as the milk protein percentage increased, MUN concentration decreased; however, models for Jersey cows showed that MUN did not decrease significantly until above 3.4% milk protein. Milk fat percentage also decreased as MUN increased, but by only 1 mg/dl MUN over the range of 2.2 to 5.8% milk fat. Somatic cell count showed a negative relationship with MUN. Holstein cows with milk protein percentage >3.2% had lower MUN compared with cows having milk protein <3.2% for milk yields from 27.3 to 54.5 kg/d and lower than cows having a milk protein <3.0% for milk yield of 54.5 to 63.6 kg/d. In Jersey cows, MUN concentrations were not different among milk protein percentage categorized by milk yield. This study found that MUN was inversely associated with milk protein percentage and paralleled change in milk yield over time.

  12. Differential rumination, intake, and enteric methane production of dairy cows in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Watt, L J; Clark, C E F; Krebs, G L; Petzel, C E; Nielsen, S; Utsumi, S A

    2015-10-01

    Proper performance monitoring of cows on pasture-based diets is crucial to inform nutritional recommendations that minimize undesirable effects of high ruminant CH4 emissions into the environment. The prediction of linkages between rumination patterns, methane emissions, and correlated production traits of cows in a pasture-based automatic milking system was tested. A previous 10-d baseline measurement of rumination activity by acoustic methodology of 156 Holstein-Friesian cows was used for frequency analysis of rumination time and identification of 2 treatment groups (n = 37 cows/group) represented by cows with consistently high (HR; 75th rumination percentile = 617.55 ± 81.37 min/d) or low (LR; 25th rumination percentile = 356.65 ± 72.67 min/d) rumination. The HR and LR cows were paired by nearest parity, days in milk, body weight (BW), and previous 10-d milk production, and within pairs randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups managed on a voluntary milking system with diets consisting of at least 75% pasture, plus concentrates. Animal traits, including rumination time, mass flux of CH4 (QCH4) and carbon dioxide (QCO2), milk production, and estimated dry matter intake according to individual QCO2 fluxes over a 22-d period were analyzed with repeated measure mixed models for a completely randomized design, structural equation modeling, and nonlinear regression. High rumination and methane was seen in older and heavier cows that had greater estimated dry matter intake and milk production. A consistent difference in rumination time and QCH4 across days was detected between HR and LR, even after adjustment for metabolic BW. Estimated dry matter intake had direct positive effects on rumination and QCH4, but no independent direct effect of rumination on QCH4 was detected. The LR cows produced more QCH4/milk, associated with lower milk, BW, concentrate intake, and greater activity at pasture. A typical dilution of maintenance effect on QCH4/milk was detected

  13. Effect of supplementation with antioxidants on the quality of bovine milk and meat production.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Cristina; Pereira, Víctor; Abuelo, Ángel; Hernández, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    From a clinical point of view, oxidative stress (OS) is considered the primary cause of numerous metabolic processes in transition cow. Thus, the addition of antioxidants has been considered a palliative or preventive treatment. But beyond the clinical perspective, antioxidant supplementation provides an added value to the product obtained being either milk or meat. This paper reviews the beneficial aspects that provide antioxidant supplementation on quality of both products and that fit into the new concept that the consumer has a functional and healthy food. Our approach is from a veterinary standpoint, by reviewing the studies conducted to date and the new perspectives that are interesting and need to be studied in the following years. One of the highlights is that sustainable farming, one in which production is combined with animal health, also impacts positively on the quality of the final products, with beneficial antioxidant properties to human health.

  14. Effect of Supplementation with Antioxidants on the Quality of Bovine Milk and Meat Production

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Cristina; Pereira, Víctor; Abuelo, Ángel; Hernández, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    From a clinical point of view, oxidative stress (OS) is considered the primary cause of numerous metabolic processes in transition cow. Thus, the addition of antioxidants has been considered a palliative or preventive treatment. But beyond the clinical perspective, antioxidant supplementation provides an added value to the product obtained being either milk or meat. This paper reviews the beneficial aspects that provide antioxidant supplementation on quality of both products and that fit into the new concept that the consumer has a functional and healthy food. Our approach is from a veterinary standpoint, by reviewing the studies conducted to date and the new perspectives that are interesting and need to be studied in the following years. One of the highlights is that sustainable farming, one in which production is combined with animal health, also impacts positively on the quality of the final products, with beneficial antioxidant properties to human health. PMID:24348176

  15. Short communication: Effect of antioxidant supplementation on milk production, milk fat synthesis, and milk fatty acids in dairy cows when fed a diet designed to cause milk fat depression.

    PubMed

    Boerman, J P; Preseault, C L; Kraft, J; Dann, H M; Lock, A L

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a blend of synthetic antioxidants on the yield of milk and milk components and milk fatty acid composition in dairy cows fed a diet designed to cause milk fat depression (MFD). We hypothesized that supplementing a synthetic antioxidant to diets with a high rumen unsaturated fatty acid load (RUFAL) would decrease the severity of MFD. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows (163 ± 47 d in milk), in a crossover design with two 21-d periods, were fed a corn silage and grass silage-based diet containing 15% distillers grains. The diet contained 34% neutral detergent fiber, 18% crude protein, 26% starch, and 4.3% total fatty acids (dry matter basis). Cows were fed the diet without supplementation (control; CON) or supplemented with 0.02% (dry matter basis) of a synthetic antioxidant (AOX; Agrado Plus, Novus International Inc., St. Charles, MO). Dry matter intake and milk yields were recorded daily. Milk samples were collected at the start of the study for baseline values and the end of each period (d 20-21) and analyzed for milk components and fatty acid composition. Dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by treatment and averaged 25.9 and 50.2 kg/d, respectively. Similarly, we observed no effect of treatment on yields of fat, protein, lactose, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, feed efficiency, body weight, or body condition score. Milk fat concentration and yield were both reduced by the high RUFAL diets. We observed a tendency for AOX to increase the concentration of milk fat and decrease the concentration of milk protein. Yields of de novo and preformed fatty acids were not affected by treatment, although we detected a trend for a slight increase in the yield of 16-carbon fatty acid for AOX compared with CON. Treatment had only minor effects on individual milk fatty acids, except for the concentration and yield of linoleic acid, which were over 90% higher for AOX compared with CON. In conclusion, milk fat

  16. The Measurement of Protein in Powdered Milk Products and Infant Formulas: A Review and Recent Developments.

    PubMed

    Elgar, Dave; Evers, Jaap M; Holroyd, Stephen E; Johnson, Richard; Rowan, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are a key nutritional component of both powdered milk and infant formula types of product, and reliable methods for their determination are important for manufacturing and international trade. In this review, we distinguish between methods used for determining protein quality for nutrition purposes and those used for determining chemically defined protein. The former methods cover the ability of a dietary protein source to meet human nutritional requirements for the indispensable amino acids. The latter are chemical methods for the determination of total protein and can be divided into three broad types: total nitrogen determination, direct protein determination, and indirect protein determination. Current techniques and recent developments in each are reviewed. PMID:26823162

  17. Effects of polybrominated biphenyl on milk production, reproduction, and health problems in Holstein cows.

    PubMed Central

    Wastell, M E; Moody, D L; Plog, J F

    1978-01-01

    PBB found in relatively low levels among animals present on a cross-section of Michigan farms during the time PBB was inadvertantly added to dairy feeds had no effect upon these animals' milk production, body weight, weight gain, breeding and reproduction performance, incidence of commonly experienced health problems, calving rate, and the health of their calves. No significant differences in these vital areas could be seen between Michigan animals exposed to PBB and equivalent Wisconsin animals which had not been exposed to PBB when both groups were subjected to equivalent management practices. No pattern of gross of histopathological lesions was seen upon necropsy between test animals and control animals. PMID:210008

  18. Structure and ultrastructure of adrenocorticotropic hormone cells in goats in anoestrus, gestation and milk production.

    PubMed

    Navarro, J A; Gómez, M A; Sánchez, J; Gómez, S; Bernabé, A

    1991-01-01

    The structural and ultrastructural characteristics of adrenocorticotropic hormone cells in adult female goats in anoestrus, gestation and milk production were studied with an immunohistochemical method (peroxidase-antiperoxidase). Only one cellular type has been identified and is characterized by numerous secretory granules of different electron density and an average diameter of 275 nm. During pregnancy these cells increase in number and size, and there is a frequent presence of vacuoles. During lactation the number of size of the cells decreases but without reaching the state observed in anoestrus and the involution of the cytoplasmic vacuolizations which appear in pregnancy.

  19. The effects of progressing and nonprogressing Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection on milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebecca L; Gröhn, Y T; Pradhan, A K; Whitlock, R H; Van Kessel, J S; Smith, J M; Wolfgang, D R; Schukken, Y H

    2016-02-01

    Longitudinal data from 3 commercial dairy herds in the northeast United States, collected from 2004 to 2011, were analyzed to determine the effect of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection status and progression path on milk production. Disease status, as indicated by MAP test results, was determined through quarterly ELISA serum testing, biannual fecal culture, and culture of tissues and feces at slaughter. Milk production data were collected from the Dairy Herd Information Association. Animals with positive MAP test results were categorized, based on test results over the full course of the study, as high path (at least one high-positive culture) or low path (at least one positive culture or ELISA). The cumulative numbers of positive ELISA and culture results were recorded. The effects of both MAP infection path, status, and number of positive tests on milk production were analyzed using a mixed linear model with an autocorrelation random effect structure. Low- and high-path animals produced more milk before their first positive test than always-negative animals, especially high-path animals. Although mean production decreased after a first positive test, low-path animals were shown to recover some productivity. High-path animals continued to exhibit a decrease in milk production, especially after their first high-positive fecal culture. These results show that not all animals that test positive for MAP will have long-term production losses. Milk production decreased significantly with each additional positive test. Ultimately, production loss appeared to be a function of MAP infection progression. PMID:26686721

  20. Determination of effects of milk protein genotype on production traits of Israeli Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Ron, M; Yoffe, O; Ezra, E; Medrano, J F; Weller, J I

    1994-04-01

    Genotypes of 112 Israeli Holstein sires were determined for beta-lactoglobulin and kappa-casein by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of amplified DNA. Frequencies of the A alleles were .89 and .52 for kappa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin, respectively. Genotype frequencies were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Two models were used to test the effect of these loci on production of milk, fat, and protein and on fat and protein percentages. The dependent variable in the first model was production of 84,593 daughters of 110 genotyped sires, and the independent variables were herd-year-season, sire genotype for beta-lactoglobulin and kappa-casein, the interaction of the two loci, and sire nested within genotype. In the second model, the dependent variable was individual animal model genetic evaluations of 111 sires for production traits, and milk protein genotypes were the independent variables. The only significant effect of genotype with both models was the interaction of the two loci on fat percentage. When sires, rather than cows, were genotyped, the contrasted groups differed by only one-half of the genotype effect, but the residual variance was reduced.

  1. The effect of lameness on the environmental performance of milk production by rotational grazing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenhao; White, Eoin; Holden, Nicholas M

    2016-05-01

    Dairy production leads to significant environmental impacts and increased production will only be feasible if the environmental performance at farm level permits a sustainable milk supply. Lameness is believed to become more prevalent and severe as herd sizes increase, and can significantly reduce milk output per cow while not influencing other attributes of the production system. The objective of this work was to quantify the effect of lameness on the environmental performance of a typical grazed grass dairy farm and evaluate the theoretical value of sensor-based real-time lameness management. Life cycle assessment was used to compare a typical baseline farm with scenarios assuming increased lameness severity and prevalence. It was found that lameness could increase the farm level global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and fossil fuel depletion by 7-9%. As increased herd sizes will increase cow: handler ratio, this result was interpreted to suggest that the use of sensors and information and communication technology for lameness detection could improve management on dairy farms to reduce the adverse impact on environmental performance that is associated with lameness.

  2. Evaluation of industrial dairy waste (milk dust powder) for acetone-butanol-ethanol production by solventogenic Clostridium species.

    PubMed

    Ujor, Victor; Bharathidasan, Ashok Kumar; Cornish, Katrina; Ezeji, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka

    2014-01-01

    Readily available inexpensive substrate with high product yield is the key to restoring acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation to economic competitiveness. Lactose-replete cheese whey tends to favor the production of butanol over acetone. In the current study, we investigated the fermentability of milk dust powder with high lactose content, for ABE production by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii. Both microorganisms produced 7.3 and 5.8 g/L of butanol respectively, with total ABE concentrations of 10.3 and 8.2 g/L, respectively. Compared to fermentation with glucose, fermentation of milk dust powder increased butanol to acetone ratio by 16% and 36% for C. acetobutylicum and C. beijerinckii, respectively. While these results demonstrate the fermentability of milk dust powder, the physico-chemical properties of milk dust powder appeared to limit sugar utilization, growth and ABE production. Further work aimed at improving the texture of milk dust powder-based medium would likely improve lactose utilization and ABE production.

  3. Interaction of breed type and endophyte-infected tall fescue on milk production and quality in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Burke, J M; Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Riley, D G; Looper, M L; Brown, M A

    2010-08-01

    Decreased milk production of beef cattle grazing endophyte-infected (EI) tall fescue (TF), an important cool season grass in the southeastern United States, can affect calf growth. The objective was to determine whether a thermal or heat-tolerant Bos taurus breed of cattle, Romosinuano (RO), would tolerate EI TF toxins relative to Angus (AN) cattle. Milk production and quality were examined on AN and RO cows grazing endophyte-free (EF; variety K-31; n = 36) or EI TF (variety K-31; n = 37) along with growth of their Charolais-sired calves in 2007 and 2008 in west central Arkansas. Cows calved between early February and late March (spring). Milk yield and quality, BW, rectal temperature, and serum prolactin were determined at 57.1 +/- 2.6 d postpartum and every 28 d thereafter between April and August. Milk yield was greater in AN compared with RO cows (P < 0.001), but not influenced by forage type (P > 0.88). Percent milk fat was greater in cows grazing EF TF in April, but greater for cows grazing EI TF in July (forage x month, P < 0.001). Percent milk fat was greater for RO than AN cows (P < 0.001). Percent milk protein (P < 0.001) was greater and somatic cell counts (log-transformed; P < 0.001) were less in RO than AN cows. Milk lactose was greater for RO compared with AN cows in June through August (breed x month, P = 0.004). Adjusted weaning BW of calves was similar between EF and EI TF in 2007, but greater for calves from EF than EI TF in 2008 (forage x year, P = 0.03). Rectal temperature was similar between RO cows grazing EF and EI TF, but greater in AN cows grazing EI compared with EF TF in most months (forage x breed x month x year, P < 0.001). Serum prolactin was reduced in both breeds of cows grazing EI TF between April and July of both years and greatest in RO cows grazing EF TF (breed, P < 0.001; forage x month, P < 0.001). These data suggest that RO cows were more thermal-tolerant, but still susceptible to toxins in EI TF as shown by a reduction in

  4. Chemical characteristics and enhanced hepatoprotective activities of Maillard reaction products derived from milk protein-sugar system.

    PubMed

    Oh, Nam Su; Young Lee, Ji; Lee, Hyun Ah; Joung, Jae Yeon; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Sae Hun; Kim, Younghoon; Lee, Kwang Won

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics, antioxidative properties, and hepatoprotective effects of Maillard reaction products (MRP) from milk protein reacted with sugars. The MRP were obtained from milk protein, whey protein concentrates and sodium caseinate, using 2 types of sugars, lactose and glucose, by heating the mixture at 55°C for 7d in a sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Changes in the chemical modification of the milk protein were monitored by measuring the protein-bound carbonyls and PAGE protein profiles. The results showed that the amount of protein-bound carbonyls increased after Maillard reaction (MR). In addition, sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE analysis indicated a formation of high-molecular weight complexes through MR. The modification sites induced by MR of milk protein were monitored by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of tryptic-digested gel spots of MRP. As a result, modification and their localization in AA sequence of MRP was identified. Also, the MRP showed higher antioxidant activities than the intact milk protein, and they reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species production and inhibited the depletion of the reduced glutathione concentrations in the HepG2 cells. In particular, glucose-sodium caseinate MRP showed the highest biological activities among all MRP. Therefore, these results suggest that the MRP from milk protein reacting with sugars possess effective antioxidant activity and have a protective ability against oxidative damage.

  5. [Transgenic cattle constitute a breakthrough in production of innovative medicine. From milk to medicine].

    PubMed

    Salaheddine, M; Thole, E; Brink, M

    2002-04-01

    The continuously increasing demand for biomolecules, e.g. human proteins, for applications in human health care, is one of the main driving forces for the development of safe, large-scale production systems. One very promising approach is the production of biomolecules in the milk of transgenic cattle. By using nuclear transfer technology, transgenic cattle can be generated in a very safe and efficient manner, thereby offering a significant time reduction when compared to conventional breeding methods. As a result, that the transgenic cattle platform offers an efficient, safe and cost-effective method for producing large amounts of biopharmaceuticals, which is essential to the development of innovative health care products. PMID:11962124

  6. Identification of Genetic Associations and Functional Polymorphisms of SAA1 Gene Affecting Milk Production Traits in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shengli; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Dongxiao

    2016-01-01

    Our initial RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed that the Serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) gene was differentially expressed in the mammary glands of lactating Holstein cows with extremely high versus low phenotypic values of milk protein and fat percentage. To further validate the genetic effect and potential molecular mechanisms of SAA1 gene involved in regulating milk production traits in dairy cattle, we herein performed a study through genotype-phenotype associations. Six identified SNPs were significantly associated with one or more milk production traits (0.00002< P < 0.0025), providing additional evidence for the potential role of SAA1 variants in milk production traits in dairy cows. Subsequently, both luciferase assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) clearly demonstrated that the allele A of g.-963C>A increased the promoter activity by binding the PARP factor while allele C did not. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the secondary structure of SAA protein changed by the substitution A/G in the locus c. +2510A>G. Our findings were the first to reveal the significant associations of the SAA1 gene with milk production traits, providing basis for further biological function validation, and two identified SNPs, g.-963C>A and c. +2510A>G, may be considered as genetic markers for breeding in dairy cattle. PMID:27610623

  7. Identification of Genetic Associations and Functional Polymorphisms of SAA1 Gene Affecting Milk Production Traits in Dairy Cattle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaohua; Gao, Yahui; Zhang, Shengli; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Dongxiao

    2016-01-01

    Our initial RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed that the Serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) gene was differentially expressed in the mammary glands of lactating Holstein cows with extremely high versus low phenotypic values of milk protein and fat percentage. To further validate the genetic effect and potential molecular mechanisms of SAA1 gene involved in regulating milk production traits in dairy cattle, we herein performed a study through genotype-phenotype associations. Six identified SNPs were significantly associated with one or more milk production traits (0.00002< P < 0.0025), providing additional evidence for the potential role of SAA1 variants in milk production traits in dairy cows. Subsequently, both luciferase assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) clearly demonstrated that the allele A of g.-963C>A increased the promoter activity by binding the PARP factor while allele C did not. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the secondary structure of SAA protein changed by the substitution A/G in the locus c. +2510A>G. Our findings were the first to reveal the significant associations of the SAA1 gene with milk production traits, providing basis for further biological function validation, and two identified SNPs, g.-963C>A and c. +2510A>G, may be considered as genetic markers for breeding in dairy cattle. PMID:27610623

  8. Association analysis of polymorphism in thyroglobulin gene promoter with milk production traits in riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Dubey, P K; Goyal, S; Mishra, S K; Yadav, A K; Kathiravan, P; Arora, R; Malik, R; Kataria, R S

    2015-09-01

    Polymorphism within the promoter region of bovine thyroglobulin has been reported to be associated with milk and meat quality. In this study, we investigated the genetic variation within thyroglobulin promoter region of swamp and riverine buffaloes using PCR-SSCP technique and sequencing, and also analyzing association of polymorphism with the milk production traits. The study revealed four conformational patterns, A, B, C, and D among 323 buffaloes of two riverine breeds and different swamp populations. The frequency of SSCP variant 'A' was found to be invariably high among all buffalo populations. Variant 'C' was found to be absent in pure swamp population and present with higher frequency among riverine dairy breeds Mehsana and Nili Ravi. Frequency of D variant was observed to be highest in buffalo population, representing riverine and hybrid types. Sequencing of three representative PCR products of each of the SSCP variants, revealed three polymorphic sites responsible, 33C > T, 176G > T and 221C > T, in the buffalo TG promoter region. Further, association studies of SSCP variants with various milk production and milk quality traits indicated significant effect on fat percentage in buffaloes belonging to Mehsana and Nili Ravi dairy breeds. The preliminary results also showed the substantial variations in the distribution of SSCP variants' frequencies across swamp and riverine buffaloes, two distinct populations being reared for meat and milk production, respectively. PMID:26273563

  9. Association analysis of polymorphism in thyroglobulin gene promoter with milk production traits in riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, P.K.; Goyal, S.; Mishra, S.K.; Yadav, A.K.; Kathiravan, P.; Arora, R.; Malik, R.; Kataria, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphism within the promoter region of bovine thyroglobulin has been reported to be associated with milk and meat quality. In this study, we investigated the genetic variation within thyroglobulin promoter region of swamp and riverine buffaloes using PCR–SSCP technique and sequencing, and also analyzing association of polymorphism with the milk production traits. The study revealed four conformational patterns, A, B, C, and D among 323 buffaloes of two riverine breeds and different swamp populations. The frequency of SSCP variant ‘A’ was found to be invariably high among all buffalo populations. Variant ‘C’ was found to be absent in pure swamp population and present with higher frequency among riverine dairy breeds Mehsana and Nili Ravi. Frequency of D variant was observed to be highest in buffalo population, representing riverine and hybrid types. Sequencing of three representative PCR products of each of the SSCP variants, revealed three polymorphic sites responsible, 33C > T, 176G > T and 221C > T, in the buffalo TG promoter region. Further, association studies of SSCP variants with various milk production and milk quality traits indicated significant effect on fat percentage in buffaloes belonging to Mehsana and Nili Ravi dairy breeds. The preliminary results also showed the substantial variations in the distribution of SSCP variants' frequencies across swamp and riverine buffaloes, two distinct populations being reared for meat and milk production, respectively. PMID:26273563

  10. Capturing urine while maintaining pasture intake, milk production, and animal welfare of dairy cows in early and late lactation.

    PubMed

    Clark, C E F; McLeod, K L M; Glassey, C B; Gregorini, P; Costall, D A; Betteridge, K; Jago, J G

    2010-05-01

    Capturing urine and spreading it evenly across a paddock reduces the risk of nitrogen loss to the environment. This study investigated the effect of 16h/d removal from pasture on the capture of urination events, milk production, pasture intake, and animal welfare from cows grazing fresh pasture in early and late lactation. Forty-eight Holstein-Friesian cows in early [470+/-47kg of body weight (BW); 35+/-9 days in milk] and late (498+/-43kg of BW; 225+/-23 days in milk) lactation were allocated to 3 treatment groups. Cows had access to pasture for either 4h after each milking (2 x 4), for 8h between morning and afternoon milkings (1 x 8), or for 24h, excluding milking times (control). When not grazing, the 2 x 4 and 1 x 8 groups were confined to a plastic-lined loafing area with a woodchip surface. In early lactation, the proportion of urinations on pasture and laneways was reduced from 89% (control) to 51% (1 x 8) and 54% (2 x 4) of total urinations. The 1 x 8 cows ate less pasture [10.9kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day] than the control (13.6kg of DM/cow per day) and 2 x 4 (13.0kg of DM/cow per day) cows, which did not differ from each other. The 1 x 8 and 2 x 4 cows produced less milk (21 and 22kg of milk/cow per day, respectively) compared with control cows (24kg of milk/cow per day). There were no differences in BW or body condition score (BCS) change across treatment groups, with all groups gaining BW and BCS during the experimental period. In late lactation, there was no difference in pasture intake (mean=8.8kg of DM/cow per day), milk production (mean=10kg of milk/cow per day), and BW or BCS change (mean=3.7kg and -0.2U/cow per week, respectively) between treatment groups. As in early lactation, urinations on pasture and laneways were reduced from 85% (control) to 56% (1 x 8) and 50% (2 x 4) of total urinations. These findings highlight an opportunity to maintain performance and welfare of grazing cows in early and late lactation while capturing additional

  11. Association between aflatoxin M1 excreted in human urine samples with the consumption of milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Mohd Redzwan, Sabran; Rosita, Jamaluddin; Mohd Sokhini, Abdul Mutalib; Nurul Aqilah, Abdul Rahman

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to find the association between urinary aflatoxin M(1) level and milk and dairy products consumption. Of 160 morning urine samples collected, aflatoxin M(1) was detected in 61.3 % samples (n = 98) [mean ± SD = 0.0234 ± 0.0177 ng/mL; range = 0-0.0747 ng/mL]. Of these positive samples, 67.3 % (n = 66) had levels above the limit of detection. Respondents with intake of milk and dairy products above median (67.79 g/day) had significantly high level of AFM(1) compared to those with low intake. A significant and positive association (φ = 0.286) was found between milk and dairy products consumption and urinary aflatoxin M(1) level.

  12. Customized recommendations for production management clusters of North American automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marlène; Hess, Justin P; Christenson, Brock M; McIntyre, Kolby K; Smink, Ben; van der Kamp, Arjen J; de Jong, Lisanne G; Döpfer, Dörte

    2016-07-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) are implemented in a variety of situations and environments. Consequently, there is a need to characterize individual farming practices and regional challenges to streamline management advice and objectives for producers. Benchmarking is often used in the dairy industry to compare farms by computing percentile ranks of the production values of groups of farms. Grouping for conventional benchmarking is commonly limited to the use of a few factors such as farms' geographic region or breed of cattle. We hypothesized that herds' production data and management information could be clustered in a meaningful way using cluster analysis and that this clustering approach would yield better peer groups of farms than benchmarking methods based on criteria such as country, region, breed, or breed and region. By applying mixed latent-class model-based cluster analysis to 529 North American AMS dairy farms with respect to 18 significant risk factors, 6 clusters were identified. Each cluster (i.e., peer group) represented unique management styles, challenges, and production patterns. When compared with peer groups based on criteria similar to the conventional benchmarking standards, the 6 clusters better predicted milk produced (kilograms) per robot per day. Each cluster represented a unique management and production pattern that requires specialized advice. For example, cluster 1 farms were those that recently installed AMS robots, whereas cluster 3 farms (the most northern farms) fed high amounts of concentrates through the robot to compensate for low-energy feed in the bunk. In addition to general recommendations for farms within a cluster, individual farms can generate their own specific goals by comparing themselves to farms within their cluster. This is very comparable to benchmarking but adds the specific characteristics of the peer group, resulting in better farm management advice. The improvement that cluster analysis allows for is

  13. Customized recommendations for production management clusters of North American automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marlène; Hess, Justin P; Christenson, Brock M; McIntyre, Kolby K; Smink, Ben; van der Kamp, Arjen J; de Jong, Lisanne G; Döpfer, Dörte

    2016-07-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) are implemented in a variety of situations and environments. Consequently, there is a need to characterize individual farming practices and regional challenges to streamline management advice and objectives for producers. Benchmarking is often used in the dairy industry to compare farms by computing percentile ranks of the production values of groups of farms. Grouping for conventional benchmarking is commonly limited to the use of a few factors such as farms' geographic region or breed of cattle. We hypothesized that herds' production data and management information could be clustered in a meaningful way using cluster analysis and that this clustering approach would yield better peer groups of farms than benchmarking methods based on criteria such as country, region, breed, or breed and region. By applying mixed latent-class model-based cluster analysis to 529 North American AMS dairy farms with respect to 18 significant risk factors, 6 clusters were identified. Each cluster (i.e., peer group) represented unique management styles, challenges, and production patterns. When compared with peer groups based on criteria similar to the conventional benchmarking standards, the 6 clusters better predicted milk produced (kilograms) per robot per day. Each cluster represented a unique management and production pattern that requires specialized advice. For example, cluster 1 farms were those that recently installed AMS robots, whereas cluster 3 farms (the most northern farms) fed high amounts of concentrates through the robot to compensate for low-energy feed in the bunk. In addition to general recommendations for farms within a cluster, individual farms can generate their own specific goals by comparing themselves to farms within their cluster. This is very comparable to benchmarking but adds the specific characteristics of the peer group, resulting in better farm management advice. The improvement that cluster analysis allows for is

  14. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus on Farms with Small Scale Production of Raw Milk Cheeses in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Rola, Jolanta G.; Czubkowska, Anna; Korpysa-Dzirba, Weronika; Osek, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a 3-year study on the prevalence, enterotoxinogenicity and resistance to antimicrobials of S. aureus isolated on dairy farms with small scale production of raw cow milk cheeses. The samples of raw milk, semi-finished products and the final products as well as swabs were collected between 2011 and 2013 from nine dairy farms in Poland. A total of 244 samples were examined, of which 122 (50.0%) were contaminated with S. aureus including 18 of 26 (69.2%) mature cheese samples with log10 CFU g−1 between <1- and 7.41. In swabs collected from the staff and production environment the highest contamination rate with coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS) was detected on hands of cheese makers (4.34 log10 CFU/swab). None of the cheese samples contaminated with CPS contained staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). However, 55 of 122 (45.1%) S. aureus isolates possessed SEs genes, mainly (26 of 55; 47.3%) a combination of the sed, sej and ser genes. Furthermore, the sep (15 of 55; 27.3%) as well as seg and sei (9 of 55; 16.4%) genes were also identified. The remaining S. aureus isolates possessed the sea gene (one isolate), the combination of sec, seg and sei (three isolates) as well as the sed, sej, sep and ser markers together (one CPS). Resistance to penicillin (62 of 122 isolates; 50.8%) was the most common among the tested isolates. Some CPS were also resistant to chloramphenicol (7; 5.7%) and tetracycline (5; 4.1%). The obtained results indicated that the analyzed cheeses were safe for consumers. To improve the microbiological quality of traditional cheese products more attention should be paid to animal welfare and hygiene practices during the process of cheese manufacturing in some dairy farms. PMID:26950152

  15. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus on Farms with Small Scale Production of Raw Milk Cheeses in Poland.

    PubMed

    Rola, Jolanta G; Czubkowska, Anna; Korpysa-Dzirba, Weronika; Osek, Jacek

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the results of a 3-year study on the prevalence, enterotoxinogenicity and resistance to antimicrobials of S. aureus isolated on dairy farms with small scale production of raw cow milk cheeses. The samples of raw milk, semi-finished products and the final products as well as swabs were collected between 2011 and 2013 from nine dairy farms in Poland. A total of 244 samples were examined, of which 122 (50.0%) were contaminated with S. aureus including 18 of 26 (69.2%) mature cheese samples with log10 CFU g(-1) between <1- and 7.41. In swabs collected from the staff and production environment the highest contamination rate with coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS) was detected on hands of cheese makers (4.34 log10 CFU/swab). None of the cheese samples contaminated with CPS contained staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). However, 55 of 122 (45.1%) S. aureus isolates possessed SEs genes, mainly (26 of 55; 47.3%) a combination of the sed, sej and ser genes. Furthermore, the sep (15 of 55; 27.3%) as well as seg and sei (9 of 55; 16.4%) genes were also identified. The remaining S. aureus isolates possessed the sea gene (one isolate), the combination of sec, seg and sei (three isolates) as well as the sed, sej, sep and ser markers together (one CPS). Resistance to penicillin (62 of 122 isolates; 50.8%) was the most common among the tested isolates. Some CPS were also resistant to chloramphenicol (7; 5.7%) and tetracycline (5; 4.1%). The obtained results indicated that the analyzed cheeses were safe for consumers. To improve the microbiological quality of traditional cheese products more attention should be paid to animal welfare and hygiene practices during the process of cheese manufacturing in some dairy farms.

  16. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period does not decrease milk production in the following lactation.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Ransom L; Capuco, Anthony V; Evock-Clover, Christina M; Grossi, Paolo; Choudhary, Ratan K; Vanzant, Eric S; Elsasser, Theodore H; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Trevisi, Erminio; Aiken, Glen E; McLeod, Kyle R

    2016-09-01

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming these grasses. We investigated the effects of consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during late lactation and the dry period on mammary growth, differentiation, and milk production. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups. Starting at 90±4 d prepartum, cows were fed endophyte-free fescue seed (control; CON), endophyte-free fescue seed plus 3×/wk subcutaneous injections of bromocriptine (0.1mg/kg of body weight, positive control; BROMO), or endophyte-infected fescue seed (INF) as 10% of the diet on an as fed basis. Although milk yield of groups did not differ before treatment, at dry off (-60 d prepartum) INF and BROMO cows produced less milk than CON. Throughout the treatment period, basal concentrations of PRL and the prepartum increase in plasma PRL were reduced in INF and BROMO cows compared with CON cows. Three weeks after the end of treatment, circulating concentrations of PRL were equivalent across groups. In the subsequent lactation milk yield was not decreased; in fact, BROMO cows exhibited a 9% increase in milk yield relative to CON. Evaluation of mammary tissue during the dry period and the subsequent lactation, by quantitative histology and immunohistochemical analysis of proliferation markers and putative mammary stem or progenitor cell markers, indicated that feeding endophyte-infected fescue seed did not significantly affect mammary growth and development. Feeding endophyte-infected grasses during the dry period may permit effective utilization of feed resources without compromising milk production in the next lactation.

  17. Effect of photoperiod in the third trimester of gestation on milk production and circulating hormones in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Mabjeesh, S J; Gal-Garber, O; Shamay, A

    2007-02-01

    Multiparous Israeli Saanen goats (n = 8) were blocked at dry off (approximately 45 d prepartum) into 2 treatments of 4 goats each based on body weight (BW), previous milk production, and the number of detected embryos in utero. Treatments consisted of long-day (16 h light:8 h dark) and short-day (8 h light:16 h dark) photoperiods at normothermic ambient temperature (22 degrees C, 72% relative humidity). All goats were returned to ambient photoperiod after kidding, milked twice daily, and milk yield was automatically recorded. Dry matter intake was similar between treatments and averaged 980 g/d. Milk production was greater in the short-day than in the long-day treatment (2,932 vs. 2,320 g/d) during the 12-wk experimental period. Milk protein and lactose contents were similar in both treatments and averaged 3.61 and 4.88%, respectively, whereas milk fat was greater in the long-day treatment (4.80 vs. 4.22%). Plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 was greater in the long-day treatment (149 vs. 73 ng/mL) during the dry period than in the short-day treatment, but was similar postkidding, averaging 76 ng/mL. Concentrations of triiodothyronine in plasma were similar in both treatments during the dry period, but greater during lactation in the short-day treatment (122.1 vs. 94.1 ng/mL). Plasma prolactin was greater in the long-day than in the short-day treatment during the dry period (28.0 vs. 17.5 ng/mL), whereas it was similar throughout lactation (11.7 ng/mL). These data support the idea that greater milk production in goats exposed to short days during the dry period is not explained by differences in feed intake or increased secretion of insulin-like growth factor 1. PMID:17235146

  18. Effects of lauric and myristic acids on ruminal fermentation, production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; Lee, C; Cassidy, T; Long, M; Heyler, K; Corl, B; Forster, R

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of lauric (LA) and myristic (MA) acids on ruminal fermentation, production, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in lactating dairy cows and to identify the FA responsible for the methanogen-suppressing effect of coconut oil. The experiment was conducted as a replicated 3×3 Latin square. Six ruminally cannulated cows (95±26.4 DIM) were subjected to the following treatments: 240 g/cow per day each of stearic acid (SA, control), LA, or MA. Experimental periods were 28 d and cows were refaunated between periods. Lauric acid reduced protozoal counts in the rumen by 96%, as well as acetate, total VFA, and microbial N outflow from the rumen, compared with SA and MA. Ruminal methane production was not affected by treatment. Dry matter intake was reduced 35% by LA compared with SA and MA, which resulted in decreased milk yield. Milk fat content also was depressed by LA compared with SA and MA. Treatment had no effect on milk protein content. All treatments increased milk concentration of the respective treatment FA. Concentration of C12:0 was more than doubled by LA, and C14:0 was increased (45%) by MA compared with SA. Concentration of milk FAmilk fat were reduced, and that of >C16 FA and MUFA were increased, by LA compared with the other treatments. In this study, LA had profound effects on ruminal fermentation, mediated through inhibited microbial populations, and decreased DMI, milk yield, and milk fat content. Despite the significant decrease in protozoal counts, however, LA had no effect on ruminal methane production. Thus, the antimethanogenic effect of coconut oil, observed in related studies, is likely due to total FA application level, the additive effect of LA and MA, or a combination of both. Both LA and MA

  19. Effects of feeding three types of corn-milling coproducts on milk production and ruminal fermentation of lactating Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Kelzer, J M; Kononoff, P J; Gehman, A M; Tedeschi, L O; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2009-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding 3 corn-milling coproducts on intake, milk production, ruminal fermentation, and digestibility of lactating Holstein cows. In experiment 1, three corn-milling coproducts were fed at 15% of the diet dry matter (DM) to 28 Holstein cows averaging (+/-SD) 625 +/- 81 kg of body weight and 116 +/- 33 d in milk to determine effects on DM intake and milk production. In experiment 2, the same rations were fed to 4 ruminally fistulated, multiparous Holstein cows averaging 677 +/- 41 kg of body weight and 144 +/- 5 d in milk to determine the effects on ruminal fermentation and digestibility. In both experiments, cows and treatments were assigned randomly in 4 x 4 Latin squares over four 21-d periods. Treatments were formulated by replacing portions of forage and concentrate feeds with 15% coproduct and included 1) 0% coproduct (control), 2) dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS), 3) dehydrated corn germ meal (germ), and 4) high-protein dried distillers grains (HPDDG). Feed intake was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected on d 19 to 21 of each period for analysis of major components. Rumen fluid was collected at 10 time points over 24 h post feeding on d 21 of experiment 2. In experiment 1, DM intake was greater for the germ (24.3 kg/d) and DDGS treatments (23.8 kg/d), but DDGS was not different from the control (22.9 kg/d) and HPDDG treatments (22.4 kg/d). Milk production paralleled DM intake and tended to be greater for the germ (32.1 kg/d) and DDGS treatments (30.9 kg/d), but the DDGS treatment was not different from the control (30.6 kg/d) and HPDDG treatments (30.3 kg/d). However, yields of milk fat, milk protein, and 3.5% FCM were similar and averaged (+/-SEM) 1.1 +/- 0.1, 0.9 +/- 0.03, and 31.7 +/- 1.3 kg/d. Milk urea nitrogen was greater for the HPDDG (15.9 mg/dL) and germ treatments (15.5 mg/dL) than for the control (15.0 mg/dL) and DDGS treatments (14.9 mg/dL). In experiment 2, DM

  20. Compared with stearic acid, palmitic acid increased the yield of milk fat and improved feed efficiency across production level of cows.

    PubMed

    Rico, J E; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2014-02-01

    The effects of dietary palmitic and stearic acids on feed intake, yields of milk and milk components, and feed efficiency of dairy cows were evaluated in an experiment with a crossover arrangement of treatments with a covariate period. Cows with a wide range of milk production (38 to 65 kg/d) were used to determine if response to fat supplementation varied according to production level. Thirty-two Holstein cows (143 ± 61 d in milk) were assigned randomly to a treatment sequence within level of milk production. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet dry matter) with palmitic acid (PA; 97.9% C16:0) or stearic acid (SA; 97.4% C18:0). Treatment periods were 21 d and cows were fed a nonfat supplemented diet for 14 d immediately before the first treatment period. The final 4d of each period were used for sample and data collection. Milk production measured during the covariate period (preliminary milk yield) was used as the covariate. No interactions were detected between treatment and preliminary milk yield for the production response variables measured. Compared with SA, the PA treatment increased milk fat concentration (3.66 vs. 3.55%) and yield (1.68 vs. 1.59 kg/d), and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield (47.5 vs. 45.6 kg/d). Treatment did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield, milk protein yield, body weight, or body condition score. Milk protein concentration was lower for PA compared with SA treatment (3.24 vs. 3.29%). The PA treatment increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk yield/dry matter intake) compared with SA (1.48 vs. 1.40). The increase in milk fat yield by PA was entirely accounted for by a 24% increase in 16-carbon fatty acid output into milk. Yields of de novo (3.2%) and preformed fatty acids (2.9%) were only slightly decreased by PA relative to SA. The PA treatment increased plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (96.3 vs. 88.2 μEq/L) and glucose (56.6 vs. 55.7 mg/dL) compared with SA, but insulin and

  1. Preventive effect of fermented Maillard reaction products from milk proteins in cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Oh, N S; Kwon, H S; Lee, H A; Joung, J Y; Lee, J Y; Lee, K B; Shin, Y K; Baick, S C; Park, M R; Kim, Y; Lee, K W; Kim, S H

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dual effect of Maillard reaction and fermentation on the preventive cardiovascular effects of milk proteins. Maillard reaction products (MRP) were prepared from the reaction between milk proteins, such as whey protein concentrates (WPC) and sodium caseinate (SC), and lactose. The hydrolysates of MRP were obtained from fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB; i.e., Lactobacillus gasseri H10, L. gasseri H11, Lactobacillus fermentum H4, and L. fermentum H9, where human-isolated strains were designated H1 to H15), which had excellent proteolytic and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities (>20%). The antioxidant activity of MRP was greater than that of intact proteins in assays of the reaction with 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and trivalent ferric ions; moreover, the effect of MRP was synergistically improved by fermentation. The Maillard reaction dramatically increased the level of antithrombotic activity and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) inhibitory effect of milk proteins, but did not change the level of activity for micellar cholesterol solubility. Furthermore, specific biological properties were enhanced by fermentation. Lactobacillus gasseri H11 demonstrated the greatest activity for thrombin and HMGR inhibition in Maillard-reacted WPC, by 42 and 33%, respectively, whereas hydrolysates of Maillard-reacted SC fermented by L. fermentum H9 demonstrated the highest reduction rate for micellar cholesterol solubility, at 52%. In addition, the small compounds that were likely released by fermentation of MRP were identified by size-exclusion chromatography. Therefore, MRP and hydrolysates of fermented MRP could be used to reduce cardiovascular risks.

  2. Breakeven prices for recording of indicator traits to reduce the environmental impact of milk production.

    PubMed

    Hansen Axelsson, H; Thomasen, J R; Sørensen, A C; Rydhmer, L; Kargo, M; Johansson, K; Fikse, W F

    2015-02-01

    A breeding scheme using genomic selection and an indicator trait for environmental impact (EI) was studied to find the most effective recording strategy in terms of annual monetary genetic gain and breakeven price for the recording of indicator traits. The breakeven price shows the investment space for developing a recording system for an indicator trait. The breeding goal consisted of three traits – milk production, functional trait and environmental impact – with economic values of €83, €82 and €-83, respectively. The first scenario included only breeding goal traits and no indicator traits (NoIT). The other scenarios included all three breeding goal traits and one indicator trait (IT) for EI. The indicator traits were recorded on a large scale (stayability after first lactation and stature), medium scale (live weight and greenhouse gases (GHG) measured in the breath of the cow during milking) or small scale (residual feed intake and total enteric methane measured in a respiration chamber). In the scenario with stayability, the genetic gain in EI was over 11% higher than it was in NoIT. The breakeven price of recording stayability was €8 per record. Stayability is easy to record in the national milk recording system, and its use as an indicator trait for EI would not generate any additional recording costs. Therefore, stayability would be a good indicator trait to use to mitigate EI. The highest genetic gain in EI (23% higher compared to NoIT) was achieved when the GHG measured in the breath of the cow was used as indicator trait. The breakeven price for this indicator trait was €29 per record in the reference population. Ideally the recording of a specific indicator trait for EI would take place when: (i) the genetic correlation between the IT and EI is high; and (ii) the number of phenotypic records for the indicator trait is high enough to achieve a moderately high reliability of direct genomic values.

  3. Random regression models using Legendre orthogonal polynomials to evaluate the milk production of Alpine goats.

    PubMed

    Silva, F G; Torres, R A; Brito, L F; Euclydes, R F; Melo, A L P; Souza, N O; Ribeiro, J I; Rodrigues, M T

    2013-12-11

    The objective of this study was to identify the best random regression model using Legendre orthogonal polynomials to evaluate Alpine goats genetically and to estimate the parameters for test day milk yield. On the test day, we analyzed 20,710 records of milk yield of 667 goats from the Goat Sector of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa. The evaluated models had combinations of distinct fitting orders for polynomials (2-5), random genetic (1-7), and permanent environmental (1-7) fixed curves and a number of classes for residual variance (2, 4, 5, and 6). WOMBAT software was used for all genetic analyses. A random regression model using the best Legendre orthogonal polynomial for genetic evaluation of milk yield on the test day of Alpine goats considered a fixed curve of order 4, curve of genetic additive effects of order 2, curve of permanent environmental effects of order 7, and a minimum of 5 classes of residual variance because it was the most economical model among those that were equivalent to the complete model by the likelihood ratio test. Phenotypic variance and heritability were higher at the end of the lactation period, indicating that the length of lactation has more genetic components in relation to the production peak and persistence. It is very important that the evaluation utilizes the best combination of fixed, genetic additive and permanent environmental regressions, and number of classes of heterogeneous residual variance for genetic evaluation using random regression models, thereby enhancing the precision and accuracy of the estimates of parameters and prediction of genetic values.

  4. Breakeven prices for recording of indicator traits to reduce the environmental impact of milk production.

    PubMed

    Hansen Axelsson, H; Thomasen, J R; Sørensen, A C; Rydhmer, L; Kargo, M; Johansson, K; Fikse, W F

    2015-02-01

    A breeding scheme using genomic selection and an indicator trait for environmental impact (EI) was studied to find the most effective recording strategy in terms of annual monetary genetic gain and breakeven price for the recording of indicator traits. The breakeven price shows the investment space for developing a recording system for an indicator trait. The breeding goal consisted of three traits – milk production, functional trait and environmental impact – with economic values of €83, €82 and €-83, respectively. The first scenario included only breeding goal traits and no indicator traits (NoIT). The other scenarios included all three breeding goal traits and one indicator trait (IT) for EI. The indicator traits were recorded on a large scale (stayability after first lactation and stature), medium scale (live weight and greenhouse gases (GHG) measured in the breath of the cow during milking) or small scale (residual feed intake and total enteric methane measured in a respiration chamber). In the scenario with stayability, the genetic gain in EI was over 11% higher than it was in NoIT. The breakeven price of recording stayability was €8 per record. Stayability is easy to record in the national milk recording system, and its use as an indicator trait for EI would not generate any additional recording costs. Therefore, stayability would be a good indicator trait to use to mitigate EI. The highest genetic gain in EI (23% higher compared to NoIT) was achieved when the GHG measured in the breath of the cow was used as indicator trait. The breakeven price for this indicator trait was €29 per record in the reference population. Ideally the recording of a specific indicator trait for EI would take place when: (i) the genetic correlation between the IT and EI is high; and (ii) the number of phenotypic records for the indicator trait is high enough to achieve a moderately high reliability of direct genomic values. PMID:25134920

  5. Novel method based on chromogenic media for discrimination and selective enumeration of lactic acid bacteria in fermented milk products.

    PubMed

    Galat, Anna; Dufresne, Jérôme; Combrisson, Jérôme; Thépaut, Jérôme; Boumghar-Bourtchai, Leyla; Boyer, Mickaël; Fourmestraux, Candice

    2016-05-01

    Microbial analyses of fermented milk products require selective methods to discriminate between close species simultaneously present in high amounts. A culture-based method combining novel chromogenic agar media and appropriate incubation conditions was developed to enumerate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains in fermented milk. M1 agar, containing two chromogenic substrates, allowed selective enumeration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, two strains of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus based on differential β-galactosidase and β-glucosidase activities. Depending on the presence of some or all of the above strains, M1 agar was supplemented with L-rhamnose or vancomycin and incubations were carried out at 37 °C or 44 °C to increase selectivity. A second agar medium, M2, containing one chromogenic substrates was used to selectively enumerate β-galactosidase producing Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus at 47 °C. By contrast with the usual culture media, the chromogenic method allowed unambiguous enumeration of each species, including discrimination between the two L. paracasei, up to 10(9) CFU/g of fermented milk. In addition, the relevance of the method was approved by enumerating reference ATCC strains in pure cultures and fermented milk product. The method could also be used for enumerations on non-Danone commercial fermented milk products containing strains different from those used in this study, showing versatility of the method. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a chromogenic culture method applied to selective enumeration of LAB.

  6. Determination of bovine lactoferrin in lactoferrin-supplemented dairy products and raw milk by an automated latex assay.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Takashi; Yamauchi, Koji; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Ohara, Yasuko; Nagao, Eiji; Kanbara, Keiichi; Fujisawa, Munetoshi; Okuda, Yuko; Namba, Shyunji

    2007-02-01

    Latex immune agglutination method with a multipurpose auto-analyser (the automated latex assay) was validated for determination of bovine lactoferrin (BLF) in various dairy products. Reproducibility-within-laboratory (intermediate precision) due to day for infant formula, UHT milk and yogurt supplemented with BLF at 50 mg/100 g for infant formula and UHT milk, and at 100 mg/100 g for yogurt were 1.62 to 3.10 mg/100 g. Reproducibility-within-laboratory due to analysis (morning, noon, and evening) for raw milk was 1.59 mg/100 g. Trueness, accuracy in determining known amounts added for BLF-supplemented dairy products was -4.7 to -2.0 mg/100 g. BLF concentration in raw milks was 20.3 to 21.8 mg/100 g. Although interference by the matrixes took place in infant formula and raw milk, BLF assays were accurately carried out by 2000-fold dilution or standard-addition method. Automated latex assay for BLF is simple, rapid, precise and accurate enough for a routine method in various dairy products containing BLF.

  7. Novel method based on chromogenic media for discrimination and selective enumeration of lactic acid bacteria in fermented milk products.

    PubMed

    Galat, Anna; Dufresne, Jérôme; Combrisson, Jérôme; Thépaut, Jérôme; Boumghar-Bourtchai, Leyla; Boyer, Mickaël; Fourmestraux, Candice

    2016-05-01

    Microbial analyses of fermented milk products require selective methods to discriminate between close species simultaneously present in high amounts. A culture-based method combining novel chromogenic agar media and appropriate incubation conditions was developed to enumerate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains in fermented milk. M1 agar, containing two chromogenic substrates, allowed selective enumeration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, two strains of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus based on differential β-galactosidase and β-glucosidase activities. Depending on the presence of some or all of the above strains, M1 agar was supplemented with L-rhamnose or vancomycin and incubations were carried out at 37 °C or 44 °C to increase selectivity. A second agar medium, M2, containing one chromogenic substrates was used to selectively enumerate β-galactosidase producing Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus at 47 °C. By contrast with the usual culture media, the chromogenic method allowed unambiguous enumeration of each species, including discrimination between the two L. paracasei, up to 10(9) CFU/g of fermented milk. In addition, the relevance of the method was approved by enumerating reference ATCC strains in pure cultures and fermented milk product. The method could also be used for enumerations on non-Danone commercial fermented milk products containing strains different from those used in this study, showing versatility of the method. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a chromogenic culture method applied to selective enumeration of LAB. PMID:26742619

  8. Isolation and identification of cultivable lactic acid bacteria in traditional yak milk products of Gansu Province in China.

    PubMed

    Bao, QiuHua; Liu, WenJun; Yu, Jie; Wang, Weihong; Qing, ManJun; Chen, Xia; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Jiachao; Zhang, Wenyi; Qiao, Jianmin; Sun, Tiansong; Zhang, Heping

    2012-01-01

    Various traditional fermented yak milk and raw milk foods could be considered as an abundant resource for obtaining novel lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with unique properties. Eighty-eight samples of yak milk products were collected from Gansu Province in China. Three hundred and nineteen strains of LAB isolated from these samples were identified by phenotypic methods, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technology. Among the isolates, one hundred and sixty-four isolates (51.41% of the total) were classified under Lactobacilli, and one hundred and fifty-five (48.59%) belonged to cocci. All the isolates were classified to six genera (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Streptococcus, Enterococcus and Weissella) and twenty-one species. Lactobacillus helveticus (87 strains), Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides (49 strains), Streptococcus thermophilus (39 strains), Lactobacillus casei (31 strains) and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (19 strains) were considered as the predominant populations in the yak milk products. The results showed that there were abundant genus and species LAB existing in yak milk products in Gansu Province in China. The obtained LAB pure cultures may be a valuable source for further starter selection. PMID:22688240

  9. Milk utilisation patterns in the low-input production systems in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mapekula, Monde; Chimonyo, Michael; Mapiye, Cletos; Dzama, Kennedy

    2010-10-01

    Understanding the utilisation patterns of milk assists in designing appropriate dairy development schemes in rural communities. The objective of the study was to determine milk utilisation patterns in different smallholder farming systems in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Data were collected through the administration of recording sheets to 130 randomly selected households in Alice, Fort Beaufort and Queenstown districts. Amounts of milk produced per household ranged from 9 to 21 l per household per day. Milk consumption/household/day was similar among the three districts. Milk consumption in the early lactation doubled the amount consumed in late lactation (P < 0.05). Milk in the communal areas was largely utilised as fresh or sour milk. Fresh milk was mostly used in tea/coffee or to make porridge for children. Sour milk was consumed with thick boiled maize meal. Fort Beaufort (10.2 +/- 1.37 l/day) had the highest sour milk sales whilst Queenstown had the highest fresh milk sales (9.7 +/- 5.57 l/day). It was concluded that quantities of milk consumed or sold as fresh or sour were generally low and varied across smallholder farming systems.

  10. Relationships of milk production of beef cows to postweaning gain of thier calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milk yield from 157 Brangus cows bred to 6 breeds (Bonsmara, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Romosinuano) was measured over a 3-yr period with a single-cow milking machine to estimate the relationship of actual milk yield of cows and their calves’ postweaning average daily gain on two postweaning man...

  11. GWA Analysis for Milk Production Traits in Dairy Sheep and Genetic Support for a QTN Influencing Milk Protein Percentage in the LALBA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Sahana, Goutam; Sánchez, Juan-Pablo; Bayón, Yolanda; Arranz, Juan-José

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used the Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip to conduct a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis for milk production traits in dairy sheep by analyzing a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep. The studied population consisted of a total of 1,681 Churra ewes belonging to 16 half-sib families with available records for milk yield (MY), milk protein and fat yields (PY and FY) and milk protein and fat contents (PP and FP). The most significant association identified reached experiment-wise significance for PP and FP and was located on chromosome 3 (OAR3). These results confirm the population-level segregation of a previously reported QTL affecting PP and suggest that this QTL has a significant pleiotropic effect on FP. Furthe